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Sample records for sandpiper calidris pusilla

  1. Population genetics and evaluation of genetic evidence for subspecies in the Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Gratto-Trevor, Cheri; Haig, Susan M.; Mizrahi, David S.; Mitchell, Melanie M.; Mullins, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) are among the most common North American shorebirds. Breeding in Arctic North America, this species displays regional differences in migratory pathways and possesses longitudinal bill length variation. Previous investigations suggested that genetic structure may occur within Semipalmated Sandpipers and that three subspecies corresponding to western, central, and eastern breeding groups exist. In this study, mitochondrial control region sequences and nuclear microsatellite loci were used to analyze DNA of birds (microsatellites: n = 120; mtDNA: n = 114) sampled from seven North American locations. Analyses designed to quantify genetic structure and diversity patterns, evaluate genetic evidence for population size changes, and determine if genetic data support the existence of Semipalmated Sandpiper subspecies were performed. Genetic structure based only on the mtDNA data was observed, whereas the microsatellite loci provided no evidence of genetic differentiation. Differentiation among locations and regions reflected allele frequency differences rather than separate phylogenetic groups, and similar levels of genetic diversity were noted. Combined, the two data sets provided no evidence to support the existence of subspecies and were not useful for determining migratory connectivity between breeding sites and wintering grounds. Birds from western and central groups displayed signatures of population expansions, whereas the eastern group was more consistent with a stable overall population. Results of this analysis suggest that the eastern group was the source of individuals that colonized the central and western regions currently utilized by Semipalmated Sandpipers.

  2. Metals in tissues of migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) from Delaware Bay, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers RWJ Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Niles, Lawrence [Conserve Wildlife, 109 Market Lane, Greenwich, NJ (United States); Dey, Amanda [NJ Department of Environmental Protection, Endangered and Nongame Species Program, Trenton, NJ (United States); Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Tsipoura, Nellie [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Rd, Bernardsville, NJ (United States)

    2014-08-15

    There is an abundance of field data on levels of metals for feathers in a variety of birds, but relatively few data for tissues, especially for migrant species from one location. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in muscle, liver, brain, fat and breast feathers from migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) collected from Delaware Bay, New Jersey. Our primary objectives were to (1) examine variation as a function of tissue, (2) determine the relationship of metal levels among tissues, and (3) determine the selenium:mercury molar ratio in different tissues since selenium is thought to protect against mercury toxicity. We were also interested in whether the large physiological changes that occur while shorebirds are on Delaware Bay (e.g. large weight gains in 2–3 weeks) affected metal levels, especially in the brain. There were significant differences among tissues for all metals. The brain had the lowest levels of arsenic and cadmium, and was tied for the lowest levels of all other metals except lead and selenium. Correlations among metals in tissues were varied, with mercury levels being positively correlated for muscle and brain, and for liver and breast feathers. Weights vary among individuals at the Delaware Bay stopover, as they arrive light, and gain weight prior to migration north. Bird weight and levels of arsenic, cadmium, and selenium in the brain were negatively correlated, while they were positively correlated for lead. There was no positive correlation for mercury in the brain as a function of body weight. The selenium:mercury molar ratio varied significantly among tissues, with brain (ratio of 141) and fat having the highest ratios, and liver and breast feathers having the lowest. In all cases, the ratio was above 21, suggesting the potential for amelioration of mercury toxicity. - Highlights: • Metal levels were examined for migrant semipalmated sandpipers. • There

  3. Intertidal biofilm distribution underpins differential tide-following behavior of two sandpiper species (Calidris mauri and Calidris alpina) during northward migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez, A.; Elner, R.W.; Favaro, C.; Rickards, K.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery that some shorebird species graze heavily on biofilm adds importance to elucidating coastal processes controlling biofilm, as well as impetus to better understand patterns of shorebird use of intertidal flats. Western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) and dunlin (Calidris alpina) stopover in

  4. Effects of oilfield brinewater discharges on Western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) in Nueces Bay, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capizzi, J.L.; King, K.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Rattner, B.A.; LeCaptain, L.

    1993-01-01

    Western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) were studied at an oilfield brinewater discharge site near Corpus Christi, Texas, and at a reference site near Galveston, Texas. Morphological indices, hepatic monooxygenase activities, and contaminant burdens were quantified to evaluate exposure and effects. Pooled stomach contents of birds collected at the discharge site contained higher concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons than the reference site. Total pristane concentration, and the ratio of pristane:n-heptadecane in sandpiper carcasses were significantly greater at the oil discharge site, indicative of chronic exposure. Concentrations of other organic contaminants (petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides and metabolites) in carcasses at both study sites were relatively low. Neither body weight, bill length or hepatic monooxygenase activities differed between sites, although liver weight and liver weight:body weight ratio were significantly lower at the discharge site. These data suggest that oilfield brinewater discharges have only limited toxicity to sandpipers wintering near the site.

  5. Intertidal biofilm distribution underpins differential tide-following behavior of two sandpiper species (Calidris mauri and Calidris alpina) during northward migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Ariam; Elner, Robert W.; Favaro, Corinna; Rickards, Karen; Ydenberg, Ronald C.

    2015-03-01

    The discovery that some shorebird species graze heavily on biofilm adds importance to elucidating coastal processes controlling biofilm, as well as impetus to better understand patterns of shorebird use of intertidal flats. Western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) and dunlin (Calidris alpina) stopover in the hundreds of thousands on the Fraser River estuary, British Columbia, Canada, during northward migration to breeding areas. Western sandpipers show greater modification of tongue and bill morphology for biofilm feeding than dunlin, and their diet includes more biofilm. Therefore, we hypothesized that these congeners differentially use the intertidal area. A tide following index (TFI) was used to describe their distributions in the upper intertidal during ebbing tides. Also, we assessed sediment grain size, biofilm (= microphytobenthic or MPB) biomass and invertebrate abundance. Foraging dunlin closely followed the ebbing tide line, exploiting the upper intertidal only as the tide retreated through this area. In contrast, western sandpipers were less prone to follow the tide, and spent more time in the upper intertidal. Microphytobenthic biomass and sediment water content were highest in the upper intertidal, indicating greater biofilm availability for shorebirds in the first 350 m from shore. Invertebrate density did not differ between sections of the upper intertidal. Overall, western sandpiper behaviour and distribution more closely matched MPB biofilm availability than invertebrate availability. Conservation of sandpipers should consider physical processes, such as tides and currents, which maintain the availability of biofilm, a critical food source during global migration.

  6. Food and feeding ecology of purple sandpipers Calidris maritima on rocky intertidal habitats (Helgoland, German Bight)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierschke, Volker

    On the island of Helgoland (German Bight) Purple Sandpipers Calidris maritima feed mainly in the intertidal of piers and rocky shores. The main prey species are Littorina saxatilis and Mytilus edulis, complemented by crustaceans, polychaetes, other molluscs and green algae. Beach habitats are used as alternative feeding sites during storms. Feeding sites seem to be selected according to rates of assimilated energy intake. The most profitable habitat (wrack beds on the high-tide line with kelp-fly larvae, 16.8 W) is used after arrival in October but is not available during winter. Because of high intake rates in rocky habitats (13.1 W on piers, 5.5 W on mussel beds), which allow short daily feeding times, and available alternative feeding sites during storms, Purple Sandpipers do not need to carry fat reserves in winter like other waders wintering in central and Western Europe. This, and the ever accessible food supply of epibenthic macrofauna on rocky shores, may enable Purple Sandpipers to winter further north than other wader species.

  7. Population structure of Purple Sandpipers (Calidris maritima) as revealed by mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Nathalie M; Stewart, Donald T; Pálsson, Snaebjörn; Elderkin, Mark F; Mittelhauser, Glen; Mockford, Stephen; Paquet, Julie; Robertson, Gregory J; Summers, Ron W; Tudor, Lindsay; Mallory, Mark L

    2017-05-01

    The Purple Sandpiper (Calidris maritima) is a medium-sized shorebird that breeds in the Arctic and winters along northern Atlantic coastlines. Migration routes and affiliations between breeding grounds and wintering grounds are incompletely understood. Some populations appear to be declining, and future management policies for this species will benefit from understanding their migration patterns. This study used two mitochondrial DNA markers and 10 microsatellite loci to analyze current population structure and historical demographic trends. Samples were obtained from breeding locations in Nunavut (Canada), Iceland, and Svalbard (Norway) and from wintering locations along the coast of Maine (USA), Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland (Canada), and Scotland (UK). Mitochondrial haplotypes displayed low genetic diversity, and a shallow phylogeny indicating recent divergence. With the exception of the two Canadian breeding populations from Nunavut, there was significant genetic differentiation among samples from all breeding locations; however, none of the breeding populations was a monophyletic group. We also found differentiation between both Iceland and Svalbard breeding populations and North American wintering populations. This pattern of divergence is consistent with a previously proposed migratory pathway between Canadian breeding locations and wintering grounds in the United Kingdom, but argues against migration between breeding grounds in Iceland and Svalbard and wintering grounds in North America. Breeding birds from Svalbard also showed a genetic signature intermediate between Canadian breeders and Icelandic breeders. Our results extend current knowledge of Purple Sandpiper population genetic structure and present new information regarding migration routes to wintering grounds in North America.

  8. The influence of chemoreception on the foraging behaviour of two species of sandpiper, calidris alba and calidris alpina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heezik, Y. M.; Gerritsen, A. F. C.; Swennen, C.

    This study is concerned with the ability of two wader species, the sanderling, Calidris alba and the dunlin, C. alpina to determine the presence of prey in a sediment by using their sense of taste, and whether they use this information while foraging for prey hidden in the sediment. Preference tests were designed in which the birds were presented with a choice of 2 jars filled with sand from 3 possible combination pairs: (1) "food" and "no taste", (2) "food" and "taste", and (3) "taste" and "no taste". Preferences were measured as the relative amount of time spent foraging in each jar of each pair. Significantly more time was spent on "taste" than on "no taste" for the "taste" and "no taste" combination. More time was spent on "taste" than on "no taste" when each was paired with "food" for 3 out of 4 situations. Foraging technique on "taste" was observed to be more purposeful and methodical than on "no taste". Both species are shown to be able to use taste while foraging to determine whether prey is present, and can modify their foraging behaviour by persisting in a spot that gives no information on the presence of prey other than taste, and by using a different, more determined searching technique.

  9. Identical metabolic rate and thermal conductance in Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) subspecies with contrasting nonbreeding life histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Closely related species or subspecies can exhibit metabolic differences that reflect site-specific environmental conditions. Whether such differences represent fixed traits or flexible adjustments to local conditions, however, is difficult to predict across taxa. The nominate race of Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) exhibits the most northerly nonbreeding distribution of any shorebird in the North Pacific, being common during winter in cold, dark locations as far north as upper Cook Inlet, Alaska (61°N). By contrast, the tschuktschorum subspecies migrates to sites ranging from about 59°N to more benign locations as far south as ~37°N. These distributional extremes exert contrasting energetic demands, and we measured common metabolic parameters in the two subspecies held under identical laboratory conditions to determine whether differences in these parameters are reflected by their nonbreeding life histories. Basal metabolic rate and thermal conductance did not differ between subspecies, and the subspecies had a similar metabolic response to temperatures below their thermoneutral zone. Relatively low thermal conductance values may, however, reflect intrinsic metabolic adaptations to northerly latitudes. In the absence of differences in basic metabolic parameters, the two subspecies’ nonbreeding distributions will likely be more strongly influenced by adaptations to regional variation in ecological factors such as prey density, prey quality, and foraging habitat.

  10. Microglia and neurons in the hippocampus of migratory sandpipers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G. Diniz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla and the spotted sandpiper Actitis macularia are long- and short-distance migrants, respectively. C. pusilla breeds in the sub-arctic and mid-arctic tundra of Canada and Alaska and winters on the north and east coasts of South America. A. macularia breeds in a broad distribution across most of North America from the treeline to the southern United States. It winters in the southern United States, and Central and South America. The autumn migration route of C. pusilla includes a non-stop flight over the Atlantic Ocean, whereas autumn route of A. macularia is largely over land. Because of this difference in their migratory paths and the visuo-spatial recognition tasks involved, we hypothesized that hippocampal volume and neuronal and glial numbers would differ between these two species. A. macularia did not differ from C. pusilla in the total number of hippocampal neurons, but the species had a larger hippocampal formation and more hippocampal microglia. It remains to be investigated whether these differences indicate interspecies differences or neural specializations associated with different strategies of orientation and navigation.

  11. Growth, behaviour of broods and weather-related variation in breeding productivity of Curlew Sandpipers Calidris ferruginea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schekkerman, H; Van Roomen, MWJ; Underhill, LG

    1998-01-01

    Growth and survival of chicks and movements of broods were studied in Curlew Sandpipers in N.E. Taimyr, Siberia, in 1991. Breeding was synchronised, 73% of 30 clutches hatching during 10-15 July. Nests were distributed clumped in dry frost-heaved tundra. Broods were tended by females only and moved

  12. Growth, behaviour of broods and weather-related variation in breeding productivity of curlew sandpipers Calidris ferruginea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schekkerman, H.; Roomen, van M.J.W.; Underhill, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    Growth and survival of chicks and movements of broods were studied in Curlew Sandpipers in N.E. Taimyr, Siberia, in 1991. Breeding was synchronised, 73% of 30 clutches hatching during 10-15 July. Nests were distributed clumped in dry frost-heaved tundra. Broods were tended by females only and moved

  13. Identical metabolic rate and thermal conductance in Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) subspecies with contrasting nonbreeding life histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruthrauff, Dan; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Closely related species or subspecies can exhibit metabolic differences that reflect site-specific environmental conditions. Whether such differences represent fixed traits or flexible adjustments to local conditions, however, is difficult to predict across taxa. The nominate race of Rock Sandpiper

  14. Local and global influences on population declines of coastal waders: Purple Sandpiper Calidris maritima numbers in the Moray Firth, Scotland

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    Summers, Ron W.; Foster, Simon; Swann, Bob; Etheridge, Brian

    2012-05-01

    Declines in numbers by several wader species in Britain have been linked to climate change, but the mechanism for the declines has rarely been explored. Britain lies at the northern end of the East Atlantic Flyway, and supports 1.3 million out of the Flyway's 8.5 million coastal waders (Charadrii) in winter and the Purple Sandpiper is one of the species whose numbers have declined. Here, we examine the dynamics of the decline as observed in the Moray Firth, northeast Scotland, investigating whether the decline was due to poorer apparent survival (return rate) or poorer recruitment of young birds. The maximum number in the Moray Firth declined from 860 in 1987/88 to 236 in 2006/07, with some increase during winters 2007/08 and 2008/09. At the three main high-tide roosts (Balintore, Lossiemouth and Buckie) the maximum combined number declined from 574 to 90. Changes in survival and recruitment (percentage of first-year birds) were examined at these roosts from captured samples, which were ringed and recaptured. There were no significant changes between winters in survival rates, nor were there differences between the survival rates of age groups (first-year and adult) or bill size groups, which represented birds of different sex and breeding origin. Annual survival estimates for the three roosts ranged from 72 to 77%. The percentage of first-year birds varied among roosts and years; the lowest values were during the late 1980s/early 1990s and early 2000s. A free-running population model incorporating varying percentages of first-year birds and constant mortality for each roost provided a plausible explanation for the decline. Although modelled numbers followed the observed pattern, a discrepancy in one year was carried forward in subsequent years, so that the fit with the observed numbers was parallel rather than similar. However, it seems that the decline in numbers was largely due to poorer recruitment. We discuss whether breeding success had declined, whether the

  15. Residency patterns of migrating sandpipers at a midcontinental stopover

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    Skagen, Susan K.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1994-01-01

    Arctic-nesting shorebirds require several refueling stops during their long migrations between breeding grounds and Central and South American wintering areas. The protection of stopover habitats for transcontinental migrants depends on whether birds fly long distances between a few select sites or fly short distances and stop at several wetlands. Although the Great Plains historically provided a vast array of wetlands for use by migrants, wetland loss and conversion have reduced the availability of stopover sites in recent decades. In this study, we examined (1) residency periods, (2) fat dynamics, and (3) migration chronology of two shorebird species, the Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla) and White-rumped Sandpiper (C. fuscicollis) at Quivira National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Kansas. Semipalmated Sandpipers had prolonged periods of species residency with overlapping arrivals and departures. Individual residency periods were highly variable and were unrelated to lipid reserves upon arrival. In contrast, White-rumped Sandpipers arrived and departed more synchronously. Birds that arrived in poor condition stayed longer than those with more body fat in 1991, but not in 1992. Wind direction did not influence patterns of departures of either species. We hypothesize that Semipalmated Sandpipers are ecologically eurytopic when migrating across the Great Plains in the spring. Highly variable patterns in arrival, residency, and lipid levels indicate that spring migration of this species is relaxed and opportunistic. White-rumped Sandpipers showed a pattern of reduced flexibility. Flight range estimates suggest that most birds require intermediate stopovers before reaching the breeding grounds. Interior wetlands appear to function as migration stopovers rather than staging areas for shorebirds.

  16. Fat dynamics of arctic-nesting sandpipers during spring in mid-continental North America

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    Krapu, G.L.; Eldridge, J.L.; Gratto-Trevor, C. L.; Buhl, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    We measured fresh body mass, total body fat, and fat-free dry mass (FFDM) of three species of Arctic-nesting calidrid sandpipers (Baird's Sandpiper [Calidris bairdii], hereafter "BASA"; Semipalmated Sandpiper [C. pusilla], hereafter "SESA"; and White-rumped Sandpiper [C. fuscicollis], hereafter "WRSA") during spring stopovers in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North Dakota, and evaluated the contribution of stored fat to (1) energy requirements for migration to their Arctic-breeding grounds and (2) nutrient needs for reproduction. All spring migrant WRSA (n = 124) and BASA (H = 111), and all but 2 of 99 SESA we collected were ???2 years old. Male and female BASA migrated through North Dakota concurrently, male SESA averaged earlier than females, and WRSA males preceded females. Fat indices (ratio of fat to FFDM) of male and female SESA and WRSA averaged approximately twice those of male and female BASA. Total body fat of male and female BASA increased with date in spring 1980, but not in 1981; slopes were similar for both sexes each year. Male and female SESA arrived lean in 1980 and 1981, and total body fat increased with date in both years, with similar slopes for all combinations of sex and year. Male and female WRSA arrived lean in 1980-1981 and 1981, respectively, and total body fat increased with date, whereas females arrived with fat reserves already acquired in 1980. Interspecific and sex differences in migration schedules probably contributed to variation in fat storage patterns by affecting maintenance energy costs and food availability. Estimated flight ranges of BASA suggest that few could have met their energy needs for migration to the breeding grounds exclusively from fat stored by the time of departure from North Dakota. Estimated flight ranges of SESA and WRSA, along with fresh body masses of both species when live-trapped on or near their breeding grounds in northern Canada, suggest that major parts of both populations stored adequate fat by

  17. Ecological and social factors affecting the local habitat distribution of western sandpipers wintering at Bah?Santa Mar? Northwest Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The process of habitat selection often requires individuals to choose among habitats that differ in foraging profitability and predation danger. The local habitat distribution of Western Sandpipers (Calidris maur~] was studied at Bahia Santa Maria, northwest Mexico, for three non-breeding seasons (1 999-2002). Western Sandpipers are highly sexually dimorphic, males being lighter and smaller-billed than females, and thus males may use visual foraging more often, be more susceptible to interfer...

  18. Seasonally chancing preen-wax composition : Red Knots' (Calidris canutus) flexible defense against feather-degrading bacteria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneerkens, Jeroen; Versteegh, Maaike A.; Schneider, Amy M.; Piersma, Theunis; Burtt, Edward H.; James, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    During incubation, ground-breeding sandpipers such as Red Knots (Calidris canutus) create a warm, humid micro-climate in the nest, conditions that favor the growth of feather-degrading bacteria present in their plumage. just before incubation, the composition of waxes secreted by the uropygial gland

  19. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sâmara Nunes; Pesenti, Tatiana Cheuiche; Cirne, Maximiano Pinheiro; Müller, Gertrud

    2014-08-01

    During April and September from 2010 to 2012, 80 birds of the species Calidris fuscicollis (white-rumped sandpiper) were collected for parasitological studies in the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, under ICMBIO license No. 26234-1. For ectoparasite collection, the birds were first submerged in water with detergent. The parasites found were fixed in 70% alcohol, cleared in 10% potassium hydroxide and mounted in Canada balsam. Of 80 birds examined, 79% were parasitized. Actornithophilus umbrinus (47.5%), Actornithophilus lacustris (37.5%), Actornithophilus spp. (13.75%), Carduiceps zonarius (26.25%), Lunaceps incoenis (27.5%), and Lunaceps spp. (16.25%) were the species found with their respective prevalence. We record for the first time parasitism by chewing lice in Calidris fuscicollis.

  20. Genetic parentage and mate guarding in the Arctic-breedng Western Sandpiper

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    Blomqvist, D.; Kempenaers, B.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Sandercock, B.K.

    2002-01-01

    Extra-pair copulations and fertilizations are common among birds, especially in passerines. So far, however, only a few studies have examined genetic mating systems in socially monogamous shorebirds. Here, we examine parentage in the Western Sandpiper, Calidris mauri. Given that Western Sandpipers nest at high densities on the arctic tundra, have separate nesting and feeding areas, and show high divorce rates between years, we expected extra-pair paternity to be more common in this species compared to other monogamous shorebirds. However, DNA fingerprinting of 98 chicks from 40 families revealed that only 8% of the broods contained young sired by extra-pair males, in that 5% of all chicks were extrapair. All chicks were the genetic offspring of their social mothers. We found that males followed females more often than the reverse. Also, cuckolded males were separated from their mates (by more than 10 m) for longer than those that did not lose paternity. Although these results suggest a role for male mate guarding, we propose that high potential costs in terms of reduced paternal care likely constrain female Western Sandpipers from seeking extra-pair copulations.

  1. The effects of wing loading and gender on the escape flights of least sandpipers (Calidris minutilla) and western sandpipers (Calidris mauri)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burns, J.G.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    High body mass caused by fat storage during migration is believed to increase a bird's risk of predation by decreasing its ability to escape predators. We demonstrate the negative effect of wing loading (mass/wing area) on escape speed and angle of two migrating species of shorebird. We also show si

  2. Orientation and autumn migration routes of juvenile sharp-tailed sandpipers at a staging site in Alaska.

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    Grönroos, Johanna; Muheim, Rachel; Akesson, Susanne

    2010-06-01

    Arctic waders are well known for their impressive long-distance migrations between their high northerly breeding grounds and wintering areas in the Southern hemisphere. Performing such long migrations requires precise orientation mechanisms. We conducted orientation cage experiments with juvenile sharp-tailed sandpipers (Calidris acuminata) to investigate what cues they rely on when departing from Alaska on their long autumn migration flights across the Pacific Ocean to Australasia, and which possible migration routes they could use. Experiments were performed under natural clear skies, total overcast conditions and in manipulated magnetic fields at a staging site in Alaska. Under clear skies the juvenile sharp-tailed sandpipers oriented towards SSE, which coincides well with reported sun compass directions from their breeding grounds in Siberia towards Alaska and could reflect their true migratory direction towards Australasia assuming that they change direction towards SW somewhere along the route. Under overcast skies the sandpipers showed a mean direction towards SW which would lead them to Australasia, if they followed a sun compass route. However, because of unfavourable weather conditions (headwinds) associated with overcast conditions, these south-westerly directions could also reflect local movements. The juvenile sharp-tailed sandpipers responded clearly to the manipulated magnetic field under overcast skies, suggesting the use of a magnetic compass for selecting their courses.

  3. A puzzling migratory detour : Are fueling conditions in Alaska driving the movement of juvenile sharp -tailed sandpipers ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, A.; Gill, R.E.; Jamieson, S.E.; McCaffery, B.; Wennerberg, L.; Wikelski, M.; Klaassen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Making a detour can be advantageous to a migrating bird if fuel-deposition rates at stopover sites along the detour are considerably higher than at stopover sites along a more direct route. One example of an extensive migratory detour is that of the Sharp-tailed Sandpiper (Calidris acuminata), of which large numbers of juveniles are found during fall migration in western Alaska. These birds take a detour of 1500-3400 km from the most direct route between their natal range in northeastern Siberia and nonbreeding areas in Australia. We studied the autumnal fueling rates and fuel loads of 357 Sharp-tailed Sandpipers captured in western Alaska. In early September the birds increased in mass at a rate of only 0.5% of lean body mass day?1. Later in September, the rate of mass increase was about 6% of lean body mass day?1, among the highest values found among similar-sized shorebirds around the world. Some individuals more than doubled their body mass because of fuel deposition, allowing nonstop flight of between 7100 and 9800 km, presumably including a trans-oceanic flight to the southern hemisphere. Our observations indicated that predator attacks were rare in our study area, adding another potential benefit of the detour. We conclude that the most likely reason for the Alaskan detour is that it allows juvenile Sharp-tailed Sandpipers to put on large fuel stores at exceptionally high rates. Copyright ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  4. Datas on the Malvetum pusillae Morariu 1943 association from Transilvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica JULA

    1970-08-01

    Full Text Available Die Arbeit enthalt Daten uber die Association der ruderalen Unkrauter Malvetum pusillae Morariu 1943 aus den Kreisen Cluj 1-4 und Bistrita-Nasaud 5. Urtica urens, und Malva neglecta. Die daten der Aufnahmen 4 un 5, auf Grund deren Malva nelecta hohere Werte A-D aufweist (3-5, bestimmen uns, sie als Fazies im Rahmen der Association Malvetum pusillae Morariu 1943 zu betrachten (Tabelle 1.

  5. Coping with the cold: an ecological context for the abundance and distribution of rock sandpipers during winter in upper Cook Inlet, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Gill, Robert E.; Tibbitts, T. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Shorebirds are conspicuous and abundant at high northern latitudes during spring and summer, but as seasonal conditions deteriorate, few remain during winter. To the best of our knowledge, Cook Inlet, Alaska (60.6˚ N, 151.6˚ W), is the world’s coldest site that regularly supports wintering populations of shorebirds, and it is also the most northerly nonbreeding location for shorebirds in the Pacific Basin. During the winters of 1997–2012, we conducted aerial surveys of upper Cook Inlet to document the spatial and temporal distribution and number of Rock Sandpipers (Calidris ptilocnemis) using the inlet. The average survey total was 8191 ± 6143 SD birds, and the average of each winter season’s highest single-day count was 13 603 ± 4948 SD birds. We detected only Rock Sandpipers during our surveys, essentially all of which were individuals of the nominate subspecies (C. p. ptilocnemis). Survey totals in some winters closely matched the population estimate for this subspecies, demonstrating the region’s importance as a nonbreeding resource to the subspecies. Birds were most often found at only a handful of sites in upper Cook Inlet, but shifted their distribution to more southerly locations in the inlet during periods of extreme cold. Two environmental factors allow Rock Sandpipers to inhabit Cook Inlet during winter: 1) an abundant bivalve (Macoma balthica) food source and 2) current and tidal dynamics that keep foraging substrates accessible during all but extreme periods of cold and ice accretion. C. p. ptilocnemis is a subspecies of high conservation concern for which annual winter surveys may serve as a relatively inexpensive population-monitoring tool that will also provide insight into adaptations that allow these birds to exploit high-latitude environments in winter.

  6. Conservation of western sandpipers along the Pacific flyway, Year-end report , July 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In order to clarify some of the remaining gaps in our knowledge of western sandpipers, the 1995 western sandpiper telemetry study was undertaken with the following...

  7. Laternea pusilla (PHALLALES, PHALLACEAE UNA NUEVA ESPECIE PARA COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto PINZON OSORIO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez a Laternea pusilla para Colombia, un macrohongo que prolifera en un bosque húmedo montano bajo (bh-MB de los Cerros Orientales de Bogotá, departamento de Cundinamarca. La especie es descrita e ilustrada con fotografías y se aporta información sobre su distribución, ecología y sustrato de crecimiento. Así, el género Laternea queda representado en el país por dos especies, L. triscapa y L. pusilla.

  8. DNA barcoding and phylogeny of Calidris and Tringa (Aves: Scolopacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zuhao; Tu, Feiyun

    2017-07-01

    The avian genera Calidris and Tringa are the largest of the widespread family of Scolopacidae. The phylogeny of members of the two genera is still a matter of controversial. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) can serve as a fast and accurate marker for the identification and phylogeny of animal species. In this study, we analyzed the COI barcodes of thirty-one species of the two genera. All the species had distinct COI sequences. Two hundred and twenty-one variable sites were identified. Kimura two-parameter distances were calculated between barcodes. Neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods were used to construct phylogenetic trees. All the species could be discriminated by their distinct clades in the phylogenetic trees. The phylogenetic trees grouped all the species of Calidris and Tringa into different monophyletic clade, respectively. COI data showed a well-supported phylogeny for Calidris and Tringa species.

  9. Lekking without a paradox in the buff-breasted sandpiper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctot, R B; Scribner, K T; Lanctot, R B; Weatherhead, P J; Kempenaers, B

    1997-06-01

    Females in lek-breeding species appear to copulate with a small subset of the available males. Such strong directional selection is predicted to decrease additive genetic variance in the preferred male traits, yet females continue to mate selectively, thus generating the lek paradox. In a study of buff-breasted sandpipers (Tryngites subruficollis), we combine detailed behavioral observations with paternity analyses using single-locus minisatellite DNA probes to provide the first evidence from a lek-breeding species that the variance in male reproductive success is much lower than expected. In 17 and 30 broods sampled in two consecutive years, a minimum of 20 and 39 males, respectively, sired offspring. This low variance in male reproductive success resulted from effective use of alternative reproductive tactics by males, females mating with solitary males off leks, and multiple mating by females. Thus, the results of this study suggests that sexual selection through female choice is weak in buff-breasted sandpipers. The behavior of other lek-breeding birds is sufficiently similar to that of buff-breasted sandpipers that paternity studies of those species should be conducted to determine whether leks generally are less paradoxical than they appear.

  10. Elevated CO2 and Phosphate Limitation Favor Micromonas pusilla through Stimulated Growth and Reduced Viral Impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, Douwe S.; Crawfurd, Katherine J.; Timmermans, Klaas R.; Brussaard, Corina P. D.

    2014-01-01

    Growth and viral infection of the marine picoeukaryote Micromonas pusilla was studied under a future-ocean scenario of elevated partial CO2 (pCO(2); 750 mu atm versus the present-day 370 mu atm) and simultaneous limitation of phosphorus (P). Independent of the pCO(2) level, the ratios of M. pusilla

  11. Development of the gametophyte of the fern Schizaea pusilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Swatzell, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Schizaea pusilla is a pteridophyte with several unique developmental characteristics. In contrast to most other fern species, S. pusilla gametophytes remain filamentous throughout their development, and the gametophytes are associated with an endophytic fungus which appears to be mycorrhizal. In terms of tropistic responses, apical filament cells of young gametophytes are negatively phototropic compared with germ filaments of other ferns which exhibit positive phototropism. Cryofixation (propane jet freezing and high-pressure freezing) in conjunction with freeze substitution electron microscopy was used to study young gametophytes. The results demonstrate that apical filament cells have a distinctive structural polarity and that rhizoids also can be successfully frozen by these methods. The cytoskeleton and endomembrane system were particularly well preserved in cryofixed cells. In addition, Schizaea gametophytes were used as a test system to evaluate potential artifacts of propane jet freezing and high pressure freezing. There was little apparent difference in ultrastructure between cells cryofixed by either freezing method. These gametophytes will be useful in determining the effectiveness of cryofixation techniques and as a model system in tip growth studies.

  12. PRESENCE OF RED KNOT (CALIDRIS CANUTUS IN ITE WETLANDS, TACNA, PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonson K. Vizcarra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Red Knot (Calidris canutus, Linnaeus 1758 in Ite Wetlands, Tacna, Peru is documented. Two individuals were observed in October 2011. This species had only one occurrence without details in this area.

  13. Niche dynamics of shorebirds in Delaware Bay: Foraging behavior, habitat choice and migration timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novcic, Ivana

    2016-08-01

    Niche differentiation through resource partitioning is seen as one of the most important mechanisms of diversity maintenance contributing to stable coexistence of different species within communities. In this study, I examined whether four species of migrating shorebirds, dunlins (Calidris alpina), semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), least sandpipers (Calidris minutilla) and short-billed dowitchers (Limnodromus griseus), segregate by time of passage, habitat use and foraging behavior at their major stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. I tested the prediction that most of the separation between morphologically similar species will be achieved by differential migration timing. Despite the high level of overlap along observed niche dimensions, this study demonstrates a certain level of ecological separation between migrating shorebirds. The results of analyses suggest that differential timing of spring migration might be the most important dimension along which shorebird species segregate while at stopover in Delaware Bay. Besides differences in time of passage, species exhibited differences in habitat use, particularly least sandpipers that foraged in vegetated areas of tidal marshes more frequently than other species, as well as short-billed dowitchers that foraged in deeper water more often than small sandpipers did. Partitioning along foraging techniques was less prominent than segregation along temporal or microhabitat dimensions. Such ranking of niche dimensions emphasizes significance of temporal segregation of migratory species - separation of species by time of passage may reduce the opportunity for interspecific aggressive encounters, which in turn can have positive effects on birds' time and energy budget during stopover period.

  14. On the occurrence of the tropical caprellid Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890 (Crustacea: Amphipoda in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ROS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracaprella pusilla MAYER, 1980 is a tropical caprellid amphipod species first described from Brasil and very common along the Atlantic coast of Central America. Since its original description, P. pusilla has been found at numerous widespread locations in tropical and subtropical seas around the world, primarily associated with fouling communities in harbours. An established population of P. pusilla was recently found in Cádiz, southern Spain, which is both the northernmost collection and first record of this species in European coastal waters. Ship fouling is the most probable vector for its introduction. The species was always found associated with the native hydroid Eudendrium racemosum (CAVOLINI, 1785 and appeared to display a mutualistic relationship with this host.

  15. First record of Microlynchia pusilla (Diptera: Hippoboscidae in Northeastern Brazil Primeiro registro de Microlynchia pusilla (Diptera: Hippoboscidae no Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honara Morgana da Silva

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the occurrence of Microlynchia pusilla in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (RN on Leptotila verreauxi approximans from a deciduous forest fragment located in the municipality of Macaíba. A specimen of L. v. approximans was collected in June 2012, wrapped in paper towels and kept under refrigeration in a plastic bag for later analysis of parasite fauna, taxidermy, and eventual storage in the Ornithological Collection of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN. During the search for ectoparasites, a specimen of M. pusilla was found among feathers of the ventral region; it was collected and stored in the Entomological Collection ‘Adalberto Antônio Varela-Freire’ of the same university. This report extends the knowledge about geographical distribution and confirms the association of M. pusilla with hosts Columbiformes, contributing to the knowledge of the family Hippoboscidae in the country.Este trabalho registra a ocorrência de Microlynchia pusilla no estado do Rio Grande do Norte em Leptotila verreauxi approximans oriunda de um fragmento de floresta estacional decidual localizado no município de Macaíba. Um espécime de L. v. approximans foi coletado em junho de 2012, envolvido em papel toalha e conservado sob refrigeração em saco plástico para posterior análise da fauna parasitária, taxidermia e depósito na Coleção Ornitológica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN. Durante a busca por ectoparasitos foi encontrado um espécime de M. pusilla nas penas da região ventral, o qual foi coletado e depositado na Coleção Entomológica Adalberto Antônio Varela-Freire da mesma universidade. Este relato amplia o conhecimento sobre a distribuição geográfica de M. pusilla e confirma sua associação com hospedeiros Columbiformes, contribuindo para o conhecimento da família Hippoboscidae no país.

  16. [Advantages and limitations of interspecies associations in northern migratory sandpipers (Charadrii, Aves)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, V V

    2014-01-01

    Investigations were carried out at two stations of Ornithological Unit, IBPN FEB RAS, located in Nizhnekolymsk District, Yakutia, starting from May 15-20 in 1984, 1985, 1987, 1988, and 1990; at the northern coast of Pukhovoy Bay, Southern Island of Novaya Zemlya starting from June 1 in 1994; at Cape Beliy Nos, the Yugorsky Peninsula, starting from June 1 in 1995-1997. Classic associations are detected in interspecies flocks of sandpipers between the following species: the Pacific golden plover and the curlew sandpiper, the pectoral sandpiper and the long-billed dowitcher, the pectoral sandpiper and the dunlin, the grey plover and the dunlin. However, total amount of birds that form associations is not large. In species of group "A" (the grey plover, the Pacific golden plover, the pectoral sandpiper), no difference has been observed in migratory birds behavior within inter- or conspecific flocks. Species of group "B" (the dunlin, the curlew sandpiper, the long-billed dowitcher), on the contrary, change their behavior sharply depending on whether they belong to an association or not. Species of group "A" do not get any advantages when forming an association. Unlike them, species of group "B" profit from associating: a part of time spent in foraging substantially increases; more time is spent on rest and less time is spent on reconnaissance and vigilance (readiness for actions); safety of birds is enhanced. On the other hand, in species of group "B" there are also disadvantages related with associating: i.e., interspecies competition for food; foraging in suboptimal habitats which, in turn, may lead to notable increase of time spent by birds in foraging. An assumption is put forward that in species of group "B" advantages and limitations of associating cancel each other to a certain extent, and this explains rather small number of birds forming associations.

  17. Migrating Broad-billed Sandpipers achieve high fuelling rates by taking a multi-course meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Y.I.; Dekinga, A; Koolhaas, A; van der Winden, J; van der Have, T M; Chernichko, I I

    2006-01-01

    In spring, large numbers of migrating Broad-billed Sandpipers make a stop-over in the Sivash, a shallow lagoon system in the Crimea, Ukraine, between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. Observed fuelling rates are high and, in just a few weeks, the birds can build up sufficient departure mass to reac

  18. Endogenous circannual rhythmicity in a non-passerine migrant, the Knot Calidris canutus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadée, Niels; Piersma, Theunis; Daan, Serge

    1996-01-01

    We present experimental evidence for endogenous control of circannual rhythms in a long-distance migratory wader, the Knot Calidris canutus. Six individuals of the subspecies canutus were caught during northward migration whilst staging in France, and were held together under constant temperature an

  19. Age and environment affect constitutive immune function in Red Knots (Calidris canutus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buehler, Deborah M.; Tieleman, B. Irene; Piersma, Theunis; Guglielmo, C.G.

    2009-01-01

    We studied subspecies, age and environmental effects on constitutive immune function (natural antibody and complement titres, haptoglobin activity and leukocyte concentrations) in Red Knots (Calidris canutus). We compared C. c. islandica and C. c. canutus in the Wadden Sea and found no difference in

  20. Why do few Afro-Siberian Knots Calidris canutus canutus now visit Britain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyd, H; Piersma, T

    2001-01-01

    The nominate (Afro-Siberian) subspecies of the Knot Calidris canutus canutus breeds on the Taimyr Peninsula in Siberia and occurs commonly in the westernmost Wadden Sea during migration to West and South Africa. The recoveries and controls of 2045 Knots ringed in Britain and Ireland provide no evide

  1. Is the evaporation water loss of Knot Calidris canutus higher in tropical than in temperate climates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboven, N.; Piersma, T.

    1995-01-01

    To test whether Knot Calidris canutus wintering in the tropics suffer higher rates of water loss through evaporation than do Knot wintering at temperate latitudes, we tried to develop a physically realistic model to predict evaporative heat loss from air temperature, wind and humidity. In separate e

  2. Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium and Selenium in Feathers of Shorebirds during Migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey: Comparing the 1990s and 2011/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Burger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding temporal changes in contaminant levels in coastal environments requires comparing levels of contaminants from the same species from different time periods, particularly if species are declining. Several species of shorebirds migrating through Delaware Bay have declined from the 1980s to the present. To evaluate some contaminants as cause for the declines, we examine levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium and selenium in feathers of red knot (Calidris canutus, N = 46 individuals, semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla, N = 70 and sanderling (Calidris alba, N = 32 migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA, from 1991 to 1992 (N = 40, 1995 (N = 28, and 2011–2012 (N = 80 to determine if levels have changed. We found: (1 arsenic, chromium, and lead increased in red knot and decreased in semipalmated sandpiper; (2 cadmium decreased in semipalmated sandpipers; (3 mercury decreased in red knot and sanderlings; (4 selenium decreased in red knot and increased in semipalmated sandpipers. In 2011/2012 there were significant interspecific differences for arsenic, mercury and selenium. Except for selenium, the element levels were well below levels reported for feathers of other species. The levels in feathers in red knots, sanderling, and semipalmated sandpipers from Delaware Bay in 2011/2012 were well below levels in feathers that are associated with effect levels, except for selenium. Selenium levels ranged from 3.0 µg·g−1 dry weight to 5.8 µg·g−1 (semipalmated sandpiper, within the range known to cause adverse effects, suggesting the need for further examination of selenium levels in birds. The levels of all elements were well below those reported for other marine species, except for selenium, which was near levels suggesting possible toxic effects.

  3. Nucleated succession by an endemic palm Phoenix pusilla enhances diversity of woody species in the arid Coromandel Coast of India

    OpenAIRE

    Kinhal, Vijayalaxmi; Parthasarathy, N

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Phoenix pusilla, an endemic shrubby palm, was used as a model nurse plant in degraded tropical dry evergreen forest (TDEF) landscapes. This choice was informed by traditional ecological knowledge of the Irula tribe of south India. We tested whether the presence of P. pusilla in water-stressed arid regions improves conditions for other species to establish, resulting in nucleated succession. Success would point the way forward for establishing species-rich woodland in aband...

  4. Growth on ATP Elicits a P-Stress Response in the Picoeukaryote Micromonas pusilla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeAnn P Whitney

    Full Text Available The surface waters of oligotrophic oceans have chronically low phosphate (Pi concentrations, which renders dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP an important nutrient source. In the subtropical North Atlantic, cyanobacteria are often numerically dominant, but picoeukaryotes can dominate autotrophic biomass and productivity making them important contributors to the ocean carbon cycle. Despite their importance, little is known regarding the metabolic response of picoeukaryotes to changes in phosphorus (P source and availability. To understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate P utilization in oligotrophic environments, we evaluated transcriptomes of the picoeukaryote Micromonas pusilla grown under Pi-replete and -deficient conditions, with an additional investigation of growth on DOP in replete conditions. Genes that function in sulfolipid substitution and Pi uptake increased in expression with Pi-deficiency, suggesting cells were reallocating cellular P and increasing P acquisition capabilities. Pi-deficient M. pusilla cells also increased alkaline phosphatase activity and reduced their cellular P content. Cells grown with DOP were able to maintain relatively high growth rates, however the transcriptomic response was more similar to the Pi-deficient response than that seen in cells grown under Pi-replete conditions. The results demonstrate that not all P sources are the same for growth; while M. pusilla, a model picoeukaryote, may grow well on DOP, the metabolic demand is greater than growth on Pi. These findings provide insight into the cellular strategies which may be used to support growth in a stratified future ocean predicted to favor picoeukaryotes.

  5. Avian influenza virus antibodies in Pacific Coast Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James A.; DeCicco, Lucas H.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Krauss, Scott; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in the western Atlantic subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is among the highest for any shorebird. To assess whether the frequency of detection of AIV antibodies is high for the species in general or restricted only to C. c. rufa, we sampled the northeastern Pacific Coast subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) breeding in northwestern Alaska. Antibodies were detected in 90% of adults and none of the chicks sampled. Viral shedding was not detected in adults or chicks. These results suggest a predisposition of Red Knots to AIV infection. High antibody titers to subtypes H3 and H4 were detected, whereas low to intermediate antibody levels were found for subtypes H10 and H11. These four subtypes have previously been detected in shorebirds at Delaware Bay (at the border of New Jersey and Delaware) and in waterfowl along the Pacific Coast of North America.

  6. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of an orchid model plant candidate: Erycina pusilla apply in tropical Oncidium breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chun Pan

    Full Text Available Oncidium is an important ornamental plant but the study of its functional genomics is difficult. Erycina pusilla is a fast-growing Oncidiinae species. Several characteristics including low chromosome number, small genome size, short growth period, and its ability to complete its life cycle in vitro make E. pusilla a good model candidate and parent for hybridization for orchids. Although genetic information remains limited, systematic molecular analysis of its chloroplast genome might provide useful genetic information. By combining bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones and next-generation sequencing (NGS, the chloroplast (cp genome of E. pusilla was sequenced accurately, efficiently and economically. The cp genome of E. pusilla shares 89 and 84% similarity with Oncidium Gower Ramsey and Phalanopsis aphrodite, respectively. Comparing these 3 cp genomes, 5 regions have been identified as showing diversity. Using PCR analysis of 19 species belonging to the Epidendroideae subfamily, a conserved deletion was found in the rps15-trnN region of the Cymbidieae tribe. Because commercial Oncidium varieties in Taiwan are limited, identification of potential parents using molecular breeding method has become very important. To demonstrate the relationship between taxonomic position and hybrid compatibility of E. pusilla, 4 DNA regions of 36 tropically adapted Oncidiinae varieties have been analyzed. The results indicated that trnF-ndhJ and trnH-psbA were suitable for phylogenetic analysis. E. pusilla proved to be phylogenetically closer to Rodriguezia and Tolumnia than Oncidium, despite its similar floral appearance to Oncidium. These results indicate the hybrid compatibility of E. pusilla, its cp genome providing important information for Oncidium breeding.

  7. Exploring the evolutionary origin of floral organs of Erycina pusilla, an emerging orchid model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks-Mulder, Anita; Butôt, Roland; van Schaik, Peter; Wijnands, Jan Willem P M; van den Berg, Roel; Krol, Louie; Doebar, Sadhana; van Kooperen, Kelly; de Boer, Hugo; Kramer, Elena M; Smets, Erik F; Vos, Rutger A; Vrijdaghs, Alexander; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2017-03-23

    Thousands of flowering plant species attract pollinators without offering rewards, but the evolution of this deceit is poorly understood. Rewardless flowers of the orchid Erycina pusilla have an enlarged median sepal and incised median petal ('lip') to attract oil-collecting bees. These bees also forage on similar looking but rewarding Malpighiaceae flowers that have five unequally sized petals and gland-carrying sepals. The lip of E. pusilla has a 'callus' that, together with winged 'stelidia', mimics these glands. Different hypotheses exist about the evolutionary origin of the median sepal, callus and stelidia of orchid flowers. The evolutionary origin of these organs was investigated using a combination of morphological, molecular and phylogenetic techniques to a developmental series of floral buds of E. pusilla. The vascular bundle of the median sepal indicates it is a first whorl organ but its convex epidermal cells reflect convergence of petaloid features. Expression of AGL6 EpMADS4 and APETALA3 EpMADS14 is low in the median sepal, possibly correlating with its petaloid appearance. A vascular bundle indicating second whorl derivation leads to the lip. AGL6 EpMADS5 and APETALA3 EpMADS13 are most highly expressed in lip and callus, consistent with current models for lip identity. Six vascular bundles, indicating a stamen-derived origin, lead to the callus, stelidia and stamen. AGAMOUS is not expressed in the callus, consistent with its sterilization. Out of three copies of AGAMOUS and four copies of SEPALLATA, EpMADS22 and EpMADS6 are most highly expressed in the stamen. Another copy of AGAMOUS, EpMADS20, and the single copy of SEEDSTICK, EpMADS23, are most highly expressed in the stelidia, suggesting EpMADS22 may be required for fertile stamens. The median sepal, callus and stelidia of E. pusilla appear to be derived from a sepal, a stamen that gained petal identity, and stamens, respectively. Duplications, diversifying selection and changes in spatial

  8. Exposure of red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) to select avian pathogens; Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Veronica L; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Baker, Allan J; Diaz, Luis A

    2007-10-01

    As part of the shorebird surveillance, Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa) were sampled in two Patagonian sites in Argentina, Río Grande and San Antonio Oeste, during 2005-2006. Cloacal swabs and serum samples were collected from 156 birds and tested by virus isolation (Newcastle disease virus), polymerase chain reaction (PCR; avian influenza virus and Plasmodium/Hemoproteus), and for antibodies to St. Louis encephalitis virus. All test results were negative.

  9. Variation in the Genetic Repertoire of Viruses Infecting Micromonas pusilla Reflects Horizontal Gene Transfer and Links to Their Environmental Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Jan F.; Winget, Danielle M.; Chan, Amy M.; Suttle, Curtis A.

    2017-01-01

    Prasinophytes, a group of eukaryotic phytoplankton, has a global distribution and is infected by large double-stranded DNA viruses (prasinoviruses) in the family Phycodnaviridae. This study examines the genetic repertoire, phylogeny, and environmental distribution of phycodnaviruses infecting Micromonas pusilla, other prasinophytes and chlorophytes. Based on comparisons among the genomes of viruses infecting M. pusilla and other phycodnaviruses, as well as the genome from a host isolate of M. pusilla, viruses infecting M. pusilla (MpVs) share a limited set of core genes, but vary strongly in their flexible pan-genome that includes numerous metabolic genes, such as those associated with amino acid synthesis and sugar manipulation. Surprisingly, few of these presumably host-derived genes are shared with M. pusilla, but rather have their closest non-viral homologue in bacteria and other eukaryotes, indicating horizontal gene transfer. A comparative analysis of full-length DNA polymerase (DNApol) genes from prasinoviruses with their overall gene content, demonstrated that the phylogeny of DNApol gene fragments reflects the gene content of the viruses; hence, environmental DNApol gene sequences from prasinoviruses can be used to infer their overall genetic repertoire. Thus, the distribution of virus ecotypes across environmental samples based on DNApol sequences implies substantial underlying differences in gene content that reflect local environmental conditions. Moreover, the high diversity observed in the genetic repertoire of prasinoviruses has been driven by horizontal gene transfer throughout their evolutionary history, resulting in a broad suite of functional capabilities and a high diversity of prasinovirus ecotypes. PMID:28534829

  10. Conservation status of the buff-breasted sandpiper: Historic and contemporary distribution and abundance in south America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctot, Richard B.; Blanco, D.E.; Dias, Rafael A.; Isacch, Juan P.; Gill, Verena A.; Almeida, Juliana B.; Delhey, Kaspar; Petracci, Pablo F.; Bencke, Glayson A.; Balbueno, Rodrigo A.

    2002-01-01

    We present historic and contemporary information on the distribution and abundance of Buff-breasted Sandpipers (Tryngites subruficollis) in South America. Historic information was collated from the literature, area ornithologists, and museums, whereas contemporary data were derived from surveys conducted throughout the main wintering range in Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil during the austral summers of 1999 and 2001. Variable circular plot sampling was used to estimate population densities. During 1999, the highest concentration of Buff-breasted Sandpipers in Argentina was in southern Bahía Samborombón (General Lavalle District) and areas north of Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon. During 2001, the highest concentrations in Brazil were at Ilha da Torotama and Lagoa do Peixe National Park. During 1999 and 2001, the highest concentrations of Buff-breasted Sandpipers in Uruguay were found along three lagoons (Laguna de Rocha, Laguna de Castillos, and Laguna Garzón) bordering the Atlantic Ocean. Population densities (birds/ha) of Buff-breasted Sandpipers were 0.11 (95% C.I. = 0.04–0.31) in Argentina, 1.62 (0.67–3.93) in Brazil, and 1.08 (0.37–3.18) in Uruguay. High turnover rates at survey sites, due to the formation of large, mobile flocks, contributed to moderately large confidence intervals around our population density estimates. Nevertheless, compared with historic accounts of Buff-breasted Sandpipers, our survey data indicate the population size of this species has declined substantially since the late 1800s and contemporary information suggests the species has continued to decline during the past three decades. Buff-breasted Sandpipers were found almost exclusively in pasturelands and appear to depend heavily upon intensive grazing by livestock, which maintain suitable short grass conditions. We discuss the need for protection of critical areas and proper range management to ensure appropriate habitat remains available for the species, and provide suggestions

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of Porzana fusca and Porzana pusilla and phylogenetic relationship of 16 Rallidae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Han, Yuqing; Zhu, Chaoying; Gao, Bin; Ruan, Luzhang

    2017-09-23

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Porzana fusca and Porzana pusilla were determined. The two avian species share a high degree of homology in terms of mitochondrial genome organization and gene arrangement. Their corresponding mitochondrial genomes are 16,935 and 16,978 bp and consist of 37 genes and a control region. Their PCGs were both 11,365 bp long and have similar structure. Their tRNA gene sequences could be folded into canonical cloverleaf secondary structure, except for tRNA(Ser (AGY)), which lost its "DHU" arm. Based on the concatenated nucleotide sequences of the complete mitochondrial DNA genes of 16 Rallidae species, reconstruction of phylogenetic trees and analysis of the molecular clock of P. fusca and P. pusilla indicated that these species from a sister group, which in turn are sister group to Rallina eurizonoides. The genus Gallirallus is a sister group to genus Lewinia, and these groups in turn are sister groups to genus Porphyrio. Moreover, molecular clock analyses suggested that the basal divergence of Rallidae could be traced back to 40.47 (41.46‒39.45) million years ago (Mya), and the divergence of Porzana occurred approximately 5.80 (15.16‒0.79) Mya.

  12. New lipid envelop-containing dsDNA virus isolates infecting Micromonas pusilla reveal a separate phylogenetic group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez Martínez, J.; Boere, A.; Gilg, I.; van Lent, J.W.M.; Witte, H.J.; van Bleijswijk, J.D.L.; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Viral infection of phytoplankton has major implications for biochemical and energy cycles, community dynamics, and microbial evolution in the marine environment. The non-bloom forming picoplankter Micromonas pusilla, a significant component of the plankton community worldwide, is known to be suscept

  13. New lipid envelop-containing dsDNA virus isolates infecting Micromonas pusilla reveal a separate phylogenetic group.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez Martinez, J.; Boere, A.; Gilg, I.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Witte, H.J.; Bleijswijk, van J.D.L.; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Viral infection of phytoplankton has major implications for biochemical and energy cycles, community dynamics, and microbial evolution in the marine environment. The non-bloom forming picoplankter Micromonas pusilla, a significant component of the plankton community worldwide, is known to be suscept

  14. Within-population variation in mating system and parental care patterns in the sanderling (Calidris alba) in northeast Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneerkens, Jeroen; van Veelen, Pieter; van der Velde, Marco; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Sandpipers and allies (Scolopacidae) show an astounding diversity in mating and parental care strategies. Comparative studies have tried to interpret this variation in terms of phylogenetic constraints and ecological shaping factors. In such analyses, mating and parental care systems are necessarily

  15. Within-population variation in mating system and parental care patterns in the sanderling (Calidris alba) in northeast Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneerkens, Jeroen; van Veelen, Pieter; van der Velde, Marco; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella; Piersma, Theunis

    Sandpipers and allies (Scolopacidae) show an astounding diversity in mating and parental care strategies. Comparative studies have tried to interpret this variation in terms of phylogenetic constraints and ecological shaping factors. In such analyses, mating and parental care systems are necessarily

  16. WHY KNOT CALIDRIS-CANUTUS TAKE MEDIUM-SIZED MACOMA-BALTHICA WHEN 6 PREY SPECIES ARE AVAILABLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZWARTS, L; BLOMERT, AM

    We quantified the prey selection and intake rate of a wading bird, knot Calidris canutus, when 6 different, intertidal prey species, the mud snail Peringia ulvae and the bivalves Macoma balthica, Cerastoderma edule, Mya arenaria, Scrobicularia plana and Mytilus edulis, were abundant. Knot usually

  17. Cost reduction in the cold: heat generated by terrestrial locomotion partly substitutes for thermoregulation costs in Knot Calidris canutus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinzeel, L.W.; Piersma, T.

    1998-01-01

    To test whether heat generated during locomotion substitutes for the thermoregulation cost, oxygen consumption of four post-absorptive temperate-wintering Knot Calidris canutus was measured at air temperatures of 25 degrees C (thermoneutral) and 10 degrees C (c. 10 degrees below the lower critical

  18. Cost reduction in the cold : heat generated by terrestrial locomotion partly substitutes for thermoregulation costs in Knot Calidris canutus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Piersma, T

    To test whether heat generated during locomotion substitutes for the thermoregulation cost, oxygen consumption of four post-absorptive temperate-wintering Knot Calidris canutus was measured at air temperatures of 25 degrees C (thermoneutral) and 10 degrees C (c. 10 degrees below the lower critical

  19. WHY KNOT CALIDRIS-CANUTUS TAKE MEDIUM-SIZED MACOMA-BALTHICA WHEN 6 PREY SPECIES ARE AVAILABLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZWARTS, L; BLOMERT, AM

    1992-01-01

    We quantified the prey selection and intake rate of a wading bird, knot Calidris canutus, when 6 different, intertidal prey species, the mud snail Peringia ulvae and the bivalves Macoma balthica, Cerastoderma edule, Mya arenaria, Scrobicularia plana and Mytilus edulis, were abundant. Knot usually se

  20. Molecular analysis of intact preen waxes of Calidris canutus (Aves : Scolopacidae) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, MHA; Piersma, T; Damste, JSS; Dekker, Marlèn H.A.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2000-01-01

    The intact preen wax esters of the red knot Calidris canutus were studied with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and GC/MS/MS. In this latter technique, transitions from the molecular ion to fragment ions representing the fatty acid moiety of the wax esters were measured, providing additi

  1. Molecular analysis of intact preen waxes of Calidris Canutus (Aves: Scolopacidae) by GC/MS and GC/MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Dekker, M.H.A.; Piersma, T.

    2000-01-01

    The intact preen wax esters of the red knot Calidris canutus were studied with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and GC/MS/MS. In this latter technique, transitions from the molecular ion to fragment ions representing the fatty acid moiety of the wax esters were measured, providing additi

  2. IS THE EVAPORATIVE WATER-LOSS OF KNOT CALIDRIS-CANUTUS HIGHER IN TROPICAL THAN IN TEMPERATE CLIMATES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERBOVEN, N; PIERSMA, T

    1995-01-01

    To test whether Knot Calidris canutus wintering in the tropics suffer higher rates of water loss through evaporation than do Knot wintering at temperate latitudes, we tried to develop a physically realistic model to predict evaporative heat loss from air temperature, wind and humidity. In separate e

  3. Digestive organ size and behavior of red knots (Calidris Canutus) indicate the quality of their benthic food stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gils, J.A.; Dekinga, A.; van den Hout, P.J.; Spaans, B.; Piersma, T.

    2007-01-01

    Assuming that animals respond optimally to environmental changes, both behavior and physiology should be useful indicators of the way that animals perceive the quality of their environment. For verification, we examined foraging time and gizzard size of the red knot (Calidris canutus), a

  4. Digestive organ size and behavior of red knots (Calidris canutus) indicate the quality of their benthic food stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, Johannes; Dekinga, A.; Hout, P.J. van den; Spaans, B.; Piersma, T.

    2007-01-01

    Assuming that animals respond optimally to environmental changes, both behavior and physiology should be useful indicators of the way that animals perceive the quality of their environment. For verification, we examined foraging time and gizzard size of the red knot (Calidris canutus), a

  5. New lipid envelope-containing dsDNA virus isolates infecting Micromonas pusilla reveal a separate phylogenetic group

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Martínez, J.; Boere, A.; Gilg, I.; van Lent, J. W. M.; Witte, H.; Bleijswijk, J.D.L. van; Brussaard, C.D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Viral infection of phytoplankton has major implications for biochemical and energy cycles, community dynamics, and microbial evolution in the marine environment. The non-bloom forming picoplankter Micromonas pusilla, a significant component of the plankton community worldwide, is known to be susceptible to infection by both dsDNA and dsRNA viruses. Logically, comprehensive knowledge of the ecology of M. pusilla requires a better understanding of the diversity and infection mechanisms of their...

  6. Population trends and migration strategy of the Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola at Ottenby, SE Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola; Stervander, Martin; Helseth, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Long-term ringing data are useful for understanding population trends and migration strategies adopted by migratory bird species during migration. To investigate the patterns in demography, phenology of migration and stopover behaviour in Wood Sandpipers Tringa glareola trapped on autumn migration...... at Ottenby, southeast Sweden, in 1947-2011, we analysed 65 years of autumn ringing data to describe age-specific trends in annual trappings, morphometrics and phenology, as well as fuel deposition rates and stopover duration from recapture data. We also analysed the migratory direction of the species from...... deposition rates of 2.5 and 0.7 g day-1 respectively. Juvenile birds probably vary their strategy according to time of season and prevailing conditions. Both adults and juveniles followed the Mediterranean Flyway, but juveniles displayed significantly more southerly and significantly more scattered migratory...

  7. Mate fidelity and breeding site tenacity in a monogamous sandpiper, the black turnstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, C.M.; Gill, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the relationship between mate fidelity and breeding site tenacity during a 5-year study of the black turnstone, Arenaria melanocephala, a socially monogamous sandpiper breeding in subarctic Alaska. We tested the predictions of several hypotheses regarding the incidence of divorce and the benefits of fidelity to mate and breeding site. Interannual return rates to the breeding grounds (88% for males, 79% for females) were among the highest yet recorded for any scolopacid sandpiper, and 88% of returning birds nested on their previous year's territory. The annual divorce rate was only 11%, and mate fidelity was significantly linked to fidelity to territory but independent of sex and year. Males arrived in spring significantly earlier than their mates and interannual fidelity was influenced by the relative timing of arrival of pair members. Reunited pairs had significantly higher fledging success than new pairs formed after death or divorce. The incidence of divorce was unrelated to reproductive success the previous year, although birds nested significantly further away after failure than after a successful nesting attempt. Sightings of marked individuals suggested that members of pairs do not winter together, and breeding site tenacity provides a mechanism through which pair members can reunite. We reject the 'incompatibility' hypothesis for divorce in turnstones, and our data contradict predictions of the 'better option' hypothesis. Alternatively, we propose the 'bet-hedging' hypothesis to explain the occurrence of divorce, which transpires when an individual pairs with a new mate to avoid the cost of waiting for a previous mate to return. Such costs can include remaining unmated, if the former mate has died, or experiencing lower reproductive success because of delayed breeding.

  8. In vitro study of Vellozia pusilla pohl (Velloziaceae), a Brazilian plant species: antitumoral activity and labeling of blood elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Monitoracao Interna]. E-mail: adantas@ird.gov.br; Valente, Ligia Maria Marino [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. Quimica Organica; Morais, Lilia Aparecida Salgado de [Fundacao Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia em Farmacos; Feliciano, Glaucio; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2005-10-15

    Vellozia pusilla Pohl is a species of the botanic family Velloziaceae that occurs in the subtropical regions of South America and, although it lives under conditions of high solar irradiation and low water availability, shows great longevity. The methanol extract of roots, stem and leaf sheaths of this species showed an anti tumoral activity through the inhibition of the enzyme Topoisomerase I when analyzed by an in vitro bioassay employing DNA repair or recombination deficient mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the evaluation of the effect of Vellozia pusilla methanol extract on the labeling of RBC, blood of mice was treated with {sup 99m} Tc tracer solutions. The percentage of radioactivity (% ATI) bound to plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) was determined. The %ATI in the insoluble fraction of plasma (IF) was also evaluate, and the results showed that there was a decrease in %ATI in this fraction that represents the plasmatic proteins. (author)

  9. Accumulation of selenium and lack of severe effects on productivity of American dippers (Cinclus mexicanus) and spotted sandpipers (Actitis macularia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Lee E; Graham, Mark; Paton, Dale

    2005-04-01

    Selenium has been found at elevated concentrations in water, sediments, and aquatic biota in the Elk River (British Columbia, Canada) and some of its tributaries downstream of several coal mines. Selenium water concentrations in those areas exceed Canadian and British Columbia guidelines and are above levels at which adverse effects to fish and waterfowl could occur. We compared selenium concentrations in the eggs of two riverine waterbirds, American dippers and spotted sandpipers, with measures of productivity: the number of eggs laid, egg hatchability, and nestling survival. In American dippers, the mean egg selenium concentration from the exposed areas, 1.10 +/- SE 0.059 microg/g wet weight, was indistinguishable from the reference areas, 0.96 +/- SE 0.059 microg/g wet weight. For spotted sandpipers, the mean egg selenium concentration in the exposed areas, 2.2 +/- 0.5 microg/g wet weight, was significantly higher than in the reference areas, 1.2 +/- 0.14 microg/g wet weight, but less than reported thresholds for waterfowl and other shorebirds. There were no significant differences in egg hatchability between dippers in reference and exposed areas, but reduced hatchability was apparent for sandpipers in exposed locations. Despite the slightly reduced hatchability in sandpipers, overall productivity was higher than regional norms for both species; thus, selenium did not affect the number of young recruited to local populations. We did not observe teratogenic effects in either species, although none was expected at these concentrations. Despite moderately high selenium concentrations in the water, mean egg selenium concentrations were less than predicted from uptake models. We hypothesise that the relatively low uptake of selenium into the eggs of the two waterbirds in this study is likely due to their lotic environment's low biological transformation and uptake rates.

  10. Accumulation of selenium and lack of severe effects on productivity of American dippers (Cinclus mexicanus) and spotted sandpipers (Actitis macularia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, L.E.; Graham, M.; Paton, D. [SciWrite Environmental Science Ltd, Coquitlam, BC (Canada)

    2005-04-01

    Selenium has been found at elevated concentrations in water, sediments, and aquatic biota in the Elk River (British Columbia, Canada) and some of its tributaries downstream of several coal mines. Selenium water concentrations in those areas are above levels at which adverse effects to fish and waterfowl could occur. We compared selenium concentrations in the eggs of two riverine waterbirds, American dippers and spotted sandpipers, with measures of productivity: the number of eggs laid, egg hatchability, and nestling Survival. In American dippers, the mean egg selenium concentration from the exposed areas, 1.10 {+-} SE 0.059 {mu}g/g wet weight, was indistinguishable from the reference areas, 0.96 {+-} SE 0.059 {mu} g/g wet weight. For spotted sandpipers, the mean egg selenium concentration in the exposed areas, 2.2 {+-} 0.5 {mu} g/g wet weight, was significantly higher than in the reference areas, 1.2 {+-} 0.14 {mu} g/g wet weight, but less than reported thresholds for waterfowl and other shorebirds. There were no significant differences in egg hatchability between dippers in reference and exposed areas, but reduced hatchability was apparent for sandpipers in exposed locations. Despite the slightly reduced hatchability in sandpipers, overall productivity was higher than regional norms for both species; thus, selenium did not affect the number of young recruited to local populations. Despite moderately high selenium concentrations in the water, mean egg selenium concentrations were less than predicted from uptake models. We hypothesise that the relatively low uptake of selenium into the eggs of the two waterbirds in this study is likely due to their lotic environment's low biological transformation and uptake rates.

  11. Male traits, mating tactics and reproductive success in the buff-breasted sandpiper, Tryngites subruficollis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctot, Richard B.; Weatherhead, Patrick J.; Kempenaers, Bart; Scribner, Kim T.

    1998-01-01

    Buff-breasted sandpipers use a variety of mating tactics to acquire mates, including remaining at a single lek for most of the breeding season, attending multiple leks during the season, displaying solitarily or displaying both on leks and solitarily. We found that differences in body size, body condition, fluctuating asymmetry scores, wing coloration, territory location and behaviour (attraction, solicitation and agonistic) did not explain the observed variation in mating tactics used by males. Which males abandoned versus returned to leks was also not related to morphology or behaviour, and there was no tendency for males to join leks that were larger or smaller than the lek they abandoned. These results suggest that male desertion of leks was not dependent on a male's characteristics nor on the size of the lek he was presently attending. Males did join leks with larger males than their previous lek, perhaps to mate with females attracted to these larger 'hotshot' males. Males at both leks and solitary sites successfully mated. Lek tenure did not affect mating success, although lekking males appeared to mate more frequently than solitary males. Courtship disruption and to a lesser extent, female mimicry, were effective at preventing females from mating at leks, and may offer a partial explanation for female mating off leks. Our analysis that combined all males together within a year (regardless of mating tactic) indicated that males that attended leks for longer periods of time and that had fewer wing spots were significantly more likely to mate. Given some evidence that wing spotting declines with age, and that females inspect male underwings during courtship, the latter result suggests that female choice may play some role in determining male success. We suggest that male buff-breasted sandpipers may use alternative mating tactics more readily than males in other 'classic' lek-breeding species because: (1) unpredictable breeding conditions in this species' high

  12. Male traits, mating tactics and reproductive success in the buff-breasted sandpiper, Tryngites subruficollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctot; Weatherhead; Kempenaers; Scribner

    1998-08-01

    Buff-breasted sandpipers use a variety of mating tactics to acquire mates, including remaining at a single lek for most of the breeding season, attending multiple leks during the season, displaying solitarily or displaying both on leks and solitarily. We found that differences in body size, body condition, fluctuating asymmetry scores, wing coloration, territory location and behaviour (attraction, solicitation and agonistic) did not explain the observed variation in mating tactics used by males. Which males abandoned versus returned to leks was also not related to morphology or behaviour, and there was no tendency for males to join leks that were larger or smaller than the lek they abandoned. These results suggest that male desertion of leks was not dependent on a male's characteristics nor on the size of the lek he was presently attending. Males did join leks with larger males than their previous lek, perhaps to mate with females attracted to these larger 'hotshot' males. Males at both leks and solitary sites successfully mated. Lek tenure did not affect mating success, although lekking males appeared to mate more frequently than solitary males. Courtship disruption and to a lesser extent, female mimicry, were effective at preventing females from mating at leks, and may offer a partial explanation for female mating off leks. Our analysis that combined all males together within a year (regardless of mating tactic) indicated that males that attended leks for longer periods of time and that had fewer wing spots were significantly more likely to mate. Given some evidence that wing spotting declines with age, and that females inspect male underwings during courtship, the latter result suggests that female choice may play some role in determining male success. We suggest that male buff-breasted sandpipers may use alternative mating tactics more readily than males in other 'classic' lek-breeding species because: (1) unpredictable breeding conditions in this species' high

  13. Proximate and ultimate factors that promote aggregated breeding in the Western Sandpiper%导致西滨鹬集群繁殖的直接因子和最终因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew Johnson; Jeffrey R Walters

    2011-01-01

    We report that Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) on Alaska's Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta exhibited aggregated breeding behavior at a relatively small spatial scale. Prior to clutch initiation, males performing song flight displays on a 36 ha plot were aggregated as were subsequent initial nesting attempts on the plot. We tested three hypotheses commonly invoked to explain aggregated breeding in territorial species (social mate choice, predation, and material resources hypotheses), and found support for the material resources hypothesis, as dispersed individuals were more often associated with tundra habitat patches, and aggregated individuals nested more often in undulating-tundra habitat patches compared to patch availability. The pattern of habitat occupancy conformed to an ideal despotic distribution with aggregated nesting birds in undulating-tundra patches experiencing lower reproductive success. On our study plot, older, more aggressive males solicited females more often, and defended larger, more dispersed sites in tundra habitat patches, compared to younger, less aggressive males that were aggregated in undulating-tundra habitat patches. Breeding aggregations are often concentrated on or near a critical resource. In contrast, Western Sandpiper breeding aggregations occur when dominant and/or older individuals exclude younger, subordinate individuals from preferred habitat. Although many taxa of non-colonial birds have been reported to aggregate breeding territories, this is the first quantitative report of aggregated breeding behavior in a non-colonial monogamous shorebird species prior to hatch.%该文报道了西滨鹬 (Calidris mauri) 在美国阿拉斯加州育空-卡斯科奎姆河三角洲相对较小的空间尺度上所表现的集群繁殖行为.在开始产卵之前,西滨鹬雄鸟聚集在一处36 hm2的区域鸣唱飞行,进行求偶炫耀.随后在该区域营巢时,西滨鹬也保持着集群状态.检验了三个常用于解释具领域行

  14. The Panama Canal and the transoceanic dispersal of marine invertebrates: evaluation of the introduced amphipod Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890 in the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Macarena; Ashton, Gail V; Lacerda, Mariana B; Carlton, James T; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Guerra-García, José M; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2014-08-01

    Although the Panama Canal is one of the major corridors for shipping and potential dispersal of marine invaders in the tropics, little is known about the effect that the Canal has had on the distribution of marine biota. In this study, we (a) document the existence of established populations of the Western Atlantic caprellid amphipod Paracaprella pusilla, Mayer, 1890 for the first time at the Pacific entrance to the Canal, (b) review its distribution in the Pacific Ocean, and (c) evaluate possible mechanisms of introduction. The confirmed distribution of P. pusilla in the Pacific Ocean is limited to Australia, Hawaii, and Panama, despite earlier published reports from Chile and China. Laboratory experiments demonstrated intolerance of P. pusilla to freshwater, causing 100% mortality, and suggest invasion of the Pacific coast of Panama occurred through the Canal via ships' ballast water or by secondary spread via ships (ballast water or hull fouling) from another Pacific region.

  15. Increasing P limitation and viral infection impact lipid remodeling of the picophytoplankter Micromonas pusilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maat, Douwe S.; Bale, Nicole J.; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan; Brussaard, Corina P. D.

    2016-03-01

    The intact polar lipid (IPL) composition of phytoplankton is plastic and dependent on environmental factors. Previous studies have shown that phytoplankton under low phosphorus (P) availability substitutes phosphatidylglycerols (PGs) with sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDGs) and digalactosyldiacylglycerols (DGDGs). However, these studies focused merely on P depletion, while phytoplankton in the natural environment often experience P limitation whereby the strength depends on the supply rate of the limiting nutrient. Here we report on the IPL composition of axenic cultures of the picophotoeukaryote Micromonas pusilla under different degrees of P limitation, i.e., P-controlled chemostats at 97 and 32 % of the maximum growth rate, and P starvation (obtained by stopping P supply to these chemostats). P-controlled cultures were also grown at elevated partial carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2) to mimic a future scenario of strengthened vertical stratification in combination with ocean acidification. Additionally, we tested the influence of viral infection for this readily infected phytoplankton host species. Results show that both SQDG : PG and DGDG : PG ratios increased with enhanced P limitation. Lipid composition was, however, not affected by enhanced (750 vs. 370 µatm) pCO2. In the P-starved virally infected cells the increase in SQDG : PG and DGDG : PG ratios was lower, whereby the extent depended on the growth rate of the host cultures before infection. The lipid membrane of the virus MpV-08T itself lacked some IPLs (e.g., monogalactosyldiacylglycerols; MGDGs) in comparison with its host. This study demonstrates that, besides P concentration, also the P supply rate, viral infection and even the history of the P supply rate can affect phytoplankton lipid composition (i.e., the non-phospholipid : phospholipid ratio), with possible consequences for the nutritional quality of phytoplankton.

  16. Transcriptome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in the orchid Erycina pusilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Choun-Sea; Hsu, Chen-Tran; Liao, De-Chih; Chang, Wan-Jung; Chou, Ming-Lun; Huang, Yao-Ting; Chen, Jeremy J W; Ko, Swee-Suak; Chan, Ming-Tsair; Shih, Ming-Che

    2016-01-01

    Orchids exhibit a range of unique flower shapes and are a valuable ornamental crop. MADS-box transcription factors are key regulatory components in flower initiation and development. Changing the flower shape and flowering time can increase the value of the orchid in the ornamental horticulture industry. In this study, 28 MADS-box genes were identified from the transcriptome database of the model orchid Erycina pusilla. The full-length genomic sequences of these MADS-box genes were obtained from BAC clones. Of these, 27 were MIKC-type EpMADS (two truncated forms) and one was a type I EpMADS. Eleven EpMADS genes contained introns longer than 10 kb. Phylogenetic analysis classified the 24 MIKC(c) genes into nine subfamilies. Three specific protein motifs, AG, FUL and SVP, were identified and used to classify three subfamilies. The expression profile of each EpMADS gene correlated with its putative function. The phylogenetic analysis was highly correlated with the protein domain identification and gene expression results. Spatial expression of EpMADS6, EpMADS12 and EpMADS15 was strongly detected in the inflorescence meristem, floral bud and seed via in situ hybridization. The subcellular localization of the 28 EpMADS proteins was also investigated. Although EpMADS27 lacks a complete MADS-box domain, EpMADS27-YFP was localized in the nucleus. This characterization of the orchid MADS-box family genes provides useful information for both orchid breeding and studies of flowering and evolution.

  17. The epiphytic orchids Ionopsis utricularioides and Psygmorchis pusilla associate with different Ceratobasidium lineages at Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Borges da Silva Valadares

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Orchidaceae, association with symbiotic fungi is required for seed germination and seedling development, thereby being the main energy source during the first steps of germination. Colombia is one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity of orchids, with an estimated 3,200 species, but few studies on orchid mycorrhiza have been conducted. In our study, we isolated and sequenced the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region of fungi from two co-occurring Colombian epiphytic orchids, I. utricularioides and P. pusilla, both belonging to the subtribe Oncidiinae. All sequences were recognized as belonging to the genus Ceratobasidium, known to be a common orchid mycorrhizal fungus in both tropical and temperate orchids. One sequence was 100% similar to fungi isolated from I. utricularioides in Costa Rica in a previous study. I. utricularioides was confirmed to be a specialist, associating with only one clade of mycorrhizal fungi. However, P. pusilla was shown to be a generalist, associating with three clades. This finding indicates that the variation in mycorrhizal specificity could be an important factor in the co-existence of orchids. The high affinity between the subtribe Oncidiinae and Ceratobasidium was also reinforced.

  18. High renesting rates in arctic-breeding Dunlin (Calidris alpina): A clutch-removal experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, H. River; Lanctot, Richard B.; Powell, Abby N.

    2013-01-01

    The propensity to replace a clutch is a complex component of avian reproduction and poorly understood. We experimentally removed clutches from an Arctic-breeding shorebird, the Dunlin (Calidris alpina arcticola), during early and late stages of incubation to investigate replacement clutch rates, renesting interval, and mate and site fidelity between nesting attempts. In contrast to other Arctic studies, we documented renesting by radiotracking individuals to find replacement clutches. We also examined clutch size and mean egg volume to document changes in individual females’ investment in initial and replacement clutches. Finally, we examined the influence of adult body mass, clutch volume, dates of clutch initiation and nest loss, and year on the propensity to renest. We found high (82–95%) and moderate (35–50%) rates of renesting for early and late incubation treatments. Renesting intervals averaged 4.7–6.8 days and were not different for clutches removed early or late in incubation. Most pairs remained together for renesting attempts. Larger females were more likely to replace a clutch; female body mass was the most important parameter predicting propensity to renest. Clutches lost later in the season were less likely to be replaced. We present evidence that renesting is more common in Arctic-breeding shorebirds than was previously thought, and suggest that renesting is constrained by energetic and temporal factors as well as mate availability. Obtaining rates of renesting in species breeding at different latitudes will help determine when this behavior is likely to occur; such information is necessary for demographic models that include individual and population-level fecundity estimates.

  19. Changing balance between survival and recruitment explains population trends in Red Knots Calidris canutus islandica wintering in Britain, 1969-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyd, H; Piersma, T; Camphuysen, Kees (C.J.)

    2001-01-01

    The demography of Red Knots Calidris canutus islandica wintering in Britain from 1969 to 1995 was examined using published data on winter numbers, unpublished ringing data, and information on the percentages first year birds in late autumn and winter (defined here as 'recruitment'). The maximum time

  20. Twofold seasonal variation in the supposedly constant, species-specific, ratio of upstroke to downstroke flight muscles in red knots Calidris canutus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Dietz, Maurine W.

    We show that in a long-distance migrant shorebird species with outspoken seasonal changes in body mass and composition, the red knot Calidris canutus, the ratio between the masses of the small flight muscle (musculus supracoracoideus, powering twists and active upstrokes of the wings) and the larger

  1. Prey type and foraging ecology of sanderlings Calidris alba in different climate zones : Are tropical areas more favourable than temperate sites?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grond, Kirsten; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa; Piersma, Theunis; Reneerkens, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Sanderlings (Calidris alba) are long-distance migratory shorebirds with a non-breeding range that spans temperate and tropical coastal habitats. Breeding in the High Arctic combined with non-breeding seasons in the tropics necessitate long migrations, which are energetically demanding. On an annual

  2. Variability in basal metabolic rate of a long-distance migrant shorebird (Red Knot, Calidris canutus) reflects shifts in organ sizes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T; Bruinzeel, Louis; Drent, R; Kersten, M; VanderMeer, J; Wiersma, P; Meer, Jaap van der

    1996-01-01

    We studied differences in body composition and basal metabolic rate (BMR, measured in postabsorptive birds under thermoneutral conditions at night) in two subspecies of red knots, Calidris canutus: one that spends the nonbreeding season under energetically costly climatic conditions at temperate lat

  3. Identifying Aspects of the Post-Transcriptional Program Governing the Proteome of the Green Alga Micromonas pusilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltman, Peter H; Guo, Jian; Reistetter, Emily Nahas; Purvine, Samuel; Ansong, Charles K; van Baren, Marijke J; Wong, Chee-Hong; Wei, Chia-Lin; Smith, Richard D; Callister, Stephen J; Stuart, Joshua M; Worden, Alexandra Z

    2016-01-01

    Micromonas is a unicellular motile alga within the Prasinophyceae, a green algal group that is related to land plants. This picoeukaryote (<2 μm diameter) is widespread in the marine environment but is not well understood at the cellular level. Here, we examine shifts in mRNA and protein expression over the course of the day-night cycle using triplicated mid-exponential, nutrient replete cultures of Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545. Samples were collected at key transition points during the diel cycle for evaluation using high-throughput LC-MS proteomics. In conjunction, matched mRNA samples from the same time points were sequenced using pair-ended directional Illumina RNA-Seq to investigate the dynamics and relationship between the mRNA and protein expression programs of M. pusilla. Similar to a prior study of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, we found significant divergence in the mRNA and proteomics expression dynamics in response to the light:dark cycle. Additionally, expressional responses of genes and the proteins they encoded could also be variable within the same metabolic pathway, such as we observed in the oxygenic photosynthesis pathway. A regression framework was used to predict protein levels from both mRNA expression and gene-specific sequence-based features. Several features in the genome sequence were found to influence protein abundance including codon usage as well as 3' UTR length and structure. Collectively, our studies provide insights into the regulation of the proteome over a diel cycle as well as the relationships between transcriptional and translational programs in the widespread marine green alga Micromonas.

  4. Identifying Aspects of the Post-Transcriptional Program Governing the Proteome of the Green Alga Micromonas pusilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltman, Peter H.; Guo, Jian; Reistetter, Emily Nahas; Purvine, Samuel; Ansong, Charles K.; van Baren, Marijke J.; Wong, Chee-Hong; Wei, Chia-Lin; Smith, Richard D.; Callister, Stephen J.; Stuart, Joshua M.; Worden, Alexandra Z.; Mills, Ken

    2016-07-19

    Micromonas is a unicellular green alga that belongs to the prasinophytes, a sister lineage to land plants. This picoeukaryotic (<2 μm diameter) alga is widespread in the marine environment but still not understood at the cellular level. Here, we examine the mRNA and protein level changes that take place over the course of the day-night cycle using mid-exponential nutrient replete cultures of Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545 grown and analyzed in biological triplicate. During the experiment, samples were collected at key transition points during the diel for evaluation using high-throughput LC-MS proteomics. We also sequenced matched mRNA samples from the same time points, using pair-ended directional Illumina RNA-Seq to investigate the dynamics and relationship between the mRNA and protein expression programs of M. pusilla. Similar to a prior study of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, we found significant divergence in the mRNA and proteomics expression dynamics in response to the light:dark cycle. Additionally, expressional responses of genes and the proteins they encoded could also be variable within the same metabolic pathway, such as the oxygenic photosynthesis pathway. A regression framework was used to predict protein levels using both mRNA expression and gene-specific sequence-based features. Several features in the genome sequence were found to influence protein abundance including the codon usage and the length of the 3’ UTR. Collectively, our studies provide insights into the regulation of the proteome over a diel as relationships between the transcriptional and translational programs in the widespread marine green alga Micromonas.

  5. Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of the Australian freshwater fish genus Galaxiella, with an emphasis on dwarf galaxias (G. pusilla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Unmack

    Full Text Available The freshwater fauna of Southern Australia is primarily restricted to the southwestern and southeastern corners of the continent, and is separated by a large, arid region that is inhospitable to this biota. This geographic phenomenon has attracted considerable interest from biogeographers looking to explain evolutionary diversification in this region. Here, we employed phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches to evaluate the effect of this barrier on a group of four galaxiid fish species (Galaxiella endemic to temperate Southern Australia. We also tested if continental shelf width has influenced connectivity among populations during low sea levels when rivers, now isolated, could have been connected. We addressed these questions by sampling each species across its range using multiple molecular markers (mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences, nuclear S7 intron sequences, and 49 allozyme loci. These data also allowed us to assess species boundaries, to refine phylogenetic affinities, and to estimate species ages. Interestingly, we found compelling evidence for cryptic species in G. pusilla, manifesting as allopatric eastern and western taxa. Our combined phylogeny and dating analysis point to an origin for the genus dating to the early Cenozoic, with three of the four species originating during the Oligocene-Miocene. Each Galaxiella species showed high levels of genetic divergences between all but the most proximate populations. Despite extensive drainage connections during recent low sea levels in southeastern Australia, populations of both species within G. pusilla maintained high levels of genetic structure. All populations experienced Late Pleistocene-Holocene population growth, possibly in response to the relaxation of arid conditions after the last glacial maximum. High levels of genetic divergence and the discovery of new cryptic species have important implications for the conservation of this already threatened group of freshwater

  6. Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of the Australian freshwater fish genus Galaxiella, with an emphasis on dwarf galaxias (G. pusilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmack, Peter J; Bagley, Justin C; Adams, Mark; Hammer, Michael P; Johnson, Jerald B

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater fauna of Southern Australia is primarily restricted to the southwestern and southeastern corners of the continent, and is separated by a large, arid region that is inhospitable to this biota. This geographic phenomenon has attracted considerable interest from biogeographers looking to explain evolutionary diversification in this region. Here, we employed phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches to evaluate the effect of this barrier on a group of four galaxiid fish species (Galaxiella) endemic to temperate Southern Australia. We also tested if continental shelf width has influenced connectivity among populations during low sea levels when rivers, now isolated, could have been connected. We addressed these questions by sampling each species across its range using multiple molecular markers (mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences, nuclear S7 intron sequences, and 49 allozyme loci). These data also allowed us to assess species boundaries, to refine phylogenetic affinities, and to estimate species ages. Interestingly, we found compelling evidence for cryptic species in G. pusilla, manifesting as allopatric eastern and western taxa. Our combined phylogeny and dating analysis point to an origin for the genus dating to the early Cenozoic, with three of the four species originating during the Oligocene-Miocene. Each Galaxiella species showed high levels of genetic divergences between all but the most proximate populations. Despite extensive drainage connections during recent low sea levels in southeastern Australia, populations of both species within G. pusilla maintained high levels of genetic structure. All populations experienced Late Pleistocene-Holocene population growth, possibly in response to the relaxation of arid conditions after the last glacial maximum. High levels of genetic divergence and the discovery of new cryptic species have important implications for the conservation of this already threatened group of freshwater species.

  7. Identifying Aspects of the Post-Transcriptional Program Governing the Proteome of the Green Alga Micromonas pusilla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H Waltman

    Full Text Available Micromonas is a unicellular motile alga within the Prasinophyceae, a green algal group that is related to land plants. This picoeukaryote (<2 μm diameter is widespread in the marine environment but is not well understood at the cellular level. Here, we examine shifts in mRNA and protein expression over the course of the day-night cycle using triplicated mid-exponential, nutrient replete cultures of Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545. Samples were collected at key transition points during the diel cycle for evaluation using high-throughput LC-MS proteomics. In conjunction, matched mRNA samples from the same time points were sequenced using pair-ended directional Illumina RNA-Seq to investigate the dynamics and relationship between the mRNA and protein expression programs of M. pusilla. Similar to a prior study of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, we found significant divergence in the mRNA and proteomics expression dynamics in response to the light:dark cycle. Additionally, expressional responses of genes and the proteins they encoded could also be variable within the same metabolic pathway, such as we observed in the oxygenic photosynthesis pathway. A regression framework was used to predict protein levels from both mRNA expression and gene-specific sequence-based features. Several features in the genome sequence were found to influence protein abundance including codon usage as well as 3' UTR length and structure. Collectively, our studies provide insights into the regulation of the proteome over a diel cycle as well as the relationships between transcriptional and translational programs in the widespread marine green alga Micromonas.

  8. Predicting breeding shorebird distributions on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfeld, Sarah T.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Brown, Stephen C.; Saalfeld, David T.; Johnson, James A.; Andres, Brad A.; Bart, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska is an important region for millions of migrating and nesting shorebirds. However, this region is threatened by climate change and increased human development (e.g., oil and gas production) that have the potential to greatly impact shorebird populations and breeding habitat in the near future. Because historic data on shorebird distributions in the ACP are very coarse and incomplete, we sought to develop detailed, contemporary distribution maps so that the potential impacts of climate-mediated changes and development could be ascertained. To do this, we developed and mapped habitat suitability indices for eight species of shorebirds (Black-bellied Plover [Pluvialis squatarola], American Golden-Plover [Pluvialis dominica], Semipalmated Sandpiper [Calidris pusilla], Pectoral Sandpiper [Calidris melanotos], Dunlin [Calidris alpina], Long-billed Dowitcher [Limnodromus scolopaceus], Red-necked Phalarope [Phalaropus lobatus], and Red Phalarope [Phalaropus fulicarius]) that commonly breed within the ACP of Alaska. These habitat suitability models were based on 767 plots surveyed during nine years between 1998 and 2008 (surveys were not conducted in 2003 and 2005), using single-visit rapid area searches during territory establishment and incubation (8 June, 1 July). Species specific habitat suitability indices were developed and mapped using presence-only modeling techniques (partitioned Mahalanobis distance) and landscape environmental variables. For most species, habitat suitability was greater at lower elevations (i.e., near the coast and river deltas) and lower within upland habitats. Accuracy of models was high for all species, ranging from 65 -98%. Our models predicted that the largest fraction of suitable habitat for the majority of species occurred within the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, with highly suitable habitat also occurring within coastal areas of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge west to Prudhoe Bay.

  9. Spatial and temporal migration patterns of Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) in the southwest as revealed by stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, K.L.; van Riper, Charles; Theimer, T.C.; Paxton, E.H.

    2007-01-01

    We used stable hydrogen isotopes (??D) to identify the breeding locations of Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) migrating through five sites spanning a cross-section of the species' southwestern migration route during the springs of 2003 and 2004. Determining the temporal and spatial patterns of migration and degree of population segregation during migration is critical to understanding long-term population trends of migrant birds. At all five migration sites, we found a significant negative relationship between the date Wilson's Warblers passed through the sampling station and ??D values of their feathers. These data were consistent with a pattern of "leap-frog" migration, in which individuals that bred the previous season at southern latitudes migrated through migration stations earlier than individuals that had previously bred at more northern latitudes. We documented that this pattern was consistent across sites and in multiple years. This finding corroborates previous research conducted on Wilson's Warbler during the fall migration. In addition, mean ??D values became more negative across sampling stations from west to east, with the mean ??D values at each station corresponding to different geographic regions of the Wilson's Warblers' western breeding range. These data indicate that Wilson's Warblers passing through each station represented a specific regional subset of the entire Wilson's Warbler western breeding range. As a result, habitat alterations at specific areas across the east-west expanse of the bird's migratory route in the southwestern United States could differentially affect Wilson's Warblers at different breeding areas. This migration information is critical for management of Neotropical migrants, especially in light of the rapid changes presently occurring over the southwestern landscape. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, furans, and organochlorine pesticides in spotted sandpiper eggs from the upper Hudson River basin, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Gray, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    In 2004, spotted sandpipers (Actitis macularia) were studied on the Hudson River near Fort Edward south to New Baltimore, NY and on two river drainages that flow into the Hudson River. Concentrations of 28 organochlorine pesticides, 160 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 17 dioxin and furan (PCDD-F) congeners were quantified in eggs collected on and off the Hudson River. The pattern of organochlorine pesticides and PCDD-F congeners did not differ significantly between eggs collected on and off the Hudson River. In contrast, the pattern of PCB congeners differed significantly between the Hudson River and other rivers. Total PCBs were significantly greater in eggs from the Hudson River (geometric mean = 9.1 ??g PCBs/g wet weight) than from the other two rivers (0.6 and 0.6 ??g PCBs/g wet weight). Seven of 35 (20%) eggs exceeded 20 ??g PCBs/g wet weight, the estimated threshold for reduced hatching in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and some raptor species; the maximum concentration was 72.3 ??g PCBs/g wet weight. Models that predicted nest survival and egg success (the proportion of eggs hatching in a clutch if at least one egg hatched) as functions of contaminant levels were poorly distinguished from models that presumed no such associations. While small sample size could have contributed to the inability to distinguish among contaminant and no toxicant models, we cannot rule out the possibility that contaminant concentrations on the Hudson River were not sufficiently high to demonstrate a relationship between contaminant concentrations and reproductive success. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  11. Many routes lead to Rome: potential causes for the multi-route migration system of Red Knots, Calidris canutus Islandica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Silke; Ens, Bruno J; Klaassen, Marcel

    2010-06-01

    Migrants, such as birds or representatives of other taxa, usually make use of several stopover sites to cover the distance between their site of origin and destination. Potentially, multiple routes exist, but often little is known about the causes and consequences of alternative migration routes. Apart from their geographical distribution, the suitability of potential sites might play an important role in the animals' decisions for a particular itinerary. We used an optimal-migration model to test three nonmutually exclusive hypotheses leading to variations in the spring migration routes of a subspecies of Red Knot, Calidris canutus islandica, which migrates from wintering grounds in Western Europe to breeding grounds in Greenland and the Canadian Arctic: the breeding location hypothesis, the energy budget hypothesis, and the predation risk hypothesis. Varying only breeding location, the model predicted that birds breeding in the Canadian Arctic and on West Greenland stop over on Iceland, whereas birds breeding in East and Northeast Greenland migrate via northern Norway, a prediction that is supported by empirical findings. Energy budgets on stopover sites had a strong influence on the choice of route and staging times. Varying foraging-intensity and mass-dependent predation risk prompted the birds to use less risky sites, if possible. The effect of simultaneous changes in the energy budget and predation risk strongly depended on the site where these occurred. Our findings provide potential explanations for the observations that C. canutus islandica uses a diverse array of migration routes. Scrutinizing the three alternative driving forces for the choice of migratory routes awaits further, specific data collection in rapidly developing fields of research (e.g., predation risk assessment, GPS tracking). Generally, the type of modeling presented here may not only highlight alternative explanations, but also direct follow-up empirical research.

  12. Feeding ecology of dunlins Calidris alpina staging in the southern Baltic Sea, 1. Habitat use and food selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierschke, Volker; Kube, Jan; Probst, Sandra; Brenning, Ulrich

    1999-08-01

    The feeding habits of migrating dunlins Calidris alpina staging in different non-tidal coastal habitats in the southern Baltic Sea are described. The study also focuses on the structure of the benthic macrofauna of these habitats and the diet choice of dunlins. All investigations were carried out on Langenwerder Island (Wismar Bay), where different types of flats and beaches harbour a total of 30 to 40 species of marine macrofauna. The composition of the macrobenthos differed considerably between the eulittoral sandbank, the eulittoral mudflat, the pebble beach, and the sublittoral surroundings. Most dunlins were observed foraging in flocks of up to several hundred individuals on the eulittoral flats. Densities of up to 20 to 30 foraging dunlins ha -1 occurred annually during peak migration in September and October. Macrobenthos biomass in these habitats fluctuated between 20 and 40 g AFDM m -2. The mean total food consumption of dunlins during autumn migration was estimated at 0.01 g AFDM m -2 d -1. The predation pressure could be estimated at 3 to 6% of the suitable food supply. Dunlins staging on Langenwerder were able to attain a pre-migratory mass gain of 0.2 to 0.5% of their body weight per day within an 8 to 12-h daily feeding period. The birds fed predominantly on the polychaete Hediste diversicolor by probing. They selected small 7 to 31-mm-long individuals. When water levels were high, and the eulittoral flats inundated, many dunlins switched to foraging along the shorelines where a variety of small prey were taken from spilled macrophytes. Dunlins sometimes obviously ignored their most important food H. diversicolor, although available, by feeding on other prey such as juvenile fishes and shrimps, dipteran larvae or spilled amphipods. When feeding on amphipods, dunlins selected the smallest individuals.

  13. Solution structures of 2×6-meric and 4×6-meric hemocyanins of crustaceans Carcinus aestuarii, Squilla mantis and Upogebia pusilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mičetić, Ivan; Losasso, Carmen; Muro, Paolo Di; Tognon, Giuseppe; Benedetti, Piero; Beltramini, Mariano

    2010-07-01

    Arthropod hemocyanins (Hcs) are a family of large, high molecular mass, extracellular oxygen transport proteins. They form oligomeric quaternary structures based on different arrangements of a basic 6×75 kDa hexameric unit. Their complex quaternary structures present binding sites for allosteric effectors and regulate the oxygen binding process in a cooperative manner. In order to describe the functional regulation of arthropod Hcs, a detailed description of their quaternary structure is necessary. We have utilized small angle X-ray scattering to characterize the structure of three arthropod Hcs in unperturbed conditions. Two different levels of complexity are evaluated: for the 2×6-meric case, we analyzed the Hcs of the portunid crab Carcinus aestuarii and stomatopod Squilla mantis, while in the case of 4×6-meric structures, we studied the Hc of the thalassinid shrimp Upogebia pusilla. While C. aestuarii Hc presented a structure comparable to other 2×6-meric crustacean Hcs, S. mantis Hc shows a peculiar and quite unique arrangement of its building blocks, resembling a substructure of giant Hcs found among cheliceratans. For U. pusilla, the arrangement of its subunits is described as tetrahedral, in contrast to the more common square planar 4×6-meric structure found in other arthropod Hcs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ammoides pusilla (Brot. Breistr. from Algeria: Effect of harvesting place and plant part (leaves and flowers on the essential oils chemical composition and antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tefiani Choukri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical variability and antioxidant activity of the flower and leaf essential oils (EOs of Ammoides pusilla, collected at Algeria was evaluated. The EOs were isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH, ABTS, Reducing Power and TBARS assays. Oxygen-containing monoterpenes (54-77% dominated all but one A. pusilla leaf EOs, and in two flower EOs (53% both. Thymol dominated in practically all leaf and flowers EOs, but cumin alcohol, p-cymene and limonene attained also relatively high percentages in some EOs. A strong negative correlation (p<0.01 between IC50 values of ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl scavenging activity and the percentages of p-cymene and cumin alcohol present in EOs were observed, showing that higher levels of these monoterpenes were responsible for the best activities found. In spite of this finding, the antagonism and/or synergism between EO components must be taken into account, since the EO activity can only be considered as a whole. Moreover, given the EOs chemical variability their use as antioxidants, should be preceded by their chemical evaluation.

  15. Heterospecific sociality of birds on beaches from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Cestari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the sociality of heterospecific assemblages of birds have promoted a greater understanding of the types of interactions and survivorship between coexisting species. This study verified the group compositions in bird assemblages and analyzed the sociality of migratory and resident species on sandy beaches of southeastern Brazil. A transect was established on the median portion of beaches and all the groups of bird species (monospecific, heterospecific and solitary individuals were registered four days per month from November 2006 to April 2007. The sociality of each species was calculated by its frequency in heterospecific groups, its proportional number of contacts with other species in heterospecific groups, and the number of species that it associated with. Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766 and Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825 (both migratory had the highest degree of sociality and did not show a preference to associate with either residents or migratory species. Sanderling Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764 (migratory occupied the third position in the sociality rank and associated with migratory species frequently. Southern Caracara Carara plancus (Miller, 1777 and Black Vulture Coragyps atratus (Beschstein, 1793 (both resident were uniquely found among heterospecific groups with necrophagous and resident species. Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 (resident associated more frequently with resident species. The sociality in assemblages of birds may promote advantages such as an increased collective awareness in dangerous situations and indication of sites with abundant food sources.

  16. Monitoramento do maçarico-branco, Calidris alba (Pallas (Aves, Scolopacidae, através de recuperações de anilhas coloridas, na Coroa do Avião, Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brasil Monitoring of the sanderling, Calidris alba (Pallas (Aves, Scolopacidae, across recuperations of color band, in the Coroa do Avião, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. de Lyra-Neves

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Programas de marcação de espécies migratórias vêm sendo desenvolvidos desde a década de 1980, dentre eles o PASP Pan-American Shorebirds Programs, o qual, consistia na marcação de aves migratórias neárticas com anéis e bandeirolas coloridas possibilitando formação de códigos individuais permitindo a observação das aves marcadas sem que necessitasse capturar. Esta pesquisa objetivou a recuperação de códigos do PASP de indivíduos de Calidris alba (Pallas 1764 entre os anos de 1993 a 1995 na Coroa do Avião. Essas recuperações visuais demonstraram a fidelidade de Calidris alba ao seu sítio de invernada, a Coroa do Avião. O alto percentual de recuperações de Calidris alba, bem como, as recuperações de indivíduos anilhados na Lagoa do Peixe e em algumas áreas de invernada nos Estados Unidos, demonstram a utilização da rota do Atlântico e reforça a idéia de que bandos provenientes da costa leste do Alaska migram por esta rota. A idade máxima estimada para Calidris alba durante esta pesquisa foi de 11 anos, nada se tem sobre a idade desta espécie em bibliografias específicas no estudo de Scolopacidae.Marking programs for migratory species have been developed since the 1980 decade, among them the PASP Pan-American Shorebirds Programs which consisted in the marking of nearctic migratory birds with color bands and flags, enabling the development of individual codes, allowing the observation of the marked birds without the need of capture. The purpose of this study was the recuperation of PASP codes of individuals of Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764 between 1993 and 1995 in the Coroa do Avião. These visual recuperations demonstrated the fidelity of this specie to its winter site, the Coroa do Avião. The high percentual of recuperations of Calidris alba, as well as the recuperations of marked individuals in the Lagoa do Peixe and in some wintering areas in the United States, demonstrated the use of the Atlantic route and

  17. Resources for long-distance migration of knots Calidris canutus islandica and C. c. canutus : how broad is the temporal exploitation window of benthic prey in the western and eastern Wadden Sea?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Verkuil, Yvonne; Tulp, Ingrid

    1994-01-01

    In the course of each spring, two subspecies of knots Calidris canutus (islandica wintering in Europe and breeding in the Nearctic, and canutus wintering in west Africa and breeding in Siberia), stage in the international Wadden Sea before their northward flights to the arctic breeding grounds. In M

  18. Experimental challenge and pathology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in dunlin (Calidris alpina), an intercontinental migrant shorebird species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Franson, J. Christian; Gill, Robert E.; Meteyer, Carol U.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean; Dusek, Robert J.; Ip, Hon S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) are considered one of the primary reservoirs of avian influenza. Because these species are highly migratory, there is concern that infected shorebirds may be a mechanism by which highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 could be introduced into North America from Asia. Large numbers of dunlin (Calidris alpina) migrate from wintering areas in central and eastern Asia, where HPAIV H5N1 is endemic, across the Bering Sea to breeding areas in Alaska. Low pathogenic avian influenza virus has been previously detected in dunlin, and thus, dunlin represent a potential risk to transport HPAIV to North America. To date no experimental challenge studies have been performed in shorebirds.

  19. Intestinal Microbiota and Species Diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in Migrating Shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using rDNA sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in Red Knot (Calidris canutus, n=40), Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres, n=35), and Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris ...

  20. Intestinal Microbiota and Species Diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in Migrating Shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using rDNA sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in Red Knot (Calidris canutus, n=40), Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres, n=35), and Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris ...

  1. Habitat use and diet selection of northward migrating waders in the Sivash (Ukraine) : The use of Brine Shrimp Artemia salina in a variably saline lagoon complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Y.I.; Van der Have, TM; Van der Winden, J; Chernichko, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    Wader species migrating through the Sivash (Ukraine) use hypersaline and brackish lagoons. We studied the use of the two habitat types, and focused on the profitability of Brine Shrimp Artemia salina, prey species in hypersaline lagoons for Dunlins Calidris alpina, Curlew Sandpipers Calidris ferrugi

  2. Habitat use and diet selection of northward migrating waders in the Sivash (Ukraine): the use of brine shrimp Artemia salina in a variably saline lagoon complex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Y.; Have, van der T.M.; Winden, van der J.; Chernichko, I.I.

    2003-01-01

    Wader species migrating through the Sivash (Ukraine) use hypersaline and brackish lagoons. We studied the use of the two habitat types, and focused on the profitability of Brine Shrimp Artemia salina, prey species in hypersaline lagoons for Dunlins Calidris alpina, Curlew Sandpipers Calidris ferrugi

  3. A Genetic and Chemical Perspective on Symbiotic Recruitment of Cyanobacteria of the Genus Nostoc into the Host Plant Blasia pusilla L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Liaimer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Liverwort Blasia pusilla L. recruits soil nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria of genus Nostoc as symbiotic partners. In this work we compared Nostoc community composition inside the plants and in the soil around them from two distant locations in Northern Norway. STRR fingerprinting and 16S rDNA phylogeny reconstruction showed a remarkable local diversity among isolates assigned to several Nostoc clades. An extensive web of negative allelopathic interactions was recorded at an agricultural site, but not at the undisturbed natural site. The cell extracts of the cyanobacteria did not show antimicrobial activities, but four isolates were shown to be cytotoxic to human cells. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were mapped by MALDI-TOF MS, and the most prominent ions were further analysed by Q-TOF for MS/MS aided identification. Symbiotic isolates produced a great variety of small peptide-like substances, most of which lack any record in the databases. Among identified compounds we found microcystin and nodularin variants toxic to eukaryotic cells. Microcystin producing chemotypes were dominating as symbiotic recruits but not in the free-living community. In addition, we were able to identify several novel aeruginosins and banyaside-like compounds, as well as nostocyclopeptides and nosperin.

  4. A Genetic and Chemical Perspective on Symbiotic Recruitment of Cyanobacteria of the Genus Nostoc into the Host Plant Blasia pusilla L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaimer, Anton; Jensen, John B.; Dittmann, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Liverwort Blasia pusilla L. recruits soil nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria of genus Nostoc as symbiotic partners. In this work we compared Nostoc community composition inside the plants and in the soil around them from two distant locations in Northern Norway. STRR fingerprinting and 16S rDNA phylogeny reconstruction showed a remarkable local diversity among isolates assigned to several Nostoc clades. An extensive web of negative allelopathic interactions was recorded at an agricultural site, but not at the undisturbed natural site. The cell extracts of the cyanobacteria did not show antimicrobial activities, but four isolates were shown to be cytotoxic to human cells. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were mapped by MALDI-TOF MS, and the most prominent ions were further analyzed by Q-TOF for MS/MS aided identification. Symbiotic isolates produced a great variety of small peptide-like substances, most of which lack any record in the databases. Among identified compounds we found microcystin and nodularin variants toxic to eukaryotic cells. Microcystin producing chemotypes were dominating as symbiotic recruits but not in the free-living community. In addition, we were able to identify several novel aeruginosins and banyaside-like compounds, as well as nostocyclopeptides and nosperin. PMID:27847500

  5. Use of Aquaculture Ponds and Other Habitats by Autumn Migrating Shorebirds Along the Lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnen, Sarah E.; Krementz, David G.

    2013-08-01

    Populations of many shorebird species are declining; habitat loss and degradation are among the leading causes for these declines. Shorebirds use a variety of habitats along interior migratory routes including managed moist soil units, natural wetlands, sandbars, and agricultural lands such as harvested rice fields. Less well known is shorebird use of freshwater aquaculture facilities, such as commercial cat- and crayfish ponds. We compared shorebird habitat use at drained aquaculture ponds, moist soil units, agricultural areas, sandbars and other natural habitat, and a sewage treatment facility in the in the lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV) during autumn 2009. Six species: Least Sandpiper ( Calidris minutilla), Killdeer ( Charadrius vociferous), Semipalmated Sandpiper ( Calidris pusilla), Pectoral Sandpiper ( C. melanotos), Black-necked Stilt ( Himantopus himantopus), and Lesser Yellowlegs ( Tringa flavipes), accounted for 92 % of the 31,165 individuals observed. Sewage settling lagoons (83.4, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 25.3-141.5 birds/ha), drained aquaculture ponds (33.5, 95 % CI 22.4-44.6 birds/ha), and managed moist soil units on public lands (15.7, CI 11.2-20.3 birds/ha) had the highest estimated densities of shorebirds. The estimated 1,100 ha of drained aquaculture ponds available during autumn 2009 provided over half of the estimated requirement of 2,000 ha by the LMAV Joint Venture working group. However, because of the decline in the aquaculture industry, autumn shorebird habitats in the LMAV may be limited in the near future. Recognition of the current aquaculture habitat trends will be important to the future management activities of federal and state agencies. Should these aquaculture habitat trends continue, there may be a need for wildlife biologists to investigate other habitats that can be managed to offset the current and expected loss of aquaculture acreages. This study illustrates the potential for freshwater aquaculture to

  6. Use of aquaculture ponds and other habitats by autumn migrating shorebirds along the lower Mississippi river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnen, Sarah E; Krementz, David G

    2013-08-01

    Populations of many shorebird species are declining; habitat loss and degradation are among the leading causes for these declines. Shorebirds use a variety of habitats along interior migratory routes including managed moist soil units, natural wetlands, sandbars, and agricultural lands such as harvested rice fields. Less well known is shorebird use of freshwater aquaculture facilities, such as commercial cat- and crayfish ponds. We compared shorebird habitat use at drained aquaculture ponds, moist soil units, agricultural areas, sandbars and other natural habitat, and a sewage treatment facility in the in the lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV) during autumn 2009. Six species: Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla), Killdeer (Charadrius vociferous), Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), Pectoral Sandpiper (C. melanotos), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus himantopus), and Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes), accounted for 92 % of the 31,165 individuals observed. Sewage settling lagoons (83.4, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 25.3-141.5 birds/ha), drained aquaculture ponds (33.5, 95 % CI 22.4-44.6 birds/ha), and managed moist soil units on public lands (15.7, CI 11.2-20.3 birds/ha) had the highest estimated densities of shorebirds. The estimated 1,100 ha of drained aquaculture ponds available during autumn 2009 provided over half of the estimated requirement of 2,000 ha by the LMAV Joint Venture working group. However, because of the decline in the aquaculture industry, autumn shorebird habitats in the LMAV may be limited in the near future. Recognition of the current aquaculture habitat trends will be important to the future management activities of federal and state agencies. Should these aquaculture habitat trends continue, there may be a need for wildlife biologists to investigate other habitats that can be managed to offset the current and expected loss of aquaculture acreages. This study illustrates the potential for freshwater aquaculture to

  7. Are population dynamics of shorebirds affected by El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) while on their non-breeding grounds in Ecuador?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Patrick D.; Haase, Ben J. M.; Elner, Robert W.; Smith, Barry D.; Kenyon, Jamie K.

    2007-08-01

    Declines in avian populations are a global concern, particularly for species that migrate between Arctic-temperate and tropical locations. Long-term population studies offer opportunities to detect and document ecological effects attributable to long-term climatic cycles such as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In this study, we report possible population-level effects of such climatic cycles on shorebird species that use two non-breeding season sites in Ecuador (Santa Elena peninsula area, near La Libertad). During our 9-year study period (1991/1992-1999/2000), there was a particularly strong ENSO warm phase event during 1997/1998. Population trend data for three species of shorebird, Western Sandpipers ( Calidris mauri), Semipalmated Sandpipers ( C. pusilla), and Least Sandpipers ( C. minutilla), indicated abundances generally declined during the 1990s, but there was an increase in the proportion of first-year birds and their abundance in the years following the 1997/1998 ENSO warm phase. There was some support for variation in apparent survivorship associated with the onset of the ENSO warm phase event in our population models, based on capture-mark-recapture data. Following the 1997/1998 ENSO event onset, individuals for all three species were significantly lighter during the non-breeding season ( F1,3789 = 6.6, p = 0.01). Least-squares mean mass (controlling for size, sex and day of capture) for first-year birds dropped significantly more than for adults following ENSO (first-year mass loss = 0.69 ± 0.12 g; adult mass loss = 0.34 ± 0.11 g, F1,3789 = 5.31, p = 0.021), and least-squares mean mass dropped most during the period when sandpipers prepare for northward migration by gaining mass and moulting into breeding plumage. Least Sandpipers may have declined the most in mean mass following ENSO (0.76 ± 0.19 g), whereas Semipalmated Sandpipers were 0.52 ± 0.12 g lighter, and Western Sandpipers 0.40 ± 0.13 g lighter, but overall variation among

  8. Prey type and foraging ecology of Sanderlings Calidris alba in different climate zones: are tropical areas more favourable than temperate sites?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Grond

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sanderlings (Calidris alba are long-distance migratory shorebirds with a non-breeding range that spans temperate and tropical coastal habitats. Breeding in the High Arctic combined with non-breeding seasons in the tropics necessitate long migrations, which are energetically demanding. On an annual basis, the higher energy expenditures during migration might pay off if food availability in the tropics is higher than at temperate latitudes. We compared foraging behaviour of birds at a north temperate and a tropical non-breeding site in the Netherlands and Ghana, respectively. In both cases the birds used similar habitats (open beaches, and experienced similar periods of daylight, which enabled us to compare food abundance and availability, and behavioural time budgets and food intake. During the non-breeding season, Sanderlings in the Netherlands spent 79% of their day foraging; in Ghana birds spent only 38% of the daytime period foraging and the largest proportion of their time resting (58%. The main prey item in the Netherlands was the soft-bodied polychaete Scolelepis squamata, while Sanderlings in Ghana fed almost exclusively on the bivalve Donax pulchellus, which they swallowed whole and crushed internally. Average availability of polychaete worms in the Netherlands was 7.4 g ash free dry mass (AFDM m−2, which was one tenth of the 77.1 g AFDM m−2 estimated for the beach in Ghana. In the tropical environment of Ghana the Sanderlings combined relatively low energy requirements with high prey intake rates (1.64 mg opposed to 0.13 mg AFDM s−1 for Ghana and the Netherlands respectively. Although this may suggest that the Ghana beaches are the most favourable environment, processing the hard-shelled bivalve (D. pulchellus which is the staple food could be costly. The large amount of daytime spent resting in Ghana may be indicative of the time needed to process the shell fragments, rather than indicate rest.

  9. Habitat use by Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa): Experiments with oyster racks and reefs on the beach and intertidal of Delaware Bay, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Niles, Lawrence J.

    2017-07-01

    Sea level rise and increasing human activities have decreased intertidal habitat in many places in the world. The expansion of aquaculture in intertidal areas may impact birds and other organisms using these habitats, leading to questions of sustainability of both aquaculture and functioning estuarine ecosystems. Understanding the effect of oyster culture on shorebird activity, particularly on Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa), a species on the U.S. Threatened List, is important for adaptive management and the expansion of oyster culture. In May 2013 we experimentally compared Red Knot and shorebird use of a beach section with racks and a control, and in 2016 we compared the use of sections with artificial reefs, oyster racks, and control on Delaware Bay, New Jersey (USA). The data included only times when no workers or other people were present. Censuses, conducted every 30 min throughout the day (279 censuses in 2013, 231 censuses in 2016), included the number of Red Knots and other shorebirds in each treatment section. In 2013, the total number of shorebirds was significantly higher in the rack section than in the control section, except for Red Knots and Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres) that occurred in higher numbers in the control than in the rack section. In 2016 Red Knot numbers were also significantly lower in the rack section. In 2013, the mean number of Red Knots/census was 13 for racks vs 59 for the control (P < 0.0002). In 2016, the mean number of Red Knots/census was 13 for racks and over 68 for other treatments (P < 0.0001). Treatment, date, and number of non-Knot shorebirds explained 60% (2013) and 69% (2016) of the variation in Red Knot numbers. Red Knots avoided the sections with racks while both foraging and roosting, suggesting that caution should be used before placing oyster racks in areas used for foraging by Red Knots.

  10. Ecological correlates of variable organ sizes and fat loads in the most northerly-wintering shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, R.E.; Summers, R.W.; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Shorebirds at northern latitudes during the nonbreeding season typically carry relatively large lipid stores and exhibit an up-regulation of lean tissues associated with digestion and thermogenesis. Intraspecific variation in these tissues across sites primarily reflects differences in environmental conditions. Rock (Calidris ptilocnemis (Coues, 1873)) and Purple (Calidris maritima (Brünnich, 1764)) sandpipers are closely related species having the most northerly nonbreeding distributions among shorebirds, living at latitudes up to 61°N in Cook Inlet, Alaska, and up to 71°N in northern Norway, respectively. Cook Inlet is the coldest known site used by nonbreeding shorebirds, and the region’s mudflats annually experience extensive coverage of foraging sites by sea and shore-fast ice. Accordingly, Rock Sandpipers increase their fat stores to nearly 20% of body mass during winter. In contrast, Purple Sandpipers exploit predictably ice-free rocky intertidal foraging sites and maintain low (fat stores. Rock Sandpipers increase the mass of lean tissues from fall to winter, including contour feathers, stomach, and liver components. They also have greater lean pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscle and liver and kidney tissues compared with Purple Sandpipers in winter. This demonstrates a combined emphasis on digestive processes and thermogenesis, whereas Purple Sandpipers primarily augment organs associated with digestive processes. The high winter fat loads and increased lean tissues of Rock Sandpipers in Cook Inlet reflect the region’s persistent cold and abundant but sporadically unavailable food resources.

  11. Feeding of [5,5-2H(2)]-1-desoxy-D-xylulose and [4,4,6,6,6-2H(5)]-mevalolactone to a geosmin-producing Streptomyces sp. and Fossombronia pusilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteller, Dieter; Jux, Andreas; Piel, Jörn; Boland, Wilhelm

    2002-12-01

    The biosynthesis of the trisnor sesquiterpenoid geosmin (4,8a-dimethyl-octahydro-naphthalen-4a-ol) (1) was investigated by feeding labeled [5,5-2H(2)]-1-desoxy-D-xylulose (11), [4,4,6,6,6-(2)H(5)]-mevalolactone (7) and [2,2-2H(2)]-mevalolactone (9) to Streptomyces sp. JP95 and the liverwort Fossombronia pusilla. The micro-organism produced geosmin via the 1-desoxy-D-xylulose pathway, whereas the liverwort exclusively utilized mevalolactone for terpenoid biosynthesis. Analysis of the labeling pattern in the resulting isotopomers of geosmin (1) by mass spectroscopy (EI/MS) revealed that geosmin is synthesized in both organisms by cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate to a germacradiene-type intermediate 4. Further transformations en route to geosmin (1) involve an oxidative dealkylation of an i-propyl substituent, 1,2-reduction of a resulting conjugated diene, and bicyclization of a germacatriene intermediate 13. The transformations largely resemble the biosynthesis of dehydrogeosmin (2) in cactus flowers but differ with respect to the regioselectivity of the side chain dealkylation and 1,2-reduction

  12. Behavioural evidence for heat-load problems in Great Knots in tropical Australia fuelling for long-distance flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battley, PF; Rogers, DI; Piersma, T; Koolhaas, A; Battley, Phil F.; Rogers, Danny I.

    2003-01-01

    Migratory shorebirds that live in the tropics prior to embarking on long (> 5000 km) flights may face heat-load problems. The behaviour of a large sandpiper, the Great Knot (Calidris tenuirostris), was studied in Roebuck Bay, north-west Australia, from February to April 2000. We determined the incid

  13. Two pectin lyase genes, pnl-1 and pnl-2, from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae differ in a cellulose-binding domain and in their expression during infection of Malva pusilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yangdou; Shih, Jenny; Li, Jieran; Goodwin, Paul H

    2002-07-01

    Two pectin lyase genes, designated pnl-1 and pnl-2, were cloned from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae, a pathogen of round-leaved mallow (Malva pusilla). pnl-1 was isolated using cDNA from infected plant material; pnl-2 was isolated using cDNA from 3-day-old mycelia grown in mallow-cell-wall extract (MCWE) broth. pnl-1 is the first pectinase gene described thus far to encode a cellulose-binding domain (CBD), which is common in cellulases and xylanases, whereas pnl-2 encodes a pectin lyase that lacks a CBD. In pure culture, pnl-1 expression could be detected when purified pectin or glucose was the sole carbon source, but not when MCWE was the sole carbon source. The lack of pnl-1 expression appeared to be due to gene repression by some unknown factor(s) in the cell-wall extract. In contrast, expression of pnl-2 was detected in cultures when MCWE, but not when purified pectin or glucose, was the sole carbon source. In infected tissue, detection of pnl-1 expression by Northern-blot hybridization and by RT-PCR began with the onset of the necrotrophic phase of infection. Expression ofpnl-2 was not detectable by Northern-blot hybridization, but was observed byRT-PCR in both the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of infection. The differences between pnl-1 and pnl-2 (i.e. pnl-1 encoding a CBD and differences in the expression patterns of both genes) may be related to the requirements of C. gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae to be able to grow in host tissue under the different conditions present during the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of infection.

  14. Biparental incubation patterns in a high-Arctic breeding shorebird: how do pairs divide their duties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Martin; Valcu, Mihai; Rutten, Anne L; Kempenaers, Bart

    2014-01-01

    In biparental species, parents may be in conflict over how much they invest into their offspring. To understand this conflict, parental care needs to be accurately measured, something rarely done. Here, we quantitatively describe the outcome of parental conflict in terms of quality, amount, and timing of incubation throughout the 21-day incubation period in a population of semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) breeding under continuous daylight in the high Arctic. Incubation quality, measured by egg temperature and incubation constancy, showed no marked difference between the sexes. The amount of incubation, measured as length of incubation bouts, was on average 51min longer per bout for females (11.5h) than for males (10.7h), at first glance suggesting that females invested more than males. However, this difference may have been offset by sex differences in the timing of incubation; females were more often off nest during the warmer period of the day, when foraging conditions were presumably better. Overall, the daily timing of incubation shifted over the incubation period (e.g., for female incubation from evening-night to night-morning) and over the season, but varied considerably among pairs. At one extreme, pairs shared the amount of incubation equally, but one parent always incubated during the colder part of the day; at the other extreme, pairs shifted the start of incubation bouts between days so that each parent experienced similar conditions across the incubation period. Our results highlight how the simultaneous consideration of different aspects of care across time allows sex-specific investment to be more accurately quantified.

  15. Change in numbers of resident and migratory shorebirds at the Cabo Rojo Salt Flats, Puerto Rico, USA (1985–2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Morgan A.; Collazo, Jaime; Colon, Jose A.; Ramos Alvarez, Katsi R.; Diaz, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    North American migratory shorebirds have declined markedly since the 1980s, underscoring the importance of population surveys to conduct status and trend assessments. Shorebird surveys were conducted during three multi-year periods between 1985 and 2014 and used to assess changes in numbers and species composition at the Cabo Rojo Salt Flats, Puerto Rico, USA, a site of regional importance in the eastern Caribbean. Eight fewer species (total = 21) were recorded in 2013–2014 as compared to the 29 from 1985–1992; all eight species were Nearctic migrants. Small calidrids had the highest population counts; however, this suite of species and all others experienced a ≥ 70% decline. Combined counts from the salt flats and neighboring wetlands in 2013–2014 were lower than counts only from the Cabo Rojo Salt Flats in two previous multi-year survey periods, which indicated a real change in numbers not just a shift in wetland use. Invertebrate prey density was lower in 2013–2014 than in 1994. Body fat condition of Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), an index of habitat quality, did not differ between 1985–1992 and 2013–2014. These findings do not exclude the possibility that other species might be affected by lower prey density, or that local declines in numbers reflect changes at hemispheric, not local, scales. The magnitude of change between local and hemispheric scales closely matched for some species. Continued monitoring at the salt flats is warranted to help gauge the status of shorebirds in Puerto Rico and discern the probable cause of declines. Monitoring other sites in the Caribbean is needed for stronger inferences about regional status and trends.

  16. Body mass and lipid content of shorebirds overwintering on the south Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Three species of shorebirds were collected at bimonthly intervals in 1979-1980, from the time of their arrival in early autumn to mid-February, on the south Texas coast. Female Long-billed Dowitchers (Limnodromus scolopaceus) and Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) were heavier (P 0.05) between sexes in any of the three species. During the wintering period, fat stores in Long-billed Dowitchers and Western Sandpipers declined 70% and 44%, respectively, but not in American Avocets. Lipid content was highly correlated (P body mass in all three species, providing further evidence that fat accumulation is responsible for the major variation in total mass of some shorebird species.

  17. Wind effects on prey availability: How northward migrating waders use brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the sivash, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuil, Yvonne; Koolhaas, Anita; Van Der Winden, Jan

    Large numbers of waders migrating northward in spring use the Sivash, a large system of shallow, brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the Black Sea and Azov Sea region (Ukraine). The bottoms of these lagoons are often uncovered by the wind. Hence, for waders the time and space available for feeding depend on wind conditions. In hypersaline lagoons the benthic and pelagic fauna was very poor, consisting mainly of chironomid larvae (0.19 g AFDM·m -2) and brine shrimps Artemia salina, respectively. Brine shrimp abundance was correlated with salinity, wind force, wind direction and water depth. Dunlin Calidris alpina and curlew sandpiper Calidris ferruginea were the only species feeding on brine shrimp. As brine shrimp densities are higher in deeper water, smaller waders such as broad-billed sandpipers Limicola falcinellus are too short-legged to reach exploitable densities of brine shrimp. In brackish lagoons the benthic and pelagic fauna was rich, consisting of polychaetes, bivalves, gastropods, chironomid larvae, isopods and amphipods (8.9 to 30.5 g AFDM·m -2), but there were no brine shrimps. Prey biomass increased with the distance from the coast, being highest on the site that was most frequently inundated. Dunlin, broad-billed sandpiper and grey plover Pluvialis squatarola were the most abundant birds in the brackish lagoon. Due to the effects of wind-tides only a small area was usually available as a feeding site. Gammarus insensibilis was the alternative prey resource in the water layer, and their density varied with wind direction in the same way as brine shrimp. Curlew sandpipers and dunlins in the hypersaline lagoons and broad-billed sandpipers in the brackish lagoons often changed feeding sites, probably following the variation in prey availability. Only because of the large size and variety of lagoons are waders in the Sivash always able to find good feeding sites.

  18. Effects of management practices on grassland birds: Upland Sandpiper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechant, Jill A.; Dinkins, Meghan F.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Goldade, Christopher M.; Parkin, Barry D.; Euliss, Betty R.

    1999-01-01

    Information on the habitat requirements and effects of habitat management on grassland birds were summarized from information in more than 5,500 published and unpublished papers. A range map is provided to indicate the relative densities of the species in North America, based on Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Although birds frequently are observed outside the breeding range indicated, the maps are intended to show areas where managers might concentrate their attention. It may be ineffectual to manage habitat at a site for a species that rarely occurs in an area. The species account begins with a brief capsule statement, which provides the fundamental components or keys to management for the species. A section on breeding range outlines the current breeding distribution of the species in North America, including areas that could not be mapped using BBS data. The suitable habitat section describes the breeding habitat and occasionally microhabitat characteristics of the species, especially those habitats that occur in the Great Plains. Details on habitat and microhabitat requirements often provide clues to how a species will respond to a particular management practice. A table near the end of the account complements the section on suitable habitat, and lists the specific habitat characteristics for the species by individual studies. A special section on prey habitat is included for those predatory species that have more specific prey requirements. The area requirements section provides details on territory and home range sizes, minimum area requirements, and the effects of patch size, edges, and other landscape and habitat features on abundance and productivity. It may be futile to manage a small block of suitable habitat for a species that has minimum area requirements that are larger than the area being managed. The Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) is an obligate brood parasite of many grassland birds. The section on cowbird brood parasitism summarizes rates of cowbird parasitism, host responses to parasitism, and factors that influence parasitism, such as nest concealment and host density. The impact of management depends, in part, upon a species' nesting phenology and biology. The section on breeding-season phenology and site fidelity includes details on spring arrival and fall departure for migratory populations in the Great Plains, peak breeding periods, the tendency to renest after nest failure or success, and the propensity to return to a previous breeding site. The duration and timing of breeding varies among regions and years. Species' response to management summarizes the current knowledge and major findings in the literature on the effects of different management practices on the species. The section on management recommendations complements the previous section and summarizes specific recommendations for habitat management provided in the literature. If management recommendations differ in different portions of the species' breeding range, recommendations are given separately by region. The literature cited contains references to published and unpublished literature on the management effects and habitat requirements of the species. This section is not meant to be a complete bibliography; for a searchable, annotated bibliography of published and unpublished papers dealing with habitat needs of grassland birds and their responses to habitat management, use the Grassland and Wetland Birds Bibliography on the home page of this resource.

  19. Telemetry flights for Pacific golden-plovers and western sandpipers

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Telemetry flights have been flown for the past several years during the spring to track radiocarrying birds for other agencies /entities. This year five flights were...

  20. Feeding-Danger Trade-Offs Underlie Stopover Site Selection by Migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Pomeroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available To migrate successfully, birds need to store adequate fat reserves to fuel each leg of the journey. Migrants acquire their fuel reserves at stopover sites; this often entails exposure to predators. Therefore, the safety attributes of sites may be as important as the feeding opportunities. Furthermore, site choice might depend on fuel load, with lean birds more willing to accept danger to obtain good feeding. Here, we evaluate the factors underlying stopover-site usage by migrant Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri on a landscape scale. We measured the food and danger attributes of 17 potential stopover sites in the Strait of Georgia and Puget Sound region. We used logistic regression models to test whether food, safety, or both were best able to predict usage of these sites by Western Sandpipers. Eight of the 17 sites were used by sandpipers on migration. Generally, sites that were high in food and safety were used, whereas sites that were low in food and safety were not. However, dangerous sites were used if there was ample food abundance, and sites with low food abundance were used if they were safe. The model including both food and safety best-predicted site usage by sandpipers. Furthermore, lean sandpipers used the most dangerous sites, whereas heavier birds (which do not need to risk feeding in dangerous locations used safer sites. This study demonstrates that both food and danger attributes are considered by migrant birds when selecting stopover sites, thus both these attributes should be considered to prioritize and manage stopover sites for conservation.

  1. First records of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae in Pacific migratory shorebirds wintering in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Haase

    Full Text Available Chewing lice were collected from small shorebirds (Charadriformes: Scolopacidae overwintering in foraging grounds of coastal Ecuador. On 27 occasions at least one louse (3.7% was collected from six host species. Based on external morphological characters, at least two species of chewing lice could be preliminary identified (family: Menoponidae, including Actornithophilus umbrinus(Burmeister, 1842 and Austromenopon sp. A. umbrinus was found in the Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri, Least Sandpiper (C. minutilla, Stilt Sandpiper (C. himantopus, Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus and Wilson's phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor, whileAustromenopon sp. is presumably the first record collected from the Surfbird (Aphriza virgata. These findings indicate that the distribution of these chewing lice species covers at least the regions around the equator (latitude 0° until the Arctic in the north, but probably also includes the entire winter distribution area of the host species. This is the first study of chewing lice from Ecuador's mainland coast and more research is required to understand the host-parasite ecology and ectoparasitic infection in shorebirds stopping over the region.

  2. [Temporal and spatial distribution of shorebirds (Charadriiformes) at San Ignacio Lagoon, Baja California Sur, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Luis Francisco; Carmona, Roberto

    2013-03-01

    Baja California Peninsula has several wetlands that represent important ecosystems for shorebirds. San Ignacio Lagoon is one of these sites, and supports 10% of the total abundance of shorebirds reported in this Peninsula. Since there is few information about this group in this area, we studied spatial and temporal changes in abundance and distribution of shorebirds in San Ignacio Lagoon. For this, we conducted twelve monthly censuses (October 2007-September 2008) on the entire internal perimeter of the lagoon, which we divided into four areas: two at the North and two at the South. We observed a seasonal pattern, with the lowest abundance in May (1 585 birds) and the highest in October (47 410). The most abundant species were Marbled Godwits (Limosa fedoa; 55% of the total records), Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri; 23%), and Willet (Tringa semipalmata; 10%). All three species were more abundant in autumn; for both, the Marbled Godwit and Willet, we observed their highest numbers in winter and spring, while the Western Sandpiper showed noticeable oscillations, reaching a maximum in early winter (December). In summer, Marbled Godwit and Willet were the only birds present but in lower numbers. Here present the first records of the Pacific Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) in the area. Bird abundance and species richness were influenced seasonally by migration and spatially by sites in the lagoon. The greatest shorebird abundance was in the South area of the lagoon, probably because of better accessibility to food. Our results allowed the inclusion of San Ignacio Lagoon in the Western Hemisphere Shorebirds Reserve Network (WHSRN) as a site of international importance.

  3. Ways to be different: foraging adaptations that facilitate higher intake rates in a northerly-wintering shorebird compared to a low-latitude conspecific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; van Gils, Jan A.; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-01-01

    At what phenotypic level do closely related subspecies that live in different environments differ with respect to food detection, ingestion, and processing? This question motivated an experimental study on rock sandpipers (Calidris ptilocnemis). The species' nonbreeding range spans 20 degrees of latitude, the extremes of which are inhabited by two subspecies: Calidris p. ptilocnemis that winters primarily in upper Cook Inlet, Alaska (61°N), and C. p. tschuktschorum that overlaps slightly with C. p. ptilocnemis but whose range extends much farther south (~40°N). In view of the strongly contrasting energetic demands of their distinct nonbreeding distributions, we conducted experiments to assess the behavioural, physiological, and sensory aspects of foraging, and we used the bivalve Macoma balthica for all trials. Ptilocnemis consumed a wider range of prey sizes, had higher maximum rates of energy intake, processed shell waste at higher maximum rates, and handled prey more quickly. Notably, however, the two subspecies did not differ in their abilities to find buried prey. The subspecies were similar in size and had equally sized gizzards, but the more northern ptilocnemis individuals were 10-14% heavier than their same-sex tschuktschorum counterparts. The higher body mass in ptilocnemis likely resulted from hypertrophy of digestive organs (e.g. intestine, liver) related to digestion and nutrient assimilation. Given the previously established equality of the two subspecies' metabolic capacities, we propose that the high-latitude nonbreeding range of ptilocnemis rock sandpipers is primarily facilitated by digestive (i.e. physiological) aspects of their foraging ecology rather than behavioural or sensory aspects.

  4. Spatial distribution and general population characteristics of Pseudanchialina pusilla (Crustacea: Mysida) in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biju, A.

    in a fast maturation of the individuals, allowing the production of many generations per year. Due to continuous breeding, determining the number of generations becomes more complex (Mees et al., 1994; Delgado, 1997) because generations overlap...: Mysidacea) in a sand beach in south Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 25 (3): 403–412. 9 Delgado L., Guerao G. & Ribera C. 1997. Biolgy of the mysid Mesopodopsis slabberi (van Beneden, 1861) (Crustacea, Mysidacea) in a coastal lagoon of the Ebro...

  5. Western sandpipers have altered migration tactics as peregrine falcon populations have recovered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ydenberg, R.C.; Butler, R.W.; Lank, D.B.; Smith, B.D.; Ireland, J.

    2004-01-01

    The presence of top predators can affect prey behaviour, morphology and life history, and thereby can produce indirect population consequences greater and further reaching than direct depredation would have alone. Raptor species in the Americas are recovering since restrictions on the use of dichlor

  6. Turnover Rates of Fall Migrating Pectoral Sandpipers Through the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MA V) is the historic alluvial floodplain of the Lower Mississippi River. Most of the MAV is located in Arkansas, Louisiana, and...

  7. Western sandpipers have altered migration tactics as peregrine falcon populations have recovered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ydenberg, R.C.; Butler, R.W.; Lank, D.B.; Smith, B.D.; Ireland, J.

    2004-01-01

    The presence of top predators can affect prey behaviour, morphology and life history, and thereby can produce indirect population consequences greater and further reaching than direct depredation would have alone. Raptor species in the Americas are recovering since restrictions on the use of dichlor

  8. Seasonal dynamics of flight muscle fatty acid binding protein and catabolic enzymes in a migratory shorebird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Christopher G; Haunerland, Norbert H; Hochachka, Peter W; Williams, Tony D

    2002-05-01

    We developed an ELISA to measure heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in muscles of the western sandpiper (Calidris mauri), a long-distance migrant shorebird. H-FABP accounted for almost 11% of cytosolic protein in the heart. Pectoralis H-FABP levels were highest during migration (10%) and declined to 6% in tropically wintering female sandpipers. Premigratory birds increased body fat, but not pectoralis H-FABP, indicating that endurance flight training may be required to stimulate H-FABP expression. Juveniles making their first migration had lower pectoralis H-FABP than adults, further supporting a role for flight training. Aerobic capacity, measured by citrate synthase activity, and fatty acid oxidation capacity, measured by 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase activities, did not change during premigration but increased during migration by 6, 12, and 13%, respectively. The greater relative induction of H-FABP (+70%) with migration than of catabolic enzymes suggests that elevated H-FABP is related to the enhancement of uptake of fatty acids from the circulation. Citrate synthase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase, and carnitine palmitoyl transferase were positively correlated within individuals, suggesting coexpression, but enzyme activities were unrelated to H-FABP levels.

  9. Foraging in a tidally structured environment by red knots (Calidris canutus) : Ideal, but not free

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, JA; Spaans, B; Dekinga, A; Piersma, T; Speirs, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    Besides the "normal" challenge of obtaining adequate intake rates in a patchy and dangerous world, shorebirds foraging in intertidal habitats face additional environmental hurdles. The tide forces them to commute between a roosting site and feeding grounds, twice a day. Moreover, because intertidal

  10. Foraging in a tidally structured environment by red knots (Calidris canutus): Ideal, but not free

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gils, J.A.; Spaans, B.; Dekinga, A.; Piersma, T.

    2006-01-01

    Besides the “normal” challenge of obtaining adequate intake rates in a patchy and dangerous world, shorebirds foraging in intertidal habitats face additional environmental hurdles. The tide forces them to commute between a roosting site and feeding grounds, twice a day. Moreover, because intertidal

  11. Influence of age and sex on winter site fidelity of sanderlings Calidris alba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, José A.; Reneerkens, Jeroen; Loonstra, AH Jelle; Potts, Peter M.; Granadeiro, José P.; Catry, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Many migratory bird species show high levels of site fidelity to their wintering sites, which confers advantages due to prior knowledge, but may also limit the ability of the individual to move away from degrading sites or to detect alternative foraging opportunities. Winter site fidelity often varies among age groups, but sexual differences have seldom been recorded in birds. We studied a population of individually colour-marked sanderlings wintering in and around the Tejo estuary, a large estuarine wetland on the western coast of Portugal. For 160 individuals, sighted a total of 1,249 times between November 2009 and March 2013, we calculated the probability that they moved among five distinct wintering sites and how this probability is affected by distance between them. To compare site fidelity among age classes and sexes, as well as within the same winter and over multiple winters, we used a Site Fidelity Index (SFI). Birds were sexed using a discriminant function based on biometrics of a large set of molecularly sexed sanderlings (n = 990). The vast majority of birds were observed at one site only, and the probability of the few detected movements between sites was negatively correlated with the distance among each pair of sites. Hardly any movements were recorded over more than 15 km, suggesting small home ranges. SFI values indicated that juveniles were less site-faithful than adults which may reflect the accumulated knowledge and/or dominance of older animals. Among adults, females were significantly less site faithful than males. A sexual difference in winter site fidelity is unusual in shorebirds. SFI values show site-faithfulness is lower when multiple winters were considered, and most birds seem to chose a wintering site early in the season and use that site throughout the winter. Sanderlings show a very limited tendency to explore alternative wintering options, which might have implications for their survival when facing habitat change or loss (e.g., like severe beach erosion as can be the case at one of the study sites). PMID:27703860

  12. Influence of age and sex on winter site fidelity of sanderlings Calidris alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Lourenço

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many migratory bird species show high levels of site fidelity to their wintering sites, which confers advantages due to prior knowledge, but may also limit the ability of the individual to move away from degrading sites or to detect alternative foraging opportunities. Winter site fidelity often varies among age groups, but sexual differences have seldom been recorded in birds. We studied a population of individually colour-marked sanderlings wintering in and around the Tejo estuary, a large estuarine wetland on the western coast of Portugal. For 160 individuals, sighted a total of 1,249 times between November 2009 and March 2013, we calculated the probability that they moved among five distinct wintering sites and how this probability is affected by distance between them. To compare site fidelity among age classes and sexes, as well as within the same winter and over multiple winters, we used a Site Fidelity Index (SFI. Birds were sexed using a discriminant function based on biometrics of a large set of molecularly sexed sanderlings (n = 990. The vast majority of birds were observed at one site only, and the probability of the few detected movements between sites was negatively correlated with the distance among each pair of sites. Hardly any movements were recorded over more than 15 km, suggesting small home ranges. SFI values indicated that juveniles were less site-faithful than adults which may reflect the accumulated knowledge and/or dominance of older animals. Among adults, females were significantly less site faithful than males. A sexual difference in winter site fidelity is unusual in shorebirds. SFI values show site-faithfulness is lower when multiple winters were considered, and most birds seem to chose a wintering site early in the season and use that site throughout the winter. Sanderlings show a very limited tendency to explore alternative wintering options, which might have implications for their survival when facing habitat change or loss (e.g., like severe beach erosion as can be the case at one of the study sites.

  13. Do arctic breeding Red Knots (Calidris canutus) accumulate skeletal calcium before egg laying?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur A.; Davidson, Nick C.; Morrison, R.I. Guy

    1996-01-01

    Earlier studies have indicated that the diet of egg-laying female birds which eat only terrestrial arthropods has to be supplemented with calcium if they are to produce high-quality eggshells without interruption. During egg laying, females of tundra-breeding shorebird species may supplement their

  14. Shorebird avoidance of nearshore feeding and roosting areas at night correlates with presence of a nocturnal avian predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, Theunis; Gill, Robert E.; de Goeij, Petra; Dekinga, Anne; Shepherd, Marnie; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee

    2006-01-01

    We here report two anecdotes about avianinteractions relevant to the interpretation of differences in shorebirdhabitat use between day and night. Several studies have reported that shorebirds avoid feeding and roosting along nearshore areasat night yet commonly use these sites during daytime. This suggests that nighttime avoidance of nearshore places is a response to increased danger of predation. When mist-netting during autumn 2005 on nearshore intertidal habitats along South Spit, Egegik Bay (Alaska Peninsula), Alaska, we discovered that shorebirds that occurred there in large numbers during daytime low tides and roosted there during daytime high tides (especially Dunlin Calidris alpina, Rock Sandpipers Calidris ptilocnemis, Black-bellied Plover Pluvialis squatarola, and Surfbirds Aphriza virgata), were absent at night. Their avoidance of the area correlated with Short-eared Owls Asio flammeus concurrently hunting over the beach and adjacent intertidal habitats. Spotlighting over nearby expansive intertidal mudflats confirmed that the same suite of species continued to forage or roost nearby at night. To bring the story full circle, the morning following one mist-netting effort we found a Short-eared Owl on the beach that had been killed earlier by a Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus. In the owl’s stomach were remains of a freshly devoured Dunlin.

  15. Declines in migrant shorebird populations from a winter-quarter perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Robert E; Kolberg, Holger; Braby, Rod; Erni, Birgit

    2015-06-01

    Many long-distance migrating shorebird (i.e., sandpipers, plovers, flamingos, oystercatchers) populations are declining. Although regular shorebird monitoring programs exist worldwide, most estimates of shorebird population trends and sizes are poor or nonexistent. We built a state-space model to estimate shorebird population trends. Compared with more commonly used methods of trend estimation, state-space models are more mechanistic, allow for the separation of observation and state process, and can easily accommodate multivariate time series and nonlinear trends. We fitted the model to count data collected from 1990 to 2013 on 18 common shorebirds at the 2 largest coastal wetlands in southern Africa, Sandwich Harbour (a relatively pristine bay) and Walvis Bay (an international harbor), Namibia. Four of the 12 long-distance migrant species declined since 1990: Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres), Little Stint (Calidris minuta), Common Ringed Plover (Charadrius hiaticula), and Red Knot (Calidris canutus). Populations of resident species and short-distance migrants increased or were stable. Similar patterns at a key South African wetland suggest that shorebird populations migrating to southern Africa are declining in line with the global decline, but local conditions in southern Africa's largest wetlands are not contributing to these declines. State-space models provide estimates of population levels and trends and could be used widely to improve the current state of water bird estimates. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Biosynthesis of Phenylnannolone A, a Multidrug Resistance Reversal Agent from the Halotolerant Myxobacterium Nannocystis pusilla B150

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouhired, Sarah M.; Crüsemann, Max; Almeida, Celso

    2014-01-01

    product P‐glycoprotein and reverses daunorubicin resistance in cancer cells. To decipher the biochemical reactions leading to the formation of phenylnannolone A, the putative biosynthetic genes were identified (phn1, phn2). Phn2 is a polyketide synthase (PKS) with an NRPS‐like loading module, and its...

  17. Assessing the Importance of Horseshoe Crab (Limulus polyphemus) Eggs in the Diets of Migrating Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa) and Sanderlings (Calidris alba) During Refueling Stops on Selected Florida Beaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The projects main goals are to look at the diet content, habitat use, and body condition of migratory red knots and sanderlings and to examine these factors...

  18. Distribución espacial y temporal de aves playeras (Orden: Charadriiformes en Laguna San Ignacio, Baja California Sur, México Temporal and spatial distribution of shorebirds (Charadriiformes at San Ignacio Lagoon, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Francisco Mendoza

    2013-03-01

    monthly censuses (October 2007-September 2008 on the entire internal perimeter of the lagoon, which we divided into four areas: two at the North and two at the South. We observed a seasonal pattern, with the lowest abundance in May (1 585 birds and the highest in October (47 410. The most abundant species were Marbled Godwits (Limosa fedoa; 55% of the total records, Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri; 23%, and Willet (Tringa semipalmata; 10%. All three species were more abundant in autumn; for both, the Marbled Godwit and Willet, we observed their highest numbers in winter and spring, while the Western Sandpiper showed noticeable oscillations, reaching a maximum in early winter (December. In summer, Marbled Godwit and Willet were the only birds present but in lower numbers. Here present the first records of the Pacific Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari in the area. Bird abundance and species richness were influenced seasonally by migration and spatially by sites in the lagoon. The greatest shorebird abundance was in the South area of the lagoon, probably because of better accessibility to food. Our results allowed the inclusion of San Ignacio Lagoon in the Western Hemisphere Shorebirds Reserve Network (WHSRN as a site of international importance

  19. Intense predation cannot always be detected experimentally: A case study of shorebird predation on nereid polychaetes in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalejta, B.

    The effect of predation by curlew sandpipers Calidris ferruginea L. and grey plovers Pluvialis squatarola (L.) on populations of nereid worms Ceratonereis keiskama (Day) and C. erythraeensis (Fauvel) was studied at the Berg River estuary, South Africa, by comparing observations of shorebird-foraging intensity with the results of a population study of two species of nereid worms within and outside bird exclosures. The study was carried out during the four-month period prior to northward migration of shorebirds. Population structure of the two nereid species differed considerably. Ceratonereis keiskama reproduced earlier than C. erythraeensis and only young individuals were present during the study. By contrast, old C. erythraeensis were available to the birds at the start of the experiment and young animals entered the population during the experiment. Despite selective predation on certain size classes of nereids by the birds, no significant changes in the population structure of either nereid were detected by the cage experiment. Numbers and biomass of both Ceratonereis spp. in paired controls and cages tracked each other and did not diverge as predicted. A consistent difference in the depth stratification of the two nereids may, however, have been due to predation pressure. Curlew sandpipers were calculated to remove 3112 nereids per m 2 during the three months, equivalent to 4.4. g (dry weight) per m 2. This represents 58% of the initial numbers and 77% of the initial biomass of nereids. Although predation on nereids by waders was exceptionally high at the Berg River estuary, any depletion in numbers or biomass of nereids caused by these predators was masked by the reproduction of the nereids. The fact that the predators' high energy requirements prior to northward migration coincide with the period of peak production of invertebrate prey makes the Berg River estuary an exceptionally favourable wintering area.

  20. Trace elements have limited utility for studying migratory connectivity in shorebirds that winter in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Dowdall, J.; Farmer, A.H.; Abril, M.; Bucher, E.H.; Ridley, I.

    2010-01-01

    Trace-element analysis has been suggested as a tool for the study of migratory connectivity because (1) trace-element abundance varies spatially in the environment, (2) trace elements are assimilated into animals' tissues through the diet, and (3) current technology permits the analysis of multiple trace elements in a small tissue sample, allowing the simultaneous exploration of several elements. We explored the potential of trace elements (B, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cs, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, and U) to clarify the migratory connectivity of shorebirds that breed in North America and winter in southern South America. We collected 66 recently replaced secondary feathers from Red Knots (Calidris canutus) at three sites in Patagonia and 76 from White-rumped Sandpipers (C. fuscicollis) at nine sites across Argentina. There were significant differences in trace-element abundance in shorebird feathers grown at different nonbreeding sites, and annual variability within a site was small compared to variability among sites. Across Argentina, there was no large-scale gradient in trace elements. The lack of such a gradient restricts the application of this technique to questions concerning the origin of shorebirds to a small number of discrete sites. Furthermore, our results including three additional species, the Pectoral Sandpiper (C. melanotos), Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), and Collared Plover (Charadrius collaris), suggest that trace-element profiles change as feathers age. Temporal instability of trace-element values could undermine their application to the study of migratory connectivity in shorebirds. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  1. Digestive bottleneck affects foraging decisions in red knots Calidris canutus. II. Patch choice and length of working day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gils, JA; Dekinga, A; Spaans, B; Vahl, WK; Piersma, T

    2005-01-01

    1. When prey occur at high densities, energy assimilation rates are generally constrained by rates of digestion rather than by rates of collection (i.e. search and handle). As predators usually select patches containing high prey densities, rates of digestion will play an important role in the forag

  2. Many routes leading to Rome: Potential causes for the multi-route migration system of Red Knots Calidris canutus islandica

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, S; Ens, B.J.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Migrants, such as birds or representatives of other taxa, usually make use of several stopover sites to cover the distance between their site of origin and destination. Potentially, multiple routes exist, but often little is known about the causes and consequences of alternative migration routes. Apart from their geographical distribution, the suitability of potential sites might play an important role in the animals' decisions for a particular itinerary. We used an optimal-migration model to...

  3. Many routes leading to Rome: Potential causes for the multi-route migration system of Red Knots Calidris canutus islandica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, S.; Ens, B.J.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Migrants, such as birds or representatives of other taxa, usually make use of several stopover sites to cover the distance between their site of origin and destination. Potentially, multiple routes exist, but often little is known about the causes and consequences of alternative migration routes. Ap

  4. Exploitation of intertidal feeding resources by the red knot Calidris canutus under megatidal conditions (Bay of Saint-Brieuc, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturbois, Anthony; Ponsero, Alain; Desroy, Nicolas; Le Mao, Patrick; Fournier, Jérôme

    2015-02-01

    The feeding ecology of the red knot has been widely studied across its wintering range. Red knots mainly select bivalves and gastropods, with differences between sites due to variation in prey availability. The shorebird's diet is also influenced or controlled by the tidal regime. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the adaptation of foraging red knots to the megatidal environment. The variation in their diet during tidal cycles was studied in the bay of Saint-Brieuc, a functional unit for this species. The method used combined macrofauna, distribution of foraging birds and diet data. Comparative spatial analyses of macrofauna and distribution of foraging red knots have shown that the bay's four benthic assemblages are exploited by birds. By analysing droppings, we highlighted that bivalve molluscs are the main component of their diet, as shown in most overwintering sites. Fifteen types of prey were identified and Donax vittatus was discovered to be a significant prey item. The relative proportion of each main prey item differs significantly depending on the benthic assemblage used to forage. All available benthic assemblages and all potential feeding resources can be used during a single tidal cycle, reflecting an adaptation to megatidal conditions. This approach develops accurate knowledge about the feeding ecology of birds which managers need in order to identify optimal areas for the conservation of waders based on the areas and resources actually used by the birds.

  5. Hematologic and plasma biochemistry values for endangered red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) at wintering and migratory sites in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Verónica L; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Baker, Allan J; González, Patricia M

    2010-04-01

    We obtained hematologic and plasma biochemistry values for adult, long-distance migrant Red Knots at their southernmost wintering site in Río Grande (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) and at the first stopover site in San Antonio Oeste (Río Negro, Argentina). Lymphocytes (L) followed by heterophils (H) were the most abundant leukocytes. H/L ratio and glucose levels were significantly higher at Río Grande, possibly because of the stress of migration and molting. Packed cell volume results ranged widely, probably in response to increased oxygen demand for migration. Protein profiles and lipids were higher at the stopover site and attributable to birds storing reserves for subsequent flights.

  6. Identification of coastal wetlands of international importance for waterbirds:a review of China Coastal Waterbird Surveys 2005–2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingquan Bai; Jianzhong Chen; Zhihong Chen; Guotai Dong; Jiangtian Dong; Wenxiao Dong; Vivian Wing Kan Fu; Yongxiang Han; Gang Lu; Jing Li; Yang Liu; Zhi Lin; Derong Meng; Jonathan Martinez; Guanghui Ni; Kai Shan; Renjie Sun; Suixing Tian; Fengqin Wang; Zhiwei Xu; Yat-tung Yu; Jin Yang; Zhidong Yang; Lin Zhang; Ming Zhang; Xiangwu Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Background:China’s coastal wetlands belong to some of the most threatened ecosystems worldwide.The loss and degradation of these wetlands seriously threaten waterbirds that depend on wetlands.Methods:The China Coastal Waterbird Census was organized by volunteer birdwatchers in China’s coastal region.Waterbirds were surveyed synchronously once every month at 14 sites,as well as irregularly at a further 18 sites,between September 2005 and December 2013.Results:A total of 75 species of waterbirds met the 1 % population level Ramsar listing criterion at least once at one site.The number of birds of the following species accounted for over 20 % of the total flyway populations at a single site:Mute Swan(Cygnus olor),Siberia Crane(Grus leucogeranus),Far Eastern Oystercatcher(Haematopus osculans),Bar-tailed Godwit(Limosa lapponica),Spotted Greenshank(Tringa guttifer),Great Knot(Calidris tenuirostris),Spoon-billed Sandpiper(Calidris pygmeus),Saunders’ s Gull(Larus saundersi),Relict Gull(Larus relictus),Great Cormorant(Phalacrocorax carbo),Eurasian Spoonbill(Platalea leucorodia),Black-faced Spoonbill(Platalea minor) and Dalmatian Pelican(Pelecanus crispus).A total of 26 sites supported at least one species of which their number met the1 % criterion.Forty-two species met the 1 % criterion in the Yellow River Delta,Shandong;29 at the Cangzhou coast,Hebei and 26 species at the Lianyungang coast,Jiangsu.Conclusions:The results highlight the international importance of China’s coastal wetlands for waterbirds.This study also demonstrates that participation of local birdwatchers in waterbird surveys results in data that are invaluable not only for understanding the current status of waterbirds in China’s coastal regions but also for waterbird conservation and management.

  7. Identification of coastal wetlands of international importance for waterbirds:a review of China Coastal Waterbird Surveys 2005-2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Li; Yang Liu; Zhi Lin; Derong Meng; Jonathan Martinez; Guanghui Ni; Kai Shan; Renjie Sun; Suixing Tian; Fengqin Wang; Jianzhong Chen; Zhiwei Xu; Yat-tung Yu; Jin Yang; Zhidong Yang; Lin Zhang; Ming Zhang; Xiangwu Zeng; Zhihong Chen; Guotai Dong; Jiangtian Dong; Wenxiao Dong; Vivian Wing Kan Fu; Yongxiang Han; Gang Lu

    2015-01-01

    Background:China’s coastal wetlands belong to some of the most threatened ecosystems worldwide. The loss and degradation of these wetlands seriously threaten waterbirds that depend on wetlands. Methods:The China Coastal Waterbird Census was organized by volunteer birdwatchers in China’s coastal region. Waterbirds were surveyed synchronously once every month at 14 sites, as well as irregularly at a further 18 sites, between September 2005 and December 2013. Results:A total of 75 species of waterbirds met the 1%population level Ramsar listing criterion at least once at one site. The number of birds of the following species accounted for over 20%of the total flyway populations at a single site:Mute Swan (Cygnus olor), Siberia Crane (Grus leucogeranus), Far Eastern Oystercatcher (Haematopus osculans), Bar-tailed Godwit (Limosa lapponica), Spotted Greenshank ( Tringa guttifer), Great Knot (Calidris tenuirostris), Spoon-billed Sandpiper (Calidris pygmeus), Saunders’s Gull (Larus saundersi), Relict Gull (Larus relictus), Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), Black-faced Spoonbill (Platalea minor) and Dalmatian Pelican (Pelecanus crispus). A total of 26 sites supported at least one species of which their number met the 1 % criterion. Forty-two species met the 1 % criterion in the Yellow River Delta, Shandong; 29 at the Cangzhou coast, Hebei and 26 species at the Lianyungang coast, Jiangsu. Conclusions: The results highlight the international importance of China’s coastal wetlands for waterbirds. This study also demonstrates that participation of local birdwatchers in waterbird surveys results in data that are invaluable not only for understanding the current status of waterbirds in China’s coastal regions but also for waterbird conservation and management.

  8. Complexity of bioindicator selection for ecological, human, and cultural health: Chinook salmon and red knot as case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Niles, Lawrence; Powers, Charles; Brown, Kevin; Clarke, James; Dey, Amanda; Kosson, David

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing bioindicators of ecological health that are also useful indicators for human health. Yet, human health assessment usually encompasses physical/chemical exposures and not cultural well-being. In this paper, we propose that bioindicators can be selected for all three purposes. We use Chinook or king salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and red knot (Calidris canutus rufa, a sandpiper) as examples of indicators that can be used to assess human, ecological, and cultural health. Even so, selecting endpoints or metrics for each indicator species is complex and is explored in this paper. We suggest that there are several endpoint types to examine for a given species, including physical environment, environmental stressors, habitat, life history, demography, population counts, and cultural/societal aspects. Usually cultural endpoints are economic indicators (e.g., number of days fished, number of hunting licenses), rather than the importance of a fishing culture. Development of cultural/societal endpoints must include the perceptions of local communities, cultural groups, and tribal nations, as well as governmental and regulatory communities (although not usually so defined, the latter have cultures as well). Endpoint selection in this category is difficult because the underlying issues need to be identified and used to develop endpoints that tribes and stakeholders themselves see as reasonable surrogates of the qualities they value. We describe several endpoints for salmon and knots that can be used for ecological, human, and cultural/societal health. PMID:25666646

  9. SOROPREVALÊNCIA DE ANTICORPOS “ANTI-ARBOVÍRUS” DE IMPORTÂNCIA EM SAÚDE PÚBLICA EM AVES SELVAGENS, BRASIL – 2007 E 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Anilton Alves Araujo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies against arboviruses in wild birds in two serological surveys conducted in Salinopólis/Para State. A total of 544 birds of 17 species were captured, being nine resident and eight migratory. Blood was collected from 350 birds for virus isolation, but no virus was isolated. Of the 95 sera in which the hemagglutination inhibition test was performed, 14.7% were reactive to alphavirus, 9.5% to flavivirus and 7.4% to bunyavirus. Of the positive reactions, 84.9% occurred in migratory birds and 15.1% i resident birds. The proportions of positive reactions to the test among migratory and resident birds were 31.5% and 18.2%, respectively, which was not statistically different (p> 0.05. For alphaviruses, the species Pluvialis squatarola showed 28.6% positivity, followed by 11.8% in Arenaria interpres. For flaviviruses, only the species Sterna superciliares and Calidris pusilla were reactive to the hemagglutination inhibition test. Regarding the bunyavírus, the Arenaria interpres was 5.9% positive for the Oropouche virus. Migratory birds have proved to be important amplifiers of the arboviruses surveyed, although no viruses were isolated. Some bird species have greater amplification capacity of certain arboviruses than others. Virus isolation in wild birds is difficult, in view of the need of blood sampling in animals within the viremic period.

  10. Protein (Viridiplantae): 303286926 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GVSRRFFADAPIARRLPASERIDLTEAMDEAVYRAGDVIIAQGDAPDRFYLLEVGAAVATVRVPGVENALRVAEFSRGSYFGELELFSKKKRTATVTATTSTRCAAIEWRRFAHLAREGTELRRR ... ...608:478 predicted protein, partial Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545 IGHLAMVYGGARERTTRANDKGAKLWGMHRRWFERVAGAAVHGKR

  11. Protein (Viridiplantae): 303282509 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available :308 mitochondrial carrier family Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545 MPAVPPAPPASPPRALLPPWQREWLAASMGCTIADAMFNPLEVLKVRRQMLARRASSTTASNAAAAAATAS...ATAPPTGTLALARDAIKSRGLANGLWLPGLEATCYRAFSYTGFRIGMYPSGASHALVPIRPLRDAIVSRGAFGDADSIAARVA

  12. Protein (Viridiplantae): 303286393 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 564608:5924 predicted protein Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545 MGQSEVLSAPAGAPVFSASLAEAKARARQFYRELCREVPWVMRTYWLEEV...TTPAKFRAQLANEFRRRVLYTGPHTTPVIDVMLFKANQEMVTVAAHHFQRHHLITKYVAPESNVIDKARARGEKPKSAFLSAFLGGKATEPNGGIPKDF ...

  13. Protein (Viridiplantae): 303289765 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 564608:6779 predicted protein Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545 MSTAREDDVARGAEGAPRADVAVPDRATEAKGGEALPAPTPEDGAGTRVVRVGSGVAVPIGEERGPVVVNADGSLSSIANWDEMTDREREATRRRIAKRNNARLEALKAAGGDEREGKRDDAS ...

  14. Protein (Viridiplantae): 303279901 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 564608:4250 predicted protein Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545 MDLSAQTVLKIAAVSSTGYSAQMLAAPDWANSYYYKAGHPKNENWQRWFGHGLAGMALAQGLASGESTANKAVLLASGAQYVTAPLMMLTQKDDFKPAQIALNSAICLGIGGLCLKAGLKK ...

  15. Protein (Viridiplantae): 303276292 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 564608:3236 predicted protein Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545 MGRRRRREPRGSVRGVPALLPRGRSRGAVRRHGALARGRGRGGARALSLARRRRRRGPPDVSAKGVGGDGSSERGPREGGGGGREIDVGGERDAAGDDGAGGVGVPQHEQPTESVTTDATSRE ...

  16. Notulae ad Floram agaricinam neerlandicam — XXX. Melanoleuca polioleuca forma pusilla Boekhout & Kuyper. A new name for Melanoleuca polioleuca forma oreina (Fr.: Fr.) Boekhout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout, Teun; Kuyper, Thomas W.

    1996-01-01

    A new name is introduced for the small-sized variant of Melanoleuca polioleuca, formerly also recognized as f. oreina. The authors demonstrate that the use of this epithet is undesirable because it is not likely that Agaricus oreinus Fr.: Fr. represents the same taxon.

  17. Wind assistance: A requirement for migration of shorebirds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, R.W.; Williams, T.D.; Warnock, N.; Bishop, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the importance of wind-assisted flight for northward (spring) migration by Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) along the Pacific Coast of North America. Using current models of energy costs of flight and recent data on the phenology of migration, we estimated the energy (fat) requirements for migration in calm winds and with wind-assisted flight for different rates of fat deposition: (1) a variable rate, assuming that birds deposit the minimum amount of fat required to reach the next stopover site; (2) a constant maximum rate of 1.0 g/day; and (3) a lower constant rate of 0.4 g/day. We tested these models by comparing conservative estimates of predicted body mass along the migration route with empirical data on body mass of Western Sandpipers at different stopover sites and upon arrival at the breeding grounds. In calm conditions, birds would have to deposit unrealistically high amounts of fat (up to 330% of observed values) to maintain body mass above absolute lean mass values. Fat-deposition rates of 1.0 g/day and 0.4 g/day, in calm conditions, resulted in a steady decline in body mass along the migration route, with predicted body masses on arrival in Alaska of only 60% (13.6 g) and 26% (5.9 g) of average lean mass (22.7 g). Conversely, birds migrating with wind assistance would be able to complete migration with fat-deposition rates as low as 0.4 g/day, similar to values reported for this size bird from field studies. Our results extend the conclusion of the importance of winds for large, long-distance migrants to a small, short-distance migrant. We suggest that the migratory decisions of birds are more strongly influenced by the frequency and duration of winds aloft, i.e. by events during the flight phase, than by events during the stopover phase of migration, such as fat-deposition rate, that have been the focus of much recent migration theory.

  18. Three-phase fuel deposition in a long-distance migrant, the red knot (Calidris canutus piersmai), before the flight to high Arctic breeding grounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hua, Ning; Piersma, Theunis; Ma, Zhijun

    2013-01-01

    Refuelling by migratory birds before take-off on long flights is generally considered a two-phase process, with protein accumulation preceding rapid fat deposition. The first phase expresses the demands for a large digestive system for nutrient storage after shrinkage during previous flights, the se

  19. Seasonal variations in the diet and foraging behaviour of dunlins Calidris alpina in a south European estuary: improved feeding conditions for northward migrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo C Martins

    Full Text Available During the annual cycle, migratory waders may face strikingly different feeding conditions as they move between breeding areas and wintering grounds. Thus, it is of crucial importance that they rapidly adjust their behaviour and diet to benefit from peaks of prey abundance, in particular during migration, when they need to accumulate energy at a fast pace. In this study, we compared foraging behaviour and diet of wintering and northward migrating dunlins in the Tagus estuary, Portugal, by video-recording foraging birds and analysing their droppings. We also estimated energy intake rates and analysed variations in prey availability, including those that were active at the sediment surface. Wintering and northward migrating dunlins showed clearly different foraging behaviour and diet. In winter, birds predominantly adopted a tactile foraging technique (probing, mainly used to search for small buried bivalves, with some visual surface pecking to collect gastropods and crop bivalve siphons. Contrastingly, in spring dunlins generally used a visual foraging strategy, mostly to consume worms, but also bivalve siphons and shrimps. From winter to spring, we found a marked increase both in the biomass of invertebrate prey in the sediment and in the surface activity of worms and siphons. The combination of these two factors, together with the availability of shrimps in spring, most likely explains the changes in the diet and foraging behaviour of dunlins. Northward migrating birds took advantage from the improved feeding conditions in spring, achieving 65% higher energy intake rates as compared with wintering birds. Building on these results and on known daily activity budgets for this species, our results suggest that Tagus estuary provides high-quality feeding conditions for birds during their stopovers, enabling high fattening rates. These findings show that this large wetland plays a key role as a stopover site for migratory waders within the East Atlantic Flyway.

  20. What determines the densities of feeding birds on tidal flats? A case study on dunlin, Calidris alpina, in the Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Georg; Tiedemann, Ralph

    The tidal and seasonal pattern of habitat utilization by dunlin was studied in a tidal-flat area in a shallow bay called Königshafen, island of Sylt, by counting the number of dunlins on marked plots at 10-min intervals over whole tidal cycles. Sediment type, tidal elevation, and seasonal changes in food choice were found to influence the feeding densities of dunlin irrespective of total numbers present in the area. Densities of dunlin were generally highest on low muddy substrates. A preference for high sandy substrates was found in late summer. The tidal pattern of habitat utilization differed between areas. In preferred areas dunlin stayed during the whole emersion period. Other areas were only used by following the moving tide line. Seasonal changes in habitat utilization were apparently triggered by changes in food choice. In spring dunlin fed almost exclusively on polychaetes. In late summer a relatively high proportion of shrimps, Crangon crangon, was found in the diet of dunlins. The preference for shrimps may force the birds to stay away from the tide line, where the shrimps can escape into deeper waters. It is recommended that studies on habitat utilization on tidal flats should consider the tidal behaviour of the target species, as single low-tide counts may not give valid results.

  1. Large and irregular population fluctuations in migratory Pacific (Calidris alpina pacifica) and Atlantic (C. a. hudsonica) dunlins are driven by density-dependence and climatic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, C.; Barnett, J.; Lank, D.B.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the forces driving population dynamics is critical for species conservation and population management. For migratory birds, factors that regulate population abundance could come from effects experienced on breeding areas, wintering grounds, or during migration. We compiled survey data

  2. Seasonal variations in the diet and foraging behaviour of dunlins Calidris alpina in a south European estuary: improved feeding conditions for northward migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ricardo C; Catry, Teresa; Santos, Carlos D; Palmeirim, Jorge M; Granadeiro, José P

    2013-01-01

    During the annual cycle, migratory waders may face strikingly different feeding conditions as they move between breeding areas and wintering grounds. Thus, it is of crucial importance that they rapidly adjust their behaviour and diet to benefit from peaks of prey abundance, in particular during migration, when they need to accumulate energy at a fast pace. In this study, we compared foraging behaviour and diet of wintering and northward migrating dunlins in the Tagus estuary, Portugal, by video-recording foraging birds and analysing their droppings. We also estimated energy intake rates and analysed variations in prey availability, including those that were active at the sediment surface. Wintering and northward migrating dunlins showed clearly different foraging behaviour and diet. In winter, birds predominantly adopted a tactile foraging technique (probing), mainly used to search for small buried bivalves, with some visual surface pecking to collect gastropods and crop bivalve siphons. Contrastingly, in spring dunlins generally used a visual foraging strategy, mostly to consume worms, but also bivalve siphons and shrimps. From winter to spring, we found a marked increase both in the biomass of invertebrate prey in the sediment and in the surface activity of worms and siphons. The combination of these two factors, together with the availability of shrimps in spring, most likely explains the changes in the diet and foraging behaviour of dunlins. Northward migrating birds took advantage from the improved feeding conditions in spring, achieving 65% higher energy intake rates as compared with wintering birds. Building on these results and on known daily activity budgets for this species, our results suggest that Tagus estuary provides high-quality feeding conditions for birds during their stopovers, enabling high fattening rates. These findings show that this large wetland plays a key role as a stopover site for migratory waders within the East Atlantic Flyway.

  3. Captive and free-living red knots Calidris canutus exhibit differences in non-induced immunity that suggest different immune strategies in different environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buehler, Deborah M.; Piersma, Theunis; Tieleman, B. Irene

    Experiments on captive animals, in which conditions can be controlled, are useful for examining complex biological phenomena such as immune function. Such experiments have increased our understanding of immune responses in the context of trade-offs and pathogen pressure. However, few studies have

  4. Collaborative approaches to the evolution of migration and the development of science-based conservation in shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Brian A.; Brown, S.; Corven, James; Bart, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Shorebirds are among the most highly migratory creatures on earth. Both the study of their ecology and ongoing efforts to conserve their populations must reflect this central aspect of their biology. Many species of shorebirds use migration and staging sites scattered throughout the hemisphere to complete their annual migrations between breeding areas and nonbreeding habitats (Morrison 1984). The vast distances between habitats they use pose significant challenges for studying their migration ecology. At the same time, the large number of political boundaries shorebirds cross during their epic migrations create parallel challenges for organizations working on their management and conservation.Nebel et al. (2002) represent a collaborative effort to understand the conservation implications of Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri) migration ecology on a scale worthy of this highly migratory species. The data sets involved in the analysis come from four U.S. states, two Canadian provinces, and a total of five nations. Only by collaborating on this historic scale were the authors able to assemble the information necessary to understand important aspects of the migration ecology of this species, and the implications for conservation of the patterns they discovered.Collaborative approaches to shorebird migration ecology developed slowly over several decades. The same period also saw the creation of large-scale efforts to monitor and conserve shorebirds. This overview first traces the history of the study of migration ecology of shorebirds during that fertile period, and then describes the monitoring and protection efforts that have been developed in an attempt to address the enormous issues of scale posed by shorebird migration ecology and conservation.

  5. Protein (Viridiplantae): 303279957 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 64608:4267 predicted protein, partial Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545 TQSTVDPGMESIVEPCMESIVEPGMESIVEPCMESIVEPGMVSAVEPGIESIVEPGIEPCMESIVEP...GMESIVEPCMESIVEPGMVSAVEPGIESIVEPGIEHQSGTTQSTVEPGMESIVEPCMESIVEPGMESIVEPCMESIVEPGMVSAVEPGMESIVEP...GIESTVDPGMESTVDPGMESIVEPGMESTVEPGMESTVDPGTESIVEPGMESIVEPGMESIMEPGMESTVEPGMESTVESIA ...

  6. Protein (Viridiplantae): 203761 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 017 ... 38832:3226 ... 38833:3539 ... 564608:3539 predicted protein Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545 MHPPLTLENHPLCKDVVIALKRCHRDNPWARAWGACNEQKWALDDCLKKQKLFKFRANHAKAKAQQDRLRRRVEKYGHATTNGQFKG

  7. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Connor, E.E.; Gerould, S.

    1994-01-01

    Many wildlife species ingest soil while feeding, but ingestion rates are known for only a few species. Knowing ingestion rates may be important for studies of environmental contaminants. Wildlife may ingest soil deliberately, or incidentally, when they ingest soil-laden forage or animals that contain soil. We fed white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) diets containing 0-15% soil to relate the dietary soil content to the acid-insoluble ash content of scat collected from the mice. The relation was described by an equation that required estimates of the percent acid-insoluble ash content of the diet, digestibility of the diet, and mineral content of soil. We collected scat from 28 wildlife species by capturing animals, searching appropriate habitats for scat, or removing material from the intestines of animals collected for other purposes. We measured the acid-insoluble ash content of the scat and estimated the soil content of the diets by using the soil-ingestion equation. Soil ingestion estimates should be considered only approximate because they depend on estimated rather than measured digestibility values and because animals collected from local populations at one time of the year may not represent the species as a whole. Sandpipers (Calidris spp.), which probe or peck for invertebrates in mud or shallow water, consumed sediments at a rate of 7-30% of their diets. Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, soil = 17% of diet), American woodcock (Scolopax minor, 10%), and raccoon (Procyon lotor, 9%) had high rates of soil ingestion, presumably because they ate soil organisms. Bison (Bison bison, 7%), black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus, 8%), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis, 8%) consumed soil at the highest rates among the herbivores studied, and various browsers studied consumed little soil. Box turtle (Terrapene carolina, 4%), opossum (Didelphis virginiana, 5%), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, 3%), and wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo, 9%) consumed soil

  8. Roberts Bank: Ecological crucible of the Fraser River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Terri F.; Elner, Robert W.; O'Neill, Jennifer D.

    2013-08-01

    relationship was found between biofilm components (chlorophyll and silt), polydora, and harpacticoid copepod abundance, which, together with cumaceans, are food for Western Sandpipers, Calidris mauri. Finally, 52% of the intercauseway variation was explained by direct correlations between eelgrass attributes and fauna consisting of bivalves, caprellids, and harpacticoid copepods (root biomass, leaf area index), the latter being prey for juvenile salmon which depend on eelgrass beds as rearing habitat. These habitats are vulnerable to changes in tidal flow patterns, tidal elevation, sediment transport, and water clarity that could be caused by future port development and/or sea level rise in response to climate change.

  9. Protein (Viridiplantae): 746637 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 218 ... 38832:274 ... 38833:414 ... 564608:414 predicted protein Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545 MAQLPSYEVDDGEDSMPGAPGEGPMTDSMQGPPVEVPTSDSM...PGAPGEVPTMDSMHGPPVEVPTMDSMHGAPVEVPMMDSMPGAPVEVPTMDSMQGPPVEVPTMDSMQGAPGEGPMTDSMHGAPGEGPTMDSMNSGNPTKCVVPDWCSTYPPEMQKSKPECQCPDDSHP

  10. Protein (Viridiplantae): 780231 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 401 ... 38832:1362 ... 38833:877 ... 564608:877 predicted protein Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545 MQDSMHDTMHDSIQDSMHDSIQDSMQDSM...AKEEEEPAEPPAKEEEAHAEPPAKEEEAHAEPPAKEEDYAEPPAKEEDYAEPPAKEEAHSMDSMDSMDSMDSMDSMDSMHSMDSMDSMDSMDSMHSMDSMDSMDSM...DSMHSMDSMDSMDSMDSMDSMDSMHSMDTSIDAVDAAANVTDAADTAGAAANVTDAADTAGAAAEEKPPENASVDSLDSLLDG

  11. Protein (Viridiplantae): 556191 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 266 ... 38832:688 ... 38833:861 ... 564608:861 predicted protein, partial Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545 ALHWACHVGDELVAAALLSHGADVNAVGELDNTPLHVACANHHLGIARRLLARGADVRAVNNYGTTPAQARSPRAGSHTTPFA

  12. High-tide habitat choice : insights from modelling roost selection by shorebirds around a tropical bay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, Danny I.; Battley, Phil F.; Piersma, Theunis; Van Gils, Jan A.; Rogers, Ken G.

    2006-01-01

    High tides force shorebirds from intertidal feeding areas to sites known as roosts. We investigated the roost selection of great knots, Calidris tenuirostris, and red knots, Calidris canutus, on a tropical coastline in northwestern Australia, assessing several roost attributes and recording the freq

  13. Population divergence times and historical demography in red knots and dunlins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buehler, DM; Baker, AJ

    2005-01-01

    We employed Bayesian coalescent modeling of samples of mitochondrial control region sequences in two species of shorebird, Red Knots (Calidris canutus) and Durdins (Calidris alpina) to estimate evolutionary effective population size, population divergence times, and time to most recent common ancest

  14. Shrub-Scrub Habitat Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Conversion of the current shrub-scrub habitats west of Sandpiper Road and north of the Back BayNational Wildlife Refuge, into recreational facilities for a new hotel...

  15. Archaeological Investigations at Rathbun Lake, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    nent resident Spotted sandpiper Along freshwater shorelines Actitis marcularis Starling Cosmopolitan, permanent resident Sturnus vulgasis 24 Species...Habitat Tufted titmouse Deciduous woodlands, swamps Parus bicolor Turkey Open Woodland Meleagris gallogavo Turkey vulture The open sky near woodlands

  16. Low costs of terrestrial locomotion in waders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinzeel, L.W.; Piersma, T; Kersten, M.; Leopold, Mardik F.

    1999-01-01

    Energy expenditure of terrestrial locomotion on a linear treadmill was measured in five wader species: Turnstone Arenaria interpres, Knot Calidris canutus, Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola, Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus and Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica. Additional data on Redshank Tringa

  17. Case 3058. Arctocephalus F. Cuvier, 1826 and Callorhinus Gray, 1859 (Mammalia, Pinnipedia): proposed conservation by the designation of Phoca pusilla Schreber, [1775] as the type species of Arctocephalus; and Otaria Peron, 1816 and Eumetopias Gill, 1866: proposed conservation by the designation of Phoca leonina Molina, 1782 as the type species of Otaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A.L.; Robbins, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this application is to conserve the accustomed understanding and usage of the fur seal name Arctocephalus F. Cuvier, 1826 by the designation of Phoca pusilia Schreber, [1775] as the type species, thus conserving also the name Callorhinus Gray, 1859. At present Phoca ursina Linnaeus, 1758 is the valid type species of both Arctocephalus and Callorhinus. The name Arctocephalus relates to a genus of some seven fur seals from the southern hemisphere, while Callorhinus is used for the single species C. ursinus (Linnaeus) from the northern hemisphere. It is also proposed that the universal understanding of the names Otaria Peron, 1816 and Eumetopias Gill, 1866 should be conserved for the southern and northern sea lions respectively by designating Phoca leonina Molina, 1782 (for which the valid specific name is P. byronia de Blainville, 1820) as the type species of Otaria. At present Phoca jubata Schreber, [1776] is the type species of Otaria and the name Otaria is a senior subjective synonym of Eumetopias. The four genera Arctocephalus, Callorhinus, Otaria and Eumetopias are all placed in the family OTARIIDAE Gray, 1825.

  18. Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York Water Resources Management. Interim Report on Feasibility of Flood Management in Cazenovia Creek Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    Pheucticus ludovicianus rose-breasted grosbeak Passerina cyanea indigo bunting Carpodacus purpureus purple finch Spinus tristis American goldfish...Henslow’s sparrow Pooecetes graminius vesper sparrow Junko hyemalis slate-colored junko (2) Spizella Passerina chipping sparrow Spizella pusilla

  19. Protein (Viridiplantae): 303277825 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003058206.1 33090:2376 3041:1616 1035538:518 13792:518 38832:2208 38833:3670 564608:3670 nucleosome posit...ioning protein Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545 MDPMSNAPAGAPTSMDGWGSIVAAASPPAKRERDDDAADP

  20. An initial attempt at least auklet productivity sampling at St. George Island, Alaska in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A large proportion of the world's population of least auklets (Aethia pusilla) breeds on the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge (AMNWR; Sowls et al. 1978)....

  1. Leaf anatomy of the South African Danthonieae (Poaceae. XVI. The genus Urochlaena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Ellis

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The leaf blade anatomy of Urochlaena pusilla Nees is described and illustrated. The transectional anatomy is non- Kranz with diffuse but uniformly distributed chlorenchyma. The abaxial epidermis has dome-shaped stomata, dumbbell­shaped silica bodies, elongated finger-like microhairs, and cushion-based macrohairs may or may not be present. This type of arundinoid anatomy closely resembles that o f  Tribolium Desv.,  Chaetobromus Nees,  Schismus Beauv., and certain species of Pentaschistis Stapf.  Urochlaena pusilla is very similar to  Tribolium utriculosum (Nees Renv. in leaf anatomy and these two species appear to be closely related.

  2. Within-population variation in mating system and parental care patterns in the Sander ling (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneerkens, J.; van Veelen, P.; van der Velde, M.; Luttikhuizen, P.; Piersma, T.

    2014-01-01

    Sandpipers and allies (Scolopacidae) show an astounding diversity in mating and parental care strategies. Comparative studies have tried to interpret this variation in terms of phylogenetic constraints and ecological shaping factors. In such analyses, mating and parental care systems are necessarily

  3. Contour feather moult of Ruffs Philomachus pugnax during northward migration, with notes on homology of nuptial plumages in scolopacid waders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jukema, J; Piersma, T

    Among the sandpiper family Scolopacidae, the Ruff Philomachus pugnax combines a large seasonal change in the appearance of the plumage with a very pronounced sexual plumage dimorphism. Studies on the east and south African wintering grounds of Ruffs indicate that before northward migration at least

  4. Environmental Assessment for the Aeromedical Evacuation Formal Training Unit, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    endangered  Upland Sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda), threatened  Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis), species of concern  Henslow’s sparrow...tresses (Spiranthes magnicamporum), potentially threatened  Pigeon grape (Vitis cinerea), potentially threatened Additionally, the midland sedge ... Carex mesochorea) is known to exist from just outside the Base boundary in Greene County and is listed as threatened in Ohio. This species is quite

  5. Environmental Assessment for the Consolidation of 88th Air Base Wing Civil Engineer Operations, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    National Historical Park- National Park Service 1. Bartramia longicauda - Upland Sandpiper, threatened 2. Carex mesochorea- Midland Sedge ...its range in the eastern United States, Eastern Massasaugas are found in wet prairies, sedge meadows and early successional fields. Preferred...wetland habitats are marshes and fens. They avoid open water and seem to prefer the cover of broad-leafed plants, emergents, and sedges . Natural

  6. MIGRATORY DEPARTURES OF WADERS FROM NORTH-WESTERN AUSTRALIA - BEHAVIOR, TIMING AND POSSIBLE MIGRATION ROUTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulp, Ingrid; MCCHESNEY, S; DEGOEIJ, P

    1994-01-01

    Migratory activity of waders departing from north-western Australia in March-April 1991 was recorded by field observations and radar tracking. Field observations showed that the species concerned were mainly Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica, Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola and Great Knot Calidris

  7. On 4 June 2008 Siberian Red Knots at Elbe Mouth kissed the canonical evening migration departure rule goodbye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leyrer, Jutta; Pruiksma, Sytze; Piersma, Theunis; Heg, Dierik

    2009-01-01

    Observations of departing Siberian-breeding Red Knots Calidris canutus canutus from their central staging site during northward migration, the Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea, Germany, in early June 2008, challenge the established notion that departing long-distance migrating waders only leave around

  8. Mechanisms promoting higher growth rate in arctic than in temperate shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schekkerman, H; Tulp, Ingrid; Piersma, T.; Visser, G.H.

    2003-01-01

    We compared prefledging growth, energy expenditure, and time budgets in the arctic-breeding red knot (Calidris canutus) to those in temperate shorebirds, to investigate how arctic chicks achieve a high growth rate despite energetic difficulties associated with precocial development in a cold climate

  9. Behavior of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in biota of Yangtze Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆健健; 唐亚文; 唐亚文; 周开亚; 叶属峰; 孙平跃

    2001-01-01

    The contents of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium were measured in the dominant species (plants: Scripus triquetor and Phrgrmites australis, macrobenthos: llyoplax deschampsin, Helice tridens tientsinensis, Bullacta exarata and Corbicula fluminea, and migrating waders: Calidris ruficollis and C. alpina) of the ecosystem of Yangtze Estuary, China, from 1995-1998. Results show that:

  10. Unusual patterns in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, M.W.; Piersma, T.; Dekinga, A.; Korthals, H.; Klaassen, M.

    2013-01-01

    When a diet switch results in a change in dietary isotopic values, isotope ratios of the consumer's tissues will change until a new equilibrium is reached. This change is generally best described by an exponential decay curve. Indeed, after a diet switch in captive red knot shorebirds (Calidris canu

  11. Hormonal Correlates and Thermoregulatory Consequences of Molting on Metabolic Rate in a Northerly Wintering Shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vezina, Francois; Gustowska, Anna; Jalvingh, Kirsten M.; Chastel, Olivier; Piersma, Theunis

    2009-01-01

    Even though molt involves both endocrine and energetic changes in bird bodies, this study is among the first to combine assessments of energy costs together with thyroid hormone variations in molting birds. Individual shorebirds (red knots Calidris canutus islandica) were measured while in full

  12. Mitochondrial DNA sequence evolution in shorebird populations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenink, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis describes the global molecular population structure of two shorebird species, in particular of the dunlin, Calidris alpina, by means of comparative sequence analysis of the most variable part of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome. There are several reasons why mtDNA is the molecule of

  13. Mitochondrial DNA sequence evolution in shorebird populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenink, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis describes the global molecular population structure of two shorebird species, in particular of the dunlin, Calidris alpina, by means of comparative sequence analysis of the most variable part of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome. There are several reasons

  14. Bottom-up and top-down forces in a tropical intertidal ecosystem : The interplay between seagrasses, bivalves and birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Fouw, Jimmy

    2016-01-01

    Zeegrassen zijn zogenaamde ‘biobouwers’ en zijn de basis voor veel kustecosystemen. Het Waddengebied Banc d’Arguin is zo’n kustgebied. Het zeegras Zostera noltii hier barst van het leven waar o.a. de kanoet (Calidris canutus canutus) van leeft. Zeegrassen hebben een belangrijke sturende rol als fund

  15. Unusual patterns in 15N blood values after a diet switch in red knot shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, M.W.; Piersma, T.; Dekinga, A.; Korthals, H.; Klaassen, M.

    2013-01-01

    When a diet switch results in a change in dietary isotopic values, isotope ratios of the consumer's tissues will change until a new equilibrium is reached. This change is generally best described by an exponential decay curve. Indeed, after a diet switch in captive red knot shorebirds (Calidris

  16. Unusual patterns in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, M.W.; Piersma, T.; Dekinga, A.; Korthals, H.; Klaassen, M.

    2013-01-01

    When a diet switch results in a change in dietary isotopic values, isotope ratios of the consumer's tissues will change until a new equilibrium is reached. This change is generally best described by an exponential decay curve. Indeed, after a diet switch in captive red knot shorebirds (Calidris

  17. Basal metabolic rate declines during long-distance migratory flight in great knots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battley, PF; Dekinga, A; Dietz, MW; Piersma, T; Tang, SX; Hulsman, K; Battley, Phil F.; Tang, Sixian

    2001-01-01

    Great Knots (Calidris tenuirostris) make one of the longest migratory flights in the avian world, flying almost 5500 km from Australia to China during northward migration. We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body composition in birds before and after this flight and found that BMR decreased 4

  18. Body-building without power training : Endogenously regulated pectoral muscle hypertrophy in confined shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, MW; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A

    1999-01-01

    Shorebirds such as red knots Calidris canutus routinely make migratory flights of 3000 km or more. Previous studies on this species, based on compositional analyses, suggest extensive pectoral muscle hypertrophy in addition to fat storage before take-off. Such hypertrophy could be due to power

  19. Fuel use and metabolic response to endurance exercise : a wind tunnel study of a long-distance migrant shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Jenni, Lukas; Kvist, Anders; Lindström, Åke; Piersma, Theunis; Visser, G. Henk

    2002-01-01

    This study examines fuel use and metabolism in a group of long-distance migrating birds, red knots Calidris canutus (Scolopacidae), flying under controlled conditions in a wind tunnel for up to 10 h. Data are compared with values for resting birds fasting for the same time. Plasma levels of free fat

  20. Interference from adults forces young red knots to forage for longer and in dangerous places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, P.J.; van Gils, J.A.; Robin, F.; van der Geest, M.; Dekinga, A.; Piersma, T.

    2014-01-01

    In birds and mammals, juvenile and adult foragers are often found apart from each other. In this study, we found this is also true for red knots, Calidris canutus canutus, wintering on the intertidal flats of Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania. Not only did juveniles feed separately from adults, they also fe

  1. The performing animal: causes and consequences of body remodeling and metabolic adjustments in red knots facing contrasting thermal environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vézina, F.; Gerson, A.R.; Guglielmo, C.G.; Piersma, T.

    2017-01-01

    Using red knots (Calidris canutus) as a model, we determined how changes in mass and metabolic activity of organs relate to temperature-induced variation in metabolic performance. In cold-acclimated birds, we expected large muscles and heart as well as improved oxidative capacity and lipid

  2. Is long-distance bird flight equivalent to a high-energy fast? Body composition changes in freely migrating and captive fasting great knots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battley, PF; Dietz, MW; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; Tang, SX; Hulsman, K; Battley, Phil F.; Tang, Sixian

    2001-01-01

    We studied changes in body composition in great knots, Calidris tenuirostris, before and after a migratory flight of 5,400 km from northwest Australia to eastern China. We also took premigratory birds into captivity and fasted them down to their equivalent arrival mass after migration to compare org

  3. Avian pectoral muscle size rapidly tracks body mass changes during flight, fasting and fuelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindstrom, A; Kvist, A; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; Dietz, MW; Lindström, Åke

    2000-01-01

    We used ultrasonic imaging to monitor short-term changes in the pectoral muscle size of captive red knots Calidris canutus. Pectoral muscle thickness changed rapidly and consistently in parallel with body mass changes caused by flight, fasting;and fuelling. Four knots hew repeatedly for 10h periods

  4. Body-building without power training : Endogenously regulated pectoral muscle hypertrophy in confined shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, MW; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A

    1999-01-01

    Shorebirds such as red knots Calidris canutus routinely make migratory flights of 3000 km or more. Previous studies on this species, based on compositional analyses, suggest extensive pectoral muscle hypertrophy in addition to fat storage before take-off. Such hypertrophy could be due to power train

  5. Prey type and foraging ecology of Sanderlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grond, K.; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y.; Piersma, T.; Reneerkens, J.

    2015-01-01

    Sanderlings (Calidris alba) are long-distance migratory shorebirds with a non-breeding range that spans temperate and tropical coastal habitats. Breeding in the High Arctic combined with non-breeding seasons in the tropics necessitate long migrations, which are energetically demanding. On an annual

  6. Roost availability may constrain shorebird distribution : Exploring the energetic costs of roosting and disturbance around a tropical bay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, Danny I.; Piersma, Theunis; Hassell, Chris J.

    2006-01-01

    High tides force shorebirds from their intertidal feeding areas to refuges known as roosts. This paper explores the energetic costs of roost disturbance of great knot (Calidris tenuirostris) and red knot (C. canutus) at Roebuck Bay, North-western Australia, assessing disturbance levels at different

  7. Red knots scavenging on large, dying cockles : Opportunistic feeding by a sensory specialized mollusc-crushing shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poot, Martin J M; Roelen, Bernard A J; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Despite their specializations, shorebirds can be opportunistic foragers during the non-breeding season. We describe how a highly specialized probe-feeding shorebird, the Red Knot Calidris canutus, suddenly ignored its shallow buried hard-shelled mollusc prey and opportunistically shifted to an unusu

  8. Foraging conditions 'at the end of the world' in the context of long-distance migration and population declines in red knots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escudero, G.; Navedo, J.G.; Piersma, T.; de Goeij, P.; Edelaar, P.

    2012-01-01

    The long-distance migrant red knot (Calidris canutus ssp. rufa Scolopacidae) alternates between the northern and southern ends of the New World, one of the longest yearly migrations of any bird and paradoxically overflying apparently suitable habitat at lower latitudes. This subspecies is sharply de

  9. Food, feeding, and refuelling of Red Knots during northward migration at San Antonio Oeste, Rio Negro, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, PM; Piersma, T; Verkuil, Y; González, Patricia M.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the food and feeding ecology of Red Knots Calidris canutus rufa on an area of rocky flat, or restinga, near San Antonio Oeste in the northwest of Golfo San Matias, Provincia de Rio Negro, Argentina in March 1992. These Red Knots are on their way north, from ''wintering'' areas in Tierra d

  10. Rapid population decline in red knots : fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, AJ; Gonzalez, PM; Piersma, T; Niles, LJ; do Nascimento, IDS; Atkinson, PW; Clark, NA; Minton, CDT; Peck, MK; Aarts, G

    2004-01-01

    Most populations of migrant shorebirds around the world are in serious decline, suggesting that vital condition-dependent rates such as fecundity and annual survival are being affected globally. A striking example is the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) population wintering in Tierra del Fuego, whic

  11. Effects of Microhabitat, Flocking, Climate and Migratory Goal on Energy Expenditure in the Annual Cycle of Red Knots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Popko; Piersma, Theunis

    1994-01-01

    We quantify seasonal changes in the maintenance energy requirements of Red Knots (Calidris canutus islandica). This subspecies breeds on the tundra of northeast Canada and north Greenland, migrates through Iceland and spends the winter in the coastal regions of western Europe. Maintenance Metabolism

  12. Unusual patterns in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, M.W.; Piersma, T.; Dekinga, A.; Korthals, H.; Klaassen, M.

    2013-01-01

    When a diet switch results in a change in dietary isotopic values, isotope ratios of the consumer's tissues will change until a new equilibrium is reached. This change is generally best described by an exponential decay curve. Indeed, after a diet switch in captive red knot shorebirds (Calidris canu

  13. Unusual patterns in 15N blood values after a diet switch in red knot shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, M.W.; Piersma, T.; Dekinga, A.; Korthals, H.; Klaassen, M.

    2013-01-01

    When a diet switch results in a change in dietary isotopic values, isotope ratios of the consumer's tissues will change until a new equilibrium is reached. This change is generally best described by an exponential decay curve. Indeed, after a diet switch in captive red knot shorebirds (Calidris canu

  14. Unusual patterns in N-15 blood values after a diet switch in red knot shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, Maurine W.; Piersma, Theunis; Dekinga, Anne; Korthals, Harry; Klaassen, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    When a diet switch results in a change in dietary isotopic values, isotope ratios of the consumer's tissues will change until a new equilibrium is reached. This change is generally best described by an exponential decay curve. Indeed, after a diet switch in captive red knot shorebirds (Calidris canu

  15. Day and night feeding habitat of Red Knots in Patagonia : Profitability versus safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitters, HP; Gonzalez, PM; Piersma, T; Baker, AJ; Price, DJ; Sitters, Humphrey P.; González, Patricia M.; Baker, Allan J.; Price, David J.

    2001-01-01

    By radio-tracking and recording the movements of flocks. the distribution of feeding Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa) was studied day and night at a migration stopover site near San Antonio Oeste, Rio Negro, Argentina in March and April 1998. By day, the birds fed in dense flocks of 500-4000 on an

  16. Red knots scavenging on large, dying cockles : Opportunistic feeding by a sensory specialized mollusc-crushing shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poot, Martin J M; Roelen, Bernard A J; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Despite their specializations, shorebirds can be opportunistic foragers during the non-breeding season. We describe how a highly specialized probe-feeding shorebird, the Red Knot Calidris canutus, suddenly ignored its shallow buried hard-shelled mollusc prey and opportunistically shifted to an

  17. Where waders may parallel penguins : Spontaneous increase in locomotor activity triggered by fat depletion in a voluntarily fasting Knot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T.; Poot, M.

    1993-01-01

    A Knot Calidris canutus, kept with four conspecifics on an enclosed artificial outdoor tidal flat in The Netherlands, refused to feed on the available bivalve prey for a period of 18 days and thereby decreased in mass from 209 g to 107 g, at which point the bird resumed feeding on the then freely av

  18. Holling's functional response model as a tool to link the food-finding mechanism of a probing shorebird with its spatial distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Gils, Jan van; Goeij, Petra de; Meer, Jaap van der

    1995-01-01

    1. Knots Calidris canutus are high-arctic breeding shorebirds which spend the nonbreeding season in intertidal areas where they feed on small buried molluscs which are swallowed whole. We tested whether their intake rate can be adequately described by a functional response model (the disc equation o

  19. HOLLINGS FUNCTIONAL-RESPONSE MODEL AS A TOOL TO LINK THE FOOD-FINDING MECHANISM OF A PROBING SHOREBIRD WITH ITS SPATIAL-DISTRIBUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PIERSMA, T; VAN GILS, JA; DEGOEIJ, P; VANDERMEER, J

    1995-01-01

    1. Knots Calidris canutus are high-arctic breeding shorebirds which spend the nonbreeding season in intertidal areas where they feed on small buried molluscs which are swallowed whole. We tested whether their intake rate can be adequately described by a functional response model (the disc equation o

  20. Long flights do not influence immune responses of a long-distance migrant bird : a wind-tunnel experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasselquist, Dennis; Lindstrom, Ake; Jenni-Eiermann, Susi; Koolhaas, Anita; Piersma, Theunis; Lindström, Åke

    2007-01-01

    Heavy physical work can result in physiological stress and suppressed immune function. Accordingly, long-distance migrant birds that fly for thousands of km within days can be expected to show immunosuppression, and hence be more vulnerable to infections en route. The red knot Calidris canutus Linna

  1. Rapid changes in the size of different functional organ and muscle groups during refueling in a long-distance migrating shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T; Gudmundsson, GA; Lilliendahl, K; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur A.

    1999-01-01

    The adaptive value of size changes in different organ and muscle groups was studied in red knots (Calidris canutus islandica) in relation to their migration. Birds were sampled on five occasions: at arrival in Iceland in May 1994, two times during subsequent refueling, at departure toward, and on

  2. Being at the right time at the right place: interpreting the annual life cycle of Afro-Siberian red knots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leyrer, J.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the possible selection pressures acting on survival and, indirectly, on reproduction of Afro-Siberian red knots Calidris canutus canutus while wintering and migrating. Afro-Siberian red knots are long-distance migrants. They travel between the West African wintering areas and t

  3. Effects of Microhabitat, Flocking, Climate and Migratory Goal on Energy Expenditure in the Annual Cycle of Red Knots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Popko; Piersma, Theunis

    We quantify seasonal changes in the maintenance energy requirements of Red Knots (Calidris canutus islandica). This subspecies breeds on the tundra of northeast Canada and north Greenland, migrates through Iceland and spends the winter in the coastal regions of western Europe. Maintenance Metabolism

  4. Winter body mass and over-ocean flocking as components of danger management by Pacific dunlins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ydenberg, R.C.; Dekker, D.; Kaiser, G.; Shepherd, P.C.F.; Ogden, L.E.; Rickards, K.; Lank, D.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: We compared records of the body mass and roosting behavior of Pacific dunlins (Calidris alpina pacifica) wintering on the Fraser River estuary in southwest British Columbia between the 1970s and the 1990s. 'Over-ocean flocking' is a relatively safe but energetically-expensive alternative

  5. A new Burmannia from Enggano (Sumatra)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, F.P.

    1938-01-01

    Herba pusilla, saprophytiea, 10—13 cm alta. Radices ignotae. Caulis simplex, erectus, teres, glaber, succulentus. Folia 3—8, squamas simulantia, lanceolata vel ovato-lanceolata, glabra, acuta vel acuminata, 2—6 mm longa, uninervia, nervo prominente. Folia basalia rosulata nulla. Bracteae plm. 5 mm l

  6. New Records of Social Wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae in Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Somavilla

    2013-07-01

    Resumo. Nesse trabalho registramos a ocorrência de Clypearia apicipennis (Spinola, 1851, Leipomeles pusilla (Ducke, 1904, Metapolybia nigra Richards, 1978, Parachartergus richardsi Willink, 1951 e Pseudopolybia langi Bequaert, 1944 pela primeira vez no estado do Amazonas e incluímos notas de distribuição.

  7. Louse flies on birds of Baja California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, J L; Rodríguez-Estrella, R; Blanco, G

    2000-01-01

    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (Mexico). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  8. Five New Records of Terrestrial and Lithophytic Orchids (Orchidaceae) from Penang Hill, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeu, Nga Shi; Nordin, Farah Alia; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman

    2016-08-01

    Five new records of terrestrial and lithophytic orchid species were gathered from Penang Hill, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia namely Bulbophyllum depressum, Goodyera pusilla, Peristylus monticola, Podochilus microphyllus, and Zeuxine gracilis. Checklist of each species is provided and their distribution in Penang Hill is discussed.

  9. Density-dependent mass gain by Wilson's Warblers during stopover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Linda S. DeLay; Deborah M. Finch

    2002-01-01

    The need restore energetic reserves at stopover sites constrains avian migration ecology. To describe that constraint, we examined relationships among mass gained by Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) during stopover, abundance of Wilson's Warblers (i.e. capture rate), and arthropod abundance during autumn migration. We found that amount...

  10. New lipid envelope-containing dsDNA virus isolates infecting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez Martínez, J.; Boere, A.; Gilg, I.; van Lent, J.W.M.; Witte, H.; van Bleijswijk, J.D.L.; Brussaard, C.D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Viral infection of phytoplankton has major implications for biochemical and energy cycles, community dynamics, and microbial evolution in the marine environment. The non-bloom forming picoplankter Micromonas pusilla, a significant component of the plankton community worldwide, is known to be suscept

  11. Patterns of organic contaminants in eggs of an insectivorous, an omnivorous, and a piscivorous bird nesting on the Hudson River, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon), spotted sandpiper (Actitus macularia), and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs were collected in 2004 from the upper Hudson River, New York, USA. This area is one of the most polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated locations in North America. Multivariate analyses indicated among species differences in the concentration and composition of PCB congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), and dibenzofuran (PCDF, PCDD-F when combined with PCDDs) congeners, and chlorinated pesticides. Total PCB concentrations followed the typical food chain biomagnification paradigm of higher concentrations in piscivorous bird eggs and lower concentrations in eggs of species that feed at lower trophic levels. Concentrations in the insectivorous swallows (geometric mean=6.8μg/g wet wt) were approximately half the concentrations present in the piscivorous kingfisher (11.7μg/g) or omnivorous sandpiper (12.6μg/g). In contrast, PCB toxic equivalents (TEQs) were higher in swallows (1,790 pg/g wet wt) than in either kingfishers (776pg/g) or sandpipers (881pg/g). This difference can be mainly attributed to higher PCB77 concentrations in swallows relative to the other two species. Also contrary to the accepted food-chain paradigm, the sum of PCDD-F concentrations and the sum of their TEQs were higher in swallows than in either sandpipers or kingfishers. Metabolic pathway differences in the respective food chains of the three species probably accounted for the differences observed in PCB TEQ, total PCDD-F, and PCDD-F TEQ concentrations among species.

  12. Expression of annual cycles in preen wax composition in red knots: Constraints on the changing phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Reneerkens, Jeroen; Piersma, Theunis; Damste, Jaap S. Sinninghe

    2007-01-01

    Birds living in seasonal environments change physiology and behavior in correspondence to temporally changing environmental supplies, demands and opportunities. We recently reported that the chemical composition of uropygial gland secretions of sandpipers (Scolopacidae, order Charadriformes) changes during the breeding season from mixtures of monoesters to diesters, which fulfill specific functions related to incubation. A proper temporal match between the expression of diester preen waxes an...

  13. Finding of No Significant Impact for the Missouri River Recovery Program Lower Little Sioux Bend Shallow Water Habitat Construction Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchus), blue-winged teal (Anas discors), Canada geese (Branta Canadensis), spotted sandpipers (Actitis macularia), and...streams, riparian forest, woodland, and grassland habitats that would otherwise result in the taking of migratory birds, eggs , young, and/or active nests...Since 1972 the Act has extended eligibility to recreational and open space lands such as scenic highway corridors, salt ponds and wildlife preserves

  14. Integrating spatial data and shorebird nesting locations to predict the potential future impact of global warming on coastal habitats: A case study on Farasan Islands, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alrashidi, Monif; Shobrak, Mohammed; Al-Eissa, Mohammed S.; Székely, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    One of the expected effects of the global warming is changing coastal habitats by accelerating the rate of sea level rise. Coastal habitats support large number of marine and wetland species including shorebirds (plovers, sandpipers and allies). In this study, we investigate how coastal habitats may be impacted by sea level rise in the Farasan Islands, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We use Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus – a common coastal breeding shorebird – as an ecological model species ...

  15. Environmental Assessment of Installation Development at McGuire Air Force Base, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    prompted the NJDEP to issue water allocation permits, as authorized by the New Jersey Water Supply Management Act. In 1988, USEPA designated the New...Observations made on McGuire AFB indicate several reptilian and amphibian species occupy the installation. Observed reptiles include milk snake (Lampropeltis...sandpipers migrate to New Jersey to nest in mid-April to early May. Clutch size is generally four eggs. Both sexes incubate the eggs for 21 to 28

  16. Foraging conditions 'at the end of the world' in the context of long-distance migration and population declines in red knots

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero, G.; Navedo, J.G.; Piersma, T; de Goeij, P.; Edelaar, P.

    2012-01-01

    The long-distance migrant red knot (Calidris canutus ssp. rufa – Scolopacidae) alternates between the northern and southern ends of the New World, one of the longest yearly migrations of any bird and paradoxically overflying apparently suitable habitat at lower latitudes. This subspecies is sharply declining, with a major mortality event following 2000, attributed to commercial overharvesting of food resources at its Delaware Bay (USA) stop-over site. A full understandin...

  17. Rapid population decline in red knots: fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, AJ; Gonzalez, PM; Piersma, T; Niles, LJ; do Nascimento, IDS; Atkinson, PW; Clark, NA; Minton, CDT; Peck, MK; Aarts, G.

    2004-01-01

    Most populations of migrant shorebirds around the world are in serious decline, suggesting that vital condition-dependent rates such as fecundity and annual survival are being affected globally. A striking example is the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) population wintering in Tierra del Fuego, which undertakes marathon 30,000 km hemispheric migrations annually. In spring, migrant birds forage voraciously on horseshoe crab eggs in Delaware Bay in the eastern USA before departing to breed in A...

  18. The performing animal: causes and consequences of body remodeling and metabolic adjustments in red knots facing contrasting thermal environments

    OpenAIRE

    Vézina, F.; Gerson, A.R.; Guglielmo, C.G.; Piersma, T

    2017-01-01

    Using red knots (Calidris canutus) as a model, we determined how changes in mass and metabolic activity of organs relate to temperature-induced variation in metabolic performance. In cold-acclimated birds, we expected large muscles and heart as well as improved oxidative capacity and lipid transport, and we predicted that this would explain variation in maximal thermogenic capacity (Msum). We also expected larger digestive and excretory organs in these same birds and predicted that this would...

  19. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of an endangered Mexican sparrow: Spizella wortheni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales-del-Castillo, Ricardo; Klicka, John; Favela, Susana; González-Rojas, José I

    2010-12-01

    The Worthen's Sparrow (Spizella wortheni) is an endemic bird species of the Mexican Plateau that is protected by Mexican law. Considering its limited range (25 km(2)), small population size (100-120 individuals), and declining population, it is one of the most endangered avian species in North America. Although it has been assumed to be the sister taxon of the Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla), the systematic and evolutionary relationships of Worthen's Sparrow have never been tested using modern molecular phylogenetic methods. We addressed the molecular phylogeny of S. wortheni analyzing six mitochondrial genes (3571 bp) from all of the natural members of the genus Spizella. Our maximum likelihood and Bayeasian analysis indicate that despite the superficial similarity, S. wortheni is not the sister taxon of S. pusilla, but is instead most closely related to the Brewer's Sparrow (Spizella breweri). Also new insights about the phylogenetics relationships of the Spizella genera are presented.

  20. New records of amphoroid diatoms (Bacillariophyceae from Cachoeira River, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KP Cavalcante

    Full Text Available Amphoroid taxa have been revised in recent decades. Many species formerly assigned to Amphora have been transferred to other recently proposed genera, as Seminavis (Naviculaceae and Halamphora (Catenulaceae. In Brazil, there are few studies focused on amphoroid taxonomy. This study presents a taxonomic investigation of five uncommon amphoroid taxa from Brazilian diatom flora: Seminavis pusilla, S. strigosa, Amphora ectorii, Halamphora ghanensis and Halamphora sp. Seminavis strigosa is identical in valve morphology and morphometrical data to Amphora twenteana, and its synonymy is proposed. Seminavis pusilla, poorly found in Brazilian waters, has expanded its distribution. Halamphora ghanensis is a new record to American continent while Amphora ectorii are new to Brazilian aquatic systems. Halamphora sp. has distinct ultrastructural features in relation to similar species and is probably new for science.

  1. Mosquito repellent activity of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillij, Y G; Gleiser, R M; Zygadlo, J A

    2008-05-01

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases and nuisance pests. Repellents minimize contact with mosquitoes. Repellents based on essential oils (EO) are being developed as an alternative to DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide), an effective compound that has disadvantages including toxic reactions, and damage to plastic and synthetic fabric. This work evaluated the repellency against Aedes aegypti of EO from aromatic plants that grow in Argentina: Acantholippia seriphioides, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia citriodora, Anemia tomentosa, Baccharis spartioides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Hyptis mutabilis, Minthostachys mollis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tagetes minuta and Tagetes pusilla. Most EO were effective. Variations depending on geographic origin of the plant were detected. At a 90% EO concentration, A. satureoides and T. pusilla were the least repellent. At concentrations of 12.5% B. spartioides, R. officinalis and A. citriodora showed the longest repellency times. Comparisons of the principal components of each EO suggest that limonene and camphor were the main components responsible for the repellent effects.

  2. Three cryptic new species of Aristea (Iridaceae from southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Field work in southern Africa over the past several years has resulted in the discovery of three new species of the sub- Saharan African and Madagascan genus Aristea Aiton, which now comprises some 53 species. Aristea has a pronounced centre in southern Africa and a centre of diversity in the winter rainfall zone of the subcontinent, where all three new species occur, one extending eastward into the adjacent southern edge of the summer rainfall zone. All three novelties have been collected in the past but were confused with related species. A elliptica (subgenus Eucapsulares, confused in the past with A. pusilla (Thunb. Ker Gawl., has a more robust habit, usually with 4 or 5 flower clusters per flowering stem, pale blue flowers, smooth ellipsoid seeds with flattened surface cells, and pollen shed as monads, whereas A. pusilla usually has 1-3 flower clusters per flowering stem, dark blue flowers, pollen shed as tetrads, and globose seeds with faint foveate sculpturing and colliculate surface cells. A. nana (also subgenus  Eucapsulares, known from few collections, and also confused with A. pusilla or A. anceps Eckl. ex Klatt. has the unbranched and leafless flowering stem of the latter but has large green floral spathes, flowers borne on long pedicels, and lacks a leaf subtending the single terminal flower cluster in contrast to nearly sessile flowers in A. pusilla and A. anceps, and in the latter, dry, rusty spathes. A. cistiflora (subgenus Pseudaristea closely resembles A. teretifoha Goldblatt & J.C.Manning but has linear to narrowly sword-shaped leaves and ± secund flowers with the outer tepals only slightly smaller than the inner and with small, dark brown markings at the bases of all the tepals. In contrast, A. teretifolia has narrower, sometimes terete leaves and flowers held upright with the outer tepals notice-ably smaller than the inner and bearing dark markings covering the lower half, whereas the inner tepals are unmarked.

  3. New records of spermatophytes in Jiangxi Province%江西省种子植物分布新记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪锋; 邱贺媛

    2014-01-01

    According to field investigation in Xunwu, Huichang and Yushan of Jiangxi Province, six species of spermatophyte are reported as new records in Jiangxi Province, viz. Sedum hakoenese Makino, Elatostema macintyrei Dunn, Euonymus nitidus f. tsoi (Merr.) C. Y. Cheng, Lindernia pusilla (Willd.) Bold., Paraphlomis lancidentata Sun and Scleria biflora Roxb. All voucher specimens are deposited in Herbarium of Department of Biological Sciences of Hanshan Normal University (CZH).

  4. Měkkýši navrhované PR Údolí Vrchlice u Kutné Hory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Juřičková

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings the first malacological research of the proposal nature reserve Vrchlice Valley (Central Bohemia, Czech Republic after hundred years. Altogether, 44 mollusc species have been recorded in a very diverse mosaic of floodplain forests, cliffs and meadows. Rare or locally important species Vertigo pusilla, Semilimax semilimax, Daudebardia rufa, Isognomostoma isognomostomos, Oxyloma elegans, Vitrea crystallina and Laciniaria plicata were recorded in the area of the reserve.

  5. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Aerial Application of Herbicides at Joint Base Charleston-Weapons Station Charleston, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    redcockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis), brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), southern fox squirrel (Sciurus niger ), northern bobwhite (Colinus...supply west of the installation, and is saline near coastal waters (JB CHS-WS 2009). JB CHS-WS does not operate public supply wells because potable...species include the gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), fox squirrel (Sciurus niger ), eastern cottontail

  6. Genetic Diversity of Nostoc Symbionts Endophytically Associated with Two Bryophyte Species

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, José-Luis; Paulsrud, Per; Rikkinen, Jouko; Lindblad, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The diversity of the endophytic Nostoc symbionts of two thalloid bryophytes, the hornwort Anthoceros fusiformis and the liverwort Blasia pusilla, was examined using the tRNALeu (UAA) intron sequence as a marker. The results confirmed that many different Nostoc strains are involved in both associations under natural conditions in the field. The level of Nostoc diversity within individual bryophyte thalli varied, but single DNA fragments were consistently amplified from individual symbiotic col...

  7. Coastal engineering and Harmful Algal Blooms along Alexandria coast, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany A. Ismael

    2014-01-01

    The phytoplankton composition and its standing crop became totally different during the two periods. The most important bloom was caused by Micromonas pusilla forming a heavy green tide accompanied by a bloom of Peridinium quinquecorne. Although there were no fish or invertebrate mortality, this bloom caused economic losses to internal tourism. In the absence of any Environmental Assessment, the coastal engineering works increased the harmful algal blooms in Alexandria coastal waters, even after corrective steps were taken to mitigate the harmful effects.

  8. Three cryptic new species of Aristea (Iridaceae from southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Field work in southern Africa over the past several years has resulted in the discovery of three new species of the sub- Saharan African and Madagascan genus Aristea Aiton, which now comprises some 53 species. Aristea has a pronounced centre in southern Africa and a centre of diversity in the winter rainfall zone of the subcontinent, where all three new species occur, one extending eastward into the adjacent southern edge of the summer rainfall zone. All three novelties have been collected in the past but were confused with related species. A elliptica (subgenus Eucapsulares, confused in the past with A. pusilla (Thunb. Ker Gawl., has a more robust habit, usually with 4 or 5 flower clusters per flowering stem, pale blue flowers, smooth ellipsoid seeds with flattened surface cells, and pollen shed as monads, whereas A. pusilla usually has 1-3 flower clusters per flowering stem, dark blue flowers, pollen shed as tetrads, and globose seeds with faint foveate sculpturing and colliculate surface cells. A. nana (also subgenus  Eucapsulares, known from few collections, and also confused with A. pusilla or A. anceps Eckl. ex Klatt. has the unbranched and leafless flowering stem of the latter but has large green floral spathes, flowers borne on long pedicels, and lacks a leaf subtending the single terminal flower cluster in contrast to nearly sessile flowers in A. pusilla and A. anceps, and in the latter, dry, rusty spathes. A. cistiflora (subgenus Pseudaristea closely resembles A. teretifoha Goldblatt & J.C.Manning but has linear to narrowly sword-shaped leaves and ± secund flowers with the outer tepals only slightly smaller than the inner and with small, dark brown markings at the bases of all the tepals. In contrast, A. teretifolia has narrower, sometimes terete leaves and flowers held upright with the outer tepals notice-ably smaller than the inner and bearing dark markings covering the lower half, whereas the inner tepals are unmarked.

  9. Notas taxonómicas y nomenclaturales sobre el género Ononis L. (Leguminosae en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López González, Ginés

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Ononis reuteri Boiss, is considered to be a good species, clearly different from O. aragonensis Asso, and hs presence in North África is confirmed. O. Hispanica L. f. is regarded as a nomen ambiguum, which should not be used. The classification of the O. natrix L. group is discussed and a new species of this group, O. talaverae Devesa & G. López, is described. O. crispa L., to the Balearic Islands endemic, is excluded from the Iberian Península flora. O. tridentate L. is typified. O. saxicola Boiss. & Reut. is considered to be merely a subspecies of O. pusilla L. The new combinations O. tridentata susbp. angustifolia (Lange Devesa & G. López and O. pusilla var. calycina (Rouy Devesa & G. López, are proposed.Se destaca la autonomía de Ononis reuteri Boiss, frente a O. aragonensis Asso y se confirma su presencia en el norte de África. Se considera que O. hispanica L. f. es un nombre ambiguo que debe ser rechazado. Se discute la clasificación del grupo de O. natrix L. y se publica una nueva especie, O. talaverae Devesa & G. López. Se excluye O. crispa L. -un endemismo balear- de la Península Ibérica. Se tipifica O. tridentata L. y se publica la combinación O. tridentata subsp. angustifolia (Lange Devesa & G. López. Se acepta que O. saxicola Boiss. & Reut. es una simple subespecie de O. pusilla L. Se propone la combinación O. pusilla var. calycina (Rouy Devesa & G. López.

  10. Exploring trophic strategies of exotic caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda): Comparison between habitat types and native vs introduced distribution ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Macarena; Tierno de Figueroa, José Manuel; Guerra-García, José Manuel; Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Lacerda, Mariana Baptista; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Masunari, Setuko

    2014-02-01

    The trophic ecology of non-native species is a key aspect to understand their invasion success and the community effects. Despite the important role of caprellid amphipods as trophic intermediates between primary producers and higher levels of marine food webs, there is very little information on their feeding habits. This is the first comprehensive study on the trophic strategies of two co-occurring introduced caprellids in the Spanish coasts: Caprella scaura and Paracaprella pusilla. The diet of 446 specimens of C. scaura and 230 of P. pusilla was analyzed to investigate whether there were differences in the feeding habits in relation to habitat characteristics (natural vs artificial hard substrata), type of host substrata (bryozoans and hydroids) and native vs introduced distribution ranges (Brazil vs Spain). Results revealed differences in diet preferences of the two species that have important implications for their trophic behaviour and showed a limited food overlap, which may favour their coexistence in introduced areas. In general terms, P. pusilla is a predator species, showing preference by crustacean prey in all of its life stages, while C. scaura feeds mainly on detritus. Although no sex-related diet shifts were observed in either of the species, evidence of ontogenetic variation in diet of C. scaura was found, with juveniles feeding on more amount of prey than adults. No diet differences were found between native and introduced populations within the same habitat type. However, P. pusilla exhibited a shift in its diet when different habitats were compared in the same distribution area, and C. scaura showed a flexible feeding behaviour between different host substrata in the same habitat type. This study shows that habitat characteristics at different scales can have greater influence on the feeding ecology of exotic species than different distribution ranges, and support the hypothesis that a switch between feeding strategies depending on habitat

  11. Picoeukaryote plankton composition off West Spitsbergen at the entrance to the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilias, Estelle S; Nöthig, Eva-Maria; Wolf, Christian; Metfies, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of marine eukaryotic picoplankton composition is limited by missing morphological features for appropriate identification. Consequently, molecular methods are required. In this study, we used 454-pyrosequencing to study picoplankton communities at four stations in the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC; Fram Strait). High abundances of Micromonas pusilla were detected in the station situated closest to Spitsbergen, as seen in surveys of picoplankton assemblages in the Beaufort Sea. At the other three stations, other phylotypes, affiliating with Phaeocystis pouchetii and Syndiniales in the phylogenetic tree, were present in high numbers, dominating most of them. The picoplankton community structures at three of the stations, all with similar salinity and temperature, were alike. At the fourth station, the influence of the East Spitsbergen Current, transporting cold water from the Barents Sea around Spitsbergen, causes different abiotic parameters that result in a significantly different picoeukaryote community composition, which is dominated by M. pusilla. This observation is particularly interesting with regard to ongoing environmental changes in the Arctic. Ongoing warming of the WSC could convey a new picoplankton assemblage into the Arctic Ocean, which may come to affect the dominance of M. pusilla.

  12. La fauna de caprélidos (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidea de la costa de Coquimbo, centro-norte de Chile, con una clave taxonómica para la identificación de las especies The caprellid fauna (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidea from the coast of Coquimbo, Northern-central Chile, with a taxonomic key for species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ M. GUERRA-GARCÍA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Los caprélidos son comunes y abundantes en muchos hábitats litorales del ambiente marino. Sin embargo este grupo de anfípodos no ha sido muy bien estudiado en la costa chilena. El estudio de los caprélidos se ha visto dificultado por su gran variabilidad morfológica y el hecho de que la literatura así como los especímenes de los museos son difíciles de localizar. El objetivo de este estudio fue entregar las herramientas taxonómicas para la identificación de las especies de crustáceos caprélidos comunes en el centro-norte de la costa de Chile. Se muestrearon distintos hábitats (boyas, bolones intermareales, praderas de algas y fanerógamas marinas y se encontraron seis especies distintas de caprélidos: Caprellina longicollis (Nicolet, 1849, Caprella equilibra Say, 1818, C. scaura Templeton, 1836, C. verrucosa Boeck, 1871; Deutella venenosa Mayer, 1890 y Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890. Caprella scaura, C. verrucosa y D. venenosa fueron muy abundantes sobre las algas, hidrozoos y briozoos asociados a boyas. Caprella equilibra, también presente en boyas, fue más abundante bajo piedras en zonas intermareales rocosas expuestas, donde también se encontraron ejemplares de D. venenosa y de P. pusilla. Caprella scaura también se encontró sobre algas rojas de las playas arenosas, especialmente sobre Gracilaria chilensis y sobre la fanerógama marina Heterozostera tasmanica, donde cohabitó junto a Caprellina longicollis. Paracaprella pusilla constituye una nueva cita para las costas pacíficas sudamericanas, siendo nueva para la fauna de Chile. La especie D. venenosa, que se cita por primera vez después de la descripción original de Mayer en el año 1890, es considerada una especie endémica de la costa central de ChileCaprellids are abundant in many littoral habitats of the marine environment. Nevertheless, this group of amphipods has been scarcely studied along the coast of Chile. The study of the Caprellidea is particularly

  13. Morfoanatomia foliar de microorquídeas de Ornithocephalus Hook. e Psygmorchis Dodson & Dressler Leaf anatomy of micro-orchids of Ornithocephalus Hook. and Psygmorchis Dodson & Dressler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayza Carla Lopes Della Colleta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a morfoanatomia foliar de Ornithocephalus bicornis Lindl. ex Benth., Ornithocephalus myrticola Lindl., Psygmorchis pusilla (L. e Psygmorchis glossomystax (Rchb. f., a fim de identificar caracteres de valor taxonômico e significado ecológico. Folhas expandidas foram coletadas na região de Alta Floresta, MT. As amostras foram incluídas em metacrilato, cortadas em micrótomo de mesa e corados com azul de toluidina. As lâminas foram montadas em resina sintética ou gelatina glicerinada. Epidermes foliares foram dissociadas e testes histoquímicos aplicados. As plantas observadas neste estudo são epífitas, carnosas e não apresentam pseudobulbos. A epiderme é uniestratificada e delgada com exceção de O. bicornis que é espessa, apresentando cutícula delgada e lisa. As espécies estudadas apresentam folhas anfiestomáticas com os estômatos presentes no mesmo nível das células epidérmicas. Os estômatos geralmente são anomocíticos e tetracíticos em O. myrticola, P. pusilla e P. glossomystax. Em O. bicornis ocorrem tetracítico, anisocítico e actinocítico. As células-guarda são de paredes periclinais espessas e as câmaras subestomática são pequenas, exceto em P. pusilla. Com exceção de O. bicornis, o mesofilo das espécies é heterogêneo, sendo constituído de diferentes tipos de parênquima. Os feixes vasculares são colaterais. As espécies foram consideradas mesófilas.Leaf anatomy of O. bicornis Lindl. ex Benth., O. myrticola Lindl., P. pusilla (L. and P. glossomystax (Rchb. f. was analyzed to identify valuable taxonomic and ecological traits. Expanded leaves were collected in the Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso State, region. Leaf samples embedded in methacrylate were cut with a table microtome and stained with toluidine blue. Slides were mounted in synthetic resin or in glycerin gelatin. Leaf tissues were dissociated and histochemical tests applied. Plants observed in this study are succulent epiphytes without

  14. Distribution and abundance of mysid shrimps (Crustacea: Mysidacea) in the Northern Indian Ocean.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biju, A.; Jagadeesan, L.; Panampunnayil, S.U.

    in their distribution to surface waters only (Table III). In the 500–1000m depth stratum only two species, Boreomysis plebeja Hansen, 1910 and Gibbery- throps acanthura (Illig, 1906) were observed (Table III). Most of the species showed spatial and temporal variations.... typica orientalis were found in one depth stratum (surface; Table III) and P. inscita distribution was in both the surface and TT–BT layers. The distribution of P. pusilla was different from the other three species, occurring at higher densities from...

  15. A new genus of the family Hymenolepididae (Cestoda) from Sephanoides sephaniodes (Apodiformes, Trochilidae) in Northern Patagonia (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Vincent C; Georgiev, Boyko B; Mariaux, Jean

    2013-03-01

    A new species of hymenolepidid cestodes from Sephanoides sephaniodes (Trochilidae) found in Chile is described. The most characteristic features of Colibrilepis pusilla gen. nov., sp. nov. are the lack of rostellum, a cirrus sac with a thick-walled distal end (separated by a constriction) and protruding into genital atrium, a thick-walled saccular uterus filling entire median field of the gravid proglottis and the small number of eggs containing thick walled embryophores with polar swellings. Staphylepis is the most similar genus but differs in its apical structure because of the presence of a rudimentary rostellum. Moreover, molecular phylogenetic analyses show that Staphylepis and Colibrilepis are not sister taxa.

  16. Un nuevo híbrido natural de Dracula (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) del suroccidente de Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Bosco Javier Zambrano; Rodolfo Solano-Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Se describe e ilustra un nuevo híbrido natural de Dracula de Ecuador, Dracula x pinasensis, el cual fue recientemente descubierto en el bosque húmedo de los Andes del suroccidente de Ecuador. El nuevo híbrido es comparado con Dracula mantissa, D. mopsus y D. ophioceps de Sudamérica, así como D. pusilla de Centroamérica, orquídeas con las cuales está más relacionada. Se señala a D. mopsus y D. ophioceps como los progenitores putativos de este híbrido natural.

  17. Review of the Neotropical Charipinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Ferrer-Suay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of the Neotropical Charipinae is given, with 35 species from four genera: Alloxysta, Apocharips, Dilyta and Phaenoglyphis. One new species, Alloxysta centroamericana Ferrer-Suay & Pujade-Villar sp. nov. is described; six Alloxysta species, Alloxysta citripes (Thomson, 1862, Alloxysta fracticornis (Thomson, 1862, Alloxysta melanogaster (Hartig, 1841, Alloxysta piceomaculata (Cameron, 1886, Alloxysta postica (Hartig, 1841 and Alloxysta pusilla (Kieffer, 1902, are recorded for the first time from the Neotropical region; 10 new records for earlier known species are also given. Diagnoses and a key to all species are also provided.

  18. Contribution to the lichen biota of the Pogórze Wiśnickie foothills (Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Śliwa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pogórze Wiśnickie foothills are situated in close vicinity to the Kraków agglomeration and is highly influenced by human activity. Lichen studies in the area revealed 163 species so far. A current checklist of the lichen biota of the territory is provided with numerous new regional records, e.g. Bacidina sulphurella, Evernia prunastri, Fuscidea pusilla, Lecanora albellula, Lepraria ecorticata, Mycobilimbia epixanthoides, Ramalina farinacea, R.. fastigiata, Ropalospora viridis, Verrucaria praetermissa and V. tectorum.

  19. A supertree approach to shorebird phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gavin H

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Order Charadriiformes (shorebirds is an ideal model group in which to study a wide range of behavioural, ecological and macroevolutionary processes across species. However, comparative studies depend on phylogeny to control for the effects of shared evolutionary history. Although numerous hypotheses have been presented for subsets of the Charadriiformes none to date include all recognised species. Here we use the matrix representation with parsimony method to produce the first fully inclusive supertree of Charadriiformes. We also provide preliminary estimates of ages for all nodes in the tree. Results Three main lineages are revealed: i the plovers and allies; ii the gulls and allies; and iii the sandpipers and allies. The relative position of these clades is unresolved in the strict consensus tree but a 50% majority-rule consensus tree indicates that the sandpiper clade is sister group to the gulls and allies whilst the plover group is placed at the base of the tree. The overall topology is highly consistent with recent molecular hypotheses of shorebird phylogeny. Conclusion The supertree hypothesis presented herein is (to our knowledge the only complete phylogenetic hypothesis of all extant shorebirds. Despite concerns over the robustness of supertrees (see Discussion, we believe that it provides a valuable framework for testing numerous evolutionary hypotheses relating to the diversity of behaviour, ecology and life-history of the Charadriiformes.

  20. Influence of environmental gradients on the distribution of benthic resources available for shorebirds on intertidal mudflats of Yves Bay, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Anne S.; Pinaud, David; Cayatte, Marie-Laure; Goulevant, Cyril; Lachaussée, Nicolas; Pineau, Philippe; Karpytchev, Mikhail; Bocher, Pierrick

    2016-06-01

    The case study of Yves Bay (Pertuis Charentais, France) highlighted links between environmental gradients (i.e. sediment characteristics and emersion time) and prey distribution and availability for the two most numerous shorebird species overwintering in Yves Bay: the red knot Calidris canutus and the dunlin Calidris alpina. Two hundred and fifty-two stations were sampled on a predetermined 250 m regular grid covering the intertidal mudflats of this major wintering site in France for east-Atlantic migratory shorebirds. The distribution of principal benthic species abundance and biomass was modelled along two environmental gradients: sediment structure (particularly pronounced north-south sand-mud gradient) and emersion time. The effect of emersion time combined with sedimentary structure strongly explained abundances and biomasses of the main prey for C. canutus and C. alpina in the bay (Cerastoderma edule, Hydrobia ulvae, Macoma balthica, Scrobicularia plana, and Nephtys hombergii). This study highlighted prey species-specific spatial segregation/overlapping as well as spatial interferences in the trophic niche of the two shorebirds.

  1. Phenological observation and population dynamics of six uncommon medicinal plants in the grasslands of Nilgiris, Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Paulsamy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenological observation and a population density study for six uncommon medicinal plant species were made in four grasslands in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats, viz. Thiashola, Korakundah, Ebbenadu and Wenlockdown, at monthly intervals from April 2007 to March 2008. The six plant species were Anaphalis elliptica DC. (Compositae, Ceropegia pusilla Wight & Arn. (Asclepiadaceae, Hedyotis articularis R. Br. ex G. Don (Rubiaceae, Heracleum rigens Walli. ex DC. (Umbelliferae, Leucas vestita Benth. (Lamiaceae and Luzula campestris (L. DC. (Juncaceae. Generally, all six species exhibited peak bud formation between February and May and bud break in June. Most of the leaves were produced in a single flush. Leaf expansion continued up to August in L. vestita. Flowering phenophase was observed from July to October, but in A. elliptica it extended to December. The active period of fruit formation occurred during August to December for all species except A. elliptica, which was during January and February. Seed maturation and seed dispersal happened during December - February for all the species except A. elliptica which happened during May-June. The study of population dynamics shows that there was a net decrease in the population of A. elliptica, L. vestita and L. campestris over a period of one year at Korakundah, Ebbenadu and Wenlockdown grasslands. C. pusilla, H. articularis and H. rigens maintained their populations at the same level in the respective grasslands without any major change during the study period.

  2. Un nuevo híbrido natural de Dracula (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae del suroccidente de Ecuador A new natural hybrid of Dracula (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae from southwestern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosco Javier Zambrano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra un nuevo híbrido natural de Dracula de Ecuador, Dracula x pinasensis, el cual fue recientemente descubierto en el bosque húmedo de los Andes del suroccidente de Ecuador. El nuevo híbrido es comparado con Dracula mantissa, D. mopsus y D. ophioceps de Sudamérica, así como D. pusilla de Centroamérica, orquídeas con las cuales está más relacionada. Se señala a D. mopsus y D. ophioceps como los progenitores putativos de este híbrido natural.A new natural hybrid of Dracula from Ecuador is described and illustrated, Dracula x pinasensis, which was recently discovered in the Andean wet forest from Southwestern Ecuador. The new hybrid is compared with the South American D. mantissa, D. mopsus, and D. ophioceps, as well the Central American D. pusilla, the closest allies. D. mopsus and D. ophioceps are pointed out as the putative parents of this natural hybrid.

  3. Contrasting Strategies of Photosynthetic Energy Utilization Drive Lifestyle Strategies in Ecologically Important Picoeukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly H. Halsey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency with which absorbed light is converted to net growth is a key property for estimating global carbon production. We previously showed that, despite considerable evolutionary distance, Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyceae and Thalassiosira weissflogii (Bacillariophyceae share a common strategy of photosynthetic energy utilization and nearly identical light energy conversion efficiencies. These findings suggested that a single model might be appropriate for describing relationships between measures of phytoplankton production. This conclusion was further evaluated for Ostreococcus tauri RCC1558 and Micromonas pusilla RCC299 (Chlorophyta, Prasinophyceae, two picoeukaryotes with contrasting geographic distributions and swimming abilities. Nutrient-dependent photosynthetic efficiencies in O. tauri were similar to the previously studied larger algae. Specifically, absorption-normalized gross oxygen and carbon production and net carbon production were independent of nutrient limited growth rate. In contrast, all measures of photosynthetic efficiency were strongly dependent on nutrient availability in M. pusilla. This marked difference was accompanied by a diminished relationship between Chla:C and nutrient limited growth rate and a remarkably greater efficiency of gross-to-net energy conversion than the other organisms studied. These results suggest that the cost-benefit of decoupling pigment concentration from nutrient availability enables motile organisms to rapidly exploit more frequent encounters with micro-scale nutrient patches in open ocean environments.

  4. Helminth fauna of Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 from the suburban area of Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataranovski D.S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The helminth fauna of the house mouse (Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 was studied on the basis of 429 host individuals from the suburban area of Belgrade. Eleven helminth species were recorded: three cestode species - Catenotaenia pusilla, Rodentolepis fraterna, and Cysticercus (= Strobilocercus fasciolaris [larval stage of Taenia taeniaeformis (Batsch, 1821]; and eight nematode species - Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia sp., Aspiculuris tetraptera, Syphacia obvelata, Heterakis spumosa, Trichuris muris, Mastophorus muris, and Gongylonema sp. Within the general helminth fauna, H. polygyrus was found to be the most prevalent species (39.2% and caused the highest infection intensity. Prevalences of A. tetraptera, C. pusilla, and S. obvelata ranged from 12.8% to 6.1%, while the remaining species showed prevalences ranging from 4.9% (for Syphacia sp. to 0.2% (for Gongylonema sp.. All the species found in males were also present in females, with the exceptions of M. muris and Gongylonema sp. No significant differences were found between males and females regarding prevalence (P%, mean infection intensity (MI, or mean abundance (MA.

  5. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment/Management Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property.

  6. 了解你

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慧眼

    2005-01-01

    1965年在美国上映了一部名为《春风无限恨》(Sandpiper)的电影,这部影片的情节基本上出自作家马丁·兰索霍夫的作品《真主的花园》。这部电影是如此的偏门并且老旧,以至于到了今天,估计已经没有几个影迷知道并且看过它了。但是,该片中有一首由维斯特(P.F.Webster)作词、约翰尼·曼德尔(Johnny Mandel)作曲的主题歌《你的笑影》(The Shadow Of Your Smile)。

  7. A Lesser Yellowlegs hunts for food in the water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    A sandpiper-like Lesser Yellowlegs eyes the water for food in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The gray-streaked wader is found in marshy ponds, lake and river shores, and mud flats in Alaska and Canada; it winters in the southern United States to southern South America. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  8. A Lesser Yellowlegs hunts for food in the water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    A sandpiper-like Lesser Yellowlegs eyes the water for food in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The gray-streaked wader is found in marshy ponds, lake and river shores, and mud flats in Alaska and Canada; it winters in the southern United States to southern South America. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  9. Biparental incubation-scheduling: no experimental evidence for major energetic constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Martin; Cresswell, Will; Rutten, Anne L; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Incubation is energetically demanding, but it is debated whether these demands constrain incubation-scheduling (i.e., the length, constancy, and timing of incubation bouts) in cases where both parents incubate. Using 2 methods, we experimentally reduced the energetic demands of incubation in the semipalmated sandpiper, a biparental shorebird breeding in the harsh conditions of the high Arctic. First, we decreased the demands of incubation for 1 parent only by exchanging 1 of the 4 eggs for an artificial egg that heated up when the focal bird incubated. Second, we reanalyzed the data from the only published experimental study that has explicitly tested energetic constraints on incubation-scheduling in a biparentally incubating species (Cresswell et al. 2003). In this experiment, the energetic demands of incubation were decreased for both parents by insulating the nest cup. We expected that the treated birds, in both experiments, would change the length of their incubation bouts, if biparental incubation-scheduling is energetically constrained. However, we found no evidence that heating or insulation of the nest affected the length of incubation bouts: the combined effect of both experiments was an increase in bout length of 3.6min (95% CI: -33 to 40), which is equivalent to a 0.5% increase in the length of the average incubation bout. These results demonstrate that the observed biparental incubation-scheduling in semipalmated sandpipers is not primarily driven by energetic constraints and therefore by the state of the incubating bird, implying that we still do not understand the factors driving biparental incubation-scheduling.

  10. Avian assemblages on altered grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopf, Fritz L.

    1994-01-01

    Grasslands comprise 17% of the North American landscape but provide primary habitat for only 5% of native bird species. On the Great Plains, grasslands include an eastern component of tall grasses and a western component of short grasses, both of which have been regionally altered by removing native grazers, plowing sod, draining wetlands, and encouraging woody vegetation. As a group, populations of endemic bird species of the grasslands have declined more than others (including neotropical migrants) in the last quarter century. Individually, populations of the Upland Sandpiper and McCown’s Longspur have increased; the wetlands-associated Marbled Godwit and Wilson’s Phalarope appear stable; breeding ranges are shifting for the Ferruginous Hawk, Mississippi Kite, Short-eared Owl, Upland Sandpiper, Horned Lark, Vesper, Savannah, and Henslow’s sparrows, and Western Meadowlark; breeding habitats are disappearing locally for Franklin’s Gull, Dickcissel, Henslow’s and Grasshopper sparrows. Lark Bunting, and Eastern Meadowlark; and populations are declining throughout the breeding ranges for Mountain Plover, and Cassin’s and Clay-colored sparrows. Declines of these latter three species, and also the Franklin’s Gull, presumably are due to ecological phenomena on their respective wintering areas. Unlike forest species that winter in the neotropics, most birds that breed in the North American grasslands also winter on the continent and problems driving declines in grassland species are associated almost entirely with North American processes. Contemporary programs and initiatives hold promise for the conservation of breeding habitats for these birds. Ecological ignorance of wintering habits and habitats clouds the future of the endemic birds of grasslands, especially those currently experiencing widespread declines across breeding locales.

  11. Body shrinkage due to Arctic warming reduces red knot fitness in tropical wintering range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gils, Jan A; Lisovski, Simeon; Lok, Tamar; Meissner, Włodzimierz; Ożarowska, Agnieszka; de Fouw, Jimmy; Rakhimberdiev, Eldar; Soloviev, Mikhail Y; Piersma, Theunis; Klaassen, Marcel

    2016-05-13

    Reductions in body size are increasingly being identified as a response to climate warming. Here we present evidence for a case of such body shrinkage, potentially due to malnutrition in early life. We show that an avian long-distance migrant (red knot, Calidris canutus canutus), which is experiencing globally unrivaled warming rates at its high-Arctic breeding grounds, produces smaller offspring with shorter bills during summers with early snowmelt. This has consequences half a world away at their tropical wintering grounds, where shorter-billed individuals have reduced survival rates. This is associated with these molluscivores eating fewer deeply buried bivalve prey and more shallowly buried seagrass rhizomes. We suggest that seasonal migrants can experience reduced fitness at one end of their range as a result of a changing climate at the other end.

  12. Book review: Shorebirds of North America: the photographic guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterjohn, Bruce G.

    2005-01-01

    As stated in the preface of this new guide, shorebirds are among our most engaging birds. Their ecology and behavior are the subjects of numerous ornithological studies, their identification can challenge the skills of the most serious birdwatchers, and people with a casual interest in birds are captivated by the antics of Sanderlings (Calidris alba) chasing waves along a beach. While some books provide a worldwide perspective on shorebird identification, this book is the first guide devoted solely to identifying every species occurring in North America. Its coverage is truly continental, extending from Alaska to Panama and including the West Indies.Review info: Shorebirds of North America: the photographic guide. By Dennis R. Paulson, 2005. ISBN: 0691102740, 384 pp.

  13. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF MONKEY GOBY (NEOGOBIUS FLUVIATILIS PALLAS OF FRESH AND SALINE WATER RESERVOIRS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onoprienko V.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The representatives of Pisces family, namely Gobidae are an important component of aquatic ecosystems. With a wide range of adaptation, this group has mastered the different types of fish ponds from completely fresh to the ocean. However, some species are found both in one and in other waters, displaying different (and sometimes conflicting between a life strategy. Last relating to the four main components of the life of fish: water-salt metabolism, nutrition, respiration and reproduction. Mechanisms for implementing these different functions together. First, different concentrations of salts require different types of water- salt metabolism. Another equally important factor is the food base, which is also quite different, both in range and the nature of food. In the sea and reservoirs, over rivers, dissolved oxygen in the water is stratified, and very often in the summer and winter time is in short supply. For bulls, as the bottom of vertebrates, this fact is choking on a large scale. Moreover, in these bodies of water, there are a number of abiotic and biotic factors, which have different requirements in the process of reproduction. The totality of the above conditions vital for fish of Gobidae, makes the need for populations in the gene pool of potential adaptations to survive in those or other settings. Literature data of recent years, the enlargement of habitat bulls, indicating the presence of adaptations. In reservoirs in Ukraine in modern conditions the optimal conditions for Sandpiper observed in the Azov Sea. This contributes greatly to the optimal forage which has emerged over the last decade due to the desalination of sea and favorable conditions for reproduction. In the transition from marine to freshwater Sandpiper flagged fundamentally different and very diverse in every way possible. The difference in environmental conditions differently reflected in the life Bychkov fish, affecting their growth, development and other

  14. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF MONKEY GOBY (NEOGOBIUS FLUVIATILIS PALLAS OF FRESH AND SALINE WATER RESERVOIRS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Onoprienko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The representatives of Pisces family, namely Gobidae are an important component of aquatic ecosystems. With a wide range of adaptation, this group has mastered the different types of fish ponds from completely fresh to the ocean. However, some species are found both in one and in other waters, displaying different (and sometimes conflicting between a life strategy. Last relating to the four main components of the life of fish: water-salt metabolism, nutrition, respiration and reproduction. Mechanisms for implementing these different functions together. First, different concentrations of salts require different types of water- salt metabolism. Another equally important factor is the food base, which is also quite different, both in range and the nature of food. In the sea and reservoirs, over rivers, dissolved oxygen in the water is stratified, and very often in the summer and winter time is in short supply. For bulls, as the bottom of vertebrates, this fact is choking on a large scale. Moreover, in these bodies of water, there are a number of abiotic and biotic factors, which have different requirements in the process of reproduction. The totality of the above conditions vital for fish of Gobidae, makes the need for populations in the gene pool of potential adaptations to survive in those or other settings. Literature data of recent years, the enlargement of habitat bulls, indicating the presence of adaptations. In reservoirs in Ukraine in modern conditions the optimal conditions for Sandpiper observed in the Azov Sea. This contributes greatly to the optimal forage which has emerged over the last decade due to the desalination of sea and favorable conditions for reproduction. In the transition from marine to freshwater Sandpiper flagged fundamentally different and very diverse in every way possible. The difference in environmental conditions differently reflected in the life Bychkov fish, affecting their growth, development and other

  15. Thermal emissivity of avian eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björn, Lars Olof; Bengtson, Sven-Axel; Li, Shaoshan; Hecker, Christoph; Ullah, Saleem; Roos, Arne; Nilsson, Annica M

    2016-04-01

    The hypothesis has been tested that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of eggs of birds breeding openly in cold climates than of eggs of birds that nest under protective covering or in warmer climates. Directional thermal emissivity has been estimated from directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra. Due to several methodological difficulties the absolute emissivity is not accurately determined, but differences between species are obvious. Most notably, small waders of the genus Calidris, breeding in cold climates on the tundra, and in most cases with uniparental nest attendance, have low directional emissivity of their eggshells, about 0.92 when integration is carried out for wavelengths up to 16μm. Species belonging to Galloanserinae have the highest directional emissivity, about 0.96, of their eggs. No differences due to climate or breeding conditions were found within this group. Eggs of most other birds tested possess intermediate emissivity, but the values for Pica pica and Corvus corone cornix are as low as for Calidris. Large species-dependent differences in spectral reflectance were found at specific wavelengths. For instance, at 4.259μm the directional-hemispherical reflectance for galliforms range from 0.05 to 0.09, while for Fratercula arctica and Fulmarus glacialis it is about 0.3. The reflection peaks at 6.5 and 11.3μm due to calcite are differentially attenuated in different species. In conclusion, the hypothesis that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of bird eggs being exposed in cold climates is not supported by our results. The emissivity is not clearly related to nesting habits or climate, and it is unlikely that the small differences observed are ecologically important. The spectral differences between eggs that nevertheless exist should be taken into account when using infrared thermometers for estimating the surface temperature of avian eggs.

  16. New Records of Mosses from Zhejiang Province%浙江省藓类植物新记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 曹同

    2007-01-01

    在对浙江省杭州市苔藓植物广泛调查采集和标本鉴定的基础上,发现并报道中国新记录种1个,小细罗藓(Leskeella pusilla (Mitt.) Nog.);浙江省新记录属1个,赤藓属(Syntrichia);新记录种4个,高山赤藓Syntrichia sinensis (C.Müll.) Ochyra,狭叶立碗藓(Physcomitrium coorgense Broth.),东亚细枝藓(Lindbergia japonica Card.)和东亚小羽藓(Haplocladium strictulum (Card.) Reim.).对它们的主要特征、生境和地理分布进行了初步讨论,并提供了小细罗藓及东亚细枝藓的形态特征图.

  17. Some heterotrophic flagellates from a cultivated garden soil in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Flemming; Patterson, DJ

    1997-01-01

    The flagellates of an Australian garden soil were studied by placing coverslips on wet soil and subsequently examining the coverslips by light microscopy. A number of genera and species were found which have not previously been reported from soil samples. Besides the three new species, Apusomonas......: Petalomonas pusilla, Bicosoeca epiphytica, Bicosoeca mignotii, and Ancyromonas sigmoides. In addition, we extracted a number of forms which have been found in soil but which are usually not considered as members of the soil flagellate community. They are: Codosiga botrytis, Salpingoeca amphoridium......, and Goniomonas truncata. Only a minority of the taxa recorded are thought of as common and widespread in soils, they include: Apusomonas proboscidea, and species of Cercomonas and Spumella. At least part of the difference between communities of flagellates from freshwaters and those of soils are due to different...

  18. An avifaunal survey of the Istranca mountains, turkish thrace: novel breeding bird records including the first breeding record of Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkan, Korhan

    2011-01-01

    A breeding bird survey in the Istranca (Yıldız) mountains of Turkish Thrace seawards to the Black sea was conducted May–August 2009. Eighty-eight days of field work in 697 locations generated novel breeding evidence for several species. The survey provided the first certain evidence of Wood Warbler...... in the study area. Moreover, breeding evidence was gathered for Garden Warbler Sylvia borin, Baillon’s Crake Porzana pusilla, Stock Dove Columba oenas, Icterine Warbler Hippolais icterina and Common Rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus for the first time in Turkish Thrace. Furthermore, the survey provided some...... cinclus, Sardinian Warbler Sylvia melanocephala, Barred Warbler Sylvia nisoria and Red-breasted Flycatcher Ficedula parva, which require further research on their breeding distributions in the study area....

  19. Polychaetes from the northern part of the Sea of Marmara with the description of a new species of Polydora (Annelida: Polychaeta: Spionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. ÇINAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft-bottom material collected from the northern part of the Sea of Marmara (off Küçükçekmece included a total of 67 species belonging to 24 polychaete families. Three species (Brania pusilla, Lysidice cf. margaritacea and Sabellaria spinulosa are new records for the Sea of Marmara. Three alien species (Polydora cornuta, Prionospio pulchra and Pseudopolydora paucibranchiata were found at the shallow-water stations. Different polychaete assemblages occurred in the area and the mud percentage of sediment and salinity were the main factors related to their distribution. A new Polydora species, which is mainly characterized in having brownish pigmentation solely on the antero-dorsal sides of the body, and falcate major spines with only a bulge (anterior ones or with a bulge and a small tooth, is described.

  20. Polychaetes from the northern part of the Sea of Marmara with the description of a new species of Polydora (Annelida: Polychaeta: Spionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. ÇINAR

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft-bottom material collected from the northern part of the Sea of Marmara (off Küçükçekmece included a total of 67 species belonging to 24 polychaete families. Three species (Brania pusilla, Lysidice cf. margaritacea and Sabellaria spinulosa are new records for the Sea of Marmara. Three alien species (Polydora cornuta, Prionospio pulchra and Pseudopolydora paucibranchiata were found at the shallow-water stations. Different polychaete assemblages occurred in the area and the mud percentage of sediment and salinity were the main factors related to their distribution. A new Polydora species, which is mainly characterized in having brownish pigmentation solely on the antero-dorsal sides of the body, and falcate major spines with only a bulge (anterior ones or with a bulge and a small tooth, is described.

  1. MIDDLE PLIOCENE CETACEANS FROM MONTE VOLTRAIO (TUSCANY, ITALY. BIOSTRATIGRAPHICAL, PALEOECOLOGICAL AND PALEOCLIMATIC OBSERVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANNI BIANUCCI

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The historic collection of fossil odontocetes (Cetacea from Monte Voltraio, near Volterra (Tuscany, Italy has been examined and lithostratigraphical and biostratigraphical investigations on the find locality have been carried out. The Monte Voltraio outcrop is referred to the Middle Pliocene, in particular to Globorotalia aemiliana and Discoaster tamalis zones. The odontocete remains are assigned to the families Kogiidae (Kogia pusilla and Delphinidae (Globicephala? etruriae and two indeterminate specimens which might belong to Hemisyntrachelus and Stenella giulii. The Middle Pliocene cetacean fauna from the Mediterranean basin (Monte Voltraio and Rio Stramonte associations includes extinct taxa or extant taxa no longer represented in this basin. The disappearance of these taxa may be linked with the Pliocene and/or Quaternary climatic deteriorations (e.g. the climatic crisis at about 2.6-2.4 MA. 

  2. Isolation,Identification and cDNA Cloning of ACTIN of the Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck Juice Sacs%琯溪蜜柚汁胞ACTIN的分离鉴定和cDNA克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟凤林; 郭志雄; 潘东明

    2010-01-01

    对琯溪蜜柚粒化与正常汁胞汁胞双向电泳分析,获得一个在粒化中上调表达的羞异蛋白质点,经过质谱鉴定、生物信息学分析,为肌动蛋白(Actin),以琯溪蜜柚粒化汁胞cDNA为模板,根据Actin氨基酸序列设计引物,进行全长的扩增,得到Actin开放阅读框包含1134个碱基,编码377个氨基酸.其核酸序列与黑杨派(Populus trichocarpa)、棉花(Gossypium hirsutum)、蓖麻(Ricinus communis)、圆叶锦葵(Malva pusilla)ACT的同源性在89%以上.

  3. 琯溪蜜柚汁胞ACTIN的分离鉴定和cDNA克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟凤林; 郭志雄; 潘东明

    2010-01-01

    对琯溪蜜柚粒化与正常汁胞双向电泳分析,获得一个在粒化中上调表达的差异蛋白质点,经过质谱鉴定、生物信息学分析,为肌动蛋白(Actin),以琯溪蜜柚粒化汁胞cDNA为模板,根据Actin氨基酸序列设计引物,进行全长的扩增,得到Actin开放阅读框包含1134碱基,编码377氨基酸.其核酸序列与黑杨派(Populus trichocarpa)、棉花(Gossypium hirsutum)、蓖麻(Ricinus communis)、圆叶锦葵(Malva pusilla) ACT的同源性在89%以上.

  4. A revision of Ganaspidium Weld, 1952 (Hymenoptera, Figitidae, Eucoilinae: new species, bionomics, and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Buffington

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The New World eucoiline genus Ganaspidium is revised. Species in this genus are parasitoids of some of the most pestiferous species of leaf-mining Agromyzidae (Diptera, including the notorious Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess. The following new species are described: Ganaspidium didionae, G. eldiablo, G. flemingi, G. kolmaci, and G. konzaensis. Ganaspidium navajoe (Miller, comb. n., is recognized as junior synonym of G. pusillae Weld (syn. n.. Ganaspidium nigrimanus (Kieffer and G. utilis Beardsley are removed from synonymy, and together with G. hunteri (Crawford, are now in Banacuniculus Buffington. Species of Ganaspidium are recorded from a wide geographic area within North America, and several species appear to be adapted to arid environments. New distribution data, new host records, and a key to known species are provided.

  5. Auklet (Charadriiformes: Alcidae, Aethia spp.) chick meals from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, have a very low incidence of plastic marine debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L; Jones, Ian L; Williams, Jeffrey C; Byrd, G Vernon

    2010-08-01

    The ingestion of plastic marine debris is a chronic problem for some of the world's seabird species, contributing to reduced chick survival, population declines, and deposition of contaminants via absorption in birds' gastrointestinal tract. We analysed the frequency of ingested plastic in chick meals delivered by adults in four species of auklet - Crested (Aethia cristatella), Least (A. pusilla), Parakeet (A. psittacula), and Whiskered (A. pygmaea) - from three breeding colonies in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA over a 14-year period from 1993 to 2006. Among 2541 chick meals, we found plastic in only one - from a Whiskered Auklet on Buldir Island in 1993. While adult Parakeet Auklets have a high frequency of plastic ingestion (over 90%), no chick meals contained plastic. Unlike other seabirds, the planktivorous auklets do not appear to offload plastic to their chicks, and we conclude that auklet chicks are probably at a low risk of contamination from plastic debris.

  6. Additions to the hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) of the Bay of Fundy, northeastern North America, with a checklist of species reported from the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Dale R

    2017-04-24

    Two new species of hydroids, Eudendrium bleakneyi and Halecium praeparvum, are described from the Bay of Fundy. Fourteen others, Tubularia acadiae Petersen, 1990, Coryne pusilla Gaertner, 1774, Sarsia lovenii (M. Sars, 1846), Zanclea implexa (Alder, 1856), Corydendrium dispar Kramp, 1935, Rhizogeton fusiformis L. Agassiz, 1862, Bougainvillia muscus (Allman, 1863), Rhizorhagium roseum M. Sars, in G.O. Sars, 1874, Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus Buss & Yund, 1989, Eudendrium vaginatum Allman, 1863, Tiaropsis multicirrata (M. Sars, 1835), Obelia bidentata S.F. Clark, 1875, Halecium marsupiale Bergh, 1887, and Sertularella gigantea Hincks, 1874, are reported, with collection data, for the first time from the bay. All but Coryne pusilla, Rhizorhagium roseum, Eudendrium vaginatum, and Sertularella gigantea are also new to Atlantic Canada, while Zanclea implexa, Corydendrium dispar, and Halecium marsupiale are reported for the first time in the western North Atlantic. Two of those species, Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus and Obelia bidentata, are disjunct in distribution, with core populations occurring in warmer waters to the south of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Both were discovered in Minas Basin, a hydrographically distinct embayment where surface water temperatures are much warmer during summer than in the perpetually cold lower Bay of Fundy. Rhizorhagium roseum and the subfamily Rhizorhagiinae are transferred from family Bougainvilliidae Lütken, 1850 to Pandeidae Haeckel, 1879. An annotated checklist of hydroids from the Fundy region, based on previously published reports and on new records of species, is added as an appendix. Included in the checklist are 43 species of anthoathecates and 75 species of leptothecates, referable to 30 families and 56 genera. Families with the most species were Sertulariidae (23), Haleciidae (13), Eudendriidae (11), and Obeliidae (10). Biogeographically, the aggregate hydroid fauna of the bay conforms with that occurring in other parts of the

  7. Use of ultrafiltration to isolate viruses from seawater which are pathogens of marine phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, C A; Chan, A M; Cottrell, M T

    1991-03-01

    Viruses may be major structuring elements of phytoplankton communities and hence important regulators of nutrient and energy fluxes in aquatic environments. In order to ascertain whether viruses are potentially important in dictating phytoplankton community structure, it is essential to determine the extent to which representative phytoplankton taxa are susceptible to viral infection. We used a spiral ultrafiltration cartridge (30,000-molecular-weight cutoff) to concentrate viruses from seawater at efficiencies approaching 100%. Natural virus communities were concentrated from stations in the Gulf of Mexico, a barrier island pass, and a hypersaline lagoon (Laguna Madre) and added to cultures of potential phytoplankton hosts. By following changes in in vivo fluorescence over time, it was possible to isolate several viruses that were pathogens to a variety of marine phytoplankton, including a prasinophyte (Micromonas pusilla), a pennate diatom (likely a Navicula sp.), a centric diatom (of unknown taxa), and a chroococcoid cyanobacterium (a Synechococcus sp.). As well, we observed changes in fluorescence in cultures of a cryptophyte (a Rhodomonas sp.) and a chlorophyte (Nannochloropsis oculata) which were consistent with the presence of viral pathogens. Although pathogens were isolated from all stations, all the pathogens were not isolated from every station. Filterability studies on the viruses infecting M. pusilla and the Navicula sp. showed that the viruses were consistently infective after filtration through polycarbonate and glass-fiber filters but were affected by most other filter types. Establishment of phytoplankton-pathogen systems will be important in elucidating the effect that viruses have on primary producers in aquatic systems.

  8. PARTICIÓN DE MICROHÁBITATS ENTRE ESPECIES DE BUFONIDAE Y LEIUPERIDAE (AMPHIBIA: ANURA EN ÁREAS CON BOSQUE SECO TROPICAL DE LA REGIÓN CARIBE-COLOMBIA Microhábitat Partitioning Between Leiuperidae and Bufonidae Species (Amphibia: Anura in Tropical Dry Forest Areas in Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARGELINA BLANCO TORRES

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se analizó la partición de microhábitats de cinco especies de anuros pertenecientes a las familias Bufonidae (Rhinella marina, R. granulosa, y Leiuperidae (Engystomops pustulosus, Pleurodema brachyops y Pseudopaludicola pusilla en seis localidades del Caribe colombiano con fragmentos de bosque seco tropical y diferentes usos de suelo. Se identificaron 29 microhábitats. Los más usados fueron charco de agua permanente de potreros con árboles (CPPA y potreros inundables sin árboles (PISA. La especie que mayor cantidad de microhábitats utilizó, fue E. pustulosus. No hubo especialistas en el uso de estos ambientes. Se presentaron diferencias en el uso de este recurso a escalas regional y local. La dinámica de uso de los microhábitats estuvo influenciada por las variaciones climáticas del bosque seco tropical. Existió partición de microhábitats como mecanismo de coexistencia en estas especies para época seca y no ocurre en época de lluvias.ABSTRACT We analyzed partitioning of microhábitats by five species of frogs in the families Bufonidae (Rhinella marina, R. granulosa, and Leiuperidae (Engystomops pustulosus, Pleurodema brachyops and Pseudopaludicola pusilla in six different localities of the Colombian Caribean with tropical dry forest fragments and different land uses. We identified 29 types of microhábitats; permanent ponds in pastures with trees (CPPA and flooded pastures without trees (PISA were the most important environmental used. Engystomops pustulosus used the must microhábitats, and none are used by specialist species. Thus, differences in the use of resource on regional and local scales appeared. Dynamics of microhábitat uses was influenced by the climatic variations of the tropical dry forest. Microhábitats distribution as a mechanism of coexistence in these species is implemented for dry season but in rainfall season this mechanism not exists.

  9. A taxonomic revision of the Southern South American species of the genus Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Fanniidae

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    Martha Cecilia Dominguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Southern South American species of the genus Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy are revised. Twenty five valid species are recognized for the region in the present study: Fannia albitarsis Stein, Fannia anthracina (Walker, Fannia bigoti Stein, Fannia canicularis (Linnaeus, Fannia confusa Pont & Carvalho, Fannia coxata Shannon & Del Ponte, Fannia femoralis (Stein, Fannia flavicornis Stein, Fannia flavipalpis Stein, Fannia fusconotata (Rondani, Fannia heydenii (Wiedemann, Fannia hirtifemur (Stein, Fannia incisurata (Zetterstedt, Fannia petrocchiae Shannon & Del Ponte, Fannia punctiventris Malloch, Fannia pusilla (Bigot, Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, Fannia scalaris (Fabricius, Fannia schnusei Stein, Fannia setosa (Bigot, Fannia tucumanensis Albuquerque, Fannia tumidifemur Stein and three new species from Argentina are described: two from the province of San Luis (Fannia roigi sp. nov. and Fannia hermani sp. nov. and one from the province of Mendoza (Fannia losgateados sp. nov.. The unknown male of Fannia fusconotata is described for the first time. The Neotropical Fannia euchaetophora Carvalho is synonymized with Fannia flavicornis Stein. Redescriptions are provided for all known species and genitalic illustrations given for both sexes. Keys for each sex are given, and knowledge on the geographical distribution of all species is updated and summarized.Las especies de Fannia de America del Sur Austral son revisadas. Se reconocen 25 especies para la region en el presente estudio: Fannia albitarsis Stein, Fannia anthracina (Walker, Fannia bigoti Stein, Fannia canicularis (Linnaeus, Fanniaconfusa Pont&Carvalho, Fannia coxata Shannon & Del Ponte, Fannia femoralis (Stein, Fannia flavicornis Stein, Fannia flavipalpis Stein, Fannia fusconotata (Rondani, Fannia heydenii (Wiedemann, Fannia hirtifemur (Stein, Fannia incisurata (Zetterstedt, Fannia petrocchiae Shannon & Del Ponte, Fannia punctiventris Malloch, Fannia pusilla (Bigot, Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, Fannia

  10. A novel type of geosmin biosynthesis in myxobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickschat, Jeroen S; Bode, Helge B; Mahmud, Taifo; Müller, Rolf; Schulz, Stefan

    2005-06-24

    The biosynthesis of geosmin (1) and (1(10)E,5E)-germacradien-11-ol (2), two volatile terpenoid compounds emitted by the myxobacteria Myxococcus xanthus and Stigmatella aurantiaca, was investigated in feeding experiments with different labeled precursors. In these experiments, the volatiles released by the cell cultures grown on agar plates were collected with a closed-loop stripping apparatus (CLSA) and analyzed by GC-MS. [(2)H(10)]Leucine and [4,4,4,5,5,5-(2)H(6)]dimethylacrylate were fed to wild-type strains and bkd mutant strains, which are impaired in the degradation of leucine to isovaleryl-CoA. [(2)H(10)]Leucine was incorporated into 1 and 2 only by the wild-type strains via the biosynthetic pathway that involves leucine degradation and branching into the mevalonate pathway. Dimethylacrylyl-CoA (DMA-CoA) is an intermediate in the leucine degradation and in the recently discovered pathway from HMG-CoA to isovaleryl-CoA. The corresponding free acid, [4,4,4,5,5,5-(2)H(6)]dimethylacrylic acid, was incorporated into 1 and 2 only by the mutants impaired in leucine degradation. [4,4,6,6,6-(2)H(5)]Mevalonic acid lactone (12) was synthesized and fed to M. xanthus and S. aurantiaca wild-type strains and a double mutant strain of M. xanthus. This strain does not degrade leucine and is impaired in the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA to mevalonic acid. The mass spectral analysis of labeled 1 and 2 obtained in these feeding experiments led to a biosynthetic scheme to 1 with intermediate 2. This pathway differs from that observed in the liverwort Fossombronia pusilla and thus suggests microbial geosmin biosynthesis following a route different from that in liverworts. Our results are supported by a 1,2-hydride shift of the tertiary hydrogen atom at C-4a into the ring opposite to that in F. pusilla.

  11. Wildlife Impact Assessment : Bonneville, McNary, The Dalles, and John Day Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Larry; Wright, Patrick

    1990-10-01

    The Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to evaluate pre- and post-construction habitat conditions of the US Army Corps of Engineers Bonneville project in Oregon and Washington. The project directly impacted 20,749 acres of wildlife habitat. Seven evaluation species were selected with losses and gains expressed in Habitat Units (HU's). One HU is equivalent to 1 acre of prime habitat. The evaluation estimated a gain of 2671 HU's of lesser scaup wintering habitat. Losses of 4300 HU's of great blue heron habitat, 2443 HU's of Canada goose habitat, 2767 HU's of spotted sandpiper habitat, 163 HU's of yellow warbler habitat, 1022 HU's black-capped chickadee habitat, and 1622 HU's of mink habitat occurred as a result of the project. This amounts to a total combined loss of 12,317 HU's. 18 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  12. Conforth Ranch Wildlife Mitigation Feasibility Study, McNary, Oregon : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Larry; Wright, Patrick; Giger, Richard

    1991-03-01

    The 2,860-acre Conforth Ranch near Umatilla, Oregon is being considered for acquisition and management to partially mitigate wildlife losses associated with McNary Hydroelectric Project. The Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) estimated that management for wildlife would result in habitat unit gains of 519 for meadowlark, 420 for quail, 431 for mallard, 466 for Canada goose, 405 for mink, 49 for downy woodpecker, 172 for yellow warbler, and 34 for spotted sandpiper. This amounts to a total combined gain of 2,495 habitat units -- a 110 percent increase over the existing values for these species combined of 2,274 habitat units. Current water delivery costs, estimated at $50,000 per year, are expected to increase to $125,000 per year. A survey of local interest indicated a majority of respondents favored the concept with a minority opposed. No contaminants that would preclude the Fish and Wildlife Service from agreeing to accept the property were identified. 21 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Hellsgate Winter Range Mitigation Project; Long-term Management Plan, Project Report 1993, Final Draft.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Matthew T.

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted on the Hellsgate Winter Range Mitigation Project area, a 4,943 acre ranch purchased for mitigating some habitat losses associated with the original construction of Grand Coulee Dam and innundation of habitat by Lake Roosevelt. A Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was used to determine habitat quality and quantity baseline data and future projections. Target species used in the study were sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemoinus), mink (Mustela vison), spotted sandpiper (Actiius colchicus), bobcat (Felis reufs), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura). From field data collected, limiting life values or HSI's (Habitat Suitability Index's) for each indicator species was determined for existing habitats on project lands. From this data a long term management plan was developed. This report is designed to provide guidance for the management of project lands in relation to the habitat cover types discussed and the indicator species used to evaluate these cover types. In addition, the plan discusses management actions, habitat enhancements, and tools that will be used to enhance, protect and restore habitats to desired conditions. Through planned management actions biodiversity and vegetative structure can be optimized over time to reduce or eliminate, limiting HSI values for selected wildlife on project lands.

  14. Diversity and abundance of water birds in a subarctic lake during three decades

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    Anders Klemetsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The numbers of divers, ducks, gulls, terns and waders in the 15 km2 oligotrophic lake Takvatn, North Norway were estimated six times during 1983-2012. Systematic mapping surveys were done by boat within the first week after ice-break in June. Twenty-one species were observed over the years and 12 were regarded as breeding on the lake. Red-breasted merganser Mergus serrator was the dominant diving bird, with estimated minimum number of pairs varying from 15 to 39 among years. Black-throated diver Gavia arctica (1-3 pairs, tufted duck Aythya fuligula (2-15 pairs and common scoter Melanitta nigra (1-5 pairs bred regularly, while velvet scoter Melanitta fusca (1-2 and goldeneye Bucephala clangula (2-4 were found in some years and mallard Anas platyrhynchos (1 pair and wigeon Anas penelope (1 pair in one year. Common gull Larus canus (6-30 pairs and arctic tern Sterna paradisaea (2-35 pairs bred in all years. Common sandpiper Tringa hypoleucos (3-9 pairs and redshank Tringa totanus (1-4 pairs were regular waders. Density variations of mergansers, gulls and terns are possibly related to density variations of three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus, their dominant fish prey. The water birds are important links in the food web of the lake.

  15. Vulnerability of breeding waterbirds to climate change in the Prairie Pothole Region, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Valerie; Skagen, Susan K; Noon, Barry R

    2014-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the north-central U.S. and south-central Canada contains millions of small prairie wetlands that provide critical habitat to many migrating and breeding waterbirds. Due to their small size and the relatively dry climate of the region, these wetlands are considered at high risk for negative climate change effects as temperatures increase. To estimate the potential impacts of climate change on breeding waterbirds, we predicted current and future distributions of species common in the PPR using species distribution models (SDMs). We created regional-scale SDMs for the U.S. PPR using Breeding Bird Survey occurrence records for 1971-2011 and wetland, upland, and climate variables. For each species, we predicted current distribution based on climate records for 1981-2000 and projected future distributions to climate scenarios for 2040-2049. Species were projected to, on average, lose almost half their current habitat (-46%). However, individual species projections varied widely, from +8% (Upland Sandpiper) to -100% (Wilson's Snipe). Variable importance ranks indicated that land cover (wetland and upland) variables were generally more important than climate variables in predicting species distributions. However, climate variables were relatively more important during a drought period. Projected distributions of species responses to climate change contracted within current areas of distribution rather than shifting. Given the large variation in species-level impacts, we suggest that climate change mitigation efforts focus on species projected to be the most vulnerable by enacting targeted wetland management, easement acquisition, and restoration efforts.

  16. Bird Diversity and Distribution in relation to Urban Landscape Types in Northern Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gatesire

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the point count method, linear mixed models, Shannon’s diversity index, and Bray-Curtis cluster analysis, we conducted a study of the effect of urban fabric layout on bird diversity and distribution in northern Rwanda. The results showed a significant effect of city landscapes on bird richness and relative abundance; residential neighborhoods, institutional grounds, and informal settlements had the highest species diversity in comparison to other microlandscape types. Riversides were characterized by specialized bird species, commonly known to be restricted to wetland environments. Built-up areas and open field landscapes had comparable results. One Albertine Rift endemic bird species, the Ruwenzori Double-collared Sunbird (Cinnyris stuhlmanni, was recorded. Three migratory birds were found in Musanze city for the first time: the Common Sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos, the Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata, and the Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus. Two bird species have not been previously reported in Rwanda: the Garden Warbler (Sylvia borin and the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina. The implications of this study are particularly relevant to urban decision makers who should consider the existence of a great diversity of avian fauna when developing and implementing master plans, especially when villages and cities are in proximity of protected areas or natural reserves.

  17. Bird Diversity and Distribution in relation to Urban Landscape Types in Northern Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatesire, T.; Nsabimana, D.; Nyiramana, A.; Seburanga, J. L.; Mirville, M. O.

    2014-01-01

    Using the point count method, linear mixed models, Shannon's diversity index, and Bray-Curtis cluster analysis, we conducted a study of the effect of urban fabric layout on bird diversity and distribution in northern Rwanda. The results showed a significant effect of city landscapes on bird richness and relative abundance; residential neighborhoods, institutional grounds, and informal settlements had the highest species diversity in comparison to other microlandscape types. Riversides were characterized by specialized bird species, commonly known to be restricted to wetland environments. Built-up areas and open field landscapes had comparable results. One Albertine Rift endemic bird species, the Ruwenzori Double-collared Sunbird (Cinnyris stuhlmanni), was recorded. Three migratory birds were found in Musanze city for the first time: the Common Sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos), the Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata), and the Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus). Two bird species have not been previously reported in Rwanda: the Garden Warbler (Sylvia borin) and the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina). The implications of this study are particularly relevant to urban decision makers who should consider the existence of a great diversity of avian fauna when developing and implementing master plans, especially when villages and cities are in proximity of protected areas or natural reserves. PMID:25133203

  18. Integrating spatial data and shorebird nesting locations to predict the potential future impact of global warming on coastal habitats: A case study on Farasan Islands, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrashidi, Monif; Shobrak, Mohammed; Al-Eissa, Mohammed S; Székely, Tamás

    2012-07-01

    One of the expected effects of the global warming is changing coastal habitats by accelerating the rate of sea level rise. Coastal habitats support large number of marine and wetland species including shorebirds (plovers, sandpipers and allies). In this study, we investigate how coastal habitats may be impacted by sea level rise in the Farasan Islands, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We use Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus - a common coastal breeding shorebird - as an ecological model species to predict the influence of sea level rise. We found that any rise of sea level is likely to inundate 11% of Kentish plover nests. In addition, 5% of the coastal areas of Farasan Islands, which support 26% of Kentish plover nests, will be flooded, if sea level rises by one metre. Our results are constrained by the availability of data on both elevation and bird populations. Therefore, we recommend follow-up studies to model the impacts of sea level rise using different elevation scenarios, and the establishment of a monitoring programme for breeding shorebirds and seabirds in Farasan Islands to assess the impact of climate change on their populations.

  19. Population size and stopover duration estimation using mark–resight data and Bayesian analysis of a superpopulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, James E.; Kendall, William; Royle, J. Andrew; Converse, Sarah J.; Andres, Brad A.; Buchanan, Joseph B.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel formulation of a mark–recapture–resight model that allows estimation of population size, stopover duration, and arrival and departure schedules at migration areas. Estimation is based on encounter histories of uniquely marked individuals and relative counts of marked and unmarked animals. We use a Bayesian analysis of a state–space formulation of the Jolly–Seber mark–recapture model, integrated with a binomial model for counts of unmarked animals, to derive estimates of population size and arrival and departure probabilities. We also provide a novel estimator for stopover duration that is derived from the latent state variable representing the interim between arrival and departure in the state–space model. We conduct a simulation study of field sampling protocols to understand the impact of superpopulation size, proportion marked, and number of animals sampled on bias and precision of estimates. Simulation results indicate that relative bias of estimates of the proportion of the population with marks was low for all sampling scenarios and never exceeded 2%. Our approach does not require enumeration of all unmarked animals detected or direct knowledge of the number of marked animals in the population at the time of the study. This provides flexibility and potential application in a variety of sampling situations (e.g., migratory birds, breeding seabirds, sea turtles, fish, pinnipeds, etc.). Application of the methods is demonstrated with data from a study of migratory sandpipers.

  20. Polymorphic microsatellite loci identified through development and cross-species amplification within shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, I.; Guzzetti, B.M.; Gust, Judy R.; Sage, G.K.; Gill, R.E.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Sonsthagen, S.A.; Talbot, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    We developed microsatellite loci for demographic assessments of shorebirds, a group with limited markers. First, we isolated five dinucleotide repeat microsatellite loci from the Black Oystercatcher (Haematopodidae: Haematopus bachmani), and three from the Bristle-thighed Curlew (Scolopacidae: Numenius tahitiensis); both species are of conservation concern. All eight loci were polymorphic in their respective target species. Hbaμ loci were characterized by two to three alleles with observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.07 to 0.33, and two to nine alleles were detected for Nut loci with observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.08 to 0.72. No linkage disequilibrium or departures from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were observed. The eight loci were also tested for cross-species amplification in 12 other species within Charadriidae and Scolopacidae, and the results demonstrated transferability across several genera. We further tested all 14 species at 12 additional microsatellite markers developed for other shorebirds: Dunlin (Calidris alpina; four loci) and Ruff (Philomachus pugnax; eight loci). Two markers (Hbaμ4 and Ruff6) were polymorphic in 13 species, while two (Calp6 and Ruff9) were monomorphic. The remaining eight markers revealed polymorphism in one to nine species each. Our results provide further evidence that locus Ruff10 is sex-linked, contrary to the initial description. These markers can be used to enhance our understanding of shorebird biology by, for example, helping to determine migratory connectivity among breeding and wintering populations and detecting relatedness among individuals.

  1. Toxin constraint explains diet choice, survival and population dynamics in a molluscivore shorebird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gils, Jan A; van der Geest, Matthijs; Leyrer, Jutta; Oudman, Thomas; Lok, Tamar; Onrust, Jeroen; de Fouw, Jimmy; van der Heide, Tjisse; van den Hout, Piet J; Spaans, Bernard; Dekinga, Anne; Brugge, Maarten; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-07-22

    Recent insights suggest that predators should include (mildly) toxic prey when non-toxic food is scarce. However, the assumption that toxic prey is energetically as profitable as non-toxic prey misses the possibility that non-toxic prey have other ways to avoid being eaten, such as the formation of an indigestible armature. In that case, predators face a trade-off between avoiding toxins and minimizing indigestible ballast intake. Here, we report on the trophic interactions between a shorebird (red knot, Calidris canutus canutus) and its two main bivalve prey, one being mildly toxic but easily digestible, and the other being non-toxic but harder to digest. A novel toxin-based optimal diet model is developed and tested against an existing one that ignores toxin constraints on the basis of data on prey abundance, diet choice, local survival and numbers of red knots at Banc d'Arguin (Mauritania) over 8 years. Observed diet and annual survival rates closely fit the predictions of the toxin-based model, with survival and population size being highest in years when the non-toxic prey is abundant. In the 6 of 8 years when the non-toxic prey is not abundant enough to satisfy the energy requirements, red knots must rely on the toxic alternative.

  2. Effects of horseshoe crab harvest in delaware bay on red knots: Are harvest restrictions working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, L.J.; Bart, J.; Sitters, H.P.; Dey, A.D.; Clark, K.E.; Atkinson, P.W.; Baker, A.J.; Bennett, K.A.; Kalasz, K.S.; Clark, N.A.; Clark, J.; Gillings, S.; Gates, A.S.; Gonzalez, P.M.; Hernandez, D.E.; Minton, C.D.T.; Morrison, R.I.G.; Porter, R.R.; Ross, R.K.; Veitch, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Each May, red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) congregate in Delaware Bay during their northward migration to feed on horseshoe crab eggs (Limulus polyphemus) and refuel for breeding in the Arctic. During the 1990s, the Delaware Bay harvest of horseshoe crabs for bait increased 10-fold, leading to a more than 90% decline in the availability of their eggs for knots. The proportion of knots achieving weights of more than 180 grams by 26-28 May, their main departure period, dropped from 0.6-0.8 to 0.14-0.4 over 1997-2007. During the same period, the red knot population stopping in Delaware Bay declined by more than 75%, in part because the annual survival rate of adult knots wintering in Tierra del Fuego declined. Despite restrictions, the 2007 horseshoe crab harvest was still greater than the 1990 harvest, and no recovery of knots was detectable. We propose an adaptive management strategy with recovery goals and annual monitoring that, if adopted, will both allow red knot and horseshoe crab populations to recover and permit a sustainable harvest of horseshoe crabs.

  3. Multispecies modeling for adaptive management of horseshoe crabs and red knots in the Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David; Sweka, John A.; Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; Wong, Richard; Lyons, James E.; Niles, Lawrence J.; Kalasz, Kevin; Brust, Jeffrey; Klopfer, Michelle; Spear, Braddock

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management requires that predictive models be explicit and transparent to improve decisions by comparing management actions, directing further research and monitoring, and facilitating learning. The rufa subspecies of red knots (Calidris canutus rufa), which has recently exhibited steep population declines, relies on horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs as their primary food source during stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. We present a model with two different parameterizations for use in the adaptive management of horseshoe crab harvests in the Delaware Bay that links red knot mass gain, annual survival, and fecundity to horseshoe crab dynamics. The models reflect prevailing hypotheses regarding ecological links between these two species. When reported crab harvest from 1998 to 2008 was applied, projections corresponded to the observed red knot population abundances depending on strengths of the demographic relationship between these species. We compared different simulated horseshoe crab harvest strategies to evaluate whether, given this model, horseshoe crab harvest management can affect red knot conservation and found that restricting harvest can benefit red knot populations. Our model is the first to explicitly and quantitatively link these two species and will be used within an adaptive management framework to manage the Delaware Bay system and learn more about the specific nature of the linkage between the two species.

  4. Rapid population decline in red knots: fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Allan J; González, Patricia M; Piersma, Theunis; Niles, Lawrence J; do Nascimento, Inês de Lima Serrano; Atkinson, Philip W; Clark, Nigel A; Minton, Clive D T; Peck, Mark K; Aarts, Geert

    2004-04-22

    Most populations of migrant shorebirds around the world are in serious decline, suggesting that vital condition-dependent rates such as fecundity and annual survival are being affected globally. A striking example is the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) population wintering in Tierra del Fuego, which undertakes marathon 30,000 km hemispheric migrations annually. In spring, migrant birds forage voraciously on horseshoe crab eggs in Delaware Bay in the eastern USA before departing to breed in Arctic polar deserts. From 1997 to 2002 an increasing proportion of knots failed to reach threshold departure masses of 180-200 g, possibly because of later arrival in the Bay and food shortage from concurrent over-harvesting of crabs. Reduced nutrient storage, especially in late-arriving birds, possibly combined with reduced sizes of intestine and liver during refuelling, had severe fitness consequences for adult survival and recruitment of young in 2000-2002. From 1997 to 2002 known survivors in Delaware Bay were heavier at initial capture than birds never seen again, annual survival of adults decreased by 37% between May 2000 and May 2001, and the number of second-year birds in wintering flocks declined by 47%. Population size in Tierra del Fuego declined alarmingly from 51,000 to 27,000 in 2000-2002, seriously threatening the viability of this subspecies. Demographic modelling predicts imminent endangerment and an increased risk of extinction of the subspecies without urgent risk-averse management.

  5. Validating the Incorporation of 13C and 15N in a Shorebird That Consumes an Isotopically Distinct Chemosymbiotic Bivalve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A van Gils

    Full Text Available The wealth of field studies using stable isotopes to make inferences about animal diets require controlled validation experiments to make proper interpretations. Despite several pleas in the literature for such experiments, validation studies are still lagging behind, notably in consumers dwelling in chemosynthesis-based ecosystems. In this paper we present such a validation experiment for the incorporation of 13C and 15N in the blood plasma of a medium-sized shorebird, the red knot (Calidris canutus canutus, consuming a chemosymbiotic lucinid bivalve (Loripes lucinalis. Because this bivalve forms a symbiosis with chemoautotrophic sulphide-oxidizing bacteria living inside its gill, the bivalve is isotopically distinct from 'normal' bivalves whose food has a photosynthetic basis. Here we experimentally tested the hypothesis that isotope discrimination and incorporation dynamics are different when consuming such chemosynthesis-based prey. The experiment showed that neither the isotopic discrimination factor, nor isotopic turnover time, differed between birds consuming the chemosymbiotic lucinid and a control group consuming a photosynthesis-based bivalve. This was true for 13C as well as for 15N. However, in both groups the 15N discrimination factor was much higher than expected, which probably had to do with the birds losing body mass over the course of the experiment.

  6. Shellfish dredging pushes a flexible avian top predator out of a marine protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A van Gils

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread concern about the direct and indirect effects of industrial fisheries; this concern is particularly pertinent for so-called "marine protected areas" (MPAs, which should be safeguarded by national and international law. The intertidal flats of the Dutch Wadden Sea are a State Nature Monument and are protected under the Ramsar convention and the European Union's Habitat and Birds Directives. Until 2004, the Dutch government granted permission for ~75% of the intertidal flats to be exploited by mechanical dredgers for edible cockles (Cerastoderma edule. Here we show that dredged areas belonged to the limited area of intertidal flats that were of sufficient quality for red knots (Calidris canutus islandica, a long-distance migrant molluscivore specialist, to feed. Dredging led to relatively lower settlement rates of cockles and also reduced their quality (ratio of flesh to shell. From 1998 to 2002, red knots increased gizzard mass to compensate for a gradual loss in shellfish quality, but this compensation was not sufficient and led to decreases in local survival. Therefore, the gradual destruction of the necessary intertidal resources explains both the loss of red knots from the Dutch Wadden Sea and the decline of the European wintering population. This study shows that MPAs that do not provide adequate protection from fishing may fail in their conservation objectives.

  7. Empirical evidence for differential organ reductions during trans-oceanic bird flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battley, P F; Piersma, T; Dietz, M W; Tang, S; Dekinga, A; Hulsman, K

    2000-01-22

    Since the early 1960s it has been held that migrating birds deposit and use only fat as fuel during migratory flight, with the non-fat portion of the body remaining homeostatic. Recent evidence from field studies has shown large changes in organ sizes in fuelling birds, and theory on fuel use suggests protein may be a necessary fuel during flight. However, an absence of information on the body condition of migrants before and after a long flight has hampered understanding of the dynamics of organs during sustained flight. We studied body condition in a medium-sized shorebird, the great knot (Calidris tenuirostris), before and after a flight of 5400 km from Australia to China during northward migration. Not only did these birds show the expected large reduction in fat content after migration, there was also a decrease in lean tissue mass, with significant decreases in seven organs. The reduction in functional components is reflected in a lowering of the basal metabolic rate by 42% [corrected]. Recent flight models have tried to separate the 'flexible' part of the body from the constant portion. Our results suggest that apart from brains and lungs no organs are homeostatic during long-distance flight. Such organ reductions may be a crucial adaptation for long-distance flight in birds.

  8. Distribution of Cd and Pb in a wetland ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何文珊; 陆健健

    2001-01-01

    Cadmium and lead contents in sediments, dominant species of plants (Phargmites aus-tralis and Scripus mariquter), benthos (Helice tridens tientsinensis, llyoplax deschampsi, and Bul-lacta exarata), and waders (Calidris ruficollis) on the Eastern End of Chongming Island were measured. The results showed that, for cadmium, there are clear stratification in the sediment of reclaimed area and bio-amplification in food chain. However, for lead, a phenomenon was different. The amplification factors (AFs) for cadmium of primary producers, primary consumers, and secondary consumers were 2.59-12.38, 0.09-8.44, and 51.1, respectively. For lead, AFs of primary producers, primary consumers and the top trophic layer were 0.29-2.62, 0.06-5.62, and 7.31, respectively. Each species of macrobenthos showed different strategies to cadmium and lead. Large-sized crabs accumulated more lead, while small-sized crabs and snails accumulated more cadmium. Waders had significantly highest AFs for cadmium and lead in the study. Tha

  9. Avian pectoral muscle size rapidly tracks body mass changes during flight, fasting and fuelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, A; Kvist, A; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; Dietz, M W

    2000-03-01

    We used ultrasonic imaging to monitor short-term changes in the pectoral muscle size of captive red knots Calidris canutus. Pectoral muscle thickness changed rapidly and consistently in parallel with body mass changes caused by flight, fasting and fuelling. Four knots flew repeatedly for 10 h periods in a wind tunnel. Over this period, pectoral muscle thickness decreased in parallel with the decrease in body mass. The change in pectoral muscle thickness during flight was indistinguishable from that during periods of natural and experimental fasting and fuelling. The body-mass-related variation in pectoral muscle thickness between and within individuals was not related to the amount of flight, indicating that changes in avian muscle do not require power-training as in mammals. Our study suggests that it is possible for birds to consume and replace their flight muscles on a time scale short enough to allow these muscles to be used as part of the energy supply for migratory flight. The adaptive significance of the changes in pectoral muscle mass cannot be explained by reproductive needs since our knots were in the early winter phase of their annual cycle. Instead, pectoral muscle mass changes may reflect (i) the breakdown of protein during heavy exercise and its subsequent restoration, (ii) the regulation of flight capacity to maintain optimal flight performance when body mass varies, or (iii) the need for a particular protein:fat ratio in winter survival stores.

  10. Shellfish dredging pushes a flexible avian top predator out of a marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gils, Jan A; Piersma, Theunis; Dekinga, Anne; Spaans, Bernard; Kraan, Casper

    2006-11-01

    There is a widespread concern about the direct and indirect effects of industrial fisheries; this concern is particularly pertinent for so-called "marine protected areas" (MPAs), which should be safeguarded by national and international law. The intertidal flats of the Dutch Wadden Sea are a State Nature Monument and are protected under the Ramsar convention and the European Union's Habitat and Birds Directives. Until 2004, the Dutch government granted permission for ~75% of the intertidal flats to be exploited by mechanical dredgers for edible cockles (Cerastoderma edule). Here we show that dredged areas belonged to the limited area of intertidal flats that were of sufficient quality for red knots (Calidris canutus islandica), a long-distance migrant molluscivore specialist, to feed. Dredging led to relatively lower settlement rates of cockles and also reduced their quality (ratio of flesh to shell). From 1998 to 2002, red knots increased gizzard mass to compensate for a gradual loss in shellfish quality, but this compensation was not sufficient and led to decreases in local survival. Therefore, the gradual destruction of the necessary intertidal resources explains both the loss of red knots from the Dutch Wadden Sea and the decline of the European wintering population. This study shows that MPAs that do not provide adequate protection from fishing may fail in their conservation objectives.

  11. The olenekian carbonates of the Bucovinian nappe (the central sector of the Haghimas syncline, Eastern Carpathians. Lithology and microfacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Popescu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Early Triassic carbonate outcrops were studied in the central sector of the Hăghimaş Syncline with regard to stratigraphy, microfacies and facies interpretation.This is the first microfacies study of these deposits. Early Triassic carbonates in the Hăghimaş Syncline are represented by two stratified successions: limestones and dolomites. The limestones overlie very rarely the detritic basal deposits (Induan which marks the beginning of the alpine transgression. The stratified dolomites underlie frequently the Early Anisian massive dolomites. The contact between the stratified limestones and stratified dolomites is only exposed on Calu brook outcrop (the western flank of the Hăghimaş Syncline. The age of the investigated carbonates is Olenekian, based on the occurrence of Meandrospira pusilla biozone (in limestones. The foraminifera are very scarce in dolomites, represented mostly by Earlandia taxa. Microfacies data indicate the existence of a carbonate platform. The Olenekian carbonates yield a broad spectrum of microfacies types, predominantly micrites and biomicrites with foraminifera associated with echinoderms, ostracods, radiolarians, calcitized gastropods etc. These facies types are also known from the carbonate platforms in other parts of the Tethys.

  12. Indirect effects of herbivory on plant-pollinator interactions in invasive Lythrum salicaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Mercier, Jake L; Sargent, Risa D

    2015-05-01

    Herbivory can affect a plant's fitness in a variety of ways, including modifying the biotic interactions of the plant. In particular, when herbivory influences floral display, we hypothesize that pollinator visitation will be altered accordingly. Here we studied the indirect effects of feeding by two beetles, Neogalerucella calmariensis and N. pusilla, released as a biological control, on plant-pollinator interactions and fitness in the invasive plant, purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). Two herbivory treatments (ambient and simulated) were applied to plants in a naturally occurring population of purple loosestrife. During flowering, traits of plants in the treatment and control groups were recorded. Data on pollinator visitation behavior was then collected after intense larval herbivory had ended. Plants exposed to herbivory treatments produced more flowers and inflorescences but flowered significantly later than those in the control group. Moreover, we found a significant, positive association of herbivory with the number of flowers probed by bumblebees and with the number of times a foraging pollinator moved among inflorescences on a single plant. No differences in female fitness (fruit or seed production) were detected. We conclude that herbivore-mediated differences in floral display traits impacted pollinator visitation behavior. However, as we discuss, differences in pollinator visitation did not translate into detectable differences in female reproductive success. We postulate that herbivory could influence other unmeasured aspects of fitness, such as seed quality or the number of seeds sired. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  13. Importance of the 2014 Colorado River Delta pulse flow for migratory songbirds: Insights from foraging behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, Abigail J.; Greeney, Harold F.; Van Riper, Charles

    2017-01-01

    The Lower Colorado River provides critical riparian areas in an otherwise arid region and is an important stopover site for migrating landbirds. In order to reverse ongoing habitat degradation due to drought and human-altered hydrology, a pulse flow was released from Morelos Dam in spring of 2014, which brought surface flow to dry stretches of the Colorado River in Mexico. To assess the potential effects of habitat modification resulting from the pulse flow, we used foraging behavior of spring migrants from past and current studies to assess the relative importance of different riparian habitats. We observed foraging birds in 2000 and 2014 at five riparian sites along the Lower Colorado River in Mexico to quantify prey attack rates, prey attack maneuvers, vegetation use patterns, and degree of preference for fully leafed-out or flowering plants. Prey attack rate was highest in mesquite (Prosopis spp.) in 2000 and in willow (Salix gooddingii) in 2014; correspondingly, migrants predominantly used mesquite in 2000 and willow in 2014 and showed a preference for willows in flower or fruit in 2014. Wilson’s warbler (Cardellina pusilla) used relatively more low-energy foraging maneuvers in willow than in tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) or mesquite. Those patterns in foraging behavior suggest native riparian vegetation, and especially willow, are important resources for spring migrants along the lower Colorado River. Willow is a relatively short-lived tree dependent on spring floods for dispersal and establishment and thus spring migrants are likely to benefit from controlled pulse flows.

  14. Naropini Stichel, taxonomia e imaturos (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Brassolinae Naropini Stichel, taxonomy and immatures (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Brassolinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna M. Casagrande

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study of Naropini (Stichel, 1925 Casagrande, 1996 is presented. The species of this tribe occur exclusively in the Neotropical Region. All the known species of Aponarope Casagrande, 1982, and Narope Doubleday, [1849] are redescribed, new species are described and all of them are illustrated. Immatures of Narope cyllene C. Felder & R. Felder, 1859 are redescribed. Head chaetotaxy of the first instar larva is illustrated with electron micrographies. Both, the head and body chaetotaxy of this instar is also interpreted. The following are new species: Narope minor Casagrande, Oaxaca, Mexico; Panama, Veraguas, Panama; San Jose, Costa Rica. - Narope obidos Casagrande, Pará, Mato Grosso, Espírito Santo, Brazil; Madre de Dios, Peru. - Narope ybyra Casagrande, Bolivia. - Narope cauca Casagrande, Cauca Valley, Colombia. Lectotypes are designated for the following species or subspecies: Narope cyllastros Doubleday, [1849]; Narope cyllarus Westwood, 1851; Narope panniculus piccatus Stichel, 1916; Narope nesope Hewitson, 1869; Narope testacea Godman & Salvin, 1878; Narope cyllabarus Westwood, 1851; Narope anartes Hewitson, 1874; Narope marmorata Schaus, 1902, and Narope pluto Tessmann, 1928. Narope denticulalus Talbot, 1928 is a stat. n. Narope syllabus stygius Staudinger, 1887 is a ssp. rev., comb. n. Narope testacea Godman & Salvin, 1878 is a stat. rev. Narope marmorata Shaus, 1902 is a stat. rev. The following are syn. n.; Narope pusilla Röber, 1929 of Narope nesope Hewitson, 1869; Narope sarastro Staudinger (1886 and Narope sarastro disyllus Fruhstorfer, 1912 of Narope anartes Hewitson, 1874, and Narope panniculus piccata Stichel, 1916 of Narope panniculus Stichel, 1904.

  15. Quirópteros do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Bats from Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dias

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856; Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842; Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856; Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838; Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767; Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823; Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903; Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818; Glosso-phaga soricina (Pallas, 1766; Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758; Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838; Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Artibeus obscuras Schinz, 1821; Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901; Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843; Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Diphylla ecaudata Von Spix, 1823; Eptesicus brasiliensis (DesMarest, 1819; Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Molossus molossus (Palas, 1766. One external (forearm length and 13 cranial meansurements were studied for 23 species. The meansurements of male and female specimens were treated separately. Comments about some taxonomic respects for some species studied are also included.

  16. DIATOMS (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE IN RIVERS AND STREAMS AND ON CULTIVATED SOILS OF THE PODKARPACIE REGION IN THE YEARS 2007–2011

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    Teresa Noga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diatoms Bacillariophyceae are a specialized, systematic group of algae, living in different types of ecosystems, and they are very good indicators of water quality. Recently, detailed studies have been carried out in the territory of the Podkarpacie Province on the diversity of diatoms in running waters. The area of study covers mostly the catchment of the biggest rivers of the province (mainly the River Wisłok and cultivated soils. Running waters in the Podkarpacie Province are characterized by a huge species richness of diatoms, 738 different taxa have been found so far. The highest number of taxa was noted in the Wisłok River (400, while the Żołynianka and Różanka streams and the Mleczka were also characterized by huge diversity (from 200 to over 350 taxa. In the majority of studied sites diatoms of alkaline (pH>7 and nutrient rich (eutrophic waters dominated: Navicula lanceolata, N. gregaria, N. capitatoradiata, Nitzschia palea, N. dissipata ssp. dissipata, Achnanthidium minutissimum var. minutissimum, A. pyrenaicum, Amphora pediculus, Diatoma vulgaris, Rhoicosphenia abbreviata, Planothidium lanceolatum, Cocconeis pediculus and C. placentula var. lineata. About 150 taxa were indentified on cultivated soils, among which the largest populations were formed by Hantzschia amphioxys, Mayamaea atomus, Nitzschia palea, N. pusilla, Pinnularia obscura and Stauroneis thermicola.

  17. Ultrastructure variation in the spermatozoa of Pseudopaludicola frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae), with brief comments on its phylogenetic relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Julio Sérgio; Introíni, Gisele Orlandi; Veiga-Menoncello, Ana Cristina Prado; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2015-12-01

    The taxonomic history of the small frogs of the genus Pseudopaludicola from South America has been controversial. Phylogenetic inferences based on molecular data have identified four Pseudopaludicola clades, correlating with the known variation in karyotypes (2n = 22, 20, 18, and 16). In this study, the ultrastructure of the spermatozoa was analyzed in 12 species of the Pseudopaludicola, with the aim of describing their morphology and identifying characters that may contribute to a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships. The spermatozoa presented marked differences in tail structures. The tails of the spermatozoa of the species with 2n = 22 chromosomes (Pseudopaludicola sp. 1 [P. pusilla group], Pseudopaludicola falcipes, P. mineira, and Pseudopaludicola saltica), as well as Pseudopaludicola ameghini and Pseudopaludicola ternetzi (2n=20), have juxta-axonemal fibers, undulating membranes and axial fibers. In contrast, in the species with 2n = 18 (P. facureae, P. giarettai, Pseudopaludicola canga, P. atragula, and Pseudopaludicola sp. 2) and 2n = 16 (Pseudopaludicola mystacalis), there are no evident axial or juxta-axonemal fibers, but a paraxonemal rod with a thick undulating membrane, which is shorter than that found among Pseudopaludicola species. The ultrastructural morphological differences observed in the spermatozoa of these species may be phylogenetically informative, given that they coincide with the consensus phylogeny of the group and appear to represent a progressive simplification of the spermatozoon.

  18. Hannaella pagnoccae sp. nov., a tremellaceous yeast species isolated from plants and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landell, Melissa Fontes; Brandão, Luciana R; Barbosa, Anne C; Ramos, Jesus P; Safar, Silvana V B; Gomes, Fatima C O; Sousa, Francisca M P; Morais, Paula B; Broetto, Leonardo; Leoncini, Orílio; Ribeiro, José Roberto; Fungsin, Bundit; Takashima, Masako; Nakase, Takashi; Lee, Ching-Fu; Vainstein, Marilene H; Fell, Jack W; Scorzetti, Gloria; Vishniac, Helen S; Rosa, Carlos A; Valente, Patricia

    2014-06-01

    Several independent surveys of yeasts associated with different plant materials and soil led to the proposal of a novel yeast species belonging to the Tremellales clade (Agaricomycotina, Basidiomycota). Analysis of the sequences of the D1/D2 domains and internal transcribed spacer region of the large subunit of the rRNA gene suggested affinity to a phylogenetic lineage that includes Hannaella coprosmaensis, Hannaella oryzae and Hannaella sinensis. Thirty-two isolates were obtained from different sources, including bromeliads, nectar of Heliconia psittacorum (Heliconiaceae), flowers of Pimenta dioica (Myrtaceae), roots and leaves of sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) in Brazil, leaves of Cratoxylum maingayi, Arundinaria pusilla and Vitis vinifera in Thailand, soil samples in Taiwan, and prairie soil in the USA. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene showed that the novel species differs from Hannaella coprosmaensis and Hannaella oryzae by 36 and 46 nt substitutions, respectively. A novel species is suggested to accommodate these isolates, for which the name Hannaella pagnoccae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BI118(T) ( = CBS 11142(T) = ATCC MYA-4530(T)).

  19. Planktonic rotifers in a subtropical shallow lake: succession, relationship to environmental factors, and use as bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Gaohua; Wang, Xianyun; Wang, Liqing

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the density and species composition of planktonic rotifers as well as their relationship to several environmental variables were studied at Dadian Lake, a shallow subtropical lake, which was completely dredged and reconstructed. Samples were taken monthly (2006-2009) at five stations. The total rotifer abundance exponentially declined and reached a relatively stable stage in 2009. Polyarthra dolichoptera and Trichocerca pusilla dominated the rotifer community in most seasons. TN, TP, and CODMn went down at the beginning of the monitoring period, rebounded in the second winter, and then decreased and reached a stable state in 2009. CCA showed that the most significant variations were caused by fluctuations in temperature, COD(Mn), SRP, and NO2-N. The rotifer community experienced a two-stage succession and the difference of species between the stages was exhibited during warm seasons. GAMs indicated that the selected factors were responsible for 64.8% of the total rotifer abundance variance and 16.5~64.3% of the variances of individual species abundance. Most of the environmental parameters had effects on rotifer abundance that could only be described by complicated curves, characterised by unimodality and bimodality instead of linearity. Our study highlighted the temperature influence on rotifer species composition and total abundance in subtropical lakes.

  20. Zooplankton-based assessment of the trophic state of a tropical forest river in Nigeria

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    Imoobe T.O.T.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we explore the usefulness of zooplankton as a tool for assessing the trophic status of a Nigerian forest river. The river was sampled monthly and investigated for water physico-chemistry and zooplankton community structure using basic statistical measurement of diversity indices to characterize the zooplankton fauna. The trophic sta­tus of the river evaluated from its physico-chemical parameters indicates that the river is oligotrophic. The zooplankton composition was typical of a tropical freshwater river, with a total of 40 species, made up of 16 rotifers, 12 cladocerans, and 12 copepods and their developing stages in the following order of dominance: Rotifera > Cladocera > Cyclopoida > Calanoida. There were strong correlations between the lake's trophic status and its zooplankton communities. The zoo­plankton community was dominated by numerous species of rotifers and crustaceans, which are typical of oligotrophic to mesotrophic systems, such species including Conochilus dossuarius and Synchaeta longipes. However, the most dominant zooplankton species in West African freshwater ecosystems, viz., Keratella tropica, Keratella quadrata, Brachionus angularis, Trichocerca pusilla, Filinia longiseta, Pompholyx sulcata, and Proales sp., and others that are indicator species of high trophic levels, were not recorded in the river. The river is very clear and can be used for all manner of recreational activities.

  1. Bioindicators of Organochlorine Pesticides in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Western Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu; Boyarova, Margarita D; Lukyanova, Olga N; Khristoforova, Nadezhda K

    2017-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as HCHs and DDTs, are still used as pesticides in the Southern Hemisphere and can reach the North Pacific due to long range atmospheric transfer. Marine mammals (Pacific walrus Odobenus rosmarus divergens, gray whale Eschrichtius robustus), the seabirds (Pacific gull Larus schistisagus, crested auklet Aethia cristatella, auklet crumb Aethia pusilla, northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, and grey petrel Oceanodroma furcata) and Pacific salmon (pink Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, chum O. keta, chinook O. tshawytscha, and sockeye O. nerka) were collected near the Kuril Islands (the northern-western part of the Pacific Ocean), in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea. The total OCPs concentration (HCHs + DDTs) was found in each organism, including the Pacific walrus (70-90,263 ng/g lipid), the seabirds (29-16,095 ng/g lipid), and the Pacific salmon (41-7103 ng/g lipid). The concentrations and possible sources of OCPs in marine organisms as biological indicators are discussed.

  2. Predicting the Reproduction Strategies of Several Microalgae Through Their Genome Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Li; YANG Guanpin

    2015-01-01

    Documenting the sex and sexual reproduction of the microalgae is very difficult, as most of the results are based on the microscopic observation that can be heavily influenced by genetic, physiological and environmental conditions. Understanding the reproduction strategy of some microalgae is required to breed them in large scale culture industry. Instead of direct observation of sex and sexual reproduction under microscope, the whole set or the majority of core meiosis genes may evidence the sex and sexual reproduction in the unicellular algae, as the meiosis is necessary for maintaining the genomic stability and the advantages of genetic recombination. So far, the available genome sequences and bioinformatic tools (in this study, homolog searching and phylogenetic analysis) allow us to propose that at least 20 core meiosis genes (among them≥6 must be meiosis specific) are enough for an alga to maintain its sexual reproduction. According to this assumption and the genome sequences, it is possible that sexual reproduction was carried out byMicromonas pusilla andCyanidioschyzon merolae, while asexual reproduction was adopted byBigelowiella natans, Guillardia theta,Nannochloropsis gaditana,N. oceanica,Chlorella variablis,Phaeodactylum tricornutum andThalassiosira pseu-donana. This understanding will facilitate the breeding trials of some economic microalgae (e.g.,N. gaditana,N. oceanica,C. vari-ablis andP. tricornutum). However, the reproduction strategies of these microalgae need to be proved by further biological experiments.

  3. Breeding bird communities of reclaimed coal-mine grasslands in the American midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVault, T.L.; Scott, P.E.; Bajema, R.A.; Lima, S.L.

    2002-07-01

    The breeding bird communities of 19 reclaimed surface coal-mine grasslands in southwestern Indiana in 1997-1998, using roadside point counts and off-road transects were investigated. The mine grasslands in this study were large, ranging from 110 to 3180 ha in area (median, 590 ha). Although dominated by a few Eurasian grass species, they supported diverse bird communities in which grassland-dependent species were prominent along with grassland-associated and successional scrub species. The mean abundances of species (relative to one another) on roadside and off-road counts were positively correlated. Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), Eastern Meadowlarks (Sturnella magna), and Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) were present at {gt} 90% of piza americana), Eastern point count locations. Other common species, in descending order, included Dickcissels (S mon Yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas), Killdeers (Charadrius vociferus), Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea), Henslow's Sparrows (Ammodramus henslowii), Field Sparrows (Spizella pusilla), and Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were rare, as were seven grassland-dependent species that were near the edges of their geographic distributions.

  4. Building hierarchical models of avian distributions for the State of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, J.E.; Peterson, J.T.; Conroy, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    To predict the distributions of breeding birds in the state of Georgia, USA, we built hierarchical models consisting of 4 levels of nested mapping units of decreasing area: 90,000 ha, 3,600 ha, 144 ha, and 5.76 ha. We used the Partners in Flight database of point counts to generate presence and absence data at locations across the state of Georgia for 9 avian species: Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens), brownheaded nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor), yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyxus americanus), white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus), and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). At each location, we estimated hierarchical-level-specific habitat measurements using the Georgia GAP Analysis18 class land cover and other Geographic Information System sources. We created candidate, species-specific occupancy models based on previously reported relationships, and fit these using Markov chain Monte Carlo procedures implemented in OpenBugs. We then created a confidence model set for each species based on Akaike's Information Criterion. We found hierarchical habitat relationships for all species. Three-fold cross-validation estimates of model accuracy indicated an average overall correct classification rate of 60.5%. Comparisons with existing Georgia GAP Analysis models indicated that our models were more accurate overall. Our results provide guidance to wildlife scientists and managers seeking predict avian occurrence as a function of local and landscape-level habitat attributes.

  5. 珠江广州河段轮虫群落结构的初步研究%PRIMARY STUDY ON ROTIFER COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN THE GUANGZHOU SEGMENT OF THE RIVER PEARL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆; 杨宇峰

    2007-01-01

    2004年4月-2005年4月,对珠江广州河段轮虫群落结构特征进行了初步研究.经鉴定, 共发现轮虫65种(包括亚种),其中西氏三肢轮虫(Filinia novaezealandiae)、华美腔轮虫(Lecane elegans)为我国的新记录种.优势种为裂痕龟纹轮虫(Anuraeopsis fissa)、角突臂尾轮虫(Brachionus angularis)、尾突臂尾轮虫(Brachionus caudatus)、Filinia novaezealandiae、暗小异尾轮虫(Trichocerca pusilla)和微型多突轮虫(Liliferotrocha subtilis).调查发现径流量对轮虫密度有重要影响,轮虫的两次密度高峰分别出现在春末夏初和秋季.丰水期,轮虫密度较低;枯水期前期,轮虫密度较高;枯水期后期,轮虫密度较低.此外,轮虫种群还受到温度、盐度等因素的影响.研究结果表明轮虫在河流生态系统中具有重要作用.

  6. Fitness Effects of Spontaneous Mutations in Picoeukaryotic Marine Green Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasovec, Marc; Eyre-Walker, Adam; Grimsley, Nigel; Salmeron, Christophe; Pecqueur, David; Piganeau, Gwenael; Sanchez-Ferandin, Sophie

    2016-07-07

    Estimates of the fitness effects of spontaneous mutations are important for understanding the adaptive potential of species. Here, we present the results of mutation accumulation experiments over 265-512 sequential generations in four species of marine unicellular green algae, Ostreococcus tauri RCC4221, Ostreococcus mediterraneus RCC2590, Micromonas pusilla RCC299, and Bathycoccus prasinos RCC1105. Cell division rates, taken as a proxy for fitness, systematically decline over the course of the experiment in O. tauri, but not in the three other species where the MA experiments were carried out over a smaller number of generations. However, evidence of mutation accumulation in 24 MA lines arises when they are exposed to stressful conditions, such as changes in osmolarity or exposure to herbicides. The selection coefficients, estimated from the number of cell divisions/day, varies significantly between the different environmental conditions tested in MA lines, providing evidence for advantageous and deleterious effects of spontaneous mutations. This suggests a common environmental dependence of the fitness effects of mutations and allows the minimum mutation/genome/generation rates to be inferred at 0.0037 in these species. Copyright © 2016 Krasovec et al.

  7. Marine algae and land plants share conserved phytochrome signaling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duanmu, Deqiang; Bachy, Charles; Sudek, Sebastian; Wong, Chee-Hong; Jiménez, Valeria; Rockwell, Nathan C; Martin, Shelley S; Ngan, Chew Yee; Reistetter, Emily N; van Baren, Marijke J; Price, Dana C; Wei, Chia-Lin; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Lagarias, J Clark; Worden, Alexandra Z

    2014-11-04

    Phytochrome photosensors control a vast gene network in streptophyte plants, acting as master regulators of diverse growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle. In contrast with their absence in known chlorophyte algal genomes and most sequenced prasinophyte algal genomes, a phytochrome is found in Micromonas pusilla, a widely distributed marine picoprasinophyte (algae and land plants. These analyses reveal a monophyletic clade containing streptophyte, prasinophyte, cryptophyte, and glaucophyte phytochromes implying an origin in the eukaryotic ancestor of the Archaeplastida. Transcriptomic measurements reveal diurnal regulation of phytochrome and bilin chromophore biosynthetic genes in Micromonas. Expression of these genes precedes both light-mediated phytochrome redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased expression of photosynthesis-associated genes. Prasinophyte phytochromes perceive wavelengths of light transmitted farther through seawater than the red/far-red light sensed by land plant phytochromes. Prasinophyte phytochromes also retain light-regulated histidine kinase activity lost in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Our studies demonstrate that light-mediated nuclear translocation of phytochrome predates the emergence of land plants and likely represents a widespread signaling mechanism in unicellular algae.

  8. Structure of a bat assemblage (Mammalia, Chiroptera in Serra do Caraça Reserve, South-east Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcão Fábio de C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Serra do Caraça Reserve is situated in the southern portion of the Espinhaço Mountain Range, and contains areas of "campos de altitude", "cerrado" and atlantic forest. This study had as its objective the registering of the bats species that occur in the reserve. The data collection was carried out in one year through monthly samplings, using mist nets set on trails, and also through hand capture. A total of 246 individuals were collected (0.72 bats/net-hour, distributed across 15 species, belonging to the families Phyllostomidae (83.0%; nine species, Vespertilionidae (12.5%; three species and Molossidae (4.5%; three species. The most abundant species were Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 121, 60.5%, Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 (n = 21, 10.5% and Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 10, 5.0%, and less represented were Lasiurus blossevilli (Lesson y Garnot, 1826 (n = 2, 1.0%, Eumops perotis (Schinz, 1821 (n = 2, 1.0% e Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843 (n = 1, 0.5%. The richness of species found and the non-occurrence of phyllostomines in the reserve could be indicative of some level of forest disturbance.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the yellow-browed bunting, Emberiza chrysophrys (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), and phylogenetic relationships within the genus Emberiza

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qiongqiong Ren; Jian Yuan; Liqian Ren; Liqin Zhang; Lei Zhang; Lan Jiang; Dongsheng Chen; Xianzhao Kan; Baowei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial genomes have proved to be powerful tools in resolving phylogenetic relationships. Emberiza chrysophrys (least concern species: IUCN 2013) is a passerine bird in the bunting family, Emberizidae. The complete mitochondrial genome of E. chrysophrys was sequenced. This circular mitochondrial genome was 16,803 bp in length, with an A+T content of 52.26%, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and a putative control region (CR). The CR of E. chrysophrys was divided into three conserved domains. Six conserved sequence boxes in the central conserved domain II were identified as F, E, D, C, b and B. An obvious positive AT-skew and negative GC-skew bias were found for all 28 genes encoded by the H strand, whereas it was the reverse in the remaining nine genes encoded by the L strand. Remarkable rate heterogeneity was present in the mitochondrial genome of E. chrysophrys. Notably, unusual slow rate of evolution in the mitochondrial CR of E. chrysophrys was detected, which is rarely seen in other birds. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out based on 13 PCGs that showed E. pusilla was the sister group of E. rustica, and the monophyly of Emberiza was established.

  10. Use of Occupancy Models to Evaluate Expert Knowledge-based Species-Habitat Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica N. Iglecia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Expert knowledge-based species-habitat relationships are used extensively to guide conservation planning, particularly when data are scarce. Purported relationships describe the initial state of knowledge, but are rarely tested. We assessed support in the data for suitability rankings of vegetation types based on expert knowledge for three terrestrial avian species in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States. Experts used published studies, natural history, survey data, and field experience to rank vegetation types as optimal, suitable, and marginal. We used single-season occupancy models, coupled with land cover and Breeding Bird Survey data, to examine the hypothesis that patterns of occupancy conformed to species-habitat suitability rankings purported by experts. Purported habitat suitability was validated for two of three species. As predicted for the Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens and Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla, occupancy was strongly influenced by vegetation types classified as "optimal habitat" by the species suitability rankings for nuthatches and wood-pewees. Contrary to predictions, Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus models that included vegetation types as covariates received similar support by the data as models without vegetation types. For all three species, occupancy was also related to sampling latitude. Our results suggest that covariates representing other habitat requirements might be necessary to model occurrence of generalist species like the woodpecker. The modeling approach described herein provides a means to test expert knowledge-based species-habitat relationships, and hence, help guide conservation planning.

  11. How Far into Europe Did Pikas (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae) Go during the Pleistocene? New Evidence from Central Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplana, César; Sevilla, Paloma; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Baquedano, Enrique; Pérez-González, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the first find of pika remains in the Iberian Peninsula, at a site in central Spain. A fragmented mandible of Ochotona cf. pusilla was unearthed from Layer 3 (deposited some 63.4±5.5 ka ago as determined by thermoluminescence) of the Buena Pinta Cave. This record establishes new limits for the genus geographic distribution during the Pleistocene, shifting the previous edge of its known range southwest by some 500 km. It also supports the idea that, even though Europe’s alpine mountain ranges represented a barrier that prevented the dispersal into the south to this and other taxa of small mammals from central and eastern Europe, they were crossed or circumvented at the coldest time intervals of the end of the Middle Pleistocene and of the Late Pleistocene. During those periods both the reduction of the forest cover and the emersion of large areas of the continental shelf due to the drop of the sea level probably provided these species a way to surpass this barrier. The pika mandible was found accompanying the remains of other small mammals adapted to cold climates, indicating the presence of steppe environments in central Iberia during the Late Pleistocene. PMID:26535576

  12. Cenoses of phototrophic algae of ultrasaline lakes in the Kulunda steppe (Altai krai, Russian Federation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikov, Ph. V.; Kalinina, O. Yu.; Nikitin, M. A.; Samylina, O. S.

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, expeditions of the Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, delivered samples of algo-bacterial mats from Kulunda steppe alkaline lakes (Petukhovskoe alkaline lake, Tanatar VI, and Gorchina III). The filamentous alga Ctenocladus circinnatus (Chlorophyta) acted as an edificator of the mats. The composition of cenoses algocomponents also included chlorophytes Dunaliella viridis and Picocystis salinarum as well as diatoms Anomeoneis sphaerophora, Brachysira brebissonii, B. zellensis, Mastogloia pusilla var. subcapitata, Nitzschia amphibia, N. cf. communis, and Nitzschia sp. 1. The composition and structure of phototrophic algae cenoses (including diatom taxocenes) were described for the investigated lakes for the first time. For the period from 2011 to 2012, the total mineralization significantly increased in lakes. This involved sensible alterations of cenoses. B. zellensis was the most permanent component of diatom taxocenes in both seasons. In the summer of 2011, it was often accompanied by A. sphaerophora and B. brebissonii. In the summer of 2012, A. sphaerophora was found only singularly in Lake Gorchina III, and some biotopes of Lake Tanatar VI were massively inhabited by N. cf. communis, including colonies that had not been previously described for the species. The genetic analysis of three diatoms, which are markedly different from each other in their appearance and were sampled from different lakes but were all determined as Nitzschia cf. communis, showed their complete similarity to each other with the 18S rRNA gene fragment and the highest similarity of all the three diatoms with the species Nitzschia communis.

  13. Species diversity of corticolous myxomycetes in Tianmu Mountain National Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi-Sha; Yan, Shu-Zhen; Dai, Jun-Yong; Chen, Shuang-Lin

    2013-12-01

    The species diversity of corticolous myxomycetes on 4 vegetation types in the Tianmu Mountain National Natural Reserve, eastern China, was examined from 2011 to 2012. A total of 1440 moist chamber cultures were prepared with bark samples, which yielded several hundred collections representing 42 species in 20 genera. It was found that 79% of cultures produced some evidence (either plasmodia or fruiting bodies) of myxomycetes. Eight species (Comatricha elegans, Cribraria confusa, Licea pusilla, Cribraria microcarpa, Collaria arcyrionema, Licea biforis, Arcyria cinerea, and Clastoderma debaryanum) were abundant (exceeding 3% of all records), but about a third of all species were classified as rare. Species richness (S = 33) and diversity (exp[H'] = 16.60, S/G = 1.74) of corticolous myxomycetes were the most diverse in the deciduous broadleaf forest. The species recorded from coniferous forest showed the lowest species richness (S = 21) but the highest evenness (J' = 0.91). The cluster analyses were based on the Bray-Curtis similarity matrix, and the results indicated that corticolous myxomycete assemblages were distributed by a seasonal and annual pattern. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that season and pH were key factors in determining species distribution.

  14. Multiseason occupancy models for correlated replicate surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, James; Nichols, James; Collazo, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Occupancy surveys collecting data from adjacent (sometimes correlated) spatial replicates have become relatively popular for logistical reasons. Hines et al. (2010) presented one approach to modelling such data for single-season occupancy surveys. Here, we present a multiseason analogue of this model (with corresponding software) for inferences about occupancy dynamics. We include a new parameter to deal with the uncertainty associated with the first spatial replicate for both single-season and multiseason models. We use a case study, based on the brown-headed nuthatch, to assess the need for these models when analysing data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS), and we test various hypotheses about occupancy dynamics for this species in the south-eastern United States. The new model permits inference about local probabilities of extinction, colonization and occupancy for sampling conducted over multiple seasons. The model performs adequately, based on a small simulation study and on results of the case study analysis. The new model incorporating correlated replicates was strongly favoured by model selection for the BBS data for brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla). Latitude was found to be an important source of variation in local colonization and occupancy probabilities for brown-headed nuthatch, with both probabilities being higher near the centre of the species range, as opposed to more northern and southern areas. We recommend this new occupancy model for detection–nondetection studies that use potentially correlated replicates.

  15. Arabinogalactan proteins occur in the free-living cyanobacterium genus Nostoc and in plant-Nostoc symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Owen; Taylor, Oliver; Adams, David G; Knox, J Paul

    2012-10-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) are a diverse family of proteoglycans associated with the cell surfaces of plants. AGP have been implicated in a wide variety of plant cell processes, including signaling in symbioses. This study investigates the existence of putative AGP in free-living cyanobacterial cultures of the nitrogen-fixing, filamentous cyanobacteria Nostoc punctiforme and Nostoc sp. strain LBG1 and at the symbiotic interface in the symbioses between Nostoc spp. and two host plants, the angiosperm Gunnera manicata (in which the cyanobacterium is intracellular) and the liverwort Blasia pusilla (in which the cyanobacterium is extracellular). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence analyses demonstrated that three AGP glycan epitopes (recognized by monoclonal antibodies LM14, MAC207, and LM2) are present in free-living Nostoc cyanobacterial species. The same three AGP glycan epitopes are present at the Gunnera-Nostoc symbiotic interface and the LM2 epitope is detected during the establishment of the Blasia-Nostoc symbiosis. Bioinformatic analysis of the N. punctiforme genome identified five putative AGP core proteins that are representative of AGP classes found in plants. These results suggest a possible involvement of AGP in cyanobacterial-plant symbioses and are also suggestive of a cyanobacterial origin of AGP.

  16. Nostopeptolide plays a governing role during cellular differentiation of the symbiotic cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaimer, Anton; Helfrich, Eric J N; Hinrichs, Katrin; Guljamow, Arthur; Ishida, Keishi; Hertweck, Christian; Dittmann, Elke

    2015-02-10

    Nostoc punctiforme is a versatile cyanobacterium that can live either independently or in symbiosis with plants from distinct taxa. Chemical cues from plants and N. punctiforme were shown to stimulate or repress, respectively, the differentiation of infectious motile filaments known as hormogonia. We have used a polyketide synthase mutant that accumulates an elevated amount of hormogonia as a tool to understand the effect of secondary metabolites on cellular differentiation of N. punctiforme. Applying MALDI imaging to illustrate the reprogramming of the secondary metabolome, nostopeptolides were identified as the predominant difference in the pks2(-) mutant secretome. Subsequent differentiation assays and visualization of cell-type-specific expression of nostopeptolides via a transcriptional reporter strain provided evidence for a multifaceted role of nostopeptolides, either as an autogenic hormogonium-repressing factor or as a chemoattractant, depending on its extracellular concentration. Although nostopeptolide is constitutively expressed in the free-living state, secreted levels dynamically change before, during, and after the hormogonium differentiation phase. The metabolite was found to be strictly down-regulated in symbiosis with Gunnera manicata and Blasia pusilla, whereas other metabolites are up-regulated, as demonstrated via MALDI imaging, suggesting plants modulate the fine-balanced cross-talk network of secondary metabolites within N. punctiforme.

  17. Birds of a high-altitude cloud forest in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisermann, Knut; Schulz, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    The Northern Central American Highlands have been recognized as endemic bird area, but little is known about bird communities in Guatemalan cloud forests. From 1997 to 2001 a total of 142 bird species were recorded between 2000 and 2400 masl in cloud forest and agricultural clearings on Montaña Caquipec (Alta Verapaz, Guatemala). The bird community is described based on line transect counts within the forest. Pooling census data from undisturbed and disturbed forest, the Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucophrys) was found to be the most abundant species, followed in descending order by the Common Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus), the Paltry Tyrannulet (Zimmerius vilissimus), the Yellowish Flycatcher (Empidonax flavescens), the Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus frantzi), and the Amethyst-throated Hummingbird (Lampornis amethystinus). Bird communities in undisturbed and disturbed forest were found to be similar (Serensen similarity index 0.85), indicating low human impact. Of all recorded species, approximately 27% were Nearctic-Neotropical migratory birds. The most abundant one was the Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla). The Montaña Caquipec is an important area for bird conservation, which is indicated by the presence of four species listed in the IUCN Red List (Highland Guan Penelopina nigra, Resplendent Quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno, Pink-headed Warbler Ergaticus versicolor, Golden-cheeked Warbler Dendroica chrysoparia), and 42 Mesoamerican endemics, of which 14 species are endemic to the Central American Highlands. The results presented here will be useful as baseline data for a long-term monitoring.

  18. Relationships betweeninterspeciifc differences inthe mass ofinternal organs, biochemical markers ofmetabolic activity, andthe thermogenic properties ofthree small passerines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minlan Bai; Xujian Wu; Kejing Cai; Weihong Zheng; Jinsong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Background: The capacity for thermogenesis is considered part of an animal’s adaptive strategy for survival, and basal metabolic rate (BMR) is one of the fundamental physiological standards for assessing the energy cost of ther-moregulation in endotherms. BMR has been shown to be a highly lfexible phenotypic trait both between, and within, species, but the metabolic mechanisms involved in the regulation of BMR, which range from variation in organ mass to biochemical adjustments, remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between organ mass, biochemical markers of metabolic tissue activity, and thermogenesis, in three species of small passerines: wild Bram-blings (Fringilla montifringilla), Little Buntings (Emberiza pusilla) and Eurasian Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus), caught in Wenzhou, southeastern China. Methods: Oxygen consumption was measured using an open-circuit respirometry system. Mitochondrial state-4 res-piration and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity in liver and pectoral muscle were measured with a Clark electrode. Results: Our results show that Eurasian Tree Sparrows had signiifcantly higher BMR, digestive organ mass, mitochon-drial state-4 respiration capacity and COX activity in liver and muscle, than Bramblings and Little Buntings. Further-more, interspeciifc differences in BMR were strongly correlated with those indigestive tract mass, state-4 respiration and COX activity. Conclusions: Our ifndings suggest that the digestive organ mass, state-4 respiration and COX activity play an impor-tant role in determining interspeciifc differences in BMR.

  19. REPARTICIÓN DE MICROHABITATS ENTRE ESPECIES DE BUFONIDAE Y LEIUPERIDAE (AMPHIBIA: ANURA EN ÁREAS CON BOSQUE SECO TROPICAL DE LA REGION CARIBE-COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla Gómez Maria Argenis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la repartición de microhabitats de cinco especies de anuros pertenecientes a las familias Bufonidae (Rhinella marina, R. granulosa, y Leiuperidae (Engystomops pustulosus, Pleurodema brachyops y Pseudopaludicola pusilla en seis localidades del Caribe Colombiano con fragmentos de bosque seco tropical y diferentes usos de suelo. Se identificaron 29 microhabitats. Los más usado fueron charco de agua Permanente de potreros con arboles (CPPA y potreros inundables sin árboles (PISA. La especie que mayor cantidad de microhabitats usó fue E. pustulosus. No hubo especialistas en el uso de estos ambientes. Se presentaron diferencias en el uso de este recurso a escalas regional y local. La dinámica de uso de los microhabitats estuvo influenciada por las variaciones climáticas del bosque seco tropical. Existe repartición de microhabitats como mecanismo de coexistencia en estas especies para época seca. En el periodo de lluvias este mecanismo no se aplicó.

  20. Bird ringing in Slovenia in 2014 and results of the first telemetry study of an African migrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrezec Al

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, 162 bird species were recorded during the bird ringing activities in Slovenia. Of 155 species, 62,275 birds were ringed, and 107 recoveries of birds ringed in Slovenia and found abroad, 148 foreign recoveries in Slovenia and 1395 local recoveries were recorded. The most frequently ringed species were Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla and Great Tit Parus major. As far as ringed nestlings are concerned, Great Tits and Barn Swalllows Hirundo rustica predominated. Considering the recoveries ringed of found birds abroad, the commonest were Black-headed Gulls Chroicocephalus ridibundus and Mute Swans Cygnus olor. The farthest recovery was a Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica found in the Democratic Republic of Congo (5171 km away. Among the more interesting finds was also the so far southernmost recovery of a Sand Martin Riparia riparia found in Israel. Let us also mention the first recovery of a Corncrake Crex crex, which bred and was ringed in 2013 at Planinsko polje (central Slovenia and was found in the 2014 breeding season in the Czech Republic. Among rare species, two Little Buntings Emberiza pusilla were caught and ringed. After nine years, the Roller Coracias garrulus bred again in Slovenia in 2014 and its nestlings were ringed. The paper also brings the description of the migration route of the first African migrant, the Black Stork Ciconia nigra, marked with a GPS/GSM telemetric device, which migrated across the Adriatic Sea, Sicily and Sahara to Nigeria.

  1. Diversity of cyanobacterial species and phylotypes in biofilms from the littoral zone of Lake Baikal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokovikova, Ekaterina G; Belykh, Olga I; Gladkikh, Anna S; Kotsar, Oleg V; Tikhonova, Irina V; Timoshkin, Oleg A; Parfenova, Valentina V

    2013-12-01

    The majority of naturally occurring biofilms contain numerous microorganisms that have not yet been cultured. Additionally, there is little information available regarding the genetic structure and species diversity of these communities. Therefore, we characterised the species diversity, structure and metagenome of biofilms grown on stones and steel plates in the littoral zone of Lake Baikal (East Siberia, Russia) by applying three different approaches. First, light microscopy enabled identification of the species diversity of biofilm-forming cyanobacteria on different substrates with the dominance of Rivularia rufescens, Tolypothrix limbata, Chamaesiphon fuscus, Ch. subglobosus, and Heteroleibleinia pusilla. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy was used to show the spatial structure of biofilms. Finally, sequence analysis of 30,660 16S rRNA clones indicated a high diversity within the biofilm communities, with the majority of the microbes being closely related to Cyanobacteria (8-46% sequences), Proteobacteria (14-43%), and Bacteroidetes (10-41%). Rivularia sp., Pseudanabaena sp., and Chamaesiphon spp. were the dominant cyanobacterial phylotypes.

  2. DNA nucleoside composition and methylation in several species of microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, E.E.; Dunahay, T.G.; Brown, L.M. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States))

    1992-06-01

    Total DNA was isolated from 10 species of microalgae, including representatives of the Chlorophyceae (Chlorella ellipsoidea, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and Monoraphidium minutum), Bacillariophyceae (Cyclotella cryptica, Navicula saprophila, Nitzschia pusilla, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum), Charophyceae (Stichococcus sp.), Dinophyceae (Crypthecodinium cohnii), and Prasinophyceae (Tetraselmis suecica). Control samples of Escherichia coli and calf thymus DNA were also analyzed. The nucleoside base composition of each DNA sample was determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. All samples contained 5-methyldeoxycytidine, although at widely varying levels. In M. minutum, about one-third of the cytidine residues were methylated. Restriction analysis supported this high degree of methylation in M. minutum and suggested that methylation is biased toward 5[prime]-CG dinucleotides. The guanosine + cytosine (GC) contents of the green algae were, with the exception of Stichococcus sp., consistently higher than those of the diatoms. Monoraphidium minutum exhibited an extremely high GC content of 71%. Such a value is rare among eukaryotic organisms and might indicate an unusual codon usage. This work is important for developing strategies for transformation and gene cloning in these algae. 46 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Effects of vegetation, corridor width and regional land use on early successional birds on powerline corridors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Askins

    Full Text Available Powerline rights-of-way (ROWs often provide habitat for early successional bird species that have suffered long-term population declines in eastern North America. To determine how the abundance of shrubland birds varies with habitat within ROW corridors and with land use patterns surrounding corridors, we ran Poisson regression models on data from 93 plots on ROWs and compared regression coefficients. We also determined nest success rates on a 1-km stretch of ROW. Seven species of shrubland birds were common in powerline corridors. However, the nest success rates for prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor and field sparrow (Spizella pusilla were <21%, which is too low to compensate for estimated annual mortality. Some shrubland bird species were more abundant on narrower ROWs or at sites with lower vegetation or particular types of vegetation, indicating that vegetation management could be refined to favor species of high conservation priority. Also, several species were more abundant in ROWs traversing unfragmented forest than those near residential areas or farmland, indicating that corridors in heavily forested regions may provide better habitat for these species. In the area where we monitored nests, brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater occurred more frequently close to a residential area. Although ROWs support dense populations of shrubland birds, those in more heavily developed landscapes may constitute sink habitat. ROWs in extensive forests may contribute more to sustaining populations of early successional birds, and thus may be the best targets for habitat management.

  4. Predicting the reproduction strategies of several microalgae through their genome sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Yang, Guanpin

    2015-06-01

    Documenting the sex and sexual reproduction of the microalgae is very difficult, as most of the results are based on the microscopic observation that can be heavily influenced by genetic, physiological and environmental conditions. Understanding the reproduction strategy of some microalgae is required to breed them in large scale culture industry. Instead of direct observation of sex and sexual reproduction under microscope, the whole set or the majority of core meiosis genes may evidence the sex and sexual reproduction in the unicellular algae, as the meiosis is necessary for maintaining the genomic stability and the advantages of genetic recombination. So far, the available genome sequences and bioinformatic tools (in this study, homolog searching and phylogenetic analysis) allow us to propose that at least 20 core meiosis genes (among them ≥6 must be meiosis specific) are enough for an alga to maintain its sexual reproduction. According to this assumption and the genome sequences, it is possible that sexual reproduction was carried out by Micromonas pusilla and Cyanidioschyzon merolae, while asexual reproduction was adopted by Bigelowiella natans, Guillardia theta, Nannochloropsis gaditana, N. oceanica, Chlorella variablis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana. This understanding will facilitate the breeding trials of some economic microalgae ( e.g., N. gaditana, N. oceanica, C. variablis and P. tricornutum). However, the reproduction strategies of these microalgae need to be proved by further biological experiments.

  5. Dynamic aspects of spermiogenic chromatin condensation patterning by phase separation during the histone-to-protamine transition in charalean algae and relation to bryophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinsky, H E; Ellis, S; Martens, G; Ausió, J

    2014-12-01

    During early-to-middle spermiogenesis in multicellular, internally fertilizing charalean green algae (Chara fibrosa, Chara vulgaris, Chara tomentosa, Nitella missouriensis), patterning of chromatin/nucleoplasm in developing spermatid nuclei changes from granules → fibers → contorted lamellae → condensed chromatin. Cytochemical, immunocytochemical, electrophoretic studies on C. vulgaris and C. tomentosa spermatids (Kwiatkowska, Poplonska) and amino acid analysis of protamines in Chara corallina sperm (Reynolds, Wolfe), indicate that more positively charged protamines replace histones directly during spermiogenesis, not indirectly through other intermediate transitional proteins as in internally fertilizing neogastropods and sharks with more ordered spermatid lamellae. We hypothesize that such lamellar-mediated patterning is due to liquid-liquid phase separation by spinodal decomposition. This is a spontaneous thermodynamic process that involves diffusive instability of a lamellar chromatin network, a dominant pattern repeat distance and bicontinuity of chromatin/nucleoplasm phases. C. vulgaris sperm show contorted lamellae in the posterior region, whereas C. corallina sperm display contorted peripheral lamellae and interior fibrils. Among internally fertilizing liverworts, which may have evolved from Zygnematales, mid-spermatid nuclei lack lamellae. Instead they display self-coiled chromatin rods in Blasia pusilla, contain short chromatin tubules in Haplomitrium hookeri resembling those in internally fertilizing mosses and a hornwort and indirectly replace histones with protamines in Marchantia polymorpha.

  6. A test of founder effect speciation using multiple loci in the auklets (Aethia spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, H E; Jones, I L; Friesen, V L

    2005-12-01

    Whether speciation results more frequently from the genetic consequences of founder events or from gradual genetic divergence of large populations is a matter of debate. In this study, multiple analyses were applied to data from three loci (cytochrome b, alpha-enolase intron VIII, and MHC class II B) to test for founder effects associated with speciation in Aethia (Aves: Alcidae), a genus of seabirds thought to have undergone a rapid founder-induced radiation. Effective population sizes (N(e)) were derived from estimators of based on allelic diversity and the coalescent and from data on trans-species polymorphism. Results indicated that N(e) has been on the order of 10(5)-10(6) individuals throughout the evolutionary histories of least and crested auklets (A. pusilla and A. cristatella, respectively) and that N(e) of the ancestral species was at least 16,000 individuals. Computer simulations of MHC evolution indicated that a single-generation bottleneck at speciation could not have involved <85 individuals for each species. More moderate simulation scenarios indicated that population size could not have dropped below 2000 individuals at the time of species founding. Demographic history appears to have been stable for the auklets throughout the past several million years, and a founder effect associated with their speciation is unlikely.

  7. Trigo duro: comportamento de genótipos no estado de São Paulo Durum wheat: evaluation of genotypes for the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se 25 linhagens de trigo duro (Triticum durum L., um cultivar de triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack e quatro cultivares de trigo (T. aestivum L. em seis experimentos em condição de irrigação por aspersão, analisando-se a produção de grãos, características agronômicas e resistência às doenças. As linhagens de trigo duro 14 (61150/Leeds//Gallo "S"/3/Garza "S"/4/Mexicali "S"/5/S-15-Crane "S", 21 (Boyeros "S"/Cocorit-71/5/Crane "S"/Ganso "S"//Marte "S"/3/Tildillo "S"/4/Memo "S", 25 (Gallareta "S" e 8 (Gediz "S"/Yavaros "S", de porte baixo a médio, foram resistentes às ferrugens-do-colmo (com exceção da 21 e da-folha, moderadamente resistentes ao oídio, suscetíveis à mancha foliar, e destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos em solos com baixa acidez, não diferindo nem do trigo comum IAC-60, o mais cultivado atualmente no Estado de São Paulo, nem do triticale Álamos. Em condições de campo, a linhagem de trigo duro 19 (Mindum/Kingfisher "S"//Sandpiper apresentou imunidade às ferrugens-do-colmo e da-folha e foi moderadamente resistente ao oídio. O triticale Álamos e o trigo comum IAC-29 foram imunes ao oídio. Todos os genótipos avaliados foram altamente suscetíveis à mancha foliar, com exceção da linhagem 6 (Dackiye/Gerardo Vezio 394, moderadamente resistente.Twenty-five durum wheat (Triticum durum L. lines, one triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack cultivar and four wheat (T aestivum L. cultivars were evaluated in six trials under sprinkler irrigation taking into account the grain yield, agronomic characteristics and disease resistance. The durum wheat lines 14 (61150/Leeds//Gallo "S"/3/Garza "S"/4/Mexicali "S"/5/S-15-Crane "S", 21 (Boyeros "S"/Cocorit-71/5/Crane "S"/Ganso "S"//Marte "S"/3/Tildillo "S"/4/Memo "S", 25 (Gallareta "S" and 8 (Gediz "S"/Yavaros "S", showed the following traites: resistant to stem and leaf rusts; moderately resistant to powdery mildew; susceptible to leaf spot, and short to

  8. Investigating avian influenza infection hotspots in old-world shorebirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Gaidet

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity in the transmission rates of pathogens across hosts or environments may produce disease hotspots, which are defined as specific sites, times or species associations in which the infection rate is consistently elevated. Hotspots for avian influenza virus (AIV in wild birds are largely unstudied and poorly understood. A striking feature is the existence of a unique but consistent AIV hotspot in shorebirds (Charadriiformes associated with a single species at a specific location and time (ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres at Delaware Bay, USA, in May. This unique case, though a valuable reference, limits our capacity to explore and understand the general properties of AIV hotspots in shorebirds. Unfortunately, relatively few shorebirds have been sampled outside Delaware Bay and they belong to only a few shorebird families; there also has been a lack of consistent oropharyngeal sampling as a complement to cloacal sampling. In this study we looked for AIV hotspots associated with other shorebird species and/or with some of the larger congregation sites of shorebirds in the old world. We assembled and analysed a regionally extensive dataset of AIV prevalence from 69 shorebird species sampled in 25 countries across Africa and Western Eurasia. Despite this diverse and extensive coverage we did not detect any new shorebird AIV hotspots. Neither large shorebird congregation sites nor the ruddy turnstone were consistently associated with AIV hotspots. We did, however, find a low but widespread circulation of AIV in shorebirds that contrast with the absence of AIV previously reported in shorebirds in Europe. A very high AIV antibody prevalence coupled to a low infection rate was found in both first-year and adult birds of two migratory sandpiper species, suggesting the potential existence of an AIV hotspot along their migratory flyway that is yet to be discovered.

  9. Dependence of waterbirds and shorebirds on shallow-water habitats in the Mid-Atlantic coastal region: An ecological profile and management recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Waterbirds (waterfowl, colonially nesting wading and seabirds, ospreys [Pandion haliaetus], and bald eagles [Haliaeetus leucocephalus]) and shorebirds (sandpipers, plovers, and relatives) may constitute a large fraction of the top level carnivore trophic component in many shallow-water areas of the mid-Atlantic region. The large biomass of many species (>1 kg body mass for the two raptors and some waterfowl) and enormous populations (e.g., >1 million shorebirds in late May in parts of Delaware Bay) reveal the importance of waterbirds as consumers and as linkages in nutrient flux in many shallow-water habitats. Salt and brackish marsh shallow-water habitats, including marsh pannes and tidal pools and creeks as well as constructed impoundments, are used intensively during most months of the year; in fall and winter, mostly by dabbling ducks, in spring and summer by migrant shorebirds and breeding colonial wading birds and seabirds. In adjacent estuaries, the intertidal flats and littoral zones of shallow embayments are heavily used by shorebirds, raptors, and colonial waterbirds in the May to September periods, with use by duck and geese heaviest from October to March. With the regional degradation of estuarine habitats and population declines of many species of waterbirds in the past 20 yr, some management recommendations relevant to shallow waters include: better protection, enhancement, and creation of small bay islands (small and isolated to preclude most mammalian predators) for nesting and brooding birds, especially colonial species; establishment of sanctuaries from human disturbance (e.g., boating, hunting) both in open water (waterfowl) and on land, better allocation of sandy dredged materials to augment islands or stabilize eroding islands; improvement in water management of existing impoundments to ensure good feeding, resting, and nesting opportunities for all the waterbirds, support for policies to preclude point and nonpoint source runoff of chemicals

  10. Exposure of nonbreeding migratory shorebirds to cholinesterase-inhibiting contaminants in the western hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strum, K.M.; Hooper, M.J.; Johnson, K.A.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Zaccagnini, M.E.; Sandercock, B.K.

    2010-01-01

    Migratory shorebirds frequently forage and roost in agricultural habitats, where they may be exposed to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides. Exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate compounds, common anti-cholinesterases, can cause sublethal effects, even death. To evaluate exposure of migratory shorebirds to organophosphorus and carbamates, we sampled birds stopping over during migration in North America and wintering in South America. We compared plasma cholinesterase activities and body masses of individuals captured at sites with no known sources of organophosphorus or carbamates to those captured in agricultural areas where agrochemicals were recommended for control of crop pests. In South America, plasma acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activity in Buff-breasted Sandpipers was lower at agricultural sites than at reference sites, indicating exposure to organophosphorus and carbamates. Results of plasma cholinesterase reactivation assays and foot-wash analyses were inconclusive. A meta-analysis of six species revealed no widespread effect of agricultural chemicals on cholinesterase activity. however, four of six species were negative for acetylcholinesterase and one of six for butyrylcholinesterase, indicating negative effects of pesticides on cholinesterase activity in a subset of shorebirds. Exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can decrease body mass, but comparisons between treatments and hemispheres suggest that agrochemicals did not affect migratory shorebirds' body mass. Our study, one of the first to estimate of shorebirds' exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides, suggests that shorebirds are being exposed to cholinesterase- inhibiting pesticides at specific sites in the winter range but not at migratory stopover sites. future research should examine potential behavioral effects of exposure and identify other potential sitesand levels of exposure. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  11. Modeling Bird Migration in Changing Habitats: Space-based Ornithology using Satellites and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.; Deppe, Jill L.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding bird migration and avian biodiversity is one of the most compelling and challenging problems of modern biology with major implications for human health and conservation biology. Migration and conservation efforts cross national boundaries and are subject to numerous international agreements and treaties presenting challenges in both geographic space and time. Space based technology, coupled with geographic information systems, yields new opportunities to shed light on the distribution and movement of organisms on the planet and their sensitivity to human disturbances and environmental changes. At NASA, we are creating ecological forecasting tools for science and application users to address the consequences of loss of wetlands, flooding, drought or other natural disasters such as hurricanes on avian biodiversity and bird migration. In our work, we use individual organism biophysical models and drive these models with satellite observations and numerical weather predictions of the spatio-temporal gradients in climate and habitat. Geographic information system technology comprises one component of our overall simulation framework, especially for characterizing the changing habitats and conditions encountered by en-route migratory birds. Simulation provides a tool for studying bird migration across multiple scales and can be linked to mechanistic processes describing the time and energy budget states of migrating birds. Such models yield an understanding of how a migratory flyway and its component habitats function as a whole and link stop-over ecology with biological conservation and management. We present examples of our simulation of shorebirds, principally, pectoral sandpipers, along the central flyways of the United States and Canada from the Gulf of Mexico to Alaska.

  12. Shorebird Migration Patterns in Response to Climate Change: A Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of satellite remote sensing observations at multiple spatial and temporal scales, coupled with advances in climate modeling and information technologies offer new opportunities for the application of mechanistic models to predict how continental scale bird migration patterns may change in response to environmental change. In earlier studies, we explored the phenotypic plasticity of a migratory population of Pectoral sandpipers by simulating the movement patterns of an ensemble of 10,000 individual birds in response to changes in stopover locations as an indicator of the impacts of wetland loss and inter-annual variability on the fitness of migratory shorebirds. We used an individual based, biophysical migration model, driven by remotely sensed land surface data, climate data, and biological field data. Mean stop-over durations and stop-over frequency with latitude predicted from our model for nominal cases were consistent with results reported in the literature and available field data. In this study, we take advantage of new computing capabilities enabled by recent GP-GPU computing paradigms and commodity hardware (general purchase computing on graphics processing units). Several aspects of our individual based (agent modeling) approach lend themselves well to GP-GPU computing. We have been able to allocate compute-intensive tasks to the graphics processing units, and now simulate ensembles of 400,000 birds at varying spatial resolutions along the central North American flyway. We are incorporating additional, species specific, mechanistic processes to better reflect the processes underlying bird phenotypic plasticity responses to different climate change scenarios in the central U.S.

  13. Shorebird Migration Patterns in Response to Climate Change: A Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of satellite remote sensing observations at multiple spatial and temporal scales, coupled with advances in climate modeling and information technologies offer new opportunities for the application of mechanistic models to predict how continental scale bird migration patterns may change in response to environmental change. In earlier studies, we explored the phenotypic plasticity of a migratory population of Pectoral sandpipers by simulating the movement patterns of an ensemble of 10,000 individual birds in response to changes in stopover locations as an indicator of the impacts of wetland loss and inter-annual variability on the fitness of migratory shorebirds. We used an individual based, biophysical migration model, driven by remotely sensed land surface data, climate data, and biological field data. Mean stop-over durations and stop-over frequency with latitude predicted from our model for nominal cases were consistent with results reported in the literature and available field data. In this study, we take advantage of new computing capabilities enabled by recent GP-GPU computing paradigms and commodity hardware (general purchase computing on graphics processing units). Several aspects of our individual based (agent modeling) approach lend themselves well to GP-GPU computing. We have been able to allocate compute-intensive tasks to the graphics processing units, and now simulate ensembles of 400,000 birds at varying spatial resolutions along the central North American flyway. We are incorporating additional, species specific, mechanistic processes to better reflect the processes underlying bird phenotypic plasticity responses to different climate change scenarios in the central U.S.

  14. Alaska North Slope National Energy Strategy initiative: Analysis of five undeveloped fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Allaire, R.B.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy was directed in the National Energy Strategy to establish a federal interagency task force to identify specific technical and regulatory barriers to the development of five undeveloped North Slope Alaska fields and make recommendations for their resolution. The five fields are West Sak, Point Thomson, Gwydyr Bay, Seal Island/Northstar, and Sandpiper Island. Analysis of environmental, regulatory, technical, and economic information, and data relating to the development potential of the five fields leads to the following conclusions: Development of the five fields would result in an estimated total of 1,055 million barrels of oil and 4.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and total investment of $9.4 billion in 1992 dollars. It appears that all five of the fields will remain economically marginal developments unless there is significant improvement in world oil prices. Costs of regulatory compliance and mitigation, and costs to reduce or maintain environmental impacts at acceptable levels influence project investments and operating costs and must be considered in the development decision making process. The development of three of the fields (West Sak, Point Thomson, and Gwydyr Bay) that are marginally feasible would have an impact on North Slope production over the period from about 2000 to 2014 but cannot replace the decline in Prudhoe Bay Unit production or maintain the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) beyond about 2014 with the assumption that the TAPS will shut down when production declines to the range of 400 to 200 thousand barrels of oil/day. Recoverable reserves left in the ground in the currently producing fields and soon to be developed fields, Niakuk and Point McIntyre, would range from 1 billion to 500 million barrels of oil corresponding to the time period of 2008 to 2014 based on the TAPS shutdown assumption.

  15. Modeling Bird Migration in Changing Habitats: Space-based Ornithology using Satellites and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.; Deppe, Jill L.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding bird migration and avian biodiversity is one of the most compelling and challenging problems of modern biology with major implications for human health and conservation biology. Migration and conservation efforts cross national boundaries and are subject to numerous international agreements and treaties presenting challenges in both geographic space and time. Space based technology, coupled with geographic information systems, yields new opportunities to shed light on the distribution and movement of organisms on the planet and their sensitivity to human disturbances and environmental changes. At NASA, we are creating ecological forecasting tools for science and application users to address the consequences of loss of wetlands, flooding, drought or other natural disasters such as hurricanes on avian biodiversity and bird migration. In our work, we use individual organism biophysical models and drive these models with satellite observations and numerical weather predictions of the spatio-temporal gradients in climate and habitat. Geographic information system technology comprises one component of our overall simulation framework, especially for characterizing the changing habitats and conditions encountered by en-route migratory birds. Simulation provides a tool for studying bird migration across multiple scales and can be linked to mechanistic processes describing the time and energy budget states of migrating birds. Such models yield an understanding of how a migratory flyway and its component habitats function as a whole and link stop-over ecology with biological conservation and management. We present examples of our simulation of shorebirds, principally, pectoral sandpipers, along the central flyways of the United States and Canada from the Gulf of Mexico to Alaska.

  16. The anatomy of the bill tip of kiwi and associated somatosensory regions of the brain: comparisons with shorebirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J Cunningham

    Full Text Available Three families of probe-foraging birds, Scolopacidae (sandpipers and snipes, Apterygidae (kiwi, and Threskiornithidae (ibises, including spoonbills have independently evolved long, narrow bills containing clusters of vibration-sensitive mechanoreceptors (Herbst corpuscles within pits in the bill-tip. These 'bill-tip organs' allow birds to detect buried or submerged prey via substrate-borne vibrations and/or interstitial pressure gradients. Shorebirds, kiwi and ibises are only distantly related, with the phylogenetic divide between kiwi and the other two taxa being particularly deep. We compared the bill-tip structure and associated somatosensory regions in the brains of kiwi and shorebirds to understand the degree of convergence of these systems between the two taxa. For comparison, we also included data from other taxa including waterfowl (Anatidae and parrots (Psittaculidae and Cacatuidae, non-apterygid ratites, and other probe-foraging and non probe-foraging birds including non-scolopacid shorebirds (Charadriidae, Haematopodidae, Recurvirostridae and Sternidae. We show that the bill-tip organ structure was broadly similar between the Apterygidae and Scolopacidae, however some inter-specific variation was found in the number, shape and orientation of sensory pits between the two groups. Kiwi, scolopacid shorebirds, waterfowl and parrots all shared hypertrophy or near-hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus. Hypertrophy of the nucleus basorostralis, however, occurred only in waterfowl, kiwi, three of the scolopacid species examined and a species of oystercatcher (Charadriiformes: Haematopodidae. Hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus in kiwi, Scolopacidae, and other tactile specialists appears to have co-evolved alongside bill-tip specializations, whereas hypertrophy of nucleus basorostralis may be influenced to a greater extent by other sensory inputs. We suggest that similarities between kiwi and scolopacid

  17. The anatomy of the bill tip of kiwi and associated somatosensory regions of the brain: comparisons with shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Susan J; Corfield, Jeremy R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Castro, Isabel; Alley, Maurice R; Birkhead, Tim R; Parsons, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Three families of probe-foraging birds, Scolopacidae (sandpipers and snipes), Apterygidae (kiwi), and Threskiornithidae (ibises, including spoonbills) have independently evolved long, narrow bills containing clusters of vibration-sensitive mechanoreceptors (Herbst corpuscles) within pits in the bill-tip. These 'bill-tip organs' allow birds to detect buried or submerged prey via substrate-borne vibrations and/or interstitial pressure gradients. Shorebirds, kiwi and ibises are only distantly related, with the phylogenetic divide between kiwi and the other two taxa being particularly deep. We compared the bill-tip structure and associated somatosensory regions in the brains of kiwi and shorebirds to understand the degree of convergence of these systems between the two taxa. For comparison, we also included data from other taxa including waterfowl (Anatidae) and parrots (Psittaculidae and Cacatuidae), non-apterygid ratites, and other probe-foraging and non probe-foraging birds including non-scolopacid shorebirds (Charadriidae, Haematopodidae, Recurvirostridae and Sternidae). We show that the bill-tip organ structure was broadly similar between the Apterygidae and Scolopacidae, however some inter-specific variation was found in the number, shape and orientation of sensory pits between the two groups. Kiwi, scolopacid shorebirds, waterfowl and parrots all shared hypertrophy or near-hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus. Hypertrophy of the nucleus basorostralis, however, occurred only in waterfowl, kiwi, three of the scolopacid species examined and a species of oystercatcher (Charadriiformes: Haematopodidae). Hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus in kiwi, Scolopacidae, and other tactile specialists appears to have co-evolved alongside bill-tip specializations, whereas hypertrophy of nucleus basorostralis may be influenced to a greater extent by other sensory inputs. We suggest that similarities between kiwi and scolopacid bill

  18. RAG-1 sequences resolve phylogenetic relationships within Charadriiform birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Tara A; Baker, Allan J; Groth, Jeff G; Barrowclough, George F

    2003-11-01

    The Charadriiformes is a large and diverse order of shorebirds currently classified into 19 families, including morphologically aberrant forms that are of uncertain phylogenetic placement within non-passerine birds in general. Recent attempts using morphological characters have failed to recover a well-supported phylogeny depicting higher level relationships within Charadriiformes and the limits to the order, primarily because of inconsistency and homoplasy in these data. Moreover, these trees are incongruent with the relationships presented in the DNA hybridization tapestry of, including the location of the root and the branching order of major clades within the shorebirds. To help clarify this systematic confusion we therefore sequenced the large RAG-1 nuclear exon (2850 bp) from 36 species representing 17 families of shorebirds for which DNA was available. Trees built with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood or Bayesian methods are topologically identical and fully resolved, with high support at basal nodes. This further attests to the phylogenetic utility of the RAG-1 sequences at higher taxonomic levels within birds. The RAG-1 tree is topologically similar to the DNA hybridization tree in depicting three major subordinal clades of shorebirds, the Charadrii (thick-knees, sheathbills, plovers, oystercatchers, and allies), Scolopaci (sandpipers and jacanas) and the Lari (coursers, pratincoles, gulls, terns, skimmers, and skuas). However, the basal split in the RAG-1 tree is between Charadrii and (Scolopaci+Lari), whereas in the DNA hybridization tree Scolopaci is the sister group to the (Charadrii+Lari). Thus in both of these DNA-based trees the Alcidae (auks, murres, and allies) are not basal among shorebirds as hypothesized in morphological trees, but instead are placed as a tip clade within Lari. The enigmatic buttonquails (Turnicidae), variously hypothesized as being allied to either the Galliformes, Gruiformes, or Charadriiformes, are shown to be a basal

  19. A review of the mite subfamily Harpirhynchinae (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae)--parasites of New World birds (Aves: Neognathae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Andre V; OConnor, Barry M; Klompen, Hans

    2015-09-30

    Mites of the subfamily Harpirhynchinae (Acariformes: Cheyletoidea: Harpirhynchidae) associated with neognathous birds (Aves: Neognathae) in the New World are revised. In all, 68 species in 8 genera are recorded. Among them, 27 new species and 1 new genus are described as new for science: Harpyrhynchoides gallowayi Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Columba livia (Columbiformes: Columbidae) from Canada (Manitoba), H. zenaida Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Zenaida macroura (Columbiformes: Columbidae) from USA (Michigan), H. calidris Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Calidris minutilla (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae) from USA (Kansas), H. actitis Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Actitis macularius (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae) from Canada (British Columbia), H. charadrius Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Charadrius vociferus (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) from USA (Texas), H. pluvialis Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Pluvialis dominica (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) from USA (Ohio), H. bubulcus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Bubulcus ibis (Pelecaniformes: Ardeidae) from USA (Florida), H. ixobrychus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Ixobrychus exilis (Pelecaniformes: Ardeidae) from USA (Michigan), H. puffinus Mertins sp. nov. from Puffinus gravis (Procellariformes: Procellariidae) from USA (Florida), H. megascops Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Megascops asio (Strigiformes: Strigidae) from USA (Michigan), H. athene Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Athene canicularia (Strigiformes: Strigidae) from USA (Texas), H. coccyzus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Coccyzus americanus (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) from USA (Michigan), H. crotophaga Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Crotophaga ani (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) from Suriname; Crassacarus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen, gen. nov.: Crassacarus alexfaini Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. (type of genus

  20. Parrot bornavirus-2 and -4 RNA detected in wild bird samples in Japan are phylogenetically adjacent to those found in pet birds in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Yukiko; Bui, Vuong Nghia; Saitoh, Keisuke; Watanabe, Yukiko; Koyama, Satoshi; Endoh, Daiji; Horie, Masayuki; Tomonaga, Keizo; Furuya, Tetsuya; Nagai, Makoto; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Imai, Kunitoshi; Ogawa, Haruko; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2015-10-01

    Bornaviruses (family Bornaviridae) are non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Avian bornaviruses (ABVs), which are causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease, are a genetically diverse group with at least 15 genotypes, including parrot bornaviruses (PaBVs) and aquatic bird bornavirus 1(ABBV-1). Borna disease virus 1(BoDV-1), which infects mammals and causes neurological diseases, has also been reported to infect avian species, although the numbers of the cases have been markedly fewer than those of ABVs. In this study, we conducted genetic surveillance to detect ABVs (PaBV-1 to -5 and ABBV-1) and BoDV-1 in wild birds in Japan. A total of 2078 fecal or cloacal swab samples were collected from wild birds in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2011, in two regions of Japan. The results demonstrated the presence of PaBV-2 and -4 RNA, while no positive results for other PaBVs, ABBV-1, and BoDV-1 were obtained. PaBV-2 and -4 RNA were detected in 18 samples (0.9 %) of the genera Anas, Grus, Larus, Calidris, Haliaeetus, and Emberiza, in which either PaBV-2 RNA or PaBV-4 RNA, or both PaBV-2 and -4 RNA were detected in 15 (0.7 %), 5 (0.2 %), and 2 (0.1 %) samples, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of PaBV-2 and -4 detected in these samples from wild birds are phylogenetically close to those found in samples from pet birds in Japan, with identities ranging from 99.8 to 100 % and from 98.2 to 99.4 %, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the detection of PaBV-2 and -4 RNA detected in samples from wild birds.

  1. Demographic consequences of migratory stopover: linking red knot survival to horseshoe crab spawning abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Lyons, James E.; Smith, David; Kalasz, Kevin S.; Niles, Lawrence J.; Dey, Amanda D.; Clark, Nigel A.; Atkinson, Philip W.; Minton, Clive D.T.; Kendall, William

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how events during one period of the annual cycle carry over to affect survival and other fitness components in other periods is essential to understanding migratory bird demography and conservation needs. Previous research has suggested that western Atlantic red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) populations are greatly affected by horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) egg availability at Delaware Bay stopover sites during their spring northward migration. We present a mass-based multistate, capturerecapture/resighting model linking (1) red knot stopover mass gain to horseshoe crab spawning abundance and (2) subsequent apparent annual survival to mass state at the time of departure from the Delaware Bay stopover area. The model and analysis use capture-recapture/resighting data with over 16,000 individual captures and 13,000 resightings collected in Delaware Bay over a 12 year period from 1997–2008, and the results are used to evaluate the central management hypothesis that red knot populations can be influenced by horseshoe crab harvest regulations as part of a larger adaptive management effort. Model selection statistics showed support for a positive relationship between horseshoe crab spawning abundance during the stopover and the probability of red knots gaining mass (parameter coefficient from the top model b = 1.71, SE = 0.46). Our analyses also supported the link between red knot mass and apparent annual survival, although average estimates for the two mass classes differed only slightly. The addition of arctic snow depth as a covariate influencing apparent survival improved the fit of the data to the models (parameter coefficient from the top model b = 0.50, SE = 0.08). Our results indicate that managing horseshoe crab resources in the Delaware Bay has the potential to improve red knot population status.

  2. An experimental assessment of vehicle disturbance effects on migratory shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, Nathan M.; Simons, T.R.; Pollock, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    Off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic is one of several forms of disturbance thought to affect shorebirds at migration stopover sites. Attempts to measure disturbance effects on shorebird habitat use and behavior at stopover sites are difficult because ORV disturbance is frequently confounded with habitat and environmental factors. We used a before-after-control-impact experimental design to isolate effects of vehicle disturbance from shorebird responses to environmental and habitat factors. We manipulated disturbance levels within beach closures along South Core Banks, North Carolina, USA, and measured changes in shorebird abundance and location, as well as the activity of one focal species, the sanderling (Calidris alba), within paired control and impact plots. We applied a discrete treatment level of one flee-response-inducing event every 10 minutes on impact plots. We found that disturbance reduced total shorebird and black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola) abundance and reduced relative use of microhabitat zones above the swash zone (wet sand and dry sand) by sanderlings, black-bellied plovers, willets (Tringa semipalmata), and total shorebirds. Sanderlings and total shorebirds increased use of the swash zone in response to vehicle disturbance. Disturbance reduced use of study plots by sanderlings for resting and increased sanderling activity, but we did not detect an effect of vehicle disturbance on sanderling foraging activity. We provide the first estimates of how a discrete level of disturbance affects shorebird distributions among ocean beach microhabitats. Our findings provide a standard to which managers can compare frequency and intensity of disturbance events at other shorebird stopover and roosting sites and indicate that limiting disturbance will contribute to use of a site by migratory shorebirds. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  3. Comparing models of Red Knot population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Predictive population modeling contributes to our basic scientific understanding of population dynamics, but can also inform management decisions by evaluating alternative actions in virtual environments. Quantitative models mathematically reflect scientific hypotheses about how a system functions. In Delaware Bay, mid-Atlantic Coast, USA, to more effectively manage horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) harvests and protect Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) populations, models are used to compare harvest actions and predict the impacts on crab and knot populations. Management has been chiefly driven by the core hypothesis that horseshoe crab egg abundance governs the survival and reproduction of migrating Red Knots that stopover in the Bay during spring migration. However, recently, hypotheses proposing that knot dynamics are governed by cyclical lemming dynamics garnered some support in data analyses. In this paper, I present alternative models of Red Knot population dynamics to reflect alternative hypotheses. Using 2 models with different lemming population cycle lengths and 2 models with different horseshoe crab effects, I project the knot population into the future under environmental stochasticity and parametric uncertainty with each model. I then compare each model's predictions to 10 yr of population monitoring from Delaware Bay. Using Bayes' theorem and model weight updating, models can accrue weight or support for one or another hypothesis of population dynamics. With 4 models of Red Knot population dynamics and only 10 yr of data, no hypothesis clearly predicted population count data better than another. The collapsed lemming cycle model performed best, accruing ~35% of the model weight, followed closely by the horseshoe crab egg abundance model, which accrued ~30% of the weight. The models that predicted no decline or stable populations (i.e. the 4-yr lemming cycle model and the weak horseshoe crab effect model) were the most weakly supported.

  4. Stable Isotope Analysis Reveals That Agricultural Habitat Provides an Important Dietary Component for Nonbreeding Dunlin

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    Lesley Joan Evans Ogden

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Although shorebirds spending the winter in temperate areas frequently use estuarine and supratidal (upland feeding habitats, the relative contribution of each habitat to individual diets has not been directly quantified. We quantified the proportional use that Calidris alpina pacifica (Dunlin made of estuarine vs. terrestrial farmland resources on the Fraser River Delta, British Columbia, using stable isotope analysis (δ13C, δ15N of blood from 268 Dunlin over four winters, 1997 through 2000. We tested for individual, age, sex, morphological, seasonal, and weather-related differences in dietary sources. Based on single- (δ13C and dual-isotope mixing models, the agricultural habitat contributed approximately 38% of Dunlin diet averaged over four winters, with the balance from intertidal flats. However, there was a wide variation among individuals in the extent of agricultural feeding, ranging from about 1% to 95% of diet. Younger birds had a significantly higher terrestrial contribution to diet (43% than did adults (35%. We estimated that 6% of adults and 13% of juveniles were obtaining at least 75% of their diet from terrestrial sources. The isotope data provided no evidence for sex or overall body size effects on the proportion of diet that is terrestrial in origin. The use of agricultural habitat by Dunlin peaked in early January. Adult Dunlin obtained a greater proportion of their diet terrestrially during periods of lower temperatures and high precipitation, whereas no such relationship existed for juveniles. Seasonal variation in the use of agricultural habitat suggests that it is used more during energetically stressful periods. The terrestrial farmland zone appears to be consistently important as a habitat for juveniles, but for adults it may provide an alternative feeding site used as a buffer against starvation during periods of extreme weather. Loss or reduction of agricultural habitat adjacent to estuaries may negatively impact

  5. The performing animal: causes and consequences of body remodeling and metabolic adjustments in red knots facing contrasting thermal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vézina, François; Gerson, Alexander R; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Piersma, Theunis

    2017-08-01

    Using red knots (Calidris canutus) as a model, we determined how changes in mass and metabolic activity of organs relate to temperature-induced variation in metabolic performance. In cold-acclimated birds, we expected large muscles and heart as well as improved oxidative capacity and lipid transport, and we predicted that this would explain variation in maximal thermogenic capacity (Msum). We also expected larger digestive and excretory organs in these same birds and predicted that this would explain most of the variation in basal metabolic rate (BMR). Knots kept at 5°C were 20% heavier and maintained 1.5 times more body fat than individuals kept in thermoneutral conditions (25°C). The birds in the cold also had a BMR up to 32% higher and a Msum 16% higher than birds at 25°C. Organs were larger in the cold, with muscles and heart being 9-20% heavier and digestive and excretory organs being 21-36% larger than at thermoneutrality. Rather than the predicted digestive and excretory organs, the cold-induced increase in BMR correlated with changes in mass of the heart, pectoralis, and carcass. Msum varied positively with the mass of the pectoralis, supracoracoideus, and heart, highlighting the importance of muscles and cardiac function in cold endurance. Cold-acclimated knots also expressed upregulated capacity for lipid transport across mitochondrial membranes [carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT)] in their pectoralis and leg muscles, higher lipid catabolism capacity in their pectoralis muscles [β-hydroxyacyl CoA-dehydrogenase (HOAD)], and elevated oxidative capacity in their liver and kidney (citrate synthase). These adjustments may have contributed to BMR through changes in metabolic intensity. Positive relationships among Msum, CPT, and HOAD in the heart also suggest indirect constraints on thermogenic capacity through limited cardiac capacity. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Stakeholder contributions to assessment, monitoring, and conservation of threatened species: black skimmer and red knot as case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Niles, Larry; Tsipoura, Nellie; Mizrahi, David; Dey, Amanda; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn

    2017-02-01

    Stakeholder contributions to conservation projects often occur during the problem formulation stage, yet the role of stakeholders throughout the process is seldom considered. We examine the diversity of state and federal agencies, conservation organizations, other non-governmental organizations, environmental justice communities, consultants, industry, and the general public in the conservation of red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) and black skimmer (Rynchops niger) in New Jersey. We suggest that (1) governmental agencies provide the legal, regulatory, and management framework, but it is often the universities, conservation organizations, consultants, and the public that conduct the research and perform activities that lead to increased research and conservation efforts; (2) departments within agencies may have conflicting mandates, making it difficult to resolve differences in actions; (3) there is often conflict among and within state agencies and conservation organizations about roles and priorities; and (4) the role of the public is critical to ongoing research and conservation efforts. Identification of all the relevant stakeholders is necessary to recognizing competing claims, identifying the threats, deciding how to manage the threats, and enhancing population viability. Conflicts occur even within an agency when one department oversees science and protection of populations and another oversees and fosters an industry (aquaculture or fisheries, or permits for off-road vehicles). Conflicts also occur between resource agencies, industry, and conservation organizations. Recognizing the different stakeholders and their mandates, and encouraging participation in the process, leads to a better understanding of the threats, risks, and possible solutions when conflicts arise. Tracking stakeholder viewpoints and actions can lead to increased involvement and conflict resolution.

  7. Winter body mass and over-ocean flocking as components of danger management by Pacific dunlins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogden Lesley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared records of the body mass and roosting behavior of Pacific dunlins (Calidris alpina pacifica wintering on the Fraser River estuary in southwest British Columbia between the 1970s and the 1990s. 'Over-ocean flocking' is a relatively safe but energetically-expensive alternative to roosting during the high tide period. Fat stores offer protection against starvation, but are a liability in escape performance, and increase flight costs. Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus were scarce on the Fraser River estuary in the 1970s, but their numbers have since recovered, and they prey heavily on dunlins. The increase has altered the balance between predation and starvation risks for dunlins, and thus how dunlins regulate roosting behavior and body mass to manage the danger. We therefore predicted an increase in the frequency of over-ocean flocking as well as a decrease in the amount of fat carried by dunlins over these decades. Results Historical observations indicate that over-ocean flocking of dunlins was rare prior to the mid-1990s and became common thereafter. Residual body masses of dunlins were higher in the 1970s, with the greatest difference between the decades coinciding with peak peregrine abundance in October, and shrinking over the course of winter as falcon seasonal abundance declines. Whole-body fat content of dunlins was lower in the 1990s, and accounted for most of the change in body mass. Conclusions Pacific dunlins appear to manage danger in a complex manner that involves adjustments both in fat reserves and roosting behavior. We discuss reasons why over-ocean flocking has apparently become more common on the Fraser estuary than at other dunlin wintering sites.

  8. Diversity characteristics of rotifer community at the Yangtze River estuary%长江口轮虫生物多样性特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭章伟; 孙薇; 袁林; 薛俊增; 周淑辉; 吴惠仙

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of runoff at the Yangtze River estuary is uneven , the runoff in the south branch is more than in the north , and the north salinity is greater than the south , so there is some difference in biological community between the south and north branches .We collected rotifers from five cross-sections in the south and north branches and investigated the rotifer biology. A total of9 species were i-dentified at the Taihaiqidu cross-section, belonging to 8 genera, 6 families, and the dominant species were Ascomorpha ecaudis, Tricho-cerca pusilla, Brachionus calyciflorus, et al.20 rotifer species were identified in the south branch , belonging to 12 genera, 6 families, and the dominant species of the south branch T.pusilla, L.patella, Lecane ungulata;11 rotifer species were identified in the south branch, belonging to 10 genera, 7 families, and the dominant species of the north branches were A.saltans, A.ecaudis, L.patella.We compared the component and structure of rotifer in the south and the north branches , and found that the species , density, diversity of the south was higher than those of the north , similarity of rotifers in the south and north branches was low .The different water environment of the two branches caused the difference of rotifer community structure , correlation between rotifers and water environment factors was ana-lyzed by relativity analysis among which salinity was the important factor , and difference of salinity determined the difference in species , density, and spatial-distribution of rotifer.%长江口径流在南北支分布不均导致北支盐度高于南支,因此南北支之间生物群落存在一定差异。2010年在长江口分支前的江段和南北支设置5个断面,开展轮虫生态研究。分支前的太海汽渡断面处共采集到轮虫9种,隶属6科8属,其中优势种为没尾无柄轮虫、暗小异尾轮虫、萼花臂尾轮虫等;长江口南支2个断面共采集轮虫20种,隶属于6

  9. Birds of a high-altitude cloud forest in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Eisermann

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The Northern Central American Highlands have been recognized as endemic bird area, but little is known about bird communities in Guatemalan cloud forests. From 1997 to 2001 a total of 142 bird species were recorded between 2 000 and 2 400 masl in cloud forest and agricultural clearings on Montaña Caquipec (Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. The bird community is described based on line transect counts within the forest. Pooling census data from undisturbed and disturbed forest, the Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucophrys was found to be the most abundant species, followed in descending order by the Common Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus, the Paltry Tyrannulet (Zimmerius vilissimus, the Yellowish Flycatcher (Empidonax flavescens, the Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus frantzii, and the Amethyst-throated Hummingbird (Lampornis amethystinus. Bird communities in undisturbed and disturbed forest were found to be similar (Sørensen similarity index 0.85, indicating low human impact. Of all recorded species, ~27% were Nearctic-Neotropical migratory birds. The most abundant one was the Wilson’s Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla. The Montaña Caquipec is an important area for bird conservation, which is indicated by the presence of four species listed in the IUCN Red List (Highland Guan Penelopina nigra, Resplendent Quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno, Pink-headed Warbler Ergaticus versicolor, Golden-cheeked Warbler Dendroica chrysoparia, and 42 Mesoamerican endemics, of which 14 species are endemic to the Central American Highlands. The results presented here will be useful as baseline data for a long-term monitoring. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 577-594. Epub 2005 Oct 3.Las alturas del norte de Centroamérica han sido reconocidas como región de aves endémicas, pero se conoce poco sobre las comunidades de aves en bosques nubosos de Guatemala. De 1997 a 2001 se han detectado 142 especies de aves entre 2 000 y 2 400 msnm en el bosque nuboso y áreas agr

  10. Ecología de ostracodos en medios estuarinos: el Subsistema Carreras (río Guadiana, SO de España

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    Morales, J. A.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses from 69 samples collected in the Carreras subsystem delimited ten grain size distributions (five in the channel, four in the channel border and one in the salt marsh. The geochemical analysis of some samples shows low pollution in this zone. Four ostracod assemblages were delimitated: a indigenous estuarine assemblage (Loxoconcha elliptica, Cyprideis torosa, Cytherois fischeri, Elofmnia pusilla and Leptocythere sp., dominant in all samples, both in biocoenosis and tanathocoenosis; b coastal assemblage (Urocythereis oblonga, Pontocythere elongata, Aurila convexa and Cytheretta adriatica, with high species well represented in the main channels with marine connection; c open sea assemblage (Carinocythereis whitei, Palmoconcha guttata and Palmoconcha turbida, with small species very abundant in deeper marine environments (> 10 m deep of the Huelva littoral; and d fresh water assemblage (Candona sp., Cyprinotus salinus and Limnocythere inopinata, very minoritary in the silty-muddy tidal flats. The estuarine biocoenosis is composed by euryhaline species, with numerous live individuals in waters with low hydrodynamics and important vegetation. The coastal and, to a lesser extent, the open sea association were introduced during the tidal flux; in addition, these assemblages may be collected in some secondary channels, owing to the erosion of fossil spits.El análisis de 69 muestras del Subsistema Carreras ha permitido diferenciar 10 distribuciones granulométricas (cinco de canal, cuatro de borde de canal y uno de marisma salada. El análisis geoquímico efectuado en algunas muestras revela un bajo grado de contaminación en los sedimentos superficiales. El estudio de la fauna permite diferenciar cuatro asociaciones de ostrácodos: a asociación estuarina sensu strictu (Loxoconcha elliptica, Cyprideis torosa, Cytherois fischeri, Elofmnia pusilla y Leptocythere sp., dominante en la biocenosis y tanatocenosis de todo el Subsistema; b asociaci

  11. Causes of ring-related leg injuries in birds - evidence and recommendations from four field studies.

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    Michael Griesser

    Full Text Available One of the main techniques for recognizing individuals in avian field research is marking birds with plastic and metal leg rings. However, in some species individuals may react negatively to rings, causing leg injuries and, in extreme cases, the loss of a foot or limb. Here, we report problems that arise from ringing and illustrate solutions based on field data from Brown Thornbills (Acanthiza pusilla (2 populations, Siberian Jays (Perisoreus infaustus and Purple-crowned Fairy-wrens (Malurus coronatus. We encountered three problems caused by plastic rings: inflammations triggered by material accumulating under the ring (Purple-crowned Fairy-wrens, contact inflammations as a consequence of plastic rings touching the foot or tibio-tarsal joint (Brown Thornbills, and toes or the foot getting trapped in partly unwrapped flat-band colour rings (Siberian Jays. Metal rings caused two problems: the edges of aluminium rings bent inwards if mounted on top of each other (Brown Thornbills, and too small a ring size led to inflammation (Purple-crowned Fairy-wrens. We overcame these problems by changing the ringing technique (using different ring types or larger rings, or using different adhesive. Additionally, we developed and tested a novel, simple technique of gluing plastic rings onto metal rings in Brown Thornbills. A review of studies reporting ring injuries (N = 23 showed that small birds (35 g tend to get rings stuck over their feet. We give methodological advice on how these problems can be avoided, and suggest a ringing hazard index to compare the impact of ringing in terms of injury on different bird species. Finally, to facilitate improvements in ringing techniques, we encourage online deposition of information regarding ringing injuries of birds at a website hosted by the European Union for Bird Ringing (EURING.

  12. Songbird response to increased willow (Salix spp.) growth in Yellowstone's northern range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Lisa M; Hansen, Andrew J; Renkin, Roy; Lawrence, Rick

    2011-09-01

    After nearly a century of height suppression, willows (Salix spp.) in the northern range of Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A., are increasing in height growth as a possible consequence of wolf (Canis lupus) restoration, climate change, or other factors. Regardless of the drivers, the recent release of this rare but important habitat type could have significant implications for associated songbirds that are exhibiting declines in the region. Our objective was to evaluate bird response to releasing willows by comparing willow structure and bird community composition across three willow growth conditions: height suppressed, recently released, and previously tall (i.e., tall prior to the height increase of released willows). Released and previously tall willows exhibited high and similar vertical structure, but released willows were significantly lower in horizontal structure. Suppressed willows were significantly shorter and lower in horizontal cover than released or previously tall willows. Bird richness increased along a gradient from lowest in suppressed to highest in previously tall willows, but abundance and diversity were similar between released and previously tall willows, despite lower horizontal cover in the released condition. Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) and Lincoln's Sparrow (Melospiza lincolnii) were found in all three growth conditions; however, Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia), Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus), Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii), and Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodii) were present in released and previously tall willows only. Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) was found in previously tall willows only, appearing to specialize on tall, dense willows. The results of our a priori habitat models indicated that foliage height diversity was the primary driver of bird richness, abundance, and diversity. These results indicate that vertical structure was a more important driver of bird community variables than horizontal

  13. O que é melhor para manter a riqueza de espécies de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera: um fragmento florestal grande ou vários fragmentos de pequeno tamanho?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Nelio Roberto dos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with the objective of evaluating if the size of forest fragments affects the diversity of bat species. In order to do that, seven fragments were studied in Londrina, Paraná: five small fragments, whose areas varied between 1 and 10 ha; a fragment which is considered medium-sized (Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas - 85,47 ha.; and a large fragment (Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy - 680 ha.. Thirty three species were collected. Ten species were common to all three types of fragments: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843, Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843, Eptesicus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819, and Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821. Eight species were only found in the large fragment: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, Uroderma bilobatum Peters, 1866, Diaemus youngi (Jentink,1893, Diphylla ecaudata Spix, 1823, Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847, Histiotus velatus (I. Geoffroy, 1824 and Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824. Five were only found in the small fragments: Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843, Chiroderma villosum Peters, 1860, Eptesicus sp. e Rogheessa tumida H. Allen, 1866. Chiroderma doriae, which is threatened by extinction, was captured in the large fragment and in one of the small fragments; M. ruber, also threatened by extinction, was captured in the medium-sized and large fragments. We believe that the major cause for the loss of organic diversity is not rational exploitation, but the destruction of habitats, a result of the expansion of irrational human activities.

  14. Stress hormones suggest opposite trends of food availability for planktivorous and piscivorous seabirds in 2 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz-Fredericks, Z. Morgan; Shultz, Michael T.; Kitaysky, Alexander S.

    2008-08-01

    Apex predators can provide valuable information about effects of climate variability on trophodynamics in the Bering Sea. We used corticosterone (the primary avian stress hormone, "CORT") as a proxy of changes in prey availability for planktivorous and piscivorous seabirds. CORT secretion reflects energy balance in breeding individuals and can be used to monitor changes in the marine environment that alter food availability. We tested whether CORT in planktivorous least auklets ( Aethia pusilla) and piscivorous thick-billed murres ( Uria lomvia) on two Pribilof Islands differed spatially or temporally in 2003 and 2004. During June-September of each year, we sampled birds breeding on St. Paul and St. George Islands. We found that seasonal dynamics of CORT varied between years. Although the seasonal dynamics were similar between islands in a year, in 2004 there were inter-island differences in CORT levels for both species. In 2003, CORT in murres was low throughout the season, suggesting that their prey availability (primarily forage fishes) was consistently good. In 2004, CORT levels suggested that overall food availability was poor for murres and declined as the season progressed. For auklets, inter-annual variability was associated with contrasting intra-seasonal patterns in the availability of zooplankton prey (primarily Neocalanus spp.). In 2003, high early-season (June) CORT indicated that auklets were food-limited, but CORT decreased in July, suggesting that the availability of zooplankton improved as the season progressed. In 2004, CORT was low early in the season (June), but an abrupt increase late in the season (July) suggests that food became scarce. Our data indicate that environmental differences between 2003 and 2004 affected prey availability for planktivorous and piscivorous alcids in opposite ways. These results suggest that in the shelf regions of the Bering Sea, the populations of apex predators feeding on zooplankton may be affected by

  15. Diverse, uncultivated bacteria and archaea underlying the cycling of dissolved protein in the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, William D; Smith, Jason M; Liu, Shuting; Liu, Zhanfei; Sakamoto, Carole M; Wilken, Susanne; Poirier, Camille; Richards, Thomas A; Keeling, Patrick J; Worden, Alexandra Z; Santoro, Alyson E

    2016-09-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) supports a significant amount of heterotrophic production in the ocean. Yet, to date, the identity and diversity of microbial groups that transform DON are not well understood. To better understand the organisms responsible for transforming high molecular weight (HMW)-DON in the upper ocean, isotopically labeled protein extract from Micromonas pusilla, a eukaryotic member of the resident phytoplankton community, was added as substrate to euphotic zone water from the central California Current system. Carbon and nitrogen remineralization rates from the added proteins ranged from 0.002 to 0.35 μmol C l(-1) per day and 0.03 to 0.27 nmol N l(-1) per day. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) coupled with high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes linked the activity of 77 uncultivated free-living and particle-associated bacterial and archaeal taxa to the utilization of Micromonas protein extract. The high-throughput DNA-SIP method was sensitive in detecting isotopic assimilation by individual operational taxonomic units (OTUs), as substrate assimilation was observed after only 24 h. Many uncultivated free-living microbial taxa are newly implicated in the cycling of dissolved proteins affiliated with the Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria and Marine Group II (MGII) Euryarchaeota. In addition, a particle-associated community actively cycling DON was discovered, dominated by uncultivated organisms affiliated with MGII, Flavobacteria, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and Bdellovibrionaceae. The number of taxa assimilating protein correlated with genomic representation of TonB-dependent receptor (TBDR)-encoding genes, suggesting a possible role of TBDR in utilization of dissolved proteins by marine microbes. Our results significantly expand the known microbial diversity mediating the cycling of dissolved proteins in the ocean.

  16. Songbird abundance and parasitism differ between urban and rural shrublands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhans, Dirk E; Thompson, Frank R

    2006-02-01

    Many studies have examined differences in avian community composition between urban and rural habitats, but few, if any, have looked at nesting success of urban shrubland birds in a replicated fashion while controlling for habitat. We tested factors affecting nest survival, parasitism by the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), and species abundance in shrubland habitat in rural and urban landscapes. We found no support for our hypothesis that nest survival was lower in urban landscapes, but strong support for the hypothesis that survival increased with nest height. We found strong support for our hypothesis that cowbird parasitism was greater in urban than rural landscapes; parasitism in urban sites was at least twice that of rural sites. We found strong support for an urban landscape effect on abundance for several species; Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) and Brown-headed Cowbirds were more abundant in urban landscapes, whereas Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla) and Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivora pinus) were more abundant in rural sites. There was support for lower abundances of Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea) and Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) with increased housing density. For six other species, edge and trail density or vegetation parameters best explained abundance. Lower abundances and greater parasitism in habitat patches in urban landscapes are evidence that, for some species, these urban landscapes do not fulfill the same role as comparable habitats in rural landscapes. Regional bird conservation planning and local habitat management in urban landscapes may need to consider these effects in efforts to sustain bird populations at regional and local scales.

  17. Change in avian abundance predicted from regional forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Tirpak, John M.; Jones-Farrand, D. Todd; Thompson, Frank R.; Uihlein, William B.; Fitzgerald, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    An inability to predict population response to future habitat projections is a shortcoming in bird conservation planning. We sought to predict avian response to projections of future forest conditions that were developed from nationwide forest surveys within the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program. To accomplish this, we evaluated the historical relationship between silvicolous bird populations and FIA-derived forest conditions within 25 ecoregions that comprise the southeastern United States. We aggregated forest area by forest ownership, forest type, and tree size-class categories in county-based ecoregions for 5 time periods spanning 1963-2008. We assessed the relationship of forest data with contemporaneous indices of abundance for 24 silvicolous bird species that were obtained from Breeding Bird Surveys. Relationships between bird abundance and forest inventory data for 18 species were deemed sufficient as predictive models. We used these empirically derived relationships between regional forest conditions and bird populations to predict relative changes in abundance of these species within ecoregions that are anticipated to coincide with projected changes in forest variables through 2040. Predicted abundances of these 18 species are expected to remain relatively stable in over a quarter (27%) of the ecoregions. However, change in forest area and redistribution of forest types will likely result in changed abundance of some species within many ecosystems. For example, abundances of 11 species, including pine warbler (Dendroica pinus), brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), and chuckwills- widow (Caprimulgus carolinensis), are projected to increase within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will decrease. For 6 other species, such as blue-winged warbler (Vermivora pinus), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), we projected abundances will decrease within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will

  18. Song development by chipping sparrows and field sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu; Kroodsma

    1999-06-01

    When, where and from whom young songbirds learn their songs have been controversial issues in the study of song development. We chose to study some of these issues in two migratory and closely related songbirds, the chipping sparrow, Spizella passerina, and field sparrow, Spizella pusilla. Nestlings of both species were collected in western Massachusetts and hand-reared in the laboratory. There, juveniles were placed in separate cages and assigned to one of three rooms; in each room were eight young chipping sparrows, eight young field sparrows and two adult tutors of each species, arranged so that most of the young males were adjacent to adult tutors of the same species. During mid-winter, adult tutors were moved from one room to another, so that the young birds heard different song types from different tutors during their hatching year and the following spring. From spectral analysis of our extensive tape recordings, we found that most juvenile males imitated the songs of their hatching-year tutors but then gradually modified their songs to match more closely either their adult tutors or other pupils the next spring. One chipping and one field sparrow clearly imitated a new song syllable from a spring live tutor; that is, these yearling males learned songs by 'instruction'. Other sparrows improvised extensively, and one chipping sparrow learned a field sparrow's song syllable. Our results reveal great individual variation in how songs are developed, and we expect similar flexibility among birds in nature. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  19. Sedimentary environments in the south-western Barents Sea during the last deglaciation and the Holocene: a case study outside the Ingøydjupet trough

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    Mauro Pau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A lithological and foraminiferal study of newly acquired sediment cores outside the Ingøydjupet (Ingøy Deep trough has been carried out to improve constraints on the last deglacial history in the south-western Barents Sea. Three lithofacies and three foraminiferal facies were identified. The lowermost lithological unit is a diamicton interpreted as glacial till. It contains a low-abundance, ecologically mixed foraminiferal assemblage, presumably resulting from glacial reworking. Above the diamicton, a layer of ice-rafted debris (IRD, likely associated with intensive iceberg production, marks the initial destabilization of the marine-based ice sheet. At this time, ca. 15.6–15.0 Ky B.P., opportunistic foraminiferal species Nonionellina labradorica and Stainforthia spp. reached peak abundance. During the south-western Barents Sea ice-margin retreat, presumably corresponding to the Bølling interstadial, a sequence of glaciomarine laminations was deposited conformably on the layer of IRD. Sedimentation rates were apparently high (estimated about 0.4 cm per year and the foraminiferal fauna was dominated by Elphidium spp. and Cassidulina reniforme, species common for glacier-proximal environments. A hiatus at the top of the deglacial unit is likely linked to the high bottom-current activity associated with a strengthened inflow of Atlantic water masses into the Barents Sea. The uppermost lithological unit is represented by the Holocene marine sandy mud. It contains a high-abundance, high-diversity foraminiferal fauna with common cassidulinids, Cibicides spp., Epistominella pusilla and planktic species.

  20. A comparative study of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals from a protected and a disturbed area in the Argentine Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, M M; Enriquez, G F; Cardinal, M V; Piccinali, R V; Gürtler, R E

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the complex epidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles requires comparative studies in widely different environments. We assessed the occurrence of T. cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals, their infectiousness to the vector, and parasite genotypes in a protected area of the Argentine Chaco, and compared them with information obtained similarly in a nearby disturbed area. A total of 278 mammals from >23 species in the protected area were diagnosed for T. cruzi infection using xenodiagnosis, kDNA-PCR and nuclear satellite DNA-PCR (SAT) from blood samples. The relative abundance and species composition differed substantially between areas. Didelphis albiventris opossums were less abundant in the protected area; had a significantly lower body mass index, and a stage structure biased toward earlier stages. The capture of armadillos was lower in the protected area. The composite prevalence of T. cruzi infection across host species was significantly lower in the protected area (11.1%) than in the disturbed area (22.1%), and heterogeneous across species groups. The prevalence of infection in D. albiventris and Thylamys pusilla opossums was significantly lower in the protected area (nil for D. albiventris), whereas infection in sigmodontine rodents was three times higher in the protected area (17.5 versus 5.7%). Parasite isolates from the two xenodiagnosis-positive mammals (1 Dasypus novemcinctus and 1 Conepatus chinga) were typed as TcIII; both specimens were highly infectious to Triatoma infestans. Fat-tailed opossums, bats and rodents were kDNA-PCR-positive and xenodiagnosis-negative. Desmodus rotundus and Myotis bats were found infected with T. cruzi for the first time in the Gran Chaco.

  1. Evidence-based green algal genomics reveals marine diversity and ancestral characteristics of land plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Baren, Marijke J.; Bachy, Charles; Reistetter, Emily Nahas; Purvine, Samuel O.; Grimwood, Jane; Sudek, Sebastian; Yu, Hang; Poirier, Camille; Deerinck, Thomas J.; Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Wong, Chee-Hong; Smith, Richard D.; Callister, Stephen J.; Wei, Chia-Lin; Schmutz, Jeremy; Worden, Alexandra Z.

    2016-03-31

    Prasinophytes are widespread marine green algae that are related to plants. Abundance of the genus Micromonas has reportedly increased in the Arctic due to climate-induced changes. Thus, studies of these organisms are important for marine ecology and understanding Virdiplantae evolution and diversification. We generated evidence-based Micromonas gene models using proteomics and RNA-Seq to improve prasinophyte genomic resources. First, sequences of four chromosomes in the 22 Mb Micromonas pusilla (CCMP1545) genome were finished. Comparison with the finished 21 Mb Micromonas commoda (RCC299) shows they share less than 8,142of ~10,000 protein-encoding genes, depending on the analysis method. Unlike RCC299 and other sequenced eukaryotes, CCMP1545 has two abundant repetitive intron types and a high percent (26%) GC splice donors. Micromonas has more genus-specific protein families (19%) than other genome sequenced prasinophytes (11%). Comparative analyses using predicted proteomes from other prasinophytes reveal proteins likely related to scale formation and ancestral photosynthesis. Our studies also indicate that peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthesis enzymes have been lost in multiple independent events in select prasinophytes and most plants. However, CCMP1545, polar Micromonas CCMP2099 and prasinophytes from other claasses retain the entire PG pathway, like moss and glaucophyte algae. Multiple vascular plants that share a unique bi-domain protein also have the pathway, except the Penicillin-Binding-Protein. Alongside Micromonas experiments using antibiotics that halt bacterial PG biosynthesis, the findings highlight unrecognized phylogenetic complexity in the PG-pathway retention and implicate a role in chloroplast structure of division in several extant Vridiplantae lineages. Extensive differences in gene loss and architecture between related prasinophytes underscore their extensive divergence. PG biosynthesis genes from the cyanobacterial endosymbiont that became the

  2. Net production and consumption of fluorescent colored dissolved organic matter by natural bacterial assemblages growing on marine phytoplankton exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romera-Castillo, Cristina; Sarmento, Hugo; Alvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón; Gasol, Josep M; Marrasé, Celia

    2011-11-01

    An understanding of the distribution of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the oceans and its role in the global carbon cycle requires a better knowledge of the colored materials produced and consumed by marine phytoplankton and bacteria. In this work, we examined the net uptake and release of CDOM by a natural bacterial community growing on DOM derived from four phytoplankton species cultured under axenic conditions. Fluorescent humic-like substances exuded by phytoplankton (excitation/emission [Ex/Em] wavelength, 310 nm/392 nm; Coble's peak M) were utilized by bacteria in different proportions depending on the phytoplankton species of origin. Furthermore, bacteria produced humic-like substances that fluoresce at an Ex/Em wavelength of 340 nm/440 nm (Coble's peak C). Differences were also observed in the Ex/Em wavelengths of the protein-like materials (Coble's peak T) produced by phytoplankton and bacteria. The induced fluorescent emission of CDOM produced by prokaryotes was an order of magnitude higher than that of CDOM produced by eukaryotes. We have also examined the final compositions of the bacterial communities growing on the exudates, which differed markedly depending on the phytoplankton species of origin. Alteromonas and Roseobacter were dominant during all the incubations on Chaetoceros sp. and Prorocentrum minimum exudates, respectively. Alteromonas was the dominant group growing on Skeletonema costatum exudates during the exponential growth phase, but it was replaced by Roseobacter afterwards. On Micromonas pusilla exudates, Roseobacter was replaced by Bacteroidetes after the exponential growth phase. Our work shows that fluorescence excitation-emission matrices of CDOM can be a helpful tool for the identification of microbial sources of DOM in the marine environment, but further studies are necessary to explore the association of particular bacterial groups with specific fluorophores.

  3. Relationships between interspecific differences in the mass of internal organs,biochemical markers of metabolic activity,and the thermogenic properties of three smallpasserines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minlan Bai; Xujian Wu; Kejing Cai; Weihong Zheng; Jinsong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Background:The capacity for thermogenesis is considered part of an animal’s adaptive strategy for survival,and basal metabolic rate(BMR) is one of the fundamental physiological standards for assessing the energy cost of thermoregulation in endotherms.BMR has been shown to be a highly flexible phenotypic trait both between,and within,species,but the metabolic mechanisms involved in the regulation of BMR,which range from variation in organ mass to biochemical adjustments,remain unclear.In this study,we investigated the relationship between organ mass,biochemical markers of metabolic tissue activity,and thermogenesis,in three species of small passerines:wild Bramblings(Fringilla montifringilla),Little Buntings(Emberiza pusilla) and Eurasian Tree Sparrows(Passer montanus),caught in Wenzhou,southeastern China.Methods:Oxygen consumption was measured using an open-circuit respirometry system.Mitochondrial state-4 respiration and cytochrome c oxidase(COX) activity in liver and pectoral muscle were measured with a Clark electrode.Results:Our results show that Eurasian Tree Sparrows had significantly higher BMR,digestive organ mass,mitochondrial state-4 respiration capacity and COX activity in liver and muscle,than Bramblings and Little Buntings.Furthermore,interspecific differences in BMR were strongly correlated with those indigestive tract mass,state-4 respiration and COX activity.Conclusions:Our findings suggest that the digestive organ mass,state-4 respiration and COX activity play an important role in determining interspecific differences in BMR.

  4. Implications of hybridisation and cytotypic differentiation in speciation assessed by AFLP and plastid haplotypes - a case study of Potentilla alpicola La Soie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paule Juraj

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybridisation is presumed to be an important mechanism in plant speciation and a creative evolutionary force often accompanied by polyploidisation and in some cases by apomixis. The Potentilla collina group constitutes a particularly suitable model system to study these phenomena as it is morphologically extensively variable, exclusively polyploid and expresses apomixis. In the present study, the alpine taxon Potentilla alpicola has been chosen in order to study its presumed hybrid origin, identify underlying evolutionary processes and infer the discreteness or taxonomic value of hybrid forms. Results Combined analysis of AFLP, cpDNA sequences and ploidy level variation revealed a hybrid origin of the P. alpicola populations from South Tyrol (Italy resulting from crosses between P. pusilla and two cytotypes of P. argentea. Hybrids were locally sympatric with at least one of the parental forms. Three lineages of different evolutionary origin comprising two ploidy levels were identified within P. alpicola. The lineages differed in parentage and the complexity of the evolutionary process. A geographically wide-spread lineage thus contrasted with locally distributed lineages of different origins. Populations of P. collina studied in addition, have been regarded rather as recent derivatives of the hexaploid P. argentea. The observation of clones within both P. alpicola and P. collina suggested a possible apomictic mode of reproduction. Conclusions Different hybridisation scenarios taking place on geographically small scales resulted in viable progeny presumably stabilised by apomixis. The case study of P. alpicola supports that these processes played a significant role in the creation of polymorphism in the genus Potentilla. However, multiple origin of hybrids and backcrossing are considered to produce a variety of evolutionary spontaneous forms existing aside of reproductively stabilised, established lineages.

  5. Condensation patterns of prophase/prometaphase chromosome are correlated with H4K5 histone acetylation and genomic DNA contents in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitoza, Lidiane; Costa, Lucas; Guerra, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    Mitotic prophase chromosome condensation plays an essential role in nuclear division being therefore regulated by highly conserved mechanisms. However, degrees of chromatin condensation in prophase-prometaphase cells may vary along the chromosomes resulting in specific condensation patterns. We examined different condensation patterns (CPs) of prophase and prometaphase chromosomes and investigated their relationship with genome size and distribution of histone H4 acetylated at lysine 5 (H4K5ac) in 17 plant species. Our results showed that most species with small genomes (2C < 5 pg) (Arachis pusilla, Bixa orellana, Costus spiralis, Eleutherine bulbosa, Indigofera campestris, Phaseolus lunatus, P. vulgaris, Poncirus trifoliata, and Solanum lycopersicum) displayed prophase chromosomes with late condensing terminal regions that were highly enriched in H4K5ac, and early condensing regions with apparently non-acetylated proximal chromatin. The species with large genomes (Allium cepa, Callisia repens, Araucaria angustifolia and Nothoscordum pulchellum) displayed uniformly condensed and acetylated prophase/prometaphase chromosomes. Three species with small genomes (Eleocharis geniculata, Rhynchospora pubera, and R. tenuis) displayed CP and H4K5ac labeling patterns similar to species with large genomes, whereas a forth species (Emilia sonchifolia) exhibited a gradual chromosome labeling, being more acetylated in the terminal regions and less acetylated in the proximal ones. The nucleolus organizer chromatin was the only chromosomal region that in prometaphase or metaphase could be hyperacetylated, hypoacetylated or non-acetylated, depending on the species. Our data indicate that the CP of a plant chromosome complement is influenced but not exclusively determined by nuclear and chromosomal DNA contents, whereas the CP of individual chromosomes is clearly correlated with H4K5ac distribution.

  6. Annual adult survival of Least Auklets (Aves, Alcidae) varies with large-scale climatic conditions of the North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ian L; Hunter, Fiona M; Robertson, Gregory J

    2002-09-01

    We evaluated whether annual adult survival of Least Auklets (Aethia pusilla), a small planktivorous seabird, covaried with large-scale oceanographic conditions in the North Pacific ocean during 1990-2000. Adult Least Auklets (n=358 total) were captured near their nest sites, marked with plastic color bands, and survival estimates were based on color band resightings at their breeding colony. Survival estimates and relationships between survival and three large-scale indices of climatic conditions that correlate with oceanography: the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index (PDO), Aleutian Low Pressure Index (ALPI), and North Pacific Index (NPI) were evaluated using program MARK. The best models included: (1) two groups of birds, defined by ease of resighting, that differed in recapture rate (p) but not survival rate (φ); and (2) models that allowed for survival rates to differ in the year immediately after first capture from all subsequent years (structurally an age-model). Both of these model structures effectively explained (i.e. removed) sources of heterogeneity in the data set. For Least Auklet survival, the best fitting model was a two-age model incorporating the covariate NPI (average value for the period auklets were at sea, August - April), [φ(age1, age2×NPI), p(g)]. The annual survival rate varied from 0.747±0.075 SE in 1992-1993 to 0.953±0.052 in 1991-1992 (based on the model [φ(age1, age2×t), p(g)]) and averaged 0.873±0.037 over the study period. Least Auklet annual survival covaried with continuous variation in large-scale climatic conditions. Our results point to oceanographic conditions that relate to climate change as crucial to the status of auklet populations, notwithstanding conservation measures taken to control introduced predators, oil spills, human disturbance and other anthropogenic sources of mortality.

  7. A comparison of intraspecific patterns of DNA sequence variation in mitochondrial DNA, alpha-enolase, and MHC class II B loci in auklets (Charadriiformes: Alcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Hollie E; Friesen, Vicki L

    2003-12-01

    Patterns of DNA sequence variation can be used to learn about mechanisms of organismal evolution, but only if mechanisms of sequence evolution are well understood. Although theories of molecular evolution are well developed, few empirical studies have addressed patterns and mechanisms of sequence evolution in nuclear genes within species. In the present study, we compared DNA sequences among three loci with different evolutionary constraints to determine the influences of effective population size, balancing selection, and linkage on intraspecific patterns of sequence variation. Specifically, we assessed the degree and nature of polymorphism in a 307-base pair (bp) fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, intron VIII of the gene for alpha-enolase (a presumably neutral nuclear gene), and an approximately 600-bp fragment of an MHC class II B gene, including 155 bp of the hypervariable peptide binding region (a nuclear locus thought to be under balancing selection) for least and crested auklets (Aethia pusilla and A. cristatella; Charadriiformes: Alcidae). Transspecies polymorphism was found in both alpha-enolase and the MHC but not cytochrome b and, given estimates of effective population size, probably represents retained ancestral variation. Biases in nucleotide composition suggested that mutational bias, tRNA availability, and the secondary structure of mRNA and/or DNA may influence base usage. Several lines of evidence indicated that balancing selection may be acting on the MHC II B exon 2. However, no evidence of balancing selection was observed in the intron and exon sequences immediately downstream of MHC II B exon 2.

  8. Desenvolvimento dos frutos nas espécies selvagens de amendoim (Arachis spp. Fruit development in wild species of peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida H. T. Mendes Conagin

    1959-01-01

    Full Text Available As espécies selvagens de amendoim apresentam frutos completamente diferentes dos frutos do amendoim cultivado (Arachis hypogaea L.. Nesta espécie os frutos têm duas a cinco sementes justapostas dentro de uma única loja; externamente são observadas constrições na casca do fruto as quais em alguns casos se acentuam não chegando, entretanto, a produzir unia separação entre as sementes. Nas espécies selvagens os frutos apresentam duas sementes apenas, completamente separadas uma da outra por uma constrição muito profunda ou mesmo por um istmo de comprimento variável. Para êsses frutos foi adotada a denominação de "frutos catenados" e o estudo de seu desenvolvimento foi feito nas espécies Arachis monticola Krapovickas et Rigoni e A. villosa Benth. var. correntina Burk. O ovário, unilocular, tem normalmente dois óvulos. A futura separação das duas sementes se origina num tecido intercalar que se forma em ovários ainda jovens e que separa em duas a cavidade inicial única. Êste tecido tem a estrutura de um "peg" e, como êle, desidrata-se durante o processo de amadurecimento do fruto, tomando-se sêco e quebradiço; por essa razão, ao colhêr os frutos, a maioria dêles se apresenta unisseminado. Em 50% dos casos os óvulos se desenvolvem igualmente, conduzindo à formação de frutos com duas sementes. Quando os dois óvulos não se desenvolvem ao mesmo tempo, é mais freqüente o colapso do óvulo apical, cujo crescimento é paralisado cm diversos estados de desenvolvimento; isto conduz à formação de frutos com apenas uma semente ou com uma semente abortada. Além dessas duas, as seguintes espécies apresentam frutos catenados: Arachis Diogoi Hoehne f. typica Hoehne, A. glabrata Benth., A. pusilla Benth., A. marginata Gardn. (segundo Burkart, A. prostrata Benth. (segundo Burkart, e mais três espécies ainda não identificadas, mas que constam da coleção da Seção de Citologia como V. 44, V. 82 e V. 85. A V. 44 deve

  9. H5N1 surveillance in migratory birds in Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Arthur C; Barbara, Katie A; Indrawan, Mochamad; Ibrahim, Ima N; Petrus, Wicaksana B; Wijaya, Susan; Farzeli, Arik; Antonjaya, Ungke; Sin, Lim W; Hidayatullah, N; Kristanto, Ige; Tampubolon, A M; Purnama, S; Supriatna, Adam; Burgess, Timothy H; Williams, Maya; Putnam, Shannon D; Tobias, Steve; Blair, Patrick J

    2009-12-01

    We sought to elucidate the role of migratory birds in transmission of H5N1 in an enzoonotic area. Resident, captive, and migratory birds were sampled at five sites in Java, Indonesia. Mist nets were used to trap birds. Birds were identified to species. RNA was extracted from swabs and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) conducted for the HA and M genes of H5N1. Antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutination inhibition test. Between October 2006 and September 2007, a total of 4,067 captive, resident, and migratory birds comprising 98 species in 23 genera were sampled. The most commonly collected birds were the common sandpiper (6% of total), striated heron (3%), and the domestic chicken (14%). The overall prevalence of H5N1 antibodies was 5.3%. A significantly higher percentage of captive birds (16.1%) showed antibody evidence of H5N1 exposure when compared to migratory or resident birds. The greatest number of seropositive birds in each category were Muschovy duck (captive), striated heron (resident), and the Pacific golden plover (migratory). Seven apparently well captive birds yielded molecular evidence of H5N1 infection. Following amplification, the HA, NA, and M genes were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene showed that the isolates were 97% similar to EU124153.1 A/chicken/West Java/Garut May 2006, an isolate obtained in a similar region of West Java. While no known markers of neuraminidase inhibitor resistance were found within the NA gene, M segment analysis revealed the V27A mutation known to confer resistance to adamantanes. Our results demonstrate moderate serologic evidence of H5N1 infection in captive birds, sampled in five sites in Java, Indonesia, but only occasional infection in resident and migratory birds. These data imply that in an enzoonotic region of Indonesia the role of migratory birds in transmission of H5N1 is limited.

  10. Bird Migration Under Climate Change - A Mechanistic Approach Using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.; Blattner, Tim; Messmer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    migratory shorebirds in the central fly ways of North America. We demonstrated the phenotypic plasticity of a migratory population of Pectoral sandpipers consisting of an ensemble of 10,000 individual birds in response to changes in stopover locations using an individual based migration model driven by remotely sensed land surface data, climate data and biological field data. With the advent of new computing capabilities enabled hy recent GPU-GP computing paradigms and commodity hardware, it now is possible to simulate both larger ensemble populations and to incorporate more realistic mechanistic factors into migration models. Here, we take our first steps use these tools to study the impact of long-term drought variability on shorebird survival.

  11. Modeling Bird Migration under Climate Change: A Mechanistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.

    2009-01-01

    How will migrating birds respond to changes in the environment under climate change? What are the implications for migratory success under the various accelerated climate change scenarios as forecast by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change? How will reductions or increased variability in the number or quality of wetland stop-over sites affect migratory bird species? The answers to these questions have important ramifications for conservation biology and wildlife management. Here, we describe the use of continental scale simulation modeling to explore how spatio-temporal changes along migratory flyways affect en-route migration success. We use an individually based, biophysical, mechanistic, bird migration model to simulate the movement of shorebirds in North America as a tool to study how such factors as drought and wetland loss may impact migratory success and modify migration patterns. Our model is driven by remote sensing and climate data and incorporates important landscape variables. The energy budget components of the model include resting, foraging, and flight, but presently predation is ignored. Results/Conclusions We illustrate our model by studying the spring migration of sandpipers through the Great Plains to their Arctic breeding grounds. Why many species of shorebirds have shown significant declines remains a puzzle. Shorebirds are sensitive to stop-over quality and spacing because of their need for frequent refueling stops and their opportunistic feeding patterns. We predict bird "hydrographs that is, stop-over frequency with latitude, that are in agreement with the literature. Mean stop-over durations predicted from our model for nominal cases also are consistent with the limited, but available data. For the shorebird species simulated, our model predicts that shorebirds exhibit significant plasticity and are able to shift their migration patterns in response to changing drought conditions. However, the question remains as to whether this

  12. ADAPTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF HERONS PLUMAGE FOR THEIR WAY OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshelev V. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Feather cover of each bird species reflects spectra of species, age, sex and environmental attributes defined the phylogeny of taxa, habitat and life patterns. In turn, many ecological phenomena in the birds’ life patterns are directly dependent on the state of plumage (e.g., time of breeding, seasonal migration, roost flights. For the first time the quantitative characterization of six heron species' plumage were done as well as the description of powder down feathers. The adaptive features of feathers and various types of heron’s plumages were discussed.The structure of contour feathers of herons is related to the peculiarities of species life pattern. All the species have a relatively small number of contour feathers, despite their large body size. According to this index the herons are more similar to typical wading birds (gulls, sandpipers than for waterfowl. The total number of heron feathers slightly increase in winter, because they are migratory species. Structure of contour feathers of herons corresponds to that of other waterbirds. The rod is not bent, the feathers are large, and the mounting angle to the surface of the body is little. The cores of abdominal feather fracts reduce heat transfer and can be regarded as an adaptation factor to aquatic environment.Buoyancy is provided by heron’s feathers insignificantly, in contrast to the typical waterfowl species. Significant subcutaneous fat stores are typical for herons in spring, autumn and winter, increased buoyancy and being the energy reserves provide thermoregulation in cold environment. Our data indicate weak adaptation of herons’ plumage to aquatic environments, but also confirm its insulating properties, which is prove the herons semi-aquatic rather than aquatic life patterns.Due to color of plumage some three groups of herons were considered: white, mottled and camouflaged. Coloration of second and third group performs a protective function. We didn’t found a clear

  13. Modeling Bird Migration under Climate Change: A Mechanistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.

    2009-01-01

    How will migrating birds respond to changes in the environment under climate change? What are the implications for migratory success under the various accelerated climate change scenarios as forecast by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change? How will reductions or increased variability in the number or quality of wetland stop-over sites affect migratory bird species? The answers to these questions have important ramifications for conservation biology and wildlife management. Here, we describe the use of continental scale simulation modeling to explore how spatio-temporal changes along migratory flyways affect en-route migration success. We use an individually based, biophysical, mechanistic, bird migration model to simulate the movement of shorebirds in North America as a tool to study how such factors as drought and wetland loss may impact migratory success and modify migration patterns. Our model is driven by remote sensing and climate data and incorporates important landscape variables. The energy budget components of the model include resting, foraging, and flight, but presently predation is ignored. Results/Conclusions We illustrate our model by studying the spring migration of sandpipers through the Great Plains to their Arctic breeding grounds. Why many species of shorebirds have shown significant declines remains a puzzle. Shorebirds are sensitive to stop-over quality and spacing because of their need for frequent refueling stops and their opportunistic feeding patterns. We predict bird "hydrographs that is, stop-over frequency with latitude, that are in agreement with the literature. Mean stop-over durations predicted from our model for nominal cases also are consistent with the limited, but available data. For the shorebird species simulated, our model predicts that shorebirds exhibit significant plasticity and are able to shift their migration patterns in response to changing drought conditions. However, the question remains as to whether this

  14. Should heterogeneity be the basis for conservation? Grassland bird response to fire and grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Harrell, W.C.; Engle, David M.; Hamilton, R.G.; Davis, C.A.; Leslie, David M.

    2006-01-01

    In tallgrass prairie, disturbances such as grazing and fire can generate patchiness across the landscape, contributing to a shifting mosaic that presumably enhances biodiversity. Grassland birds evolved within the context of this shifting mosaic, with some species restricted to one or two patch types created under spatially and temporally distinct disturbance regimes. Thus, management-driven reductions in heterogeneity may be partly responsible for declines in numbers of grassland birds. We experimentally altered spatial heterogeneity of vegetation structure within a tallgrass prairie by varying the spatial and temporal extent of fire and by allowing grazing animals to move freely among burned and unburned patches (patch treatment). We contrasted this disturbance regime with traditional agricultural management of the region that promotes homogeneity (traditional treatment). We monitored grassland bird abundance during the breeding seasons of 2001-2003 to determine the influence of altered spatial heterogeneity on the grassland bird community. Focal disturbances of patch burning and grazing that shifted through the landscape over several years resulted in a more heterogeneous pattern of vegetation than uniform application of fire and grazing. Greater spatial heterogeneity in vegetation provided greater variability in the grassland bird community. Some bird species occurred in greatest abundance within focally disturbed patches, while others occurred in relatively undisturbed patches in our patch treatment. Henslow's Sparrow, a declining species, occurred only within the patch treatment. Upland Sandpiper and some other species were more abundant on recently disturbed patches within the same treatment. The patch burn treatment created the entire gradient of vegetation structure required to maintain a suite of grassland bird species that differ in habitat preferences. Our study demonstrated that increasing spatial and temporal heterogeneity of disturbance in grasslands

  15. Rapid diagnosis of avian influenza virus in wild birds: Use of a portable rRT-PCR and freeze-dried reagents in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Hill, N.J.; Schultz, A.K.; Iverson, S.A.; Cardona, C.J.; Boyce, W.M.; Dudley, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Wild birds have been implicated in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype, prompting surveillance along migratory flyways. Sampling of wild birds for avian influenza virus (AIV) is often conducted in remote regions, but results are often delayed because of the need to transport samples to a laboratory equipped for molecular testing. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is a molecular technique that offers one of the most accurate and sensitive methods for diagnosis of AIV. The previously strict lab protocols needed for rRT-PCR are now being adapted for the field. Development of freeze-dried (lyophilized) reagents that do not require cold chain, with sensitivity at the level of wet reagents has brought on-site remote testing to a practical goal. Here we present a method for the rapid diagnosis of AIV in wild birds using an rRT-PCR unit (Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device or RAPID, Idaho Technologies, Salt Lake City, UT) that employs lyophilized reagents (Influenza A Target 1 Taqman; ASAY-ASY-0109, Idaho Technologies). The reagents contain all of the necessary components for testing at appropriate concentrations in a single tube: primers, probes, enzymes, buffers and internal positive controls, eliminating errors associated with improper storage or handling of wet reagents. The portable unit performs a screen for Influenza A by targeting the matrix gene and yields results in 2-3 hours. Genetic subtyping is also possible with H5 and H7 primer sets that target the hemagglutinin gene. The system is suitable for use on cloacal and oropharyngeal samples collected from wild birds, as demonstrated here on the migratory shorebird species, the western sandpiper (Calidrus mauri) captured in Northern California. Animal handling followed protocols approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of the U.S. Geological Survey Western Ecological Research Center and permits of the U.S. Geological Survey

  16. Molluscs of an intertidal soft-sediment area in China: Does overfishing explain a high density but low diversity community that benefits staging shorebirds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bing; Piersma, Theunis; Zhang, Zhengwang; Ding, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    The Yellow Sea is a key staging ground for shorebirds that migrate from Australasia to the Arctic each spring. A lot of attention has been paid to the impact of habitat loss due to land reclamation on shorebird survival, but any effects of overfishing of coastal resources are unclear. In this study, the abundance of molluscs in the intertidal mudflats of northern Bohai Bay on the Chinese Yellow Sea was investigated in 2008-2014 from the perspective of their importance as food for northward migrating shorebirds, especially Red Knots Calidris canutus. Numerically contributing 96% to the numbers of 17 species found in spring 2008, the bivalve Potamocorbula laevis (the staple food of Red Knots and other shorebirds) dominated the intertidal mollusc community. In the spring of 2008-2014, the densities of P. laevis were surprisingly high, varying between 3900 and 41,000 individuals/m2 at distinctly small sizes (average shell lengths of 1.1 to 4.8 mm), and thus reaching some of the highest densities of marine bivalves recorded worldwide and providing good food for shorebirds. The distribution of P. laevis was associated with relatively soft sediments in close proximity to the recently built seawalls. A monthly sampling programme showed steep seasonal changes in abundance and size. P. laevis were nearly absent in winter, each year settling on the intertidal mudflats anew. Peak densities were reached in spring, when 0-age P. laevis were 1-3 mm long. The findings point to a highly unusual demographic structure of the species, suggesting that some interfering factors are at play. We hypothesise that the current dominance of young P. laevis in Bohai Bay reflects the combined pressures of a nearly complete active removal of adult populations from mid-summer to autumn for shrimp farming (this clearing of adults may offer space for recruitment during the next spring) and low numbers of epibenthic predators of bivalves, such as shrimps and crabs, due to persistent overfishing in

  17. Testing an attachment method for solar-powered tracking devices on a long-distance migrating shorebird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ying-Chi; Brugge, Martin; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Dekinga, Anne; Porter, Ron; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Piersma, Theunis

    2016-01-01

    Small solar-powered satellite transmitters and GPS data loggers enable continuous, multi-year, and global tracking of birds. What is lacking, however, are reliable methods to attach these tracking devices to small migratory birds so that (1) flight performance is not impacted and (2) tags are retained during periods of substantial mass change associated with long-distance migration. We developed a full-body harness to attach tags to Red Knots (Calidris canutus), a medium-sized shorebird (average mass 124 g) that undertakes long-distance migrations. First, we deployed dummy tags on captive birds and monitored them over a complete migratory fattening cycle (February–July 2013) during which time they gained and lost 31–110 g and underwent a pre-alternate moult of body feathers. Using each individual’s previous year fattening and moult data in captivity as controls, we compared individual mass and moult differences between years between the tagged and reference groups, and concluded that the attachment did not impact mass and moult cycles. However, some birds shed feathers under the tags and under the polyester harness line commonly used in avian harnesses. Feather shedding was alleviated by switching to smoothed-bottom tags and monofilament harness lines. To field-trial this design, we deployed 5-g satellite transmitters on ten Red Knots released on 3 October 2013 in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Bird movements and tag performance appeared normal. However, nine tags stopped transmitting 11–170 days post-release which was earlier than expected. We attribute this to bird mortality rather than failure of the attachments or transmitters and suggest that the extra weight and drag caused by the tag and its feather-blocking shield increased the chance of depredation by the locally common Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus). Our results demonstrate that species- and place-specific contexts can strongly determine tagging success. While captive trials are an important first

  18. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 infection in a long-distance migrant shorebird under migratory and non-migratory states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie A Reperant

    Full Text Available Corticosterone regulates physiological changes preparing wild birds for migration. It also modulates the immune system and may lead to increased susceptibility to infection, with implications for the spread of pathogens, including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV H5N1. The red knot (Calidris canutus islandica displays migratory changes in captivity and was used as a model to assess the effect of high plasma concentration of corticosterone on HPAIV H5N1 infection. We inoculated knots during pre-migration (N = 6, fueling (N = 5, migration (N = 9 and post-migration periods (N = 6. Knots from all groups shed similar viral titers for up to 5 days post-inoculation (dpi, peaking at 1 to 3 dpi. Lesions of acute encephalitis, associated with virus replication in neurons, were seen in 1 to 2 knots per group, leading to neurological disease and death at 5 to 11 dpi. Therefore, the risk of HPAIV H5N1 infection in wild birds and of potential transmission between wild birds and poultry may be similar at different times of the year, irrespective of wild birds' migratory status. However, in knots inoculated during the migration period, viral shedding levels positively correlated with pre-inoculation plasma concentration of corticosterone. Of these, knots that did not become productively infected had lower plasma concentration of corticosterone. Conversely, elevated plasma concentration of corticosterone did not result in an increased probability to develop clinical disease. These results suggest that birds with elevated plasma concentration of corticosterone at the time of migration (ready to migrate may be more susceptible to acquisition of infection and shed higher viral titers--before the onset of clinical disease--than birds with low concentration of corticosterone (not ready for take-off. Yet, they may not be more prone to the development of clinical disease. Therefore, assuming no effect of sub-clinical infection on the

  19. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 infection in a long-distance migrant shorebird under migratory and non-migratory states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reperant, Leslie A; van de Bildt, Marco W G; van Amerongen, Geert; Buehler, Debbie M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Jenni-Eiermann, Susi; Piersma, Theunis; Kuiken, Thijs

    2011-01-01

    Corticosterone regulates physiological changes preparing wild birds for migration. It also modulates the immune system and may lead to increased susceptibility to infection, with implications for the spread of pathogens, including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1. The red knot (Calidris canutus islandica) displays migratory changes in captivity and was used as a model to assess the effect of high plasma concentration of corticosterone on HPAIV H5N1 infection. We inoculated knots during pre-migration (N = 6), fueling (N = 5), migration (N = 9) and post-migration periods (N = 6). Knots from all groups shed similar viral titers for up to 5 days post-inoculation (dpi), peaking at 1 to 3 dpi. Lesions of acute encephalitis, associated with virus replication in neurons, were seen in 1 to 2 knots per group, leading to neurological disease and death at 5 to 11 dpi. Therefore, the risk of HPAIV H5N1 infection in wild birds and of potential transmission between wild birds and poultry may be similar at different times of the year, irrespective of wild birds' migratory status. However, in knots inoculated during the migration period, viral shedding levels positively correlated with pre-inoculation plasma concentration of corticosterone. Of these, knots that did not become productively infected had lower plasma concentration of corticosterone. Conversely, elevated plasma concentration of corticosterone did not result in an increased probability to develop clinical disease. These results suggest that birds with elevated plasma concentration of corticosterone at the time of migration (ready to migrate) may be more susceptible to acquisition of infection and shed higher viral titers--before the onset of clinical disease--than birds with low concentration of corticosterone (not ready for take-off). Yet, they may not be more prone to the development of clinical disease. Therefore, assuming no effect of sub-clinical infection on the likelihood of

  20. Functional ecology of saltglands in shorebirds: Flexible responses to variable environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, J.S.; Dietz, M.W.; Masero, J.A.; Gill, R.E.; Dekinga, Anne; Battley, Phil F.; Sanchez-Guzman, J. M.; Piersma, Theunis

    2012-01-01

    Birds of marine environments have specialized glands to excrete salt, the saltglands. Located on the skull between the eyes, the size of these organs is expected to reflect their demand, which will vary with water turnover rates as a function of environmental (heat load, salinity of prey and drinking water) and organismal (energy demand, physiological state) factors. On the basis of inter- and intraspecific comparisons of saltgland mass (m sg) in 29 species of shorebird (suborder Charadrii) from saline, fresh and mixed water habitats, we assessed the relative roles of organism and environment in determining measured m sg species. The allometric exponent, scaling dry m sg to shorebird total body mass (m b), was significantly higher for coastal marine species (0??88, N=19) than for nonmarine species (0??43, N=14). Within the marine species, those ingesting bivalves intact had significantly higher m sg than species eating soft-bodied invertebrates, indicating that seawater contained within the shells added to the salt load. In red knots (Calidris canutus), dry m sg varied with monthly averaged ambient temperature in a U-shaped way, with the lowest mass at 12??5??C. This probably reflects increased energy demand for thermoregulation at low temperatures and elevated respiratory water loss at high temperatures. In fuelling bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica), dry m sg was positively correlated with intestine mass, an indicator of relative food intake rates. These findings suggest once more that saltgland masses vary within species (and presumably individuals) in relation to salt load, that is a function of energy turnover (thermoregulation and fuelling) and evaporative water needs. Our results support the notion that m sg is strongly influenced by habitat salinity, and also by factors influencing salt load and demand for osmotically free water including ambient temperature, prey type and energy intake rates. Saltglands are evidently highly flexible organs. The small

  1. Concentrations of 17 elements, including mercury, in the tissues, food and abiotic environment of Arctic shorebirds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargreaves, Anna L., E-mail: alhargreaves@gmail.com [Calgary Zoo, Centre for Conservation Research, 1300 Zoo Rd NE, Calgary, AB, T2E 7V6 (Canada); Whiteside, Douglas P. [Calgary Zoo, Animal Health Centre, 1300 Zoo Rd NE, Calgary, AB, T2E 7V6 (Canada); University of Calgary, Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 2500 University Dr. NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Gilchrist, Grant [Carleton University, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, KIA OH3 (Canada)

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to contaminants is one hypothesis proposed to explain the global decline in shorebirds, and is also an increasing concern in the Arctic. We assessed potential contaminants (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn) at a shorebird breeding site in Nunavut, Canada. We compared element levels in soil, invertebrates and shorebird blood to assess evidence for bioconcentration and biomagnification within the Arctic-based food chain. We tested whether elements in blood, feathers and eggs of six shorebird species (Pluvialis squatarola, Calidris alpina, C. fuscicollis, Phalaropus fulicarius, Charadrius semipalmatus, and Arenaria interpres) were related to fitness endpoints: adult body condition, blood-parasite load, egg size, eggshell thickness, nest duration, and hatching success. To facilitate comparison to other sites, we summarise the published data on toxic metals in shorebird blood and egg contents. Element concentrations and invertebrate composition differed strongly among habitats, and habitat use and element concentrations differed among shorebird species. Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn bioconcentrated from soil to invertebrates, and Hg, Se and Fe biomagnified from invertebrates to shorebird blood. As, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn showed significant biodilution from soil to invertebrates to shorebirds. Soil element levels were within Canadian guidelines, and invertebrate Hg levels were below dietary levels suggested for the protection of wildlife. However, maximum Hg in blood and eggs approached levels associated with toxicological effects and Hg-pollution in other bird species. Parental blood-Hg was negatively related to egg volume, although the relationship varied among species. No other elements approached established toxicological thresholds. In conclusion, whereas we found little evidence that exposure to elements at this site is leading to the declines of the species studied, Hg, as found elsewhere in the Canadian Arctic, is of potential

  2. Life on a Changing Edge: Arctic-Alpine Plants at the Edges of Permanent Snowfields that are Receding Due to Climate Change at Glacier National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, M. E.; Martin, A. C.; Moritz, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciers and snowfields are intrinsic parts of many alpine landscapes but they are retreating rapidly at Glacier National Park in Montana, USA. Plants that inhabit the edges of glaciers and snowfields are vulnerable to habitat changes wrought by the recession of these frozen bodies. Snowfields provide plants with frost protection in the winter and water in the form of melting snow during the summer. However, changes in snowfield and glacial edges may leave plants exposed to frost in the winter and subjected to water stress in the summer, which would likely have an impact on important processes, including emergence from the soil, leaf expansion, root growth, flowering, seed germination, seedling establishment, photosynthesis, and transpiration. Because these processes influence the survival of plants, responses of snowfield plants to changing edges will likely result in changes in species abundance, distribution and diversity, which will in turn influence community composition. In summer 2012, we initiated a study of Glacier National Park's snowfield plants by establishing 2m2 plots at geospatially referenced 50m transects extending outwards from the toe and perpendicularly outward from the lateral edges of currently permanent snowfields at Siyeh Pass, Piegan Pass, and Preston Park, with an additional 100m transect extending from an impermanent snowfield to treeline at Mt. Clements near Logan Pass. We constructed species lists and determined percent cover for each species in each 2m2 plot, and used high resolution photographs of each plot as records and for fine scale determinations of species presence and location. In addition, we searched for rare arctic-alpine plants which, due to their rarity, may be especially vulnerable to changes in snowfields and glaciers. Two species of rare arctic-alpine plants, Tofieldia pusilla and Pinguicula vulgaris, were found near snowmelt-fed springs, rivulets, and tarns but were not found adjacent to the snowfields. Thus, they may

  3. U-Pb zircon and biostratigraphic data of high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphic rocks of the Talea Ori: tracking the Paleotethys suture in central Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulauf, G.; Dörr, W.; Krahl, J.; Lahaye, Y.; Chatzaras, V.; Xypolias, P.

    2016-10-01

    Inherited deformation microfabrics of detrital quartz grains and U-Pb (Laser ablation (LA)-ICPMS and ID TIMS) ages of detrital zircons separated from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.l. of the Talea Ori, central Crete, suggest strikingly different source rocks. Albite gneiss of the lower Rogdia Beds includes Cambrian and Neoproterozoic rounded zircons with main U-Pb age peaks at 628 and 988 Ma. These and minor Paleoproterozoic and Archean peaks, together with the lack of Variscan-aged and Mesoproterozoic zircons, are similar to the age spectra obtained from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.str. of the Peloponnesus and eastern Crete and from the Taurides. All of these zircons should be derived from the northeastern passive margin of Gondwana (Cimmeria). Metatuffites of the uppermost Rogdia Beds and metasandstone of Bali beach, on the other hand, include euhedral detrital zircons displaying a Variscan U-Pb age spectra at ca. 300 Ma with concordia ages at 291 ± 3, 300 ± 1 Ma (Rogdia) and 286 ± 3, 300 ± 3, 313 ± 2 Ma (Bali). Both types of metasediments and their zircons are similar to those of the pre-Alpine basement and overlying Tyros Beds of eastern Crete, revealing a provenance at the southern active margin of Laurasia. Thus, in central Crete the Paleotethys suture should be situated inside the Rogdia Beds. Magmatic zircons separated from a rhyolite boulder of the lower Achlada Beds yielded a concordant U-Pb zircon age at 242 ± 2 Ma placing a maximum age for the deposition of the (meta)conglomerate from which the boulder was collected. This age is compatible with an Olenekian-early Anisian age of the underlying Vasilikon marble suggested by new findings of the foraminifera Meandrospira aff. pusilla. Both the Achlada Beds and the Vasilikon marble can be attributed to the lower Tyros Beds of eastern Crete. The Alpine deformation led to a pervasive mylonitic foliation, which is affecting most of the studied rocks. This foliation results from D2 top

  4. Vector-host interactions and epizootiology of eastern equine encephalitis virus in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaei, Goudarz; Andreadis, Theodore G; Armstrong, Philip M; Thomas, Michael C; Deschamps, Timothy; Cuebas-Incle, Esteban; Montgomery, Walter; Osborne, Matthew; Smole, Sandra; Matton, Priscilla; Andrews, Wayne; Best, Curtis; Cornine, Frank; Bidlack, Ellen; Texeira, Tony

    2013-05-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for outbreaks of severe disease in humans and equines, resulting in high mortality or severe neurological impairment in most survivors. In the northeastern United States, EEE virus is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving the ornithophilic mosquito, Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) and passerine birds in freshwater swamp habitats. To evaluate the role of Cs. melanura and Culiseta morsitans (Theobald) in recent episodes of EEE virus activity in Massachusetts, we collected blood-fed mosquitoes between June, 2007, and October, 2008, from virus foci in 6 counties, and identified the source of blood meals by PCR amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and sequencing. Analysis of 529 Cs. melanura and 25 Cs. morsitans revealed that nearly 99% and 96% of mosquitoes, respectively, acquired blood meals solely from avian hosts. American Robin, Turdus migratorius Linnaeus was identified as the most common vertebrate host for Cs. melanura (21.7%, n=115), followed by Tufted Titmouse, Baeolophus bicolor (L.) (8.7%, n=46), Black-capped Chickadee, Poecile atricapillus (L.) (8.5%, n=45), Scarlet Tanager, Piranga olivacea (Gmelin) (6.8%, n=36), Field Sparrow, Spizella pusilla (Wilson) (6.2%, n=33), Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis (L.) (5.7%, n=30), and other mostly Passeriformes birds. Mammalian-derived blood meals were identified as white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann, domestic cow, Bos taurus L., and human, Homo sapiens L. There were 4 isolations of EEE virus, West Nile virus, and Highland J virus from Cs. melanura. Our results in conjunction with other lines of evidence, including reservoir competency, prevalence of antibody, and infection in nature, suggest that the American Robin, Tufted Titmouse, Black-capped Chickadee, and a few other passerine birds may play key roles in supporting EEE virus transmission in Massachusetts. Infrequent

  5. Comparative use of riparian corridors and oases by migrating birds in southeast Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, S.K.; Melcher, C.P.; Howe, W.H.; Knopf, F.L.

    1998-01-01

    The relative importance of cottonwood-willow riparian corridors and isolated oases to land birds migrating across southeastern Arizona was evaluated during four spring migrations, 1989 to 1994, based on patterns of species richness, relative abundance, density, and body condition of birds. We surveyed birds in 13 study sites ranging in size and connectivity from small isolated patches to extensive riparian forest, sampled vegetation and insects, and captured birds in mistnets. The continuous band of riparian vegetation along the San Pedro River does not appear to be functioning as a corridor for many migrating species, although it may for a few, namely Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens), Summer Tanagers (Piranga rubra), and Northern Rough-winged Swallows (Steldigopteryx serripennis), which account for fewer than 10% of the individuals migrating through the area. Small, isolated oases hosted more avian species than the corridor sites, and the relative abundances of most migrating birds did not differ between sites relative to size-connectivity. There were few differences in between-year variability in the relative abundances of migrating birds between corridor and oasis sites. Between-year variability decreased with overall abundance of species and was greater for species with breeding ranges that centered north of 50??N latitude. Body condition of birds did not differ relative to the size-connectivity of the capture site, but individuals of species with more northerly breeding ranges had more body fat than species that breed nearby. Peak migration densities of several bird species far exceeded breeding densities reported for the San Pedro River, suggesting that large components of these species were en route migrants. Peak densities of Yellow Warblers (Dendroica petechia) reached 48.0 birds/ha, of Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) 33.7 birds/ha, and of Yellow-rumped Warblers (D. coronata) 30.1 birds/ha. Riparian vegetation is limited in extent in the

  6. Integrating Recent Land Cover Mapping Efforts to Update the National Gap Analysis Program's Species Habitat Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerrow, A. J.; Davidson, A.; Earnhardt, T. S.; Benson, A. L.

    2014-11-01

    Over the past decade, great progress has been made to develop national extent land cover mapping products to address natural resource issues. One of the core products of the GAP Program is range-wide species distribution models for nearly 2000 terrestrial vertebrate species in the U.S. We rely on deductive modeling of habitat affinities using these products to create models of habitat availability. That approach requires that we have a thematically rich and ecologically meaningful map legend to support the modeling effort. In this work, we tested the integration of the Multi-Resolution Landscape Characterization Consortium's National Land Cover Database 2011 and LANDFIRE's Disturbance Products to update the 2001 National GAP Vegetation Dataset to reflect 2011 conditions. The revised product can then be used to update the species models. We tested the update approach in three geographic areas (Northeast, Southeast, and Interior Northwest). We used the NLCD product to identify areas where the cover type mapped in 2011 was different from what was in the 2001 land cover map. We used Google Earth and ArcGIS base maps as reference imagery in order to label areas identified as "changed" to the appropriate class from our map legend. Areas mapped as urban or water in the 2011 NLCD map that were mapped differently in the 2001 GAP map were accepted without further validation and recoded to the corresponding GAP class. We used LANDFIRE's Disturbance products to identify changes that are the result of recent disturbance and to inform the reassignment of areas to their updated thematic label. We ran species habitat models for three species including Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) and the White-tailed Jack Rabbit (Lepus townsendii) and Brown Headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla). For each of three vertebrate species we found important differences in the amount and location of suitable habitat between the 2001 and 2011 habitat maps. Specifically, Brown headed nuthatch habitat in

  7. Amonites y Bioestratigrafía del grupo Cuyo en la Sierra de Reyes (Cuenca Neuquina central, Argentina y su significado secuencial Ammonites and biostratigraphy of the Cuyo Group in the Sierra de Reyes (central Neuquén Basin, Argentina and their sequential significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Spalletti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia la estratigrafía, la fauna de amonites y la bioestratigrafía del Grupo Cuyo en la Sierra de Reyes (sur de la Provincia de Mendoza, Argentina. La sucesión alcanza un espesor de 230 m y está constituida, de base a techo, por las formaciones Bardas Blancas (fangolitas, fangolitas arenosas y areniscas finas, Los Molles (lutitas negras y Lajas (areniscas gruesas hasta finas. Se reconocieron cuatro niveles con amonites. Los dos inferiores (I y II se encuentran en la parte inferior de la Formación Bardas Blancas. El nivel I es monoespecífico, se compone de Dumortieria cf. pusilla y es atribuido al Toarciano superior-Aaleniano inferior. El nivel II se caracteriza por una asociación de Podagrosiceras cf. athleticum, Planammatoceras sp., Phylloceras sp. y Eudmetoceras? sp., que se asigna a la Zona estándar Malarguense del Aaleniano superior-Bajociano inferior. El nivel III, ubicado en la parte media de la Formación Bardas Blancas, posee una asociación del Bathoniano inferior compuesta porMorphoceras sp., Phylloceras sp. y Lytoceras cf. eudesianum. En el nivel IV, que aparece en el tramo inferior de la Formación Lajas, se han identificado Iniskinites crassus, Stehnocephalites gerthi and Lilloettia cf. steinmanni, taxa que representan a la Zona estándar Steinmanni, del Bathoniano superior. La fauna de amonites ha permitido establecer que la sucesión transgresiva en la región de estudio, representada por las formaciones Bardas Blancas y Los Molles, se desarrolló durante el lapso Toarciano tardío a Bathoniano temprano. El nivel IV del tramo inferior de la Formación Lajas indica que la reversión transgresión-regresión de la parte superior del Grupo Cuyo se produjo alrededor del Bathoniano temprano a tardío. Asimismo, los términos más jóvenes del Grupo Cuyo (parte superior fuertemente regresiva de la Formación Lajas se asignan al Calloviano temprano. Este marco bioestratigráfico del Grupo Cuyo en la Sierra de

  8. Bird Banding Studies in the East Coasto Chongming Island%崇明东滩鸻鹬类迁徒的环志研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤臣栋

    2012-01-01

    位于长江口的崇明东滩是东亚—澳大利西亚候鸟迁飞路线上一个重要的候鸟迁徙停歇地.保护区的环志工作始于1986年,自2002年,每年春季和秋季都进行较系统的环志工作.至2010年底,已环志鸻鹬类46种36 800余只,其中超过95%的鸟佩带了代表长江口地区标识的黑白色足旗.其中大滨鹬、黑腹滨鹬和翘嘴鹬是崇明东滩环志数量最多的3种鸟类,环志数量分别为10631、3 056和2746只.为了便于野外个体识别,保护区于2006年起在环志时尝试使用编码足旗,到2010年,共有9种1 758只鸟佩戴了编码足旗.在环志过程中,总计有20种441只来自不同国家地区的环志鸟被回收.回收鸟中超过一半的鸟为大滨鹬,而且70%的回收鸟是在西北澳洲被环志的,表明崇明东滩与西北澳洲对于迁徙涉禽的保护上有非常紧密的联系.崇明东滩环志研究所获得的数据对于了解东亚—澳大利西亚迁徙涉禽的迁徙研究提供了宝贵资料.%The east coast of Chongming Island at the Yangtze River estuary is an important stopover site for migratory birds in the East Asia-Australasia Fiyway. Bird banding in the nature reserve started in 1986, and regular bird banding was conducted in every spring and autumn since 2002. Up to the end of 2010 more than 36,800 shorebirds of 46 species have been banded and more than 95% of these birds have been marked with leg flags (black and white which designating the region of the Yangtze River estuary) at the east coast of Chongming. Great Knot, Dunlin, and Terek Sandpiper were the three most abundant banded birds, with 10631, 3056, and 2746 individuals being banded respectively. Since 2006, engraved leg flags were attached to 1,758 birds of 9 species. A total of 441 individuals of 20 species from different countries or regions were recaptured during the bird banding period. More than half of these birds were Great Knots and more than 70% were originally banded in

  9. Histological structure of the digestive tract of waders (Aves, Сharadrii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Kharchenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Histological structure of digestive tracts of 12 species of waders (Aves, Сharadrii has been studied: Pluvialis squatarola (Linnaeus, 1758, Charadrius hiaticula (Linnaeus, 1758, Recurvirostra avosetta (Linnaeus, 1758, Tringa ochropus (Linnaeus, 1758, T. glareola (Linnaeus, 1758, T. nebularia (Gunnerus, 1767, T. erythropus (Pallas, 1764, Philomachus pugnax (Linnaeus, 1758, Calidris minuta (Leisler, 1812, C. ferruginea (Pontoppidan, 1763, C. alpina (Linnaeus, 1758 and Gallinago gallinago (Linnaeus, 1758. The features of histological structure of all parts of the digestive tract of the waders species under analysis were defined and adaptations in the structure of the digestive system to distant migrations were detected. It is determined that the histological structure of the wall of the esophagus of the studied species of waders is universal, and the relief of mucosa is folded; stratified squamous epithelium of the mucous membrane has an insignificant degree of hornification. A large number of esophagus glands is observed in the lamina propria of the mucosa; these glands secrete mucus which facilitates the movement of food along the esophagus. The muscular coat is well-developed and formed by longitudinal and circular layers of smooth muscle tissue. It is found that characteristics of histological structure of the stomach wall of the waders species under analysis are presupposed by the following functions: 1 glandular stomach wall provides secretion of digestive enzymes through active secretory activity of glands of deep complex; 2 secretion (mucus of simple tubular glands is excreted to the surface of glandular stomach performing the protective function; 3 the wall of the muscular stomach provides mechanical treatment of food through well-developed muscle layer and solid layer of the cuticle. It is established that the waders’ intestine is shortened, that is compensated by the complication of the relief of intestinal mucosa by plates that form

  10. 利用不同植物降低夏季挥发性有机化合物的浓度%A Study on Reduction of Volatile Organic Compounds in Summer by Various Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeong-Eun Song; Yong-Shik Kim; Jang-Yeul Sohn

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the impact of phytofiltration system on the improvement of indoor air quality.This study conducted the experiment to compare the concentration reduction effects of indoor air pollutants to by Korean native plants and foreign plants. The experiment of reduction effect of indoor air pollutants was conducted to Korean native plants such as Fatsia japonica Decne. et Planch. and Ardisia pusilla DC, and foreign plants such as Aglaonema and Benzamine rubber tree. The experiment was conducted in summer, and the four kinds of plants were placed in doors in the same conditions. Field measurements were performed in models where the plants were placed or not. The dimensions of the two models were equal. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbezene, xylene and formaldehyde were monitored, since they were known as the most toxic materials. Moreover, the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was monitored three hours and three days after the plants were placed. This study grasped, compared and assessed the VOCs reduction effect of two kinds of foreign plants and two kinds of Korean native plants. The findings are as follows: ( 1 ) in all experiments, the room with plants is greater in VOCs reduction effect than that without plants, and for most VOCs materials, the reduction effect of foreign plants is more excellent than Korean native ones; (2) in the planting and growing volume experiment, the best effect occurs when Benzamine rubber tree covers 10% of the experiment room space, especially, formaldehyde is reduced the most when benzamine rubber tree is placed; ( 3 ) in the experiment of plating and growing placement, the best effect occurs when Aglaonema is placed at sunny spot, especially, toluene reduction capability is the best.%文中主要研究了植物过滤系统对改善室内空气品质的作用.通过实验比较了韩国本土和外来植物对室内空气污染物的净化

  11. 程海浮游动物种群特征与数量的周年变化%Annual Changes of Population Characteristics and Quantities of Zooplankton in Chenghai Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董云仙; 王忠泽

    2013-01-01

    为深入了解程海湖泊生态系统的状况,2009年10月至2010年7月对程海浮游动物进行了季节性调查.结果表明,程海有浮游动物34科、59属、86种;其中,原生动物13科、18属、28种,轮虫10科、23属、34种,枝角类5科、7属、11种,桡足类2科、7属、9种,其他浮游动物4科、4属、4种.原生动物纤毛虫类(Ciliophora)四季均为优势类群,溞钟虫(Vorticella kahli)春季数量较多,而急游虫(Strombidium sp.)和湖累枝虫(Epistylis lacustris)在秋季数量达到高峰.轮虫优势种为暗小异尾轮虫(Trichocerca pusilla)、奇异巨腕轮虫(Pedalia mira)、裂痕龟纹轮虫(Anuraeopsis flasa)和萼花臂尾轮虫(Brachionus calyciflorus).枝角类种类少、数量多,主要是棘爪网纹溞(Ceriodaphnia reticulata)、短尾秀体潘(Diaphanosoma brachyurum)、透明溞(Daphnia hyaline)、园形盘肠溞(Chydorus sphaericus)和长肢秀体溞(D.leuchtenbergianum);桡足类种类少、数量低,近剑水蚤(Tropocyclops sp.)、锯齿真剑水蚤(Eucyclops macruroides deticulatus)、透明温剑水蚤(Thermocyclops hyalinus)常见并有一定优势.浮游动物数量为3 316.9个/L;其中,春季2 635.6个/L,夏季3 010.7个/L,秋季3 998.0个/L,冬季3 623.5个/L;水平分布南部明显偏高,东部数量高于西部,湖心明显偏少.相关分析表明,影响浮游动物数量变动的主要因子是温度、食物和鱼类摄食.在水体富营养化和太湖新银鱼(Neosalanx taihuensis)的强大摄食压力下,程海浮游动物小型化趋势明显.

  12. Differential dissolution susceptibility in late Paleocene to early Eocene planktonic foraminiferal assemblages: comparing experimental and distributional data from Shatsky Rise (Pacific Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. M. P.; Petrizzo, M. R.; Speijer, R. P.

    2009-04-01

    most dissolution-susceptible taxon, whereas Morozovella and especially Acarinina are less dissolution-prone. These results are also consistent with experimental data performed on planktonic foraminiferal assemblages from the PETM in Egypt (Nguyen et al., in prep.). In addition, various species of Acarinina show differential susceptibility, with A. soldadoensis being most resistant, followed by A. subsphaerica and A. nitida, respectively. Amongst Morozovella, in decreasing order of dissolution resistance we find M. aragonensis, M. subbotina, M. aequa, M. occlusa, M. pasionensis, M. acuta and M. velascoensis. Igorina pusilla and I. tadjkistanensis show a similar dissolution resistance. A dissolution ranking scheme and a new dissolution index are being developed on the basis of these data, which should allow for a more objective and quantitative evaluation of dissolution phenomena in early Paleogene planktonic foraminiferal assemblages. References: 1. Nguyen T. M. P. et al., in prep. Experimental dissolution of a foraminiferal assemblage from the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum at Dababiya, Egypt: implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. 2. Petrizzo, M.R., 2007. The onset of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) at Sites 1209 and 1210 (Shatsky Rise, Pacific Ocean) as recorded by planktonic foraminifera. Marine Micropaleontology, 63(3-4): 187-200. 3. Petrizzo, M.R., Leoni, G., Speijer, R.P., De Bernardi, B. and Felletti, F., 2008. Dissolution susceptibility of some Paleogene planktic foraminifera from ODP site 1209 (Shatsky Rise, Pacific Ocean). Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 38(4): 81-95.

  13. The spider family Micropholcommatidae (Arachnida: Araneae: Araneoidea: a relimitation and revision at the generic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rix

    2010-02-01

    .; the 20 previously described species of Textricella are thus transferred into Eterosonycha or other newly described genera. The Textricellini includes 10 genera from Australasia and Chile: Eterosonycha has four species, including the type E. alpina Butler (=Textricella parva Hickman syn. n., E. complexa (Forster, E. aquilina sp. n. and E. ocellata sp. n.; Epigastrina gen. n. has three species, including the type E. fulva (Hickman, E. loongana sp. n. and E. typhlops sp. n.; Guiniella gen. n. is monotypic, with G. tropica (Forster; Raveniella gen. n. has three species, including the type R. luteola (Hickman, R. hickmani (Forster and R. peckorum sp. n.; Rayforstia gen. n. has 12 species, including the type R. vulgaris (Forster, the two new species R. lordhowensis sp. n. and R. raveni sp. n., and the nine additional species R. antipoda (Forster, R. insula (Forster, R. mcfarlanei (Forster, R. plebeia (Forster, R. propinqua (Forster, R. salmoni (Forster, R. scuta (Forster, R. signata (Forster and R. wisei (Forster; Normplatnicka gen. n. has three species, including the type N. lamingtonensis (Forster, N. chilensis sp. n. and N. barrettae sp. n.; Eperiella gen. n. has two species, including the type E. alsophila sp. n., and E. hastings sp. n.; Algidiella gen. n. is monotypic, with A. aucklandica (Forster; Taliniella gen. n. has two species, including the type T. nigra (Forster, and T. vinki sp. n.; and Tinytrella gen. n. is monotypic, with T. pusilla (Forster. The micropholcommatine tribe Patelliellini trib. n. includes only one monotypic genus, Patelliella gen. n., represented by the enigmatic species Patelliella adusta sp. n. from Lord Howe Island. The subfamily Taphiassinae subfam. n. includes two genera of distinctive, heavily punctate Micropholcommatidae from Australasia: Taphiassa Simon has six species, including the type T. impressa Simon, T. punctata (Forster, T. castanea sp. n., T. globosa sp. n., T. magna sp. n. and T. robertsi sp. n.; the genus Parapua Forster

  14. Monitoring breeding and migration of neotropical migratory birds at Point Loma, San Diego County, California, 5-year summary, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Suellen; Madden, Melanie C.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2017-04-27

    Executive SummaryWe operated a bird banding station on the Point Loma peninsula in western San Diego County, California, during spring and summer from 2011 to 2015. The station was established in 2010 as part of a long-term monitoring program for neotropical migratory birds during spring migration and for breeding birds as part of the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program.During spring migration (April and May), 2011–15, we captured 1,760 individual birds of 54 species, 91 percent (1,595) of which were newly banded, fewer than 1 percent (3) of which were recaptures that were banded in previous years, and 9 percent (143 hummingbirds, 2 hawks, and 17 other birds) of which we released unbanded. We observed an additional 22 species that were not captured. Thirty-four individuals were captured more than once. Bird capture rate averaged 0.49 ± 0.07 captures per net-hour (range 0.41–0.56). Species richness per day averaged 6.87 ± 0.33. Cardellina pusilla (Wilson’s warbler) was the most abundant spring migrant captured, followed by Empidonax difficilis (Pacific-slope flycatcher), Vireo gilvus (warbling vireo), Zonotrichia leucophrys (white-crowned sparrow), and Selasphorus rufus (rufous hummingbird). Captures of white-crowned sparrow decreased, and captures of Pacific-slope flycatcher increased, over the 5 years of our study. Fifty-six percent of known-sex individuals were male and 44 percent were female. The peak number of new species arriving per day ranged from April 1 (2013-six species) to April 16 (2012-five species). A significant correlation was determined between the number of migrants captured each day per net-hour and the density of echoes on the Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) images across all 5 years, and in each year except 2014. NEXRAD radar imagery appears to be a useful tool for detecting pulses in migration.Our results indicate that Point Loma provides stopover habitat during migration for 76 migratory species, including 20

  15. 广州低盐河段轮虫群落结构特征及富营养化状况分析%Rotifer communities structure and eutrophication analysis in the low salinity river segment,Guangzhou,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁丹妮; 王庆; 陈亮东; 杨宇峰; 刘胜

    2014-01-01

    Rotifers are an important part of the zooplankton community and key links to the microbial food web in river ecosystems.They can also be used as important indicators of water quality.Samples were collected monthly from April 201 0 to March 201 3 ,at the Zhongda (S1 )and Yuzhu (S2 )sites a-long the Guangzhou segment of the Pearl River in Guangzhou City.Rotifer species composition and abun-dance were analyzed and physico-chemical parameters of water samples were measured.A total of 48 spe-cies were identified,34 of which were pollution indicator species.The dominant species,including Anu-raeopsis fissa,Lififerotrocha subtilis,Brachionus angularis,Trichocerca pusilla,Filinia novaezealandia, and Brachionus caudatus,belong to pollution tolerant species.Rotifer abundance ranged from 2 to 4 063 ind./L,the annual mean densities were (1 359.46 ±1 89.54)ind./L (S1 )and (1 058.61 ±1 56.1 6) ind./L (S2 ),respectively.During the investigation period,salinity was less than 1.5 ,however,the contents of TN and TP were at high level at the two sampling stations.The annual mean TN contents were (6.22 ±0.39 )mg/L (S1 )and (6.32 ±0.35 )mg/L (S2 ),and the mean TP contents were (0.84 ± 0.53)mg/L (S1 )and (0.83 ±0.09)mg/L (S2),respectively.The contents of TN and TP were not significantly difference at the two sampling stations.The concentrations of chlorophyl-a range from 7.68 to 21 5.33 μg/L,the annual mean contents were (56.25 ±45.31 )μg/L (S1 )and (49.77 ±7.1 4 )μg/L (S2),respectively.Statistical analysis showed that there was a positive correlation between chloro-phyll-a concentrations (x)and rotifer abundance (y)(P<0.05;y=629.750 +1 0.71 7x).Based on ecological factors and water quality assessment system,the Guangzhou segment of the Pearl River is seri-ously eutrophic.%轮虫是浮游动物群落的重要组成部分,在河流生态系统微食物网的物质传递和能量流动过程中扮演着重要角色,同时也是水质评价的重要指标之一.为研究

  16. Taxonomy of the genus Arachis (Leguminosae by Antonio Krapovickas and Walton C. Gregory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2007-01-01

    clusters of characters, areas and features, a remarkable number of complete failures tocross-fertilize and, in those hybrids that were recovered, a high degree of F1 hybrid infertility.When these cross-incompatibilities and pollen infertilities were combined with the data oncharacter clustering, the nine distinct sections of the genus presented here then crystallized.Figures imposed upon maps of South America illustrate the geographic distributions of thesesections.The collections were then assigned to the different sections on the bases of cross-incompatibilityand exo-morphologic character clustering. When these groups were made, the esotericcharacteristics referred to above, so confounding when applied across sectional lines, becamehighly pertinent when applied to the problem of species differentiation between collections withinsections. These characteristics, applied in conjunction with chromosome cytology,chromatographic and antigenic reactions, variations in intra-sectional hybrid fertility andadaptations of plant form, and annual and perennial habit, allowed us to assemble the followingtaxa of the genus Arachis: Section I. TRIERECTOIDES nov.: 1. A. guaranitica, 2. A. tuberosa.Section II. ERECTOIDES nov.: 3. A. Martii, 4. A. brevipetiolata nov., 5. A. Oteroi nov., 6. A.Hatschbachii nov., 7. A. cryptopotamica nov., 8. A. major nov., 9. A. Benthamii, 10. A. douradiananov., 11. A. gracilis nov., 12. A. Hermannii nov., 13. A. Archeri nov., 14. A. stenophylla nov., 15a.A. paraguariensis subsp. paraguariensis, 15b. A. paraguariensis subsp. capibarensis nov.Section III. EXTRANERVOSAE nov.: 16. A. setinervosa nov., 17. A. Macedoi nov., 18. A.marginata, 19. A. prostrata, 20. A. lutescens, 21. A retusa nov., 22. A. Burchellii nov., 23. A.Pietrarellii nov., 24. A. villosulicarpa. Section IV. TRISEMINATAE nov.: 25. A. triseminata nov.Section V. HETERANTHAE nov.: 26. A. Giacomettii nov., 27. A. sylvestris, 28. A. pusilla, 29. A.Dardani nov. Section VI. CAULORRHIZAE nov.: 30. A