Sample records for sandpoint nm 11-11

  1. 78 FR 7340 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Idaho: Sandpoint PM10 Nonattainment Area... (United States)


    ... residential wood combustion program, controls on fugitive road dust, and emission limitations on industrial... Sandpoint NAA LMP submittal describes the control measures relied on to address industrial source emissions... source emission control measures, monitoring and reporting; provisions for modeling; and provisions...

  2. 78 FR 53752 - City of Sandpoint, Idaho; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower... (United States)


    ... Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On August 15, 2013, City of Sandpoint, Idaho filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory...

  3. 50 CFR 11.11 - Notice of violation. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of violation. 11.11 Section 11.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING... be a waiver of the notice ef assessment required by § 11.14, and of the opportunity for a...

  4. Compton processes in the bright AGN MCG+8-11-11

    CERN Document Server

    Soldi, S; Gehrels, N; Lubinski, P; Ricci, C; Walter, R


    We present preliminary results on the hard X-ray emission properties of the Seyfert 1.5 galaxy MCG+8-11-11 as observed by INTEGRAL and SWIFT. All the INTEGRAL IBIS/ISGRI data available up to October 2009 have been analyzed together with two SWIFT/XRT snapshot observations performed in August and October 2009, quasi-simultaneously to INTEGRAL pointed observations of MCG+8-11-11. No correlation is observed between the hard X-ray flux and the spectral slope, while the position of the high-energy cut-off is found to have varied during the INTEGRAL observations. This points to a change in the temperature of the Comptonising medium from a minimum value of kT = 30-50 keV to values larger than 100-150 keV. There is no significant detection of Compton reflection, with a 3 sigma upper limit of R < 0.2, and no line has been detected at 112 keV, as previously claimed from HEAT observations (112 keV flux F < 2.4e-4 ph/cm^2/s). The variability behaviour of MCG+8-11-11 is found to be similar to that shown by IC 4329A,...

  5. BeppoSAX observations of Mrk 509 and MCG+8-11-11

    CERN Document Server

    Perola, G C; Fiore, F; Grandi, P; Guainazzi, M; Haardt, F; Maraschi, L; Mineo, T; Nicastro, F; Piro, L


    BeppoSAX observations of the Seyfert galaxies Mrk 509 and MCG+8-11-11 are presented. Earlier evidence of a soft excess in Mrk 509 is confirmed. This excess is found to be better represented by a power law than by a black body: with a photon slope of 2.5, its extrapolation matches the flux recorded in the far UV. An ASCA observation, which appeared to exclude the presence of the excess while showing instead evidence of a warm absorber, turns out to be compatible with the coexistence of the excess seen with BeppoSAX and of the warm absorber. The hard power law of Mrk 509 is seen for the first time to be affected by a cut-off at high energies, with an e-folding energy of about 70 keV. In MCG+8-11-11 the cut-off is found at about 170 keV, consistent within the combined errors with a previous estimate from a ASCA+OSSE/CGRO observation. In both objects the reflection component is clearly detected. In Mrk 509 its strength, together with that of the iron K line, indicates a solid angle Omega, subtended by the reproce...

  6. XMM-Newton observation of the bright Seyfert 1 galaxy, MCG+8-11-11

    CERN Document Server

    Matt, G; De Rosa, A; Grandi, P; Perola, G C


    We report on the XMM-Newton observation of the bright Seyfert 1 galaxy, MCG+8-11-11. Data from the EPIC/p-n camera, the Reflection Gratings Spectrometers (RGS) and the Optical Monitor (OM) have been analyzed. The p-n spectrum is well fitted by a power law, a spectrally unresolved Fe Kalpha line, a Compton reflection component (whose large value, when compared to the iron line equivalent width, suggests iron underabundance), and absorption by warm material. Absorption lines are apparent in the RGS spectra, but their identification is uncertain and would require large matter velocities. The UV fluxes measured by the OM are well above the extrapolation of the X-ray spectrum, indicating the presence of a UV bump.

  7. The Sequential Growth of Star Formation Seeds in the Galactic Snake : Infrared Dark Cloud G11.11-0.12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Qizhou; Testi, Leonardo; Wu, Yuefang; Zhang, Huawei; van der Tak, Floris; Pillai, Thushara; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Carey, Sean; Ragan, Sarah; Henning, Thomas


    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) 1.3 and 0.88 mm broad band observations, and Very Large Array (VLA) observations in NH3 (J,K) = (1,1) up to (5,5), as well as H2O and CH3OH maser lines toward the two most massive molecular clumps in Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G11.11-0.12, also known as the Snake

  8. Hierarchical fragmentation and differential star formation in the Galactic `Snake': infrared dark cloud G11.11-0.12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Qizhou; Testi, Leonardo; van der Tak, Floris; Wu, Yuefang; Zhang, Huawei; Pillai, Thushara; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Carey, Sean; Ragan, Sarah E.; Henning, Thomas


    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) λ = 0.88 and 1.3 mm broad-band observations, and Very Large Array (VLA) observations in NH3 (J, K) = (1,1) up to (5,5), H2O and CH3OH maser lines towards the two most massive molecular clumps in infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G11.11-0.12. Sensitive high-resolution im

  9. The Sequential Growth of Star Formation Seeds in the Galactic Snake: Infrared Dark Cloud G11.11-0.12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Qizhou; Testi, Leonardo; Wu, Yuefang; Zhang, Huawei; van der Tak, Floris; Pillai, Thushara; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Carey, Sean; Ragan, Sarah; Henning, Thomas


    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) 1.3 and 0.88 mm broad band observations, and Very Large Array (VLA) observations in NH3 (J,K) = (1,1) up to (5,5), as well as H2O and CH3OH maser lines toward the two most massive molecular clumps in Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G11.11-0.12, also known as the Snake

  10. Biomass production and identification of suitable harvesting technique for Chlorella sp. MJ 11/11 and Synechocystis PCC 6803. (United States)

    Lal, Amrit; Das, Debabrata


    Microalgae that can grow fast and convert solar energy into chemical energy efficiently are being considered as a promising feedstock of renewable biofuel. Mass production of microalgal oil faces a number of technical barriers that make the current production of biodiesel economically unfeasible. Small size (≈1-20 μm) and negatively charged surface of the microalgal cells pose difficulties in the process of harvesting. This leads to significant increase in the overall cost of biomass production. The present study explored different methods and conditions for harvesting of Chlorella sp. MJ 11/11 and Synechocystis PCC 6803. A customized air-lift reactor was used for the cultivation of biomass under photoautotrophic condition. Significant improvement in the rate of productivity of biomass was observed. Maximum biomass productivity of 0.25, 0.14 g L(-1) d(-1) for Chlorella sp. MJ 11/11 and Synechocystis PCC 6803, respectively, were obtained. Various flocculation techniques viz. auto-flocculation, inorganic, chitosan and electrolytic flocculation were used for the recovery of biomass. Among all the techniques, electro-flocculation showed high flocculation efficiency (98 %) and floatation of floc causing easy harvesting. Moreover, low-cost and easy control of the process justify electro-flocculation as a most suitable and promising technique for the recovery of microalgal cells.

  11. Enhancement in lipid content of Chlorella sp. MJ 11/11 from the spent medium of thermophilic biohydrogen production process. (United States)

    Ghosh, Supratim; Roy, Shantonu; Das, Debabrata


    The present study investigates the effect of spent media of acetogenic dark fermentation for mixotrophic algal cultivation for biodiesel production. Mixotrophic growth conditions were optimized in culture flask (250mL) using Chlorella sp. MJ 11/11. Maximum lipid accumulation (58% w/w) was observed under light intensity, pH, nitrate and phosphate concentration of 100μmolm(-2)s(-1), 7, 2.7mM and 1.8mM, respectively. Air lift (1.4L) and flat panel (1.4L) reactors were considered for algal cultivation. Air lift showed significant improvement in biomass and lipid production as compared to flat panel reactor. The results could help in development of sustainable technology involving acetogenic hydrogen production integrated with sequential mitigation of spent media by algal cultivation for improved energy recovery.

  12. Hierarchical fragmentation and differential star formation in the Galactic "Snake": infrared dark cloud G11.11-0.12

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ke; Testi, Leonardo; van der Tak, Floris; Wu, Yuefang; Zhang, Huawei; Pillai, Thushara; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Carey, Sean; Ragan, Sarah E; Henning, Thomas


    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) $\\lambda =$ 0.88 and 1.3 mm broad band observations, and the Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations in $\\rm{NH_3}$ $(J,K) = (1,1)$ up to $(5,5)$, $\\rm{H_2O}$ and $\\rm{CH_3OH}$ maser lines toward the two most massive molecular clumps in infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G11.11-0.12. Sensitive high-resolution images reveal hierarchical fragmentation in dense molecular gas from the $\\sim 1$ pc clump scale down to $\\sim 0.01$ pc condensation scale. At each scale, the mass of the fragments is orders of magnitude larger than the Jeans mass. This is common to all four IRDC clumps we studied, suggesting that turbulence plays an important role in the early stages of clustered star formation. Masers, shock heated $\\rm{NH_3}$ gas, and outflows indicate intense ongoing star formation in some cores while no such signatures are found in others. Furthermore, chemical differentiation may reflect the difference in evolutionary stages among these star formation seeds. We find $\\rm{NH_3}$ ortho...

  13. Awa1p on the cell surface of sake yeast inhibits biofilm formation and the co-aggregation between sake yeasts and Lactobacillus plantarum ML11-11. (United States)

    Hirayama, Satoru; Shimizu, Masashi; Tsuchiya, Noriko; Furukawa, Soichi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Takagi, Hiroshi; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Morinaga, Yasushi


    We examined mixed-species biofilm formation between Lactobacillus plantarum ML11-11 and both foaming and non-foaming mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake yeasts. Wild-type strains showed significantly lower levels of biofilm formation compared with the non-foaming mutants. Awa1p, a protein involved in foam formation during sake brewing, is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein and is associated with the cell wall of sake yeasts. The AWA1 gene of the non-foaming mutant strain Kyokai no. 701 (K701) has lost the C-terminal sequence that includes the GPI anchor signal. Mixed-species biofilm formation and co-aggregation of wild-type strain Kyokai no. 7 (K7) were significantly lower than K701 UT-1 (K701 ura3/ura3 trp1/trp1), while the levels of strain K701 UT-1 carrying the AWA1 on a plasmid were comparable to those of K7. The levels of biofilm formation and co-aggregation of the strain K701 UT-1 harboring AWA1 with a deleted GPI anchor signal were similar to those of K701 UT-1. These results clearly demonstrate that Awa1p present on the surface of sake yeast strain K7 inhibits adhesion between yeast cells and L. plantarum ML11-11, consequently impeding mixed-species biofilm formation.

  14. Weak and compact radio emission in early massive star formation regions: an ionized jet toward G11.11–0.12P1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosero, V.; Hofner, P.; McCoy, M. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S.; Loinard, L.; Carrasco-González, C.; Rodríguez, L. F. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58090 (Mexico); Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F. [Max-Planck-Institute für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Araya, E. D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Cesaroni, R. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Ellingsen, S. P., E-mail: [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)


    We report 1.3 cm and 6 cm continuum observations toward the massive proto-stellar candidate G11.11–0.12P1 using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. We detect a string of four unresolved radio continuum sources coincident with the mid-infrared source in G11P1. The continuum sources have positive spectral indices consistent with a thermal (free-free) ionized jet. The most likely origins of the ionized gas are shocks due to the interaction of a stellar wind with the surrounding high-density material. We also present NIR United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) archival data that show an extended structure detected only at K band (2.2 μm), which is oriented perpendicular to the jet, and that may be scattered light from a circumstellar disk around the massive protostar. Our observations plus the UKIRT archival data thus provide new evidence that a disk/jet system is present in the massive proto-stellar candidate located in the G11.11–0.12P1 core.

  15. Albuquerque, NM, USA (United States)


    Albuquerque, NM (35.0N, 106.5W) is situated on the edge of the Rio Grande River and flood plain which cuts across the image. The reddish brown surface of the Albuquerque Basin is a fault depression filled with ancient alluvial fan and lake bed sediments. On the slopes of the Manzano Mountains to the east of Albuquerque, juniper and other timber of the Cibola National Forest can be seen as contrasting dark tones of vegetation.

  16. Synthesis and pharmacological activity of 1,8,11,11-tetramethyl-4-azatricyclo[,6)]undec-8-ene-3,5-dione derivatives. [corrected]. (United States)

    Pakosińska-Parys, Magdalena; Kossakowski, Jerzy; Mirosław, Barbara; Kozioł, Anna E; Stefańska, Joanna


    The synthesis and pharmacological activity of N-substituted derivatives of 1,8,11,11-tetramethyl-4-azatricyclo[,6)]undec-8-ene-3,5-dione (1) are described. The molecular structure of starting compound (1) was confirmed by elemental analysis, 13C NMR and X-ray crystallography. The structures of derivatives were confirmed by 1H NMR and mass spectra. The compounds were investigated for antibacterial activity, including Gram-positive cocci, Gram-negative rods, and antifungal activity. Studied compounds were evaluated also for their cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 activity in MT-4 cells.

  17. 65-nm Cyclone Ⅲ FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Altera公司低功耗、低成本Cyclone Ⅲ系列65nm FPGA所有8个型号的产品级芯片实现量产,Cyclone Ⅲ系列产品已迅速应用于无线、军事、显示、汽车和工业市场的大量客户系统中。

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-11 to 1997-12-04 (NODC Accession 0112250) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112250 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-11 to 1997-12-04...

  19. Hypersensitisation using 266nm Laser Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Canning, John; Kristensen, Martin

    UV-hypersensitisation using 266nm VW-light on hydrogenated Ge-doped fibre is reported. The optimum fluence to be between 5 to 10 kJ/cm2, coinciding with results obtained using 355nm light, indicating same end-process in both reactions.......UV-hypersensitisation using 266nm VW-light on hydrogenated Ge-doped fibre is reported. The optimum fluence to be between 5 to 10 kJ/cm2, coinciding with results obtained using 355nm light, indicating same end-process in both reactions....

  20. Hypersensitisation using 266nm Laser Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Canning, John; Kristensen, Martin

    UV-hypersensitisation using 266nm VW-light on hydrogenated Ge-doped fibre is reported. The optimum fluence to be between 5 to 10 kJ/cm2, coinciding with results obtained using 355nm light, indicating same end-process in both reactions.......UV-hypersensitisation using 266nm VW-light on hydrogenated Ge-doped fibre is reported. The optimum fluence to be between 5 to 10 kJ/cm2, coinciding with results obtained using 355nm light, indicating same end-process in both reactions....

  1. Lithography strategy for 65-nm node (United States)

    Borodovsky, Yan A.; Schenker, Richard E.; Allen, Gary A.; Tejnil, Edita; Hwang, David H.; Lo, Fu-Chang; Singh, Vivek K.; Gleason, Robert E.; Brandenburg, Joseph E.; Bigwood, Robert M.


    Intel will start high volume manufacturing (HVM) of the 65nm node in 2005. Microprocessor density and performance trends will continue to follow Moore's law and cost-effective patterning solutions capable of supporting it have to be found, demonstrated and developed during 2002-2004. Given the uncertainty regarding the readiness and respective capabilities of 157nm and 193nm lithography to support 65nm technology requirements, Intel is developing both lithographic options and corresponding infrastructure with the intent to use both options in manufacturing. Development and use of dual lithographic options for a given technology node in manufacturing is not a new paradigm for Intel: whenever introduction of a new exposure wavelength presented excessive risk to the manufacturing schedule, Intel developed parallel patterning approaches in time for the manufacturing ramp. Both I-line and 248nm patterning solutions were developed and successfully used in manufacturing of the 350nm node at Intel. Similarly, 248nm and 193nm patterning solutions were fully developed for 130nm node high volume manufacturing.

  2. Advances in 750 nm VECSELs (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Saarinen, Esa J.; Ranta, Sanna; Lyytikäinen, Jari; Saarela, Antti; Sirbu, Alexei; Iakovlev, Vladimir; Kapon, Eli; Guina, Mircea


    Lasers operating in the transmission window of tissue at wavelengths between 700 and 800 nm are needed in numerous medical and biomedical applications, including photodynamic therapy and fluorescence microscopy. However, the performance of diode lasers in this spectral range is limited by the lack of appropriate compound semiconductors. Here, we review our recent research on 750 nm VECSELs. Two approaches to reaching the 750 nm wavelength will be discussed. The first approach relies on intra-cavity frequency doubling a wafer-fused 1500 nm VECSEL. The VECSEL gain chip comprises a GaAs-based DBR and an InP-based gain section, which allows for optical pumping with low-cost commercial diodes at 980 nm. With this scheme we have achieved watt-level output powers and tuning of the laser wavelength over a 40 nm band at around 750 nm. The second approach is direct emission at 750 nm using the AlGaAs/GaAs material system. In this approach visible wavelengths are required for optical pumping. However, the consequent higher costs compared to pumping at 980 nm are mitigated by the more compact laser setup and prospects of doubling the frequency to the ultraviolet range.

  3. Dust Explosion Characteristics of Agglomerated 35 nm and 100 nm Aluminum Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chun Wu


    Full Text Available In the experiment, nanoparticles of 35 nm Al and 100 nm Al powders, respectively, formed particles with average sizes of 161 nm and 167 nm in agglomeration. The characteristics of dust cloud explosions with the two powder sizes, 35 nm and 100 nm, revealed considerable differences, as shown here: (dp/dtmax-35 nm = 1254 bar/s, (dp/dtmax-100 nm = 1105 bar/s; Pmax-35 nm = 7.5 bar, Pmax-100 nm = 12.3 bar, and MEC-35 nm = 40 g/m3, MEC-100 nm = 50 g/m3. The reason of Pmax-35 nm value is smaller than Pmax-100 nm may be due to agglomeration. From an analysis of the explosive residue, the study found that nanoparticles of 35 nm Al powder became filamentous strands after an explosion, where most of 100 nm Al nanoparticles maintained a spherical structure, This may be because the initial melting temperature of 35 nm Al is 435.71°C, while that for 100 nm Al is 523.58°C, higher by 87.87°C. This study discovered that explosive property between the 35 nm Al and 100 nm Al powders after agglomeration were different.

  4. Laser hypersensitisation using 266nm light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Canning, J.; Kristensen, Martin


    UV hypersensitisation using CW 266 nm light on hydrogenated Ge-doped fibre is reported. The optimum sensitisation fluence is found to be in the range of 5 to 10 kJ/cm2, coinciding with previous results obtained using 355 nm light, indicating the same end-process used in the photochemical reaction...

  5. Final report on the torque comparison EURAMET.M.T-S2, measurand torque: 10 N.m, 20 N.m, 40 N.m, 60 N.m, 80 N.m, and 100 N.m (United States)

    Röske, Dirk


    The purpose of the EURAMET comparison EURAMET.M.T-S2 was to compare the measuring capabilities up to 100 N.m of a reference-type torque calibration machine of ZAG, Slovenia, with the torque standard machine of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Braunschweig, Germany) acting as pilot laboratory. A very stable TT1 torque transducer with well-known properties and two torque measuring bridges was used as travelling standard. According to the technical protocol, torque steps of at least 10 N.m, 20 N.m, 40 N.m, 60 N.m, 80 N.m, and 100 N.m had to be measured both in clockwise and anticlockwise directions. For each of the torque steps and both senses of direction of the torque vector, En values were calculated. The results are in general in good agreement with the claimed measurement uncertainties except for the very first measurement at ZAG with additional support and four plate couplings. It seems to be sufficient in a vertical set-up (vertical torque axis) to use only two flexible couplings and there is no need for a further support between the transducers. The measurements with two couplings fulfill the requirement to the En value and support ZAG's claimed uncertainties of measurement. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  6. Studies on nanosecond 532nm and 355nm and ultrafast 515nm and 532nm laser cutting super-hard materials (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Tao, Sha; Wang, Brian; Zhao, Jay


    In this paper, micro-processing of three kinds of super-hard materials of poly-crystal diamond (PCD)/tungsten-carbide (WC), CVD-diamond and cubic boron nitride (CNB) has been systematically studied using nanosecond laser (532nm and 355nm), and ultrafast laser (532nm and 515nm). Our purpose is to investigate a full laser micro-cutting solution to achieve a ready-to-use cutting tool insert (CTI). The results show a clean cut with little burns and recasting at edge. The cutting speed of 2-10mm/min depending on thickness was obtained. The laser ablation process was also studied by varying laser parameters (wavelength, pulse width, pulse energy, repetition rate) and tool path to improve cutting speed. Also, studies on material removal efficiency (MRE) of PCD/WC with 355nm-ns and 515nm-fs laser as a function of laser fluence show that 355nm-ns laser is able to achieve higher MRE for PCD and WC. Thus, ultrafast laser is not necessarily used for superhard material cutting. Instead, post-polishing with ultrafast laser can be used to clean cutting surface and improve smoothness.

  7. Laser Damage Growth in Fused Silica with Simultaneous 351 nm and 1053 nm irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, M A; Carr, A V; Carr, C W; Donohue, E E; Feit, M D; Hollingsworth, W G; Liao, Z; Negres, R A; Rubenchik, A M; Wegner, P J


    Laser-induced growth of optical damage often determines the useful lifetime of an optic in a high power laser system. We have extended our previous work on growth of laser damage in fused silica with simultaneous 351 nm and 1053 nm laser irradiation by measuring the threshold for growth with various ratios of 351 nm and 1053 nm fluence. Previously we reported that when growth occurs, the growth rate is determined by the total fluence. We now find that the threshold for growth is dependent on both the magnitude of the 351 nm fluence as well as the ratio of the 351 nm fluence to the 1053 nm fluence. Furthermore, the data suggests that under certain conditions the 1053 nm fluence does not contribute to the growth.

  8. 130-nm tunable grating-mirror VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper


    We have reported that a combination of the high-index-contrast grating (HCG) mirror as movable mirror and the extended cavity configuration with an antireflection layer can provide a tuning wavelength range of 100 nm for tunable VCSELs. Here, we report that using the air-coupled cavity configurat......We have reported that a combination of the high-index-contrast grating (HCG) mirror as movable mirror and the extended cavity configuration with an antireflection layer can provide a tuning wavelength range of 100 nm for tunable VCSELs. Here, we report that using the air-coupled cavity...... configuration instead of the extended cavity configuration can bring 130-nm tuning range around 1330-nm wavelength. The air-coupled cavity is known to reduce the quantum confinement factor in VCSELs, increasing threshold. In our air-coupled cavity HCG VCSEL case, the very short power penetration length...

  9. Design of an 1800 nm Raman Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    , also extended band amplifiers are required. As a solution to the latter challenge, Raman amplifiers are suggested as promising candidates. The main hurdle when designing a long wavelength Raman amplifier is the increased intrinsic fiber attenuation which as a consequence leads to an increase...... in the pump power requirement and deteriorated noise properties. Here we demonstrate a Raman amplifier designed for signal wavelengths around 1800 nm. The amplification fiber is an OFS PM Raman fiber, and is pumped by a Raman fiber laser emitting at 1680 nm [4]. The amplifier was pumped co......-polarized and backward, with respect to the singal. In Fig. 2 a measured Raman on/off gain exceeding 9 dB for 285 mW of injected pump power is obtained in a 4.35 km long fiber. A broadband supercontinuum source was used as a signal from 1700 nm to 1900 nm....

  10. Laser hypersensitisation using 266nm light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Canning, J.; Kristensen, Martin


    UV hypersensitisation using CW 266 nm light on hydrogenated Ge-doped fibre is reported. The optimum sensitisation fluence is found to be in the range of 5 to 10 kJ/cm2, coinciding with previous results obtained using 355 nm light, indicating the same end-process used in the photochemical reaction....... We also report the observation of type IA behaviour using this wavelength....

  11. Cascaded quadratic soliton compression at 800 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Moses, Jeffrey;


    We study soliton compression in quadratic nonlinear materials at 800 nm, where group-velocity mismatch dominates. We develop a nonlocal theory showing that efficient compression depends strongly on characteristic nonlocal time scales related to pulse dispersion.......We study soliton compression in quadratic nonlinear materials at 800 nm, where group-velocity mismatch dominates. We develop a nonlocal theory showing that efficient compression depends strongly on characteristic nonlocal time scales related to pulse dispersion....

  12. A novel 852-nm tunable fiber laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanlong Shen; Chun Gu; LixinXu; Anting Wang; Hai Ming; Yang Liu; Xiaobing Wang


    @@ We report a novel fiber laser operating at 850-nm band by using semiconductor optical amplifier and fiber grating.The laser system is stable, compact, and the operating wavelength can be tuned continuously from about 851 to 854 nm for Cs atomic clock system by stretching the fiber grating.An output power up to 20 mW is obtained with a signal-to-background ratio beyond 30 dB.

  13. PM Raman fiber laser at 1679 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten


    We demonstrate a PM Raman fiber laser emitting light at 1679 nm. The laser has an slope efficiency of 67 % and an output power of more than 275mWwith a 27 pm linewidth.......We demonstrate a PM Raman fiber laser emitting light at 1679 nm. The laser has an slope efficiency of 67 % and an output power of more than 275mWwith a 27 pm linewidth....

  14. Fabrication of sub-10 nm metal nanowire arrays with sub-1 nm critical dimension control (United States)

    Pi, Shuang; Lin, Peng; Xia, Qiangfei


    Sub-10 nm metal nanowire arrays are important electrodes for building high density emerging ‘beyond CMOS’ devices. We made Pt nanowire arrays with sub-10 nm feature size using nanoimprint lithography on silicon substrates with 100 nm thick thermal oxide. We further studied the critical dimension (CD) evolution in the fabrication procedure and achieved 0.4 nm CD control, providing a viable solution to the imprint lithography CD challenge as specified by the international technology roadmap for semiconductors. Finally, we fabricated Pt/TiO2/Pt memristor crossbar arrays with the 8 nm electrodes, demonstrating great potential in dimension scaling of this emerging device.

  15. Comparison of Nd:YAG Ceramic Laser Pumped at 885 nm and 808 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Nan; ZHANG Xiao-Fu; MA Qing-Lei; WANG Bao-Shan; CUI Da-Fu; PENG Qin-Jun; XU Zu-Yan; PAN Yu-Bai; FENG Xi-Qi


    Laser performance of 1064 nm domestic Nd: YA G ceramic lasers for 885 nm direct pumping and 808 nm traditional pumping are compared. Higher slope efficiency of 34% and maximum output power of 16.5 W are obtained for the 885nm pump with a 6ram length 1 at% Nd:YAG ceramic. The advantages for 885nm direct pumping are discussed in detail. This pumping scheme for highly doping a Nd:YAG ceramic laser is considered as an available way to generate high power and good beam quality simultaneously.

  16. Optical lithography at a 126-nm wavelength (United States)

    Kang, Hoyoung; Bourov, Anatoly; Smith, Bruce W.


    There is a window of opportunity for optical lithography between wavelengths of 100 nm and 157 nm that warrants exploration as a next generation technology. We will present activities underway to explore the feasibility of VUV optical lithography in this region with respect to source, optical design, materials, processes, masks, resolution enhancement, and compatibility with existing technologies. We have constructed a small field prototype lithography system using the second continuum 126nm emission wavelength of the Argon excimer. This has been accomplished using a small dielectric barrier discharge lamp with output on the order of 10mW/cm2 and small field catoptric imaging systems based on a modified Cassegrain system. Capacitance focus gauge and piezo electric stage has been installed for fine focusing. In order to achieve sub-half wavelength resolution that would be required to compete with 157nm lithography and others, we have started exploring the feasibility of using liquefied noble gas immersion fluids to increase effective value of lens numerical aperture by factors approaching 1.4x. Conventional silylation process works well with 126nm with high sensitivity. Chemically amplified DUV negative resist looks very good material for 126 nm. Initial contact printing image shows good selectivity and process control. An effort is also underway to explore the use of inorganic resist materials, as silver halide material for instance, to replace the conventional polymeric imaging systems that are currently employed at longer wavelengths, but may be problematic at these VUV wavelengths. Early accomplishments are encouraging. Prototype optical research tools can be used to reveal issues involved with 126nm lithography and solve initial problems. Though many challenges do exist at this short wavelength, it is quite feasible that lithography at this wavelength could meet the part of the needs of future device generations.

  17. Radiation Failures in Intel 14nm Microprocessors (United States)

    Bossev, Dobrin P.; Duncan, Adam R.; Gadlage, Matthew J.; Roach, Austin H.; Kay, Matthew J.; Szabo, Carl; Berger, Tammy J.; York, Darin A.; Williams, Aaron; LaBel, K.; Ingalls, James D.


    In this study the 14 nm Intel Broadwell 5th generation core series 5005U-i3 and 5200U-i5 was mounted on Dell Inspiron laptops, MSI Cubi and Gigabyte Brix barebones and tested with Windows 8 and CentOS7 at idle. Heavy-ion-induced hard- and catastrophic failures do not appear to be related to the Intel 14nm Tri-Gate FinFET process. They originate from a small (9 m 140 m) area on the 32nm planar PCH die (not the CPU) as initially speculated. The hard failures seem to be due to a SEE but the exact physical mechanism has yet to be identified. Some possibilities include latch-ups, charge ion trapping or implantation, ion channels, or a combination of those (in biased conditions). The mechanism of the catastrophic failures seems related to the presence of electric power (1.05V core voltage). The 1064 nm laser mimics ionization radiation and induces soft- and hard failures as a direct result of electron-hole pair production, not heat. The 14nm FinFET processes continue to look promising for space radiation environments.

  18. Diode laser (980nm) cartilage reshaping (United States)

    El Kharbotly, A.; El Tayeb, T.; Mostafa, Y.; Hesham, I.


    Loss of facial or ear cartilage due to trauma or surgery is a major challenge to the otolaryngologists and plastic surgeons as the complicated geometric contours are difficult to be animated. Diode laser (980 nm) has been proven effective in reshaping and maintaining the new geometric shape achieved by laser. This study focused on determining the optimum laser parameters needed for cartilage reshaping with a controlled water cooling system. Harvested animal cartilages were angulated with different degrees and irradiated with different diode laser powers (980nm, 4x8mm spot size). The cartilage specimens were maintained in a deformation angle for two hours after irradiation then released for another two hours. They were serially measured and photographed. High-power Diode laser irradiation with water cooling is a cheep and effective method for reshaping the cartilage needed for reconstruction of difficult situations in otorhinolaryngologic surgery. Key words: cartilage,diode laser (980nm), reshaping.

  19. Liquid Carbon Reflectivity at 19 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Mincigrucci


    Full Text Available We hereby report on a pump-probe reflectivity experiment conducted on amorphous carbon, using a 780 nm laser as a pump and a 19 nm FEL emission as probe. Measurements were performed at 50 degrees with respect to the surface normal to have an un-pumped reflectivity higher than 0.5%. A sub-10 fs time synchronization error could be obtained exploiting the nearly jitter-free capabilities of FERMI. EUV FEL-based experiments open the way to study the behaviour of a liquid carbon phase being unaffected by plasma screening.

  20. 1550-nm wavelength-tunable HCG VCSELs (United States)

    Chase, Christopher; Rao, Yi; Huang, Michael; Chang-Hasnain, Connie


    We demonstrate wavelength-tunable VCSELs using high contrast gratings (HCGs) as the top output mirror on VCSELs, operating at 1550 nm. Tunable HCG VCSELs with a ~25 nm mechanical tuning range as well as VCSELs with 2 mW output power were realized. Error-free operation of an optical link using directly-modulated tunable HCG VCSELs transmitting at 1.25 Gbps over 18 channels spaced by 100 GHz and transmitted over 20 km of single mode fiber is demonstrated, showing the suitability of the HCG tunable VCSEL as a low cost source for WDM communications systems.

  1. Design of an 1800nm Raman amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten


    We present the experimental results for a Raman amplifier that operates at 1810 nm and is pumped by a Raman fiber laser at 1680 nm. Both the pump laser and the Raman amplifier is polarization maintaining. A challenge when scaling Raman amplifiers to longer wavelengths is the increase...... in transmission loss, but also the reduction in the Raman gain coefficient as the amplifier wavelength is increased. Both polarization components of the Raman gain is characterized, initially for linearly co-polarized signal and pump, subsequently linearly polarized orthogonal signal and pump. The noise...

  2. External cavity diode laser around 657 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Desheng Lǖ (吕德胜); Kaikai Huang (黄凯凯); Fengzhi Wang (王凤芝); DonghaiYang (杨东海)


    Operating a laser diode in an external cavity, which provides frequency-selective feedback, is a very effective method to tune the laser frequency to a range far from its free running frequency. For the Ca atomic Ramsey spectroscopy experiment, we have constructed a 657-nm laser system based on the LittmanMetcalf configuration with a 660-nm commercial laser diode. Continuously 10-GHz tuning range was achieved with about 100-kHz spectral linewidth, measured with beat-note spectrum of two identical laser systems.

  3. MEPHISTO spectromicroscope reaches 20 nm lateral resolution (United States)

    De Stasio, Gelsomina; Perfetti, Luca; Gilbert, B.; Fauchoux, O.; Capozi, M.; Perfetti, P.; Margaritondo, G.; Tonner, B. P.


    The recently described tests of the synchrotron imaging photoelectron spectromicroscope MEPHISTO (Microscope à Emission de PHotoélectrons par Illumination Synchrotronique de Type Onduleur) were complemented by further resolution improvements and tests, which brought the lateral resolution down to 20 nm. Images and line plot profiles demonstrate such performance.

  4. Photoresist outgassing at 157 nm exposure (United States)

    Hien, Stefan; Angood, Steve; Ashworth, Dominic; Basset, Steve; Bloomstein, Theodore M.; Dean, Kim R.; Kunz, Roderick R.; Miller, Daniel A.; Patel, Shashikant; Rich, Georgia K.


    Contamination of optical elements during photoresist exposure is a serious issue in optical lithography. The outgassing of photoresist has been identified as a problem at 248nm and 193nm in production because the organic films that can be formed on an exposure lens can cause transmission loss and sever image distortion. At these exposure energies, the excitation of the photo acid generator, formation of acid, and cleavage of the protecting group are highly selective processes. At 157nm, the exposure energy is much higher (7.9 eV compared to 6.4 eV at 193nm) and it is known from laser ablation experiments that direct laser cleavage of sigma bonds occurs. The fragments formed during this irradiation can be considered as effective laser deposition precursors even in the mid ppb level. In this study, methods to quantify photoresist outgassing at 157 nm are discussed. Three criteria have been set up at International SEMATECH to protect lens contamination and to determine the severity of photoresist outgassing. First, we measured film thickness loss as a function of exposure dose for a variety of materials. In a second test we studied the molecular composition of the outgassing fragments with an exposure chamber coupled to a gas chromatograph and a mass spectrometer detector. Our third method was a deposition test of outgassing vapors on a CaF2 proof plate followed by analysis using VUV and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS). With this technique we found deposits for many different resists. Our main focus is on F- and Si- containing resists. Both material classes form deposits especially if these atoms are bound to the polymer side chains. Whereas the F-containing films can be cleaned off under 157nm irradiation, cleaning of Si-containing films mainly produces SiO2. Our cleaning studies of plasma deposited F-containing organic films on SiO2 did not indicate damage of this surface by the possible formation of HF. Despite that we strongly recommend engineering

  5. Photochemistry of acrylates at 222 nm (United States)

    Knolle, Wolfgang; Naumov, Sergej; Madani, Mohamed; von Sonntag, Clemens


    Excimer lamps as monochromatic UV sources with an intense short-wavelength emission (especially KrCl∗, 222 nm) allow a photoinitiator-free initiation of the acrylate polymerisation. Laser photolysis (KrCl∗ excimer laser, pulse width 20 ns, up to 5 mJ per pulse) gives rise to similar transient spectra (λmax ≈ 280 nm) for all acrylates studied. As the rather unspecific spectra do not allow conclusions as to the main reaction channel, a product study has been performed by GC-MS following steady-state photolysis of acrylate solutions in acetonitrile, methanol and n-hexane. Somewhat unexpected, α-cleavage seems to be a main reaction channel, and quantum chemical calculations show that such a reaction can occur from either the excited singlet state or the unrelaxed triplet state, but not from the relaxed triplet state that is observed spectroscopically. A reaction scheme accounting for the observed products is presented.

  6. Actively Pumped Optical Filters at 532 nm (United States)

    Billmers, Richard I.; Gayen, S. K.; Contarino, Vincent M.; Scharpf, William J.; Squicciarini, Martin F.; Allocca, David A.


    The operation of two narrow-band optical filters at 532.33 nm is presented. Both of these filters operate on the 4P(sub 1/2) to 8S(sub 1/2) excited-state transition in potassium vapor. One of the filters is based on excited-state Faraday effect, and requires the application of an external axial magnetic field. The peak transmission of this filter is approximately 3.5% with a linewidth of less than 10 GHz. The second filter does not require a magnetic field for its operation, but readily attains peak transmissions of 25-30%. The 4P(sub 1/2) state is excited by a 769.9 nm light pulse which is linearly polarized for the first scheme and circularly polarized for the second.

  7. Radiation Status of Sub-65 nm Electronics (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.


    Ultra-scaled complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) includes commercial foundry capabilities at and below the 65 nm technology node Radiation evaluations take place using standard products and test characterization vehicles (memories, logic/latch chains, etc.) NEPP focus is two-fold: (1) Conduct early radiation evaluations to ascertain viability for future NASA missions (i.e. leverage commercial technology development). (2) Uncover gaps in current testing methodologies and mechanism comprehension -- early risk mitigation.

  8. Weak-signal conversion from 1550nm to 532nm with 84% efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Samblowski, Aiko; Baune, Christoph; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Schnabel, Roman


    We report on the experimental frequency conversion of a dim, coherent continuous-wave light field from 1550nm to 532nm with an external photon-number conversion efficiency of (84.4 +/- 1.5)%. We used sum-frequency generation, which was realized in a standing-wave cavity built around a periodically poled type I potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP) crystal, pumped by an intense field at 810 nm. Our result is in full agreement with a numerical model. For optimized cavity coupler reflectivities it predicts a conversion efficiency of up to 93% using the same PPKTP crystal.

  9. Comparative Study of CMOS Op-Amp In 45nm And 180 Nm Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper we have provided a method for designing a Two Stage CMOS Operational Amplifier which operates at 1.8V power supply using Cadence Virtuoso 45nm CMOS technology. Further, designing the two stage op-amp for the same power supply using Cadence Virtuoso 180nm CMOS Technology, keeping the slew rate of the op-amp same as that 45nm technology. The trade-off curves are computed between various characteristics such as Gain, Phase Margin,GBW,3db Gain etc. and the results obtained for 45n CMOS Technology is compared with those obtained for 180nm CMOS Technology It has been demonstrated that on lowering the technology and keeping the slew rate constant, the Power dissipation decreases.

  10. Optical issues of thin organic pellicles in 45-nm and 32-nm immersion lithography (United States)

    Lucas, Kevin; Gordon, Joseph S.; Conley, Will; Saied, Mazen; Warrick, Scott; Pochkowski, Mike; Smith, Mark D.; West, Craig; Kalk, Franklin; Kuijten, Jan Pieter


    The semiconductor industry will soon be putting >=1.07NA 193nm immersion lithography systems into production for the 45nm device node and in about three years will be putting >=1.30NA systems into production for the 32nm device node. For these very high NA systems, the maximum angle of light incident on a 4X reticle will reach ~16 degrees and ~20 degrees for the 45nm and 32nm nodes respectively. These angles can no longer be accurately approximated by an assumption of normal incidence. The optical diffraction and thin film effects of high incident angles on the wafer and on the photomask have been studied by many different authors. Extensive previous work has also investigated the impact of high angles upon hard (e.g., F-doped silica) thick (>700μm) pellicles for 157nm lithography, e.g.,. However, the interaction of these high incident angles with traditional thin (< 1μm) organic pellicles has not been widely discussed in the literature. In this paper we analyze the impact of traditional thin organic pellicles in the imaging plane for hyper-NA immersion lithography at the 45nm and 32nm nodes. The use of existing pellicles with hyper-NA imaging is shown to have a definite negative impact upon lithographic CD control and optical proximity correction (OPC) model accuracy. This is due to the traditional method of setting organic pellicle thickness to optimize normally incident light transmission intensity. Due to thin film interference effects with hyper-NA angles, this traditional pellicle optimization method will induce a loss of high spatial frequency (i.e., high transmitted angle) intensity which is similar in negative impact to a strong lens apodization effect. Therefore, using simulation we investigate different pellicle manufacturing options (e.g., multi-layer pellicle films) and OPC modeling options to reduce the high spatial frequency loss and its impact.

  11. 248nm silicon photoablation: Microstructuring basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poopalan, P.; Najamudin, S. H.; Wahab, Y.; Mazalan, M. [Advanced Multidisciplinary MEMS-Based Integrated Electronic NCER Centre of Excellent (AMBIENCE), School of Microelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)


    248nm pulses from a KrF excimer laser was used to ablate a Si wafer in order to ascertain the laser pulse and energy effects for use as a microstructuring tool for MEMS fabrication. The laser pulses were varied between two different energy levels of 8mJ and 4mJ while the number of pulses for ablation was varied. The corresponding ablated depths were found to range between 11 µm and 49 µm, depending on the demagnified beam fluence.

  12. Harmonic Inverse FEL Interaction at 800nm

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, C M S; Siemann, R; Spencer, J E


    The inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) interaction has recently been proposed and demonstrated as a premodulator for High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) experiments. These experiments utilized the fundamental of the interaction between the laser field and electron bunch. In the current experiment, we explore the higher order resonances of the IFEL interaction from a 3 period, 1.8 centimeter wavelength undulator with a picosecond, 0.25 mJ/pulse laser at 800nm. The resonances are observed by adjusting the gap of the undulator while keeping the beam energy constant. The harmonic IFEL can add flexibility to HGHG FEL design.

  13. Advanced processes for 193-nm immersion lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Yayi


    This book is a comprehensive guide to advanced processes and materials used in 193-nm immersion lithography (193i). It is an important text for those new to the field as well as for current practitioners who want to broaden their understanding of this latest technology. The book can be used as course material for graduate students of electrical engineering, material sciences, physics, chemistry, and microelectronics engineering and can also be used to train engineers involved in the manufacture of integrated circuits. It provides techniques for selecting critical materials (topcoats, photoresi

  14. TCSPC FLIM in the wavelength range from 800 nm to 1700 nm (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Becker, Wolfgang; Shcheslavsky, Vladislav


    Excitation and detection in the wavelength range above 800nm is a convenient and relatively inexpensive way to increase the penetration depth in optical microscopy. Moreover, detection at long wavelength avoids the problem that tissue autofluorescence contaminates the signals from endogenous fluorescence probes. FLIM at NIR wavelength may therefore be complementary to multiphoton microscopy, especially if the lifetimes of NIR fluorophores report biological parameters of the tissue structures they are bound to. Unfortunately, neither the excitation sources nor the detectors of standard confocal and multiphoton laser scanning systems are directly suitable for excitation and detection of NIR fluorescence. Most of these problems can be solved, however, by using ps diode lasers or Ti:Sapphire lasers at their fundamental wavelength, and NIR-sensitive detectors. With NIR-sensitive PMTs the detection wavelength range can be extended up to 900 nm, with InGaAs SPAD detectors up to 1700 nm. Here, we demonstrate the use of a combination of laser scanning, multi-dimensional TCSPC, and advanced excitation sources and detectors for FLIM at up to 1700 nm. The performance was tested at tissue samples incubated with NIR dyes. The fluorescence lifetimes generally get shorter with increasing absorption and emission wavelengths of the dyes. For the cyanine dye IR1061, absorbing around 1060 nm, the lifetime was found to be as short as 70 ps. Nevertheless the fluorescence decay could still be clearly detected. Almost all dyes showed clear lifetime changes depending on the binding to different tissue constituents.

  15. Total spectral radiant flux measurements on Xe excimer lamps from 115 nm to 1000 nm (United States)

    Trampert, Klaus E.; Paravia, Mark; Daub, Rüdiger; Heering, Wolfgang


    Xe excimer lamps are used as VUV source for industrial application like surface cleaning. To determine the VUV efficiency of the lamp the radiant flux need to be known. Due to the difficulties of VUV measurements, it is often determined by interpolation from a value of a fixed angle, which results in large uncertainties. Here a goniometric setup is presented to measure the radiant flux of VUV sources like Xe excimer lamps which emit a narrow spectral band in the VUV range between λ = 147 nm and 200 nm with a peak at 172 nm and spectral lines in NIR. By the use of two monochromators, we measure the spectral resolved radiant flux from 120 nm to 1000 nm. The measurement uncertainty of 9.7 % is rather low for the VUV spectral range and depends mainly on the uncertainty of the used deuterium calibration standard from PTB (7%). Due to the strong temperature dependence of the transmission edge of silica used for the lamp vessel, the measurements are done in nitrogen atmosphere to ensure the convection cooling of the lamp. We measured the radiance distribution curve and radiant flux of Xe excimer lamps and could show the angle dependence of the spectrum. The measured correlation between the VUV band and the NIR lines gives us a better understanding of the plasma kinetics, which is used to optimize the pulsed excitation of the lamp.

  16. Comparison of 193 nm and 308 nm laser liquid printing by shadowgraphy imaging (United States)

    Palla-Papavlu, A.; Shaw-Stewart, J.; Mattle, T.; Dinca, V.; Lippert, T.; Wokaun, A.; Dinescu, M.


    Over the last years laser-induced forward transfer has emerged as a versatile and powerful tool for engineering surfaces with active compounds. Soft, easily damageable materials can be transferred using a triazene polymer as a sacrificial layer which acts as a pressure generator and at the same time protects the material from direct laser irradiation. To understand and optimize the transfer process of biomolecules in liquid solution by using an intermediate triazene polymer photosensitive layer, shadowgraphy imaging is carried out. Two laser systems i.e. an ArF laser operating at 193 nm and a XeCl laser operating at 308 nm are applied for the transfer. Solutions with 50% v/v glycerol concentration are prepared and the influence of the triazene polymer sacrificial layer thickness (60 nm) on the deposits is studied. The shadowgraphy images reveal a pronounced difference between laser-induced forward transfer using 193 nm or 308 nm, i.e. very different shapes of the ejected liquid.

  17. 308-nm excimer laser in endodontics (United States)

    Liesenhoff, Tim


    Root canal preparation was performed on 20 extracted human teeth. After opening the coronal pulp, the root canals were prepared by 308 nm excimer laser only. All root canals were investigated under SEM after separation in the axial direction. By sagittal separation of the mandibles of freshly slaughtered cows, it was possible to get access to the tissues and irradiate under optical control. Under irradiation of excimer laser light, tissue starts to fluoresce. It was possible to demonstrate that each tissue (dentin, enamel, bone, pulpal, and connective tissue) has a characteristic spectral pattern. The SEM analyses showed that it is well possible to prepare root canals safely. All organic soft tissue has been removed by excimer laser irradiation. There was no case of via falsa. The simultaneous spectroscopic identification of the irradiated tissue provides a safe protection from overinstrumentation. First clinical trials on 20 patients suffering of chronical apical parodontitis have been carried out successfully.

  18. Photodissociation of the Propargyl (C3D3) Radicals at 248 nm and 193 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumark., D.M.; Crider, P.E.; Castiglioni, L.; Kautzman, K.K.


    The photodissociation of perdeuterated propargyl (D{sub 2}CCCD) and propynyl (D{sub 3}CCC) radicals was investigated using fast beam photofragment translational spectroscopy. Radicals were produced from their respective anions by photodetachment at 540 nm and 450 nm (below and above the electron affinity of propynyl). The radicals were then photodissociated by 248 nm or 193 nm light. The recoiling photofragments were detected in coincidence with a time- and position-sensitive detector. Three channels were observed: D{sub 2} loss, CD + C{sub 2}D{sub 2}, and CD{sub 3} + C{sub 2}. Obervation of the D loss channel was incompatible with this experiment and was not attempted. Our translational energy distributions for D{sub 2} loss peaked at nonzero translational energy, consistent with ground state dissociation over small (< 1 eV) exit barriers with respect to separated products. Translational energy distributions for the two heavy channels peaked near zero kinetic energy, indicating dissociation on the ground state in the absence of exit barriers.

  19. Design and Simulation of Low Noise Amplifiers at 180nm and 90nm Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathima Janisha


    Full Text Available With continued process scaling, CMOS has become a viable technology for the design of high-performance low noise amplifiers (LNAs in the radio frequency (RF regime. This thesis presents design and simulation of LNA at 180nm and 90nm technology. The LNA function is used to amplify signals without adding noise. The work is done on Cadence Virtuoso platform and the performance parameters like transient response and Noise figure are simulated and plotted. A supply voltage of just 5mV is used here. The noise figure at 180nm is found to be 259.722mdB at 1.04502GHz and The noise figure at 90nm is found to be 183.21mdB at 1.157GHz. 1.04502GHz and 1.157GHz are the peak frequency obtained from the frequency response of the Low noise amplifier. It is observed that the noise figure varies in each technology.

  20. Picosecond Laser Shock Peening of Nimonic 263 at 1064 nm and 532 nm Wavelength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Petronic


    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on the surface modifications of nickel based superalloy Nimonic 263 induced by laser shock peening (LSP process. The process was performed by Nd3+:Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (YAG picosecond laser using the following parameters: pulse duration 170 ps; repetition rate 10 Hz; pulse numbers of 50, 100 and 200; and wavelength of 1064 nm (with pulse energy of 2 mJ, 10 mJ and 15 mJ and 532 nm (with pulse energy of 25 mJ, 30 mJ and 35 mJ. The following response characteristics were analyzed: modified surface areas obtained by the laser/material interaction were observed by scanning electron microscopy; elemental composition of the modified surface was evaluated by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS; and Vickers microhardness tests were performed. LSP processing at both 1064 nm and 532 nm wavelengths improved the surface structure and microhardness of a material. Surface morphology changes of the irradiated samples were determined and surface roughness was calculated. These investigations are intended to contribute to the study on the level of microstructure and mechanical properties improvements due to LSP process that operate in a picosecond regime. In particular, the effects of laser wavelength on the microstructural and mechanical changes of a material are studied in detail.

  1. Laser Shock Processing of 6061-T6 Al alloy with 1064 nm and 532 nm wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Rosas, G., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierias, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, Blvd. Marcelino Garcia Barragan 1421, Guadalajara, Jalisco 44430 (Mexico); Rubio-Gonzalez, C. [Centro de Ingenieria y Desarrollo Industrial, Pie de la cuesta No. 702, Desarrollo San Pablo, Queretaro, Qro. 76130 (Mexico); Ocana, J.L.; Molpeceres, C.; Porro, J.A.; Morales, M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada a la Ingenieria Industrial, ETSII. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Casillas, F.J. [Departamento de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologicas, Universidad de Guadalajara, Lagos de Moreno, Jalisco 47460 (Mexico)


    Laser Shock Processing (LSP) has been proposed as a competitive alternative technology to classical treatments for improving fatigue and wear resistance of metals. We present a configuration and results in the LSP concept for metal surface treatments in underwater laser irradiation at 532 nm and 1064 nm. The purpose of the work is to compare the effect of both wavelengths on the same material. A convergent lens is used to deliver 1.2 J/pulse (1064 nm) and 0.9 J/pulse (532 nm) in a 8 ns laser FWHM pulse produced by 10 Hz Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with spots of a 1.5 mm in diameter moving forward along the work piece. A LSP configuration with experimental results using a pulse density of 2500 pulses/cm{sup 2} and 5000 pulses/cm{sup 2} in 6061-T6 aluminum samples are presented. High level compressive residual stresses are produced using both wavelengths. It has been shown that surface residual stress level is comparable to that achieved by conventional shot peening, but with greater depths. This method can be applied to surface treatment of final metal products.

  2. Characterization of LANDSAT Panels Using the NIST BRDF Scale from 1100 nm to 2500 nm (United States)

    Markham, Brian; Tsai, Benjamin K.; Allen, David W.; Cooksey, Catherine; Yoon, Howard; Hanssen, Leonard; Zeng, Jinan; Fulton, Linda; Biggar, Stuart; Markham, Brian


    Many earth observing sensors depend on white diffuse reflectance standards to derive scales of radiance traceable to the St Despite the large number of Earth observing sensors that operate in the reflective solar region of the spectrum, there has been no direct method to provide NIST traceable BRDF measurements out to 2500 rim. Recent developments in detector technology have allowed the NIST reflectance measurement facility to expand the operating range to cover the 250 nm to 2500 nm range. The facility has been modified with and additional detector using a cooled extended range indium gallium arsenide (Extended InGaAs) detector. Measurements were made for two PTFE white diffuse reflectance standards over the 1100 nm to 2500 nm region at a 0' incident and 45' observation angle. These two panels will be used to support the OLI calibration activities. An independent means of verification was established using a NIST radiance transfer facility based on spectral irradiance, radiance standards and a diffuse reflectance plaque. An analysis on the results and associated uncertainties will be discussed.

  3. The Spectrum of Thorium from 250 nm to 5500 nm: Ritz Wavelengths and Optimized Energy Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Redman, Stephen L; Sansonetti, Craig J


    We have made precise observations of a thorium-argon hollow cathode lamp emission spectrum in the region between 350 nm and 1175 nm using a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. Our measurements are combined with results from seven previously published thorium line lists (Giacchetti et al. 1974; Zalubas & Corliss 1974; Zalubas 1976; Palmer & Engleman 1983; Engleman et al. 2003; Lovis & Pepe 2007; Kerber et al. 2008) to re-optimize the energy levels of neutral, singly-, and doubly-ionized thorium (Th I, Th II, and Th III). Using the optimized level values, we calculate accurate Ritz wavelengths for 19679 thorium lines between 250 nm and 5500 nm (40000 1/cm to 1800 1/cm). We have also found 102 new thorium energy levels. A systematic analysis of previous measurements in light of our new results allows us to identify and propose corrections for systematic errors in Palmer & Engleman (1983) and typographical errors and incorrect classifications in Kerber et al. (2008). We also found a la...

  4. Half Swing Clocking Scheme at 45nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Verma,


    Full Text Available Achievement of high processor speed with low power consumption is an elemental factor in processor technology, especially for hand-held devices. The need for low power has caused a major paradigm shift where power dissipation has become a important consideration as performance and area. In CMOS circuits, dynamic power consumption is proportional to the transition frequency, capacitance, and square of supply voltage. Consequentially, lowering supply voltage delivers significant power savings compromising the speed of processor. Large portion of the total power is consumed in the clocking circuitry in embedded processor technology. So clock power can be reduced using half swing of clock scheme which will cut down the power dissipation and minimum speed degradation. In Digital circuits by using double-edge triggered flip flops (DETFFs, the clock frequency can be significantly reduced ideally, in half while preserving the rate of data processing. Using lower clock frequency may translate into considerable power savings for the clocked portions of a circuit, including the clock distribution network and flip-flops. The designing is based on 45nm process technology.

  5. ATLAS Virtual Visit Petroupolis_11.11.2014

    CERN Multimedia



    Students of the 1st Lyceum of Petroupolis (Athens region), will take a part in a half-day ATLAS Masterclass organized by physicists of the University of Athens and the Institute of Accelerator Systems and Applications.

  6. 47 CFR 11.11 - The Emergency Alert System (EAS). (United States)


    ... stations including AM, FM, and Low-power FM (LPFM) stations; digital audio broadcasting (DAB) stations, including digital AM, FM, and Low-power FM stations; analog television broadcast stations including Class A television (CA) and Low-power TV (LPTV) stations; digital television (DTV) broadcast stations,...

  7. Multi-watt 589nm fiber laser source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    We have demonstrated 3.5W of 589nm light from a fiber laser using periodically poled stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate (PPSLT) as the frequency conversion crystal. The system employs 938nm and 1583nm fiber lasers, which were sum-frequency mixed in PPSLT to generate 589nm light. The 938nm fiber laser consists of a single frequency diode laser master oscillator (200mW), which was amplified in two stages to >15W using cladding pumped Nd{sup 3+} fiber amplifiers. The fiber amplifiers operate at 938nm and minimize amplified spontaneous emission at 1088nm by employing a specialty fiber design, which maximizes the core size relative to the cladding diameter. This design allows the 3-level laser system to operate at high inversion, thus making it competitive with the competing 1088nm 4-level laser transition. At 15W, the 938nm laser has an M{sup 2} of 1.1 and good polarization (correctable with a quarter and half wave plate to >15:1). The 1583nm fiber laser consists of a Koheras 1583nm fiber DFB laser that is pre-amplified to 100mW, phase modulated and then amplified to 14W in a commercial IPG fiber amplifier. As a part of our research efforts we are also investigating pulsed laser formats and power scaling of the 589nm system. We will discuss the fiber laser design and operation as well as our results in power scaling at 589nm.

  8. Absolute frequency references at 1529 nm and 1560 nm using modulation transfer spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    de Escobar, Y Natali Martinez; Coop, Simon; Vanderbruggen, Thomas; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof T; Mitchell, Morgan W


    We demonstrate a double optical frequency reference (1529 nm and 1560 nm) for the telecom C-band using $^{87}$Rb modulation transfer spectroscopy. The two reference frequencies are defined by the 5S$_{1/2} F=2 \\rightarrow $ 5P$_{3/2} F'=3$ two-level and 5S$_{1/2} F=2 \\rightarrow $ 5P$_{3/2} F'=3 \\rightarrow $ 4D$_{5/2} F"=4$ ladder transitions. We examine the sensitivity of the frequency stabilization to probe power and magnetic field fluctuations, calculate its frequency shift due to residual amplitude modulation, and estimate its shift due to gas collisions. The short-term Allan deviation was estimated from the error signal slope for the two transitions. Our scheme provides a simple and high performing system for references at these important wavelengths. We estimate an absolute accuracy of $\\sim$ 1 kHz is realistic.

  9. Magnetic Susceptibility of liquid Gd-NM (NM = Cu, Ga, Ge) alloys (United States)

    Shimakura, Hironori; Tahara, Shuta; Okada, Tatsuya; Ohno, Satoru


    For rare earth alloys, the indirect interaction of RKKY is at work between rare-earth atoms. Therefore, the magnetism of them depends on the number of conduction electrons and the distance between rare-earth metals. In this work, to reveal the relationship between the number of conduction electrons and magnetic property of rare earth metal alloys, magnetic susceptibility measurements for liquid Gd-NM (NM = Cu, Ga, Ge) was performed by Faraday method. As the results, it was observed that the sign of paramagnetic Curie temperature of Cu-Gd alloys are positive at all composition, while Ga-Gd and Ge-Gd alloys show negative paramagnetic Curie temperature at certain composition. Moreover, it was indicated when the alloy at certain composition shows highest melting temperature, it has the lowest paramagnetic Curie temperature.

  10. Solar irradiance models and measurements: a comparison in the 220 nm to 240 nm wavelength band

    CERN Document Server

    Unruh, Yvonne C; Krivova, Natalie A


    Solar irradiance models that assume solar irradiance variations to be due to changes in the solar surface magnetic flux have been successfully used to reconstruct total solar irradiance on rotational as well as cyclical and secular time scales. Modelling spectral solar irradiance is not yet as advanced, and also suffers from a lack of comparison data, in particular on solar-cycle time scales. Here we compare solar irradiance in the 220 nm to 240 nm band as modelled with SATIRE-S and measured by different instruments on the UARS and SORCE satellites. We find good agreement between the model and measurements on rotational time scales. The long-term trends, however, show significant differences. Both SORCE instruments, in particular, show a much steeper gradient over the decaying part of cycle 23 than the modelled irradiance or that measured by UARS/SUSIM.

  11. Analysis of multi-mode to single-mode conversion at 635 nm and 1550 nm (United States)

    Zamora, Vanessa; Bogatzki, Angelina; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Hofmann, Jens; Schröder, Henning


    We propose two low-cost and robust optical fiber systems based on the photonic lantern (PL) technology for operating at 635 nm and 1550 nm. The PL is an emerging technology that couples light from a multi-mode (MM) fiber to several single-mode (SM) fibers via a low-loss adiabatic transition. This bundle of SM fibers is observed as a MM fiber system whose spatial modes are the degenerate supermodes of the bundle. The adiabatic transition allows that those supermodes evolve into the modes of the MM fiber. Simulations of the MM fiber end structure and its taper transition have been performed via functional mode solver tools in order to understand the modal evolution in PLs. The modelled design consists of 7 SM fibers inserted into a low-index capillary. The material and geometry of the PLs are chosen such that the supermodes match to the spatial modes of the desired step-index MM fiber in a moderate loss transmission. The dispersion of materials is also considered. These parameters are studied in two PL systems in order to reach a spectral transmission from 450 nm to 1600 nm. Additionally, an analysis of the geometry and losses due to the mismatching of modes is presented. PLs are typically used in the fields of astrophotonics and space photonics. Recently, they are demonstrated as mode converters in telecommunications, especially focusing on spatial division multiplexing. In this study, we show the use of PLs as a promising interconnecting tool for the development of miniaturized spectrometers operating in a broad wavelength range.

  12. TUNABLE DIODE LASER MEASUREMENTS OF NO2 NEAR 670 NM AND 395 NM. (R823933) (United States)

    Two single-mode diode lasers were used to record high-resolution absorption spectra of NO2 (dilute in Ar) near 670.2 and 394.5 nm over a range of temperatures (296 to 774 K) and total pressures (2.4 x 10(-2) to 1 atm). A commercial InGaAsP laser was tuned 1.3 cm(-1) at a repetiti...

  13. 11.11.11 - päev, mis jääb kauaks meelde / Hiie Marrandi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Marrandi, Hiie


    Ülevaade maksukonverentsist, mille põhiteemadeks olid ariühingute tulumaksu ühtsest konsolideeritud maksubaas (common consolidated corporate tax base - CCCTB) ja finantsteenuste maks (financial transaction tax - FTT)

  14. 11.11.11 - päev, mis jääb kauaks meelde / Hiie Marrandi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Marrandi, Hiie


    Ülevaade maksukonverentsist, mille põhiteemadeks olid ariühingute tulumaksu ühtsest konsolideeritud maksubaas (common consolidated corporate tax base - CCCTB) ja finantsteenuste maks (financial transaction tax - FTT)

  15. Monolithic PM Raman fiber laser at 1679 nm for Raman amplification at 1810 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten


    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) has been subject to much attention within the field of fiber lasers and amplifiers as it provides an extended wavelength coverage in comparison to rare-earth based devices. Motivated by the projected capacity crunch [1], different approaches are being explored...... demonstrate a monolithic RM Raman fiber laser (RFL), which acts as a pump for a Raman amplifier (RA) at 1810 nm. The lasing wavelength of a RFL, thus also for a RA, can in principle be designed arbitrarily within the entire wavelength range from the Erbium band up to the Thulium/Holmium band...... of OFS PM Raman fiber, with an estimated propagation loss of 0.42/0.46/1.3 dB/km at 1564/1679/1810 nm. The Raman gain coefficient was measured to be gR=2.66/2.35 W-1km-1 at 1679/1810 nm. The laser curve of the RFL is depicted in Fig. 1b, with a slope efficiency of 67 %. The high slope efficiency...

  16. High-resolution photoabsorption cross section measurements of sulfur dioxide between 198 nm and 325 nm (United States)

    Stark, Glenn; Smith, Peter; Blackie, Douglas; Blackwell-Whitehead, Richard; Pickering, Juliet; Rufus, James; Thorne, Anne

    Accurate photoabsorption cross section data at a range of temperatures are required for the incorporation of sulfur dioxide into atmospheric photochemical models. In addition to its role in the terrestrial atmosphere, sulfur dioxide is observed in significant concentrations in the atmospheres of Venus and Io. Our laboratory measurement program focuses on the very congested SO2 spectrum in the ultraviolet. Using the Imperial College UV Fourier transform spectrometer, we have recorded high-resolution (resolving power (λ/∆λ) = 450,000) absorption spectra in the 198 to 325 nm region over a range of temperatures from 160 K to 295 K. This high resolving power allows resolutions approaching those required to fully resolve the Doppler profile of SO2 in the UV. We have reported absolute photoabsorption cross sections at 295 K [Stark et al., JGR Planets 104, 16585 (1999); Rufus et al. JGR Planets 108, doi:10.1029/2002JE001931,(2003)]. Further measurements, at 160 K in the 198 to 200 nm region and at 195 K in the 220 to 325 nm region, have been recorded and analyzed. We present an overview of our new measured cross sections at temperatures and pressures comparable to those found in planetary atmospheres. This work was supported in part by NASA Grant NNG05GA03G, PPARC (UK), and the Leverhulme Trust.

  17. Generation of a 650 nm - 2000 nm Laser Frequency Comb based on an Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Ycas, Gabriel; Diddams, Scott A


    We present a laser frequency comb based upon a 250 MHz mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser that spans more than 300 terahertz of bandwidth, from 660 nm to 2000 nm. The system generates 1.2 nJ, 70 fs pulses at 1050 nm by amplifying the 1580 nm laser light in Er:fiber, followed by nonlinear broadening to 1050 nm and amplification in Yb:fiber. Extension of the frequency comb into the visible is achieved by supercontinuum generation from the 1050 nm light. Comb coherence is verified with cascaded f-2f interferometry and comparison to a frequency stabilized laser.

  18. Performance comparison of bismuth/erbium co-doped optical fibre by 830 nm and 980 nm pumping (United States)

    Yan, Binbin; Luo, Yanhua; Zareanborji, Amirhassan; Xiao, Gui; Peng, Gang-Ding; Wen, Jianxiang


    The performance of bismuth/erbium co-doped fibre (BEDF) by 830 nm and 980 nm pumping has been studied in detail, including the small signal absorption, pump absorption, emission, gain and excited state absorption (ESA). Based on the study, energy transition diagrams of BEDF under 830 nm or 980 nm pumping are proposed to clarify the spectroscopic properties. The results demonstrate the advantages of 830 nm pumping for BEDF over 980 nm pumping when considering the absorption, pumping efficiency, excited state absorption and optical amplification.

  19. 76 FR 22015 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Raton, NM (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Raton, NM AGENCY: Federal... Raton, NM, to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Raton Municipal Airport/Crews Field, Raton, NM. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and...

  20. (6aS,11aR,11cS-8-Sulfanylidene-2,3,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b,11c-decahydro-3a,7a-diaza-1H,4H-benzo[de]anthracen-3a-ium chloride hemihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang


    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H23N2S+·Cl−·0.5H2O, was prepared from (6aS,11aR,11cS-2,3,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b,11c-decahydro-3a,7a-diaza-1H,4H-benzo[de]anthracene-8-one (sophocarpine and Lawesson's reagent. The thione-substituted ring is in an envelope conformation and the three other six-membered rings are in chair conformations. In the crystal, anions and cations are linked by N—H...Cl and weak C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds. One 0.5-occupancy solvent water molecule lies on a twofold rotation axis and another 0.25-occupancy solvent water molecule is in a general position. The H atoms of these water molecules were not located or included in the refinement.

  1. From the nm to the Mm (United States)

    Villa, I. M.


    Tectonic models for the evolution of an orogen start at the Mm scale, and use field work on smaller subunits at the km scale and rocks collected at the m scale. At the mm scale, minerals are identified, analyzed by mass spectrometry, their "cooling ages" assigned to a specific closure temperature, a cooling rate attributed to a particular tectonic regime, and a large body of self-referential literature is the product of an oiled machinery. Problems become apparent if one attempts to harmonize mm-scale science with the nasty little details at even smaller scales. Atoms are invisible to the naked eye (unlike the minerals mentioned above) and their actual behavior is, or was, only accessible to indirect argumentations and simplified calculations. Increased computing power now allows calculating the transport of atoms in a crystal from the Schr”dinger equation: results do not fit 19th century continuum physics for infinitely dilute solutions (Fick's and Arrhenius' "laws"). Moreover, improved nanochemical analyses allow characterizing the supposedly homogeneous mineral matrix. TEM images show how layers or chains in pristine minerals are substituted in a non-periodic way by alteration products. EMP analyses show the almost ubiquitous presence of razor-sharp boundaries rather than Erf profiles. Disequilibrium recrystallization textures thus prevail over diffusive reequilibration; diffusion sensu stricto is shown to be a much slower process than heterochemical replacement. Alterability sequences are well known to surface scientists: e.g. halite, olivine, biotite, muscovite, zircon. Such sequences are reflected in the isotopic retentivity. The link only becomes clear at the nm scale: isotopic exchange occurs during the replacement reactions that affect all rocks on their retrograde P-T evolution. This is sufficient to explain why zircons record higher isotopic ages than muscovites, which in turn undergo less isotope exchange than biotites etc. While there is a vague

  2. Cell projection use in maskless lithography for 45nm and 32nm logic nodes (United States)

    Manakli, S.; Komami, H.; Takizawa, M.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Pain, L.


    Due to the ever-increasing cost of equipment and mask complexity, the use of optical lithography for integrated circuit manufacturing is increasingly more complex and expensive. Recent workshops and conferences in semiconductor lithography underlined that one alternative to support sub-32nm technologies is mask-less lithography option using electron beam technology. However, this direct write approach based on variable shaped beam principle (VSB) is not sufficient in terms of throughput, i.e. of productivity. New direct write techniques like multibeam systems are under development, but these solutions will not be mature before 2012. The use of character/cell projection (CP) on industrial VSB tools is the first step to deal with the throughput concerns. This paper presents the status of the CP technology and evaluates its possible use for the 45nm and 32nm logic nodes. It will present standard cell and SRAM structures that are printed as single characters using the CP technique. All experiments are done using the Advantest tool (F3000) which can project up to 100 different cells per layer. Cell extractions and design have been performed with the design and software solution developed by D2S. In this paper, we first evaluate the performance gain that can be obtained with the CP approach compared to the standard VSB approach. This paper also details the patterning capability obtained by using the CP concept. An evaluation of the CD uniformity and process stability is also presented. Finally this paper discusses about the improvements of this technique to address high resolution and to improve the throughput concerns.

  3. Manufacturability of 2x-nm devices with EUV tool (United States)

    Tawarayama, Kazuo; Nakajima, Yumi; Kyoh, Suigen; Aoyama, Hajime; Matsunaga, Kentaro; Magoshi, Shunko; Tanaka, Satoshi; Hayashi, Yumi; Mori, Ichiro


    Due to the promising development status of EUVL as a practical lithography technology for the 2x-nm node, we are continuing to evaluate its process liability using the EUV1 at Selete, which has an Off-Axis illumination capability. The resolution limit of the EUV1 for L&S patterns is currently 18 nm for dipole illumination, and 16 nm for aggressive dipole illumination. This study examined the critical points of EUVL for device manufacturing through wafer processes. The yield obtained from electrical measurements indicates the maturity of the technology, including the resist process, the tool, and the mask. Optimization of the resist and RIE processes significantly improved the yield. The final yields obtained from electrical measurements were 100% for hp 30 nm, 70% for hp 28 nm, and 40% for hp 26 nm. These results demonstrate EUV lithography to be a practical technology that is now suitable for 2x nm semiconductor manufacture.

  4. Ultraviolet 320 nm laser excitation for flow cytometry. (United States)

    Telford, William; Stickland, Lynn; Koschorreck, Marco


    Although multiple lasers and high-dimensional analysis capability are now standard on advanced flow cytometers, ultraviolet (UV) lasers (usually 325-365 nm) remain an uncommon excitation source for cytometry. This is primarily due to their cost, and the small number of applications that require this wavelength. The development of the Brilliant Ultraviolet (BUV fluorochromes, however, has increased the importance of this formerly niche excitation wavelength. Historically, UV excitation was usually provided by water-cooled argon- and krypton-ion lasers. Modern flow cytometers primary rely on diode pumped solid state lasers emitting at 355 nm. While useful for all UV-excited applications, DPSS UV lasers are still large by modern solid state laser standards, and remain very expensive. Smaller and cheaper near UV laser diodes (NUVLDs) emitting at 375 nm make adequate substitutes for 355 nm sources in many situations, but do not work as well with very short wavelength probes like the fluorescent calcium chelator indo-1. In this study, we evaluate a newly available UV 320 nm laser for flow cytometry. While shorter in wavelength that conventional UV lasers, 320 is close to the 325 nm helium-cadmium wavelength used in the past on early benchtop cytometers. A UV 320 nm laser was found to excite almost all Brilliant Ultraviolet dyes to nearly the same level as 355 nm sources. Both 320 nm and 355 nm sources worked equally well for Hoechst and DyeCycle Violet side population analysis of stem cells in mouse hematopoetic tissue. The shorter wavelength UV source also showed excellent excitation of indo-1, a probe that is not compatible with NUVLD 375 nm sources. In summary, a 320 nm laser module made a suitable substitute for conventional 355 nm sources. This laser technology is available in a smaller form factor than current 355 nm units, making it useful for small cytometers with space constraints. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International

  5. Measurements of Stokes parameters of materials at 1064-nm and 532-nm wavelengths (United States)

    Tan, Songxin; Narayanan, Ram M.; Kalshoven, James E., Jr.


    Laser radar systems have found wide applications in the field of remote sensing. Reflectance as well as polarization features are used together for applications ranging from environmental monitoring to target classification. The Stokes parameters are ideal quantities for characterizing the above features because they provide useful information on both light intensity and polarization state. The University of Nebraska is currently refurbishing an airborne multi-wavelength laser radar system based on the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) developed Airborne Laser Polarimetric Sensor (ALPS). The system uses a Nd:YAG laser operating at wavelengths of 1064 nm and 532 nm, and contains four channels at each wavelength to measure the polarization states. This system was used to measure the Stokes parameters of backscattered laser light from different materials. These included canvas tarp, white paper, plywood, concrete, aluminum plate and anodized aluminum plate. The data provide an understanding of the polarized scattering properties of various materials, and are expected to be useful in developing target discrimination algorithms.

  6. 9nm node wafer defect inspection using three-dimensional scanning, a 405nm diode laser, and a broadband source (United States)

    Zhou, Renjie; Edwards, Chris; Bryniarski, Casey A.; Popescu, Gabriel; Goddard, Lynford L.


    We recently built a 405nm laser based optical interferometry system for 9nm node patterned wafer defect inspection. Defects with volumes smaller than 15nm by 90nm by 35nm have been detected. The success of defect detection relied on accurate mechanical scanning of the wafer and custom engineered image denoising post-processing. To further improve the detection sensitivity, we designed a higher precision XYZ scanning stage and replaced the laser source with an incoherent LED to remove the speckle noise. With these system modifications, we successfully detected both defects and surface contamination particles in bright-field imaging mode. Recently, we have upgraded this system for interferometric defect inspection.

  7. Comparison between HMME mediated photodynamic therapy using 413nm and 532nm for port wine stains: a mathematical simulation study (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Gu, Y.; Chen, R.; Xu, L. Q.; Liao, X. H.; Huang, N. Y.; Wang, Y. Y.


    Introduction: As it is always difficult to find the optimal combination of photosensitizer and of laser wavelength to achieve selective vascular damage in PWS-PDT, the selective vascular effects of HMME (Hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether) mediated PDT with 413 nm and with 532 nm were compared by mathematical simulation in this study. Materials & Methods: Firstly, distribution of 413 nm, 532 nm light in PWS tissue was simulated by Monte Carlo model. Two energy density groups were set, one is 80mW/cm2x40min for both 413 nm and 532 nm, the other is 80mW/cm2x40min for 532 nm while 80mW/cm2x20min in for 413 nm. Secondly, the productivity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in target vessels and normal tissue were simulated using a simulation system for PDT of PWS established in our lab, which considering the amount of light and photosensitizer in tissue, the molar extinction coefficient of photosensitizer, and quantum yield of ROS. Concentration of HMME for each wavelength were same. Finally, the productivity of ROS n in target vessels and normal tissue were compared between 413 nm PDT and 532 nm PDT under different energy density. Result: Under the same energy density, ROS productivity in target vessels of 413 nm PDT was significantly higher than that of 532 nm PDT. Moreover, it was still higher at low energy density than that of 532nm PDT with high energy density. Conclusion: HMME mediated PDT using 413 nm has the potential to increase the selective vascular effect of PDT for PWS by shortening treatment time.

  8. Segmentation of the macular choroid in OCT images acquired at 830nm and 1060nm (United States)

    Lee, Sieun; Beg, Mirza F.; Sarunic, Marinko V.


    Retinal imaging with optical coherence tomography (OCT) has rapidly advanced in ophthalmic applications with the broad availability of Fourier domain (FD) technology in commercial systems. The high sensitivity afforded by FD-OCT has enabled imaging of the choroid, a layer of blood vessels serving the outer retina. Improved visualization of the choroid and the choroid-sclera boundary has been investigated using techniques such as enhanced depth imaging (EDI), and also with OCT systems operating in the 1060-nm wavelength range. We report on a comparison of imaging the macular choroid with commercial and prototype OCT systems, and present automated 3D segmentation of the choroid-scleral layer using a graph cut algorithm. The thickness of the choroid is an important measurement to investigate for possible correlation with severity, or possibly early diagnosis, of diseases such as age-related macular degeneration.

  9. 9nm node wafer defect inspection using visible light (United States)

    Zhou, Renjie; Edwards, Chris; Popescu, Gabriel; Goddard, Lynford L.


    Over the past 2 years, we have developed a common optical-path, 532 nm laser epi-illumination diffraction phase microscope (epi-DPM) and successfully applied it to detect different types of defects down to 20 by 100 nm in a 22nm node intentional defect array (IDA) wafer. An image post-processing method called 2DISC, using image frame 2nd order differential, image stitching, and convolution, was used to significantly improve sensitivity of the measured images. To address 9nm node IDA wafer inspection, we updated our system with a highly stable 405 nm diode laser. By using the 2DISC method, we detected parallel bridge defects in the 9nm node wafer. To further enhance detectability, we are exploring 3D wafer scanning, white-light illumination, and dark-field inspection.

  10. Generation of 35.5-nm coherent radiation. (United States)

    Bokor, J; Bucksbaum, P H; Freeman, R R


    Tunable coherent radiation was produced at 35.5 nm by seventh-harmonic conversion of 248-nm radiation from a krypton fluoride excimer laser. The nonlinear interaction took place at the intersection of the laser focus and a pulsed, supersonic helium gas jet. Third- and fifth-harmonic generation produced coherent outputs at 83 and 50 nm in both helium and xenon gas jets.

  11. Detection limits of 405 nm and 633 nm excited PpIX fluorescence for brain tumor detection during stereotactic biopsy (United States)

    Markwardt, Niklas; Götz, Marcus; Haj-Hosseini, Neda; Hollnburger, Bastian; Sroka, Ronald; Stepp, Herbert; Zelenkov, Petr; Rühm, Adrian


    5-aminolevulinic-acid-(5-ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence may be used to improve stereotactic brain tumor biopsies. In this study, the sensitivity of PpIX-based tumor detection has been investigated for two potential excitation wavelengths (405 nm, 633 nm). Using a 200 μm fiber in contact with semi-infinite optical phantoms containing ink and Lipovenös, PpIX detection limits of 4.0 nM and 200 nM (relating to 1 mW excitation power) were determined for 405 nm and 633 nm excitation, respectively. Hence, typical PpIX concentrations in glioblastomas of a few μM should be well detectable with both wavelengths. Additionally, blood layers of selected thicknesses were placed between fiber and phantom. Red excitation was shown to be considerably less affected by blood interference: A 50 μm blood layer, for instance, blocked the 405- nm-excited fluorescence completely, but reduced the 633-nm-excited signal by less than 50%. Ray tracing simulations demonstrated that - without blood layer - the sensitivity advantage of 405 nm rises for decreasing fluorescent volume from 50-fold to a maximum of 100-fold. However, at a tumor volume of 1 mm3, which is a typical biopsy sample size, the 633-nm-excited fluorescence signal is only reduced by about 10%. Further simulations revealed that with increasing fiber-tumor distance, the signal drops faster for 405 nm. This reduces the risk of detecting tumor tissue outside the needle's coverage, but diminishes the overlap between optically and mechanically sampled volumes. While 405 nm generally offers a higher sensitivity, 633 nm is more sensitive to distant tumors and considerably superior in case of blood-covered tumor tissue.

  12. Investigations of a Dual Seeded 1178 nm Raman Laser System (United States)


    constructed using slab1-3 or fiber laser technology4-15. Slab technology generally involves sum-frequency mixing of 1064 and 1319 nm in a lithium...triborate crystal to obtain 589 nm. Another way of achieving the desired output wavelength of 589 nm for sodium guidestar laser applications is through...been obtained from an ytterbium-doped photonic band gap fiber laser with a 320 kHz linewidth13. Finally, 85 W of single frequency (1 MHz) 1178 nm was

  13. 7nm logic optical lithography with OPC-Lite (United States)

    Smayling, Michael C.; Tsujita, Koichiro; Yaegashi, Hidetami; Axelrad, Valery; Nakayama, Ryo; Oyama, Kenichi; Yamauchi, Shohei; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Mikami, Koji


    The CMOS logic 22nm node was the last one done with single patterning. It used a highly regular layout style with Gridded Design Rules (GDR). Smaller nodes have required the same regular layout style but with multiple patterning for critical layers. A "line/cut" approach is being used to achieve good pattern fidelity and process margin.[1] As shown in Fig. 1, even with "line" patterns, pitch division will eventually be necessary. For the "cut" pattern, Design-Source-Mask Optimization (DSMO) has been demonstrated to be effective at the 20nm node and below.[2,3,4] Single patterning was found to be suitable down to 16nm, while double patterning extended optical lithography for cuts to the 10-12nm nodes. Design optimization avoided the need for triple patterning. Lines can be patterned with 193nm immersion with no complex OPC. The final line dimensions can be achieved by applying pitch division by two or four.[5] In this study, we extend the scaling using simplified OPC to the 7nm node for critical FEOL and BEOL layers. The test block is a reasonably complex logic function with ~100k gates of combinatorial logic and flip-flops, scaled from previous experiments. Simulation results show that for cuts at 7nm logic dimensions, the gate layer can be done with single patterning whose minimum pitch is 53nm, possibly some of the 1x metal layers can be done with double patterning whose minimum pitch is 53nm, and the contact layer will require triple patterning whose minimum pitch is 68nm. These pitches are less than the resolution limit of ArF NA=1.35 (72nm). However these patterns can be separated by a combination of innovative SMO for less than optical resolution limit and a process trick of hole-repair technique. An example of triple patterning coloring is shown in Fig 3. Fin and local interconnect are created by lines and trims. The number of trim patterns are 3 times (min. pitch=90nm) and twice (min. pitch=120nm), respectively. The small number of masks, large pitches, and

  14. First principles study on the interfacial properties of NM/graphdiyne (NM = Pd, Pt, Rh and Ir): The implications for NM growing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Zhansheng; Li, Shuo; Lv, Peng [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); He, Chaozheng, E-mail: [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang 473061 (China); Ma, Dongwei [School of Physics, Anyang Normal University, Anyang 455000 (China); Yang, Zongxian, E-mail: [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications, Kaifeng (China)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The NM adatoms belong to embedded adsorption in 18C-hexagon of GDY. • The Rh and Ir/GDY can be applied to single metal catalysts or sensors. • A simple linear relationship between E{sub e-ads} and E{sub b} is presented. • The linear relationship can be used in the noble metal modified GDY. - Abstract: Based on the dispersion-corrected density functional calculations (DFT-D), we systematically studied the adsorption of noble metals (NM), Pd, Pt, Rh and Ir, on graphdiyne (GDY). We present a systematic study on the geometry, embedded adsorption energy and electronic structure of four different adatoms adsorbed on the GDY. The strong interaction between the NM adatoms and the GDY substrate is found with the NM embedded in the 18C-hexagon of the GDY. We investigated the mobility of the NM adatoms on the GDY, and found that the mobility barrier energy increases along with the increasing of the embedded adsorption energy. We present the NM adatoms growth of high concentrations on the GDY. Upon the analysis of the electronic structure and the frontier molecular orbitals, Rh and Ir adatoms of low concentrations (about 1.37 at%) on the GDY have the potential to be applied as single metal catalysts or gas molecule sensors.

  15. A 1.5-W frequency doubled semiconductor disk laser tunable over 40 nm at around 745 nm (United States)

    Saarinen, Esa J.; Lyytikäinen, Jari; Ranta, Sanna; Rantamäki, Antti; Saarela, Antti; Sirbu, Alexei; Iakovlev, Vladimir; Kapon, Eli; Okhotnikov, Oleg G.


    We report on a semiconductor disk laser emitting 1.5 W of output power at the wavelength of 745 nm via intracavity frequency doubling. The high power level and the pumped with commercial low-cost 980 nm laser diode modules. Laser emission at 1490 nm was frequency-doubled with a bismuth borate crystal that was cut for type I critical phase matching. At the maximum output power, we achieved an optical-to-optical efficiency of 8.3% with beam quality parameter M2 below 1.5. The laser wavelength could be tuned with an intracavity birefringent plate from 720 to 764 nm.

  16. Evaluation of dental pulp repair using low level laser therapy (688 nm and 785 nm) morphologic study in capuchin monkeys (United States)

    Pretel, H.; Oliveira, J. A.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Ramalho, L. T. O.


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) 688 nm and 785 nm accelerate dentin barrier formation and repair process after traumatic pulp exposure. The sample consisted of 45 premolars of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) with pulp exposure Class V cavities. All premolars were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), divided in groups of 15 teeth each, and analyzed on 7th, 25th, and 60th day. Group GI - only Ca(OH)2, GII - laser 688 nm, and GIII - laser 785 nm. Laser beam was used in single and punctual dose with the parameters: continuous, 688 nm and 785 nm wavelength, tip's area of 0.00785 cm2, power 50 mW, application time 20 s, dose 255 J/cm2, energy 2 J. Teeth were capped with Ca(OH)2, Ca(OH)2 cement and restored with amalgam. All groups presented pulp repair. On 25th day the thickness of the formed dentin barrier was different between the groups GI and GII (p < 0.05) and between groups GI and GIII (p < 0.01). On 60th day there was difference between GI and GIII (p < 0.01). It may be concluded that, LLLT 688 nm and 785 nm accelerated dentin barrier formation and consequently pulp repair process, with best results using infrared laser 785 nm.

  17. On high speed transmission with the 850nm VCSELs (United States)

    Turkiewicz, Jarosław P.; Chorchos, Łukasz; Puerta Ramirez, Rafael; Vegas Olmos, Juan Jose; Ledentsov, Nikolay


    One of the key research challenges is development of energy efficient high bit rate data interconnects. The most promising solutions are based on 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) and multi mode fibre (MMF). In this paper options to realize energy efficient 850 nm data interconnects are discussed and evaluated.

  18. On high speed transmission with the 850 nm VCSELs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkiewicz, Jarosław P.; Chorchos, Łukasz; Puerta Ramírez, Rafael


    One of the key research challenges is development of energy efficient high bit rate data interconnects. The most promising solutions are based on 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) and multi mode fibre (MMF). In this paper options to realize energy efficient 850 nm data...

  19. A photonic crystal fiber with zero dispersion at 1064 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Andreas


    We report on the dispersion properties of a single mode, large core photonic crystal fiber. Using white light interferometry the fiber is found to have zero dispersion at 1064 nm......We report on the dispersion properties of a single mode, large core photonic crystal fiber. Using white light interferometry the fiber is found to have zero dispersion at 1064 nm...

  20. A New Solar Spectrum from 656 to 3088 nm (United States)

    Meftah, M.; Damé, L.; Bolsée, D.; Pereira, N.; Sluse, D.; Cessateur, G.; Irbah, A.; Sarkissian, A.; Djafer, D.; Hauchecorne, A.; Bekki, S.


    The solar spectrum is a key parameter for different scientific disciplines such as solar physics, climate research, and atmospheric physics. The SOLar SPECtrometer (SOLSPEC) instrument of the Solar Monitoring Observatory (SOLAR) payload onboard the International Space Station (ISS) has been built to measure the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) from 165 to 3088 nm with high accuracy. To cover the full wavelength range, three double-monochromators with concave gratings are used. We present here a thorough analysis of the data from the third channel/double-monochromator, which covers the spectral range between 656 and 3088 nm. A new reference solar spectrum is therefore obtained in this mainly infrared wavelength range (656 to 3088 nm); it uses an absolute preflight calibration performed with the blackbody of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). An improved correction of temperature effects is also applied to the measurements using in-flight housekeeping temperature data of the instrument. The new solar spectrum (SOLAR-IR) is in good agreement with the ATmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS 3) reference solar spectrum from 656 nm to about 1600 nm. However, above 1600 nm, it agrees better with solar reconstruction models than with spacecraft measurements. The new SOLAR/SOLSPEC measurement of solar spectral irradiance at about 1600 nm, corresponding to the minimum opacity of the solar photosphere, is 248.08 ± 4.98 mW m-2 nm-1 (1 σ), which is higher than recent ground-based evaluations.

  1. Development and application of UV excimer lamps from 354nm -126nm (United States)

    Boyd, Ian W.; Liaw, Irving I.


    The use of high intensity ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation generated from decaying excimer complexes through dielectric barrier discharge (silent discharges) sources for the purposes of surface processing and modification is reviewed. Such sources provide a singular dominant narrow-band emission at various wavelengths(λ) between 126 - 354 nm. The remarkable simplicity of supplying these sources and flexibility of their geometric configurations allow them to be coupled in parallel thus providing high photon fluxes over large areas. The monochromatic selectivity allows for application to process and chemical pathway specific tasks by simple variation of the discharge gas mixture. These sources are an interesting addition to and as an alternative to lasers for large scale industrial applications and their unique characterisitics have led to their use in a number of low-temperature material modification techniques, some of which are reviewed here. These include the photo-induced low-temperature formation of oxynitride layers, high-κ thin film layers and the post-deposition annealing of pulsed laser deposited (PLD) thin films.

  2. Applications of the 308-nm excimer laser in dermatology (United States)

    Farkas, A.; Kemeny, L.


    Excimer lasers contain a mixture of a noble inert gas and a halogen, which form excited dimers only in the activated state. High-energy current is used to produce these dimers, which have a very short lifetime, and after their fast dissociation they release the excitation energy through ultraviolet photons. The application of these lasers proved to be successful in medicine, including the field of ophthalmology, cardiology, angiology, dentistry, orthopaedics, and, in recent years, dermatology. For medical purposes, the 193-nm argon fluoride, the 248-nm krypton fluoride, the 351-nm xenon fluoride, and the 308-nm xenon chloride lasers are used. Recently, the 308-nm xenon chloride laser has gained much attention as a very effective treatment modality in dermatological disorders. It was successfully utilized in psoriasis; later, it proved to be useful in handling other lightsensitive skin disorders and even in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. This review summarizes the possible applications of this promising tool in dermatology.

  3. Picosecond laser texturization of mc-silicon for photovoltaics: A comparison between 1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm radiation wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binetti, Simona [Department of Materials Science and Milano-Bicocca Solar Energy Research Center (MIB-SOLAR), University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, 20125 Milano (Italy); Le Donne, Alessia, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Milano-Bicocca Solar Energy Research Center (MIB-SOLAR), University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, 20125 Milano (Italy); Rolfi, Andrea [Department of Materials Science and Milano-Bicocca Solar Energy Research Center (MIB-SOLAR), University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, 20125 Milano (Italy); Jäggi, Beat; Neuenschwander, Beat [Bern University of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Information Technology, Institute for Applied Laser, Photonics and Surface Technologies ALPS, Pestalozzistrasse 20, CH-3400 Burgdorf (Switzerland); Busto, Chiara [ENI Spa, Via Giacomo Fauser, 4, 28100 Novara (Italy); Frigeri, Cesare [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco Area Delle Scienze 37/A, Fontanini, 43010 Parma (Italy); Scorticati, Davide; Longoni, Luca; Pellegrino, Sergio [Laserpoint Srl, Via Della Burrona 51, 20090 Vimodrone, Milano (Italy)


    Highlights: • Self-organized surface structures were produced by picosecond laser pulses on mc-Si. • Three laser wavelengths were used which effectively reduce Si reflectivity up to 8%. • The subsurface damage induced by the three lasers was studied in detail. • μ-Raman, PL and TEM proved that UV laser provides the lowest subsurface damage. • UV laser induced damage is located above the depletion region of the p–n junction. - Abstract: Self-organized surface structures were produced by picosecond laser pulses on multi-crystalline silicon for photovoltaic applications. Three different laser wavelengths were employed (i.e. 1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm) and the resulting morphologies were observed to effectively reduce the reflectivity of the samples after laser irradiation. Besides, a comparative study of the laser induced subsurface damage generated by the three different wavelengths was performed by confocal micro-Raman, photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy. The results of both the structural and optical characterization showed that the mc-Si texturing performed with the laser at 355 nm provides surface reflectivity between 11% and 8% over the spectral range from 400 nm to 1 μm, while inducing the lowest subsurface damage, located above the depletion region of the p–n junction.

  4. VUV radiometry below 100 nm: the high-power hydrogen arc as a standard source of continuum radiation between 53 nm and 92 nm. (United States)

    Behringer, K; Thoma, P


    A stationary hydrogen arc discharge may be used as a standard source of radiation in the VUV below 100 nm. The Lyman resonance continuum is used, the cross sections of which are theoretically well known. The method described is based on optically thin radiation, requiring high plasma temperatures and an effective helium gas separation in the arc. The investigations demonstrate that, in appropriate experimental conditions, the plasma is indeed transparent down to the onset of the He ground-state absorption. Above that, the VUV spectral radiance can be predicted within less than 15% uncertainty from conventional plasma diagnostics. For a first application, the He continuum has been measured between 65 nm and 92 nm. The consistency of these results with theoretical calculations confirms the validity of the concept presented.

  5. Development of 2-channel (532 nm and 355 nm) mobile LIDAR for mapping particulate matter in the atmosphere

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V


    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors describe the developmentof 2-Channel (532 nm and 355 nm) mobile LIDAR system for studying atmospheric particulate matter. The system is currently tested in house at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research...

  6. On the photochemistry of IONO2: absorption cross section (240-370 nm) and photolysis product yields at 248 nm. (United States)

    Joseph, D M; Ashworth, S H; Plane, J M C


    The absolute absorption cross section of IONO(2) was measured by the pulsed photolysis at 193 nm of a NO(2)/CF(3)I mixture, followed by time-resolved Fourier transform spectroscopy in the near-UV. The resulting cross section at a temperature of 296 K over the wavelength range from 240 to 370 nm is given by log(10)(sigma(IONO(2))/cm(2) molecule(-1)) = 170.4 - 3.773 lambda + 2.965 x 10(-2)lambda(2)- 1.139 x 10(-4)lambda(3) + 2.144 x 10(-7)lambda(4)- 1.587 x 10(-10)lambda(5), where lambda is in nm; the cross section, with 2sigma uncertainty, ranges from (6.5 +/- 1.9) x 10(-18) cm(2) at 240 nm to (5 +/- 3) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 350 nm, and is significantly lower than a previous measurement [J. C. Mössinger, D. M. Rowley and R. A. Cox, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2002, 2, 227]. The photolysis quantum yields for IO and NO(3) production at 248 nm were measured using laser induced fluorescence of IO at 445 nm, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy of NO(3) at 662 nm, yielding phi(IO) iodine oxides, but the formation and subsequent photolysis of IONO(2) is very inefficient as an ozone-depleting cycle.

  7. Mighty high-T lithography for 65-nm generation contacts (United States)

    Conley, Will; Montgomery, Patrick K.; Lucas, Kevin; Litt, Lloyd C.; Maltabes, John G.; Dieu, Laurent; Hughes, Gregory P.; Mellenthin, David L.; Socha, Robert J.; Fanucchi, Eric L.; Verhappen, Arjan; Wampler, Kurt E.; Yu, Linda; Schaefer, Erika; Cassel, Shawn; Kuijten, Jan P.; Pijnenburg, Wil; Wiaux, Vincent; Vandenberghe, Geert


    Contact patterning for the 65nm device generation will be an exceedingly difficult task. The 2001 SIA roadmap lists the targeted contact size as 90nm with +/-10% CD control requirements of +/-9nm. Defectivity levels must also be below one failure per billion contacts for acceptable device yield. Difficulties in contact patterning are driven by the low depth of focus of isolated contacts and/or the high mask error (MEF) for dense contact arrays (in combination with expected reticle CD errors). Traditional contact lithography methods are not able to mitigate both these difficulties simultaneously. Inlaid metal trench patterning for the 65nm generation has similar lithographic difficulties though not to the extreme degree as seen with contacts. This study included the use of multiple, high transmission, 193nm attenuated phase shifting mask varieties to meet the difficult challenges of 65nm contact and trench lithography. Numerous illumination schemes, mask biasing, optical proximity correction (OPC), mask manufacturing techniques, and mask blank substrate materials were investigated. The analysis criteria included depth of focus, exposure latitude and MEF through pitch, reticle inspection, reticle manufacturability, and cost of ownership. The investigation determined that certain high transmission reticle schemes are strong contenders for 65nm generation contact and trench patterning. However, a number of strong interactions between illumination, OPC, and reticle manufacturing issues need to be considered.

  8. Kinetics and polymorphs of yeast prion Sup35NM amyloidogenesis. (United States)

    Kinoshita, Misaki; Lin, Yuxi; Nakatsuji, Masatoshi; Inui, Takashi; Lee, Young-Ho


    Amyloidogenic proteins often form many types of aggregates, which are a critical determinant of cytotoxicity and tissue specificity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of distinct amyloids and their influence on cells remain largely unknown. We herein investigated the polymorphic amyloid formation of the yeast prion protein, Sup35NM, an intrinsically disordered N-terminal fragment of Sup35, under various conditions and its potential relationship to cytotoxicity. Sup35NM aggregated to amyloid fibrils with distinct kinetics, structures, morphologies, tinctorial properties, and conformational stabilities depending on the concentration of NaCl, pH, and temperature, indicating the polymorphic amyloidogenesis of Sup35NM. Detailed kinetic analyses of Sup35NM amyloid formation revealed a strong inverse correlation between the lag time and elongation rate without a correlation between kinetic and structural parameters. These results suggest that kinetic polymorphisms due to distinct nucleation and elongation rates result in structural polymorphs of amyloid fibrils, and also that conditions that enhance or inhibit the nucleation of Sup35NM promote or delay fibril growth. The deleterious effects of polymorphic Sup35NM amyloid fibrils on membrane integrity and cell vitality were minimal. We hypothesize that the innocuous polymorphic nature of Sup35NM amyloid fibrils may be beneficial for gaining time for prion infection prior to cell death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. EUV reticle inspection with a 193nm reticle inspector (United States)

    Broadbent, William; Inderhees, Gregg; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Lee, Isaac; Lim, Phillip


    The prevailing industry opinion is that EUV Lithography (EUVL) will enter High Volume Manufacturing (HVM) in the 2015 - 2017 timeframe at the 16nm HP node. Every year the industry assesses the key risk factors for introducing EUVL into HVM - blank and reticle defects are among the top items. To reduce EUV blank and reticle defect levels, high sensitivity inspection is needed. To address this EUV inspection need, KLA-Tencor first developed EUV blank inspection and EUV reticle inspection capability for their 193nm wavelength reticle inspection system - the Teron 610 Series (2010). This system has become the industry standard for 22nm / 3xhp optical reticle HVM along with 14nm / 2xhp optical pilot production; it is further widely used for EUV blank and reticle inspection in R and D. To prepare for the upcoming 10nm / 1xhp generation, KLA-Tencor has developed the Teron 630 Series reticle inspection system which includes many technical advances; these advances can be applied to both EUV and optical reticles. The advanced capabilities are described in this paper with application to EUV die-to-database and die-to-die inspection for currently available 14nm / 2xhp generation EUV reticles. As 10nm / 1xhp generation optical and EUV reticles become available later in 2013, the system will be tested to identify areas for further improvement with the goal to be ready for pilot lines in early 2015.

  10. Fluorescence Imaging In Vivo up to 1700 nm

    CERN Document Server

    Diao, Shuo; Hong, Guosong; Antaris, Alexander L; Chang, Junlei; Wu, Justin Z; Zhang, Bo; Kuo, Calvin J; Dai, Hongjie


    Compared to visible and near-infrared regions below ~ 900 nm, imaging in the second near-infrared window beyond 1000 nm (NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) is promising for deep-tissue high-resolution optical imaging in vivo owing to reduced scattering of photons traversing through tissues. Here, we succeeded fluorescence imaging in vivo in the long 1500-1700 nm (NIR-IIb) region using a novel, chemical separation enriched large-diameter semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube material. Imaging in the 1500-1700 nm window resolved 3-4 um wide capillary blood vessels at ~ 3 millimeters depth through the intact body and brain of mice with the ability of blood-flow speed mapping in individual capillary vessels. Further, non-invasive single fluorophore imaging inside the tumor of a live mouse was achieved in the 1500-1700 nm window. NIR-IIb imaging can be generalized to a wide range of fluorophores emitting up to 1700 nm for a new paradigm of high performance in vivo optical imaging.

  11. 80 nm tunable DBR-free semiconductor disk laser (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Albrecht, A. R.; Cederberg, J. G.; Sheik-Bahae, M.


    We report a widely tunable optically pumped distributed Bragg reflector (DBR)-free semiconductor disk laser with 6 W continuous wave output power near 1055 nm when using a 2% output coupler. Using only high reflecting mirrors, the lasing wavelength is centered at 1034 nm and can be tuned up to a record 80 nm by using a birefringent filter. We attribute such wide tunability to the unique broad effective gain bandwidth of DBR-free semiconductor disk lasers achieved by eliminating the active mirror geometry.

  12. Tapered diode laser pumped 946 nm Nd:YAG laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael


    We successfully implemented a 946 nm Nd:YAG laser based on a 808 nm tapered diode pump laser. The tapered diode is developed at the Ferdinand-Braun-Institute fur Hochstfrequenztechnik in Germany. Figure 2 shows the experimental setup and results of each pump source coupled into a 1.5 mm crystal...... laser, we show that tapered diode laser pumping potentially increase the power of 946 nm lasers by a factor of two and reduce the threshold by a factor of three....

  13. Efficient laser operation of Nd3+:Lu2O3 at various wavelengths between 917 nm and 1463 nm (United States)

    von Brunn, P.; Heuer, A. M.; Fornasiero, L.; Huber, G.; Kränkel, C.


    Even though the first Nd3+-doped sesquioxide lasers have been realized more than 50 years ago, up to now no reports on efficient laser operation of Nd3+:doped sesquioxides can be found. In this work, we review the favorable spectroscopic properties of the sesquioxide Nd3+:Lu2O3 in terms of ground state absorption, stimulated emission, and excited state absorption cross sections as well as the upper level lifetime. Making use of these properties, we achieved efficient laser performance on eight different laser transitions in the wavelength range between 917 nm and 1463 nm under Ti:sapphire laser pumping using state-of-the-art HEM-grown Nd3+:Lu2O3 crystals with good optical quality. At the strongest transition around 1076 nm we determined a slope efficiency of 69%, which represents the highest efficiency ever obtained for a Nd3+-doped sesquioxide. Furthermore, we could generate watt level output powers and high slope efficiencies for seven other transitions. Lasers at 917 nm, 1053 nm, 1108 nm and 1463 nm were realized for the first time and the latter represents one of the longest laser wavelengths obtained on the 4F3/2  →  4I13/2 transition in Nd3+-doped materials.

  14. Compact 2050 nm Semiconductor Diode Laser Master Oscillator Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I effort seeks to develop DFB laser master oscillators at the novel wavelength of 12050 nm. Two prototypes will be built, tested, and delivered ....

  15. EST Table: NM_001177325 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001177325 rcd1 10/09/29 100 %/294 aa ref|NP_001170796.1| cell differentiation protein RCD...15.1| PREDICTED: similar to cell differentiation protein rcd1 [Tribolium castaneum] FS909406 ...

  16. RadNet Air Data From Navajo Lake, NM (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Navajo Lake, NM from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  17. Space-Qualified 1064 nm Seed and Metrology Laser Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A space-qualified, single-frequency oscillator operating at 1064 nm is a critical component for a number of active optical measurement systems that have been...

  18. 1300-nm gain obtained with dysprosium-doped chloride crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, R.H.; Schaffers, K.I.; Beach, R.J.; Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.


    Dy{sup 3+} - doped chloride crystals have high 1300-nm emission quantum yields. Pump - probe experiments on La Cl{sub 3}:Dy{sup 3+} demonstrate optical gain consistent with predictions based on spectroscopic cross sections and lifetimes.

  19. EST Table: NM_001126235 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001126235 Tra2 10/09/29 76 %/156 aa ref|NP_001119705.1| transformer 2 isoform A ...[Bombyx mori] gb|AAT42220.2| transformer-2 protein A [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 65 %/101 aa FBpp0236157||189240798|ref|XP_968550.2| PREDICTED: similar to transformer-2 protein A [Tribolium castaneum] NM_001126237 ...

  20. EST Table: NM_001126236 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001126236 Tra2 10/09/29 57 %/289 aa ref|NP_001119708.1| transformer 2 isoform D ...[Bombyx mori] gb|AAX47002.1| transformer-2 protein D [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 65 %/101 aa FBpp0236157||189240798|ref|XP_968550.2| PREDICTED: similar to transformer-2 protein A [Tribolium castaneum] NM_001126237 ...

  1. EST Table: NM_001126234 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001126234 Tra2 10/09/29 76 %/156 aa ref|NP_001119705.1| transformer 2 isoform A ...[Bombyx mori] gb|AAT42220.2| transformer-2 protein A [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 65 %/101 aa FBpp0236157||189240798|ref|XP_968550.2| PREDICTED: similar to transformer-2 protein A [Tribolium castaneum] NM_001126237 ...

  2. EST Table: NM_001126233 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001126233 Tra2 10/09/29 60 %/266 aa ref|NP_001119705.1| transformer 2 isoform A ...[Bombyx mori] gb|AAT42220.2| transformer-2 protein A [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 65 %/101 aa FBpp0236157||189240798|ref|XP_968550.2| PREDICTED: similar to transformer-2 protein A [Tribolium castaneum] NM_001126237 ...

  3. Highly Stable PM Raman Fiber Laser at 1680 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Liu, Xiaomin; Rottwitt, Karsten


    We demonstrate thermal stabilization of a Raman fiber laser. At 1680 nm the laser emission exceeds 500 mW with a power variation below 0.5 %, both linewidth and wavelength variations are under 1 pm.......We demonstrate thermal stabilization of a Raman fiber laser. At 1680 nm the laser emission exceeds 500 mW with a power variation below 0.5 %, both linewidth and wavelength variations are under 1 pm....

  4. Cascaded Soliton Compression of Energetic Femtosecond Pulses at 1030 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Zhou, Binbin


    We discuss soliton compression with cascaded second-harmonic generation of energetic femtosecond pulses at 1030 nm. We discuss problems encountered with soliton compression of long pulses and show that sub-10 fs compressed pulses can be achieved.......We discuss soliton compression with cascaded second-harmonic generation of energetic femtosecond pulses at 1030 nm. We discuss problems encountered with soliton compression of long pulses and show that sub-10 fs compressed pulses can be achieved....

  5. Diode-pumped 1123-nm Nd:YAG laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping Guo(郭晓萍); Meng Chen(陈檬); Gang Li(李港); Bingyuan zhang(张炳元); Jiandong Yang(杨建东); Zhigang Zhang(张志刚); Yonggang Wang(王勇刚)


    We demonstrated a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser with a plano-concave resonator. When the pump power is 1.57 W, the output power of 1123-nm laser is 132 mW at the temperature of 20 ℃, and the power change is less than 2% in an hour. A periodically poled LiNbOa (PPLN) was used as outer cavity frequency-doubling crystal and 561-nm laser was observed.

  6. Picosecond holmium fibre laser pumped at 1125 \\ {\\text{nm}} (United States)

    Kamynin, V. A.; Filatova, S. A.; Zhluktova, I. V.; Tsvetkov, V. B.


    We report a passively mode-locked, all-fibre holmium laser based on nonlinear polarisation rotation. As a pump source use is made of an 1125-{\\text{nm}} ytterbium-doped fibre laser. The pulse repetition rate of the holmium laser is 7.5 {\\text{MHz}}, and the pulse duration does not exceed 52 {\\text{ps}} at wavelengths of 2065 and 2080 {\\text{nm}}. The average laser output power reaches 5 {\\text{mW}}.

  7. 670-nm light treatment reduces complement propagation following retinal degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutar Matt


    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Complement activation is associated with the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. We aimed to investigate whether 670-nm light treatment reduces the propagation of complement in a light-induced model of atrophic AMD. Methods Sprague–Dawley (SD rats were pretreated with 9 J/cm2 670-nm light for 3 minutes daily over 5 days; other animals were sham treated. Animals were exposed to white light (1,000 lux for 24 h, after which animals were kept in dim light (5 lux for 7 days. Expression of complement genes was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, and immunohistochemistry. Counts were made of C3-expressing monocytes/microglia using in situ hybridization. Photoreceptor death was also assessed using outer nuclear layer (ONL thickness measurements, and oxidative stress using immunohistochemistry for 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE. Results Following light damage, retinas pretreated with 670-nm light had reduced immunoreactivity for the oxidative damage maker 4-HNE in the ONL and outer segments, compared to controls. In conjunction, there was significant reduction in retinal expression of complement genes C1s, C2, C3, C4b, C3aR1, and C5r1 following 670 nm treatment. In situ hybridization, coupled with immunoreactivity for the marker ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA1, revealed that C3 is expressed by infiltrating microglia/monocytes in subretinal space following light damage, which were significantly reduced in number after 670 nm treatment. Additionally, immunohistochemistry for C3 revealed a decrease in C3 deposition in the ONL following 670 nm treatment. Conclusions Our data indicate that 670-nm light pretreatment reduces lipid peroxidation and complement propagation in the degenerating retina. These findings have relevance to the cellular events of complement activation underling the pathogenesis of AMD, and highlight the potential of 670-nm light as a non-invasive anti-inflammatory therapy.

  8. Electron beam inspection methods for imprint lithography at 32 nm (United States)

    Selinidis, Kosta; Thompson, Ecron; Sreenivasan, S. V.; Resnick, Douglas J.


    Step and Flash Imprint Lithography redefines nanoimprinting. This novel technique involves the field-by-field deposition and exposure of a low viscosity resist deposited by jetting technology onto the substrate. The patterned mask is lowered into the fluid which then quickly flows into the relief patterns in the mask by capillary action. Following this filling step, the resist is crosslinked under UV radiation, and then the mask is removed leaving a patterned solid on the substrate. Compatibility with existing CMOS processes requires a mask infrastructure in which resolution, inspection and repair are all addressed. The purpose of this paper is to understand the limitations of inspection at half pitches of 32 nm and below. A 32 nm programmed defect mask was fabricated. Patterns included in the mask consisted of an SRAM Metal 1 cell, dense lines, and dense arrays of pillars. Programmed defect sizes started at 4 nm and increased to 48 nm in increments of 4 nm. Defects in both the mask and imprinted wafers were characterized scanning electron microscopy and the measured defect areas were calculated. These defects were then inspected using a KLA-T eS35 electron beam wafer inspection system. Defect sizes as small as 12 nm were detected, and detection limits were found to be a function of defect type.

  9. Predicting lithography costs: guidance for <= 32 nm patterning solutions (United States)

    Hazelton, Andrew J.; Wüest, Andrea; Hughes, Greg; Lercel, Michael


    Extending lithography to 32 nm and 22 nm half pitch requires the introduction of new lithography technologies, such as EUVL or high-index immersion, or new techniques, such as double patterning. All of these techniques introduce large changes into the single exposure immersion lithography process as used for the 45 nm half pitch node. Therefore, cost per wafer is a concern. In this paper, total patterning costs are estimated for the 32 nm and 22 nm half pitch nodes through the application of cost-of-ownership models based on the tool, mask, and process costs. For all cases, the cost of patterning at 32 nm half pitch for critical layers will be more expensive than in prior generations. Mask costs are observed to be a significant component of lithography costs even up to a mask usage of 10,000 wafers/mask in most cases. The more simple structure of EUVL masks reduces the mask cost component and results in EUVL being the most cost-effective patterning solution under the assumptions of high throughput and good mask blank defect density.

  10. 750 nm 1.5 W frequency-doubled semiconductor disk laser with a 44 nm tuning range. (United States)

    Saarinen, Esa J; Lyytikäinen, Jari; Ranta, Sanna; Rantamäki, Antti; Sirbu, Alexei; Iakovlev, Vladimir; Kapon, Eli; Okhotnikov, Oleg G


    We demonstrate 1.5 W of output power at the wavelength of 750 nm by intracavity frequency doubling a wafer-fused semiconductor disk laser diode-pumped at 980 nm. An optical-to-optical efficiency of 8.3% was achieved using a bismuth borate crystal. The wavelength of the doubled emission could be tuned from 720 to 764 nm with an intracavity birefringent plate. The beam quality parameter M2 of the laser output was measured to be below 1.5 at all pump powers. The laser is a promising tool for biomedical applications that can take advantage of the large penetration depth of light in tissue in the 700-800 nm spectral range.

  11. Characteristics of THz Emission from GaAs Crystal Excited by 400 nm and 800 nm Optical Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu-Ping; XU Xin-Long; YAN Wei; WANG Li


    @@ THz emission spectroscopy is used to study the generation mechanism dependent behaviour of terahertz (THz) electromagnetic waves from the GaAs crystal under excitation by 400 nm and 800 nm femtosecond (fs) pulses,respectively. The wavelength dependence of the emission spectrum under two types of THz generation mechanisms is analysed. Under the optical rectification mechanism, a slight enhancement of the spectral amplitude in the high-frequency regime is observed in a GaAs(110) crystal by the excitation of a 400-nm optical pulse compared with that of 800nm. Whereas an obvious red shift of the amplitude spectrum occurs in the GaAs(100) sample under the transient photoconduction mechanism. These phenomena are explained in detail by the duration of the optical pump pulse and the band structure of GaAs, respectively.

  12. Imaging performance and challenges of 10nm and 7nm logic nodes with 0.33 NA EUV (United States)

    van Setten, Eelco; Schiffelers, Guido; Psara, Eleni; Oorschot, Dorothe; Davydova, Natalia; Finders, Jo; Depre, Laurent; Farys, Vincent


    The NXE:3300B is ASML's third generation EUV system and has an NA of 0.33 and is positioned at a resolution of 22nm, which can be extended down to 18nm and below with off-axis illumination at full transmission. Multiple systems have been qualified and installed at customers. The NXE:3300B succeeds the NXE:3100 system (NA of 0.25), which has allowed customers to gain valuable EUV experience. It is expected that EUV will be adopted first for critical Logic layers at 10nm and 7nm nodes, such as Metal-1, to avoid the complexity of triple patterning schemes using ArF immersion. In this paper we will evaluate the imaging performance of (sub-)10nm node Logic M1 on the NXE:3300B EUV scanner. We will show the line-end performance of tip-to-tip and tip-to-space test features for various pitches and illumination settings and the performance enhancement obtained by means of a 1st round of OPC. We will also show the magnitude of local variations. The Logic M1 cell is evaluated at various critical features to identify hot spots. A 2nd round OPC model was calibrated of which we will show the model accuracy and ability to predict hot spots in the Logic M1 cell. The calibrated OPC model is used to predict the expected performance at 7nm node Logic using off-axis illumination at 16nm minimum half pitch. Initial results of L/S exposed on the NXE:3300B at 7nm node resolutions will be shown. An outlook is given to future 0.33 NA systems on the ASML roadmap with enhanced illuminator capabilities to further improve performance and process window.

  13. Considerations for fine hole patterning for the 7nm node (United States)

    Yaegashi, Hidetami; Oyama, Kenichi; Hara, Arisa; Natori, Sakurako; Yamauchi, Shohei; Yamato, Masatoshi; Koike, Kyohei


    One of the practical candidates to produce 7nm node logic devices is to use the multiple patterning with 193-immersion exposure. For the multiple patterning, it is important to evaluate the relation between the number of mask layer and the minimum pitch systematically to judge the device manufacturability. Although the number of the time of patterning, namely LE(Litho-Etch) ^ x-time, and overlay steps have to be reduced, there are some challenges in miniaturization of hole size below 20nm. Various process fluctuations on contact hole have a direct impact on device performance. According to the technical trend, 12nm diameter hole on 30nm-pitch hole will be needed on 7nm node. Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUV) and Directed self-assembly (DSA) are attracting considerable attention to obtain small feature size pattern, however, 193-immersion still has the potential to extend optical lithography cost-effectively for sub-7nm node. The objective of this work is to study the process variation challenges and resolution in post-processing for the CD-bias control to meet sub-20nm diameter contact hole. Another pattern modulation is also demonstrated during post-processing step for hole shrink. With the realization that pattern fidelity and pattern placement management will limit scaling long before devices and interconnects fail to perform intrinsically, the talk will also outline how circle edge roughness (CER) and Local-CD uniformity can correct efficiency. On the other hand, 1D Gridded-Design-Rules layout (1D layout) has simple rectangular shapes. Also, we have demonstrated CD-bias modification on short trench pattern to cut grating line for its fabrication.

  14. Optical coherence tomography based imaging of dental demineralisation and cavity restoration in 840 nm and 1310 nm wavelength regions (United States)

    Damodaran, Vani; Rao, Suresh Ranga; Vasa, Nilesh J.


    In this paper, a study of in-house built optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with a wavelength of 840 nm for imaging of dental caries, progress in demineralisation and cavity restoration is presented. The caries when imaged with the 840 nm OCT system showed minute demineralisation in the order of 5 μm. The OCT system was also proposed to study the growth of lesion and this was demonstrated by artificially inducing caries with a demineralisation solution of pH 4.8. The progress of carious lesion to a depth of about 50-60 μm after 60 hours of demineralisation was clearly observed with the 840 nm OCT system. The tooth samples were subjected to accelerated demineralisation condition at pH of approximately 2.3 to study the adverse effects and the onset of cavity formation was clearly observed. The restoration of cavity was also studied by employing different restorative materials (filled and unfilled). In the case of restoration without filler material (unfilled), the restoration boundaries were clearly observed. Overall, results were comparable with that of the widely used 1310 nm OCT system. In the case of restoration with filler material, the 1310 nm OCT imaging displayed better imaging capacity due to lower scattering than 840 nm imaging.

  15. Research of the Additional Losses Occurring in Optical Fiber at its Multiple Bends in the Range Waves 1310nm, 1550nm and 1625nm Long (United States)

    Yurchenko, A. V.; Gorlov, N. I.; Alkina, A. D.; Mekhtiev, A. D.; Kovtun, A. A.


    Article is devoted to research of the additional losses occurring in the optical fiber at its multiple bends in the range waves of 1310 nanometers, 1550 nanometers and 1625 nanometers long. Article is directed on creation of the external factors methods which allow to estimate and eliminate negative influence. The automated way of calculation of losses at a bend is developed. Results of scientific researches are used by engineers of “Kazaktelekom” AS for practical definition of losses service conditions. For modeling the Wolfram|Alpha environment — the knowledge base and a set of computing algorithms was chosen. The greatest losses are noted on wavelength 1310nm and 1625nm. All dependences are nonlinear. Losses with each following excess are multiplicative.

  16. Observation of Quiet Limb in He I 1083.0 nm, H Paschen alpha1281.8 nm and H Brackett gamma 2166.1 nm lines (United States)

    Prasad Choudhary, Debi


    In this paper, we shall present the results of an observational study of the quiet solar limb in the near infrared lines using the New IR Array Camera (NAC) and the vertical spectrograph at the focal plane of McMath-Pierce telescope. The NAC, at the exit port of the spectrograph, was used to record the limb spectrum in HeI 1083.0 nm, Hydrogen Paschen 1281.8 nm and Brackett 2165.5 nm wavelength regions. The NAC is a 1024x1024 InSb Alladin III Detector operating over 1-5 micron range with high density sampling at 0.018 arc second/pixel. The all-reflective optical train minimizes number of surfaces and eliminates ghosts leading to low scatter, ghost-free optics. The close-cycle cryogenic provides a stable cooling environment over six hour period with an accuracy of 0.01K leading to low dark current. The low read out noise combined with low scattered light and dark current makes NAC an ideal detector for making high quality infrared spectral observations of solar limb. The limb spectrums were obtained by placing the spectrograph slit perpendicular to the limb at an interval of 10 degrees around the solar disk. We shall report the intensity profile, line-of-sight velocity and line width distribution around the sun derived from the spectra along the slit.

  17. Atmospheric sub-3 nm particles at high altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mirme


    Full Text Available Formation of new atmospheric aerosol particles is known to occur almost all over the world and the importance of these particles to climate and air quality has been recognized. Recently, it was found that atmospheric aerosol particle formation begins at the diameter of around 1.5–2.0 nm and a pool of sub-3 nm atmospheric particles – consisting of both charged and uncharged ones – was observed at the ground level. Here, we report on the first airborne observations of the pool of sub-3 nm neutral atmospheric particles. Between 2 and 3 nm, their concentration is roughly two orders of magnitude larger than that of the ion clusters, depending slightly on the altitude. Our findings indicate that new particle formation takes place throughout the tropospheric column up to the tropopause. Particles were found to be formed via neutral pathways in the boundary layer, and there was no sign of an increasing role by ion-induced nucleation toward the upper troposphere. Clouds, while acting as a source of sub-10 nm ions, did not perturb the overall budget of atmospheric clusters or particles.

  18. Atmospheric sub-3 nm particles at high altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mirme


    Full Text Available Formation of new atmospheric aerosol particles is known to occur almost all over the world and the importance of these particles to climate and air quality has been recognized. Recently, it was found that atmospheric aerosol formation begins at particle diameter of around 1.5–2.0 nm and a pool of sub-3 nm atmospheric particles – consisting of both charged and uncharged ones – was observed at the ground level. Here, we report on the first airborne observations of the pool of sub-3 nm neutral atmospheric particles. Between 2 and 3 nm, their concentration is roughly two orders of magnitude larger than that of the ion clusters, depending slightly on the altitude. Our findings indicate that new particle formation takes place actively throughout the tropospheric column up to the tropopause. Particles were found to be formed via neutral pathways in the boundary layer, and there was no sign of an increasing role by ion-induced nucleation toward the upper troposphere. Clouds, while acting as a source of sub-10 nm ions, did not perturb the overall budget of atmospheric clusters or particles.

  19. Switching Properties of sub-100 nm Perpendicular Magnetic Tunnel Junctions (United States)

    Tryputen, Larysa; Piotrowski, Stephan; Bapna, Mukund; Chien, Chia-Ling; Wang, Weigang; Majetich, Sara; Ross, Caroline


    Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) have great potential for realizing high-density non-volatile memory and logic devices. It is critical to solve scalability problem to implement such devices, to achieve low resistance area and to reduce switching current density while maintaining thermal stability. We present our recent results on fabrication of high resolution Ta/CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB/Ta p-MTJ devices and characterization of their switching properties as well as topography and current mapping by using nanoscale Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy. Our patterning method is based on using hydrogen silsesquioxane resist mask combined with ion beam etching. It allows to fabricate p-MTJ devices down to 40 nm in diameter while maintaining the magnetic quality of the multilayers. Repeatable, consistent switching behaviour has been observed in the obtained p-MTJ devices of 500 nm down to 40 nm with 10 - 800 mV voltage applied. Switching field increased as device diameter decreased, from 580 Oe at 500 nm (MR = 10%) to 410 Oe at 80 nm (MR = 9%). We discuss the effect of device sizes on the switching properties. This work was supported in part by C-SPIN, one of the six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation Program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA and in part through the National Science Foundation through NCN-Needs Program, Contract 12207020-EEC.

  20. Ultraviolet photodissociation of 1-bromopropane at 234 and 267 nm (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Wang, Yanmei; Tang, Bifeng; Zheng, Qiusha; Zhang, Bing


    The photodissociation of 1-bromopropane was investigated at 234 and 267 nm utilizing ion velocity imaging method. Both the speed and angular distributions of Br*( 2P 1/2) and Br( 2P 3/2) fragments were determined. β(Br) = 0.77 ± 0.07 and β(Br*)= 1.68 ± 0.06 at 234 nm; β(Br) = 0.38 ± 0.02 and β(Br*) = 1.33 ± 0.09 at 267 nm were observed. The total translational energy distributions were single Gaussian distribution and interpreted using soft or rigid implusive mode at different wavelength, respectively. The experiment also shows that Br is dominant in the dissociation and originates mostly from 3A', while Br* corresponds to 4A' ← 3A' coupling.

  1. High Reflectivity of Silver Extended Down to 200 NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, N L; Wolfe, J D


    Silver has the highest reflectance of all of the metals, but it tarnishes in the presence of sulfides, chlorides, and oxides in the atmosphere. Also, the silver reflectance is very low at wavelengths below 400 nm making aluminum more desirable mirror coating for the W region. We have found a way to prevent silver tarnishing by sandwiching the silver layer between two thin layers of NiCrN{sub x}, and to extend the metal's high reflectance down to 200 nm by depositing the (thin) Ag layer on top of Al. Thus, the uv is transmitted through the thin Ag layer below 400 nm wavelength, and is reflected from the A1 layer underneath. This W-shifted durable coating provides a valuable alternative to the aluminum coating for telescope mirror coatings where collection efficiency is an important consideration.

  2. Challenges of 22 nm and beyond CMOS technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ru; WU HanMing; KANG JinFeng; XIAO DeYuan; SHI XueLong; AN Xia; TIAN Yu; WANG RunSheng; ZHANG LiangLiang; ZHANG Xing; WANG YangYuan


    It is predicted that CMOS technology will probably enter Into 22 nm node around 2012.Scaling of CMOS logic technology from 32 to 22 nm node meets more critical Issues and needs some significant changes of the technology,as well as integration of the advanced processes.This paper will review the key processing technologies which can be potentially integrated into 22 nm and beyond technology nodes,including double patterning technology with high NA water immersion lithography and EUV lithography,new device architectures,high K/metal gate (HK/MG) stack and integration technology,mobility enhancement technologies,source/drain engineering and advanced copper interconnect technology with ultra-low-k process.

  3. Photoluminescence of single colour defects in 50nm diamond nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treussart, F. [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire, UMR 8537 du CNRS, ENS Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan cedex (France)]. E-mail:; Jacques, V. [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire, UMR 8537 du CNRS, ENS Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan cedex (France); Wu, E. [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire, UMR 8537 du CNRS, ENS Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan cedex (France); Gacoin, T. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, UMR 7643 du CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau cedex (France); Grangier, P. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique, UMR 8501 du CNRS, BP 147, 91403 Orsay cedex (France); Roch, J.-F. [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire, UMR 8537 du CNRS, ENS Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan cedex (France)


    We used optical confocal microscopy to study optical properties of diamond 50nm nanocrystals first irradiated with an electron beam, then dispersed as a colloidal solution and finally deposited on a silica slide. At room temperature, under CW laser excitation at a wavelength of 514.5nm we observed perfectly photostable single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) colour defects embedded in the nanocrystals. From the zero-phonon line around 575nm in the spectrum of emitted light, we infer a neutral NV{sup 0} type of defect. Such nanoparticle with intrinsic fluorescence are highly promising for applications in biology where long-term emitting fluorescent bio-compatible nanoprobes are still missing.

  4. 30 Gbps bottom-emitting 1060 nm VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatarczak, Anna; Zheng, Y.; Rodes, G. A.


    1060 nm VCSEL-based data transmission over 50 m OM3 MMF at 30 Gbit/s is experimentally demonstrated. A highly-strained bottom-emitting QW VCSEL with p-type modulation doping is used with 3.77 mA bias and 0.55 V data amplitude.......1060 nm VCSEL-based data transmission over 50 m OM3 MMF at 30 Gbit/s is experimentally demonstrated. A highly-strained bottom-emitting QW VCSEL with p-type modulation doping is used with 3.77 mA bias and 0.55 V data amplitude....

  5. Epitaxy and Characteristics of Resonant Cavity LEDs at 650 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Yuzhu; Li Jianjun; Ding Liang; Yang Zhen; Han Jun; Deng Jun; Zou Deshu; Shen Guangdi


    Resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes (RCLED) at 650 nm wavelength were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. In order to improve the interface quality and reduce the device voltage, an AlGaInP material system has been chosen to grow the top DBRs. The emission properties of the RCLED were characterized by measuring PL and EL spectra. The average emission power of the device is 0.5 mW at 20 mA and 2.2 V, and its spectrum full width at half maximum is about 10 nm.

  6. Injection molding of high aspect ratio sub-100 nm nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria; Larsen, Niels B


    with FDTS. Reduced adhesion forces are consistent with lowered friction that reduces the risk of fracturing the nanoscopic pillars during demolding. Optimized mold surface chemistry and associated injection molding conditions permitted the fabrication of square arrays of 40 nm wide and 107 nm high (aspect......We have explored the use of mold coatings and optimized processing conditions to injection mold high aspect ratio nanostructures (height-to-width >1) in cyclic olefin copolymer (COC). Optimizing the molding parameters on uncoated nickel molds resulted in slight improvements in replication quality...

  7. 785nm dual-wavelength Y-branch DBR-RW diode laser with electrically adjustable wavelength distance between 0 nm and 2 nm (United States)

    Sumpf, Bernd; Kabitzke, Julia; Fricke, Jörg; Ressel, Peter; Müller, André; Maiwald, Martin; Tränkle, Günther


    Shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy is a powerful tool to separate the weak Raman lines from disturbing background light like fluorescence, day light or artificial light. When exciting the sample alternatingly with two slightly shifted wavelengths, the Raman lines follow the change whereas the background remains unchanged. Therefore, background free Raman spectra can be obtained measuring the two Raman spectra, subtracting the two signals and applying a reconstruction algorithm. When the spectral distance between the two wavelengths is the width of the Raman lines under study best signal-to-noise ratios can be achieved. In this work, monolithic dual wavelength Y-branch DBR ridge waveguide diode lasers with resistor heaters over the DBR gratings will be presented. The devices have a total length of 3 mm and a RW stripe width of 2.2 μm. The wavelengths are defined and stabilized using 500 μm long 10th order gratings with a designed spectral distance of 0.62 nm. Using the resistor heaters, this distance can be adjusted. The monolithic devices reach optical output powers up to 180 mW. Over the full range, they operate in single mode. The emission width is smaller than 13 pm (FWHM). At an output power of 50 mW the conversion efficiency is 0.22, which only slightly decreases down to 0.18 at maximal power. At an output power of 100 mW and with heater currents smaller than 600 mA, the spectral distance can be tuned from 0 nm up to 2 nm. The spectra remain single mode.

  8. High power, continuous-wave, single frequency fiber amplifier at 1091 nm and frequency doubling to 545.5 nm

    CERN Document Server

    Stappel, M; Kolbe, D; Walz, J


    We present a high power single-frequency ytterbium fiber amplifier system with an output power of 30 W at 1091 nm. The amplifier system consists of two stages, a preamplifier stage in which amplified spontaneous emission is efficiently suppressed (>40 dB) and a high power amplifier with an efficiency of 52 %. Two different approaches of frequency doubling are compared. We achieve 8.6 W at 545.5 nm by single-pass frequency doubling in a MgO-doped periodically poled stoichiometric LiTaO3 and up to 19.3 W at 545.5 nm by frequency doubling with a lithium-triborate (LBO) crystal in an external enhancement cavity.

  9. Low-noise design issues for analog front-end electronics in 130 nm and 90 nm CMOS technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Manghisoni, M; Re, V; Speziali, V; Traversi, G


    Deep sub-micron CMOS technologies provide wellestablished solutions to the implementation of low-noise front-end electronics in various detector applications. The IC designers’ effort is presently shifting to 130 nm CMOS technologies, or even to the next technology node, to implement readout integrated circuits for silicon strip and pixel detectors, in view of future HEP applications. In this work the results of noise measurements carried out on CMOS devices in 130 nm and 90 nm commercial processes are presented. The behavior of the 1/f and white noise terms is studied as a function of the device polarity and of the gate length and width. The study is focused on low current density applications where devices are biased in weak or moderate inversion. Data obtained from the measurements provide a powerful tool to establish design criteria in nanoscale CMOS processes for detector front-ends in LHC upgrades.

  10. On-chip measurements of Brownian relaxation of magnetic beads with diameters from 10 nm to 250 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt


    We demonstrate the use of planar Hall effect magnetoresistive sensors for AC susceptibility measurements of magnetic beads with frequencies ranging from DC to 1 MHz. This wide frequency range allows for measuring Brownian relaxation of magnetic beads with diameters ranging from 10 nm to 250 nm...... to sedimentation, magnetic trapping, and signal per bead. Among the investigated beads, we conclude that the beads with a nominal diameter of 80 nm are best suited for future on-chip volume-based biosensing experiments using planar Hall effect sensors........ Brownian relaxation is measured for six different magnetic bead types and their hydrodynamic diameters are determined. The hydrodynamic diameters are found to be within 40% of the nominal bead diameters. We discuss the applicability of the different bead types for volume-based biosensing with respect...

  11. Characterization of single 1.8-nm Au nanoparticle attachments on AFM tips for single sub-4-nm object pickup. (United States)

    Cheng, Hui-Wen; Chang, Yuan-Chih; Tang, Song-Nien; Yuan, Chi-Tsu; Tang, Jau; Tseng, Fan-Gang


    This paper presents a novel method for the attachment of a 1.8-nm Au nanoparticle (Au-NP) to the tip of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe through the application of a current-limited bias voltage. The resulting probe is capable of picking up individual objects at the sub-4-nm scale. We also discuss the mechanisms involved in the attachment of the Au-NP to the very apex of an AFM probe tip. The Au-NP-modified AFM tips were used to pick up individual 4-nm quantum dots (QDs) using a chemically functionalized method. Single QD blinking was reduced considerably on the Au-NP-modified AFM tip. The resulting AFM tips present an excellent platform for the manipulation of single protein molecules in the study of single protein-protein interactions.

  12. InGaN light emitting diodes for 415 nm-520 nm spectral range by plasma assisted MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szankowska, M.L.; Smalc-Koziorowska, J.; Cywinski, G.; Grzanka, S.; Grzegory, I.; Lucznik, B. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-142 Warszawa (Poland); Feduniewicz-Zmuda, A. [TopGaN Ltd, ul Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warszawa (Poland); Wasilewski, Z.R. [Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council, Ottawa (Canada); Porowski, S.; Skierbiszewski, C. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-142 Warszawa (Poland); TopGaN Ltd, ul Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warszawa (Poland); Siekacz, M


    In this work we study the growth of the Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) by Plasma Assisted MBE (PAMBE). The active LEDs region was grown to cover the spectral range spanning from 415 nm to 520 nm. We demonstrate efficient LEDs with the highest optical power output of 1.5 mW and 20 mA for 415 nm. For longer wavelengths we observe a drop of the optical power. The reduction of the quantum efficiency for green emission can be related to the presence of strong built-in piezoelectric fields or increased number of nonradiative recombination centers. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. First results from simultaneous 527 nm and 351 nm probe beam interactions in a long scalelength plasma (United States)

    Moody, J. D.; MacKinnon, A.; Glenzer, S. H.; Froula, D.; Gregori, G.; Berger, R. L.; Campbell, K.; Divol, L.; Dixit, S.; Suter, L. J.; Williams, E. A.; Bahr, R.; Seka, W.


    We investigate the stimulated Raman and Brillouin backscattered light from simultaneous 527 nm and 351 nm probe beams incident on a long scalelength ignition-like plasma. These experiments are important for both determining backscattering physics mechanisms and for evaluating laser power loss expected in planned ignition experiments. The plasma is formed using 18 kJ of 351 nm light from the Omega laser in a 1 ns pulse incident on a gas-filled balloon target. The two probe beams, which are delayed 0.5 ns relative to the plasma forming beams, are separated by 42^rc, have vacuum intensity of CO2 plasma. We describe the experimental results and simulations using the LASNEX hydrodynamic code and the pF3D laser-plasma wave propagation code. Work performed under the auspicies of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract number W--7405--ENG--48.

  14. Imaging challenges in 20nm and 14nm logic nodes: hot spots performance in Metal1 layer (United States)

    Timoshkov, V.; Rio, D.; Liu, H.; Gillijns, W.; Wang, J.; Wong, P.; Van Den Heuvel, D.; Wiaux, V.; Nikolsky, P.; Finders, J.


    The 20nm Metal1 layer, based on ARM standard cells, has a 2D design with minimum pitch of 64nm. This 2D design requires a Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch (LELE) double patterning. The whole design is divided in 2 splits: Me1A and Me1B. But solution of splitting conflicts needs stitching at some locations, what requires good Critical Dimension (CD) and overlay control to provide reliable contact between 2 stitched line ends. ASML Immersion NXT tools are aimed at 20 and 14nm logic production nodes. Focus control requirements become tighter, as existing 20nm production logic layouts, based on ARM, have about 50-60nm focus latitude and tight CD Uniformity (CDU) specifications, especially for line ends. IMEC inspected 20nm production Metal1 ARM standard cells with a Negative Tone Development (NTD) process using the Process Window Qualification-like technique experimentally and by Brion Tachyon LMC by simulations. Stronger defects were found thru process variations. A calibrated Tachyon model proved a good overall predictability capability for this process. Selected defects are likely to be transferred to hard mask during etch. Further, CDU inspection was performed for these critical features. Hot spots showed worse CD uniformity than specifications. Intra-field CDU contribution is significant in overall CDU budget, where reticle has major impact due to high MEEF of hot spots. Tip-to-Tip and tip-to-line hot spots have high MEEF and its variation over the field. Best focus variation range was determined by best focus offsets between hot spots and its variation within the field.

  15. Red (660 nm) or near-infrared (810 nm) photobiomodulation stimulates, while blue (415 nm), green (540 nm) light inhibits proliferation in human adipose-derived stem cells. (United States)

    Wang, Yuguang; Huang, Ying-Ying; Wang, Yong; Lyu, Peijun; Hamblin, Michael R


    We previously showed that blue (415 nm) and green (540 nm) wavelengths were more effective in stimulating osteoblast differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC), compared to red (660 nm) and near-infrared (NIR, 810 nm). Intracellular calcium was higher after blue/green, and could be inhibited by the ion channel blocker, capsazepine. In the present study we asked what was the effect of these four wavelengths on proliferation of the hASC? When cultured in proliferation medium there was a clear difference between blue/green which inhibited proliferation and red/NIR which stimulated proliferation, all at 3 J/cm(2). Blue/green reduced cellular ATP, while red/NIR increased ATP in a biphasic manner. Blue/green produced a bigger increase in intracellular calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Blue/green reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and lowered intracellular pH, while red/NIR had the opposite effect. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel was expressed in hADSC, and the TRPV1 ligand capsaicin (5uM) stimulated proliferation, which could be abrogated by capsazepine. The inhibition of proliferation caused by blue/green could also be abrogated by capsazepine, and by the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine. The data suggest that blue/green light inhibits proliferation by activating TRPV1, and increasing calcium and ROS.

  16. EST Table: NM_001170997 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001170997 BLOS2 10/09/29 91 %/145 aa ref|NP_001164468.1| biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles... complex 1 subunit 2 [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAI63077.1| biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles

  17. EST Table: NM_001043844 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001043844 VG 10/09/29 97 %/1782 aa ref|NP_001037309.1| vitellogenin precursor [B...: Precursor dbj|BAA02444.1| vitellogenin precursor [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAA06397.1| vitellogenin [Bombyx mori

  18. EST Table: NM_001043517 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001043517 Cycb 10/09/29 89 %/700 aa ref|NP_001036982.1| Cycle like factor b [Bom...byx mori] dbj|BAB91178.1| Cycle like factor BmCyc b [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 52 %/387 aa FBpp0114038|DanaGF108

  19. EST Table: NM_001130897 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001130897 CCAP 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/29 100 %/103 aa ref|NP_001124369.1| crustacean... cardioactive peptide [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAG50376.1| crustacean cardioactive peptide [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 l

  20. Optically pumped 1550nm wavelength tunable MEMS VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahoo, Hitesh Kumar; Ansbæk, Thor; Ottaviano, Luisa


    The paper presents the design and fabrication of an optically pumped 1550nm tunable MEMS VCSEL with anenclosed MEMS. The MEMS is defined in SOI and the active material, an InP wafer with quantum wells arebonded to the SOI and the last mirror is made from the deposition of dielectric materials...

  1. EST Table: NM_001043468 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001043468 Mf-cpa 10/09/29 91 %/479 aa ref|NP_001036933.1| molting fluid carboxyp...eptidase A [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAD60916.1| molting fluid carboxypeptidase A [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 50 %/393 aa

  2. EST Table: NM_001044201 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001044201 Tert 10/09/29 100 %/703 aa ref|NP_001037666.1| telomerase reverse tran...scriptase [Bombyx mori] gb|ABC95023.1| telomerase reverse transcriptase [Bombyx mori] gb|ABF56516.1| telomerase reverse

  3. EST Table: NM_001142927 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001142927 Kynu 10/09/29 100 %/426 aa ref|NP_001136399.1| kynureninase [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAH03383.1| kynur...eninase [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 n.h 10/08/29 32 %/432 aa C15H9.7#CE06835#WBGene00015802#kynure

  4. EST Table: NM_001112748 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001112748 Cyp314a1 10/09/29 95 %/516 aa ref|NP_001106219.1| ecdysone 20-hydroxyl...ase [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAE45332.1| ecdysone 20-hydroxylase [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 48 %/475 aa FBpp0206947|Dse

  5. Photodegradation of perfluorooctanoic acid by 185 nm vacuum ultraviolet light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jing; ZHANG Peng-yi; LIU Jian


    The photodegradation of persistent and bioaccumulative perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in water by 185 nm vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light was examined to develop an effective technology to deal with PFOA pollution. PFOA degraded very slowly under irradiation of 254 nm UV light. However, 61.7% of initial PFOA was degraded by 185 nm VUV light within 2 h, and defluorination ratio reached 17.1%. Pseudo first-order-kinetics well simulated its degradation and defluorination. Besides, fluoride ion formed in water, 4 shorter-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), that is, perfluoroheptanoic acid, perfluorohexanoic acid, perfluoropentanoic acid, and perfluorobutanoic acid. These were identified as intermediates by LC-MS measurement. These PFCAs consecutively formed and further degraded with irradiation time. According to the mass balance calculation, no other byproducts were formed. It was proposed that PFCAs initially are decarboxylated by 185 nm light, and the radical thus formed reacts with water to form shorter-chain PFCA with one less CF2 unit.

  6. EST Table: NM_001099846 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001099846 LOC100101223 10/09/29 87 %/371 aa ref|NP_001093316.1| adiponectin rece...ptor [Bombyx mori] gb|ABK57116.2| adiponectin receptor [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 75 %/318 aa FBpp0171941|DmojGI

  7. EST Table: NM_001043951 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001043951 Ash1 10/09/29 86 %/188 aa ref|NP_001037416.1| achaete-scute-like [Bombyx mori] gb|ABC84346.1| achaete-scute-like protein [Bombyx mori] gb|ABC84347.1| achaete-scute-like p

  8. EST Table: NM_001105226 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001105226 Ase 10/09/29 93 %/404 aa ref|NP_001098696.1| achaete-scute-like protei...n ASE [Bombyx mori] gb|ABR20841.1| achaete-scute-like protein ASE [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 low homology 10/08/

  9. FDML swept source at 1060 nm using a tapered amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschall, Sebastian; Klein, Thomas; Wieser, Wolfgang;


    in this wavelength range. We demonstrate that a tapered amplifier can be integrated into a fiber-based swept source and allows for high-speed FDML operation. The developed light source operates at a sweep rate of 116kHz with an effective average output power in excess of 30mW. With a total sweep range of 70 nm...

  10. 78 FR 67210 - Santa Clara Pueblo Disaster #NM-00038 (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION Santa Clara Pueblo Disaster NM-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice...: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement... of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite...

  11. Benchmarking of 50 nm features in thermal nanoimprint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gourgon, C.; Chaix, N.; Schift, H.;


    The objective of this benchmarking is to establish a comparison of several tools and processes used in thermal NIL with Si stamps at the nanoscale among the authors' laboratories. The Si stamps have large arrays of 50 nm dense lines and were imprinted in all these laboratories in a similar to 100...

  12. EST Table: NM_001046878 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001046878 LOC732875 10/09/29 100 %/169 aa ref|NP_001040343.1| peripheral-type benzodiazepine... receptor [Bombyx mori] gb|ABF51223.1| peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor [Bombyx mori] 10/

  13. Direct visualization of fluid dynamics in sub-10 nm nanochannels. (United States)

    Li, Huawei; Zhong, Junjie; Pang, Yuanjie; Zandavi, Seyed Hadi; Persad, Aaron Harrinarine; Xu, Yi; Mostowfi, Farshid; Sinton, David


    Optical microscopy is the most direct method to probe fluid dynamics at small scales. However, contrast between fluid phases vanishes at ∼10 nm lengthscales, limiting direct optical interrogation to larger systems. Here, we present a method for direct, high-contrast and label-free visualization of fluid dynamics in sub-10 nm channels, and apply this method to study capillary filling dynamics at this scale. The direct visualization of confined fluid dynamics in 8-nm high channels is achieved with a conventional bright-field optical microscope by inserting a layer of a high-refractive-index material, silicon nitride (Si3N4), between the substrate and the nanochannel, and the height of which is accurately controlled down to a few nanometers by a SiO2 spacer layer. The Si3N4 layer exhibits a strong Fabry-Perot resonance in reflection, providing a sharp contrast between ultrathin liquid and gas phases. In addition, the Si3N4 layer enables robust anodic bonding without nanochannel collapse. With this method, we demonstrate the validity of the classical Lucas-Washburn equation for capillary filling in the sub-10 nm regime, in contrast to the previous studies, for both polar and nonpolar liquids, and for aqueous salt solutions.

  14. 78 FR 66982 - Santa Clara Pueblo Disaster #NM-00039 (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION Santa Clara Pueblo Disaster NM-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... for the Santa Clara Pueblo (FEMA- 4151-DR), dated 10/29/2013. Incident: Severe Storms and Flooding... disaster: Primary Areas: Santa Clara Pueblo. The Interest Rates are: Percent For Physical Damage:...

  15. EST Table: NM_001046937 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001046937 LOC732938 10/09/29 100 %/220 aa ref|NP_001040402.1| preimplantation pr...otein [Bombyx mori] gb|ABF51322.1| preimplantation protein [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 79 %/222 aa FBpp0234606|Dv

  16. 77 FR 41874 - New Mexico Disaster #NM-00025 (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION New Mexico Disaster NM-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of New Mexico dated 07/09/2012. Incident: Little Bear Fire. Incident Period: 06/04/2012 and continuing. Effective Date:...

  17. 77 FR 47907 - New Mexico Disaster #NM-00025 (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION New Mexico Disaster NM-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of NEW MEXICO, dated 07/09/2012. Incident: Little Bear Fire. Incident Period: 06/04/2012 through 07/30/2012....

  18. EST Table: NM_001043366 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001043366 Sap-r 10/09/29 98 %/961 aa ref|NP_001036831.1| saposin-related [Bombyx... gnl|Amel|GB16561-PA 10/09/10 42 %/808 aa gi|91077504|ref|XP_966852.1| PREDICTED: similar to saposin isoform 1 [Tribolium castaneum] FS791050 ...

  19. EST Table: NM_001043377 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available moting Protein [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 30 %/136 aa FBpp0237404|DvirGJ22987-PA 10/08/...NM_001043377 Pp 10/09/29 92 %/154 aa ref|NP_001036842.1| promoting protein [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAA89306.1| Pro

  20. EST Table: NM_001046656 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001046656 LOC692809 11/12/09 10/09/29 80 %/293 aa ref|NP_001040121.1| endothelial-monocyte... activating polypeptide II [Bombyx mori] gb|ABD36113.1| endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptid

  1. A novel double patterning approach for 30nm dense holes (United States)

    Hsu, Dennis Shu-Hao; Wang, Walter; Hsieh, Wei-Hsien; Huang, Chun-Yen; Wu, Wen-Bin; Shih, Chiang-Lin; Shih, Steven


    Double Patterning Technology (DPT) was commonly accepted as the major workhorse beyond water immersion lithography for sub-38nm half-pitch line patterning before the EUV production. For dense hole patterning, classical DPT employs self-aligned spacer deposition and uses the intersection of horizontal and vertical lines to define the desired hole patterns. However, the increase in manufacturing cost and process complexity is tremendous. Several innovative approaches have been proposed and experimented to address the manufacturing and technical challenges. A novel process of double patterned pillars combined image reverse will be proposed for the realization of low cost dense holes in 30nm node DRAM. The nature of pillar formation lithography provides much better optical contrast compared to the counterpart hole patterning with similar CD requirements. By the utilization of a reliable freezing process, double patterned pillars can be readily implemented. A novel image reverse process at the last stage defines the hole patterns with high fidelity. In this paper, several freezing processes for the construction of the double patterned pillars were tested and compared, and 30nm double patterning pillars were demonstrated successfully. A variety of different image reverse processes will be investigated and discussed for their pros and cons. An economic approach with the optimized lithography performance will be proposed for the application of 30nm DRAM node.

  2. EST Table: NM_001172720 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001172720 cact 10/09/29 95 %/326 aa ref|NP_001166191.1| cactus [Bombyx mori] dbj...10/09/10 39 %/197 aa gnl|Amel|GB10655-PA 10/09/10 35 %/291 aa gi|270016252|gb|EFA12698.1| cactus [Tribolium castaneum] AV404402 ...

  3. EST Table: NM_001047011 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001047011 LOC733016 10/09/29 100 %/184 aa ref|NP_001040476.1| muscular protein 2...0 [Bombyx mori] gb|ABF51467.1| muscular protein 20 [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 77 %/184 aa FBpp0235584|DvirGJ2116

  4. 77 FR 62481 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Crownpoint, NM (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Crownpoint, NM AGENCY: Federal Communications....415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal...

  5. Conjugated 12 nm long oligomers as molecular wires in nanoelectronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar; Strobel, Sebastian; Bundgaard, Eva


    We demonstrate a generic synthetic approach to oligophenylenevinylene (OPV) derivative molecules with a molecular length of up to 12 nm and a relatively free choice of end group that can attach to different electrodes such as metallic gold or potentially transition metal oxide semiconductors. OPVs...

  6. EST Table: NM_001046698 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001046698 LOC692853 10/09/29 93 %/269 aa ref|NP_001040163.1| ischemia/reperfusio...n inducible protein [Bombyx mori] gb|ABD36179.1| ischemia/reperfusion inducible protein [Bombyx mori] 10/09/

  7. Trends and challenges in VLSI technology scaling towards 100 nm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusu, S.; Sachdev, M.; Svensson, C.; Nauta, Bram

    Summary form only given. Moore's Law drives VLSI technology to continuous increases in transistor densities and higher clock frequencies. This tutorial will review the trends in VLSI technology scaling in the last few years and discuss the challenges facing process and circuit engineers in the 100nm

  8. Extreme magnetic anisotropy and multiple superconducting transition signatures in a [Nb(23 nm)/Ni(5 nm)] 5 multilayer (United States)

    De Long, L. E.; Kryukov, S. A.; Joshi, Amish G.; Xu, Wentao; Bosomtwi, A.; Kirby, B. J.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.


    We have applied polarized neutron reflectometry, and novel SQUID and vibrating reed magnetometry to probe a [Nb(23 nm)/Ni(5 nm)]5 multilayer (ML) whose superconducting state magnetic anisotropy is dominated by confined (in-plane) supercurrents in DC magnetic fields, H, applied nearly parallel to the ML plane. The upper critical field exhibits abrupt shifts (0.1-0.6 K) in near-parallel fields, but is field-independent for μ0H < 0.8 T when the ML is exactly aligned with the DC field, indicating suppression of orbital pairbreaking and the possible presence of unconventional superconducting pairing states.

  9. Direct writing of 150 nm gratings and squares on ZnO crystal in water by using 800 nm femtosecond laser. (United States)

    Liu, Jukun; Jia, Tianqing; Zhou, Kan; Feng, Donghai; Zhang, Shian; Zhang, Hongxin; Jia, Xin; Sun, Zhenrong; Qiu, Jianrong


    We present a controllable fabrication of nanogratings and nanosquares on the surface of ZnO crystal in water based on femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). The formation of nanogrooves depends on both laser fluence and writing speed. A single groove with width less than 40 nm and double grooves with distance of 150 nm have been produced by manipulating 800 nm femtosecond laser fluence. Nanogratings with period of 150 nm, 300 nm and 1000 nm, and nanosquares with dimensions of 150 × 150 nm2 were fabricated by using this direct femtosecond laser writing technique.

  10. Cryogenic Lifetime Studies of 130 nm and 65 nm CMOS Technologies for High-Energy Physics Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, James R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Deptuch, G. W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wu, Guoying [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Gui, Ping [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)


    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility intends to use unprecedented volumes of liquid argon to fill a time projection chamber in an underground facility. Research is under way to place the electronics inside the cryostat. For reasons of efficiency and economics, the lifetimes of these circuits must be well in excess of 20 years. The principle mechanism for lifetime degradation of MOSFET devices and circuits operating at cryogenic temperatures is hot carrier degradation. Choosing a process technology that is, as much as possible, immune to such degradation and developing design techniques to avoid exposure to such damage are the goals. This, then, requires careful investigation and a basic understanding of the mechanisms that underlie hot carrier degradation and the secondary effects they cause in circuits. In this work, commercially available 130 nm and 65 nm nMOS transistors operating at cryogenic temperatures are investigated. Our results show that both technologies achieve the lifetimes required by the experiment. Minimal design changes are necessary in the case of the 130 nm process and no changes whatsoever are necessary for the 65 nm process.

  11. Study of drain-extended NMOS under electrostatic discharge stress in 28 nm and 40 nm CMOS process (United States)

    Wang, Weihuai; Jin, Hao; Dong, Shurong; Zhong, Lei; Han, Yan


    Researches on the electrostatic discharge (ESD) performance of drain-extended NMOS (DeNMOS) under the state-of-the-art 28 nm and 40 nm bulk CMOS process are performed in this paper. Three distinguishing phases of avalanche breakdown stage, depletion region push-out stage and parasitic NPN turn on stage of the gate-grounded DeNMOS (GG-DeNMOS) fabricated under 28 nm CMOS process measured with transmission line pulsing (TLP) test are analyzed through TCAD simulations and tape-out silicon verification detailedly. Damage mechanisms and failure spots of GG-DeNMOS under both CMOS processes are thermal breakdown of drain junction. Improvements based on the basic structure adjustments can increase the GG-DeNMOS robustness from original 2.87 mA/μm to the highest 5.41 mA/μm. Under 40 nm process, parameter adjustments based on the basic structure have no significant benefits on the robustness improvements. By inserting P+ segments in the N+ implantation of drain or an entire P+ strip between the N+ implantation of drain and polysilicon gate to form the typical DeMOS-SCR (silicon-controlled rectifier) structure, the ESD robustness can be enhanced from 1.83 mA/μm to 8.79 mA/μm and 29.78 mA/μm, respectively.

  12. Design and simulation of 1310 nm and 1480 nm single-mode photonic crystal fiber Raman lasers. (United States)

    Varshney, S K; Sasaki, K; Saitoh, K; Koshiba, M


    We have numerically investigated the Raman lasing characteristics of a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (HNPCF). HNPCF Raman lasers are designed to deliver outputs at 1.3 microm and 1.48 microm wavelengths through three and six cascades of Raman Stokes cavities when the pumps of 1117 nm and 1064 nm are injected into HNPCF module, respectively. A quantum efficiency of approximately 47% was achieved in a short length of HNPCF for 1.3 microm lasing wavelength. The HNPCF design is modified further to operate in single-mode fashion keeping intact its Raman lasing characteristics. The modified HNPCF design consists of two air-hole rings where the higher-order modes in the central core are suppressed by enhancing their leakage losses drastically, thus ceasing their propagation in the short length of HNPCF. On the other hand, the fundamental mode is well confined to the central core region, unaffecting its lasing performances. Further, the lasing characteristics of HNPCF at 1480 nm are compared with conventional highly nonlinear fiber Raman laser operating at 1480 nm. It is found that one can reduce the fiber length by five times in case of HNPCF with nearly similar conversion efficiency.

  13. Pattern generation requirements for mask making beyond 130 nm (United States)

    Abboud, Frank E.; Gesley, Mark A.; Maldonado, Juan R.


    It is commonly accepted in the semiconductor industry that optical lithography will be the most cost-effective solution for 150 nm and 130 nm device generations. Some selected layers at the 130 nm device generation may be produced using electron-beam direct-write or x-ray during the development phase. However, for the production phase, it is expected that 193 nm optical lithography with reticle enhancement techniques such as optical proximity correction (OPC) and phase shift masks (PSM) will be the technology of choice. What about post 193 nm. The range of solutions is more diverse and a clear winner has not yet emerged. The topic, however, is becoming more visible and has taken a prominent place in technical conferences in the past year. The five leading potential alternatives to optical lithography are proximity x-ray, e-beam projection (EBP), extended UV (EUV), ion projection lithography (IPL), and e-beam direct write. The search for the right answer will most likely continue for a few years, and possibly more than one alternative will emerge as an effective solution at and below 100 nm. All of the alternatives, with the exception of e-beam direct write, have one thing in common, the mask. Except for proximity x- ray, all solutions at present envision a 4x reduction of the mask-to-wafer image plane. Instead of chrome-coated quartz, a silicon wafer substrate is used. Aside from patterning, mask fabrication varies depending on the lithography absorbing substrate, and EUV requires a reflective multilayer stack. Most key lithography requirements needed to pattern the imaging layer are common to all of the candidates, at least for the reduction methods. For x-ray lithography, the requirements are significantly more stringent but at a smaller field. This paper will consolidate the requirements of the various types of masks from a pattern generation point of view and will focus on the pattern generation tool requirements to meet those mask requirements. In addition, it

  14. Lasering in a Waveguide with Scatterers in Diameter 20 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chun-Xu; LIU Jun-Ye; ZHANG Jia-Hua; DOU Kai


    We report random lasing achieved in a MEH-PPV/glass waveguide with the TiO2 scatterers in diameter 20nm that is significantly smaller than submicrometre of TiO2 scatterers in the films or suspensions previously reported on random lasing. The spectral lines are dramatically narrowed by almost two orders of magnitude compared with those excited by a xenon lamp. The amplified spontaneous emission is identified as the dominant mechanism in our system. Light localization might be achieved in a broad class of random materials based on the features of the mean free path l* = 5.4 × 105 nm, kl* > 1 and the Thouless number 6.73 × 10-5 with k being the wave number.

  15. Magnetic Behavior of Surface Nanostructured 50-nm Nickel Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Prashant


    Full Text Available Abstract Thermally evaporated 50-nm nickel thin films coated on borosilicate glass substrates were nanostructured by excimer laser (0.5 J/cm2, single shot, DC electric field (up to 2 kV/cm and trench-template assisted technique. Nanoparticle arrays (anisotropic growth features have been observed to form in the direction of electric field for DC electric field treatment case and ruptured thin film (isotropic growth features growth for excimer laser treatment case. For trench-template assisted technique; nanowires (70–150 nm diameters have grown along the length of trench template. Coercive field and saturation magnetization are observed to be strongly dependent on nanostructuring techniques.

  16. EST Table: NM_001173375 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001173375 EcR 10/09/29 89 %/591 aa ref|NP_001166846.1| ecdysone receptor isoform... B1 [Bombyx mori] sp|P49881.1|ECR_BOMMO RecName: Full=Ecdysone receptor; AltName: Full=Ecdysteroid receptor;... AltName: Full=20-hydroxy-ecdysone receptor; Short=20E receptor; AltName: Full=EcRH; AltName: Full=Nuclear r...eceptor subfamily 1 group H member 1 gb|AAA87341.1| 20-hydroxy-ecdysone receptor ...57 %/420 aa gi|270014267|gb|EFA10715.1| ecdysone receptor isoform B [Tribolium castaneum] NM_001043866 ...

  17. A deep-UV optical frequency comb at 205 nm. (United States)

    Peters, E; Diddams, S A; Fendel, P; Reinhardt, S; Hänsch, T W; Udem, Th


    By frequency quadrupling a picosecond pulse train from a Ti:sapphire laser at 820 nm we generate a frequency comb at 205 nm with nearly bandwidth-limited pulses. The nonlinear frequency conversion is accomplished by two successive frequency doubling stages that take place in resonant cavities that are matched to the pulse repetition rate of 82 MHz. This allows for an overall efficiency of 4.5 % and produces an output power of up to 70 mW for a few minutes and 25 mW with continuous operation for hours. Such a deep UV frequency comb may be employed for direct frequency comb spectroscopy in cases where it is less efficient to convert to these short wavelengths with continuous wave lasers.

  18. Induced-dichroism-excited atomic line filter at 532 nm. (United States)

    Gayen, S K; Billmers, R I; Contarino, V M; Squicciarini, M F; Scharpf, W J; Yang, G; Herczfeld, P R; Allocca, D M


    The operation of a narrow-linewidth optical f ilter based on the 4P((1/2)) ? 8S((1/2)) excited-state transition in potassium vapor is reported. The 4P((1/2)) state is excited by a circularly polarized, 769.9-nm, 10-ns pulse from a dye laser. A linearly polarized, time-sequenced, and spatially overlapped probe pulse at 532.33 nm completes the transition to the 8S((1/2)) state. The peak filter transmission is ~40% with a bandwidth of less than 4 GHz. Corroborative experimental results suggest that the rotation of probe-pulse polarization by an induced circular birefringence is the dominant mechanism behind the filter operation.

  19. Internal defect localization in 980 nm ridge waveguide lasers (United States)

    Díaz, L.; Eichler, H. J.; Weich, K.; Klehr, A.; Zeimer, U.


    High power lasers emitting at 980 nm are essential for pumping sources of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs). These are used in longer distance telecommunications. Stability and reliability of the modules are two key characteristics. The present paper investigates 'sudden random failures' of double quantum-well 980 nm high power ridge waveguide lasers implemented in EDFAs. For the inspection of the external and internal status of the device we used optical spectrum modulation experiments, electroluminescence measurements, scanning electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence investigations. The localization of internal defects is the main point of this work. Two different 'sudden random failures' were found: catastrophical optical mirror damage (COMD) and internal dark line defect (DLD) formation.

  20. Sub-5 nm, globally aligned graphene nanoribbons on Ge(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiraly, Brian [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Building 440, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA; Mannix, Andrew J. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Building 440, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA; Jacobberger, Robert M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; Fisher, Brandon L. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Building 440, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Arnold, Michael S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; Hersam, Mark C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA; Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA; Guisinger, Nathan P. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Building 440, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA


    Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) hold great promise for future electronics because of their edge and width dependent electronic bandgaps and exceptional transport properties. While significant progress toward such devices has been made, the field has been limited by difficulties achieving narrow widths, global alignment, and atomically pristine GNR edges on technologically relevant substrates. A recent advance has challenged these limits by using Ge(001) substrates to direct the bottom-up growth of GNRs with nearly pristine armchair edges and widths near ~10 nm via atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. In this work, we extend the growth of GNRs on Ge(001) to ultra-high vacuum conditions and realize GNRs narrower than 5 nm. Armchair graphene nanoribbons directed along the Ge <110> surface directions are achieved with excellent width control and relatively large bandgaps. The bandgap magnitude and electronic uniformity make these new materials excellent candidates for future developments in nanoelectronics.

  1. A new DFM flow for sub-100nm standard cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    DFM (Design-For-Manufacturability) method, which aims to improve manufacturability of ICs through specific design considerations, is becoming important nowadays. In particular, standard cells now should be designed by DFM method. This paper reports a new DFM flow for sub-100 nm standard cell design with a group of technologies for process modeling, manufacturability simulation and trial RETs.Based on this flow, a set of DFM-friendly 90m standard cells were designed.

  2. EST Table: NM_001114999 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001114999 Hepa 10/09/29 96 %/515 aa ref|NP_001108471.1| heparanase-like protein ...[Bombyx mori] dbj|BAB85191.1| heparanase-like protein [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAC10612.1| heparanase-like protein ...473 aa gi|189236064|ref|XP_971018.2| PREDICTED: similar to heparanase-like protein [Tribolium castaneum] FS913340 ...

  3. Numerical Simulation of Spectral Response for 650 nm Silicon Photodetector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The theoretical spectral response formula of the N+-N-I-P+ silicon photodetector with high/low emission junction is given. At the same time, considering the process requirements, the optimum structure parameters of silicon photodetector are obtained by numerical calculation and simulation. Under the condition of these optimum structure parameters, the responsivity of the silicon photodetector will be 0.48A/W at 650nm.

  4. EST Table: NM_001044218 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001044218 glv2 10/09/29 100 %/173 aa ref|NP_001037683.1| gloverin 2 [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAE53372.1| antibac...terial peptide [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAF51564.1| gloverin2 [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 n.h 10/08/29 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h FS917189 ...

  5. EST Table: NM_001044219 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001044219 glv4 10/09/29 100 %/171 aa ref|NP_001037684.1| gloverin 4 [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAE53373.1| antibac...terial peptide [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAF63528.1| gloverin4 [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 n.h 10/08/29 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h FS798027 ...

  6. EST Table: NM_001043467 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001043467 glv4-like 10/09/29 100 %/171 aa ref|NP_001036932.1| gloverin 4-like [B...ombyx mori] dbj|BAD51476.1| gloverin-like protein 4 [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 n.h 10/08/29 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h FS798027 ...

  7. EST Table: NM_001046863 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001046863 Surf1 10/09/29 100 %/294 aa ref|NP_001040328.1| surfeit 1 isoform 1 [B...ombyx mori] gb|ABD36358.1| surfeit protein isoform 1 [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 45 %/250 aa FBpp0162190|DmojGI12...|XP_972868.1| PREDICTED: similar to surfeit locus protein [Tribolium castaneum] FS918885 ...

  8. EST Table: NM_001173359 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001173359 Surf1 10/09/29 100 %/228 aa ref|NP_001166830.1| surfeit 1 isoform 2 [B...ombyx mori] gb|ABD36359.1| surfeit protein isoform 2 [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 35 %/216 aa FBpp0179156|DperGL15...|XP_972868.1| PREDICTED: similar to surfeit locus protein [Tribolium castaneum] FS918885 ...

  9. EST Table: NM_001043866 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available )|GO:0043565(sequence-specific DNA binding) 10/09/29 89 %/588 aa ref|NP_001037331.2| ecdysone receptor isofo...rm B2 [Bombyx mori] gb|AAA87340.1| 20-hydroxy-ecdysone receptor [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 61 %/442 aa FBpp01170...0014267|gb|EFA10715.1| ecdysone receptor isoform B [Tribolium castaneum] NM_001043866 ...

  10. EST Table: NM_001046659 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001046659 LOC692812 10/09/29 88 %/413 aa ref|NP_001040124.1| exuperantia [Bombyx... mori] gb|ABD36117.1| exuperantia [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 34 %/368 aa FBpp0233182|Dvirexu-PA 10/08/29 n.h 10/...|GB19360-PA 10/09/10 44 %/375 aa gi|91085815|ref|XP_974770.1| PREDICTED: similar to exuperantia [Tribolium castaneum] FS919769 ...

  11. A tunable, single frequency, fiber ring at 1053 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, R.B.


    This laser is a tunable source designed for applications where a shorter pulse will be chopped from a long Q-switched pulse by electrooptic modulators, then amplified in Nd:phosphate glass. The laser employs ytterbium-doped silica fiber as the gain medium, pumped by a laser diode at 980nm. Gain in Yb:silica is distributed over an 90nm range, making it suitable for operation at many wavelengths. Our previous experiments with this medium demonstrated oscillation over a 50nm wide band. In addition, pumping at 980nm allows the use of stable pump diodes used in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA`s). We designed the laser to take advantage of this wideband gain medium, and yet operate on a single cavity mode. A circulator causes unidirectional operation, and allows use of a fiber grating in reflection. This grating has a 0.2 Angstrom bandwidth, and defines the coarse tuning of the laser. It is piezoelectrically stretch tuned to the desired wavelength band. A single mode of the cavity is selected by a piezoelectrically tuned fiber grating Fabry-Perot etalon with 64MHz bandwidth. The laser is Q-switched by a bulk acousto-optic device at lkhz reprate. The loss is controlled to allow the oscillator to lase close to threshold for 500{micro}s before the Q-switch is turned off completely, creating a pulse. This ``pre-lasing`` stabilizes the single mode, since Q-switch pulse builds up from the prelase level. To prevent mode hopping during long term operation, cavity length is feedback controlled. Another piezoelectric device stretches a fiber in the cavity according to an error signal derived from the output optical signal. Due to the long, high loss cavity, the Q-switched pulse is about 3OOns long. The central part of this pulse will be gated by an electrooptic modulator to produce a 30ns square pulse, used for further amplification and modulation.

  12. High Harmonic Inverse Free Electron Laser Interaction at 800 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, C


    We demonstrate for the first time an inverse free electron laser (IFEL) operating at 800 nm and observe multiple resonances of the IFEL interaction. The IFEL is tested at half its fundamental resonance electron energy and scanned through multiple harmonics by adjusting the undulator field strength. We obtain a peak modulation of {approx}50 keV FWHM and observe the 4th through 6th harmonics of the IFEL resonance.

  13. EST Table: NM_001043365 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001043365 trh 10/09/29 91 %/849 aa ref|NP_001036830.1| trachealess [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAA22946.1| Bm trach...GB30139-PA 10/09/10 57 %/875 aa gi|189241974|ref|XP_967112.2| PREDICTED: similar to Bm trachealess [Tribolium castaneum] FS923495 ... ...ealess [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 50 %/973 aa FBpp0110175|trh-PB 10/08/29 low homology

  14. EST Table: NM_001046972 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001046972 LOC732975 10/09/29 100 %/182 aa ref|NP_001040437.1| muscular protein 2...0 [Bombyx mori] gb|ABF51386.1| muscular protein 20 [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 61 %/173 aa FBpp0235584|DvirGJ2116...aa gi|91077564|ref|XP_972465.1| PREDICTED: similar to muscular protein 20 [Tribolium castaneum] FS765856 ...

  15. Photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm. (United States)

    Jin, Bing; Chen, I-Cheng; Huang, Wen-Tsung; Lien, Chien-Yu; Guchhait, Nikhil; Lin, Jim J


    The photolysis rate of ClOOCl is crucial in the catalytic destruction of polar stratospheric ozone. In this work, we determined the photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm with a molecular beam and with mass-resolved detection. The photodissociation cross section is the product of the absorption cross section and the dissociation quantum yield. We formed an effusive molecular beam of ClOOCl at a nozzle temperature of 200 or 250 K and determined its photodissociation probability by measuring the decrease of the ClOOCl intensity upon laser irradiation. By comparing with a reference molecule (Cl(2)), of which the absorption cross section and dissociation quantum yield are well-known, we determined the absolute photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm to be (2.31 +/- 0.11) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 200 K and (2.47 +/- 0.12) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 250 K. Impurity interference has been a well-recognized problem in conventional spectroscopic studies of ClOOCl; our mass-resolved measurement directly overcomes such a problem. This measurement of the ClOOCl photolysis cross section at 330 nm is particularly useful in constraining its atmospheric photolysis rate, which in the polar stratosphere peaks near this wavelength.

  16. Advanced CMOS device technologies for 45 nm node and below

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Veloso, T. Hoffmann, A. Lauwers, H. Yu, S. Severi, E. Augendre, S. Kubicek, P. Verheyen, N. Collaert, P. Absil, M. Jurczak and S. Biesemans


    Full Text Available We review and discuss the latest developments and technology options for 45 nm node and below, with scaled planar bulk MOSFETs and MuGFETs as emerging devices. One of the main metal gate (MG candidates for scaled CMOS technologies are fully silicided (FUSI gates. In this work, by means of a selective and controlled poly etch-back integration process, dual work-function Ni-based FUSI/HfSiON CMOS circuits with record ring oscillator performance (high-VT are reported (17 ps at VDD=1.1 V and 20 pA/μm Ioff, meeting the ITRS 45 nm node requirement for low-power (LP CMOS. Compatibility of FUSI and other MG with known stress boosters like stressed CESL (contact-etch-stop-layer with high intrinsic stress or embedded SiGe in the pMOS S/D regions is validated. To obtain MuGFET devices that are competitive, as compared to conventional planar bulk devices, and that meet the stringent drive and leakage current requirements for the 32 nm node and beyond, higher channel mobilities are required. Results obtained by several strain engineering methods are presented here.

  17. Remote-sensing vibrometry at 1550 nm wavelength (United States)

    Dräbenstedt, A.; Sauer, J.; Rembe, C.


    Laser-Doppler vibrometry (LDV) is a proven technique for vibration analysis of mechanical structures. A wavelength of 633 nm is usually employed because of the availability of the relatively inexpensive Helium-Neon laser source which has a good coherence behavior. However, coherence break-down through the beat of multiple longitudinal modes and the limited detector carrier-to-noise-ratio (CNR) at a measurement laser power of 1 mW have prevented a wide use of LDV in remote sensing applications. Such applications in civil engineering are bridges, towers or wind turbines. The lower photon energy of IR light at 1550 nm wavelength increases the CNR by a factor 2.4. This helps especially in the condition where the carrier power decreases below the FM threshold. We have designed a heterodyne interferometer which allows the shot noise limited detection at 1550 nm wavelength close to the theoretical possible CNR. We present calculations of the fundamental noise contributions in interferometric light detection for a comparison of the achievable CNR between common HeNe vibrometers and IR vibrometers. The calculations are backed by measurements that show the devices working close to the theoretical limits. The achievable noise level of the demodulated velocity signal is shown in dependence from the standoff distance. Our novel heterodyne interferometer has been transferred to the Polytec product RSV-150. An application example of this new sensor will be demonstrated.

  18. Advances in 193 nm excimer lasers for mass spectrometry applications (United States)

    Delmdahl, Ralph; Esser, Hans-Gerd; Bonati, Guido


    Ongoing progress in mass analysis applications such as laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry of solid samples and ultraviolet photoionization mediated sequencing of peptides and proteins is to a large extent driven by ultrashort wavelength excimer lasers at 193 nm. This paper will introduce the latest improvements achieved in the development of compact high repetition rate excimer lasers and elaborate on the impact on mass spectrometry instrumentation. Various performance and lifetime measurements obtained in a long-term endurance test over the course of 18 months will be shown and discussed in view of the laser source requirements of different mass spectrometry tasks. These sampling type applications are served by excimer lasers delivering pulsed 193 nm output of several mJ as well as fast repetition rates which are already approaching one Kilohertz. In order to open up the pathway from the laboratory to broader market industrial use, sufficient component lifetimes and long-term stable performance behavior have to be ensured. The obtained long-term results which will be presented are based on diverse 193 nm excimer laser tube improvements aiming at e.g. optimizing the gas flow dynamics and have extended the operational life the laser tube for the first time over several billion pulses even under high duty-cycle conditions.

  19. 7-nm e-beam resist sensitivity characterization (United States)

    Zweber, Amy; Toda, Yusuke; Sakamoto, Yoshifumi; Faure, Thomas; Rankin, Jed; Nash, Steven; Kagawa, Masayuki; Fahrenkopf, Michael; Isogawa, Takeshi; Wistrom, Richard


    Over time mask makers have been driven to low sensitivity e-beam resist materials to meet lithographic patterning needs. For 7-nm logic node, resolution enhancement techniques continue to evolve bringing more complexity on mask and additional mask builds per layer. As demonstrated in literature, low sensitivity materials are needed for low line edge roughness (LER) but impact write tool through put. In characterizing resist sensitivity for 7-nm, we explore more broadly what advantages and disadvantages moving to lower sensitivity resist materials brings, where LER, critical dimension uniformity, resolution, fogging, image placement, and write time results and trends are presented. In this paper, resist material performance are reported for sensitivities ranging from 20 to 130 μC/cm2 at 50% proximity effect correction, where the exposure will be using a single beam platform. Materials examined include negative tone resist types with chemical amplification and positive tone without chemical amplification focusing on overall trends for 7-nm e-beam resist performance.

  20. The analysis of polarization characteristics on 40nm memory devices (United States)

    Yoo, Minae; Park, Chanha; You, Taejun; Yang, Hyunjo; Min, Young-Hong; Park, Ki-Yeop; Yim, Donggyu; Park, Sungki


    Hyper NA system has been introduced to develop sub-60nm node memory devices. Especially memory industries including DRAM and NAND Flash business have driven much finer technology to improve productivity. Polarization at hyper NA has been well known as important optical technology to enhance imaging performance and also achieve very low k1 process. The source polarization on dense structure has been used as one of the major RET techniques. The process capabilities of various layers under specific illumination and polarization have been explored. In this study, polarization characteristic on 40nm memory device will be analyzed. Especially, TE (Transverse Electric) polarization and linear X-Y polarization on hyper NA ArF system will be compared and investigated. First, IPS (Intensity in Preferred State) value will be measured with PMM (Polarization Metrology Module) to confirm polarization characteristic of each machine before simulation. Next simulation will be done to estimate the CD variation impact of each polarization to different illumination. Third, various line and space pattern of DRAM and Flash device will be analyzed under different polarized condition to see the effect of polarization on CD of actual wafer. Finally, conclusion will be made for this experiment and future work will be discussed. In this paper, the behavior of 40nm node memory devices with two types of polarization is presented and the guidelines for polarization control is discussed based on the patterning performances.

  1. Study on CW Nd:YAG infrared laser at 1319 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Wang (王涛); Jianquan Yao (姚建铨); Guojun Yu (禹国俊); Peng Wang (王鹏); Xifu Li (李喜福); Yizhong Yu (于意仲)


    A continuous wave (CW) Nd:YAG infrared laser at 1319 nm is reported in this paper. The energy level of 1319-nm wave was analyzed. The repression of 1064-nm lasing and enhancement of 1319-nm output power were discussed. Mirror coating and cavity structure were studied and a maximum CW output power of 43W at 1319 nm was achieved in experiments.

  2. Vortex State in Sub-100 nm Magnetic Nanodots. (United States)

    Roshchin, Igor V.


    Magnetism of nanostructured magnets, which size is comparable to or smaller than ferromagnetic domain size, offers a great potential for new physics. Detailed knowledge of magnetization reversal and possible magnetic configurations in magnetic nanostructures is essential for high-density magnetic memory. Many theoretical and experimental studies are focused on a magnetic vortex which in addition to a circular in-plane configuration of spins has a core, - the region with out-of-plane magnetization. We present a quantitative study of the magnetic vortex state and the vortex core in sub-100 nm magnetic dots. Arrays of single-layer and bilayer nanodots covering over 1 cm^2 are fabricated using self-assembled nanopores in anodized alumina. This method allows good control over the dot size and periodicity. Magnetization measurements performed using SQUID, VSM, and MOKE indicate a transition from a vortex to a single domain state for the Fe dots. This transition is studied as a function of the magnetic field and dots size. Micromagnetic and Monte Carlo simulations confirm the experimental observations. Thermal activation and exchange bias strongly affect the vortex nucleation field and have a much weaker effect on the vortex annihilation field. Direct imaging of magnetic moments in sub-100 nm dots is extremely difficult and has not been reported yet. Polarized grazing incidence small angle neutron scattering measurements allow dot imaging in reciprocal space. Quantitative analysis of such measurements performed on 65 nm Fe dots yields the vortex core size of ˜15 nm, in good agreement with the 14 nm obtained from the simulations. This work is done in collaboration with Chang-Peng Li, Zhi-Pan Li, S. Roy, S. K. Sinha, (UCSD), Xavier Batlle (U. Barcelona), R. K. Dumas, Kai Liu, (UC Davis), S. Park, R. Pynn, M. R. Fitzsimmons (LANL), J. Mejia Lopez (Pontificia U. Catolica de Chile), D. Altbir, (U. de Santiago de Chile), A. H. Romero (Cinvestav-Unidad Queretaro), and Ivan K

  3. Inline detection of Chrome degradation on binary 193nm photomasks (United States)

    Dufaye, Félix; Sippel, Astrid; Wylie, Mark; García-Berríos, Edgardo; Crawford, Charles; Hess, Carl; Sartelli, Luca; Pogliani, Carlo; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Gough, Stuart; Sundermann, Frank; Brochard, Christophe


    193nm binary photomasks are still used in the semiconductor industry for the lithography of some critical layers for the nodes 90nm and 65nm, with high volumes and over long periods. However, these 193nm binary photomasks can be impacted by a phenomenon of chrome oxidation leading to critical dimensions uniformity (CDU) degradation with a pronounced radial signature. If not detected early enough, this CDU degradation may cause defectivity issues and lower yield on wafers. Fortunately, a standard cleaning and repellicle service at the mask shop has been demonstrated as efficient to remove the grown materials and get the photomask CD back on target.Some detection methods have been already described in literature, such as wafer CD intrafield monitoring (ACLV), giving reliable results but also consuming additional SEM time with less precision than direct photomask measurement. In this paper, we propose another approach, by monitoring the CDU directly on the photomask, concurrently with defect inspection for regular requalification to production for wafer fabs. For this study, we focused on a Metal layer in a 90nm technology node. Wafers have been exposed with production conditions and then measured by SEM-CD. Afterwards, this photomask has been measured with a SEM-CD in mask shop and also inspected on a KLA-Tencor X5.2 inspection system, with pixels 125 and 90nm, to evaluate the Intensity based Critical Dimension Uniformity (iCDU) option. iCDU was firstly developed to provide feed-forward CDU maps for scanner intrafield corrections, from arrayed dense structures on memory photomasks. Due to layout complexity and differing feature types, CDU monitoring on logic photomasks used to pose unique challenges.The selection of suitable feature types for CDU monitoring on logic photomasks is no longer an issue, since the transmitted intensity map gives all the needed information, as shown in this paper. In this study, the photomask was heavily degraded after more than 18,000 300

  4. Successful use of 1064 Nm Nd:YAG in conjunction with 2790 Nm YSGG ablative laser for traumatic scarring. (United States)

    Nijhawan, Rajiv I; Perez, Maritza I


    Patients with traumatic scarring often seek both aesthetic and functional improvement and can be a challenge to treat; however, advances in laser and light technologies have helped to treat many of these patients with rather minimally invasive approaches. A nineteen year old girl with Fitzpatrick skin type III skin presented for the evaluation of extensive traumatic scarring involving her right cheek, right chin, and right oral commissure that she sustained after a motor vehicle accident. We report the successful use of the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser in conjunction with the ablative 2790 nm YSGG laser for the treatment of traumatic scarring in this patient. Our patient noted a notable improvement in the appearance of her traumatic scarring in addition to decrease in contracture of the right oral commissure. The treatment regimen described provides an effective option for clinicians to utilize when treating traumatic scarring and skin textural changes.

  5. Squeezing visible light waves into a 3-nm-thick and 55-nm-long plasmon cavity. (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hideki T; Kurokawa, Yoichi


    We demonstrate controlled squeezing of visible light waves into nanometer-sized optical cavities. The light is perpendicularly confined in a few-nanometer-thick SiO2 film sandwiched between Au claddings in the form of surface plasmon polaritons and exhibits Fabry-Perot resonances in a longitudinal direction. As the thickness of the dielectric core is reduced, the plasmon wavelength becomes shorter; then a smaller cavity is realized. A dispersion relation down to a surface plasmon wavelength of 51 nm for a red light, which is less than 8% of the free-space wavelength, was experimentally observed. Any obvious breakdowns of the macroscopic electromagnetics based on continuous dielectric media were not disclosed for 3-nm-thick cores.

  6. Sub-70 nm resolution tabletop microscopy at 13.8 nm using a compact laser-plasma EUV source. (United States)

    Wachulak, Przemyslaw W; Bartnik, Andrzej; Fiedorowicz, Henryk


    We report the first (to our knowledge) demonstration of a tabletop, extreme UV (EUV) transmission microscope at 13.8 nm wavelength with a spatial (half-pitch) resolution of 69 nm. In the experiment, a compact laser-plasma EUV source based on a gas puff target is applied to illuminate an object. A multilayer ellipsoidal mirror is used to focus quasi-monochromatic EUV radiation onto the object, while a Fresnel zone plate objective forms the image. The experiment and the spatial resolution measurements, based on a knife-edge test, are described. The results might be useful for the realization of a compact high-resolution tabletop imaging systems for actinic defect characterization.

  7. Megahertz FDML Laser with up to 143nm Sweep Range for Ultrahigh Resolution OCT at 1050nm

    CERN Document Server

    Kolb, Jan Philip; Eibl, Mattias; Pfeiffer, Tom; Wieser, Wolfgang; Huber, Robert


    We present a new design of a Fourier Domain Mode Locked laser (FDML laser), which provides a new record in sweep range at ~1um center wavelength: At the fundamental sweep rate of 2x417 kHz we reach 143nm bandwidth and 120nm with 4x buffering at 1.67MHz sweep rate. The latter configuration of our system is characterized: The FWHM of the point spread function (PSF) of a mirror is 5.6um (in tissue). Human in vivo retinal imaging is performed with the MHz laser showing more details in vascular structures. Here we could measure an axial resolution of 6.0um by determining the FWHM of specular reflex in the image. Additionally, challenges related to such a high sweep bandwidth such as water absorption are investigated.

  8. Megahertz FDML laser with up to 143nm sweep range for ultrahigh resolution OCT at 1050nm (United States)

    Kolb, Jan Philip; Klein, Thomas; Eibl, Matthias; Pfeiffer, Tom; Wieser, Wolfgang; Huber, Robert


    We present a new design of a Fourier Domain Mode Locked laser (FDML laser), which provides a new record in sweep range at ~1μm center wavelength: At the fundamental sweep rate of 2x417 kHz we reach 143nm bandwidth and 120nm with 4x buffering at 1.67MHz sweep rate. The latter configuration of our system is characterized: The FWHM of the point spread function (PSF) of a mirror is 5.6μm (in tissue). Human in vivo retinal imaging is performed with the MHz laser showing more details in vascular structures. Here we could measure an axial resolution of 6.0μm by determining the FWHM of specular reflex in the image. Additionally, challenges related to such a high sweep bandwidth such as water absorption are investigated.

  9. A reflectivity profilometer for the optical characterisation of grade reflectivity mirrors in the 250 nm - 1100 nm spectral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colucci, Alessandro; Nichelatti, Enrico [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione


    It`s developed the prototype of an instrument that can be used for the optical characterisation of graded reflectivity mirrors at any wavelength in the spectral region from 250 nm to 1100 nm. The instrument utilises a high-pressure Xe arc lamp as light source. Light is spectrally filtered by means of a grating monochromator. The sample is illuminated with an image of the monochromator exit slit. After reflection from the sample, this image is projected onto a 1024-elements charge-coupled device linear array driven by a digital frame board and interfaced with a personal computer. It`s tested the instrument accuracy by comparing measurement results with the corresponding ones obtained by means of a laser scanning technique. Measurement Rms repeatability has been estimated to be approximately of 0.8%. [Italiano] E` stato sviluppato il prototipo di uno strumento per la catatterizzazione ottica di specchi a riflettivita` variabile, operante a qualsiasi lunghezza d`onda nell`intervallo spettrale da 250 nm a 1100 nm. La sorgente dello strumento e` una lampada ad arco allo Xenon ad alta pressione. La luce e` filtrata spettralmente per mezzo di un monocromatore a reticolo. Il campione viene illuminato da un`immagine della fenditura d`uscita del monocromatore. Dopo essere stata riflessa dal campione, questa immagine viene proiettata su un array CCD lineare a 1024 elementi, connesso elettronicamente a una scheda digitale e interfacciato a un personal computer. L`accuratezza dello strumento e` stata verificata confrontando alcune misure con le corrispondenti misure ottenute mediante una tecnica a scansione laser. La ripetibilita` RMS delle misure e` stata stimata essere circa dello 0.8%.

  10. Emission of electrons from rare gas clusters after irradiation with intense VUV pulses of wavelength 100 nm and 32 nm (United States)

    Ziaja, B.; Laarmann, T.; Wabnitz, H.; Wang, F.; Weckert, E.; Bostedt, C.; Möller, T.


    Kinetic Boltzmann equations are used to describe electron emission spectra obtained after irradiation of noble-gas clusters with intense vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation from a free-electron-laser (FEL). The experimental photoelectron spectra give a complementary and more detailed view of nonlinear processes within atoms and clusters in an intense laser field compared to mass spectroscopy data. Results from our model obtained in this study confirm the experimental and theoretical findings on the differing ionization scenarios at longer (100 nm) and shorter (32 nm) VUV radiation wavelengths. At the wavelength of 100 nm the thermoelectronic electron emission dominates the emission spectra. This indicates the plasma formation and the inverse bremsstrahlung (IB) heating of electrons inside the plasma. This effect is clearly visible for xenon (with the fitted temperature of 6-7 eV), and less visible for argon (with the fitted temperature of 2-3 eV). The two-photon-ionization rate for argon that initiates the cluster ionization, is much lower than the single-photoionization rate for xenon. Also, more of the photoelectrons created within an argon cluster are able to leave it, as they are more energetic than those released from a xenon cluster. Therefore, the IB heating of plasma electrons in argon is less efficient than in xenon, as the density of the electrons remaining within the cluster is lower. At a wavelength of 32 nm the dominant ionization mechanism identified from the electron spectra of argon clusters is the direct multistep ionization. The signature of the thermalization of electrons is also observed. However, as the heating of electrons due to the inverse bremsstrahlung process is weak at these radiation wavelengths and pulse fluences, the increase of the electron temperature with the pulse intensity is mainly due to the increasing photoionization rate within the irradiated sample.

  11. Comparison of the photothermal effects of 808nm gold nanorod and indocyanine green solutions using an 805nm diode laser (United States)

    Hasanjee, Aamr M.; Zhou, Feifan; West, Connor; Silk, Kegan; Doughty, Austin; Bahavar, Cody F.; Chen, Wei R.


    Non-invasive laser immunotherapy (NLIT) is a treatment method for metastatic cancer which combines noninvasive laser irradiation with immunologically modified nanostructures to ablate a primary tumor and induce a systemic anti-tumor response. To further expand the development of NLIT, two different photosensitizing agents were compared: gold nanorods (GNR) with an optical absorption peak of 808 nm and indocyanine green (ICG) with an optical absorption peak of ~800 nm. Various concentrations of GNR and ICG solutions were irradiated at different power densities using an 805 nm diode laser, and the temperature of the solutions was monitored during irradiation using a thermal camera. For comparison, dye balls made up of a 1:1 volume ratio of gel solution to GNR or ICG solution were placed in phantom gels and were then irradiated using the 805 nm diode laser to imitate the effect of laser irradiation on in vivo tumors. Non-invasive laser irradiation of GNR solution for 2 minutes resulted in a maximum increase in temperature by 31.8 °C. Additionally, similar irradiation of GNR solution dye ball within phantom gel for 10 minutes resulted in a maximum temperature increase of 8.2 °C. Comparatively, non-invasive laser irradiation of ICG solution for 2 minutes resulted in a maximum increase in temperature by 28.0 °C. Similar irradiation of ICG solution dye ball within phantom gel for 10 minutes yielded a maximum temperature increase of only 3.4 °C. Qualitatively, these studies showed that GNR solutions are more effective photosensitizing agents than ICG solution.

  12. 2 nm continuously tunable 488nm micro-integrated diode-laser-based SHG light source for Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Braune, M.; Maiwald, M.; Sumpf, B.; Tränkle, G.


    Raman spectroscopy in the visible spectral range is of great interest due to resonant Raman effects. Nevertheless, fluorescence and ambient light can mask the weak Raman lines. Shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy is a demonstrated tool to overcome this drawback. To apply this method, a light source with two alternating wavelengths is necessary. The spectral distance between these two wavelengths has to be adapted to the width of the Raman signal. According to the sample under investigation the width of the Raman signal could be in the range of 3 cm-1 - 12 cm-1. In this work, a micro-integrated light source emitting at 488 nm with a continuous wavelength tuning range up to 2 nm (83 cm-1) is presented. The pump source, a DFB laser emitting at 976 nm, and a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) ridge waveguide crystal is used for the second harmonic generation (SHG). Both components are mounted on a μ-Peltier-element for temperature control. Here, a common wavelength tuning of the pump wavelength and the acceptance bandwidth of the SHG crystal via temperature is achieved. With the results the light source is suitable for portable Raman and SERDS experiments with a flexible spectral distance between both excitation wavelengths for SERDS with respect to the sample under investigation.

  13. Writing time estimation of EB mask writer EBM-9000 for hp16nm/logic11nm node generation (United States)

    Kamikubo, Takashi; Takekoshi, Hidekazu; Ogasawara, Munehiro; Yamada, Hirokazu; Hattori, Kiyoshi


    The scaling of semiconductor devices is slowing down because of the difficulty in establishing their functionality at the nano-size level and also because of the limitations in fabrications, mainly the delay of EUV lithography. While multigate devices (FinFET) are currently the main driver for scalability, other types of devices, such as 3D devices, are being realized to relax the scaling of the node. In lithography, double or multiple patterning using ArF immersion scanners is still a realistic solution offered for the hp16nm node fabrication. Other lithography candidates are those called NGL (Next Generation Lithography), such as DSA (Directed-Self-Assembling) or nanoimprint. In such situations, shot count for mask making by electron beam writers will not increase. Except for some layers, it is not increasing as previously predicted. On the other hand, there is another aspect that increases writing time. The exposure dose for mask writing is getting higher to meet tighter specifications of CD uniformity, in other words, reduce LER. To satisfy these requirements, a new electron beam mask writer, EBM-9000, has been developed for hp16nm/logic11nm generation. Electron optical system, which has the immersion lens system, was evolved from EBM-8000 to achieve higher current density of 800A/cm2. In this paper, recent shot count and dose trend are discussed. Also, writing time is estimated for the requirements in EBM-9000.

  14. Mechanistic comparison of pulse laser induced phase separation of particulates from cellulose paper at 213 nm and 532 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arif, S.; Forster, M.; Kautek, W. [University of Vienna, Department of Physical Chemistry, Wien (Austria); Bushuk, S.; Kouzmouk, A.; Tatur, H.; Batishche, S. [National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus, Institute of Physics, Minsk (Belarus)


    The laser-induced phase separation of charcoal particles on additive-free cotton linters cellulose paper was investigated by electron and optical microscopy, colorimetry, and diffuse reflectance FT-IR. The fibre bundles were vaporised in depth of several 10 {mu}m above destruction fluence thresholds using visible 532 nm radiation. This is in contrast to mid-ultraviolet 213 nm radiation, where only the top fibre bundles were modified and partially evaporated. The colorimetric lightness results generally represented the cleaning status, whereas the colorimetric yellowing data represented irreversible chemical and/or photochemical changes. Charcoal-contaminated paper treated with visible and mid-ultraviolet radiation exhibited yellowing, whereas uncontaminated did not. This suggests that the electron-rich plasma generated by the evaporation of the particles heats the adjacent substrate and also excludes oxygen. Mid-ultraviolet, in contrast to visible radiation, shows particle removal always accompanied by paper destruction. IR spectroscopy results suggest cross-linking by ether bonds near the destruction threshold, but do not prove the formation of oxidation products and double bonds as the basis of the yellowing. A ''cleaning window'' between the cleaning threshold (0.1 J/cm{sup 2}) and the paper destruction threshold (2.9 J/cm{sup 2}) with a pulse number of 2 is provided by visible 532 nm laser treatment. (orig.)

  15. 635nm diode laser biostimulation on cutaneous wounds (United States)

    Solmaz, Hakan; Gülsoy, Murat; Ülgen, Yekta


    Biostimulation is still a controversial subject in wound healing studies. The effect of laser depends of not only laser parameters applied but also the physiological state of the target tissue. The aim of this project is to investigate the biostimulation effects of 635nm laser irradiation on the healing processes of cutaneous wounds by means of morphological and histological examinations. 3-4 months old male Wistar Albino rats weighing 330 to 350 gr were used throughout this study. Low-level laser therapy was applied through local irradiation of red light on open skin excision wounds of 5mm in diameter prepared via punch biopsy. Each animal had three identical wounds on their right dorsal part, at which two of them were irradiated with continuous diode laser of 635nm in wavelength, 30mW of power output and two different energy densities of 1 J/cm2 and 3 J/cm2. The third wound was kept as control group and had no irradiation. In order to find out the biostimulation consequences during each step of wound healing, which are inflammation, proliferation and remodeling, wound tissues removed at days 3, 7, 10 and 14 following the laser irradiation are morphologically examined and than prepared for histological examination. Fragments of skin including the margin and neighboring healthy tissue were embedded in paraffin and 6 to 9 um thick sections cut are stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Histological examinations show that 635nm laser irradiation accelerated the healing process of cutaneous wounds while considering the changes of tissue morphology, inflammatory reaction, proliferation of newly formed fibroblasts and formation and deposition of collagen fibers. The data obtained gives rise to examine the effects of two distinct power densities of low-level laser irradiation and compare both with the non-treatment groups at different stages of healing process.

  16. Reduced nonlinearities in 100-nm high SOI waveguides (United States)

    Lacava, C.; Marchetti, R.; Vitali, V.; Cristiani, I.; Giuliani, G.; Fournier, M.; Bernabe, S.; Minzioni, P.


    Here we show the results of an experimental analysis dedicated to investigate the impact of optical non linear effects, such as two-photon absorption (TPA), free-carrier absorption (FCA) and free-carrier dispersion (FCD), on the performance of integrated micro-resonator based filters for application in WDM telecommunication systems. The filters were fabricated using SOI (Silicon-on-Insulator) technology by CEA-Leti, in the frame of the FP7 Fabulous Project, which aims to develop low-cost and high-performance integrated optical devices to be used in new generation passive optical- networks (NG-PON2). Different designs were tested, including both ring-based structures and racetrack-based structures, with single-, double- or triple- resonator configuration, and using different waveguide cross-sections (from 500 x 200 nm to 825 x 100 nm). Measurements were carried out using an external cavity tunable laser source operating in the extended telecom bandwidth, using both continuous wave signals and 10 Gbit/s modulated signals. Results show that the use 100-nm high waveguide allows reducing the impact of non-linear losses, with respect to the standard waveguides, thus increasing by more than 3 dB the maximum amount of optical power that can be injected into the devices before causing significant non-linear effects. Measurements with OOK-modulated signals at 10 Gbit/s showed that TPA and FCA don't affect the back-to-back BER of the signal, even when long pseudo-random-bit-sequences (PRBS) are used, as the FCD-induced filter-detuning increases filter losses but "prevents" excessive signal degradation.

  17. Polishing Sapphire Substrates by 355 nm Ultraviolet Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wei


    Full Text Available This paper tries to investigate a novel polishing technology with high efficiency and nice surface quality for sapphire crystal that has high hardness, wear resistance, and chemical stability. A Q-switched 355 nm ultraviolet laser with nanosecond pulses was set up and used to polish sapphire substrate in different conditions in this paper. Surface roughness Ra of polished sapphire was measured with surface profiler, and the surface topography was observed with scanning electronic microscope. The effects of processing parameters as laser energy, pulse repetition rate, scanning speed, incident angle, scanning patterns, and initial surface conditions on surface roughness were analyzed.

  18. Allsky Airglow Imagery from Albuquerque, NM; TOMEX 2000 (United States)

    Swenson, G. R.


    Allsky imager of OH Meinel and O2 Atmospheric emission bands were observed for the TOMEX rocket campaign from Albuquerque, NM, along with the Na/wind temperature lidar. Motion analysis of imagery describes a main wave propagating from the NW but other secondary waves appear from the NE to present a quasi chaotic wave field. The main wave had a typical horizontal wavelength of a several 10s of km and a period of less than15 minutes. The instrinsic wave parameters of the high frequency waves will be presented.

  19. A 65 nm CMOS LNA for Bolometer Application (United States)

    Huang, Tom Nan; Boon, Chirn Chye; Zhu, Forest Xi; Yi, Xiang; He, Xiaofeng; Feng, Guangyin; Lim, Wei Meng; Liu, Bei


    Modern bolometers generally consist of large-scale arrays of detectors. Implemented in conventional technologies, such bolometer arrays suffer from integrability and productivity issues. Recently, the development of CMOS technologies has presented an opportunity for the massive production of high-performance and highly integrated bolometers. This paper presents a 65-nm CMOS LNA designed for a millimeter-wave bolometer's pre-amplification stage. By properly applying some positive feedback, the noise figure of the proposed LNA is minimized at under 6 dB and the bandwidth is extended to 30 GHz.

  20. Spectroscopy of Pluto, 380-930 Nm at Six Longitudes (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Lorenzi, V.; Grundy, William; Licandro, J.; Binzel, R. P.


    We have obtained spectra of the Pluto-Charon pair (unresolved) in the wavelength range 380-930 nm with resolution approx..450 at six roughly equally spaced longitudes. The data were taken in May and June, 2014, with the 4.2-m Isaac Newton Telescope at Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory in the Canary Islands, using the ACAM (auxiliary-port camera) in spectrometer mode, and using two solar analog stars. The new spectra clearly show absorption bands of solid CH4 at 620, 728, and 850-910 nm, which were known from earlier work. The 620-nm CH4 band is intrinsically very weak, and its appearance indicates a long optical path-length through the ice. This is especially true if it arises from CH4 dissolved in N2 ice. Earlier work (Owen et al. Science 261, 745, 1993) on the near-infrared spectrum of Pluto (1-2.5 microns) has shown that the CH4 bands are shifted to shorter wavelengths because the CH4 occurs as a solute in beta-phase crystalline N2. The optical path-length through the N2 crystals must be on the order of several cm to produce the N2 band observed at 2.15 microns. The new spectra exhibit a pronounced red slope across the entire wavelength range; the slope is variable with longitude, and differs in a small but significant way from that measured at comparable longitudes by Grundy & Fink (Icarus 124, 329, 1996) in their 15-year study of Pluto's spectrum (500-1000 nm). The new spectra will provide an independent means for calibrating the color filter bands on the Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) (Reuter et al. Space Sci. Rev. 140, 129, 2008) on the New Horizons spacecraft, which will encounter the Pluto-Charon system in mid-2015. They will also form the basis of modeling the spectrum of Pluto at different longitudes to help establish the nature of the non-ice component(s) of Pluto's surface. It is presumed that the non-ice component is the source of the yellow-red coloration of Pluto, which is known to be variable across the surface.

  1. EST Table: NM_001046750 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001046750 LOC692907 10/09/29 94 %/284 aa ref|NP_001040215.1| stathmin [Bombyx mori] gb|ABD36259.1| stathm...GB18507-PA 10/09/10 47 %/338 aa gi|91083957|ref|XP_975021.1| PREDICTED: similar to stathmin [Tribolium castaneum] FS915193 ... [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 46 %/279 aa FBpp0144714|DgriGH10808-PA 10/08/29 n.h 10/09

  2. EST Table: NM_001184844 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001184844 TOR1 10/09/29 53 %/2461 aa ref|XP_625130.1| PREDICTED: similar to FKBP12-rapamycin... complex-associated protein (FK506-binding protein 12-rapamycin complex-associated protein 1) (R...apamycin target protein) (RAPT1) (Mammalian target of rapamycin) (MTOR) isoform 1 [Apis mellifera] 10/09/13 ...9/10 50 %/2441 aa gi|91089099|ref|XP_971819.1| PREDICTED: similar to fkbp-rapamycin associated protein [Tribolium castaneum] CK537623 ...

  3. High bit rate germanium single photon detectors for 1310nm (United States)

    Seamons, J. A.; Carroll, M. S.


    There is increasing interest in development of high speed, low noise and readily fieldable near infrared (NIR) single photon detectors. InGaAs/InP Avalanche photodiodes (APD) operated in Geiger mode (GM) are a leading choice for NIR due to their preeminence in optical networking. After-pulsing is, however, a primary challenge to operating InGaAs/InP single photon detectors at high frequencies1. After-pulsing is the effect of charge being released from traps that trigger false ("dark") counts. To overcome this problem, hold-off times between detection windows are used to allow the traps to discharge to suppress after-pulsing. The hold-off time represents, however, an upper limit on detection frequency that shows degradation beginning at frequencies of ~100 kHz in InGaAs/InP. Alternatively, germanium (Ge) single photon avalanche photodiodes (SPAD) have been reported to have more than an order of magnitude smaller charge trap densities than InGaAs/InP SPADs2, which allowed them to be successfully operated with passive quenching2 (i.e., no gated hold off times necessary), which is not possible with InGaAs/InP SPADs, indicating a much weaker dark count dependence on hold-off time consistent with fewer charge traps. Despite these encouraging results suggesting a possible higher operating frequency limit for Ge SPADs, little has been reported on Ge SPAD performance at high frequencies presumably because previous work with Ge SPADs has been discouraged by a strong demand to work at 1550 nm. NIR SPADs require cooling, which in the case of Ge SPADs dramatically reduces the quantum efficiency of the Ge at 1550 nm. Recently, however, advantages to working at 1310 nm have been suggested which combined with a need to increase quantum bit rates for quantum key distribution (QKD) motivates examination of Ge detectors performance at very high detection rates where InGaAs/InP does not perform as well. Presented in this paper are measurements of a commercially available Ge APD

  4. Megasonic cleaning strategy for sub-10nm photomasks (United States)

    Hsu, Jyh-Wei; Samayoa, Martin; Dress, Peter; Dietze, Uwe; Ma, Ai-Jay; Lin, Chia-Shih; Lai, Rick; Chang, Peter; Tuo, Laurent


    One of the main challenges in photomask cleaning is balancing particle removal efficiency (PRE) with pattern damage control. To overcome this challenge, a high frequency megasonic cleaning strategy is implemented. Apart from megasonic frequency and power, photomask surface conditioning also influences cleaning performance. With improved wettability, cleanliness is enhanced while pattern damage risk is simultaneously reduced. Therefore, a particle removal process based on higher megasonic frequencies, combined with proper surface pre-treatment, provides improved cleanliness without the unintended side effects of pattern damage, thus supporting the extension of megasonic cleaning technology into 10nm half pitch (hp) device node and beyond.

  5. EST Table: NM_001044005 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001044005 USP 10/09/29 84 %/462 aa ref|NP_001037470.1| protein ultraspiracle hom...olog [Bombyx mori] sp|P49700.1|USP_BOMMO RecName: Full=Protein ultraspiracle homolog; AltName: Full=Nuclear ...ene:AGAP002095 10/09/10 39 %/426 aa gnl|Amel|GB16648-PA 10/09/10 37 %/412 aa gi|121308144|emb|CAL25729.1| ultraspiracle nuclear receptor [Tribolium castaneum] AV400878 ...

  6. EST Table: NM_001046789 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001046789 LOC692949 10/09/29 95 %/267 aa ref|NP_001040254.1| beadex/dLMO protein... [Bombyx mori] gb|ABD36315.1| beadex/dLMO protein [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 74 %/175 aa FBpp0262745|DyakGE17735...0 aa gnl|Amel|GB11268-PA 10/09/10 71 %/212 aa gi|91080717|ref|XP_975367.1| PREDICTED: similar to beadex/dLMO protein [Tribolium castaneum] FS794536 ...

  7. IFEL-Chicane Based Microbuncher at 800nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, C


    As a first stage to net acceleration in a laser based EM structure RF electron pulses must be microbunched to match the laser wavelength. We report on the design of an undulator and chicane for microbunching at 800nm using an inverse free electron laser (IFEL) interaction. This includes design considerations for the hardware itself, the laser IFEL interaction and bunching performance, and a full 3D particle tracking simulation to study the focusing effects and possible emittance growth due to the fringe fields of the magnets. The talk will close with a discussion of laser-electron beam diagnostics for overlap in the undulator and for diagnosing microbunching performance.

  8. Ocular safety limits for 1030nm femtosecond laser cataract surgery (United States)

    Wang, Jenny; Sramek, Christopher; Paulus, Yannis M.; Lavinsky, Daniel; Schuele, Georg; Anderson, Dan; Dewey, David; Palanker, Daniel V.


    Application of femtosecond lasers to cataract surgery has added unprecedented precision and reproducibility but ocular safety limits for the procedure are not well-quantified. We present an analysis of safety during laser cataract surgery considering scanned patterns, reduced blood perfusion, and light scattering on residual bubbles formed during laser cutting. Experimental results for continuous-wave 1030 nm irradiation of the retina in rabbits are used to calibrate damage threshold temperatures and perfusion rate for our computational model of ocular heating. Using conservative estimates for each safety factor, we compute the limits of the laser settings for cataract surgery that optimize procedure speed within the limits of retinal safety.

  9. Design of the 65 nm CLICpix demonstrator chip

    CERN Document Server

    Valerio, P.; Campbell, M.


    A hybrid pixel detector ASIC designed to be used in the vertex detector for the CLIC experiment is presented in this note. It has been designed using a commercial 65 nm CMOS technology. The main features include simultaneous 4-bit TOT and TOA measurements with 10 ns accuracy, a spatial resolution of 3 um (the pixel size is 25x25 um), an on-chip data compression scheme and power pulsing capability. A prototype with a fully featured array of 64 by 64 pixels has been designed and produced. Testing on the prototype is ongoing.

  10. EST Table: NM_001123349 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001123349 18w 10/09/29 92 %/1295 aa ref|NP_001116821.1| 18 wheeler [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAB85498.1| 18 wheel...|Amel|GB15177-PA 10/09/10 58 %/1242 aa gi|91076478|ref|XP_972409.1| PREDICTED: similar to 18 wheeler [Tribolium castaneum] FS922922 ... [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 51 %/1248 aa FBpp0278316|DpseGA21191-PA 10/08/29 low homo

  11. 5 nm structures produced by direct laser writing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavel, E [Storex Technologies, Bucharest 020892 (Romania); Jinga, S; Andronescu, E; Vasile, B S [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University ' Politehnica' of Bucharest, Bucharest 011061 (Romania); Rotiu, E; Ionescu, L; Mazilu, C, E-mail: [National Glass Institute, Bucharest 032258 (Romania)


    Here we present a new approach to overcome the optical diffraction limit by using novel materials. In the paper, we report experimental results obtained by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and optical absorption spectroscopy, for a fluorescent photosensitive glass-ceramic containing rare-earth ions such as samarium (Sm). Using a home built dynamic tester, with a low power laser, we recorded nanostructures having 5 nm line widths. In the line structure, measurements reveal the presence of silver nanocrystals with few nanometre sizes. HRTEM shows that there is a random orientation of the nanocrystals. A writing mechanism with three steps is proposed.

  12. nm structures produced by direct laser writing. (United States)

    Pavel, E; Jinga, S; Andronescu, E; Vasile, B S; Rotiu, E; Ionescu, L; Mazilu, C


    Here we present a new approach to overcome the optical diffraction limit by using novel materials. In the paper, we report experimental results obtained by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and optical absorption spectroscopy, for a fluorescent photosensitive glass-ceramic containing rare-earth ions such as samarium (Sm). Using a home built dynamic tester, with a low power laser, we recorded nanostructures having 5 nm line widths. In the line structure, measurements reveal the presence of silver nanocrystals with few nanometre sizes. HRTEM shows that there is a random orientation of the nanocrystals. A writing mechanism with three steps is proposed.

  13. Realization of 1.5 W 780 nm single-frequency laser by using cavity-enhanced frequency doubling of an EDFA boosted 1560 nm diode laser (United States)

    Ge, Yulong; Guo, Shanlong; Han, Yashuai; Wang, Junmin


    We demonstrated a continuous-wave (CW) 780 nm laser with Watt-level output power by using external-cavity-enhanced frequency doubling of an Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) boosted 1560 nm diode laser in a periodically-poled magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate (PPMgO:LN) bulk crystal. A 780 nm laser with maximum output power of 1.5 W is obtained at an incident 1560 nm laser of 2.05 W, corresponding to a doubling efficiency of 73%. The typical fluctuation of 780 nm laser's power is 1.2% (rms) in about 30 min. This 780 nm laser can be potentially applied to laser cooling and manipulation of rubidium atoms, generating 1560 nm squeezed vacuum field as well as 1560 nm continuous-variable entanglement based on optical parametric oscillator if additional locking and noise suppression is applied.

  14. 946 nm Diode Pumped Laser Produces 100mJ (United States)

    Axenson, Theresa J.; Barnes, Norman P.; Reichle, Donald J., Jr.


    An innovative approach to obtaining high energy at 946 nm has yielded 101 mJ of laser energy with an optical-to-optical slope efficiency of 24.5%. A single gain module resonator was evaluated, yielding a maximum output energy of 50 mJ. In order to obtain higher energy a second gain module was incorporated into the resonator. This innovative approach produced un-surprised output energy of 101 mJ. This is of utmost importance since it demonstrates that the laser output energy scales directly with the number of gain modules. Therefore, higher energies can be realized by simply increasing the number of gain modules within the laser oscillator. The laser resonator incorporates two gain modules into a folded "M-shaped" resonator, allowing a quadruple pass gain within each rod. Each of these modules consists of a diode (stack of 30 microlensed 100 Watt diode array bars, each with its own fiber lens) end-pumping a Nd:YAG laser rod. The diode output is collected by a lens duct, which focuses the energy into a 2 mm diameter flat to flat octagonal pump area of the laser crystal. Special coatings have been developed to mitigate energy storage problems, including parasitic lasing and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), and encourage the resonator to operate at the lower gain transition at 946 nm.

  15. High index fluoride materials for 193nm immersion lithography (United States)

    Nawata, T.; Inui, Y.; Masada, I.; Nishijima, E.; Satoh, H.; Fukuda, T.


    We tried to investigate various kinds of metal fluoride materials which have higher gravity than CaF II and cubic crystal system, and we found out barium lithium fluoride (BaLiF 3) and potassium yttrium fluoride (KY 3F 10) as candidates for the last lens material. We have developed unique Czochralski (CZ) machines and techniques for the growth of large calcium fluoride single crystals. And we applied these technologies to the growth of fluoride high index materials. We have succeeded to grow the large BaLiF 3 single crystal with 120mm in diameter and a KY 3F 10 single crystal, and measured their basic properties such as refractive index, VUV transmittance, birefringence, and so on. As a result of our basic research, we found out that BaLiF 3 single crystal is transparent at VUV region, and the refractive index at 193nm is 1.64, and KY 3F 10 single crystal has the index of 1.59 at the wavelength of 193nm which is slightly higher than fused silica. We expect that these fluoride high index materials are useful for the last lens material of the next generation immersion lithography.

  16. Packaging and Performance of 980nm Broad Area Semiconductor Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    High power broad area semiconductor lasers have found increasing applications in pumping of solid state laser systems and fiber amplifiers, frequency doubling, medical systems and material processing.Packaging including the assembly design, process and thermal management, has a significant impact on the optical performance and reliability of a high power broad area laser. In this paper, we introduce the package structures and assembling process of 980nm broad area lasers and report the performances including output power, thermal behavior and far fields.We will report two types of high power broad area laser assemblies.One is a microchannel liquid cooled assembly and the other is a conduction cooled CT-mount assembly. Optical powers of 15W and 10W were achieved from a 980nm broad area laser with a 120 μ m stripe width in a microchannel liquid cooled assembly and conduction cooled CT-mount assembly, respectively.Furthermore,a high power of 6.5W out of fiber was demonstrated from a pigtailed, fully packaged butterfly-type module without TEC (Thermoelectric cooler).The measurement results showed that thermal management is the key in not only improving output power, but also significantly improving beam divergence and far field distribution.The results also showed that the die attach solder can significant impact the reliability of high power broad area lasers and that indium solder is not suitable for high power laser applications due to electromigration at high current densities and high temperatures.

  17. Efficient frequency doubling at 776 nm in a ring cavity (United States)

    Han, Zhen-Hai; Liu, Shi-Long; Liu, Shi-Kai; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan


    We report efficient frequency doubling (FD) at 776 nm using periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) in a ring cavity pumped by a commercial erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) operating at 1552 nm. Two sets of input couplers are used that have been optimized to operate in the low pump and high pump regimes. The maximum conversion efficiencies measured for these couplers are 65.8% (transmittance T=4.5%) and 65.9% (T=9.1%). The internal conversion efficiencies are 85.0% and 88.2%, respectively, after the mode-matching efficiency and filtering transmittance have been taken into account. The maximum output powers obtained for the two couplers are 333 mW and 602 mW at pump powers of 535 mW and 999 mW, respectively. Coupling efficiency of more than 80% to single mode fibers indicates the high beam quality of the FD laser. This FD laser will be useful for quantum optics experiments in the telecommunications band and atomic physics experiments.

  18. Quality metric for accurate overlay control in <20nm nodes (United States)

    Klein, Dana; Amit, Eran; Cohen, Guy; Amir, Nuriel; Har-Zvi, Michael; Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Karur-Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Pierson, Bill; Kato, Cindy; Kurita, Hiroyuki


    The semiconductor industry is moving toward 20nm nodes and below. As the Overlay (OVL) budget is getting tighter at these advanced nodes, the importance in the accuracy in each nanometer of OVL error is critical. When process owners select OVL targets and methods for their process, they must do it wisely; otherwise the reported OVL could be inaccurate, resulting in yield loss. The same problem can occur when the target sampling map is chosen incorrectly, consisting of asymmetric targets that will cause biased correctable terms and a corrupted wafer. Total measurement uncertainty (TMU) is the main parameter that process owners use when choosing an OVL target per layer. Going towards the 20nm nodes and below, TMU will not be enough for accurate OVL control. KLA-Tencor has introduced a quality score named `Qmerit' for its imaging based OVL (IBO) targets, which is obtained on the-fly for each OVL measurement point in X & Y. This Qmerit score will enable the process owners to select compatible targets which provide accurate OVL values for their process and thereby improve their yield. Together with K-T Analyzer's ability to detect the symmetric targets across the wafer and within the field, the Archer tools will continue to provide an independent, reliable measurement of OVL error into the next advanced nodes, enabling fabs to manufacture devices that meet their tight OVL error budgets.

  19. 1125-nm quantum dot laser for tonsil thermal therapy (United States)

    McMillan, Kathleen


    Thermal therapy has the potential to provide a nonexcisional alternative to tonsillectomy. Clinical implementation requires that the lymphoid tissue of tonsils is heated homogeneously to produce an amount of primary thermal injury that corresponds to gradual postoperative tonsil shrinkage, with minimal risk of damage to underlying critical blood vessels. Optical constants are derived for tonsils from tissue components and used to calculate the depth of 1/e of irradiance. The 1125 nm wavelength is shown to correspond to both deep penetration and minimal absorption by blood. A probe for tonsil thermal therapy that comprises two opposing light emitting, temperature controlled surfaces is described. For ex vivo characterization of tonsil heating, a prototype 1125 nm diode laser is used in an experimental apparatus that splits the laser output into two components, and delivers the radiation to sapphire contact window surfaces of two temperature controlled cells arranged to irradiate human tonsil specimens from opposing directions. Temperatures are measured with thermocouple microprobes at located points within the tissue during and after irradiation. Primary thermal damage corresponding to the recorded thermal histories are calculated from Arrhenius parameters for human tonsils. Results indicate homogeneous heating to temperatures corresponding to the threshold of thermal injury and above can be achieved in advantageously short irradiation times.

  20. Fabrication of 70nm split ring resonators by nanoimprint lithography (United States)

    Sharp, Graham J.; Khokhar, Ali Z.; Johnson, Nigel P.


    We report on the fabrication of 70 nm wide, high resolution rectangular U-shaped split ring resonators (SRRs) using nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The fabrication method for the nanoimprint stamp does not require dry etching. The stamp is used to pattern SRRs in a thin PMMA layer followed by metal deposition and lift-off. Nanoimprinting in this way allows high resolution patterns with a minimum feature size of 20 nm. This fabrication technique yields a much higher throughput than conventional e-beam lithography and each stamp can be used numerous times to imprint patterns. Reflectance measurements of fabricated aluminium SRRs on silicon substrates show a so-called an LC resonance peak in the visible spectrum under transverse electric polarisation. Fabricating the SRRs by NIL rather than electron beam lithography allows them to be scaled to smaller dimensions without any significant loss in resolution, partly because pattern expansion caused by backscattered electrons and the proximity effect are not present with NIL. This in turn helps to shift the magnetic response to short wavelengths while still retaining a distinct LC peak.

  1. Solar polarimetry through the K I lines at 770 nm (United States)

    Quintero Noda, C.; Uitenbroek, H.; Katsukawa, Y.; Shimizu, T.; Oba, T.; Carlsson, M.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; Kubo, M.; Anan, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Suematsu, Y.


    We characterize the K I D1 & D2 lines in order to determine whether they could complement the 850 nm window, containing the Ca II infrared triplet lines and several Zeeman sensitive photospheric lines, that was studied previously. We investigate the effect of partial redistribution on the intensity profiles, their sensitivity to changes in different atmospheric parameters, and the spatial distribution of Zeeman polarization signals employing a realistic magnetohydrodynamic simulation. The results show that these lines form in the upper photosphere at around 500 km, and that they are sensitive to the line-of-sight velocity and magnetic field strength at heights where neither the photospheric lines nor the Ca II infrared lines are. However, at the same time, we found that their sensitivity to the temperature essentially comes from the photosphere. Then, we conclude that the K I lines provide a complement to the lines in the 850 nm window for the determination of atmospheric parameters in the upper photosphere, especially for the line-of-sight velocity and the magnetic field.

  2. Stress release during cyclic loading of 20 nm palladium films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukáč, František, E-mail: [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, CZ-18000 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Vlček, Marián; Vlach, Martin [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, CZ-18000 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Wagner, Stefan; Uchida, Helmut; Pundt, Astrid [Institute for Materials Physics, University of Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Bell, Anthony [Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), HASYLAB, Notkestrasse 85, D-2260 Hamburg (Germany); Čížek, Jakub [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, CZ-18000 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)


    Highlights: • Repeated hydrogenation of 20 nm Pd films was investigated by in situ X-ray diffraction. • Hydride precipitates form coherent interfaces with matrix in nanocrystalline and epitaxial thin films. • Grain boundaries affect precipitation of the hydride phase in the nanocrystalline film. • Stress in epitaxial film is tensile due to different thermal expansion of Pd and sapphire. • After hydrogen absorption/desorption cycle the stress in both films becomes tensile. - Abstract: Gas phase loading of nanocrystalline and epitaxial 20 nm Pd films deposited on single crystalline sapphire substrates was studied in this work. The nanocrystalline film was deposited at room temperature and the epitaxial film deposited at 800 °C. The nanocrystalline film suffers from in-plane compressive stress imposed by atomic peening processes. The epitaxial film exhibits tensile stress caused by the different thermal expansion coefficients of Pd and sapphire substrate. Coherent phase transition into the hydride phase was observed both for the nanocrystalline and for the epitaxial film. For both films, the lattice parameters continuously increase during the phase transition to the hydride phase. Both films exhibit enhanced hydride formation pressure compared to bulk Pd. Misfit dislocations are formed at interface between Pd film and substrate during hydrogenation. This leads to irreversible change of stress state of the films subjected to sorption and desorption cycle with hydrogen.

  3. Alternating phase shift mask technology for 65nm logic applications (United States)

    Chakravorty, Kishore K.; Henrichs, Sven; Qiu, Wei; Chavez, Joas L.; Liu, Yi-Ping; Ghadiali, Firoz; Yung, Karmen; Wilcox, Nathan; Silva, Mary; Ma, Jian; Qu, Ping; Irvine, Brian; Yun, Henry; Cheng, Wen-Hao; Farnsworth, Jeff


    Alternating Phase Shift Mask (APSM) Technology has been developed and successfully implemented for the poly gate of 65nm node Logic application at Intel. This paper discusses the optimization of the mask design rules and fabrication process in order to enable high volume manufacturability. Intel's APSM technology is based on a dual sided trenched architecture. To meet the stringent OPC requirements associated with patterning of narrow gates required for the 65nm node, Chrome width between the Zero and Pi aperture need to be minimized. Additionally, APSM lithography has an inherently low MEEF that furthermore, drives a narrower Chrome line as compared to the Binary approach. The double sided trenched structure with narrow Chrome lines are mechanically vulnerable and prone to damage when exposed to conventional mask processing steps. Therefore, new processing approaches were developed to minimize the damage to the patterned mask features. For example, cleaning processes were optimized to minimize Chrome & quartz damage while retaining the cleaning effectiveness. In addition, mask design rules were developed which ensured manufacturability. The narrow Chrome regions between the zero and Pi apertures severely restrict the tolerance for the placement of the second level resists edges with respect to the first level. UV Laser Writer based resist patterning capability, capable of providing the required Overlay tolerance, was developed, An AIMS based methodology was used to optimize the undercut and minimize the aerial image CD difference between the Zero and Pi apertures.

  4. On the validity of the 630 nm Fe I nm lines for the magnetometry of the internetwork quiet Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, M J M; Cobo, B R


    The purpose of this work is to analyze the reliability of the magnetic field strengths inferred from the 630 nm pair of Fe I lines at internetwork quiet Sun regions. Some numerical experiments have been performed that demonstrate the inability of these lines to recover the magnetic field strength in such low flux solar regions. It is shown how different model atmospheres, with magnetic field strengths ranging from few hundred Gauss to kiloGauss, give rise to Stokes profiles that can not be distinguished. The reasons for this degeneracy are discussed.

  5. Holistic overlay control for multi-patterning process layers at the 10nm and 7nm nodes (United States)

    Verstappen, Leon; Mos, Evert; Wardenier, Peter; Megens, Henry; Schmitt-Weaver, Emil; Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve; Adam, Omer; Grzela, Grzegorz; van Heijst, Joost; Willems, Lotte; Wildenberg, Jochem; Ignatova, Velislava; Chen, Albert; Elich, Frank; Rajasekharan, Bijoy; Vergaij-Huizer, Lydia; Lewis, Brian; Kea, Marc; Mulkens, Jan


    Multi-patterning lithography at the 10-nm and 7-nm nodes is driving the allowed overlay error down to extreme low values. Advanced high order overlay correction schemes are needed to control the process variability. Additionally the increase of the number of split layers results in an exponential increase of metrology complexity of the total overlay and alignment tree. At the same time, the process stack includes more hard-mask steps and becomes more and more complex, with as consequence that the setup and verification of the overlay metrology recipe becomes more critical. All of the above require a holistic approach that addresses total overlay optimization from process design to process setup and control in volume manufacturing. In this paper we will present the holistic overlay control flow designed for 10-nm and 7-nm nodes and illustrate the achievable ultimate overlay performance for a logic and DRAM use case. As figure 1 illustrates we will explain the details of the steps in the holistic flow. Overlay accuracy is the driver for target design and metrology tool optimization like wavelength and polarization. We will show that it is essential to include processing effects like etching and CMP which can result in a physical asymmetry of the bottom grating of diffraction based overlay targets. We will introduce a new method to create a reference overlay map, based on metrology data using multiple wavelengths and polarization settings. A similar approach is developed for the wafer alignment step. The overlay fingerprint correction using linear or high order correction per exposure (CPE) has a large amount of parameters. It is critical to balance the metrology noise with the ultimate correction model and the related metrology sampling scheme. Similar approach is needed for the wafer align step. Both for overlay control as well as alignment we have developed methods which include efficient use of metrology time, available for an in the litho-cluster integrated

  6. CCPR-S1 Supplementary comparison for spectral radiance in the range of 220 nm to 2500 nm (United States)

    Khlevnoy, Boris; Sapritsky, Victor; Rougie, Bernard; Gibson, Charles; Yoon, Howard; Gaertner, Arnold; Taubert, Dieter; Hartmann, Juergen


    In 1997, the Consultative Committee for Photometry and Radiometry (CCPR) initiated a supplementary comparison of spectral radiance in the wavelength range from 220 nm to 2500 nm (CCPR-S1) using tungsten strip-filament lamps as transfer standards. Five national metrology institutes (NMIs) took part in the comparison: BNM/INM (France), NIST (USA), NRC (Canada), PTB (Germany) and VNIIOFI (Russia), with VNIIOFI as the pilot laboratory. Each NMI provided the transfer lamps that were used to transfer their measurements to the pilot laboratory. The intercomparison sequence began with the participant measurements, then the pilot measurements, followed by a second set of measurements by the participant laboratory. The measurements were carried out from 1998 to 2002, with the final report completed in 2008. This paper presents the descriptions of measurement facilities and uncertainties of the participants, as well as the comparison results that were analysed in accordance with the Guidelines for CCPR Comparisons Report Preparation, and a re-evaluation of the results taking into account the instability of some of the transfer lamps. Excluding a few wavelengths, all participants agree with each other within ±1.5%. The disagreement decreases to approximately ±1.0% when the anomalous data are excluded from the analysis.

  7. Final report on EUROMET PR-K2.b: Comparison on spectral responsivity (300 nm to 1000 nm) (United States)

    Campos, Joaquin; Pons, Alicia; Blattner, Peter; Dubard, Jimmy; Bastie, Jean; Litwiniuk, Lukasz; Pietrzykowski, Jerzy; Smid, Marek; Mihai, Sim; Bos, Daniel; Gran, Jarle; Bazkir, Ozcan; Fäldt, Anne A.


    This report contains the results of the regional comparison EUROMET PR-K2.b (registered in the KCDB under the identifier EURAMET.PR-K2.b). Ten laboratories took part in it, including the pilot. In general the results are consistent, with a few exceptions as explained in the report. The comparison gives international linkage in spectral responsivity from 300 nm to 1000 nm to seven European laboratories: Bundesamt für Metrologie und Akkreditierung (METAS), Norwegian Metrology and Accreditation Service (Justervesenet), Central Office of Measures (GUM), National Institute of Metrology (INM-Romania), Optics Laboratory of TUBITAK-UME (UME), Czech Metrology Institute (CMI) and Swedish National Testing and Research Institute (SP). Three laboratories provided the link to CCPR-K2.b: Bureau National de Metrologie (BNM-INM/CNAM), Instituto de Optica 'Daza de Valdés' (IO-CSIC, acting as pilot) and NMi Van Swinden Laboratorium BV (NMi-VSL). Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCPR, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  8. Photoinitiated oxidation of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol by irradiation with 254 nm and 185 nm UV light. (United States)

    Kutschera, Kristin; Börnick, Hilmar; Worch, Eckhard


    The degradation of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) by UV irradiation at different wavelengths was investigated under varying boundary conditions. The results showed that conventional UV radiation (254 nm) is ineffective in removing these compounds from water. In contrast to the usual UV radiation UV/VUV radiation (254+185 nm) was more effective in the removal of the taste and odour compounds. The degradation could be described by a simple pseudo first-order rate law with rate constants of about 1.2 x 10(-3) m(2)J(-1) for geosmin and 2-MIB in ultrapure water. In natural water used for drinking water abstraction the rate constants decreased to 2.7 x 10(-4) m(2)J(-1) for geosmin and 2.5 x 10(-4) m(2)J(-1) for 2-MIB due to the presence of NOM. Additionally, the formation of the by-product nitrite was studied. In the UV/VUV irradiation process up to 0.6 mg L(-1) nitrite was formed during the complete photoinitiated oxidation of the odour compounds. However, the addition of low ozone doses could prevent the formation of nitrite in the UV/VUV irradiation experiments.

  9. Comparison of the effects of 60 nm and 96 nm thick patterned permalloy thin films on the performance of on-chip spiral inductors (United States)

    Pulijala, Vasu; Syed, Azeemuddin


    In our earlier work it was shown that the 60 nm domain patterned Permalloy, incorporated on on-chip spiral inductors, gave better performance at frequencies greater than 5 GHz compared to the bulk Permalloy incorporated inductors, and the control structure. In this paper we compare the effects of 60 nm and 96 nm thick domain patterned Permalloy thin films, on the performance of on-chip spiral inductors. Experimental results show that the 60 nm thick both bulk and patterned Permalloys provide more improvement in inductance and quality factor of inductors, compared to that of 96 nm.

  10. 65 nm CMOS Sensors Applied to Mathematically Exact Colorimetric Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Mayr, C; Krause, A; Schlüßler, J -U; Schüffny, R


    Extracting colorimetric image information from the spectral characteristics of image sensors is a key issue in accurate image acquisition. Technically feasible filter/sensor combinations usually do not replicate colorimetric responses with sufficient accuracy to be directly applicable to color representation. A variety of transformations have been proposed in the literature to compensate for this. However, most of those rely on heuristics and/or introduce a reconstruction dependent on the composition of the incoming illumination. In this work, we present a spectral reconstruction method that is independent of illumination and is derived in a mathematically strict way. It provides a deterministic method to arrive at a least mean squared error approximation of a target spectral characteristic from arbitrary sensor response curves. Further, we present a new CMOS sensor design in a standard digital 65nm CMOS technology. Novel circuit techniques are used to achieve performance comparable with much larger-sized spe...

  11. Vanadium dioxide spatial light modulator for applications beyond 1200 nm (United States)

    Anh Do, Phuong; Hendaoui, Ali; Mortazy, Ebrahim; Chaker, Mohamed; Haché, Alain


    Spatial light modulators based on vanadium dioxide are used to demonstrate all-optical spectral filtering in the near infrared, up to 1700 nm, with potential to application into the mid-infrared. By spectrally dispersing the shaped beam and transmitting the beam through a vanadium dioxide thin film, the transmission is modified by optically pumping the film locally with a laser beam. Heating causes the film to undergo an insulator-to-metal transition, along with a drop in transmission. The spectrum can be shaped by pumping with a beam at different location and/or different intensity profiles. The method is promising for longer wavelength since the film is more efficient further in the infrared.

  12. NM-Scale Anatomy of an Entire Stardust Carrot Track (United States)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.; Clemett, S. J.; Messenger, S.


    Comet Wild-2 samples collected by NASA s Stardust mission are extremely complex, heterogeneous, and have experienced wide ranges of alteration during the capture process. There are two major types of track morphologies: "carrot" and "bulbous," that reflect different structural/compositional properties of the impactors. Carrot type tracks are typically produced by compact or single mineral grains which survive essentially intact as a single large terminal particle. Bulbous tracks are likely produced by fine-grained or organic-rich impactors [1]. Owing to their challenging nature and especially high value of Stardust samples, we have invested considerable effort in developing both sample preparation and analytical techniques tailored for Stardust sample analyses. Our report focuses on our systematic disassembly and coordinated analysis of Stardust carrot track #112 from the mm to nm-scale.

  13. Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment for the SNL/NM cafeterias.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCord, Samuel Adam


    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the two Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico cafeteria facilities between May and August 2005. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to assess waste and resource reduction opportunities and issue Pollution Prevention (P2) recommendations for Sandia's food service facilities. This PPOA contains recommendations for energy, water and resource reduction, as well as material substitution based upon environmentally preferable purchasing. Division 3000 has requested the PPOA report as part of the Division's compliance effort to implement the Environmental Management System (EMS) per DOE Order 450.1. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The SNL/NM P2 Group will work with Division 3000 and the respective cafeteria facilities to implement these options.

  14. Pixel front-end development in 65 nm CMOS technology

    CERN Document Server

    Havránek, M; Kishishita, T; Krüger, H; Wermes, N


    Luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) imposes severe constraints on the detector tracking systems in terms of radiation hardness and capability to cope with higher hit rates. One possible way of keeping track with increasing luminosity is the usage of more advanced technologies. Ultra deep sub-micron CMOS technologies allow a design of complex and high speed electronics with high integration density. In addition, these technologies are inherently radiation hard. We present a prototype of analog pixel front-end integrated circuit designed in 65 nm CMOS technology with applications oriented towards the ATLAS Pixel Detector upgrade. The aspects of ultra deep sub-micron design and performance of the analog pixel front-end circuits will be discussed.

  15. Progress in development of a monolithic 680-nm MOPA (United States)

    Pezeshki, Bardia; Osinski, Jules S.; Zhao, Hanmin; Mathur, Atul


    The various components for red MOPAs (Master Oscillator Power Amplifier) have been demonstrated and exhibit excellent performance. A major impediment has been the regrowth over material with high aluminum concentration, necessary for short wavelength operation. Nevertheless, amplifiers, DFB, and DBR lasers have been demonstrated in discrete form. Single frequency DBR and DFB lasers using a buried diffraction grating emit over 20 mW with efficiencies of up to 0.4 W/A. The DBR can be tuned over 3 nm using current injection in the grating, and preliminary lifetests indicate good reliability. Discrete flared amplifiers exhibited nearly 1.6 W pulsed, and 500 mW CW output power. The performance of the individual devices and integration issues in developing the MOPA will be discussed.

  16. Extreme ultraviolet resist materials for sub-7 nm patterning

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Li


    Continuous ongoing development of dense integrated circuits requires significant advancements in nanoscale patterning technology. As a key process in semiconductor high volume manufacturing (HVM), high resolution lithography is crucial in keeping with Moore\\'s law. Currently, lithography technology for the sub-7 nm node and beyond has been actively investigated approaching atomic level patterning. EUV technology is now considered to be a potential alternative to HVM for replacing in some cases ArF immersion technology combined with multi-patterning. Development of innovative resist materials will be required to improve advanced fabrication strategies. In this article, advancements in novel resist materials are reviewed to identify design criteria for establishment of a next generation resist platform. Development strategies and the challenges in next generation resist materials are summarized and discussed.

  17. Megasonic cleaning: possible solutions for 22nm node and beyond (United States)

    Shende, Hrishi; Singh, Sherjang; Baugh, James; Mann, Raunak; Dietze, Uwe; Dress, Peter


    Megasonic energy transfer to the photomask surface is indirectly controlled by process parameters that provide an effective handle to physical force distribution on the photomask surface. A better understanding of the influence of these parameters on the physical force distribution and their effect on pattern damage of fragile mask features can help optimize megasonic energy transfer as well as assist in extending this cleaning technology beyond the 22nm node. In this paper we have specifically studied the effect of higher megasonic frequencies (3 & 4MHz) and media gasification on pattern damage; the effect of cleaning chemistry, media volume flow rate, process time, and nozzle distance to the mask surface during the dispense is also discussed. Megasonic energy characterization is performed by measuring the acoustic energy as well as cavitation created by megasonic energy through sonoluminescence measurements.

  18. Laser lipolysis with a 980 nm diode laser. (United States)

    Forman Taub, Amy; Friedman, Adam


    Laser lipolysis is recognized as an effective, non-surgical solution for fat removal and body reshaping. Its appeal lay in the procedure's ability to treat localized fat deposits and correct body asymmetries with apparent decreased risk compared to traditional liposuction. The energy emitted by the laser uses volumetric heating to destroy fat cells, contract skin and stimulate collagenesis. Although devices of five different wavelengths are FDA approved for lipolysis, it has been found that the 980 nm diode laser is consistently successful in inducing the required fat-heat and skin-heat interactions necessary for optimal results. Although laser lipolysis is not intended to replace traditional liposuction, it offers patients a procedure that yields similar benefits with fewer complications and faster recovery.

  19. Photofragment translational spectroscopy of iodobenzene at 266 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏; 朱荣顺; 王光俊; 孙巨龙; 韩克利; 何国钟; 楼南泉


    The photofragmentation of C6 H5I at 266 nm is investigated on the nuiversal crossed molecular beam machine, and the translational spectroseopy as well as the angular distribution of I atom is measured. The results reveal that under the laser intensity of 108 W/cm2 the single-phuton dissociation competes with multi-photon processes. In singlephoton dissociation the anisotropy parameter β is 0.4 and the average translational energy is only 1.04 keal/mol, which indicates that this process is a slow predissociation. In two-photon phutofragmentation the average translational energy is 51.64 kcal/mol, which accounts for about 35% of the available energy. Another photofragmentation channel is even more faster, whose peak in time-of-flight spectra corresponds to four or five photon absorptions. The branching ratio of these three channels is determined to be about 3: 3: 4.

  20. Search for solar neutrons using NM-64 equipment (United States)

    Martinic, N. J.; Reguerin, A.; Palenque, E.; Taquichiri, M. A.; Wada, M.; Inoue, A.; Takahashi, K.


    Two years (1980 to 1982) neutron monitor data from the Chacaltaya (geographic coordinates: N16.32 deg W68. 15 deg; cutoff rigidity: 13.1 GV; altitude: 5,300 m a.s.l.) station has been scanned; the sampling time of the 12NM-64 neutron monitor is 5 min. The nucleonic component increases have been correlated with 66 hard X-, gamma rays satellite data from solar origin, as reported by several groups. Typical neutron monitor time profiles of the events are presented. Chree-analysis was performed discriminating the events according to its solar coordinates. Ground data from solar limb locii are more enhanced at the time of the onset than other geometrically visible flares. Chree histograms of neutron monitor output profiles are also presented from geometrically invisible events from the Chacaltaya station.

  1. Wide modulation bandwidth terahertz detection in 130 nm CMOS technology (United States)

    Nahar, Shamsun; Shafee, Marwah; Blin, Stéphane; Pénarier, Annick; Nouvel, Philippe; Coquillat, Dominique; Safwa, Amr M. E.; Knap, Wojciech; Hella, Mona M.


    Design, manufacturing and measurements results for silicon plasma wave transistors based wireless communication wideband receivers operating at 300 GHz carrier frequency are presented. We show the possibility of Si-CMOS based integrated circuits, in which by: (i) specific physics based plasma wave transistor design allowing impedance matching to the antenna and the amplifier, (ii) engineering the shape of the patch antenna through a stacked resonator approach and (iii) applying bandwidth enhancement strategies to the design of integrated broadband amplifier, we achieve an integrated circuit of the 300 GHz carrier frequency receiver for wireless wideband operation up to/over 10 GHz. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of low cost 130 nm Si-CMOS technology, plasma wave transistors based fast/wideband integrated receiver operating at 300 GHz atmospheric window. These results pave the way towards future large scale (cost effective) silicon technology based terahertz wireless communication receivers.

  2. Multiphoton ionization of acetone-water clusters at 355 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Reng; KONG Xiang-he; ZHANG Shu-dong; ZHANG Xia; FAN Xing-yan; ZHAO Shu-yan


    @@ The multiphoton ionization of acetone-water clusters were detected at 355 nm laser wavelength by using the time of flight mass spectrometer(TOF-MS).The experiments show that all products are protonated.Three main products such as (CH3COCH3)n-(H2O)n-2H+,(CH3COCH3)n-(H2O)n-1H+ and (CH3COCH3)n-(H2O)nH+ are concluded from the results.In order to study the equilibrium structures of the (CH3COCH3)n-(H2O)n-2H+,the ab-initio calculation is used on them.The experiment is even done when the volume rate of acetone to water is 1:2.

  3. EST Table: NM_001111334 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001111334 Br-c 10/09/29 81 %/420 aa ref|NP_001104804.1| broad-complex isoform Z1... [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAD23978.1| broad-complex Z1-isoform [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAD23983.1| broad-complex Z1-isofo...rm [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAD24045.1| Broad-Complex isoform Z1 [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAD24046.1| Broad-Complex isofor...m Z1 [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAD46732.1| broad-complex A-Z1 isoform [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAD46739.1| broad...-complex B-Z1 isoform [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAF43564.1| Broad-Complex isoform Z1 [Bombyx mori] 1

  4. Spectral narrowing of a 980 nm tapered diode laser bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Lucas Leclin, Gaëlle


    High power diode laser bars are interesting in many applications such as solid state laser pumping, material processing, laser trapping, laser cooling and second harmonic generation. Often, the free running laser bars emit a broad spectrum of the order of several nanometres which limit their scope...... in wavelength specific applications and hence, it is vital to stabilize the emission spectrum of these devices. In our experiment, we describe the wavelength narrowing of a 12 element 980 nm tapered diode laser bar using a simple Littman configuration. The tapered laser bar which suffered from a big smile has...... been "smile corrected" using individual phase masks for each emitter. The external cavity consists of the laser bar, both fast and slow axis micro collimators, smile correcting phase mask, 6.5x beam expanding lens combination, a 1200 lines/mm reflecting grating with 85% efficiency in the first order...

  5. Broadband terahertz generation and detection at 10 nm scale. (United States)

    Ma, Yanjun; Huang, Mengchen; Ryu, Sangwoo; Bark, Chung Wung; Eom, Chang-Beom; Irvin, Patrick; Levy, Jeremy


    Terahertz (0.1-30 THz) radiation reveals a wealth of information that is relevant for material, biological, and medical sciences with applications that span chemical sensing, high-speed electronics, and coherent control of semiconductor quantum bits. To date, there have been no methods capable of controlling terahertz (THz) radiation at molecular scales. Here we report both generation and detection of broadband terahertz field from 10 nm scale oxide nanojunctions. Frequency components of ultrafast optical radiation are mixed at these nanojunctions, producing broadband THz emission. These same devices detect THz electric fields with comparable spatial resolution. This unprecedented control, on a scale of 4 orders of magnitude smaller than the diffraction limit, creates a pathway toward THz-bandwidth spectroscopy and control of individual nanoparticles and molecules.

  6. Multiple product pathways in photodissociation of nitromethane at 213 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumida, Masataka; Kohge, Yasunori; Yamasaki, Katsuyoshi; Kohguchi, Hiroshi, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)


    In this paper, we present a photodissociation dynamics study of nitromethane at 213 nm in the π → π{sup *} transition. Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy and ion-imaging were applied to measure the internal state distributions and state-resolved scattering distributions of the CH{sub 3}, NO(X {sup 2}Π, A {sup 2}Σ{sup +}), and O({sup 3}P{sub J}) photofragments. The rotationally state-resolved scattering distribution of the CH{sub 3} fragment showed two velocity components, of which the slower one decreased the relative intensity as the rotational and vibrational excitations. The translational energy distribution of the faster CH{sub 3} fragment indicated the production of the NO{sub 2} counter-product in the electronic excited state, wherein 1 {sup 2}B{sub 2} was the most probable. The NO(v = 0) fragment exhibited a bimodal translational energy distribution, whereas the NO(v = 1 and 2) fragment exhibited a single translational energy component with a relatively larger internal energy. The translational energy of a portion of the O({sup 3}P{sub J}) photofragment was found to be higher than the one-photon dissociation threshold, indicating the two-photon process involved. The NO(A {sup 2}Σ{sup +}) fragment, which was detected by ionization spectroscopy via the Rydberg ←A {sup 2}Σ{sup +} transition, also required two-photon energy. These experimental data corroborate the existence of competing photodissociation product pathways, CH{sub 3} + NO{sub 2},CH{sub 3} + NO + O,CH{sub 3}O + NO, and CH{sub 3}NO + O, following the π → π{sup *} transition. The origins of the observed photofragments are discussed in this report along with recent theoretical studies and previous dynamics experiments performed at 193 nm.

  7. Lasing at 300 nm and below: Optical challenges and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzella, D. [Universite de Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Couprie, M.E. [Universite de Paris-Sud, Orsay (France)]|[CEA DSM DRECAM SPAM, Gif Sur Yvette (France); Billardon, M. [ESPCI, Paris (France)


    The FEL experiment in the visible and near UV on the Super ACO storage ring has given, since 1989, important informations on the SRFEL dynamics and, furthermore, a very good beam stability has been achieved. In addition, the operation at 350 nm with this good stability and a long beam lifetime allowed us to perform the first user experiment in biology and to start with a campaign for using the laser as photons source for experiments in other domains, coupling FEL light and the Synchrotron Radiation. For this, FEL starts to be very competitive with respect to the other conventional laser sources, provided that it could oscillate further in the UV, say at 300 nm and below. So, the real challenge is now given by the lasing at shorter wavelengths and, for this, by the optical technology existing nowadays. Since 1992 the efforts have been concentrating to look for every kind of solution allowing us to overcome the problem of having a very low gain. From an optical point of view, in the range of wavelengths explored, there is a lack of transparents dielectric materials for substrates and coatings. Substrates are required at the same time to be relatively not absorbing (a few tens 10{sup -6}), to have a very good surface quality (RMS roughness below 10 {Angstrom}) because of scattering losses dramatically increasing in this spectral range and, due to the thermal load of the undulator emission, to have adequate thermal characteristics. In order to fulfill all these requirements, a good characterisation and modelisation of the substrates is needed, especially to correlate thermal loading and mechanical deformations from one hand, and roughness and scattering losses from the other hand. Coatings must be not absorbing too and, above all, the most amorphous as possible (this could be obtained with IBS deposition technique), in order to insure a good reproduction of the substrate roughness at the interfaces and on the top layer and an higher resistance to the XUV photons load.

  8. 22 nm node wafer inspection using diffraction phase microscopy and image post-processing (United States)

    Zhou, Renjie; Popescu, Gabriel; Goddard, Lynford L.


    We applied epi-illumination diffraction phase microscopy to measure the amplitude and phase of the scattered field from a SEMATECH 22 nm node intentional defect array (IDA) wafer. We used several imaging processing techniques to remove the wafer's underlying structure and reduce both the spatial and temporal noise and eliminate the system calibration error to produce stretched panoramic amplitude and phase images. From the stretched images, we detected defects down to 20 nm × 160 nm for a parallel bridge, 20 nm × 100 nm for perpendicular bridge, and 35 nm × 70 nm for an isolated dot.

  9. A Sounding Rocket Mission Concept to Acquire High-Resolution Radiometric Spectra Spanning the 9 nm - 31 nm Wavelength Range (United States)

    Krause, L. Habash; Cirtain, Jonathan; McGuirck, Michael; Pavelitz, Steven; Weber, Ed.; Winebarger, Amy


    When studying Solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) emissions, both single-wavelength, two- dimensional (2D) spectroheliograms and multi-wavelength, one-dimensional (1D) line spectra are important, especially for a thorough understanding of the complex processes in the solar magnetized plasma from the base of the chromosphere through the corona. 2D image data are required for a detailed study of spatial structures, whereas radiometric (i.e., spectral) data provide information on relevant atomic excitation/ionization state densities (and thus temperature). Using both imaging and radiometric techniques, several satellite missions presently study solar dynamics in the EUV, including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), Hinode, and the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The EUV wavelengths of interest typically span 9 nm to 31 nm, with the shorter wavelengths being associated with the hottest features (e.g., intense flares and bright points) and the longer wavelengths associated with cooler features (e.g., coronal holes and filaments). Because the optical components of satellite instruments degrade over time, it is not uncommon to conduct sounding rocket underflights for calibration purposes. The authors have designed a radiometric sounding rocket payload that could serve as both a calibration underflight for and a complementary scientific mission to the upcoming Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI) mission aboard the GOES-R satellite (scheduled for a 2015 launch). The challenge to provide quality radiometric line spectra over the 9-31 nm range covered by SUVI was driven by the multilayer coatings required to make the optical components, including mirrors and gratings, reflective over the entire range. Typically, these multilayers provide useful EUV reflectances over bandwidths of a few nm. Our solution to this problem was to employ a three-telescope system in which the optical components were coated with multilayers that spanned three wavelength ranges to cover

  10. Simulation study of the NA/σ's dependence of DOF for 193-nm immersion lithography at 65-nm node

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guosheng Huang; Yanqiu Li


    @@ Recently, ArF immersion lithography has been considered as a promising method after ArF dry lithography by a factor of refractive index n of the liquid filled into the space between the bottom lens and wafer,in the case of 193-nm exposure tools, water (n = 1.44) has been found as the best liquid. We explore the NA/σ's dependence of depth of focus (DOF) under 3/4 annular and 3/4 quasar illumination by resist Finally, we explored the high NA's dependency of DOF and gave the explanation for the peak value of DOF through three-beam imaging process, MicroCruiser 2.0, Prolith version 8.0.2 and k2 factor based on the Rayleigh equation.

  11. NM counts in relation to CMEs and Magnetic fields (United States)

    Mishra, Rajesh Kumar; Agarwal, Rekha


    The global network of neutron monitors (NMs) have provided data to the heliophysics community for over sixty years to study the time variations of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity. Simpson recommended a standard NM for worldwide use during the International Geophysical Year (IGY, 1957-58). NM data have been used extensively for the time variation studies ranging from minutes to decades. Coronal Mass Ejections are vast structures of plasma and magnetic fields that are expelled from the sun into the heliosphere, which is detected by remote sensing and in-situ spacecraft observations. The present study is related with behaviour of four types of CMEs namely Asymmetric 'Full' Halo CMEs, Partial Halo CMEs, Asymmetric and Complex 'Full' Halo CMEs and 'Full' Halo CMEs on cosmic ray neutron monitor intensity. The data of two different ground based neutron monitors having different cutoff rigidity threshold and CME events observed with instruments onboard and Wind spacecraft have been used in the present work. The superposed epoch (Chree) analysis has been applied to the arrival times of these CMEs. The occurrence frequency of three different types of CMEs used in the present analysis shows complex behavior. Significant fluctuations in cosmic ray intensity is observed few days after the onset of asymmetric full halo and few days after the onset of full halo CMEs. The fluctuations in cosmic ray intensity are more prior to the onset of both types of the CMEs. However, during Partial Halo CMEs the cosmic ray intensity peaks, 8- 9 days prior to the onset of CMEs and depressed 3 days prior to the onset of CMEs, whereas in case of asymmetric and complex full CMEs, the intensity depressed 2 days prior to the onset of CMEs and enhanced 2 days after the onset of CMEs. The deviations in cosmic ray intensity are more pronounced in case for asymmetric and complex full halo CMEs compared to other CMEs. The cosmic ray intensity shows nearly good anti-correlation with interplanetary

  12. High-speed stimulated Brillouin scattering spectroscopy at 780 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Remer


    Full Text Available We demonstrate a high-speed stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS spectroscopy system that is able to acquire stimulated Brillouin gain point-spectra in water samples and Intralipid tissue phantoms over 2 GHz within 10 ms and 100 ms, respectively, showing a 10-100 fold increase in acquisition rates over current frequency-domain SBS spectrometers. This improvement was accomplished by integrating an ultra-narrowband hot rubidium-85 vapor notch filter in a simplified frequency-domain SBS spectrometer comprising nearly counter-propagating continuous-wave pump-probe light at 780 nm and conventional single-modulation lock-in detection. The optical notch filter significantly suppressed stray pump light, enabling detection of stimulated Brillouin gain spectra with substantially improved acquisition times at adequate signal-to-noise ratios (∼25 dB in water samples and ∼15 dB in tissue phantoms. These results represent an important step towards the use of SBS spectroscopy for high-speed measurements of Brillouin gain resonances in scattering and non-scattering samples.

  13. Recent brightness improvements of 976 nm high power laser bars (United States)

    Bachmann, Alexander; Lauer, Christian; Furitsch, Michael; König, Harald; Müller, Martin; Strauß, Uwe


    Pump modules for fiber lasers and fiber-coupled direct diode laser systems require laser diodes with a high beam quality. While in fast axis direction diode lasers exhibit a nearly diffraction limited output beam, the maximum usable output power is usually limited by the slow axis divergence blooming at high power levels. Measures to improve the lateral beam quality are subject of extensive research. Among the many influencing factors are the chip temperature, thermal crosstalk between emitters, thermal lensing, lateral waveguiding and lateral mode structure. We present results on the improvements of the lateral beam divergence and brightness of gain-guided mini-bars for emission at 976 nm. For efficient fiber coupling into a 200 μm fiber with NA 0.22, the upper limit of the lateral beam parameter product is 15.5 mm mrad. Within the last years, the power level at this beam quality has been improved from 44 W to 52 W for the chips in production, enabling more cost efficient pump modules and laser systems. Our work towards further improvements of the beam quality focuses on advanced chip designs featuring reduced thermal lensing and mode shaping. Recent R&D results will be presented, showing a further improvement of the beam quality by 15%. Also, results of a chip design with an improved lateral emitter design for highest brightness levels will be shown, yielding in a record high brightness saturation of 4.8 W/mm mrad.

  14. Technique for cellular microsurgery using the 193-nm excimer laser. (United States)

    Palanker, D; Ohad, S; Lewis, A; Simon, A; Shenkar, J; Penchas, S; Laufer, N


    A new cell surgery technique has been developed to produce well-defined alterations in cells and tissue without detectable heating and/or other structural damage in the surroundings. The technique involves the use of an argon fluoride excimer laser, in the deep ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum at 193 nm, which is guided through a glass pipette filled with a positive air pressure. To demonstrate the method, holes were drilled in the zona pellucida of mouse oocytes. The diameter of the drilled hole was determined by the pipette tip size, and its depth by an energy emitted per pulse and number of pulses. Scanning electron microscopy of the drilled mouse oocytes showed uniform, round, well-circumscribed holes with sharp edges. Oocytes that had their zona pellucida drilled with this new method fertilized in vitro and developed to the blastocyst stage in a rate similar to that of control group. These results demonstrate the nonperturbing nature of this cold laser microsurgical procedure. In addition to the extension of our results for clinical in vitro fertilization purposes, such as enhancement of fertilization and embryo biopsy, there are wide-ranging possible uses of our method in fundamental and applied investigations that require submicron accuracy in cellular alteration.

  15. Patterning challenges in the sub-10 nm era (United States)

    Preil, Moshe E.


    Historically, progress in lithography has been driven by steady advances in exposure tool and optical technology; shorter wavelength, higher numerical aperture (NA) and resolution enhancement techniques to drive the k1 factor as close as possible to the physical limit. Over the past decade, however, the pace of progress has been gated more by patterning - what we do after the resist image is printed - than by higher resolution imaging. The emphasis on patterning rather than just printing has created new pressures in many parts of the overall process, beginning with the design itself. The breakdown of lithographic error budgets into CD and OL tolerances has given way to total edge placement error (EPE) budgets where CD, OL and edge roughness, as well as film and etch variations, must all be controlled to meet the required tolerances. Contact hole and cut mask placement have likewise been tightened to single digit EPE budgets. Collaborative research between technology specialists in multiple areas, such as metrology, etch, process control and simulation, will all be required to deliver these patterning solutions for some years to come. This paper will describe some of these challenges in more detail, and suggest directions for future research to keep optical lithography relevant even below the 10 nm node.

  16. Analysis of wafer heating in 14nm DUV layers (United States)

    Subramany, Lokesh; Chung, Woong Jae; Samudrala, Pavan; Gao, Haiyong; Aung, Nyan; Gomez, Juan Manuel; Minghetti, Blandine; Lee, Shawn


    To further shrink the contact and trench dimensions, Negative Tone Development (NTD) has become the de facto process at these layers. The NTD process uses a positive tone resist and an organic solvent-based negative tone developer which leads to improved image contrast, larger process window and smaller Mask Error Enhancement Factor (MEEF)[1]. The NTD masks have high transmission values leading to lens heating and as observed here wafer heating as well. Both lens and wafer heating will contribute to overlay error, however the effects of lens heating can be mitigated by applying lens heating corrections while no such corrections exist for wafer heating yet. Although the magnitude of overlay error due to wafer heating is low relative to lens heating; ever tightening overlay requirements imply that the distortions due to wafer heating will quickly become a significant part of the overlay budget. In this work the effects, analysis and observations of wafer heating on contact and metal layers of the 14nm node are presented. On product wafers it manifests as a difference in the scan up and scan down signatures between layers. An experiment to further understand wafer heating is performed with a test reticle that is used to monitor scanner performance.

  17. Nantenna for Standard 1550 nm Optical Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Tariq Sethi


    Full Text Available Nanoscale transmission and reception technologies will play a vital role and be part of the next generation communication networks. This applies for all application fields including imaging, health, biosensing, civilian, and military communications. The detection of light frequency using nanooptical antennas may possibly become a good competitor to the semiconductor based photodetector because of the simplicity of integration, cost, and inherent capability to detect the phase and amplitude instead of power only. In this paper, authors propose simulated design of a hexagonal dielectric loaded nantenna (HDLN and explore its potential benefits at the standard optical C-band (1550 nm. The proposed nantenna consists of “Ag-SiO2-Ag” structure, consisting of “Si” hexagonal dielectric with equal lengths fed by “Ag” nanostrip transmission line. The simulated nantenna achieves an impedance bandwidth of 3.7% (190.9 THz–198.1 THz and a directivity of 8.6 dBi, at a center frequency of 193.5 THz, covering most of the ITU-T standard optical transmission window (C-band. The hexagonal dielectric nantenna produces HE20δ modes and the wave propagation is found to be end-fire. The efficiency of the nantenna is proven via numerical expressions, thus making the proposed design viable for nanonetwork communications.

  18. Solution voltammetry of 4 nm magnetite iron oxide nanoparticles. (United States)

    Roberts, Joseph J P; Westgard, John A; Cooper, Laura M; Murray, Royce W


    The voltammetry of solution-dispersed magnetite iron oxide Fe3O4 nanoparticles is described. Their currents are controlled by nanoparticle transport rates, as shown with potential step chronoamperometry and rotated disk voltammetry. In pH 2 citrate buffer with added NaClO4 electrolyte, solution cyclic voltammetry of these nanoparticles (average diameter 4.4 ± 0.9 nm, each containing ca. 30 Fe sites) displays an electrochemically irreversible oxidation with E(PEAK) at ca. +0.52 V and an irreversible reduction with E(PEAK) at ca. +0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode. These processes are presumed to correspond to the formal potentials for one-electron oxidation of Fe(II) and reduction of Fe(III) at their different sites in the magnetite nanoparticle structure. The heterogeneous electrode reaction rates of the nanoparticles are very slow, in the 10(-5) cm/s range. The nanoparticles are additionally characterized by a variety of tools, e.g., TEM, UV/vis, and XPS spectroscopies.

  19. 980nm diode laser pump modules operating at high temperature (United States)

    Campbell, Jenna; Semenic, Tadej; Leisher, Paul; Bhunia, Avijit; Mashanovitch, Milan; Renner, Daniel


    Existing thermal management technologies for diode laser pumps place a significant load on the size, weight and power consumption of High Power Solid State and Fiber Laser systems, thus making current laser systems very large, heavy, and inefficient in many important practical applications. This problem is being addressed by the team formed by Freedom Photonics and Teledyne Scientific through the development of novel high power laser chip array architectures that can operate with high efficiency when cooled with coolants at temperatures higher than 50 degrees Celsius and also the development of an advanced thermal management system for efficient heat extraction from the laser chip array. This paper will present experimental results for the optical, electrical and thermal characteristics of 980 nm diode laser pump modules operating effectively with liquid coolant at temperatures above 50 degrees Celsius, showing a very small change in performance as the operating temperature increases from 20 to 50 degrees Celsius. These pump modules can achieve output power of many Watts per array lasing element with an operating Wall-Plug-Efficiency (WPE) of >55% at elevated coolant temperatures. The paper will also discuss the technical approach that has enabled this high level of pump module performance and opportunities for further improvement.

  20. Ultraviolet absorbance at 260 and 280 nm in RNA measurement is dependent on measurement solution. (United States)

    Okamoto, T; Okabe, S


    RNA measurement is conducted by measuring ultraviolet absorbance at 260 nm and 280 nm. Calculation of the RNA concentration is based on the absorbance at 260 nm. Furthermore, RNA purity is judged as the 260 nm/280 nm ratio and a low ratio indicates contamination by protein. Diethyl-pyrocarbonate (DEPC)-treated water is used to dissolve RNA and 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propandiol (Tris) is frequently added to the RNA dissolving solution in order to stabilize the RNA. In the present study, RNA was isolated from mouse liver, and then the influence of DEPC-treated water and Tris-buffer on RNA measurement was studied. The 260 nm/280 ratio of RNA determined after diluting it with distilled water was 1.82+/-0.01 (n=5). DEPC-treated water did not affect the absorbance at 260 nm, but elevated that at 280 nm. Thus, the 260 nm/280 nm ratio was as low as 1.52+/-0.01 (n=5). Tris-HCl (1 M, pH 7.0 or 10.0) lowered the absorbance at 260 nm and even more at 280 nm. Thus, the 260 nm/280 nm ratio was elevated to more than 2.17 (n=5). The present results clearly showed the influence of the measurement solution on RNA measurement.

  1. 32nm CMOS工艺技术挑战%Challenges of Process Technology in 32nm Technology Node

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴汉明; 王国华; 黄如; 王阳元


    根据国际半导体技术发展蓝图(international technology roadmap for semiconductor,ITRS),CMOS技术将于2009年进入32nm技术节点.然而,在CMOS逻辑器件从45nm向32nm节点按比例缩小的过程中却遇到了很多难题.为了跨越尺寸缩小所带来的这些障碍,要求把最先进的工艺技术整合到产品制造过程中.文中总结并讨论了可能被引入到32nm节点的新的技术应用,涉及如下几个方面:浸入式光刻的延伸技术、迁移率增强衬底技术、金属栅/高介电常数栅介质(metal/high-k,MHK)栅结构、超浅结(ultra-shallow junction,USJ)以及其他应变增强工程的方法,包括应力邻近效应(stress proximity effect,SPT)、双重应力衬里技术(dualstress liner,DSL)、应变记忆技术(stress memorization technique,SMT)、STI和PMD的高深宽比工艺(high aspect ratio process,HARP)、采用选择外延生长(selective epitaxial growth,SEG)的嵌入SiGe(pFET)和SiC(nFET)源漏技术、中端(middle of line,MOL)和后端工艺(back-end of line,BEOL)中的金属化以及超低k介质(ultra low-k,ULK)集成等问题.%According to the international technology roadmap for semiconductors (1TRS),32nm technology node will be introduced around 2009. Scaling of CMOS logic devices from 45 to 32nm node has come across significant barriers. Overcoming these pitch-scaling induced barriers requires integrating the most advanced process technologies into product manufacturing. This paper reviews and discusses new technology applications that could be potentially integrated into 32nm node in the following areas., extension of immersion lithography, mobility enhancement substrate technology, metal/high-k (MHK) gate stack, ultra-shallow junction (USJ) and other strain enhancement engineering methods, including stress proximity effect (SPT), dual stress liner (DSL), stress memorization technique (SMT), high aspect ratio process (HARP) for STI and PMD, embedded SiGe (for pFET) and SiC (for n

  2. Broadband light generation at ~1300 nm through spectrally recoiled solitons and dispersive waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Peter Andreas; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Bang, Ole


    We experimentally study the generation of broadband light at ~1300 nm from an 810 nm Ti:sapphire femtosecond pump laser. We use two photonic crystal fibers with a second infrared zero-dispersion wavelength (λZ2) and compare the efficiency of two schemes: in one fiber λZ2=1400 nm and the light...... at 1300 nm is composed of spectrally recoiled solitons; in the other fiber λZ2=1200 nm and the light at 1300 nm is composed of dispersive waves....

  3. A compact dual-wavelength Nd:LuVO4 laser with adjustable power-ratio between 1064 nm and 1342 nm lines by controlling polarization dependent loss (United States)

    Qi, Yaoyao; Yu, Haijuan; Zhang, Jingyuan; Zhang, Ling; He, Chaojian; Lin, Xuechun


    We demonstrate a compact dual-wavelength operation of Nd:LuVO4 laser with a power-ratio adjustable between 1064 nm and 1342 nm lines in a compound cavity configuration. The output power at two wavelengths of the laser indicates that it depends not only on pumping-power and but also on the controllable polarization loss in the cavity. Also, the power-ratio, defined as ratio between the output power at 1064 nm and that at 1342 nm, can be adjusted from 0 to 8 or higher accurately by rotating a quarter-wave plate (QWP) in the cavity.

  4. Simulation of 50-nm Gate Graphene Nanoribbon Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Nanmeni Bondja


    Full Text Available An approach to simulate the steady-state and small-signal behavior of GNR MOSFETs (graphene nanoribbon metal-semiconductor-oxide field-effect transistor is presented. GNR material parameters and a method to account for the density of states of one-dimensional systems like GNRs are implemented in a commercial device simulator. This modified tool is used to calculate the current-voltage characteristics as well the cutoff frequency fT and the maximum frequency of oscillation fmax of GNR MOSFETs. Exemplarily, we consider 50-nm gate GNR MOSFETs with N = 7 armchair GNR channels and examine two transistor configurations. The first configuration is a simplified MOSFET structure with a single GNR channel as usually studied by other groups. Furthermore, and for the first time in the literature, we study in detail a transistor structure with multiple parallel GNR channels and interribbon gates. It is shown that the calculated fT of GNR MOSFETs is significantly lower than that of GFETs (FET with gapless large-area graphene channel with comparable gate length due to the mobility degradation in GNRs. On the other hand, GNR MOSFETs show much higher fmax compared to experimental GFETs due the semiconducting nature of the GNR channels and the resulting better saturation of the drain current. Finally, it is shown that the gate control in FETs with multiple parallel GNR channels is improved while the cutoff frequency is degraded compared to single-channel GNR MOSFETs due to parasitic capacitances of the interribbon gates.

  5. Novel EUV photoresist for sub-7nm node (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Furukawa, Tsuyoshi; Naruoka, Takehiko; Nakagawa, Hisashi; Miyata, Hiromu; Shiratani, Motohiro; Hori, Masafumi; Dei, Satoshi; Ayothi, Ramakrishnan; Hishiro, Yoshi; Nagai, Tomoki


    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography has been recognized as a promising candidate for the manufacturing of semiconductor devices as LS and CH pattern for 7nm node and beyond. EUV lithography is ready for high volume manufacturing stage. For the high volume manufacturing of semiconductor devices, significant improvement of sensitivity and line edge roughness (LWR) and Local CD Uniformity (LCDU) is required for EUV resist. It is well-known that the key challenge for EUV resist is the simultaneous requirement of ultrahigh resolution (R), low line edge roughness (L) and high sensitivity (S). Especially high sensitivity and good roughness is important for EUV lithography high volume manufacturing. We are trying to improve sensitivity and LWR/LCDU from many directions. From material side, we found that both sensitivity and LWR/LCDU are simultaneously improved by controlling acid diffusion length and efficiency of acid generation using novel resin and PAG. And optimizing EUV integration is one of the good solution to improve sensitivity and LWR/LCDU. We are challenging to develop new multi-layer materials to improve sensitivity and LWR/LCDU. Our new multi-layer materials are designed for best performance in EUV lithography system. From process side, we found that sensitivity was substantially improved maintaining LWR applying novel type of chemical amplified resist (CAR) and process. EUV lithography evaluation results obtained for new CAR EUV interference lithography. And also metal containing resist is one possibility to break through sensitivity and LWR trade off. In this paper, we will report the recent progress of sensitivity and LWR/LCDU improvement of JSR novel EUV resist and process.

  6. Ion Exclusion by Sub 2-nm Carbon Nanotube Pores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasiero, F; Park, H G; Holt, J K; Stadermann, M; Grigoropoulos, C P; Noy, A; Bakajin, O


    Carbon nanotubes offer an outstanding platform for studying molecular transport at nanoscale, and have become promising materials for nanofluidics and membrane technology due to their unique combination of physical, chemical, mechanical, and electronic properties. In particular, both simulations and experiments have proved that fluid flow through carbon nanotubes of nanometer size diameter is exceptionally fast compared to what continuum hydrodynamic theories would predict when applied on this length scale, and also, compared to conventional membranes with pores of similar size, such as zeolites. For a variety of applications such as separation technology, molecular sensing, drug delivery, and biomimetics, selectivity is required together with fast flow. In particular, for water desalination, coupling the enhancement of the water flux with selective ion transport could drastically reduce the cost of brackish and seawater desalting. In this work, we study the ion selectivity of membranes made of aligned double-walled carbon nanotubes with sub-2 nm diameter. Negatively charged groups are introduced at the opening of the carbon nanotubes by oxygen plasma treatment. Reverse osmosis experiments coupled with capillary electrophoresis analysis of permeate and feed show significant anion and cation rejection. Ion exclusion declines by increasing ionic strength (concentration) of the feed and by lowering solution pH; also, the highest rejection is observed for the A{sub m}{sup Z{sub A}} C{sub n}{sup Z{sub C}} salts (A=anion, C=cation, z= valence) with the greatest Z{sub A}/Z{sub C} ratio. Our results strongly support a Donnan-type rejection mechanism, dominated by electrostatic interactions between fixed membrane charges and mobile ions, while steric and hydrodynamic effects appear to be less important. Comparison with commercial nanofiltration membranes for water softening reveals that our carbon nanotube membranes provides far superior water fluxes for similar ion

  7. Development of fluoropolymer for 193nm immersion lithography (United States)

    Shirota, Naoko; Takebe, Yoko; Sasaki, Takashi; Yokokoji, Osamu; Toriumi, Minoru; Masuhara, Hiroshi


    We had already developed several series of fluoropolymers, FPRs and FUGUs, having a partially fluorinated monocyclic structure and having acidic hydroxyl group, which acts as dissolution unit into alkaline solution. Then we have optimized these polymers for top-coat as the developer-soluble type in the 193nm immersion lithography. However the hydrophobicity of these polymers were a little poor due to its hydroxyl group. So we thought that the introduction of water repellent moiety into the these polymers structure is effective to improve the their hydrophobicity though the increase of water repellent unit in the polymer leads to lower dissolution rate in developer. To introduce as much as possible of hydrophobicity unit, we selected FUGU as platform, which has larger dissolution rate in developer than that of FPRs, We copolymerized FUGU with higher water-repellent component and obtained three copolymers, FUGU-CoA, FUGU-CoB, and FUGU-CoC. In this paper, we described characteristics and evaluation of these polymers. Most of these polymer showed an improvement of hydrophobicity, in particular FUGU-CoB had excellent hydrophobicity due to introduction bulky containing-fluorine group. In this study, we also investigated the interaction between the water and various polymers by using QCM method. The difference between FUGU and water repellent polymers for swelling behavior to water became clear by analysis of diffusion coefficient. We found that our new co-polymers have excellent diffusion coefficient than FUGU which was confirmed by QCM method used to evaluate water permeability and water diffusion in the materials.

  8. 纽约NM别墅%VilLa NM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    VilLA NM is a family summerhouse situated in a hilly and woody area, some two hours drive from NYC. This area of up-state New York used to be a destination for the elite during the twenties and thirties. In subsequent years the area suffered a decline in popularity, but now more thirty years on the area is once again open for new developments and is regaining its popularity amongst the younger people of NYC who like to escape the bustle of the big city.%不同于大型的公共建筑.NM别墅是一个私人住宅项目,位于市中心约两小时车程远的纽约北部地区.此地区现在是纽约年轻人的度假之所.故能远离大城市的喧闹熙攘。其功能正是作为一个小家庭的夏季避暑别墅.基地环境为广大的草原,外围环绕着大片树林.整个7,000平方米的地形为一个缓绛的斜坡.拥有360度的景观视野。单一的纸盒状结构分为两个独立空间.一个沿着北侧山坡蜿蜒.另一个则随着山势攀升.如同同个树枝生长出的两个分枝.创造出停车空间的同时也展现错落有致的室内结构。

  9. Second (1178 nm) and third (1242 nm) Stokes Raman fiber lasers without intermediate Stokes cavities (United States)

    Mejía, E. B.; Juárez-Hernández, M.; De la Cruz-May, L.


    We report and propose a simple Raman fiber laser scheme that generates two or three order Raman Stokes components by using a single strong (unidirectional) cavity formed by a high-reflecting fiber Bragg grating and air-glass interface (fiber output); the intermediate cavities are non-grating, weak and bi-directional cavities that serve as ‘virtual links’ or energy reservoirs. Once the strong cavity reaches operation, it practically consumes (converts) all the energy from pump and intermediate components into a single and clamped (unidirectional) signal. For example, the use of second-Stokes fiber Bragg grating together with glass-air output operated and harvested practically all the energy. Analogously, third Stokes emission was obtained by changing the grating and hence relying on first and second non-grating formed intermediate cavities. The system uses commercial silica fiber and minimizes the use of lossy and costly fiber Bragg gratings. This proposal broadens the possibilities for covering the entire 1000-2000 nm window for applications that use silica fibers.

  10. InterProScan Result: NM_001160200 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001160200 NM_001160200_1_ORF1 FD6AA0703C21CBBA PRINTS PR00399 SYNAPTOTAGMN 2.000...0007521745652E-16 T IPR001565 Synaptotagmin Molecular Function: transporter activity (GO:0005215)|Biological

  11. 167 W, 1178 nm Ytterbium-Doped Photonic Bandgap Fiber Amplifier with Power Scalability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Shirakawa, Akira; Chen, Meishin


    We have generated 167 W of output power at 1178 nm using an ytterbium-doped photonic bandgap fiber. Distributed spectral filtering efficiently suppresses amplified spontaneous emission at shorter wavelengths and enables power scalable amplification at 1178nm.......We have generated 167 W of output power at 1178 nm using an ytterbium-doped photonic bandgap fiber. Distributed spectral filtering efficiently suppresses amplified spontaneous emission at shorter wavelengths and enables power scalable amplification at 1178nm....

  12. 13.5 nm High Harmonic Generation Driven by a Visible Noncollinear Optical Parametric Amplifier (United States)


    light source. We build a high energy tunable visible Optical Parametric Amplifier, and drive High Harmonic Generation in Argon and Helium . We study how...wavelength of 13.5 nm. The results agree well with a previously developed theoretical model. We predict that using a 630-nm driver in Helium could have a...light on the photo resist. Current techniques are capable of producing sub-100-nm features by using UV light at 193 nm from excimer lasers, but for

  13. 78 FR 78300 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Albuquerque, NM... VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigation Aid (VORTAC), Albuquerque, NM, to facilitate... navigation aid, Albuquerque, NM. This action would contain aircraft while in IFR conditions under control...

  14. 78 FR 41420 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale NMNM-126813, NM (United States)


    ... in the BLM Conference Room, New Mexico State Office, 301 Dinosaur Trail, Santa Fe, NM 87508. Sealed bids must be submitted to: Cashier, New Mexico State Office, 301 Dinosaur Trail, Santa Fe, NM 87508... at 301 Dinosaur Trail, Santa Fe, NM 87508 or the Farmington District Office at 6251 College Blvd....

  15. Delayed fluorescence spectroscopy and mechanism of the 730 nm component of chloroplast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cheng-long; XING Da; FAN Duo-wang; QIAN Long; LU Mai


    Charge recombination in reaction center (RC) of photosystem Ⅱ(PS Ⅱ)is regarded as the location of 685 nm delayed fluorescence (DF). The mechanism of 730 nm component appearing in the DF spectrum for chloroplast was studied by various spectral analysis methods. Experimental results of the DF spectrum at different chloroplast concentration show that the intensity of peaks at 685nm and 730 nm ascends with the chloroplast concentration increasing when the concentration is relatively low. When the concentration increases to the level of 7.8 μg/ml, a maximum intensity of the peak at 685 nm appears but the intensity of 730 nm peak still increases. The peak at 730 nm finally reaches a maximum intensity at the chloroplast concentration of 31.2 μg/ml while the intensity of the 685 nm peak has apparently fallen down. The results of absorption spectrum show that the ratios of A685 to A730 keep almost constant with the increasing of chloroplast concentration. Furthermore, the excitation spectrum for 730 nm fluorescence shows that the 685nm light has high excitation efficiency.These results indicate that the 730nm component of DF spectrum is the fluorescence of chlorophyll in PS Ⅰ RC excited by 685 nm DF. Meanwhile, this can be further verified by the invariability of DF spectrum at different delay time (1 second~9 seconds).

  16. New optional photodynamic therapy laser wavelength for infantile port wine stains: 457 nm (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zuo, Zhaohui; Gu, Ying; Huang, Naiyan; Chen, Rong; Li, Buhong; Qiu, Haixia; Zeng, Jing; Zhu, Jianguo; Liang, Jie


    To expand the optional laser wavelengths of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for port wine stain (PWS), the feasibility of applying a 457 nm laser to the PDT for infantile PWS was analyzed by mathematical simulation and was validated by clinical experiment. Singlet oxygen yield of 457 nm PDT or 532 nm PDT in an infantile PWS model and an adult PWS model was theoretically simulated. Fifteen PWS patients (14 infants and 1 adult) with 40 spots were treated with 457 nm (20 spots) and 532 nm (20 spots), respectively, in two PDT courses. Simulation results showed that under the same power density and irradiation time, singlet oxygen yield of 457 nm PDT and 532 nm PDT are similar in infantile PWS vessels. Yet, in adult PWS vessels, singlet oxygen yield of 457 nm PDT is lower than 532 nm PDT. Clinical outcomes showed that no statistic difference existed between 457 nm PDT and 532 nm PDT for infantile PWS. The result of this study suggested that 457 nm wavelength laser has the potential to be applied in PDT for infantile PWS.

  17. 730-nm optical parametric conversion from near- to short-wave infrared band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boggio, J.M.C.; Windmiller, J.R.; Knutzen, M.;


    A record 730 nm parametric conversion in silica fiber from the near-infrared to the short-wave infrared band is reported and analyzed. A parametric gain in excess of 30 dB was measured for a signal at 1300 nm (with corresponding idler at 2030 nm). This conversion was performed in a travelling...

  18. Design of Current steering DAC using 250nm CMOS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Tiwari


    applied at the reference terminal. Analog to digital converter performs the reverse operation. It has many era of operations in audio and Video form and whiffletree electromagnetic device uses DAC linkage in typewriter. It describes the 3.3 volt, 65 MHz 8 bit CMOS digital to analog converter, includes two stage current cell matrix. This paper describes a 1v CMOS 8 bit DAC with two stage current cell matrix architecture which consists of 4 MSB and 4 LSB current matrix stage. The symmetric two stage current cell matrix architecture allows the designed DAC to reduce not only the complexity of decoding logic, but also the no of high swing current mirrors. The designed DAC with a by 90 nm nwell CMOS standard process. The experiment is based on settling time, Integrity, or non linearity. The designed DAC is fully operational for power supply down to 1 volt such that DAC is suitable for low voltage and low power applications.

  19. Mask design rules (45 nm): time for standardization (United States)

    Mason, Mark; Progler, Christopher J.; Martin, Patrick; Ham, Young-Mog; Dillon, Brian; Pack, Robert; Heins, Mitch; Gookassian, John; Garcia, John; Boksha, Victor


    Time-to-mask (ttm) has been growing exponentially in the subwavelength era with the increased application of advanced RET's (Resolution Enhancement Technology). Not only are a greater number of design/mask layers impacted but more-and-more layers also have more severe restrictions on critical dimension uniformity (CDU) despite operating at a very low k1 factors necessitating rigorous but practical tolerancing. Furthermore, designs are also more complex, may be built up from blocks spanning different design styles, and occupy increasingly-large Rayleigh field areas. Given these factors and scales, it's no wonder that the cycle time for verification of a design following RET, is growing however it is doing so exponentially and that this is a critical factor impeding ttm. Until an unambiguously interprable and standard Mask Design Rule (MaskDR) set is created, neither the designer nor the mask supplier can reliably verify manufacturability of the mask for the simple reason that ambiguity and inter-rule conflict are at the source of the problem and that the problem increasingly requires cooperation spanning a large ecosystem of tool, IP, and mask suppliers all needing to essentially speak the same language. Since the 130 nm node, Texas Instruments has enforced a strict set of mask rule checks (MRCs) in their mask data preparation (MDP) flow based on MaskDRs negotiated with their mask suppliers. The purpose of this effort has been to provide an a-priori guarantee that the data shipped to the mask shop can be used to manufacture a mask reliably and with high yield both from a mask standpoint and from the silicon standpoint. As has been reported earlier, mask manufacturing rules are usually determined from assumed or experimentally acquired/validated mask-manufacturing limits. These rules are then applied during RET/MDP data treatment to guide and/or limit pattern correction strategies. With increasing RET and low-k1 lithography challenges, the importance of MRCs

  20. Tandem-pumped 1120-nm actively Q-switched fiber laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建华; 胡金萌; 张世强; 陈露璐; 房勇; 冯衍


    We report on a tandem-pumped actively Q-switched fiber laser system emitting at 1120 nm. Parasitic oscillation is challenging in Yb-doped Q-switched 1120-nm fiber laser, which is suppressed by pumping with a fiber laser at 1018 nm. At least 4 times improvement in output peak power is demonstrated in a single laser setup with 1018-nm fiber laser pumping instead of 976-nm laser diode pumping. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of a tandem-pumped Q-switched fiber laser.

  1. Deposition and characterization of ITO films produced by laser ablation at 355 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmelund, E.; Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte; Schou, Jørgen;


    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films have been deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at 355 nm. Even though the absorption of laser light at the wavelength 355 nm is much smaller than that of the standard excimer lasers for PLD at 248 nm and 193 nm, high-quality films can be produced. At high fluenc...... light, about 0.9, is also comparable to values for films deposited by excimer lasers. The crystalline structure of films produced at 355 nm is similar to that of samples produced by these lasers....

  2. Production of 70-nm Cr dots by laser-induced forward transfer. (United States)

    Sametoglu, Vahit; Sauer, Vincent T K; Tsui, Ying Y


    The effect of donor film thickness and laser beam fluence on the size of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) spots is studied to achieve sub-100 nm features. A 130 fs, 800 nm laser is focused on ultrathin Cr films, and the transfer and ablation thresholds of these films at various thicknesses are determined. The minimum transfer spot size decreases with decreasing donor film thickness and incident laser fluence. Minimum LIFT spots of 70-450 nm diameter are obtained from films of 20-80 nm thickness, respectively. The 70 nm diameter transfer spots obtained from sputtered continuous films are the smallest to date.

  3. Efficient 266 nm Ultraviolet Beam Generation in K2Al2B2O7 Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕军华; 王桂玲; 许祖彦; 陈创天; 王继扬; 张承乾; 刘耀岗


    The ultraviolet beam at 266 nm was obtained by fourth harmonic generation of 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser radiation through a nonlinear crystal K2Al2 B2O7 (KABO). The fundamental frequency of a Hash-lamp pumped Nd: YAG laser was doubled in a β-Ba2B2O4 crystal to generate a second harmonic output at the wavelength of 532 nm,and then doubled again in the KABO crystal to generate the fourth harmonic output at 266 nm. The optical conversion efficiency from 532 to 266 nm was investigated for the first time, and 13% was achieved.

  4. Self-assembled WO3-x hierarchical nanostructures for photothermal therapy with a 915 nm laser rather than the common 980 nm laser. (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Yuxin; Zou, Rujia; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Bingjie; An, Lei; Yin, Fei; Hua, Yingqi; Hu, Junqing


    Photothermal therapy (PTT) is limited by unsuitable photothermal agents and near-infrared (NIR) light. Herein, self-assembled PEGylated WO3-x hierarchical nanostructures, which could serve as excellent laser-cavity mirrors, were successfully prepared via a simple one-pot solvothermal route. The as-prepared WO3-x hierarchical nanostructures displayed strong near-infrared absorption. The absorption of pure water at 980 nm is 30 times higher than that at 915 nm, and the temperature of water only increased by 3.4 °C under the irradiation of a 915 nm laser with a power density of 1.0 W cm(-2) for 10 min, while the temperature of water increased as much as 15.1 °C for the 980 nm laser. With continuous excitation by 915 nm light, the photothermal conversion efficiency of these WO3-x hierarchical nanostructures was evaluated to be 28.1%. Thus, the WO3-x hierarchical nanostructures could serve as excellent laser-cavity mirrors of a 915 nm laser. The PTT study on cancer cells in vivo demonstrated that the WO3-x hierarchical nanostructures can generate enough heat for efficient photothermal therapy of cancer cells under the irradiation of a 915 nm laser with a power density of 1.2 W cm(-2) over a short period (5-10 min).

  5. Short-term clinical outcomes of laser supported periodontal treatment concept using Er,Cr:YSGG (2780nm) and diode (940 nm): a pilot study (United States)

    Odor, Alin A.; Violant, Deborah; Badea, Victoria; Gutknecht, Norbert


    Backgrounds: Er,Cr:YSGG (2780nm) and diode (940 nm) lasers can be used adjacent to the conventional periodontal treatment as minimally invasive non-surgical devices. Aim: To describe the short-term clinical outcomes by combining Er,Cr:YSGG (2780nm) and diode 940 nm lasers in non-surgical periodontal treatment. Materials and methods: A total of 10 patients with periodontal disease (mild, moderate, severe) - 233 teeth and 677 periodontal pockets ranging from 4 mm to 12 mm - were treated with Er,Cr:YSGG (2780nm) and diode (940 nm) lasers in adjunct to manual and piezoelectric scaling and root planning (SRP). Periodontal parameters such as mean probing depth (PD), mean clinical attachment level (CAL) and mean bleeding on probing (BOP) were evaluated at baseline and 6 months after the laser treatment using an electronic periodontal chart. Results: At baseline, the mean PD was 4.06 ± 1.06 mm, mean CAL was 4.56 ± 1.43 mm, and mean BOP was 43.8 ± 23.84 %. At 6 months after the laser supported periodontal treatments the mean PD was 2.6 ± 0.58 mm (p periodontal clinical parameters such as PD, CAL and BOP. Keywords: Laser supported periodontal treatment concept, Er,Cr:YSGG and diode 940nm lasers, Scaling and root planning, Minimally invasive non-surgical device

  6. Process latitude comparison of advanced DUV photoresists to latest-generation 193-nm photoresists (United States)

    Joesten, Lori A.; Reilly, Michael T.; Linskens, Frank T.; Jehoul, Christiane; Parker, Colin R.


    The introduction of resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) and higher numerical aperture (NA) scanners has pushed the capability of 248nm (DUV) processes to below 130nm. This extension of DUV technology has made the decision to insert 193nm difficult. The decision to either extend the current DUV processes or to change to 193nm will depend on several things: mask costs, tool costs, material availability and photoresist performance. The focus of this paper is on photoresist performance. The process latitudes of advanced DUV photoresists are compared to the latest generation of 193nm resists and simulation is used to estimate the performance obtained on the next generation scanners. This paper examines resist process latitude at several feature sizes to determine the strengths and weaknesses of each platform. The feature sizes to be examined include 130nm, 120nm and 110nm with a pitch ratio of 1:1 Lines/Spaces. The resists are processed on the appropriate anti-reflectant and a resist film thickness of approximately 3,000 angstrom is used. The measured lithographic response will be the individual process windows. The examination of each platform's performance will clarify the differences between the two resists on current scanners and estimate the differences on the next generation scanners. The results show experimentally that the current 193nm resist has slightly better process latitudes than the DUV resist for 1:1 Line/Spaces below 130nm. The estimation of performance on the next generation higher NA scanners indicate that the DUV resist will have better performance than the current 193nm resist. However, when the 193nm resists reach the same maturity as the DUV resist and respond to the aerial images accordingly, the 193nm resist will have better process latitude. While few resolution enhancement techniques are used in the experiments, the results do provide a piece of information required to decide between DUV and 193nm.

  7. Performance comparison of 850-nm and 1550-nm VCSELs exploiting OOK, OFDM, and 4-PAM over SMF/MMF links for low-cost optical interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karinou, Fotini; Deng, Lei; Rodes Lopez, Roberto


    modulation (4-PAM), for the 1550-nm transmitter over SMF and MMF links and we compare it to the data-rate equivalent NRZ-OOK. The extensive performance comparison under various transmission scenarios shows the superiority of 1550-nm single-mode VCSEL compared to its multi-mode 850-nm counterpart. Moreover......, OFDM/DD and 4-PAM in conjunction with low-cost, inexpensive VCSELs as transmitters prove to be an enabling technology for next-generation WDM, point-to-point, short-reach, SMF/MMF optical interconnects and potential candidates to substitute NRZ-OOK. Nevertheless, the sensitivity requirements are higher...

  8. Tunable intra-cavity SHG of CW Ti:Sapphire lasers around 785 nm and 810 nm in BiBO-crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Morten; Mortensen, Jesper Liltorp; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter


    Phasematch curves as well as sensitivity to angular and wavelength misalignment for generation of second-harmonic of 785 nm and 810 nm in Bi3BO6 crystal was calculated. Measurements were done for intra-cavity CW SHG in a Ti:Sapphire laser. The BiBO crystal was found to be excellent for this appli......Phasematch curves as well as sensitivity to angular and wavelength misalignment for generation of second-harmonic of 785 nm and 810 nm in Bi3BO6 crystal was calculated. Measurements were done for intra-cavity CW SHG in a Ti:Sapphire laser. The BiBO crystal was found to be excellent...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lun-xu; ZHOU Qing-hua; SHI Ying-kang; QIN Yang; SUN Zhi-lin; SUN Ze-fang


    Objective: To investigate the role of nm23 gene expression in human lung cancer. Methods: Forty human lung cancer tissues and 19 non-cancer pulmonary tissues were studied for their nm23-H1 and nm23-H2 mRNA expression with non-radioactive Northern blot hybridization. The correlation of nm23 mRNA expression with clinical features of lung cancer was analyzed. Results: The mRNA expression of nm23-H2 gene in poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma was significantly decreased compared to that in moderate-high differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The mRNA expression of nm23-H1 and nm23-H2 gene in small cell lung cancer was significantly decreased compared to that in squamous cell carcinoma. No significant difference in nm23 mRNA expression was observed between lung cancer with and without lymph node metastasis, nor was there significant difference between tumor stage. Conclusion: The mRNA expression of nm23 gene is correlated with the degree of differentiation of lung cancer, but there is no evidence of metastasis suppression effect by nm23 gene.

  10. Gold Nanoparticles of Diameter 13 nm Induce Apoptosis in Rabbit Articular Chondrocytes (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Quan, Ying-yao; Wang, Xiao-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng


    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been widely used in biomedical science including antiarthritic agents, drug loading, and photothermal therapy. In this report, we studied the effects of AuNPs with diameters of 3, 13, and 45 nm, respectively, on rabbit articular chondrocytes. AuNPs were capped with citrate and their diameter and zeta potential were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Cell viability was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay after the rabbit articular chondrocytes were pre-incubated with 3, 13, and 45 nm AuNPs, respectively, for 24 h. Flow cytometry (FCM) analysis with annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining and fluorescence imaging with Hoechst 33258 staining were used to determine the fashion of AuNPs-induced chondrocyte death. Further, 13 nm AuNPs (2 nM) significantly induced chondrocyte death accompanying apoptotic characteristics including mitochondrial damage, externalization of phosphatidylserine and nuclear concentration. However, 3 nm AuNPs (2 nM) and 45 nm (0.02 nM) AuNPs did not induce cytotoxicity in chondrocytes. Although 13 nm AuNPs (2 nM) increased the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, pretreatment with Nacetyl cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, did not prevent the cytotoxicity induced by 13 nm AuNPs, indicating that 13 nm AuNPs (2 nM) induced ROS-independent apoptosis in chondrocytes. These results demonstrate the size-dependent cytotoxicity of AuNPs in chondrocytes, which must be seriously considered when using AuNPs for treatment of osteoarthritis (OA).

  11. First demonstration of InGaP/InAlGaP based 608nm orange laser and 583nm yellow superluminescent diode

    KAUST Repository

    Majid, M. A.


    We report on the first demonstration of InGaP/InAlGaP based orange semiconductor laser (OSL) and yellow superluminescent diode (YSLD) emitting at a wavelength of 608nm and 583nm respectively. The total output power of YSLD is ∼4.5mW which is the highest ever reported power on this material system at room-temperature.

  12. Bilirubin isomer distribution in jaundiced neonates during phototherapy with LED light centered at 497 nm (turquoise) vs. 459 nm (blue)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Finn; Madsen, Poul H; Vandborg, Pernille K;


    of jaundiced neonates after 24 h of therapy with narrow-band (LED) light centered at 497 nm (turquoise) vs. 459 nm (blue), of essentially equal irradiance. MATERIALS: Eighty-three neonates (≥33 wk gestational age) with uncomplicated hyperbilirubinemia were included in the study. Forty neonates were exposed...... to light centered at 497 nm and 43 infants with light centered at 459 nm. Irradiances were 5.2 × 10(15) and 5.1 × 10(15) photons/cm(2)/s, respectively. RESULTS: After 24 h of treatment no significant differences in serum concentrations of total bilirubin isomers and Z,Z-bilirubin were observed between...... the 2 groups. Interestingly, concentrations of Z,E-bilirubin, and thus also total bilirubin isomers formed during therapy, were highest for infants receiving light centered at 459 nm, while the concentration of E,Z-bilirubin was highest for those receiving light centered at 497 nm. No significant...

  13. CMOS-NEMS Copper Switches Monolithically Integrated Using a 65 nm CMOS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Muñoz-Gamarra


    Full Text Available This work demonstrates the feasibility to obtain copper nanoelectromechanical (NEMS relays using a commercial complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology (ST 65 nm following an intra CMOS-MEMS approach. We report experimental demonstration of contact-mode nano-electromechanical switches obtaining low operating voltage (5.5 V, good ION/IOFF (103 ratio, abrupt subthreshold swing (4.3 mV/decade and minimum dimensions (3.50 μm × 100 nm × 180 nm, and gap of 100 nm. With these dimensions, the operable Cell area of the switch will be 3.5 μm (length × 0.2 μm (100 nm width + 100 nm gap = 0.7 μm2 which is the smallest reported one using a top-down fabrication approach.

  14. Comparison of 532 nm Potassium Titanyl Phosphate Laser and 595 nm Pulsed Dye Laser in the Treatment of Erythematous Surgical Scars: A Randomized, Controlled, Open-Label Study. (United States)

    Keaney, Terrence C; Tanzi, Elizabeth; Alster, Tina


    The pulsed dye laser (PDL) has long been used for treatment of erythematous and hypertrophic scars. Its effectiveness has been attributed in large part to its vascular-specificity. The vascular-specific potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser has also been reported to be clinically effective for scars, but has not been compared to the PDL. To compare the safety and clinical efficacy of a 532-nm KTP laser versus a 595-nm PDL in improving the appearance of erythematous surgical scars. Twenty patients with matched bilateral erythematous surgical scars or a single linear erythematous scar measuring longer than 5 cm were enrolled in the study. Single scars were divided into equal halves with each half randomized to receive 3 successive treatments at 6-week intervals with either a 532-nm KTP laser (Excel V; Brisbane, CA) or a 595-nm PDL (Cynergy; Cynosure Inc., Chelmsford, MA) at equivalent laser parameters. Bilateral matched scars were similarly randomized to receive three 532-nm KTP or 595-nm PDL treatments. Clinical efficacy was evaluated 12 weeks after the third (final) laser treatment by independent, blinded photographic scar assessments. Secondary evaluations included final investigator and subject treatment/satisfaction assessments, Vancouver scar scale (VSS) scores, subject scar symptoms, intraoperative pain scores, and incidence of side effects. Clinical improvement of erythematous surgical scars was observed with both 532-nm KTP and 595-nm PDL systems. No statistically significant differences between the 2 treatment arms were noted in the independent, blinded photographic scar assessments, investigator and subject treatment/satisfaction assessments, subject scar symptoms, and intraoperative pain scores. The KTP arm produced statistically significant improvement for the vascularity component of the VSS only. Side effects were limited to mild treatment discomfort and minimal transient post-treatment erythema and purpura. No vesiculation, infection, scarring or

  15. Semiconductor lasers with a continuous tuning range above 100 nm in the nearest IR spectral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostin, Yu O; Lobintsov, A A; Shramenko, M V [OOO ' Opton' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Ladugin, M A; Marmalyuk, A A [Open Joint-Stock Company M.F. Stel' makh Polyus Research Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chamorovsky, A Yu [Superlum Ltd., Unit B3, Fota Point Enterprise Park, Carrigtwohill, Co Cork (Ireland); Yakubovich, S D [Moscow State Institute of Radio-Engineering, Electronics and Automation (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We have developed two new types of lasers based on quantum-confined semiconductor optical amplifiers with an acousto-optic tunable filter in an external fibre ring cavity. The lasers offer continuous wavelength tuning ranges from 780 to 885 and from 880 to 1010 nm, 20 mW of cw output power, and a tuning rate up to 10{sup 4} nm s{sup -1} at an instantaneous spectral linewidth less than 0.1 nm. (lasers)

  16. InAs/GaAs submonolayer quantum dot superluminescent diode emitting around 970 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xin-Kun; Liang De-Chun; Jin Peng; An Qi; Wei Heng; Wu Jian; Wang Zhan-Guo


    According to the InAs/GaAs submonolayer quantum dot active region,we demonstrate a bent-waveguide superlnminescent diode emitting at a wavelength of around 970 nm.At a pulsed injection current of 0.5 A,the device exhibits an output power of 24 mW and an emission spectrum centred at 971 nm with a full width at half maximum of 16 nm.

  17. Exploiting Challenges of Sub-20 nm CMOS for Affordable Technology Scaling


    Vaidyanathan, Kaushik


    For the past four decades, cost and features have driven CMOS scaling. Severe lithography and material limitations seen below the 20 nm node, however, are challenging the fundamental premise of affordable CMOS scaling. Just continuing to co-optimize leaf cell circuit and layout designs with process technology does not enable us to exploit the challenges of a sub-20 nm CMOS. For affordable scaling it is imperative to work past sub-20 nm technology impediments while exploiting its features. To ...

  18. Stimulated Emission at 722.9 nm by Laser Photodissociation of PbI2 Vapor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAN Bao-Yuan; ZHANG Jie; NI Pei-Gen; ZHANG Dao-Zhong


    The stimulated emission at 722.9nm is observed by a direct photodissociation of the PbI2 molecules with a 266nm pulse laser. The possible dissociation channels are discussed. Two-photon resonant photodissociation mechanism is used to explain the generation of the 722.9 nm emission. The emission is measured at different incident laser energy and heat-pipe temperature. The obtained experimental result is well supported by the photodissociation mechanism given by us.

  19. Ablation dynamic studies of polymers with a coherent VUV source at 125 nm (United States)

    Riedel, D.; Castex, M. C.


    First demonstration is given here about the use of a VUV coherent source at 125 nm for efficient and clean etching of polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE and poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA polymers. Measurements of etch rate as a function of fluence and number of shots are presented and compared with previous works using 157 nm (F2 laser) and 193 nm (ArF laser). Experimental results are presented and physical approach is made with classical Beer-Lambert's absorption law and discussed.

  20. Process, design and optical proximity correction requirements for the 65nm device generation (United States)

    Lucas, Kevin; Montgomery, Patrick; Litt, Lloyd C.; Conley, Will; Postnikov, Sergei V.; Wu, Wei; Yuan, Chi-Min; Olivares, Marc; Strozewski, Kirk; Carter, Russell L.; Vasek, James; Smith, David; Fanucchi, Eric L.; Wiaux, Vincent; Vandenberghe, Geert; Toublan, Olivier; Verhappen, Arjan; Kuijten, Jan P.; van Wingerden, Johannes; Kasprowicz, Bryan S.; Tracy, Jeffrey W.; Progler, Christopher J.; Shiro, Eugene; Topouzov, Igor; Wimmer, Karl; Roman, Bernard J.


    The 65nm device generation will require steady improvements in lithography scanners, resists, reticles and OPC technology. 193nm high NA scanners and illumination can provide the desired dense feature resolution, but achieving the stringent overall 65nm logic product requirements necessitates a more coherent strategy of reticle, process, OPC, and design methods than was required for previous generations. This required integrated patterning solution strategy will have a fundamental impact on the relationship between design and process functions at the 65nm device node.

  1. Laser produced spectrum of Si(2) molecule in the region of 540-1010 nm. (United States)

    Ojha, K S; Gopal, R


    The laser produced spectrum of Si(2) molecule is recorded for the first time using laser ablation technique in the region of 540-1010 nm. About 110 bands are observed in the entire spectral region and all these bands are classified into three band systems, viz. E-X, F-X and G-X of Si(2) molecule lying in the region of 814-1010 nm, 630-900 nm and 546-710 nm, respectively. All these electronic transitions take place from ground state X(3)Sigma(g)(-) state. The molecular constants of all these states have been determined.

  2. The SEMATECH Berkeley MET pushing EUV development beyond 22-nm half pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naulleau, P.; Anderson, C. N.; Backlea-an, L.-M.; Chan, D.; Denham, P.; George, S.; Goldberg, K. A.; Hoef, B.; Jones, G.; Koh, C.; La Fontaine, B.; McClinton, B.; Miyakawa, R.; Montgomery, W.; Rekawa, S.; Wallow, T.


    Microfield exposure tools (METs) play a crucial role in the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resists and masks, One of these tools is the SEMATECH Berkeley 0.3 numerical aperture (NA) MET, Using conventional illumination this tool is limited to approximately 22-nm half pitch resolution. However, resolution enhancement techniques have been used to push the patterning capabilities of this tool to half pitches of 18 nm and below, This resolution was achieved in a new imageable hard mask which also supports contact printing down to 22 nm with conventional illumination. Along with resolution, line-edge roughness is another crucial hurdle facing EUV resists, Much of the resist LER, however, can be attributed to the mask. We have shown that intenssionally aggressive mask cleaning on an older generation mask causes correlated LER in photoresist to increase from 3.4 nm to 4,0 nm, We have also shown that new generation EUV masks (100 pm of substrate roughness) can achieve correlated LER values of 1.1 nm, a 3x improvement over the correlated LER of older generation EUV masks (230 pm of substrate roughness), Finally, a 0.5-NA MET has been proposed that will address the needs of EUV development at the 16-nm node and beyond, The tool will support an ultimate resolution of 8 nm half-pitch and generalized printing using conventional illumination down to 12 nm half pitch.

  3. Amplification à 980 nm dans une fibre dopée à l'ytterbium (United States)

    Bouchier, A.; Lucas-Leclin, G.; Balembois, F.; Georges, P.


    L'ion Yb3+ dans une matrice de silice présente une section efficace d'émission maximale aux alentours de 980 nm. Cependant, la réabsorption importante à cette même longueur impose des puissances de pompage élevées. L'objet de notre étude est de concrétiser cette amplification à 980 nm, en étudiant le gain obtenu pour un signal à 976 nm et un pompage à 920 nm, en vue de réaliser le doublage de ce signal pour obtenir une source émettant dans le bleu.

  4. Chalcogenide compounds made by pulsed laser deposition at 355 and 248 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettlinger, Rebecca Bolt; Cazzaniga, Andrea Carlo; Crovetto, Andrea;

    Thin films made by pulsed laser deposition may differ depending on the laser wavelength. We compared ZnS, Cu2SnS3 and a target enriched with SnS relative to Cu2SnS3 using 355 nm and 248 nm lasers......Thin films made by pulsed laser deposition may differ depending on the laser wavelength. We compared ZnS, Cu2SnS3 and a target enriched with SnS relative to Cu2SnS3 using 355 nm and 248 nm lasers...

  5. High power frequency doubled GaInNAs semiconductor disk laser emitting at 615 nm. (United States)

    Härkönen, Antti; Rautiainen, Jussi; Guina, Mircea; Konttinen, Janne; Tuomisto, Pietari; Orsila, Lasse; Pessa, Markus; Okhotnikov, Oleg G


    We report on an optically-pumped intracavity frequency doubled GaInNAs/GaAs -based semiconductor disk laser emitting around 615 nm. The laser operates at fundamental wavelength of 1230 nm and incorporates a BBO crystal for light conversion to the red wavelength. Maximum output power of 172 mW at 615 nm was achieved from a single output. Combined power from two outputs was 320 mW. The wavelength of visible emission could be tuned by 4.5 nm using a thin glass etalon inside the cavity.

  6. nm23H1 expression and its role in the evolution of non-gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shailendra Kapoor


    The role of nm23H1 genetic instability is not limited to gastrointestinal malignancies. A similar close relationship exists between nm23H1 genetic instability and other non gastrointestinal systemic malignancies. For instance, in oral malignant melanomas with lymphoid metastasis, the nm23H1 expression is significantly lower in contrast to tumors with no lymphoid metastasis.Similarly, increased metastasis is seen in non small cell lung cancers following down regulation of nm23H1 in conjunction with KAI-1 down regulation.There is an inverse relationship between tumor stage and metastasis and nm23H1 expression in individuals with prostate carcinomas and a similar relationship exists between microsatellite instability of the nm23H1 gene and ovarian carcinogenesis. For instance, nearly 70.5% of stageⅠ-Ⅱ ovarian tumors express nm23H1 in sharp contrast to only 25% of stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ ovarian tumors. As is clearly evident, nm23H1 has a major role in gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal carcinogenesis.The coming few years will hopefully see the development of new strategies by virtue of which we can alter nm23H1 expression and thus decrease the risk of metastasis in malignant tumors.

  7. Diode-pumped Nd:GAGG-LBO laser at 531 nm (United States)

    Zou, J.; Chu, H.; Wang, L. R.


    We report a green laser at 531 nm generation by intracavity frequency doubling of a continuous wave (cw) laser operation of a 1062 nm Nd:GAGG laser under in-band diode pumping at 808 nm. A LiB3O5 (LBO) crystal, cut for critical type I phase matching at room temperature is used for second harmonic generation of the laser. At an incident pump power of 18.5 W, as high as 933 mW of cw output power at 531 nm is achieved. The fluctuation of the green output power was better than 3.5% in the given 4 h.

  8. Room-temperature fluorozirconate glass fiber laser in the violet (412 nm). (United States)

    Funk, D S; Carlson, J W; Eden, J G


    Continuous oscillation on the (2)P(3/2) ? (4)I(11/2) transition of Nd(3+) in a f luorozirconate glass (ZBLAN) fiber at room temperature has been observed. When pumped at ~590 nm, a Nd:ZBLAN f iber 39 cm in length lases in the violet at 412 nm and produces ~0.5 mW of power for 320 mW of pump power and a cavity output coupling of 0.4%. The breadth of the laser's excitation spectrum is ~12 nm (581-593 nm).

  9. Metastable Magnesium fluorescence spectroscopy using a frequency-stabilized 517 nm laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Ming; Jensen, Brian B; Therkildsen, Kasper T


    We present a laser operating at 517 nm for our Magnesium laser-cooling and atomic clock project. A two-stage Yb-doped fiber amplifier (YDFA) system generates more than 1.5 W of 1034 nm light when seeded with a 15 mW diode laser. Using a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide, we...... obtained more than 40 mW of 517 nm output power by single pass frequency doubling. In addition, fluorescence spectroscopy of metastable magnesium atoms could be used to stabilize the 517 nm laser to an absolute frequency within 1 MHz....

  10. H12355: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Approaches to Mississippi Sound, Mississippi, 2011-11-11 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  11. F00335: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Approaches to Pascagoula and Biloxi, Mississippi, 1989-11-11 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  12. H09928: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Pensacola Beach, Florida, 1981-11-11 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  13. H08258: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Hoyt Neck to Saco Bay, Maine, 1955-11-11 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  14. Chinese Five Year Plans: An Economic Catalyst? (CSL Issue Paper, Volume 11-11, July 2011) (United States)


    December 1955): 189, in JSTOR (accessed April 14, 2011). 3. Ibid. 4. Ibid. 5., (accessed April 13, 2011). LTC(P) Troy...Accountability under Authoritarianism,” Political Research Quarterly 60, no. 3 (Fall 2007): 380, in JSTOR (accessed April 14, 2011). 8. Ibid. 9. Ibid. 10. Shu Y...Ma, “China’s Privatization: From Gradualism to Shock Therapy?,” Asian Survey 48, no. 2 (March/April 2008): 199, in JSTOR (accessed April 14, 2011

  15. H10752: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Northern Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, 1997-11-11 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  16. 22 CFR 11.11 - Mid-level Foreign Service officer career candidate appointments. (United States)


    ... affirmative factor in the selection of candidates for appointment as Foreign Service officer career candidates..., experience, and skills needed by the Foreign Service at the mid-level. (3) Age. All career candidate... terminated and the candidate so informed. (10) Foreign language requirement. All candidates who pass the...

  17. H11317: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Approaches to Puget Sound, Washington, 2004-11-11 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  18. 29 CFR 11.11 - Development of environmental analyses and documents. (United States)


    ... topic for potential action is submitted to the agency staff for research, proposal development, or other..., noise levels, designated scenic areas, land use, soil quality (including drainage or erosion problems...

  19. H10969: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Southern Approaches to Aialik Bay, Alaska, 2000-11-11 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  20. 37 CFR 11.11 - Administrative suspension, inactivation, resignation, and readmission. (United States)


    ... Director determines that there are no genuine issues of material fact regarding the Office's compliance... to the practitioner's moral character and reputation under § 11.7(a)(2)(i) during the period...

  1. High power eye-safe Er3+:YVO4 laser diode-pumped at 976 nm and emitting at 1603 nm (United States)

    Newburgh, G. A.; Dubinskii, M.


    We report on the performance of an eye-safe laser based on a Er:YVO4 single crystal, diode-pumped at 976 nm (4I15/2-->4I11/2 transition) and operating at 1603 nm (4I13/2-->4I15/2 transition) with good beam quality. A 10 mm long Er3+:YVO4 slab, cut with its c-axis perpendicular to the laser cavity axis, was pumped in σ-polarization and lased in π-polarization. The laser operated in a quasi-continuous wave (Q-CW) regime with nearly 9 W output power, and with a slope efficiency of about 39% with respect to absorbed power. This is believed to be the highest efficiency and highest power achieved from an Er3+:YVO4 laser pumped in the 970-980 nm absorption band.

  2. Low-noise low-jitter 32-pixels CMOS single-photon avalanche diodes array for single-photon counting from 300 nm to 900 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarcella, Carmelo; Tosi, Alberto, E-mail:; Villa, Federica; Tisa, Simone; Zappa, Franco [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy)


    We developed a single-photon counting multichannel detection system, based on a monolithic linear array of 32 CMOS SPADs (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes). All channels achieve a timing resolution of 100 ps (full-width at half maximum) and a photon detection efficiency of 50% at 400 nm. Dark count rate is very low even at room temperature, being about 125 counts/s for 50 μm active area diameter SPADs. Detection performance and microelectronic compactness of this CMOS SPAD array make it the best candidate for ultra-compact time-resolved spectrometers with single-photon sensitivity from 300 nm to 900 nm.

  3. Sulphur abundances in halo giants from the [S ı] line at 1082 nm and the [S ı] triplet around 1045 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, H.; Ryde, N.; Nissen, Poul Erik;


    to clarify this situation by measuring the sulphur abundance in a sample of halo giants using two diagnostics: the S i triplet around 1045 nm and the [S i] line at 1082 nm. The latter of the two is not believed to be sensitive to non-LTE effects. We can thereby minimize the uncertainties in the diagnostic...... used and estimate the usefulness of the triplet for the sulphur determination in halo K giants. We will also be able to compare our sulphur abundance differences from the two diagnostics with the expected non-LTE effects in the 1045 nm triplet previously calculated by others. Methods. High......Context. It is still debated whether or not the Galactic chemical evolution of sulphur in the halo follows the flat trend with [Fe/H] that is ascribed to the result of explosive nucleosynthesis in type II SNe. It has been suggested that the disagreement between different investigations of sulphur...

  4. Inspection results for 32nm logic and sub-50nm half-pitch memory reticles using the TeraScanHR (United States)

    Sier, Jean-Paul; Broadbent, William; Mirzaagha, Farzin; Yu, Paul


    Results from the recently available TeraScanHR reticle inspection system were published in early 2007. These results showed excellent inspection capability for 45nm logic and 5xnm half-pitch memory advanced production reticles, thus meeting the industry need for the mid-2007 start of production. The system has been in production use since that time. In early 2007, some evidence was shown of capability to inspect reticles for the next nodes, 32nm logic and sub-50nm half-pitch memory, but the results were incomplete due to the limited availability of such reticles. However, more of these advanced reticles have become available since that time. Inspection results of these advanced reticles from various leading edge reticle manufacturers using the TeraScanHR are shown. These results indicate that the system has the capability to provide the needed inspection sensitivity for continued development work to support the industry roadmap.

  5. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: In situ growth monitoring of AlGaN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors at 530 nm using a 633 nm laser (United States)

    Feng, Wen; Lirong, Huang; Bo, Jiang; Liangzhu, Tong; Wei, Xu; Deming, Liu


    The metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of AlGaN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) with a reflection peak at 530 nm was in situ monitored using 633 nm laser reflectometry. Evolutions of in situ reflected reflectivity for different kinds of AlGaN/GaN DBR were simulated by the classical transfer matrix method. Two DBR samples, which have the same parameters as the simulated structures, were grown by MOCVD. The simulated and experimental results show that it is possible to evaluate the DBR parameters from the envelope shape of the in situ reflectivity spectrum. With the help of the 633 nm laser reflectometry, a DBR light emitting diode (LED) was grown. The room temperature photoluminescence spectra show that the reflection peak of the DBR in the LED is within the design region.

  6. 76 FR 5305 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Raton, NM (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Raton, NM AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Raton, NM. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Raton Municipal Airport/Crews Field. The...

  7. Study of the emission spectra of a 1320-nm semiconductor disk laser and its second harmonic (United States)

    Gochelashvili, K. S.; Derzhavin, S. I.; Evdokimova, O. N.; Zolotovskii, I. O.; Podmazov, S. V.


    The spectral characteristics of an optically pumped external-cavity semiconductor disk laser near λ = 1320 nm are studied experimentally. Intracavity second harmonic generation is obtained using an LBO nonlinear crystal. The output power at a wavelength of 660 nm in the cw regime was 620 mW, and the peak power in the pulsed regime was 795 mW.

  8. InterProScan Result: NM_001134240 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001134240 NM_001134240_1_ORF2 8F7EFB5ECDE1E93B PANTHER PTHR19264:SF239 BOMBESIN ...RECEPTOR 6e-157 T IPR001556 Bombesin receptor Molecular Function: bombesin receptor activity (GO:0004946)|Bi

  9. InterProScan Result: NM_001134239 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001134239 NM_001134239_3_ORF2 9C6209F61E5A8E68 PRINTS PR00358 BOMBESINR 4.4e-05 T IPR001556 Bombe...sin receptor Molecular Function: bombesin receptor activity (GO:0004946)|Biological Process

  10. InterProScan Result: NM_001134240 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001134240 NM_001134240_1_ORF2 8F7EFB5ECDE1E93B PRINTS PR00358 BOMBESINR 1.2e-06 T IPR001556 Bombe...sin receptor Molecular Function: bombesin receptor activity (GO:0004946)|Biological Process

  11. InterProScan Result: NM_001134239 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001134239 NM_001134239_3_ORF2 9C6209F61E5A8E68 PANTHER PTHR19264:SF239 BOMBESIN ...RECEPTOR 2.2e-147 T IPR001556 Bombesin receptor Molecular Function: bombesin receptor activity (GO:0004946)|

  12. InterProScan Result: NM_001134239 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001134239 NM_001134239_3_ORF2 9C6209F61E5A8E68 PRINTS PR00358 BOMBESINR 4.4e-05 T IPR001556 receptor Molecular Function: bombesin receptor activity (GO:0004946)|Biological Process

  13. InterProScan Result: NM_001134240 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001134240 NM_001134240_1_ORF2 8F7EFB5ECDE1E93B PRINTS PR00358 BOMBESINR 1.2e-06 T IPR001556 receptor Molecular Function: bombesin receptor activity (GO:0004946)|Biological Process

  14. InterProScan Result: NM_001184845 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001184845 NM_001184845_1_ORF1 316AC205F7706801 SUPERFAMILY SSF47212 FKBP12-rapamycin...-binding domain of FKBP-rapamycin-associated protein (FRAP) 6.2e-41 T IPR009076 FKBP12-rapamycin-associated protein, FKBP12-rapamycin-binding ...

  15. 870nm Bragg grating in single mode TOPAS microstructured polymer optical fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Wu; Webb, David J.; Kalli, Kyriacos


    We report the fabrication and characterization of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with 870 nm resonance wavelength in a single-mode TOPAS microstructured polymer optical fiber (mPOF). The grating has been UV-written with the phase-mask technique using a 325 nm HeCd laser. The static tensile strain...

  16. Design Rules and Electrical Parameters for a 90nm CMOS process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stassen, Flemming


    A set of fictitious simplified geometrical design rules and tables of electrical parameters are presented describing a 90nm CMOS process for educational purposes only.......A set of fictitious simplified geometrical design rules and tables of electrical parameters are presented describing a 90nm CMOS process for educational purposes only....

  17. Grating writing and growth at 325nm in non-hydrogenated silica fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Town, Graham E; Yuan, Scott Wu; Stefani, Alessio;

    We report on the writing and growth dynamics of Bragg gratings written in standard silica fiber using a 325nm He:Cd laser.......We report on the writing and growth dynamics of Bragg gratings written in standard silica fiber using a 325nm He:Cd laser....

  18. InterProScan Result: NM_001173367 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001173367 NM_001173367_2_ORF1 32DA4BF19056409E PANTHER PTHR11875:SF7 NUCLEOSOME ...ASSEMBLY PROTEIN 1 NA ? IPR002164 unintegrated Cellular Component: nucleus (GO:0005634)|Biological Process: nucleosome assembly (GO:0006334) ...

  19. Study on 660-nm quasi-continuous-wave intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Wang(王涛); Jianquan Yao(姚建铨); Baigang Zhang(张百钢); Guiyan Zang(臧贵艳); Peng Wang(王鹏); Yizhong Yu(于意仲)


    A quasi-continuous-wave intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser which operates at 660 nm is studied.By using a flat-flat laser cavity, 2 Kr-lamps, KTP crystal and an acousto-optically Q-switch, 2-W outputpower at 660 nm is obtained. The relationship between laser cavity length and output power is analyzed.

  20. Study of EUVL mask defect inspection using 199-nm inspection tool with super-resolution method (United States)

    Shigemura, Hiroyuki; Amano, Tsuyoshi; Arisawa, Yukiyasu; Suga, Osamu; Hashimoto, Hideaki; Saito, Masanori; Takeda, Masaya; Kikuiri, Nobutaka; Hirano, Ryoichi


    In this paper, we will report on our experimental results on the impact of inspection system optics on mask defect detection sensitivity. We evaluated the capability of detecting defects on the EUVL masks by using a new inspection tool (NPI6000EUVα) made by NuFlare Technology, Inc. (NFT) and Advanced Mask Inspection Technology, Inc. (AMiT). This tool is based on NPI-5000 which is the leading-edge photomask defect inspection system using 199nm wavelength inspection optics. The programmed defect mask with LR-TaBN absorber was used which had various sized opaque and clear extension defects on hp-180nm, hp-128nm, and hp-108nm line and space patterns. According to the analysis, to obtain optimum sensitivity for various types of defects, using both C- and P-polarized illumination conditions were found to be effective. At present, sufficient defect-detection sensitivity is achieved for opaque and clear extension defects in hp128nm (hp32nm at wafer). For hp108nm (hp27nm at wafer), using both C- and P- polarized illumination is effective. However, further developments in defect-detection sensitivity are necessary.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 毛慧生; 傅西林; 方志沂; 冯玉梅; 范宇; 李树玲


    Objective: To investigate the expression of nm23 gene and evaluate its prognostic value in breast cancer. Methods: nm23 expressions were detected in 101 breast cancer patients (group 1) by immunohistochemistry. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to measure expressions of nm23 gene in another 68 patients with breast cancer (group 2). Results: nm23 gene expression in group 1 was inversely associated with distant metastasis and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). In 44 patients with negative lymph node, 9 cases progressed to distant metastasis, 7 of them (77.8%) showed low expression of nm23 gene (P<0.05). In 57 patients with positive lymph node, 24 our of 29 patients who had no distant metastasis (82.8%) expressed nm23 gene at high level (P<0.05). Meanwhile, there were 6 patients with distant metastasis in the group 2, all of thenm expressed nm23 gene mRNA at low level. Conclusion: The results showed that nm23 gene might play an independent role in predicting prognosis of breast cancer.

  2. 870nm Bragg grating in single mode TOPAS microstructured polymer optical fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Wu; Webb, David J.; Kalli, Kyriacos;


    We report the fabrication and characterization of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with 870 nm resonance wavelength in a single-mode TOPAS microstructured polymer optical fiber (mPOF). The grating has been UV-written with the phase-mask technique using a 325 nm HeCd laser. The static tensile strain se...

  3. InterProScan Result: NM_001134274 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001134274 NM_001134274_1_ORF2 59FB3D94BA6298DF PRINTS PR00896 VASOPRESSINR 1.7e-09 T IPR001817 Vasop...ressin receptor Molecular Function: vasopressin receptor activity (GO:0005000)|Biologica

  4. 149.8 nm, the shortest wavelength generated by phase matching in nonlinear crystals (United States)

    Nakazato, Tomoharu; Ito, Isao; Kobayashi, Yohei; Wang, Xiaoyang; Chen, Chuangtian; Watanabe, Shuntaro


    Narrow band light sources in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region are attractive for photo lithography and high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy. Phase matching is essential to generate high power VUV lights by using a narrow band, low peak intensity and nanosecond pump source. In this research, sum frequency mixing has been demonstrated below 150 nm in KBe2BO3F2 by using the fundamental with its fourth harmonic of a 6 kHz Ti:sapphire laser. The laser system we have developed in this research, consists of a Ti:sapphire laser system and a frequency conversion stage. We generated 149.8-nm radiation, which is the shortest wavelength ever obtained to our knowledge by phase matching in nonlinear crystals. The fifth harmonic output powers were 3.6 μW at 149.8 nm and 110 μW at 154.0 nm, respectively. The phase matching angles measured from 149.8 nm to 158.1 nm are larger by 3-4 degrees than those expected from the existing Sellmeier equation. The optical transmission spectra of some KBBF crystals were measured by the spectrophotometer. The transmittance near the absorption edge supports the generation of coherent radiation below 150 nm. The improvement of a prism-coupled device contributed to the generation of coherent radiation below 150 nm. Another reason for the present break through to the shorter wavelength is the use of the short pulse driving source compared with our previous research.

  5. Tunable Single-Frequency Intracavity Frequency-Doubled Ti:Sapphire Laser around 461 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤琴; 石柱; 李永民; 彭堃墀


    We demonstrate a tunable continuous-wave single frequency intracavity frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire laser.The highest output power of 280mW at 461.62nm is obtained by employing a type-I phase-matched BIBO crystal and the peak-to-peak fluctuation of the power is less than ±1% within three hours.The frequency stability is better than ±2.22 MHz over 10min when the laser is locked to a confocal Fabry-Perot cavity.A three-plate birefringent filter allows for the tunable range from 457nm to 467nm,which covers the absorption line of the strontium atoms(460.86nm).%We demonstrate a tunable continuous-wave single frequency intracavity frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire laser. The highest output power of 280mW at 461.62nm is obtained by employing a type-I phase-matched BIBO crystal and the peak-to-peak fluctuation of the power is less than ±1% within three hours. The frequency stability is better than ±2.22MHz over lOmin when the laser is locked to a confocal Fabry-Perot cavity. A three-plate birefringent filter allows for the tunable range from 457nm to 467 nm, which covers the absorption line of the strontium atoms (460.86 nm).

  6. Pseudo Open Drain IO Standards Based Energy Efficient Solar Charge Sensor Design on 20nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, K; Pandey, B; Nanda, K


    In this paper an approach is made to design Pseudo open drain IO standards Based Energy efficient solar charge sensor design on 20nm and 28nm technology. We have used LVCMOS18, POD10, POD10_DCI and POD12 I/O standard. In this design, we have taken two main parameters for analysis that are frequen...

  7. InterProScan Result: NM_001043384 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001043384 NM_001043384_1_ORF1 8FC5507793D1F8B0 PANTHER PTHR11662:SF30 SIALIN (SO...LUTE CARRIER FAMILY 17 MEMBER 5) (SODIUM/SIALIC ACID COTRANSPORTER) (AST) (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEIN HP59) 9.4e-93 T IPR016196 unintegrated ...

  8. InterProScan Result: NM_001043384 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001043384 NM_001043384_1_ORF1 8FC5507793D1F8B0 PANTHER PTHR11662:SF30 SIALIN (SO...LUTE CARRIER FAMILY 17 MEMBER 5) (SODIUM/SIALIC ACID COTRANSPORTER) (AST) (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEIN HP59) NA ? IPR016196 unintegrated ...

  9. InterProScan Result: NM_001134263 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001134263 NM_001134263_1_ORF2 F3F49457A02C269A PRINTS PR00249 GPCRSECRETIN 2.6e-...43 T IPR000832 GPCR, family 2, secretin-like Molecular Function: G-protein coupled receptor activity (GO:000

  10. Spectroscopic study of carbon plasma produced by the first (1064 nm) and second (532 nm) harmonics of Nd:YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanif, M., E-mail: [MCS National University of Sciences & Technology (Pakistan); Salik, M. [Beijing Jiaotong University, Institute of Optoelectronics (China); Arif, F. [MCS National University of Sciences & Technology (Pakistan)


    In this research work, spectroscopic studies of carbon (C) plasma by using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are presented. The plasma was produced by the first (1064 nm) and second (532 nm) harmonics of a Q-switched Nd:YAG (Quantel Brilliant) pulsed laser having a pulse duration of 5 ns and 10-Hz repetition rate, which is capable of delivering 400 mJ at 1064 nm and 200 mJ at 532 nm. The laser beam was focused on the target material (100% carbon) by placing it in air at atmospheric pressure. The experimentally observed line profiles of five neutral carbon (C I) lines at 247.85, 394.22, 396.14, 588.95, and 591.25 nm were used to extract the electron temperature T{sub e} by using the Boltzmann plot method and determine its value, 9880 and 9400 K, respectively, for the fundamental and second harmonics of the laser, whereas the electron density N{sub e} was determined from the Stark broadening profile of neutral carbon line at 247.85 nm. The values of N{sub e} at a distance of 0.05 mm from the target surface for the fundamental-harmonic laser with a pulse energy of 130 mJ and the second-harmonic laser with a pulse energy of 72 mJ are 4.68 × 10{sup 17} and 5.98 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}, respectively. This extracted information on T{sub e} and N{sub e} is useful for the deposition of carbon thin films by using the pulsed laser deposition technique. Moreover, both plasma parameters (T{sub e} and N{sub e}) were also calculated by varying the distance from the target surface along the line of propagation of the plasma plume and also by varying the laser irradiance.

  11. 1.4—nm Intergrade Mineral in Soils of Subtropical China: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper is a review of some advances in the studies on 1.4-nm intergrade mineral of soils in subtropical China.1)1.4-nm intergrade mineral occurs ubiquitously in soils of subtropical China.The 1.4-nm mineral in red soil and yellow soil is mainly 1.4-nm intergrade mineral,and in acidic yellow-brown soil(pH<5.5) is vermiculite alone or 1.4-nm intergrade mineral together with vermiculite,The dstribution and the corresponding soils in horizontal zone.2) The interlayer material of 1.4-nm intergrade mineral in these soils appears to be hydroxy-Al polymers instead of hydroxy-Fe,proto-imogolite or kaolin-like material.There is a significant positive correlation between Al amount extracted from the soil with sodium citrate after DCB extraction and pH value of the citrate solution after the extraction.The citrate can also extract a certain amount of silicom from the soil,but the silicon may not come from interlayer of 1.4-nm intergrade mineral.3)It was seldom studied that either vermiculite or smectite did the natural 1.4-nm intergrade mineral come from in soil.or it was commonly thought to come from vermiculity,A recent report has revealed that if can come from smectite,There are some different behaviors between the 1.4-nm intergrade mineral derived from vermiculite and that from smectite,For example,they exert different influences on the formation of gibbsite.The 1.4-nm intergrade mineral derived from smectite may promote the formation of gibbsite in the yellow soil.4) The type of 1.4-nm minerals in soils.i.e.,vermiculite or .1.4nm intergrade mineral,may be significant to soil properties,such as soil acidity,exchangeable Al,electric charge amount and specific surface area.Therefore,the management for the soil in which 1.4-nm mineral is mainlay 1.4-nm intergrade mineral or vermiculte should be dealt with differently..

  12. Narrow Bandwidth 850-nm Fiber Bragg Gratings in Few-Mode Polymer Optical Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Yuan, Wu; Markos, Christos;


    We report on the inscription and characterization of narrow bandwidth fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) with 850-nm resonance wavelength in polymer optical fibers (POFs). We use two fibers: an in-house fabricated microstructured POF (mPOF) with relative hole size of 0.5 and a commercial step-index POF......, which supports six modes at 850 nm. The gratings have been written with the phase-mask technique and a 325-nm HeCd laser. The mPOF grating has a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) bandwidth of 0.29 nm and the step-index POF has a bandwidth of 0.17 nm. For both fibers, the static tensile strain...

  13. Widely Tunable High-Power Tapered Diode Laser at 1060 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Götz


    We report a large tuning range from 1018 to 1093 nm from a InGaAs single quantum-well 1060-nm external cavity tapered diode laser. More than 2.5-W output power has been achieved. The tuning range is to our knowledge the widest obtained from a high-power InGaAs single quantum-well tapered laser op...... operating around 1060 nm. The light emitted by the laser has a nearly diffraction limited beam quality and a narrow linewidth of less than 6 pm everywhere in the tuning range.......We report a large tuning range from 1018 to 1093 nm from a InGaAs single quantum-well 1060-nm external cavity tapered diode laser. More than 2.5-W output power has been achieved. The tuning range is to our knowledge the widest obtained from a high-power InGaAs single quantum-well tapered laser...

  14. An anti-reflection coating for use with PMMA at 193 nm (United States)

    Yen, Anthony; Smith, Henry I.; Schattenburg, M. L.; Taylor, Gary N.


    An antireflection coating (ARC) for use with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) resist for ArF excimer laser lithography (193 nm) was formulated. It consists of PMMA and a bis-azide, 4.4-prime-diazidodiphenyl sulfone (DDS) which crosslinks the film after deep UV (260 nm) irradiation and subsequent annealing. The reacted DDS then serves as the absorber for the 193 nm radiation and also prevents mixing of the ARC and PMMA during PMMA spin-coating and development. The effectiveness of the ARC was demonstrated by exposing, in PMMA, using achromatic holographic lithography, gratings of 100 nm period (about 50 nm linewidth) that are almost entirely free of an orthogonal standing wave.

  15. Proposed SLR Optical Bench Required to Track Debris Using 1550 nm Lasers (United States)

    Shappirio, M.; Coyle, D. B.; McGarry, J. F.; Bufton, J.; Cheek, J. W.; Clarke, G.; Hull, S. M.; Skillman, D. R.; Stysley, P. R.; Sun, X.; Young, R. P.; Zagwodzki, T.


    A previous study has indicated that by using approx.1550 nm wavelengths a laser ranging system can track debris objects in an "eye safe" manner, while increasing the expected return rate by a factor of approx. 2/unit area of the telescope. In this presentation we develop the optical bench required to use approx.1550nm lasers, and integration with a 532nm system. We will use the optical bench configuration for NGSLR as the baseline, and indicate a possible injection point for the 1550 nm laser. The presentation will include what elements may need to be changed for transmitting the required power on the approx.1550nm wavelength, supporting the alignment of the laser to the telescope, and possible concerns for the telescope optics.

  16. All-Solid-State Multi-wavelength Laser System from 208 to 830 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shang-Hong; CHEN Guo-Fu; ZHAO Wei; WANG Yi-Shan; YU Lian-Jun


    Four-wavelength lasers from the near-infrared to deep-ultraviolet range, 532, 830, 415 and 208nm, have been developed in one all-solid-state laser system. The laser system is pumped by a diode-Q-YLF laser at 532nm,a Ti:sapphire laser, and the nonlinear second-harmonic-generation crystals LBO and BBO are used to generate different wavelengths. Maximum average powers (repetition rate 1 kHz) of 1.1 W at 830nm, 380m W at 415nm and 39mW at 208nm are obtained when the pumping power is 3.6 W. The main characteristics of this system are presented.

  17. Attaining 186-nm light generation in cooled beta-BaB(2)O(4) crystal. (United States)

    Kouta, H; Kuwano, Y


    The transparency range of beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO) was expanded by means of cooling, and the resulting absorption coefficient at 193.4 nm was reduced to 0.29cm(-1) at 91 K from 1.39cm(-1) at 295 K. Further, generation of light at 186.0 nm (the measurement limit in air) by type I sum-frequency generation (SFG) based on fundamental (744-nm) and third-harmonic (248-nm) light from a Ti:sapphire laser was confirmed for cooled BBO. Calculations based on observed data for SFG wavelengths and phase-matching angles indicate a potential for cooled BBO to generate wavelengths as low as 181.7 nm.

  18. Radiometric quality of the MODIS bands at 667 and 678nm (United States)

    Meister, Gerhard; Franz, Bryan A.


    The MODIS instruments on Terra and Aqua were designed to allow the measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence effects over ocean. The retrieval algorithm is based on the difference between the water-leaving radiances at 667nm and 678nm. The water-leaving radiances at these wavelengths are usually very low relative to the topof- atmosphere radiances. The high radiometric accuracy needed to retrieve the small fluorescence signal lead to a dual gain design for the 667 and 678nm bands. This paper discusses the benefits obtained from this design choice and provides justification for the use of only one set of gains for global processing of ocean color products. Noise characteristics of the two bands and their related products are compared to other products of bands from 412nm to 2130nm. The impact of polarization on the two bands is discussed. In addition, the impact of stray light on the two bands is compared to other MODIS bands.

  19. Continuous-wave, single-frequency 229 nm laser source for laser cooling of cadmium atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneda, Yushi; Merzlyak, Yevgeny; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Hayashida, Keitaro; Ohmae, Noriaki; Katori, Hidetoshi


    Continuous-wave output at 229 nm for the application of laser cooling of Cd atoms was generated by the 4th harmonic using two successive second harmonic generation stages. Employing a single-frequency optically pumped semiconductor laser as a fundamental source, 0.56 W of output at 229 nm was observed with a 10-mm long, Brewster-cut BBO crystal in an external cavity with 1.62 W of 458 nm input. Conversion efficiency from 458 nm to 229 nm was more than 34%. By applying a tapered amplifier as a fundamental source, we demonstrated magneto-optical trapping of all stable Cd isotopes including isotopes $^{111}$Cd and $^{113}$Cd, which are applicable to optical lattice clocks.

  20. Laser cooling of beryllium ions using a frequency-doubled 626 nm diode laser. (United States)

    Cozijn, F M J; Biesheuvel, J; Flores, A S; Ubachs, W; Blume, G; Wicht, A; Paschke, K; Erbert, G; Koelemeij, J C J


    We demonstrate laser cooling of trapped beryllium ions at 313 nm using a frequency-doubled extended cavity diode laser operated at 626 nm, obtained by cooling a ridge waveguide diode laser chip to -31°C. Up to 32 mW of narrowband 626 nm laser radiation is obtained. After passage through an optical isolator and beam shaping optics, 14 mW of 626 nm power remains of which 70% is coupled into an external enhancement cavity containing a nonlinear crystal for second-harmonic generation. We produce up to 35 μW of 313 nm radiation, which is subsequently used to laser cool and detect 6×10(2) beryllium ions, stored in a linear Paul trap, to a temperature of about 10 mK, as evidenced by the formation of Coulomb crystals. Our setup offers a simple and affordable alternative for Doppler cooling, optical pumping, and detection to presently used laser systems.

  1. LD end-pumped acousto-optic Q-switched 1319 nm/1338 nm dual-wavelength Nd:YAG laser (United States)

    Wu, C. T.; Yu, M.; Wang, C.; Yu, K.; Yu, Y. J.; Chen, X. Y.; Jin, G. Y.


    Laser characteristics of acousto-optic Q-switched operation of 1319 nm/1338 nm dual-wavelength composite Nd:YAG laser were studied. Maximum output power of 5.77 W was achieved in CW operation. Under Q-switched operation, the maximum peak power of 3.96 kW and minimum pulse width of 65.6 ns was obtained at repetition frequency of 20 kHz with the duty ratio of 96%. The influence of the duration of the ultrasonic field acted on the Q-switch to the output characteristics of dual-wavelength composite Nd:YAG laser had been reported first time.

  2. Controlling of 6 nm sized and 10 nm pitched dot arrays ordered along narrow guide lines using PS-PDMS self-assembly. (United States)

    Hosaka, Sumio; Akahane, Takashi; Huda, Miftakhul; Zhang, Hui; Yin, You


    We have studied graphoepitaxy to make nanodots or nanolines ordered along electron beam (EB)-drawn resist guide using block copolymers (BCPs) of polystyrene-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-PDMS). We found out that the number n of ordered molecular dot arrays in the line gap increases stepwise with the gap between guide lines. The n self-assembled dot arrays were ordered in a gap between n and n+1 times the mean PDMS pitch and self-assembled with no guide pattern. According to the ordering characteristics, 6 nm sized and 10 nm pitched PDMS dot arrays were formed using the BCP self-assembly with the guide lines.

  3. All solid-state 191.7 nm deep-UV light source by seventh harmonic generation of an 888 nm pumped, Q-switched 1342 nm Nd:YVO₄ laser with excellent beam quality. (United States)

    Koch, Peter; Bartschke, Juergen; L'huillier, Johannes A


    In this paper we report on the realization of a deep-UV light source using the 1.3 μm transition of neodymium as pumping wavelength. The 191.7 nm radiation was obtained by generating the seventh harmonic of a high-power Q-switched 1342 nm Nd:YVO4 laser. A cesium lithium borate crystal was used for sum frequency mixing of the sixth harmonic and the fundamental. With a total of four conversion stages, up to 240 mW were achieved, with excellent beam quality at 155 mW (M2 < 1.7) and 190 mW (M2 < 1.9).

  4. The Effect of Q-Switched Nd:YAG 1064 nm/532 nm Laser in the Treatment of Onychomycosis In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Kalokasidis


    Full Text Available In this prospective clinical study, the Q-Switched Nd:YAG 1064 nm/532 nm laser (Light Age, Inc., Somerset, NJ, USA was used on 131 onychomycosis subjects (94 females, 37 males; ages 18 to 68 years. Mycotic cultures were taken and fungus types were detected. The laser protocol included two sessions with a one-month interval. Treatment duration was approximately 15 minutes per session and patients were observed over a 3-month time period. Laser fluencies of 14 J/cm2 were applied at 9 billionths of a second pulse duration and at 5 Hz frequency. Follow-up was performed at 3 months with mycological cultures. Before and after digital photographs were taken. Adverse effects were recorded and all participants completed “self-evaluation questionnaires” rating their level of satisfaction. All subjects were well satisfied with the treatments, there were no noticeable side effects, and no significant differences were found treating men versus women. At the 3-month follow-up 95.42% of the patients were laboratory mycologically cured of fungal infection. This clinical study demonstrates that fungal nail infections can be effectively and safely treated with Q-Switched Nd:YAG 1064 nm/532 nm laser. It can also be combined with systemic oral antifungals providing more limited treatment time.

  5. Photobiomodulation with 660-nm and 780-nm laser on activated J774 macrophage-like cells: Effect on M1 inflammatory markers. (United States)

    Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Souza, Nadhia Helena Costa; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli; Silva, Daniela de Fatima Teixeira da; Rocha, Lilia Alves; Alves, Agnelo Neves; Sousa, Kaline de Brito; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Hamblin, Michael R; Nunes, Fábio Daumas


    M1 profile macrophages exert a major influence on initial tissue repair process. Few days after the occurrence of injury, macrophages in the injured region exhibit a M2 profile, attenuate the effects of the M1 population, and stimulate the reconstruction of the damaged tissue. The different effects of macrophages in the healing process suggest that these cells could be the target of therapeutic interventions. Photobiomodulation has been used to accelerate tissue repair, but little is known regarding its effect on macrophages. In the present study, J774 macrophages were activated to simulate the M1 profile and irradiated with two different sets of laser parameters (780 nm, 70 mW, 2.6J/cm(2), 1.5s and 660 nm, 15 mW, 7.5 J/cm(2), 20s). IL-6, TNF-α, iNOS and COX-2 gene and protein expression were analyzed by RT-qPCR and ELISA. Both lasers were able to reduce TNF-α and iNOS expression, and TNF-α and COX-2 production, although the parameters used for 780 nm laser provided an additional decrease. 660 nm laser parameters resulted in an up-regulation of IL-6 expression and production. These findings imply a distinct, time-dependent modulation by the two different sets of laser parameters, suggesting that the best modulation may involve more than one combination of parameters.

  6. Tunable GHz pulse repetition rate operation in high-power TEM(00)-mode Nd:YLF lasers at 1047 nm and 1053 nm with self mode locking. (United States)

    Huang, Y J; Tzeng, Y S; Tang, C Y; Huang, Y P; Chen, Y F


    We report on a high-power diode-pumped self-mode-locked Nd:YLF laser with the pulse repetition rate up to several GHz. A novel tactic is developed to efficiently select the output polarization state for achieving the stable TEM(00)-mode self-mode-locked operations at 1053 nm and 1047 nm, respectively. At an incident pump power of 6.93 W and a pulse repetition rate of 2.717 GHz, output powers as high as 2.15 W and 1.35 W are generated for the σ- and π-polarization, respectively. We experimentally find that decreasing the separation between the gain medium and the input mirror not only brings in the pulse shortening thanks to the enhanced effect of the spatial hole burning, but also effectively introduces the effect of the spectral filtering to lead the Nd:YLF laser to be in a second harmonic mode-locked status. Consequently, pulse durations as short as 8 ps and 8.5 ps are obtained at 1053 nm and 1047 nm with a pulse repetition rate of 5.434 GHz.

  7. The use of hyperspectral imaging in the VNIR (400-1000nm) and SWIR range (1000-2500nm) for detecting counterfeit drugs with identical API composition. (United States)

    Wilczyński, Sławomir; Koprowski, Robert; Marmion, Mathieu; Duda, Piotr; Błońska-Fajfrowska, Barbara


    The risk of death from taking counterfeit drugs is now greater than the probability of dying from malaria and AIDS combined (at least half a million deaths each year). At the same time, counterfeit medicines are falsified more and more "skillfully". According to WHO about 10% of counterfeit drugs are copies of original products. The methods of hyperspectral imaging and image analysis and processing were used to detect counterfeit drugs. Original Viagra® (Pfizer) and counterfeit tablets were compared. Hyperspectral imaging was used to acquire hyperspectral data cubes from both original and counterfeit tablets in the spectral range of 400-2500nm. Spectral parameters for both the original Viagra® and counterfeit drugs were compared. Grey-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM) analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were performed. Hyperspectral analysis of the surface of the original Viagra® and counterfeit tablets demonstrates significant differences in reflectance (maximum difference for 1619.75nm). The GLCM contrast for the falsified drug is on average higher than for the original one 16±4%. GLCM contrast analysis enables to quantify homogeneity of distribution of tablet ingredients and enables to distinguish tablets with identical chemical composition. SWIR (1000-2500nm) hyperspectral imaging has a definite advantage over imaging in VNIR (400-1000nm) - higher wavelength is less sensitive to non-uniform illumination.

  8. Aerosol extinction profiles at 525 nm and 1020 nm derived from ACE imager data: comparisons with GOMOS, SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III, and OSIRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vanhellemont


    Full Text Available The Canadian ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment mission is dedicated to the retrieval of a large number of atmospheric trace gas species using the solar occultation technique in the infrared and UV/visible spectral domain. However, two additional solar disk imagers (at 525 nm and 1020 nm were added for a number of reasons, including the retrieval of aerosol and cloud products. In this paper, we present first comparison results for these imager aerosol/cloud optical extinction coefficient profiles, with the ones derived from measurements performed by 3 solar occultation instruments (SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III, one stellar occultation instrument (GOMOS and one limb sounder (OSIRIS. The results indicate that the ACE imager profiles are of good quality in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere, although the aerosol extinction for the visible channel at 525 nm contains a significant negative bias at higher altitudes, while the relative differences indicate that ACE profiles are almost always too high at 1020 nm. Both problems are probably related to ACE imager instrumental issues.

  9. Mapping the Use of Engineered NM in Quebec's Industries and Research Laboratories (United States)

    Ostiguy, Claude; Emond, Claude; Dossa, Inès; Malki, Yasmina; Boily, Chantale; Roughley, David; Plavski, Anton; Endo, Charles-Anica


    Engineered NanoMaterials (NM) offer an opportunity to develop a wide variety of new products with unique properties but many studies have shown potential OHS risks specific to NM. Addressing these risks requires knowledge about release of NM into the workplaces. This research aimed to map the state of nanotechnology OHS practices in Quebec through a questionnaire following a first contact by telephone when possible and by compiling the type and volumes of NM used as well as gathering information related to the working conditions and OHS aspects. This survey was conducted among 1310 Quebec industries and 653 researchers working in different specialties potentially involved in the development/production/distribution/integration of NM and use of NM containing products. Overall, 90 questionnaires, including 51 from the industries, were completed. These showed that NM are mainly used into the powder form, in many different sectors and deserve a wide range of markets. The prevention measures implemented vary widely from a workplace to another but about one third of the participants report that they have implemented NP adapted prevention measures but they remain worried on some specific operations. More than 50% of the participants request more information about the safe laboratory/plant design, toxicity, regulation, good work practices and prevention measures, efficiency of personal protective equipment and environmental impacts.

  10. Comparative analysis of the effect of the GaAlAs laser irradiation in 780 nm and 660 nm in the hypersensitive dentin; Analise comparativa do efeito da irradiacao do laser de GaAlAs em 780 nm e 660 nm na hipersensibilidade dentinaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Sun Chien


    This study was to evaluate and compare the effects of the low intensity in laser radiation among GaAlAs 780 nm and GaAlAs 660 nm. The main proposal is to verify if there is any difference of the effects or results in low intensity laser application treatment of hypersensitive dentin, keeping the same parameters, only differing in wavelength. The samples were distributed in two groups. Group A 90 cases, treated with GaAlAs 780 nm and group B irradiated with GaAlAs 660 nm with a total of 76 cases analyzed. The results of application with GaAlAs 660 nm and GaAlAs 780 nm do not differ statistically. Which means using any one of the irradiation gives the same results. However can be noted that the response of reduction of hypersensitivity is faster with the radiation of GaAlAs 780 nm, but the results after three applications is the same for both types of radiation. (author)

  11. Mechanically tunable sub-10 nm metal gap by stretching PDMS substrate (United States)

    Liu, Wenjie; Shen, Yang; Xiao, Guohui; She, Xiaoyi; Wang, Jianfang; Jin, Chongjun


    Manipulating light in sub-10 nm or subnanometer metal nanogaps is crucial to study the strong interaction between electromagnetic waves and matters. However, the fabrication of metallic nanogaps with precisely controlled size and high-throughput still remains a challenge. Here, we developed an approach to actively control the gap distance between adjacent metal nanoparticles from 140 nm to sub-10 nm or even 0 nm via mechanical stretching process. To demonstrate this method, we manufactured the gold disk arrays in a square lattice on the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate through interference lithography and gold deposition, and sub-10 nm interparticle gap was achieved as exerting a strain of 100% to the PDMS substrate. Transmission spectra show a remarkable red shift of the dipole resonance with narrowing gap from 140 nm to sub-10 nm. Importantly, a universal scaling law between the gap distance in nanoscale and the stretching amount of PDMS substrate in macroscopic scale were demonstrated experimentally and theoretically. Our method can tune the gap distance continuously and reversibly, suggesting potential applications in surface-enhanced Raman scattering, single photon emitter and quantum tunneling of electric charge.

  12. Numerical Simulation of 980 nm-LD-Pumped Yb3+-Er3+-Tm3+-Codoped Fiber Amplifier for 1500 nm and 1600 nm Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Jiang


    Full Text Available The theoretical model of Yb3+-Er3+-Tm3+-codoped fiber amplifier pumped by 980 nm laser is proposed, and the rate and power propagation equations are numerically solved to analyze the dependences of the gains at 1500 nm and 1600 nm bands on the activator concentrations, fiber length, pump power, and signal wavelength. The numerical results show that our model is in good agreement with experimental result, and with pump power of 200 mW and fiber length varying from 0.15 to 1.5 m, the gains at the two bands may reach 10.0–20.0 dB when the codoping concentrations of Yb3+, Er3+, and Tm3+ are in the ranges 1.0–3.0×1025, 1.0–3.0×1024, and 1.0–3.0×1024 ions/m3, respectively. The fiber parameters may be optimized to flatten the gain spectra.

  13. Prospective Comparison of Dual Wavelength Long-Pulsed 755-nm Alexandrite/1,064-nm Neodymium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet Laser versus 585-nm Pulsed Dye Laser Treatment for Rosacea (United States)

    Seo, Hyun-Min; Kim, Jung-In; Kim, Han-Saem; Choi, Young-Jun


    Background Rosacea treatments including oral/topical medications and laser therapy are numerous but unsatisfactory. Objective To compare the effectiveness of the dual wavelength long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite/1,064-nm neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser (LPAN) with that of 585-nm pulsed dye laser (PDL) for rosacea. Methods This was a randomized, single-blinded, comparative study. Full face received four consecutive monthly treatments with LPAN or PDL, followed-up for 6 months after the last treatment. Erythema index was measured by spectrophotometer, and digital photographs were evaluated by consultant dermatologists for physician's global assessment. Subjective satisfaction surveys and adverse effects were recorded. Results Forty-nine subjects with rosacea enrolled and 12 dropped out. There were no significant differences between LPAN and PDL in the mean reduction of the erythema index (p=0.812; 3.6% vs. 2.8%), improvement of physician's global assessment (p=1.000; 88.9% vs. 89.5%), and subject-rated treatment satisfaction (p=0.842; 77.8% vs. 84.2%). PDL showed more adverse effects including vesicles than LPAN (p=0.046; 26.3% vs. 0.0%). No other serious or permanent adverse events were observed in both treatments. Conclusion Both LPAN and PDL may be effective and safe treatments for rosacea. PMID:27746641

  14. DPAL pump system exceeding 3kW at 766nm and 30 GHz bandwidth (United States)

    Koenning, Tobias; McCormick, Dan; Irwin, David; Stapleton, Dean; Guiney, Tina; Patterson, Steve


    Due to their low quantum defect, diode pumped alkali metal vapor lasers (DPALs) offer the promise of scalability to very high average power levels while maintaining excellent beam quality. Research on DPALs has progressed to ever increasing power levels across multiple gain media species over the last years, necessitating pump power in the kW range. Each material requires a specific pump wavelength: near 852nm for cesium, 780nm for rubidium, 766nm for potassium, and 670nm for lithium atoms. The shorter pump wavelength below 800nm are outside the typical wavelength range for pump diodes developed for diode pumped solid state lasers (DPSS). The biggest challenge in pumping these materials efficiently is the need for maintaining the narrow gain media absorption band of approximately 0.01nm while greatly increasing power. Typical high power diode lasers achieve spectral widths around 3nm (FWHM) in the near infrared spectrum, but optical gratings may be used internal or external to the cavity to reduce the spectral width. Recently, experimental results have shown yet narrower line widths ranging from picometers at very low power levels to sub-100 picometers for water cooled stacks around 1kW of output power. The focus of this work is the development of a fiber-based pump system for potassium DPAL. The individual tasks are the development of high power 766nm chip material, a fiber-coupled module as a building block, and a scalable system design to address power requirements from hundreds of watts to tens of kilowatts. Results for a 3kW system achieving ~30GHz bandwidth at 766nm will be shown. Approaches for power-scaling and size reduction will be discussed.

  15. 885-nm Pumped Ceramic Nd:YAG Master Oscillator Power Amplifier Laser System (United States)

    Yu, Anthony


    The performance of a traditional diode pumped solid-state laser that is typically pumped with 808-nm laser diode array (LDA) and crystalline Nd:YAG was improved by using 885-nm LDAs and ceramic Nd:YAG. The advantage is lower quantum defect, which will improve the thermal loading on laser gain medium, resulting in a higher-performance laser. The use of ceramic Nd:YAG allows a higher Nd dopant level that will make up the lower absorption at the 885-nm wavelength on Nd:YAG. When compared to traditional 808-nm pump, 885-nm diodes will have 30% less thermal load (or wasted heat) and will thus see a similar percentage improvement in the overall laser efficiency. In order to provide a more efficient laser system for future flight missions that require the use of low-repetition- rate (systems are numerous. The epitaxial structures of these 885-nm diodes are aluminum-free. There is a significant reduction in the thermal load generated from the Stokes shift or quantum defects. A Stokes shift is the energetic difference between the pump and laser photons. Pumping at a wavelength band closer to the lasing wavelength can reduce the thermal load by .30% compared to traditional pumping at 808 nm, and increase the optical- to-optical efficiency by the same factor. The slope efficiency is expected to increase with a reduction in the thermal load. The typical crystalline Nd:YAG can be difficult to produce with doping level >1% Nd. To make certain that the absorption at 885 nm is on the same par as the 808-nm diode, the Nd:YAG material needs to be doped with higher concentration of Nd. Ceramic Nd:YAG is the only material that can be tailored to specific needs.

  16. DFB Lasers Between 760 nm and 16 μm for Sensing Applications (United States)

    Zeller, Wolfgang; Naehle, Lars; Fuchs, Peter; Gerschuetz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Lars; Koeth, Johannes


    Recent years have shown the importance of tunable semiconductor lasers in optical sensing. We describe the status quo concerning DFB laser diodes between 760 nm and 3,000 nm as well as new developments aiming for up to 80 nm tuning range in this spectral region. Furthermore we report on QCL between 3 μm and 16 μm and present new developments. An overview of the most interesting applications using such devices is given at the end of this paper. PMID:22319259

  17. Increase of the photosensitivity of undoped poly(methylmethacrylate) under UV radiation at 325 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sáez-Rodríguez, D.; Nielsen, Kristian; Bang, Ole;


    In this paper we report, for the first time to our knowledge, an increase of the photosensitivity of a microstructured polymer optical fibre (mPOF) made of undoped PMMA due to applied strain during the fabrication of the gratings. In the work, fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) have been fabricated...... in undoped PMMA mPOFs with a hexagonal structure of three rings in the inner cladding. Two sets of FBGs were inscribed at two different resonant wavelengths (827 nm and 1562 nm) at different strains using an UV He-Cd laser at 325 nm focused by a lens and scanned over the fibre. We observed an increase...

  18. 193 nm deep-ultraviolet solar-blind cubic boron nitride based photodetectors (United States)

    Soltani, A.; Barkad, H. A.; Mattalah, M.; Benbakhti, B.; De Jaeger, J.-C.; Chong, Y. M.; Zou, Y. S.; Zhang, W. J.; Lee, S. T.; BenMoussa, A.; Giordanengo, B.; Hochedez, J.-F.


    Deep-ultraviolet (DUV) solar-blind photodetectors based on high-quality cubic boron nitride (cBN) films with a metal/semiconductor/metal configuration were fabricated. The design of interdigitated circular electrodes enables high homogeneity of electric field between pads. The DUV photodetectors present a peak responsivity at 180nm with a very sharp cutoff wavelength at 193nm and a visible rejection ratio (180 versus 250nm) of more than four orders of magnitude. The characteristics of the photodetectors present extremely low dark current, high breakdown voltage, and high responsivity, suggesting that cBN films are very promising for DUV sensing.

  19. Progress on High-Speed 980 nm VCSELs for Short-Reach Optical Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mutig


    Full Text Available Progress of high-speed vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL operating around 980 nm is reviewed. A special focus is on their applications for future short-reach optical interconnects, for example, in high-performance computers (HPC. The wavelength of 980 nm has fundamental advantages for these applications and plays a significant role in VCSEL research today. The present data rates of 980 nm VCSELs exceed 40 Gbit/s, and excellent temperature stability has been reported. The major concepts leading to these impressive developments are presented.

  20. Widely Tunable High-Power Tapered Diode Laser at 1060 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Götz;


    We report a large tuning range from 1018 to 1093 nm from a InGaAs single quantum-well 1060-nm external cavity tapered diode laser. More than 2.5-W output power has been achieved. The tuning range is to our knowledge the widest obtained from a high-power InGaAs single quantum-well tapered laser...... operating around 1060 nm. The light emitted by the laser has a nearly diffraction limited beam quality and a narrow linewidth of less than 6 pm everywhere in the tuning range....

  1. Sum-frequency generation of continuous-wave light at 194 nm. (United States)

    Berkeland, D J; Cruz, F C; Bergquist, J C


    Over 2 mW of continuous-wave tunable 194-nm light is produced by sum-frequency mixing approximately 500 mW of 792-nm and 500 mW of 257-nm radiation in beta-barium borate (BBO). The powers in both fundamental beams are enhanced in separate ring cavities whose optical paths overlap in the Brewster-cut BBO crystal. Due to the higher circulating fundamental powers, the sum-frequency-generated power is nearly 2 orders of magnitude greater than previously reported values.

  2. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, T.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Community Involvement and Issues Management Dept.; Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)


    This report on National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) chronicles past and current compliance activities and includes a recommended strategy that can be implemented for continued improvement. This report provides a list of important references. Attachment 1 contains the table of contents for SAND95-1648, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide Sandia National Laboratories (Hansen, 1995). Attachment 2 contains a list of published environmental assessments (EAs) and environmental impact statements (EISs) prepared by SNL/NM. Attachment 3 contains abstracts of NEPA compliance papers authored by SNL/NM and its contractors.

  3. Laser-diode-pumped 1319-nm monolithic non-planar ring single-frequency laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Wang(王青); Chunqing Gao(高春清); Yan Zhao(赵严); Suhui Yang(杨苏辉); Guanghui Wei(魏光辉); Dongmei Hong(洪冬梅)


    Single-frequency 1319-nm laser was obtained by using a laser-diode-pumped monolithic Nd:YAG crystalwith a non-planar ring oscillator (NPRO). When the NPRO laser was pumped by an 800-μm fiber coupledlaser diode, the output power of the single-frequency 1319-nm laser was 220 mW, and the slope efficiencywas 16%. With a 100-μm fiber coupled diode laser pumped, 99-mW single-frequency 1319-nm laser wasobtained with a slope efficiency of 29%.

  4. Fibre Laser At 589nm Using Pr+3 - Doped Fluoride Glass (United States)


    range of Pr-doped fluoride glasses with the aim of identifying a suitable glass host for a 589 nm laser. Pr-doped fluorozirconate ZBLAN glass is known to...F 2 at 635 nm, which both originate from the 3P0 level and therefore compete. In ZBLAN glass the two peaks have equal strength. However, we found...4� Pr3÷ -doped fluoride glass for a 589 nm fibre laser University of Leeds Principal investigator: Dr Animesh Jha Final Report 1 July 1998 - 31

  5. Accuracy of Linear Depolarisation Ratios in Clean Air Ranges Measured with POLIS-6 at 355 and 532 NM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freudenthaler Volker


    Full Text Available Linear depolarization ratios in clean air ranges were measured with POLIS-6 at 355 and 532 nm. The mean deviation from the theoretical values, including the rotational Raman lines within the filter bandwidths, amounts to 0.0005 at 355 nm and to 0.0012 at 532 nm. The mean uncertainty of the measured linear depolarization ratio of clean air is about 0.0005 at 355 nm and about 0.0006 at 532 nm.

  6. Continuous 1052, 1064 nm dual-wavelength Nd:YAG laser (United States)

    Wang, Xiaozhong; Yuan, Haiyang; Wang, Mingshan; Huang, Wencai


    Dual-wavelength lasers are usually obtained through balancing the net gain of the two oscillating lines. Competition between transitions 1052 nm, 1061 nm and 1064 nm is utilized to realize a continuous wave 1052 and 1064 nm dual-wavelength Nd:YAG laser firstly in this paper. A specially designed Fabry-Perot band-pass filter is exploited as output coupler to control the thresholds of the oscillating wavelengths. The maximum power of the dual-wavelength laser is 1.6 W and the slope efficiency is about 10%. The power instability of the output dual-wavelength laser is smaller than ±4% in half an hour. The mechanism presented in this paper may provide a new way to obtain dual-wavelength lasers.

  7. 75 FR 7031 - Xilinx, Inc., Albuquerque, NM; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Xilinx, Inc., Albuquerque, NM; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated January 8, 2010, the petitioners...

  8. 76 FR 21040 - Flowserve Corporation, Albuquerque, NM; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Flowserve Corporation, Albuquerque, NM; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated March 23, 2011, a State of...

  9. High-Power, High-Efficiency 1.907nm Diode Lasers Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — nLight developed high-power, high-efficiency laser diodes emitting at 1907nm for the pumping of solid-state lasers during the Phase I. The innovation brought to bear...

  10. Fabrication of 250-nm-hole arrays in glass and fused silica by UV laser ablation (United States)

    Karstens, R.; Gödecke, A.; Prießner, A.; Ihlemann, J.


    Parallel nanohole drilling in glass using an ArF excimer laser (193 nm) is demonstrated. For the first time, hole arrays with 500 nm pitch and individual holes with 250 nm diameter and more than 100 nm depth are fabricated by phase mask imaging using a Schwarzschild objective. Holes in soda lime glass are drilled by direct ablation; fused silica is processed by depositing a SiOx-film on SiO2, patterning the SiOx by ablation, and finally oxidizing the remaining SiOx to SiO2. Thermally induced ordered dewetting of noble metal films deposited on such templates may be used for the fabrication of plasmonic devices.

  11. A 45 nm Low Cost, Radiation Hardened, Platform Based Structured ASIC Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed 45 nm radiation hardened platform based structured ASIC architecture offers the performance and density expected of a custom ASIC with the low...

  12. VIIRSN Level-3 Standard Mapped Image, Remote Sensing Reflectance at 671 nm, Monthly, 4km (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes Remote sensing reflectance (671 nm) data from the NPP-Suomi spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the VIIRS instrument carried aboard...

  13. Radiation Performance of 1 Gbit DDR SDRAMs Fabricated in the 90 nm CMOS Technology Node (United States)

    Ladbury, Raymond L.; Gorelick, Jerry L.; Berg, M. D.; Kim, H.; LaBel, K.; Friendlich, M.; Koga, R.; George, J.; Crain, S.; Yu, P.; Reed, R. A.


    We present Single Event Effect (SEE) and Total Ionizing Dose (TID) data for 1 Gbit DDR SDRAMs (90 nm CMOS technology) as well as comparing this data with earlier technology nodes from the same manufacturer.

  14. Fabrication of sub-12 nm thick silicon nanowires by processing scanning probe lithography masks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyoung Ryu, Yu; Garcia, Ricardo, E-mail: [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Aitor Postigo, Pablo; Garcia, Fernando [Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (IMM-CNM-CSIC), 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)


    Silicon nanowires are key elements to fabricate very sensitive mechanical and electronic devices. We provide a method to fabricate sub-12 nm silicon nanowires in thickness by combining oxidation scanning probe lithography and anisotropic dry etching. Extremely thin oxide masks (0.3–1.1 nm) are transferred into nanowires of 2–12 nm in thickness. The width ratio between the mask and the silicon nanowire is close to one which implies that the nanowire width is controlled by the feature size of the nanolithography. This method enables the fabrication of very small single silicon nanowires with cross-sections below 100 nm{sup 2}. Those values are the smallest obtained with a top-down lithography method.

  15. Remote Sensing Reflectance at 667 nm, Terra MODIS, NPP, 0.05 degrees, Global, Science Quality (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS measures the remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) at 667nm. This can be used to view very high concentrations of phytoplankton in the very surface of the water.

  16. VIIRSN Level-3 Standard Mapped Image, Remote Sensing Reflectance at 671 nm, Daily, 4km (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes Remote sensing reflectance (671 nm) data from the NPP-Suomi spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the VIIRS instrument carried aboard...

  17. High-Power, High-Efficiency 1.907nm Diode Lasers Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — nLight proposes to develop high-power, high-efficiency laser diodes emitting at 1907nm. Performance is expected to improve from the current state-of-the-art...

  18. Design of narrow band photonic filter with compact MEMS for tunable resonant wavelength ranging 100 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanquan Liang


    Full Text Available A prototype of planar silicon photonic structure is designed and simulated to provide narrow resonant line-width (∼2 nm in a wide photonic band gap (∼210 nm with broad tunable resonant wavelength range (∼100 nm around the optical communication wavelength 1550 nm. This prototype is based on the combination of two modified basic photonic structures, i.e. a split tapered photonic crystal micro-cavity embedded in a photonic wire waveguide, and a slot waveguide with narrowed slabs. This prototype is then further integrated with a MEMS (microelectromechanical systems based electrostatic comb actuator to achieve “coarse tune” and “fine tune” at the same time for wide range and narrow-band filtering and modulating. It also provides a wide range tunability to achieve the designed resonance even fabrication imperfection occurs.

  19. Component validation of direct diode 488nm lasers in BD Accuri C6 flow cytometers (United States)

    Chen, Wei P.; Luo, Ningyi D.


    The 488nm laser is the most important excitation light source of flow cytometry. The indirect diode (frequency-doubled diode) 488nm lasers are used in the excitation of Becton Dickinson (BD) AccuriTM C6. For using cost effective lasers, we have validated direct diode 488nm lasers as the replacement component of frequency-doubled diode laser. BD Bioscience issued the protocols to cover wavelength, power, noise, and polarization at the operation temperature range of cytometer. Pavilion Integration Corporation (PIC) tested 6 samples as the component validation of direct diode 488nm lasers based on the protocols from BD Biosciences. BD Bioscience also tested one of laser samples to further validate the test results of power, noise, and polarization from PIC.

  20. Loss-Less planar waveguide 1:4 power splitter at 1550 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sckerl, Mads W.; Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas; Laurent-Lund, Christian


    By a unique desposition/etching technique an erbuim-doped planar silica waveguide with intergrated splitter on a silicon substrate was produced and is demonstrated to show net gain at 1550 nm and good saturation and noise characteristics....

  1. In depth characterization of electron transport in 14 nm FD-SOI CMOS devices (United States)

    Shin, Minju; Shi, Ming; Mouis, Mireille; Cros, Antoine; Josse, Emmanuel; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Ghibaudo, Gérard


    In this paper, carrier transport properties in highly scaled (down to 14 nm-node) FDSOI CMOS devices are presented from 77 K to 300 K. At first, we analyzed electron transport characteristics in terms of different gate-oxide stack in NMOS long devices. So, we found that SOP and RCS can be the dominant contribution of additional mobility scatterings in different temperature regions. Then, electron mobility degradation in short channel devices was deeply investigated. It can be stemmed from additional scattering mechanisms, which were attributed to process-induced defects near source and drain. Finally, we found that mobility enhancement by replacing Si to SiGe channel in PMOS devices was validated and this feature was not effective anymore in sub-100 nm devices. The critical lengths were around 50 nm and 100 nm for NMOS and PMOS devices, respectively.

  2. Laser generation in vapors of complex molecules at 330 to 350 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisevich, N.A.; Gorelenko, A.Ya.; Kazak, N.S.; Kalosha, I.I.; Morgun, Yu.F.; Agashkov, A.V.; Tolkachev, V.A.; Tugbaev, V.A.


    In pumping by a the fourth harmonic neodymium laser, the lasing has been produced in the vapours of 1,4-di(1-(4-ethyl)phenyl)-benzene (I), 1,4-di(n-phenylethynly)-benzene (II), 2-(n-butoxyphenyl)-benzoxazole (III) and 2-(n-hexadecyloxyphenyl)benzoxazole (IV). In order to reduce the lasing threshold, foreign gases (propane and pentane) were used. The wave lengths of the band centers, pressures of the foreign gas and temperatures amounted respectively to: I-335.5 nm, 15 atm, 160/sup 0/C; II-349.5 nm, 55 atm, 127/sup 0/C; III-337.5 nm, 55 atm, 127/sup 0/C; IV-339 nm, 65 atm, 132/sup 0/C. Lasing has been produced in shorter wave region and at lower temperatures than in the gas phase of the active compounds reported earlier.

  3. Space-Qualifiable 1064 nm Fiber Based Transmitter for Long Range Optical Communications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fibertek has developed transmitters for Lidar and 3D imaging applications based on fiber optics architectures both at 1064nm. We have demonstrated an all fiber...

  4. Defect inspection and printability study for 14 nm node and beyond photomask (United States)

    Seki, Kazunori; Yonetani, Masashi; Badger, Karen; Dechene, Dan J.; Akima, Shinji


    Two different mask inspection techniques are developed and compared for 14 nm node and beyond photomasks, High resolution and Litho-based inspection. High resolution inspection is the general inspection method in which a 19x nm wavelength laser is used with the High NA inspection optics. Litho-based inspection is a new inspection technology. This inspection uses the wafer lithography information, and as such, this method has automatic defect classification capability which is based on wafer printability. Both High resolution and Litho-based inspection methods are compared using 14 nm and 7 nm node programmed defect and production design masks. The defect sensitivity and mask inspectability is compared, in addition to comparing the defect classification and throughput. Additionally, the Cost / Infrastructure comparison is analyzed and the impact of each inspection method is discussed.

  5. Size and voltage dependence of effective anisotropy in sub-100-nm perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (United States)

    Piotrowski, Stephan K.; Bapna, Mukund; Oberdick, Samuel D.; Majetich, Sara A.; Li, Mingen; Chien, C. L.; Ahmed, Rizvi; Victora, R. H.


    Magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy are investigated using a conductive atomic force microscope. The 1.23 -nm Co40Fe40B20 recording layer coercivity exhibits a size dependence which suggests single-domain behavior for diameters ≤100 nm. Focusing on devices with diameters smaller than 100 nm, we determine the effect of voltage and size on the effective device anisotropy Keff using two different techniques. Keff is extracted both from distributions of the switching fields of the recording and reference layers and from measurement of thermal fluctuations of the recording layer magnetization when a field close to the switching field is applied. The results from both sets of measurements reveal that Keff increases monotonically with decreasing junction diameter, consistent with the size dependence of the demagnetization energy density. We demonstrate that Keff can be controlled with a voltage down to the smallest size measured, 64 nm.

  6. VIIRSN Level-3 Standard Mapped Image, Remote Sensing Reflectance at 671 nm, 8 Day, 4km (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes Remote sensing reflectance (671 nm) data from the NPP-suomi spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the VIIRS instrument carried aboard...

  7. Mode instability thresholds for Tm-doped fiber amplifiers pumped at 790 nm

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Arlee V


    We use a detailed numerical model of stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering to compute mode instability thresholds in Tm$^{3+}$-doped fiber amplifiers. The fiber amplifies 2040 nm light using a 790 nm pump. The cross-relaxation process is strong, permitting power efficiencies of 60%. The predicted instability thresholds are compared with those in similar Yb$^{3+}$-doped fiber amplifiers with 976 nm pump and 1060 nm signal, and are found to be higher, even though the heat load is much higher in Tm-doped amplifiers. The higher threshold in the Tm-doped fiber is attributed to its longer signal wavelength, and to stronger gain saturation, due in part to cross-relaxation heating.

  8. Evaluation of the 800 nm pump band for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo; Miniscalco, William J.; Zemon, Stanley A.


    Performs a comprehensive experimental and theoretical investigation of methods for overcoming the excited-state absorption (ESA), which is the main obstacle to efficient pumping of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) at 800 nm. The effects of ESA on gain can be reduced at the cost of an additio......Performs a comprehensive experimental and theoretical investigation of methods for overcoming the excited-state absorption (ESA), which is the main obstacle to efficient pumping of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) at 800 nm. The effects of ESA on gain can be reduced at the cost...... based on a quantitative numerical model. It is predicted that 2-3 dB less pump power is required for the fluorophosphate EDFA. For Al/P-silica EDFAs, it is found that ~7-dB-higher power is required when pumping in the 800 nm band than for pumping at 980 and 1480 nm...

  9. High-efficiency resonantly pumped 1550-nm fiber-based laser transmitter Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — nLight proposes the development of high efficiency, high average power 1550-nm laser transmitter system that is based on Er-doped fiber amplifier resonantly pumped...

  10. 77 FR 16661 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; NM; Correction (United States)


    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; NM... tuberculosis regulations by establishing two separate zones with different tuberculosis risk classifications... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. C. William Hench, Senior Staff Veterinarian, National Tuberculosis...

  11. Remote Sensing Reflectance at 667 nm , Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS measures the remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) at 667nm. This can be used to view very high concentrations of phytoplankton in the very surface of the water.

  12. Multiphoton dissociation/ionisation of dimethyl sulphide (CH3SCH3) at 355 and 532 nm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh K Vatsa; Chiranjib Majumder; Onnattu D Jayakumar; Shailendra K Kulshreshtha; Jai P Mittal


    Multiphoton dissociation/ionization has been studied for CH3SCH3 at 355 and 532 nm using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The major ion signals observed at 355 nm are C+, CH$_{3}^{+}$, HCS+, CH2S+, CH3S+ and CH3SCH$_{3}^{+}$. Power dependence studies at 355 nm show a (2 + 1) REMPI process for the formation of parent ion. Peaks at / = 46, 47 and 61 show two-photon laser power dependence whereas / = 15 and 45 peaks show four-photon dependence. However, in 532 nm photoionisation, no parent ion signal is observed. A peak at / = 35 corresponding to SH$_{3}^{+}$ has been observed. SH$_{3}^{+}$ has been suggested to originate from CH3SCH$_{2}^{+}$ via a cyclic transition state. Photoionisation results of CH3SCH3 have been compared with those of CH3SSCH3, at these two wavelengths.

  13. 9.4 nm Tunable Vertically Coupled Microring Resonator Filter by Thermo-Optic Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuji; Yanagase; Shunichi; Yamagata; Yasuo; Kokubun


    A wide range (9.4nm) tuning of vertically coupled microring resonator filter was demonstrated utilizing a large TO coefficient of polymer. The power consumption was about 60m W and no degradation of filter response was observed.

  14. 9.4 nm Tunable Vertically Coupled Microring Resonator Filter by Thermo-Optic Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuji Yanagase; Shunichi Yamagata; Yasuo Kokubun


    A wide range (9.4nm) tuning of vertically coupled microring resonator filter was demonstrated utilizing a large TO coefficient of polymer. The power consumption was about 60mW and no degradation of filter response was observed.

  15. Gratings, photosensitivity, and poling in silica optical waveguides with 157-nm fluorine laser radiation (United States)

    Chen, Peng (Kevin)


    The energetic 7.9-eV photons of the F2 laser directly access bandgap states in germanosilicate glasses to drive one-photon processes for inducing strong refractive index changes in silica optical waveguides. In this thesis, the author carried out the first comprehensive F2-laser photosensitivity studies with an aim to assess prospects for shaping useful photonic structures directly inside the germanosilicate waveguides. Both planar waveguides and standard telecommunication fibers were examined. Large effective index change (>10-3) was induced in both fibers and planar waveguides without any enhancement technique. With the use of hydrogen loading enhancement, asymmetric refractive index profiles were noted by atomic force microscopy and microreflection microscopy, having a peak index change of larger than 0.01 in the fiber core. The 157-nm laser radiation is effective in rapidly forming long-period gratings in standard fibers. Grating formation is over 250 times faster than that with the 248-nm KrF laser constituting the fastest photosensitivity response ever reported. For planar lightwave circuits (PLCs), the 157-nm laser exposure generate narrow profiles of large index changes (Deltan ˜ 10 -2) that is useful in trimming phase errors and controlling birefringence in frequency domain modulators (FDMs) and interleavers. The large vacuum-ultraviolet-induced birefringence was used to completely compensate the intrinsic birefringence of Deltan ˜ 10-4 in typical PLCs. With hydrogen soaking, modest 157-nm pre-irradiation (accumulated fluence >3 J/cm2) was found to 'lock-in' a permanent photosensitivity enhancement in the germanosilica, permitting the formation of strong (40 dB) and stable fiber Bragg gratings with 248-nm-KrF laser light. The F2-laser photosensitivity locking was 300-time more effective than with KrF-laser pretreatment. The practical trimming applications in PLCs were demonstrated in PLC interleavers and FDMs. The 157-nm laser pre-radiation was found to

  16. Advanced self-aligned double patterning development for sub-30-nm DRAM manufacturing (United States)

    Shiu, Weicheng; Liu, Hung Jen; Wu, Jan Shiun; Tseng, Tsu-Li; Liao, Chun Te; Liao, Chien Mao; Liu, Jerry; Wang, Troy


    Although the Numerical Aperture (NA) has been greatly improved from 0.93 (dry) to 1.35 (wet) by the introduction of modern water immersion 193nm scanner since 2001, the realistic single exposure photolithography printing for mass production is still limited to ~40nm, even with the help of a variety of Resolution Enhancement Techniques (RETs). Theoretically, the 193nm immersion scanner with high index fluid or Extreme UV (EUV) scanner with a significantly shorter wavelength of 13.5nm would be the logical successors to water immersion 193nm scanner. However, considering tremendous technical difficulties to work with high index fluids and relatively immature and very low productivity of EUV at the moment, it's likely that both candidates have little chance to entering production prior to 2012. Additionally, the production schedule can be further pushed out due to formidable initial investment for the costly equipment and consumables associated with EUV given the present worldwide economic recession. Nano-imprint may be attractive for its low cost and versatile nature, however, long-term stability and logistics under production stress yet to be established. The hope to continue the thrust of Moore's Law into the sub-40nm regime before EUV era heavily counts on the success of the so-called Double Patterning Techniques (DPT). A variety of integration schemes have been developed or are still under development to harness the full capacity of DPT. Among them the spacer double patterning approach stands out because of the self-aligned characteristics and a cumulative great deal of experience on the handling of the spacer-related processes in traditional CMOS process integration. The final goal of most research works around Self-Aligned Double Patterning (SADP) focuses on achieving minimal added cost and high quality printing at the same time. However, most of the time the quality and the cost are compromised by applying non-production proven new material/new hardware and

  17. Religious and philosophical psychology in the works of N.M. Bogolyubov


    N.Y. Stoyukhina,


    We present the results of historical and psychological research filling the gaps of contemporary knowledge about personalities of religious and philosophical direction of Russian psychology in late XIX – early XX centuries. The author introduces the biography of events and the views of Russian psychologist N.M. Bogolyubov – a man of uneasy fate, embodied in his work the idea of spiritual practice in the analysis and description of a person's inner world. Psychological works of N.M. Bogolyubov...

  18. Particle removal challenges with EUV patterned mask for the sub-22nm HP node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastegar, A.; Eichenlaub, S.; Kadaksham, A. J.; Lee, B.; House, M.; Huh, S.; Cha, B.; Yun, H.; Mochi, I.; Goldberg, K. A.


    The particle removal efficiency (PRE) of cleaning processes diminishes whenever the minimum defect size for a specific technology node becomes smaller. For the sub-22 nm half-pitch (HP) node, it was demonstrated that exposure to high power megasonic up to 200 W/cm{sup 2} did not damage 60 nm wide TaBN absorber lines corresponding to the 16 nm HP node on wafer. An ammonium hydroxide mixture and megasonics removes {ge}50 nm SiO{sub 2} particles with a very high PRE, A sulfuric acid hydrogen peroxide mixture (SPM) in addition to ammonium hydroxide mixture (APM) and megasonic is required to remove {ge}28 nm SiO{sub 2} particles with a high PRE. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOFSIMS) studies show that the presence of O{sub 2} during a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ({lambda} = 172 nm) surface conditioning step will result in both surface oxidation and Ru removal, which drastically reduce extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask life time under multiple cleanings. New EUV mask cleaning processes show negligible or no EUV reflectivity loss and no increase in surface roughness after up to 15 cleaning cycles. Reviewing of defect with a high current density scanning electron microscope (SEM) drastically reduces PRE and deforms SiO{sub 2} particles. 28 nm SiO{sub 2} particles on EUV masks age very fast and will deform over time, Care must be taken when reviewing EUV mask defects by SEM. Potentially new particles should be identified to calibrate short wavelength inspection tools, Based on actinic image review, 50 nm SiO{sub 2} particles on top of the EUV mask will be printed on the wafer.

  19. Integrated Active and Passive Polymer Optical Components with nm to mm Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Kristensen, Anders


    We present wafer-scale fabrication of integrated active and passive polymer optics with nm to mm features. First order DFB lasers, defined in dye doped SU-8 resist are integrated with SU-8 waveguides.......We present wafer-scale fabrication of integrated active and passive polymer optics with nm to mm features. First order DFB lasers, defined in dye doped SU-8 resist are integrated with SU-8 waveguides....

  20. Photoluminescence and electro-optic properties of small (25-35 nm diameter) quantum boxes (United States)

    Davis, L.; Ko, K. K.; Li, W.-Q.; Sun, H. C.; Lam, Y.; Brock, T.; Pang, S. W.; Bhattacharya, P. K.; Rooks, M. J.


    The luminescence and electro-optic properties of buried 25-35 nm quantum boxes have been measured. The quantum boxes were defined by a combination of molecular beam epitaxial growth and regrowth, electron beam lithography, and dry etching. The photoluminescence from 35 nm boxes shows a blue shift of about 15 meV compared to the bulk luminescence and an enhancement, taking into account the fill factor. An enhanced effective linear electrooptic coefficient is observed for the quantum boxes.

  1. 1579 NM Fiber Laser Source for Spaceborne Monitoring of Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cézard Nicolas


    Full Text Available We report on the development of a 1579 nm pulsed fiber laser source with high peak-power, intended to be used as a lidar source for CO2 monitoring from space. We first discuss water-vapor sensitivity of spaceborne CO2 measurements by lidar and point the interest of the 1579 nm wavelength with that respect. Then we detail the current development status of the pulsed fiber laser source.

  2. Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in glass with sub-50nm feature sizes

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Yang; Qiao, Lingling; Chen, Danping; Cheng, Ya; Sugioka, Koji; Midorikawa, Katsumi


    We report on controllable production of nanostructures embedded in a porous glass substrate by femtosecond laser direct writing. We show that a hollow nano-void with a lateral size of ~40 nm and an axial size of ~1500 nm can be achieved by manipulating the peak intensity and polarization of the writing laser beam. Our finding enables direct construction of 3D nanofluidics inside glass.

  3. Gain and noise penalty for detuned 980 nm pumping or erbium-doped fiber power amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, B.; Chirravuri, J.; Miniscalco, W. J.


    The impact of altering the fiber length and pump wavelength on the gain and noise performance of erbium-doped fiber power amplifiers pumped in the 980-nm band is examined. A gain penalty of......The impact of altering the fiber length and pump wavelength on the gain and noise performance of erbium-doped fiber power amplifiers pumped in the 980-nm band is examined. A gain penalty of...

  4. 300 nm bandwidth adiabatic SOI polarization splitter-rotators exploiting continuous symmetry breaking. (United States)

    Socci, Luciano; Sorianello, Vito; Romagnoli, Marco


    Adiabatic polarization splitter-rotators are investigated exploiting continuous symmetry breaking thereby achieving significant device size and losses reduction in a single mask fabrication process for both SOI channel and ridge waveguides. A crosstalk lower than -25 dB is expected over 300nm bandwidth, making the device suitable for full grid CWDM and diplexer/triplexer FTTH applications at 1310, 1490 and 1550nm.

  5. A Comparison of Photoresist Resolution Metrics using 193 nm and EUV Lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Juanita; Pathak, Piyush; Wallow, Thomas; LaFontaine, Bruno; Deng, Yunfei; Kim, Ryoung-han; Kye, Jongwook; Levinson, Harry; Naulleau, Patrick; Anderson, Chris


    Image blur due to chemical amplification represents a fundamental limit to photoresist performance and manifests itself in many aspects of lithographic performance. Substantial progress has been made in linking image blur with simple resolution metrics using EUV lithography. In this presentation, they examine performance of 193 nm resist and EUV resist systems using modulation transfer function, corner rounding, and other resolution metrics. In particular, they focus on cross-comparisons in which selected EUV and 193 nm resist are evaluated using both EUV and 193 nm lithography. Simulation methods linking 193 nm and EUV performance will be described as well. Results from simulation indicate that image blur in current generation 193 nm photoresists is comparable to that of many EUV resists, but that ultra-low diffusion materials designs used in very high resolution EUV resists can result in substantially lower blur. In addition to detailing correlations between EUV and 193 nm experimental methods, they discuss their utility in assessing performance needs of future generation photoresists.

  6. Adjunctive 830 nm light-emitting diode therapy can improve the results following aesthetic procedures (United States)

    Kim, Won-Serk; Ohshiro, Toshio; Trelles, Mario A; Vasily, David B


    Background: Aggressive, or even minimally aggressive, aesthetic interventions are almost inevitably followed by such events as discomfort, erythema, edema and hematoma formation which could lengthen patient downtime and represent a major problem to the surgeon. Recently, low level light therapy with light-emitting diodes (LED-LLLT) at 830 nm has attracted attention in wound healing indications for its anti-inflammatory effects and control of erythema, edema and bruising. Rationale: The wavelength of 830 nm offers deep penetration into living biological tissue, including bone. A new-generation of 830 nm LEDs, based on those developed in the NASA Space Medicine Laboratory, has enabled the construction of planar array-based LED-LLLT systems with clinically useful irradiances. Irradiation with 830 nm energy has been shown in vitro and in vivo to increase the action potential of epidermal and dermal cells significantly. The response of the inflammatory stage cells is enhanced both in terms of function and trophic factor release, and fibroblasts demonstrate superior collagenesis and elastinogenesis. Conclusions: A growing body of clinical evidence is showing that applying 830 nm LED-LLLT as soon as possible post-procedure, both invasive and noninvasive, successfully hastens the resolution of sequelae associated with patient downtime in addition to significantly speeding up frank wound healing. This article reviews that evidence, and attempts to show that 830 nm LED-LLLT delivers swift resolution of postoperative sequelae, minimizes downtime and enhances patient satisfaction. PMID:26877592

  7. Near infrared imaging of teeth at wavelengths between 1200 and 1600 nm (United States)

    Chung, Soojeong; Fried, Daniel; Staninec, Michal; Darling, Cynthia L.


    Near-IR (NIR) imaging is a new technology that is currently being investigated for the detection and assessment of dental caries without the use of ionizing radiation. Several papers have been published on the use of transillumination and reflectance NIR imaging to detect early caries in enamel. The purpose of this study was to investigate alternative near infrared wavelengths besides 1300-nm in the range from 1200- 1600-nm to determine the wavelengths that yield the highest contrast in both transmission and reflectance imaging modes. Artificial lesions were created on thirty tooth sections of varying thickness for transillumination imaging. NIR images at wavelengths from the visible to 1600-nm were also acquired for fifty-four whole teeth with occlusal lesions using a tungsten halogen lamp with several spectral filters and a Ge-enhanced CMOS image sensor. Cavity preparations were also cut into whole teeth and Z250 composite was used as a restorative material to determine the contrast between composite and enamel at NIR wavelengths. Slightly longer NIR wavelengths are likely to have better performance for the transillumination of occlusal caries lesions while 1300-nm appears best for the transillumination of proximal surfaces. Significantly higher performance was attained at wavelengths that have higher water absorption, namely 1460-nm and wavelengths greater than 1500-nm and these wavelength regions are likely to be more effective for reflectance imaging. Wavelengths with higher water absorption also provided higher contrast of composite restorations.

  8. Expression of the novel gene NM23-H1B in ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen; LIU Yan; JIN Zhi-Jun; FENG You-ji; XU Ling-ling


    Objective:To study the expression of the human novel gene NM23-H1B in ovarian cancer. Methods: Totally 24 samples from patients with epithelial ovarian tumor at different clinical stages and 4 from normal ovaries were examined for NM23-H1B mRNA expression by RT-PCR and Northern blot. Results: All samples expressed NM23-H1B mRNA through RT-PCR, while the level of expression in ovarian tumor was higher than that of normal ovary. The results of Northern blot showed that NM23-H1B was overexpressed in ovarian cancer while lowexpressed in normal ovary or low malignant potential (LMP). The level of expression at early stage cancer(stageⅠand Ⅱ) was higher than those in advanced cancer(stage Ⅲ and Ⅳ). In early stage carcinoma, the expression level was involved in the differentiation of tumor cell, and well-differentiated cancer expressed NM23-H1B mRNA in comparatively higher level. Conclusion: The novel gene NM23-N1B is closely correlated with the ovarian cancer.

  9. Critical dimension variation caused by wrinkle in extreme ultra-violet pellicle for 3-nm node (United States)

    Kim, Guk-Jin; Kim, In-Seon; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Yeung, Michael; Kim, Min-Su; Park, Jin-Goo; Oh, Hye-Keun


    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) pellicles help in the protection of EUV masks from defects, contaminants, and particles during the exposure process. However, a single-stack EUV pellicle can be easily deformed during the exposure process; therefore, multi-stack pellicles have been proposed to minimize the deformation of an EUV pellicle. However, wrinkles can be formed in an EUV pellicle due to extremely thin thickness. In this study, we investigated the impact of these wrinkles on the transmission and critical dimension (CD) variation for the 5- and 3-nm nodes. The 5- and 3-nm nodes can be used by conventional and high numerical aperture (NA) systems, respectively. The variation in the transmission and the allowable local tilt angle of the wrinkle as a function of the wrinkle height and periodicity were calculated. A change in transmission of 2.2% resulted in a 0.2 nm variation in the CD for the anamorphic NA system (3-nm node), whereas a transmission variation of 1.6% caused a 0.2 nm CD variation in the isomorphic NA system (5-nm node).

  10. Activationless charge transport across 4.5 to 22 nm in molecular electronic junctions. (United States)

    Yan, Haijun; Bergren, Adam Johan; McCreery, Richard; Della Rocca, Maria Luisa; Martin, Pascal; Lafarge, Philippe; Lacroix, Jean Christophe


    In this work, we bridge the gap between short-range tunneling in molecular junctions and activated hopping in bulk organic films, and greatly extend the distance range of charge transport in molecular electronic devices. Three distinct transport mechanisms were observed for 4.5-22-nm-thick oligo(thiophene) layers between carbon contacts, with tunneling operative when d  16 nm for high temperatures and low bias, and a third mechanism consistent with field-induced ionization of highest occupied molecular orbitals or interface states to generate charge carriers when d = 8-22 nm. Transport in the 8-22-nm range is weakly temperature dependent, with a field-dependent activation barrier that becomes negligible at moderate bias. We thus report here a unique, activationless transport mechanism, operative over 8-22-nm distances without involving hopping, which severely limits carrier mobility and device lifetime in organic semiconductors. Charge transport in molecular electronic junctions can thus be effective for transport distances significantly greater than the 1-5 nm associated with quantum-mechanical tunneling.

  11. Progress on EUV mask fabrication for 32-nm technology node and beyond (United States)

    Zhang, Guojing; Yan, Pei-Yang; Liang, Ted; Park, Seh-jin; Sanchez, Peter; Shu, Emily Y.; Ultanir, Erdem A.; Henrichs, Sven; Stivers, Alan; Vandentop, Gilroy; Lieberman, Barry; Qu, Ping


    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) tool development achieved a big milestone last year as two full-field Alpha Demo Tools (ADT) were shipped to customers by ASML. In the future horizon, a full field "EUV1" exposure tool from Nikon will be available by the end of 20071 and the pre-production EUV exposure tools from ASML are targeted for 20092. It is essential that high quality EUVL masks can be made and delivered to the EUVL tool users to support the technology development. In the past year, we have demonstrated mask fabrication with low stress absorber deposition and good etch process control yielding a vertical etch profile and a mask CD control of 5.7 nm for 32 nm (1x) space and 7.4 nm for 32 nm (1x) lines. Mask pattern resolution of 15 nm (1x) dense lines was achieved. Full field reflective mask die-to-die inspection at a 125nm pixel size was demonstrated after low defect multilayer blanks became available. In this paper, we will present details of the Intel EUVL Mask Pilot Line progress in EUVL mask defect reduction, pattern CD performance, program defect mask design and inspection, in-house absorber film development and its performance, and EUVL metrology tool development. We will demonstrate an overall improvement in EUV mask manufacturing readiness due to our Pilot Line activities.

  12. Nanofabrication at 1nm resolution by quantum optical lithography (Presentation Recording) (United States)

    Pavel, Eugen


    A major problem in the optical lithography was the diffraction limit. Here, we report and demonstrate a lithography method, Quantum Optical Lithography [1,2], able to attain 1 nm resolution by optical means using new materials (fluorescent photosensitive glass-ceramics and QMC-5 resist). The performance is several times better than that described for any optical or Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) methods. In Fig. 1 we present TEM images of 1 nm lines recorded at 9.6 m/s. a) b) Fig. 1 TEM images of: a) multiple 1 nm lines written in a fluorescent photosensitive glass-ceramics sample; b) single 1 nm line written in QMC-5 resist. References [1] E. Pavel, S. Jinga, B.S. Vasile, A. Dinescu, V. Marinescu, R. Trusca and N. Tosa, "Quantum Optical Lithography from 1 nm resolution to pattern transfer on silicon wafer", Optics and Laser Technology, 60 (2014) 80-84. [2] E. Pavel, S. Jinga, E. Andronescu, B.S. Vasile, G. Kada, A. Sasahara, N. Tosa, A. Matei, M. Dinescu, A. Dinescu and O.R. Vasile, "2 nm Quantum Optical Lithography", Optics Communications,291 (2013) 259-263

  13. Novel technique to treat melasma in Chinese: The combination of 2940-nm fractional Er:YAG and 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. (United States)

    Tian, Wei Cheng Brian Anthony


    Melasma is one of the most common pigmented lesions in Chinese women. Although topical therapies are the mainstay treatment, lasers are being used increasingly to treat pigmented lesions. Laser treatment of melasma is however still controversial. This is because lasers have not been able to produce complete clearance of melasma and recurrence rates are high. Laser treatments also cause complications such as hypopigmentation and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. In this article, we report on a novel technique using a combination of fractional 2940-nm Er:YAG and 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers. We achieved a rapid improvement in two cases of melasma in Chinese type III skin. The improvement was seen rapidly within a month of treatment. Follow-up at 6 months showed sustained results with no complications. This novel technique is able to safely confer excellent and sustained clearance within a short treatment time.

  14. 200 nm-1000 nm spectra of light emitted in the impact of 40Ar10+ upon Al and Si solid surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Xiaoan; (张小安); ZHAO; Yongtao; (赵永涛); LI; Fuli; (李福利); YANG; Zhihu(杨治虎); XIAO; Guoqing(肖国青); ZHAN; Wenlong(詹文龙)


    This paper reports the measured results of the 200 nm-1000 nm characteristic spectral lines of Al, Si and Ar atoms when highly charged ions 40Ar10+ are incident upon Al and P-type Si surfaces. The ion 40Ar10+ is provided by the ECR ion source of the National Laboratory of the Heavy Ion Accelerator in Lanzhou. The results show that when the low-speed ions in the highly charged state interact with the solid surfaces, the characteristic spectral lines of the target atoms and ions spurted from the surfaces can be effectively excited. Moreover, because of the competition of the non-radiation de-excitation of the hollow atom by emitting secondary electrons with the de-excitation process by radiating photons, the spectral intensity of the characteristic spectral lines of Ar atoms on the P-type Si surface is, as a whole, greater than that of Ar atoms on the Al surface.

  15. 1,450-nm diode laser in combination with the 1550-nm fractionated erbium-doped fiber laser for the treatment of steatocystoma multiplex: a case report. (United States)

    Moody, Megan N; Landau, Jennifer M; Goldberg, Leonard H; Friedman, Paul M


    Steatocystoma multiplex (SM) is a rare condition characterized by multiple, small, asymptomatic dermal cysts. Treatment options are limited, with varying degrees of success; these include oral isotretinoin, surgical excision or drainage, and liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. The most effective method is excision, but cosmetic considerations, time, overall cost, and pain must be considered, because patients tend to have multiple cysts. Lasers, especially nonablative devices, have not frequently been used to treat SM. Herein, we present the case of a patient with isolated steatocystoma multiplex on the abdomen and lower chest with substantial clearance after two laser treatment sessions using two complementary lasers: a 1,450-nm diode laser to target the abnormal sebaceous glands and a 1,550-nm fractionated erbium-doped fiber laser to target the dermal cysts. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Negative tone imaging (NTI) with KrF: extension of 248nm IIP lithography to under sub-20nm logic device (United States)

    Oh, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Sun; Kim, Yura; Kim, Jahee; Heo, Sujeong; Youn, Bumjoon; Seo, Jaekyung; Yoon, Kwang-Sub; Choi, Byoung-il


    One of the most prospective alternative lithography ways prior to EUV implementation is the reverse imaging by means of a negative tone development (NTD) process with solvent-based developer. Contact and trench patterns can be printed in CAR (Chemically amplified resist) using a bright field mask through NTD development, and can give much better image contrast (NILS) than PTD process. Not only for contact or trench masks, but also pattering of IIP (Ion Implantation) layers whose mask opening ratio is less than 20% may get the benefit of NTD process, not only in the point of aerial imaging, but also in achievement of vertical resist profile, especially for post gate layers which have complex sub_topologies and nitride substrate. In this paper, we present applications for the NTD technique to IIP (Ion Implantation) layer lithography patterning, via KrF exposure, comparing the performance to that of the PTD process. Especially, to extend 248nm IIP litho to sub-20nm logic device, optimization of negative tone imaging (NTI) with KrF exposure is the main focus in this paper. With the special resin system designed for KrF NTD process, even sub 100nm half-pitch trench pattern can be defined with enough process margin and vertical resist profiles can be also obtained on the nitride substrate with KrF exposure.

  17. Irradiation Effect of Argon Ion on Interfacial Structure Fe(2nm/Si(tsi=0.5-2 nm Multilayer thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Purwanto


    Full Text Available Investigation includes formation of interfacial structure of Fe(2nm/Si(tSi= 0.5-2 nm multilayer thin film and the behavior of antiferromagnetic coupling between Fe layers due to Argon ion irradiation was investigated. [Fe(2nm/Si]30 multilayers (MLs with a thickness of Si spacer 0.5 - 2 nanometer were prepared on n-type (100 Si substrate by the helicon plasma sputtering method. Irradiation were performed using 400keV Ar ion to investigate the behavior of magnetic properties of the Fe/Si MLs. The magnetization measurements of Fe/Si MLs after 400keV Ar ion irradiation show the degradation of antiferromagnetic behavior of Fe layers depend on the ion doses. The Magnetoresistance (MR measurements using by Four Point Probe (FPP method also confirm that MR ratio decrease after ion irradiation. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns indicate that the intensity of a satellite peak induced by a superlattice structure does not change within the range of ion dose. These results imply that the surface of interface structures after ion irradiation become rough although the layer structures are maintained. Therefore, it is considered that the MR properties of Fe/Si MLs also are due to the metallic superlattice structures such as Fe/Cr and Co/Cu MLs.

  18. Measurements of Soot Mass Absorption Coefficients from 300 to 660 nm (United States)

    Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Fisher, Al; Helgestad, Taylor; Lambe, Andrew; Sedlacek, Arthur; Smith, Geoffrey; Cappa, Christopher; Davidovits, Paul; Onasch, Timothy; Freedman, Andrew


    Soot, a product of incomplete combustion, plays an important role in the earth's climate system through the absorption and scattering of solar radiation. In particular, the assumed mass absorption coefficient (MAC) of soot and its variation with wavelength presents a significant uncertainty in the calculation of radiative forcing in global climate change models. As part of the fourth Boston College/Aerodyne soot properties measurement campaign, we have measured the mass absorption coefficient of soot produced by an inverted methane diffusion flame over a spectral range of 300-660 nm using a variety of optical absorption techniques. Extinction and absorption were measured using a dual cavity ringdown photoacoustic spectrometer (CRD-PAS, UC Davis) at 405 nm and 532 nm. Scattering and extinction were measured using a CAPS PMssa single scattering albedo monitor (Aerodyne) at 630 nm; the absorption coefficient was determined by subtraction. In addition, the absorption coefficients in 8 wavelength bands from 300 to 660 nm were measured using a new broadband photoacoustic absorption monitor (UGA). Soot particle mass was quantified using a centrifugal particle mass analyzer (CPMA, Cambustion), mobility size with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, TSI) and soot concentration with a CPC (Brechtel). The contribution of doubly charged particles to the sample mass was determined using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (DMT). Over a mass range of 1-8 fg, corresponding to differential mobility diameters of ~150 nm to 550 nm, the value of the soot MAC proved to be independent of mass for all wavelengths. The wavelength dependence of the MAC was best fit to a power law with an Absorption Ångstrom Coefficient slightly greater than 1.

  19. Characterization of red-near infrared transition for wheat and chickpea using 3 nm bandwidth data (United States)

    Gupta, R. K.; Vijayan, D.; Prasad, T. S.


    Enhancement of space based capabilities to discriminate different crops and different varieties of a particular crop needs measurement of (i) the shift in red edge and (ii) the slope of the sudden rise of reflectance in 680 - 760 nm spectral region as a function of Days After Sowing (DAS). To develop the knowledge base for catering to the analysis of future space-based hyperspectral measurements, ground based measurements in 3 nm bandwidth in visible - near Infrared region together with corresponding Leaf Area Index (LAI) observations were taken over the Crop Growth Cycle (CGC) of Wheat and Chickpea. The red edge for wheat crop was at 679 nm for 25 DAS and reached the upper limit i.e., 693.7 nm at 84 DAS and thereafter shifted backward to 679 nm at 108 DAS. There was no change in red edge value of 684.9 nm during 40 to 49 DAS and of 687.8 nm during 55 to 71 DAS. The slope of Red to NIR transition for wheat varied from 0.457 to peak value of 0.784 during 25 to 71 DAS and thereafter decreased to 0.073 at 108 DAS. The peak of Red to Near Infrared (NIR) transition slope and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) occurred at the same time i.e., 71 DAS. However, the upper most value of red edge shift occurred at 84 DAS. Paper discusses the above aspects including role of mid point of Red to NIR transition, interrelationships among the Red-NIR transition Slope, Red Edge, LAI and RVI for wheat and chickpea.

  20. Gridded design rule scaling: taking the CPU toward the 16nm node (United States)

    Bencher, Christopher; Dai, Huixiong; Chen, Yongmei


    The Intel 45nm PenrynTM CPU was a landmark design, not only for its implementation of high-K metal gate materials1, but also for the adoption of a nearly gridded design rule (GDR) layout architecture for the poly silicon gate layer2. One key advantage of using gridded design rules is reduction of design rules and ease of 1- dimensional scaling compared to complex random 2-dimensinal layouts. In this paper, we demonstrate the scaling capability of GDR to 16nm and 22nm logic nodes. Copying the design of published images for the Intel 45nm PenrynTM poly-silicon layer2, we created a mask set designed to duplicate those patterns targeting a final pitch of 64nm and 52nm using Sidewall Spacer Double Patterning for the extreme pitch shrinking and performed exploratory work at final pitch of 44nm. Mask sets were made in both tones to enable demonstration of both damascene (dark field) patterning and poly-silicon gate layer (clear field) GDR layouts, although the results discussed focus primarily on poly-silicon gate layer scaling. The paper discusses the line-and-cut double patterning technique for generating GDR structures, the use of sidewall spacer double patterning for scaling parallel lines and the lithographic process window (CD and alignment) for applying cut masks. Through the demonstration, we highlight process margin issues and suggest corrective actions to be implemented in future demonstrations and more advanced studies. Overall, the process window is quite large and the technique has strong manufacturing possibilities.

  1. Challenges in the Plasma Etch Process Development in the sub-20nm Technology Nodes (United States)

    Kumar, Kaushik


    For multiple generations of semiconductor technologies, RF plasmas have provided a reliable platform for critical and non-critical patterning applications. The electron temperature of processes in a RF plasma is typically several electron volts. A substantial portion of the electron population is within the energy range accessible for different types of electron collision processes, such as electron collision dissociation and dissociative electron attachment. When these electron processes occur within a small distance above the wafer, the neutral species, radicals and excited molecules, generated from these processes take part in etching reactions impacting selectivity, ARDE and micro-loading. The introduction of finFET devices at 22 nm technology node at Intel marks the transition of planar devices to 3-dimensional devices, which add to the challenges to etch process in fabricating such devices. In the sub-32 nm technology node, Back-end-of-the-line made a change with the implementation of Trench First Metal Hard Mask (TFMHM) integration scheme, which has hence gained traction and become the preferred integration of low-k materials for BEOL. This integration scheme also enables Self-Aligned Via (SAV) patterning which prevents via CD growth and confines via by line trenches to better control via to line spacing. In addition to this, lack of scaling of 193 nm Lithography and non-availability of EUV based lithography beyond concept, has placed focus on novel multiple patterning schemes. This added complexity has resulted in multiple etch schemes to enable technology scaling below 80 nm Pitches, as shown by the memory manufacturers. Double-Patterning and Quad-Patterning have become increasingly used techniques to achieve 64 nm, 56 nm and 45 nm Pitch technologies in Back-end-of-the-line. Challenges associated in the plasma etching of these multiple integration schemes will be discussed in the presentation. In collaboration with A. Ranjan, TEL Technology Center, America

  2. Reduced NM23 Protein Level Correlates With Worse Clinicopathologic Features in Colorectal Cancers (United States)

    Yang, Tian; Chen, Bo-Zan; Li, Dan-Feng; Wang, Huai-Ming; Lin, Xiao-Sheng; Wei, Hong-Fa; Zeng, Yong-Ming


    Abstract The clinical value of a prominent metastasis suppressor, nonmetastatic protein 23 (NM23), remains controversial. In this study, we examined the correlation between NM23 protein levels and the clinicopathologic features of colorectal cancers (CRC), and assessed the overall prognostic value of NM23 for CRC. Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and other scientific literature databases were exhaustively searched to identify relevant studies published prior to June 31, 2015. The methodological qualities of selected studies were scored based on the critical appraisal skills program (CASP) criteria, as independently assessed by 2 reviewers. NM23 protein levels in tumor tissues of CRC patients were examined in relation to Dukes stage, differentiation grade, T-stage, lymph node metastasis status, and overall survival (OS). STATA software version 12.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX) was used for statistical analysis of data pooled from selected studies. Nineteen cohort studies met the inclusion criteria for present study and contained a combined total of 2148 study subjects. Pooled odd ratios (ORs) for NM23 expression revealed that reduced NM23 protein levels in CRC tumor tissues correlated with Dukes stage C and D (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.06–3.39, P = 0.032), poor differentiation grades (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.03–1.94, P = 0.032), and positive lymph node metastasis status (OR = 3.21, 95% CI: 1.95–5.29, P < 0.001). On the other hand, no such correlations were evident with T-stage T3-4 (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 0.60–4.06, P = 0.367) or OS (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.58–1.08, P = 0.138). Our analysis of pooled data found that NM23 expression is reduced in CRC tissues and low NM23 levels tightly correlate with higher Dukes stages, poorer differentiation grade, and positive lymph node metastases. However, NM23 levels did not influence the OS in CRC patients. PMID:26825905

  3. Improved long wavelength 14xx and 19xx nm InGaAsp/InP lasers (United States)

    Tanbun-Ek, T.; Pathak, R.; Xu, Z.; Winhold, H.; Zhou, F.; Peters, M.; Schleuning, D.; Acklin, B.


    We report on our progress developing long wavelength high power laser diodes based on the InGaAsP/InP alloy system emitting in the range from 1400 to 2010 nm. Output power levels exceeding 50 Watts CW and 40% conversion efficiency were obtained at 1470 nm wavelength from 20% fill factor (FF) bars with 2 mm cavity length mounted on water cooled plates. Using these stackable plates we built a water cooled stack with 8 bars, successfully demonstrating 400 W at 1470 nm with good reliability. In all cases the maximum conversion efficiency was greater than 40% and the maximum power achievable was limited by thermal rollover. For lasers emitting in the range from 1930 to 2010 nm we achieved output power levels over 15 W and 20 % conversion efficiency from 20% FF bars with 2 mm cavity length on a conductively cooled platform. Life testing of the 1470 nm lasers bars over 14,000 hours under constant current mode has shown no significant degradation.

  4. Energetic Sn{sup +} irradiation effects on ruthenium mirror specular reflectivity at 13.5-nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allain, J.P. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Nieto-Perez, M. [CICATA-IPN, Cimatario, Queretaro (Mexico); Hendricks, M.R. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Zink, P. [Philips Extreme UV, Aachen (Germany); Metzmacher, C. [Philips Research Laboratories, Aachen (Germany); Bergmann, K. [Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology, Aachen (Germany)


    Sn{sup +} irradiations of Ru single-layer mirrors (SLM) simulate conditions of fast-Sn ion exposure in high-intensity 13.5 nm lithography lamps. Ultra-shallow implantation of Sn is measured down to 1-1.5 nm depth for energies between 1-1.3 keV at near-normal incident angles on Ru mirror surfaces. The Sn surface concentration reaches an equilibrium of 55-58% Sn/Ru for near-normal incidence and 36-38% for grazing incidence at approximately 63 degrees with respect to the mirror surface normal. The relative reflectivity at 13.5 nm at 15-degree incidence was measured in-situ during Sn{sup +} irradiation. For near-normal Sn{sup +} exposures the reflectivity is measured to decrease between 4-7% for a total Sn fluence of 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}. Theoretical Fresnel reflectivity modeling shows for the same fluence assuming all Sn atoms form a layer on the Ru mirror surface, that the reflectivity loss should be between 15-18% for this dose. Ex-situ absolute 13.5 nm reflectivity data corroborate these results, indicating that implanted energetic Sn atoms mixed with Ru reflect 13.5-nm light differently than theoretically predicted by Fresnel reflectivity models. (orig.)

  5. Optical properties of mice skull bone in the 455- to 705-nm range (United States)

    Haleh, Soleimanzad; Hirac, Gurden; Frédéric, Pain


    Rodent brain is studied to understand the basics of brain function. The activity of cell populations and networks is commonly recorded in vivo with wide-field optical imaging techniques such as intrinsic optical imaging, fluorescence imaging, or laser speckle imaging. These techniques were recently adapted to unrestrained mice carrying transcranial windows. Furthermore, optogenetics studies would benefit from optical stimulation through the skull without implanting an optical fiber, especially for longitudinal studies. In this context, the knowledge of bone optical properties is requested to improve the quantitation of the depth and volume of imaged or stimulated tissues. Here, we provide experimental measurements of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of freshly excised mice skull for wavelengths between 455 and 705 nm. Absorption coefficients from 6 to 8 months mice skull samples range between 1.67±0.28 mm-1 at 455 nm and 0.47±0.07 mm-1 at 705 nm, whereas reduced scattering coefficients were in the range of 2.79±0.26 mm-1 at 455 nm up to 2.29±0.12 mm-1 at 705 nm. In comparison, measurements carried out on 4 to 5 weeks mice showed similar spectral profiles but smaller absorption and reduced scattering coefficients by a factor of about 2 and 1.5, respectively.

  6. Removal of UV 254 nm matter and nutrients from a photobioreactor-wetland system. (United States)

    Wu, Yonghong; He, Jiangzhou; Hu, Zhengyi; Yang, Linzhang; Zhang, Naiming


    The output of organic pollutants and excessive nutrients in intensive agricultural areas has frequently occurred, which easily lead to pollution events such as harmful algal blooms in downstream aquatic ecosystems. A photobioreactor-wetland system was applied to remove UV(254 nm) matter and dissolved nutrients discharged from an intensive agricultural area in the Kunming region of western China. The photobioreactor-wetland system was composed of two main components: an autotrophic photobioreactor with replanted macrophytes and a constructed wetland. The results showed that there was a significant correlation between UV(245)(nm) absorbance and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration in the effluent of the agricultural ecosystem. When the hydraulic load of the photobioreactor-wetland system was 500 m(3)day(-1), the UV(254 nm) absorbance was dramatically reduced, and dissolved nutrients such as TDP, NO(3)-N and NH(4)-N were effectively removed. The overall average removal efficiencies were as follows in relatively steady-state conditions: UV(254 nm) matter (66%), TDP (71%), NO(3)-N (75%) and NH(4)-N (65%). Simpson's diversity index of zoobenthos indicated that the system could increase the zoobenthic diversity and improve the growth conditions of the zoobenthos habitat. The results also showed that the photobioreactor-wetland system could remove the UV(254 nm) matter and dissolved nutrients, providing a promising bio-measure for reducing the risk of pollution event occurrences in downstream surface waters.

  7. Portable Raman spectroscopy using retina-safe (1550 nm) laser excitation (United States)

    Brouillette, Carl; Smith, Wayne; Donahue, Michael; Huang, Hermes; Shende, Chetan; Sengupta, Atanu; Inscore, Frank; Patient, Michael; Farquharson, Stuart


    The use of portable Raman analyzers to identify unknown substances in the field has grown dramatically during the past decade. Measurements often require the laser beam to exit the confines of the sample compartment, which increases the potential of eye or skin damage. This is especially true for most commercial analyzers, which use 785 nm laser excitation. To overcome this safety concern, we have built a portable FT-Raman analyzer using a 1550 nm retina-safe excitation laser. Excitation at 1550 nm falls within the 1400 to 2000 nm retina-safe range, so called because the least amount of damage to the eye occurs in this spectral region. In contrast to wavelengths below 1400 nm, the retina-safe wavelengths are not focused by the eye, but are absorbed by the cornea, aqueous and vitreous humor. Here we compare the performance of this system to measurements of explosives at shorter wavelengths, as well as its ability to measure surface-enhanced Raman spectra of several chemicals, including the food contaminant melamine.

  8. Photonic modulation of EGFR: 280nm low level light arrests cancer cell activation and migration (United States)

    Botelho, Cláudia M.; Marques, Rogério; Viruthachalam, Thiagarajan; Gonçalves, Odete; Vorum, Henrik; Gomes, Andreia C.; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa


    Overexpression of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) by cancer cells is associated with a poor prognosis for the patient. For several decades, therapies targeting EGFR have been designed, including the use of monoclonal antibodies and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The use of these molecules had good clinical results, although its efficiency (and specificity) is still far from being optimal. In this paper, we present a new approach for a possible new cancer therapy targeting EGFR and using low intensity 280nm light. The influence of 280nm UVB illumination on cancer cells stimulated with 2nM of EGF was followed by time-lapse confocal microscopy. The 280nm illumination of the cancer cells blocks EGFR activation, inhibiting EGFR internalization and cell migration thus inhibiting the transition to the metastatic phenotype. Exposure time is a very important factor. The higher the illumination time the more significant differences were observed: 280nm light delayed or completely halted EGFR activation in the cell membrane, mainly at the cell junction level, and delayed or halted EGFR endocytic internalization, filopodia formation and cell migration.

  9. A 23-dB bismuth-doped optical fiber amplifier for a 1700-nm band (United States)

    Firstov, Sergei V.; Alyshev, Sergey V.; Riumkin, Konstantin E.; Khopin, Vladimir F.; Guryanov, Alexey N.; Melkumov, Mikhail A.; Dianov, Evgeny M.


    It is now almost twenty-five years since the first Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) was demonstrated. Currently, the EDFA is one of the most important elements widely used in different kinds of fiber-optic communication systems. However, driven by a constantly increasing demand, the network traffic, growing exponentially over decades, will lead to the overload of these systems (“capacity crunch”) because the operation of the EDFA is limited to a spectral region of 1530–1610 nm. It will require a search for new technologies and, in this respect, the development of optical amplifiers for new spectral regions can be a promising approach. Most of fiber-optic amplifiers are created using rare-earth-doped materials. As a result, wide bands in shorter (1150–1530 nm) and longer wavelength (1600–1750 nm) regions with respect to the gain band of Er-doped fibers are still uncovered. Here we report on the development of a novel fiber amplifier operating in a spectral region of 1640–1770 nm pumped by commercially available laser diodes at 1550 nm. This amplifier was realized using bismuth-doped high-germania silicate fibers fabricated by MCVD technique.

  10. REBL: design progress toward 16 nm half-pitch maskless projection electron beam lithography (United States)

    McCord, Mark A.; Petric, Paul; Ummethala, Upendra; Carroll, Allen; Kojima, Shinichi; Grella, Luca; Shriyan, Sameet; Rettner, Charles T.; Bevis, Chris F.


    REBL (Reflective Electron Beam Lithography) is a novel concept for high speed maskless projection electron beam lithography. Originally targeting 45 nm HP (half pitch) under a DARPA funded contract, we are now working on optimizing the optics and architecture for the commercial silicon integrated circuit fabrication market at the equivalent of 16 nm HP. The shift to smaller features requires innovation in most major subsystems of the tool, including optics, stage, and metrology. We also require better simulation and understanding of the exposure process. In order to meet blur requirements for 16 nm lithography, we are both shrinking the pixel size and reducing the beam current. Throughput will be maintained by increasing the number of columns as well as other design optimizations. In consequence, the maximum stage speed required to meet wafer throughput targets at 16 nm will be much less than originally planned for at 45 nm. As a result, we are changing the stage architecture from a rotary design to a linear design that can still meet the throughput requirements but with more conventional technology that entails less technical risk. The linear concept also allows for simplifications in the datapath, primarily from being able to reuse pattern data across dies and columns. Finally, we are now able to demonstrate working dynamic pattern generator (DPG) chips, CMOS chips with microfabricated lenslets on top to prevent crosstalk between pixels.

  11. Via patterning in the 7-nm node using immersion lithography and graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly (United States)

    Doise, Jan; Bekaert, Joost; Chan, Boon Teik; Hori, Masafumi; Gronheid, Roel


    Insertion of a graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly process as a via patterning technology into integrated circuit fabrication is seriously considered for the 7-nm node and beyond. At these dimensions, a graphoepitaxy process using a cylindrical block copolymer that enables hole multiplication can alleviate costs by extending 193-nm immersion-based lithography and significantly reducing the number of masks that would be required per layer. To be considered for implementation, it needs to be proved that this approach can achieve the required pattern quality in terms of defects and variability using a representative, aperiodic design. The patterning of a via layer from an actual 7-nm node logic layout is demonstrated using immersion lithography and graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly in a fab-like environment. The performance of the process is characterized in detail on a full 300-mm wafer scale. The local variability in an edge placement error of the obtained patterns (4.0 nm 3σ for singlets) is in line with the recent results in the field and significantly less than of the prepattern (4.9 nm 3σ for singlets). In addition, it is expected that pattern quality can be further improved through an improved mask design and optical proximity correction. No major complications for insertion of the graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly into device manufacturing were observed.

  12. Sub-5 nm nanostructures fabricated by atomic layer deposition using a carbon nanotube template (United States)

    Woo, Ju Yeon; Han, Hyo; Kim, Ji Weon; Lee, Seung-Mo; Ha, Jeong Sook; Shim, Joon Hyung; Han, Chang-Soo


    The fabrication of nanostructures having diameters of sub-5 nm is very a important issue for bottom-up nanofabrication of nanoscale devices. In this work, we report a highly controllable method to create sub-5 nm nano-trenches and nanowires by combining area-selective atomic layer deposition (ALD) with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as templates. Alumina nano-trenches having a depth of 2.6 ∼ 3.0 nm and SiO2 nano-trenches having a depth of 1.9 ∼ 2.2 nm fully guided by the SWNTs have been formed on SiO2/Si substrate. Through infilling ZnO material by ALD in alumina nano-trenches, well-defined ZnO nanowires having a thickness of 3.1 ∼ 3.3 nm have been fabricated. In order to improve the electrical properties of ZnO nanowires, as-fabricated ZnO nanowires by ALD were annealed at 350 °C in air for 60 min. As a result, we successfully demonstrated that as-synthesized ZnO nanowire using a specific template can be made for various high-density resistive components in the nanoelectronics industry.

  13. Size distribution of radon decay products in the range 0.1-10 nm. (United States)

    Zhukovsky, Michael; Rogozina, Marina; Suponkina, Anna


    Information about the size distribution of radioactive aerosols in nanometre range is essential for the purposes of air contamination monitoring, dose assessment to respiratory tract and planning of protective measures. The diffusion battery, which allows capturing particles in the size range of 0.1-10 nm, has developed. Interpreting data obtained from diffusion battery is very complex. The method of expectation maximisation by Maher and Laird was chosen for indirect inversion data. The experiments were performed in the box with equivalent equilibrium concentration of radon in the range of 7000-10,000 Bq m(-3). The three modes of size distribution of radon decay products aerosols were obtained: activity median thermodynamic diameter (AMTD) 0.3, 1.5 and 5 nm. These modes can be identified as: AMTD 0.3 nm--atoms of radon progeny (218Po in general); AMTD 1.5 nm--clusters of radon progeny atoms and non-radioactive atoms in the atmosphere; AMTD 5 nm--particles formed by coagulation of previous mode clusters with existing aerosol particles or nucleation of condensation nuclei containing atoms of radon progeny. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  14. 100 nm period gratings produced by lithographically induced self-construction (United States)

    Lei, Xinya; Wu, Lin; Deshpande, Paru; Yu, Zhaoning; Wu, Wei; Ge, Haixiong; Chou, Stephen Y.


    In this paper we report a technique that allows a fast replication of sub-100 nm scale patterns in a thin polymer film on a substrate from a patterned mask. Using the new pattern transfer technique, we fabricated 100 nm period polymer gratings with a 50 nm linewidth above a Si substrate as an example to demonstrate its capability of producing sub-100 nm nanostructures with direct industrial applications. In our technique, a mask with protruding patterns is used to induce similar pattern formation in the molten polymer film through an electrohydrodynamic instability process. A solid positive replica of the mask is obtained by cooling the polymer below its glass transition temperature. The mask is removed afterwards for the next fabrication procedure. The polymer structures formed can be used either directly as functional devices or as etching masks for further lithography processes. The mechanism that leads to the instability and subsequent pattern formation in the polymer layer is explained. Several important physical parameters that control the whole instability process are also identified. Our theory and experiments show that the pattern transfer technique developed here is well suited for the fabrication of sub-100 nm surface patterns in thin polymer films.

  15. O2 absorption cross sections /187-225 nm/ from stratospheric solar flux measurements (United States)

    Herman, J. R.; Mentall, J. E.


    The absorption cross sections of molecular oxygen are calculated in the wavelength range from 187 to 230 nm from solar flux measurements obtained within the stratosphere. Within the Herzberg continuum wavelength region the molecular oxygen cross sections are found to be about 30% smaller than the laboratory results of Shardanand and Rao (1977) from 200 to 210 nm and about 50% smaller than those of Hasson and Nicholls (1971). At wavelengths longer than 210 nm the cross sections agree with those of Shardanand and Rao. The effective absorption cross sections of O2 in the Schumann-Runge band region from 187 to 200 nm are calculated and compared to the empirical fit given by Allen and Frederick (1982). The calculated cross sections indicate that the transmissivity of the atmosphere may be underestimated by the use of the Allen and Frederic cross sections between 195 and 200 nm. The ozone column content between 30 and 40 km and the relative ozone cross sections are determined from the same solar flux data set.

  16. Nanocrystalline germanium nip solar cells with spectral sensitivities extending into 1450 nm (United States)

    Li, Chang; Ni, Jian; Sun, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Xinyu; Li, Zhenglong; Cai, Hongkun; Li, Juan; Zhang, Jianjun


    To absorb the infrared part of the solar spectrum more efficiently, narrow bandgap hydrogenated nanocrystalline germanium (nc-Ge:H) thin films were fabricated by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at a low temperature of 180 °C. While the incubation layer of the nc-Ge:H was reduced to less than 5 nm by using the ultra-high hydrogen dilution, the negative photoconductivity behavior was still observed as the thickness of nc-Ge:H up to 30 nm. Therefore, as the best candidate for solar cells application, the nc-Ge:H (20 nm)/nc-Si:H (10 nm) periodic multilayer structure was prepared and used as the absorption layer of nc-Ge:H nip solar cells. More importantly, the spectral sensitivities extending into the wavelength of 1450 nm were achieved in the nc-Ge:H nip solar cells. In addition, the annealing for the nc-Ge:H nip solar cells was carried out. While the overall short circuit current density of the device is improved after 500 °C annealing, the spectral sensitivities in the infrared region is decreased due to the the coalescence of Ge crystallites.

  17. Ultrafast photoconductive devices based upon GaAs:ErAs nanoparticle composite driven at 1550 nm (United States)

    Zhang, W.-D.; Mingardi, A.; Brown, E. R.; Feldman, A.; Harvey, T.; Mirin, R. P.


    This paper reports progress on a type of ultrafast photoconductive source that can be driven at 1550 nm but exhibits the robustness of GaAs (e.g., low-temperature-grown GaAs) driven at 780 nm. The approach is GaAs doped heavily with Er (≍4x1020 cm-3 or 2% atomic-Er-to-Ga fraction) such that ErAs nanoparticles form spontaneously during epitaxial growth by MBE. The nanoparticles are mostly spherical with a diameter of a few nm while the packing density is estimated as high as 2.2x1019/cm3. Yet, the Er-doped GaAs epilayer maintains excellent structural quality and smooth surface morphology. A photoconductive switch coupled to a 4-turn square spiral antenna is fabricated and characterized. At least 40 μW average THz power is generated when the device is biased at 75 V and pumped with a 1550-nm 90-fs-short pulsed laser having average power 85 mW. This research is significant for 1550-nm-technologycompatible, cost-effective THz sources.

  18. Electron multibeam technology for mask and wafer writing at 0.1 nm address grid (United States)

    Platzgummer, Elmar; Klein, Christof; Loeschner, Hans


    IMS Nanofabrication realized a 50 keV electron multibeam proof-of-concept (POC) tool confirming writing principles with 0.1 nm address grid and lithography performance capability. The POC system achieves the predicted 5 nm 1 sigma blur across the 82 μm×82 μm array of 512×512 (262,144) programmable 20 nm beams. 24-nm half pitch (HP) has been demonstrated and complex patterns have been written in scanning stripe exposure mode. The first production worthy system for the 11-nm HP mask node is scheduled for 2014 (Alpha), 2015 (Beta), and first-generation high-volume manufacturing multibeam mask writer (MBMW) tools in 2016. In these MBMW systems the max beam current through the column is 1 μA. The new architecture has also the potential for 1× mask (master template) writing. Substantial further developments are needed for maskless e-beam direct write (EBDW) applications as a beam current of >2 mA is needed to achieve 100 wafer per hour industrial targets for 300 mm wafer size. Necessary productivity enhancements of more than three orders of magnitude are only possible by shrinking the multibeam optics such that 50 to 100 subcolumns can be placed on the area of a 300 mm wafer and by clustering 10 to 20 multicolumn tools. An overview of current EBDW efforts is provided.

  19. Pulsed dye laser treatment of pigmented lesions: a randomized clinical pilot study comparison of 607- and 595-nm wavelength lasers. (United States)

    Chern, Peggy L; Domankevitz, Yacov; Ross, E Victor


    The 595-nm pulsed dye laser has been used for the treatment of benign epidermal pigmented lesions (EPLs), but there is a risk of inducing undesirable purpura with treatment. To compare a 607-nm laser with a commercially-available 595-nm laser for the treatment of EPLs. Monte-Carlo simulations were performed to characterize laser interaction with skin. Ten patients with EPLs were treated with a 607-nm study prototype laser and the 595-nm pulsed dye laser twice at 2- to 4-week intervals on the left or right side on a randomized basis. Study endpoints included clearance rate of lesions, side effects immediately after treatment and at final follow-up, and patient discomfort/pain. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the 607-nm is absorbed more specifically by melanin than the 595-nm wavelength. Both lasers were effective in treatment of EPLs. The average degree of improvement overall was 41.2% with the 607-nm laser and 40% with the 595-nm laser. Patients reported less discomfort/pain during treatment with the 607-nm laser. Our findings suggest that the 607-nm laser is safe and at least as effective as the 595-nm laser in treatment of EPLs. There was less patient discomfort/pain during treatment using the 607-nm laser. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Laser induced incandescence determination of the ratio of the soot absorption functions at 532 nm and 1064 nm in the nucleation zone of a low pressure premixed sooting flame (United States)

    Cléon, G.; Amodeo, T.; Faccinetto, A.; Desgroux, P.


    In this work, the two-excitation wavelength laser induced incandescence (LII) method has been applied in a low-pressure premixed methane/oxygen/nitrogen flame (equivalence ratio 2.32) to determine the variation of the ratio of the soot absorption functions at 532 nm and 1064 nm E( m,532 nm)/ E( m,1064 nm) along the flame. This method relies on the comparison of LII signals measured upon two different excitation wavelengths (here 532 nm and 1064 nm) and with laser fluences selected in such a way that the soot particles are equally laser-heated. The comparison of the laser fluences at 532 nm and 1064 nm leads to an easy determination of E( m,532 nm)/ E( m,1064 nm). The reliability of the method is demonstrated for the first time in a low pressure flame in which the soot nucleation zone can be spatially resolved and which contains soot particles acting differently with the laser fluence according to their residence time in the flame. The method is then applied to determine the profile of E( m,532 nm)/ E( m,1064 nm) along the flame. A very important decrease of this ratio is observed in the region of nascent soot, while the ratio remains constant at high distance above the burner. Implication on temperature determination from spectrally resolved measurement of flame emission is studied.