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Sample records for sandland china electronic

  1. Estimation of evapotranspiration in the Mu Us Sandland of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET was estimated from 1981–2005 over Wushen County located in the Mu Us Sandland, China, by applying the Advection-Aridity model, which is based on the complementary relationship hypothesis. We used National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, and meteorological data. Our results show that the estimated daily ET was about 4.5% higher than measurements using an Eddy Covariance (EC system after forcing energy balance closure over an alfalfa field from 22 July 2004 to 23 August 2004. At a regional scale, the estimated monthly ET was about 8.7% lower than measurements using the EC system after forcing energy balance closure over an alfalfa field in August 2004. These results were about 3.0% higher than ET measurements by microlysimeter over sand dunes during June 1988. From 1981 to 2005, the average annual ET and precipitation levels were 287 mm and 336 mm, respectively, in Wushen County. The average annual ET varied from 230 mm in western parts of Wushen County to 350 mm in eastern parts of the county. Both inter-annual and seasonal variations in ET were substantial in Wushen County. The annual ET was 200–400 mm from 1981–2005, and the seasonal pattern of ET showed a single peak distribution. The cumulative ET during the June–September 2004 period was 250 mm, which was 87% of the total annual ET. The annual ET, precipitation, and the maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVImax showed positive correlations temporally and spatially.

  2. Effect of different water supply on morphology, growth and photosynthetic characteristcs of Salix Psammophila seedlings in Maowusu sandland, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Response pattern was investigated for seedlings of Salixpsammophila, a dominant shrub in Maowusu sandland, to the simulated precipitation change by artificially controlling water supply at four levels. The growth characters, in term of plant height, stemdiameter, total branch number, total leaf number and area, total bifurcation ratio, total branch length and branch number, length, leaf number, leaf area of each branch order, and leaf, branch, root mass significantly increased when water supply increased. Thatwater supply had significant effect on biomass allocation showed different investment pattern of biomass resource of the seedlings grwn different water supply treatments. Stomatal density of abaxial leaf surface decreased, and stomatal apparatus length and width of adaxial and abaxial leaf surface increased with the increase in water supply, while Stomatal density of adaxial leaf surface was not affected by water supply. Water supply obviously affected the diurnal changes of photosynthetic rate, and the photo synthetic rate of the seedlings showed strongly midday depression growing under the 157.5 mm water supply, but not growing under higher water supply. Additionally the Assimilation-light response curves and fluorescence efficiency more showed that water supply improve photosynthesis capacity. Finally, S.psammophila seedlings stood out by their slow growth and relatively high investments in root growth in order to reduce tissue losing rate and consumption of water resource for keeping water balance under water stress. The seedlings that grown under high water supply did by their fast growth and relatively high investments in branch and leaf growth in order to improve the power of capturing light energy for higher photosynthesis.

  3. Interactive effects of moss-dominated crusts and Artemisia ordosica on wind erosion and soil moisture in Mu Us sandland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongsheng; Bu, Chongfeng; Mu, Xingmin; Shao, Hongbo; Zhang, Kankan

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the effects of biological soil crusts (BSCs) on soil moisture and wind erosion and study the necessity and feasibility of disturbance of BSCs in the Mu Us sandland, the effects of four treatments, including moss-dominated crusts alone, Artemisia ordosica alone, bare sand, and Artemisia ordosica combined with moss-dominated crusts, on rainwater infiltration, soil moisture, and annual wind erosion were observed. The major results are as follows. (1) The development of moss-dominated crusts exacerbated soil moisture consumption and had negative effects on soil moisture in the Mu Us sandland. (2) Moss-dominated crusts significantly increased soil resistance to wind erosion, and when combined with Artemisia ordosica, this effect became more significant. The contribution of moss-dominated crusts under Artemisia ordosica was significantly lower than that of moss-dominated crusts alone in sites where vegetative coverage > 50%. (3) Finally, an appropriate disturbance of moss-dominated crusts in the rainy season in sites with high vegetative coverage improved soil water environment and vegetation succession, but disturbance in sites with little or no vegetative cover should be prohibited to avoid the exacerbation of wind erosion.

  4. Exclusion effects on vegetation characteristics and their correlation to soil factors in the semi-arid rangeland of Mu Us Sandland,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaohui; ZHANG Kebin; HOU Ruiping; CI Longjun

    2007-01-01

    (soil water content and crust cover),and it had positive relation to available N,and negative relation to available P.Higher soil N had advantage to non-leguminous plants growth on nutrition-poor sand land definitely.The impact of P to community component was unclear and should be studied from plant physiology.Further researches on nonequilibrium theory in semi-arid rangeland will provide a scientific and flexible animal development paradigm for being implementing livestock fen-raising and grazing-forbidden policies in China.

  5. Size distribution and element composition of dust aerosol in Chinese Otindag Sandland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Tiantao; L(U) Daren; CHEN Hongbin; WANG Gengchen

    2005-01-01

    Part physical and chemical characteristics of dust aerosol were determined for samples collected from Otindag Sandland of China in spring, 2001. Number concentration, mass concentration, chemical element concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles with 0.5 -m < Dp < 100.0 -m were examined. The average number and mass concentrations of aerosols were 274.8 cm-3 and 0.54 mg/m3 for the field period respectively, and 31.4 cm-3 and 0.07 mg/m3 for the non-dusty days. PM10 played a dominant role in the aerosol mass concentrations. The particles with Dp < 8.0 -m accounted for about 93.7% of total aerosol number loading in dusty days. The particle size distributions of aerosols were characterized by bi-modal logarithm normal function in heavy and moderate dusty days, and mono-modal in windblown and non-dusty days. Crustal elements such as Al, Fe, etc. in aerosols almost originated from soils. Pollutant elements of S, Pb, etc. associated with aerosols were affected by remote anthropogenic pollutant sources in upwind regions. Mo, V and Co in aerosols were possibly from other dust sources other than local soils. The aerosols over Otindag Sandland consisted of particles from local soils, upwind pollutant sources and other dust sources.

  6. Development Trends of Electronic Chemicals in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Jinhong; Hou Hongsen

    2007-01-01

    @@ The annual growth of the electronic chemicals business in China exceeded 20% during the Tenth Five-year Plan period (2001-2005). The market volume of electronic chemicals in China is expected to exceed RMB20 billion in 2010.

  7. Quantitative estimation of the shrub canopy LAI from atmosphere-corrected HJ-1 CCD data in Mu Us Sandland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The leaf area index(LAI) is an important ecological parameter that characterizes the interface between vegetation canopy and the atmosphere.In addition,it is used by most process-oriented ecosystem models.This paper investigates the potential of HJ-1 CCD data combined with linear spectral unmixing and an inverted geometric-optical model for the retrieval of the shrub LAI in Wushen Banner of Inner Mongolia in the Mu Us Sandland.MODTRAN(Moderate Resolution Atmospheric Radiance and Transmittance Model) was used for atmospheric correction.Shrubland was extracted using the threshold of the normalized difference vegetation index,with which water bodies and farmland were separated,in combination with a vegetation map of the People’s Republic of China(1:1000000).Using the geometric-optical model,we derive the per-pixel reflectance as a simple linear combination of two components,namely sunlit background and other.The fraction of sunlit background is related to the shrub LAI.With the support of HJ-1 CCD data,we employ linear spectral unmixing to obtain the fraction of sunlit background in an atmospherically corrected HJ image.In addition,we use the measured shrub canopy structural parameters for shrub communities to invert the geometric-optical model and retrieve the pixel-based shrub LAI.In total,18 sample plots collected in Wushen Banner of Inner Mongolia are used for validation.The results of the shrub LAI show good agreement with R2 of 0.817 and a root-mean-squared error of 0.173.

  8. Study on Clonal Growth Pattern of Sabina vulgaris in Mu Us Sandland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guosheng; Liu Haidong; Liu Meizhen; Wang Linhe; Zhu Jinzhao; Jirigele

    2003-01-01

    The clonal growth pattern of Sabina vulgaris, a coniferous clonal plant in Mu Us sandland, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region was surveyed. The results showed that with the stolon extending, internode length and branching angle decreased, the branching intensity increased gradually within the 3 m range from the edge of the shrub to its center along the stolon. Internode length, branching intensity and branching angle were 5.9 cm, 4.4 and 55.3°in the shrub, and 1.6 cm, 13.7 and 38.3°at the edge of the shrub, respectively. The clonal architecture exhibited plasticity. The internode length, branching intensity and ramet length changed with an exponential model with extention of the stolon. The stolon of S. vulgaris was monopodial branching, and each ramet should possess more than 3 adventitious roots. Ramets could take on the phenomenon of "self-thinning" with clonal growth. There was a prior grade in allocation of the nutrients gained from heterogeneous space. The clonal architecture of S. vulgaris was the "mixed" type.

  9. The Portability of the "Electronics Workbench" Simulation Software to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi-Cheng, Dong; Collis, Betty

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the portability of a Canadian-made educational simulation software package, "The Electronics Workbench," to China that was part of a larger study conducted at the University of Twente (The Netherlands). Evaluation results of the software use in China are presented, including functionality for electronics education, ease of use,…

  10. The portability of the "Electronics Workbench" simulation software to China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Zhi-Cheng, Dong

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses the portability of the Canadian-made simulation software package, "Electronic Workbench" package (EWB) to China. As part of a larger project investigating the portability of various educational software packages, the EWB package was used in electronics instruction in China and

  11. 浑善达克沙地10年生态恢复回顾与展望%Ten-year-period Demonstration Project in Hunshandake Sandland and Prospect for the Future Development of Eco-stock FarmingIndustry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋高明; 刘美珍; 牛书丽; 李永庚; 彭羽; 李刚; 苏本营

    2011-01-01

    history of buying forages during winter and early spring from the market, nowadays, they are able to sell the superfluous forages to the market Herdsmen of Bayinhushu now have their own driveways, new houses, tap-waters, and bathrooms; the living standard is significantly improved. The largest demonstration base for "replacing livestock with poultry" in China's grassland has established. The successful restoration story of Bayinhushu, especially as the case of desertification prevention and biodiversity conservation, has been intensively reported by academic journals and/or media both nationwide and intemationwide. The prestigious Science magazine once reported the project achievement as a great ecological event in its special column of News Focus. The US college textbook, Geology and the Environment (6e), also refers Hunshandake story as the successful case of dust storm controlling. The main approaches, achievements, and challenges involving the demonstration project after 10 years' operation are concisely reviewed. Suggestions that are based on the actual practices and go far toward the sustainable development of eco-stock fanning industry in a large region of grassland, especially in the four main sandlands in China have been put forward.

  12. Response of photosynthesis, morphology and growth of edysarum mongolicum seedlings to simulated precipitation change in Maowusu sandland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Response patters were investigated for seedlings of Hedysarum mongolicum, a dominant shrub in Maowusu sandland, to the simulated precipitation change by artificially controlling water supply at four levels. Plant growth characters, in terms of branch number and length, leaf number and area, and biomass, increased while water supply increased. However, the effect of water supply on leaf photosynthetic rate was not significant. Root/shoot biomass ratio significantly decreased with the increase of water supply, which was considered adaptive distribution of biomass investments in the different water supply. Water supply obviously affected branching patter. Branch section number,branch number and length of the same section enhanced as water supply increased. Branch number and length were clearly positive correlation with total and aboveground biomass in four water supply treatments. Branch character fully showed plant growth.

  13. China's Industrial Policy in Relation to Electronics Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongxiu Zhao; Xiaoling Huang; Dongya Ye; Paul Gentle

    2007-01-01

    China has become the biggest exporter of electronic products in the world. Government policy intervention has contributed significantly to the rapid expansion of the electronics industry. The present paper examines the evolutionary development of industrial policies related to the electronics industry in China and the impacts of such policies on the shaping of the industry. In particular, the relationship between foreign funded enterprises and domestic firms are examined in detail. The future trend of the industry is also discussed in the paper, and the policy focus of the Chinese Government is predicted.

  14. Research and Development of Electronic and Optoelectronic Materials in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王占国

    2000-01-01

    A review on the research and development of electronic and optoelectronic materials in China, including the main scientific activities in this field, is presented. The state-of-the-arts and prospects of the electronic and optoelectronic materials in China are briefly introduced, such as those of silicon crystals, compound semiconductors, synthetic crystals, especially nonlinear optical crystals and rare-earth permanent magnets materials, etc. , with a greater emphasis on Chinese scientist's contributions to the frontier area of nanomaterials and nanostructures in the past few years. A new concept of the trip chemistry proposed by Dr. Liu Zhongfan from Peking University has also been described. Finally the possible research grants and the national policy to support the scientific research have been discussed.

  15. A content analysis of electronic cigarette manufacturer websites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tingting; Jiang, Nan; Grana, Rachel; Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to summarise the websites of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) manufacturers in China and describe how they market their products. From March to April 2013, we used two search keywords 'electronic cigarette' (Dian Zi Xiang Yan in Chinese) and 'manufacturer' (Sheng Chan Chang Jia in Chinese) to search e-cigarette manufacturers in China on Alibaba, an internet-based e-commerce business that covers business-to-business online marketplaces, retail and payment platforms, shopping search engine and data-centric cloud computing services. A total of 18 websites of 12 e-cigarette manufacturers in China were analysed by using a coding guide which includes 14 marketing claims. Health-related benefits were claimed most frequently (89%), followed by the claims of no secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure (78%), and utility for smoking cessation (67%). A wide variety of flavours, celebrity endorsements and e-cigarettes specifically for women were presented. None of the websites had any age restriction on access, references to government regulation or lawsuits. Instruction on how to use e-cigarettes was on 17% of the websites. Better regulation of e-cigarette marketing messages on manufacturers' websites is needed in China. The frequent claims of health benefits, smoking cessation, strategies appealing to youth and women are concerning, especially targeting women. Regulators should prohibit marketing claims of health benefits, no SHS exposure and value for smoking cessation in China until health-related, quality and safety issues have been adequately addressed. To avoid e-cigarette use for initiation to nicotine addiction, messages targeting youth and women should be prohibited. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. 2006 China Machinery and Electronical Products Trade Fair:Ample Fruits Shown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ 2006 Malaysia China Machinery and Electronical Products Trade Fair, organized by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT), was held in August in Prince World Trade Center(PWTC), Kuala Lumpur.

  17. Guide Rules for Electronic Atlas Project in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Electronic atlas project (E-atlas project) plays an important role in the procedure of popularizing maps and is diversifying its application widely in China. Practice for E-atlas projects is a basic approach for achieving public accessibility to national spatial data infrastructure (NSDI) and meets people's inherent needs of updated maps. This paper provides a description and assessment of an integration of E-atlas projects, analyzes current progress and characters of E-atlas project, summarizes basic guide rules, and provides solution and interpretation. It depicts a conceptual framework of an authoring toolkit that is driven by application of E-atlas on the basis of successful instances. The toolkit which improves interactive interface, decreases operational difficulties is developed in Visual C++ and used widely in China.

  18. 毛乌素沙地植被覆盖变化的遥感分析%Remote Sensing Analysis of Vegetation Cover Change of Mu Us Sandland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永诚; 孙建国; 颜长珍

    2014-01-01

    为了防止毛乌素沙地沙漠化、改善生态环境质量,近10年国家在该区域实施了一系列生态环境建设工程。这些工程的主要目标就是恢复退化植被,提高植被覆盖率。本研究基于2000年、2005年、2010年三期的Landsat数据,利用eCognition软件中面向对象分类技术和地理信息系统的叠加分析功能,分析了2000~2010年间毛乌素沙地植被覆盖变化情况。同时,通过MODIS-NDVI数据计算分析了植被覆盖度的变化趋势。研究得出:1)该区域草地大幅度增加,尤其是2005年到2010年之间,增加更加明显;林地基本稳定;旱地由于退耕还林等政策有所减少;2)近10年来毛乌素沙地植被覆盖度呈逐步增加趋势,西北部和东南部增加尤为明显。产生上述变化的自然因素和人为因素的贡献率需要进一步研究。%To prevent the land desertification and improve the ecological environmental quality , a series of ecological environment con-struction projects have been implemented for Mu Us Sandland by the country during the nearly 10 years.One of the main effects of these projects is to restore the degradation vegetation and increase the vegetation coverage .This study analyze the vegetation cover change of Mu Us Sandland from the year 2000 to 2010 by using the object -oriented classification technique of eCongnition software and the overlay analysis function of geographic information system , based on Landsat data of the three stages which respectively are 2000, 2005 and 2010.Meanwhile, the variation trend of vegetation coverage is calculated and analyzed with the MODIS -NDVI data. The conclusions are:(1) the grassland area of Mu Us Sandland increases significantly , especially the period between 2005 and 2010;the area of forest land is basically stable;the area of dry land decrease because of some policies , such as the policy converting farm-land into forest and so on;(2)the vegetation coverage

  19. Potential to Improve the Competitiveness of China's Electronic and Mechanical Products Exports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Hao; Wang Xi; Wang Luxi

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since launching the reform and opening policy,and particularly since the mid-1990s with accelerating industrialization processes and further policy changes,the electronics and mechanical industry in China has made huge strides in production and foreign trade value,now accounting for approximately half of total exports from China and becoming a pillar industry of China's foreign trade.

  20. Visualization issues in the development of electronic atlas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYingjie; SUYing; CHENXiaogang; YUZhuoyuan; LiqiuMENG

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of electronic atlas in China, with focus on the issues of visualization. We particularly categorise this development into four periods, and then analyse the characters in each period and discuss the visualization issues. The four periods are highlighted: 1)Infant period (2001) characterized as web mapping and adaptive map design with products of Internet maps and atlas as well as adaptive maps. It is obvious that the development follows the logical way from static to dynamic, and even real time visualization, from single user to multiple users, from presentation to exploration for effective communication and knowledge construction. Current research and development projects are focused on customisation of at/as information systems for real-time tasks, Internet operability, small displays and mobile environments. The major challenges involved in each of such customisation processes are identified and commented in relation to the further development of visualization.

  1. Comparison of Electronic Taxpayer Services in OECD Countries and Recommendations for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deyong; WU; Ran; AN; Zhibo; ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    Through comparing development trend electronic taxpayer services in OECD countries and analyzing its drawbacks,it gained beneficial experience of electronic taxpayer services.Then,it came up with policy recommendations for China.It is recommended that China should raise the electronic taxpayer services to national strategy level,improve the efficiency of electronic taxpayer services in line with the taxpayercentered principle,develop ways of electronic taxpayer services with Chinese characteristics,increase convenience for taxpayers on the precondition of guaranteeing information security,make effort to reduce compliance costs of taxpayers,and promote popularization of electronic taxpayer services with the framework of laws.

  2. 76 FR 12401 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Certain Measures Affecting Electronic Payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China--Certain Measures Affecting Electronic Payment Services AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Office of the United States Trade Representative (``USTR'') is...

  3. 75 FR 60159 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Certain Measures Affecting Electronic Payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China--Certain Measures Affecting Electronic Payment Services AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Office of the United States Trade Representative (``USTR'') is...

  4. Responses of Hedysarum Laeve,a guerrilla clonal semi-shrub in the Mu Us Sandland,to local sand burial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fengbong; YE Xuehua; YU Feihai; DONG Ming

    2007-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid inland deserts,one of the environmental stresses for plants is recurrent sand burial,which can influence the physical and biotic microenvironments of the plants and soil.Previous studies have shown that different levels of sand burial have different effects on plants.Slight sand burial could increase the height increment,leaf biomass and the number of new ramets of the plants while heavy sand burial could impair the growth of the plants and even decrease their chances of survival.In other words,below a certain threshold level of burial,the growth of plants is stimulated probably because of multiple factors.However,as the level of burial increases,the positive response starts to decline until it becomes a negative value.Arid and semi-arid inland deserts are frequently colonized and stabilized by many rhizomatous clonal plants.Clonal physiological integration often helps clonal plants buffer local environmental stress encountered by ramets.A rhizomatous clonal semishrub,Hedysarum laeve (H.laeve),is the dominant plant species and important for vegetation restoration in the Mu Us sandland.To investigate whether clonal integration can increase the threshold of sand burial and help rhizomatous H.laeve tolerate heavy sand burial,we conducted a field experiment.The results showed that slight sand burial could accelerate ramet growth and enhance leaf biomass,stem biomass and shoot biomass,while heavy sand burial reducesed the biomass of the plant and impairs survival and growth of the ramets.Clonal integration increased the threshold of sand burial.Under heavy sand burial,ramets connected to other ramets not buried in sand were more in terms of height increment,stem biomass,leaf biomass and shoot biomass compared to the ramets encountering sand burial but disconnected from other ramets.It suggested that clonal physiological integration could help H.laeve ramets tolerate relatively heavy sand burial.We also discussed that clonal integration plays a role

  5. Comparison of photosynthesis and water use efficiency between three plant functional types in Hunshandak sandland%浑善达克沙地不同植物功能型光合作用和水分利用特征的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛书丽; 蒋高明; 高雷鸣; 李永庚; 姜闯道; 刘美珍; 崔红霞; 丁莉; 彭羽

    2005-01-01

    为了比较不同植物功能型在沙地生境下光合作用和水分利用效率的差异,测定了浑善达克沙地3种功能型的代表种的气体交换特征来比较它们的光合碳固定能力和水分利用状况.3个代表种的气体交换日变化结果表明乔木的光合速率和水分利用效率比草本和灌木的低,而蒸腾速率和气孔导度较高,经过中午的光合午休后,乔木的光合速率在下午没有恢复,而草本和灌木都有不同程度的恢复.在所测定的所有代表物种中,研究地全部的乔木(3种)和灌木(6种)以及典型的草本(25种),气孔导度与光合速率和蒸腾速率都成显著的正相关关系;另外,在同样的叶片水势情况下,乔木植物的气孔导度最低,在同样的蒸腾速率情况下,乔木植物的光合速率最低.这些结果表明乔木在CO2同化和H2O蒸腾平衡上具有低的水分利用效率.从这个角度考虑,我们认为在对沙地进行恢复时,一些草本和灌木种比乔木更合适.%Stomata controls carbon-water balance in plants by acting as transport for diffusive CO2 uptake and water vapor loss.Plants with lower photosynthesis and higher transpiration rate may function with less stomatal control and inefficient water usage. To test the hypothesis that tree is improper for the purpose of degraded land restoration in arid or semi-arid environment, we investigated gas exchanges of three plant functional types (PFTs) (3 tree species, 6 shrub species and 25 herb species) in Hunshandak Sandland, China, to compare their carbon assimilation ability and water use efficiency. Our research aimed to look into how those plants with different PFTs design carbon and water cycling in semi-arid areas in order to select the ecologically and economically suitable species for the seek of controlling of sandland degradation.We investigated the typical species of each PFT, I.e. Ulmus pumila (tree), Salix gordejevii (shrub) and Leymus chinensis(herb) to compare

  6. The influence of different underlying surface on sand-dust storm in northern China%华北地区不同下垫面对沙尘暴的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋阳; 全占军; 刘连友

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a quantitative research on the relationship between different underlying surface and sand-dust storm has been made by using 40 years meteorological data of five different types of underlying surface in northern China, which include farmland, grassland, sandland, gobi and salt crust.These metrological data comprise sand-dust storm days and strong wind days. By analyzing, we can find that there are certain correlations between the days of sand-dust storm and strong wind for different underlying surface, which has great influence on sand-dust storm. But there are pronounced differences in different types of underlying surface. The sand-dust storm days of grassland, gobi and salt crust, with smaller interannual variation are obviously less than strong wind days. On the other hand, the sand-dust storm days of farmland and sandland increase evidently, even in many years, are much more than strong wind days. The differences are mainly induced by the influencing mechanism of different underlying surface on sand-dust storm. Grassland, gobi and salt crust with stable underlying surface are not prone to sand-dust storm under strong wind condition. Whereas, the underlying surface of farmland and sandland is unstable, that is easy to induce sand-dust storm under strong wind condition.

  7. Electronic Commerce in Tourism in China: B2B or B2C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongxiu; Suomi, Reima

    E-commerce has significantly changed the distribution channels of travel products in the world including China. Online channels are growing important in travel service distribution. In China tourism industry has been developed rapidly with the economic development, more and more international travel service providers are trying to expand their Chinese market through the Internet. This paper sheds lights on the e-commerce development models in China for international travel service providers. It explores the current e-tourism in China from the three different participants in the value chain in tourism industry - consumer, travel agent and travel service provider. The paper also identifies the barriers in B2C arena in international outbound travel market, and discusses the possible approaches for international travel service providers to develop their e-commerce in the huge Chinese market. The results in this study reveal that international travel service providers should focus on B2B model to expand their electronic market in China. B2C development in tourism largely depends on the change of Chinese customers' behavior and the change of international tourism regulations. The findings of the study are expected to assist international travel service providers to understand current e-tourism in China and to support their planning for future e-commerce development in China.

  8. China’s Electronic Long-Range Reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for...to the law .”39 He dismisses accusations of chinese attacks …information supremacy is the foundation of battlefield supremacy.…This focus on...34. vago Muradian, “China tried to Blind U.S. Sats with laser,” Defense News, 25 September 2006, 1. 35. Josh rogin, “Network attack Disables Naval

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES AND HUMAN ACTIVITIES DURING THE MEDIEVAL WARM PERIOD AND THE LITTLE ICE AGE IN OTINDAG SANDLAND BY OSL DATING%光释光测年揭示浑善达克沙地中世纪暖期和小冰期环境变迁与人类活动的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小艳; 周亚利; 庞奖励; 鹿化煜; 黄春长; 周亮; 顾洪亮

    2012-01-01

    Otindag sandland is located in the middle of Inner Mongolia Plateau ( 112°22' ~ 117°57'N, 41°56' ~ 44°24'E) ,with its present environment is arid to semiarid. The climate is mainly controlled by the East Asian monsoon atmospheric circulation in this region. The earth surface processes,such as dune systems,are sensitive to both climatic changes and human impacts. In order to better understand the interaction of these factors in Otindag sandland during the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age, optically stimulated luminescence dating(OSL) has been used to obtain ages of five typical dune sediment sequences, which are LQD (42. 26°N, 116. 13 °E) , S308-132km( 42. 39°N, 115. 39°E), HSZN (42. 08°N, 116.44°E), DLGES (43. 56°N, 115. 68°E) and JPW-A (43.24°N,117.45°E) ,with the thickness as 2. 0m, 1. 4m, 3. 0m,2. 2m and 0. 8m, respectively. OSL dating on quartz grains at the size of 90 - 150u,m were carried out by using the single aliquot regenerative-dose ( SAR) protocol. Combined with the characteristics of grain-size distribution, magnetic susceptibility, ignition loss from the sediment and the pottery sherds which were found in LQD and JPW-A sediment sequences, paleoenvironmental changes were reconstructed since 2ka in Otindag sandland. Sandy soil with greater value of silt and clay content, magnetic susceptibility,and loss on ignition were developed in the episode of 1.45 ~1. lOka and 0. 83 -0. 58ka, while yellow sand layer with more coarse grain, less silt and clay and magnetic susceptibility as well as loss on ignition were developed at 1. 10 -0. 83ka and 0. 58 ~0. 20ka. The development of sandy soil represents wetter and wanner conditions, leading to the increase of vegetation coverage and much less aeolian activity. These phases were the warming periods of Tang Dynasty and the Yuan Dynasty in Chinese history correlating with the Medieval Warming Period in Europe. In that time, the ideal natural environment helped the great development of the

  10. STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF SIMULATED PREGIPITATION CHANGE ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY PROCESS FOR ARTEMISIA ORDOSICA SEEDLINGS IN MAOWUSU SANDLAND%模拟降水量变化对毛乌素油蒿幼苗生理生态过程的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖春旺; 张新时

    2001-01-01

    Maowusu sandland is classical one of arid and semi-arid sandland in China.Water is the most limited factor there.The distribution patte rn and productivity of terrestrial ecosystem are greatly affected with the futur e global severer change,especially global precipitation change.It is investigate d for the response of physiological ecology of A.ordosica seedlings,a domina nt shrub in Maowusu sandland,to the global precipitation change by artificially controlling four water supply gradients.The results show that the diurnal change s of photosynthetic rate,transpiration rate,stomatal conductance,intercellular C O2 concentration,leaf temperature,solar energy utilization efficiency,and wate r utilization efficiency of A.ordosica seedlings show significantly differen t under different water supply treatments.The seedlings have low stomatal conduc tance and transpiration rate by shutting stomata so as to lower losing water by transpiration,mainly due to severe water stress in the deficit water supply,but high stomatal conductance,intercellular CO2 concentration,transpiration rate a nd low leaf temperature by opening stomata so as to increase photosynthesis in f ull water supply.So the seedlings show different physiological ecological adapta tion strategies under different water supply.The fluorescence efficienc increase s with the increase of water supply,which explains on mechanism why photosynthes is increases with the increase of water supply treatments.The analyses of backwa rd eliminated variable indicate that the number of main factors which restrict p hotosynthetic rate of seedlings decrease with the increase of water supply.PAR a nd leaf temperature are most restricted factor in full water supply,and transpir ation rate,intercellular/air CO2 concentration margin and PAR in middle water supply,but transpiration rate,stomatal conductance,intercellular/air CO2 conce ntration margin,leaf/air temperature and air temperature in deficient water supp ly.%毛乌素是中

  11. How to Regain Lost Customers in Electronic Commerce: An Empirical Study from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce has experienced rapid growth in last years. B2C electronic commerce often has a high customer loss rate. To regain the lost customers is a major concern of online vendors. This paper investigates the strategies for winning back lost customers (price promotion and relationship investment through field experiment on a major B2C website in China. Research findings indicate the two strategies are effective in regaining lost customers online, depending on the customers’ prior relationship time with the vendor, and lapse time from the vendor. The study has contribution to electronic commerce and has practical implications for B2C vendors on customer management.

  12. Research and application of electron accelerator in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan Wenlong; Liu Zhenghao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China)

    2003-02-01

    There are more than 30 product lines of irradiation cross-linking wire and cable and shrinkable tube by EB in Chinese industry. Total of 3,000 KW power of EB, in which 40% coming from home made accelerator. Recently, about 450 KW electron accelerator is being manufactured and used in protection of environment that is removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas. (author)

  13. Study on Electronic Journal Reading Behaviour of Social Scientists in Taiwan and Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    王梅玲、肖希明、朱慶華 Mei-Ling Wang, Xi-Ming Xiao, Qing-Hua Zhu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to investigate the electronic journal reading behaviour of social scientists in Taiwan and Mainland China. The main purposes of the study are as follows: to explore the importance of e-journals amongst social scientists’ research; to explore the e-journal reading behaviour of Taiwanese and Chinese social scientists; to unearth factors affecting e-journal article reading thereby allowing comparisons to be made between the e-journal reading behaviour of social scientists in Taiwan and Mainland China. Three surveys were carried out at ChengChi University in Taiwan, and Wuhan University and Nanjing University in Mainland China during 2012. The target population was social science faculty members and graduate students of the three universities. Three questionnaire surveys were conducted during January toApril 2012, with a total of 668 valid questionnaire responses collected. Analysis of reading e-journal critical incident articles showed that 46.7% were in Chinese and 53.3% in English. Each social scientist in Taiwan and Mainland China read on average 307 e-journal articles and spent about 380 hours annually reading e-journals; they read e-journals mainly for research purposes and the writing of papers. Information regarding the e-journal reading environments, reading methods, reading strategies and reading consequences of social scientists in Taiwan and Mainland China were collected and analysed. In this study four types of e-journal reading behaviour of social scientists in Taiwan and Mainland China are shown, namely; screen browsing; screen based-reading, print reading, and screen-based collocating reading. E-journal reading behavior of social scientists in Taiwan and Mainland China are studied and the study also illustrates some difference of e-journal reading behaviour between Taiwanese and Chinese social scientists. pp. 26-43

  14. Informal electronic waste recycling: a sector review with special focus on China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinwen; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Wang, Mark Y L; Reuter, Markus A

    2011-04-01

    Informal recycling is a new and expanding low cost recycling practice in managing Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE or e-waste). It occurs in many developing countries, including China, where current gaps in environmental management, high demand for second-hand electronic appliances and the norm of selling e-waste to individual collectors encourage the growth of a strong informal recycling sector. This paper gathers information on informal e-waste management, takes a look at its particular manifestations in China and identifies some of the main difficulties of the current Chinese approach. Informal e-waste recycling is not only associated with serious environmental and health impacts, but also the supply deficiency of formal recyclers and the safety problems of remanufactured electronic products. Experiences already show that simply prohibiting or competing with the informal collectors and informal recyclers is not an effective solution. New formal e-waste recycling systems should take existing informal sectors into account, and more policies need to be made to improve recycling rates, working conditions and the efficiency of involved informal players. A key issue for China's e-waste management is how to set up incentives for informal recyclers so as to reduce improper recycling activities and to divert more e-waste flow into the formal recycling sector.

  15. Evaluation of Electronic Healthcare Databases for Post-Marketing Drug Safety Surveillance and Pharmacoepidemiology in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Gao, Shuangqing; Lin, Hongbo; Xie, Yanming; Feng, Yuji; Huang, Kui; Zhan, Siyan

    2017-08-16

    Electronic healthcare databases (EHDs) are used increasingly for post-marketing drug safety surveillance and pharmacoepidemiology in Europe and North America. However, few studies have examined the potential of these data sources in China. Three major types of EHDs in China (i.e., a regional community-based database, a national claims database, and an electronic medical records [EMR] database) were selected for evaluation. Forty core variables were derived based on the US Mini-Sentinel (MS) Common Data Model (CDM) as well as the data features in China that would be desirable to support drug safety surveillance. An email survey of these core variables and eight general questions as well as follow-up inquiries on additional variables was conducted. These 40 core variables across the three EHDs and all variables in each EHD along with those in the US MS CDM and Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) CDM were compared for availability and labeled based on specific standards. All of the EHDs' custodians confirmed their willingness to share their databases with academic institutions after appropriate approval was obtained. The regional community-based database contained 1.19 million people in 2015 with 85% of core variables. Resampled annually nationwide, the national claims database included 5.4 million people in 2014 with 55% of core variables, and the EMR database included 3 million inpatients from 60 hospitals in 2015 with 80% of core variables. Compared with MS CDM or OMOP CDM, the proportion of variables across the three EHDs available or able to be transformed/derived from the original sources are 24-83% or 45-73%, respectively. These EHDs provide potential value to post-marketing drug safety surveillance and pharmacoepidemiology in China. Future research is warranted to assess the quality and completeness of these EHDs or additional data sources in China.

  16. Monitoring the three-dimensional ionospheric electron density distribution using GPS observations over China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wen Debao; Yuan Yunbin; Ou Jikun

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, an IRI model assisted GPS-based Computerized Ionospheric Tomography (CIT) technique is developed to inverse the ionospheric electron density (IED) distribution over China. Essentially, an improved algebraic reconstruction technique (IART) is first proposed to reconstruct the ionospheric images with high resolution and high efficiency. A numerical experiment is used to validate the reliability of the method and its advantages to the classical algebraic reconstruction technique (ART). This is then used to reconstruct the IED images using the GPS data in China. The variations of the IED during magnetically quiet and disturbed days are reported and analyzed here. Reconstructed results during magnetically quiet days show some prominent ionospheric features such as the development of equatorial anomaly and the tilt of ionization crest. Meanwhile, ionospheric storm phase effects and disturbed features can also be revealed from the reconstructed IED image under storm conditions. Research shows that the positive storm phase effects usually happen in southern China, and the negative storm phase effects mainly occur in northern China. The equatorial anomaly crest moved to the north in the main phase of the storm. Ionosonde data recorded at Wuhan station provides the verification for the reliability of GPS-based CIT technique.

  17. Response to waste electrical and electronic equipments in China: legislation, recycling system, and advanced integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) recycling activities. For the purpose of environmental protection and resource reusing, China made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. This article reviews progresses of three major fields in the development of China's WEEE recycling industry: legal system, formal recycling system, and advanced integrated process. Related laws concerning electronic waste (e-waste) management and renewable resource recycling are analyzed from aspects of improvements and loopholes. The outcomes and challenges for existing formal recycling systems are also discussed. The advantage and deficiency related to advanced integrated recycling processes for typical e-wastes are evaluated respectively. Finally, in order to achieve high disposal rates of WEEE, high-quantify separation of different materials in WEEE and high added value final products produced by separated materials from WEEE, an idea of integrated WEEE recycling system is proposed to point future development of WEEE recycling industry.

  18. A survey of occupational health hazards among 7,610 female workers in China's electronics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenlan; Lao, Xiang Qian; Pang, Shulan; Zhou, Jianjiao; Zhou, Anshou; Zou, Jianfang; Mei, Liangying; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the occupational hazards among Chinese female workers in the electronics industry, the authors systematically sampled a total of 8,300 female workers at random across 4 provinces in a variety of electronics factories. A detailed questionnaire was used to collect information on occupational hazards and the occurrence of occupation-related diseases. The results show that 4,283 female workers (51.9%) were exposed to 1 or more occupational hazards. The most common chemical hazard was organic solvent, and the second most common was heavy metals. The ergonomic hazards included repetitive movements, poor standing posture, and the lifting of heavy goods. More than 60% of the female workers self-reported occupation-related diseases. These results showed that occupational health hazards were common in the electronics industry in China and that they caused serious occupation-related health problems for the female workers therein.

  19. Review and Outlook of China Electronic and IT Industry Footprints in IEC International Standardization Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Jingping

    2006-01-01

    @@ Year 2006 is the year marking the 100th anniversary of the founding of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). IEC is mainly engaged in the international standardization for electrical and electronic technology field aiming at promoting international trade and technology cooperation and exchange, improving product and service quality, upgrading productivity and protecting the environment as well as human health and safety. Most countries worldwide adopt standards developed and promulgated by IEC, providing a platform to international trade and technical exchange. China has being a member since 1957. Electronic and IT are the most developed and energetic filed in recent decades. Number of IEC TC/SC specialized in electronic and IT amounts up to 52.

  20. 浑善达克沙地榆树干液流动态研究%Sap Flow Dynamics of Ulmus pumila var.sabulosa in Hunshandake Sandland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶苑; 蒋高明; 刘美珍

    2011-01-01

    Sap flux density of Ulmus pumila var. Sabulosa in typical elms sparse forest in Hunshandake Sandland of Inner Mongolia was studied by using Cranier technology. Nine dominant trees with different Diameters at Breast Height (DBH) which belong to three classes of DBH, that is, 15-25cm (small DBH), 25-35cm (medium DBH) and >35cm (large DBH), respectively in natural forest were selected and measured in terms of sap flux density. At the same time, various environmental factors including air temperature, relative humidity, photosynthetically active radiation, and wind speed were monitored in the whole growing season. The sap flow characteristics of forest stand are: sap flow density peak value of large DBH is larger than that of medium DBH tree and then small DBH tree. Sap flow density of large DBH trees change gently because age of stand. Average monthly sap flow density is less with the shift of growing season; the sap flow density enters into the state of weakly fluctuation in the end of growing season (October). The maximum value of average monthly sap flow density for varied tree species appears from June to August, the differences among dominant, medium and small trees are large. The main influence environmental factors are VPD, PAR, Ta. At different months, the dominant environmental factors have changed, but the two main factors are PAR and VPD.%应用Granier热扩散技术对内蒙古浑善达克沙地榆(Ulmus pumila var.sabulosa)疏林林分进行树干液流通量研究.选择该区占林分80%以上林木的3种胸径级(小径级,15-25cm;中等径级,25-35cm;大径级,>35cm)榆树,使用Granier探针进行每隔15min的树干液流测定,同步测定各林分环境因子.林分中不同胸径级榆树树干液流通量特征表现为:树干液流密度峰值大径级树>中等径级树>小径级树,且差异明显;大径级树由于林龄较大,液流密度曲线变化平缓,没有明显的峰值,呈弧形曲线;液流密度随季节推移在生

  1. ISS--an electronic syndromic surveillance system for infectious disease in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weirong Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance system has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation, and it is especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. However, most current syndromic surveillance systems are established in developed countries, and there are very few reports on the development of an electronic syndromic surveillance system in resource-constrained settings. OBJECTIVE: This study describes the design and pilot implementation of an electronic surveillance system (ISS for the early detection of infectious disease epidemics in rural China, complementing the conventional case report surveillance system. METHODS: ISS was developed based on an existing platform 'Crisis Information Sharing Platform' (CRISP, combining with modern communication and GIS technology. ISS has four interconnected functions: 1 work group and communication group; 2 data source and collection; 3 data visualization; and 4 outbreak detection and alerting. RESULTS: As of Jan. 31(st 2012, ISS has been installed and pilot tested for six months in four counties in rural China. 95 health facilities, 14 pharmacies and 24 primary schools participated in the pilot study, entering respectively 74,256, 79,701, and 2330 daily records into the central database. More than 90% of surveillance units at the study sites are able to send daily information into the system. In the paper, we also presented the pilot data from health facilities in the two counties, which showed the ISS system had the potential to identify the change of disease patterns at the community level. CONCLUSIONS: The ISS platform may facilitate the early detection of infectious disease epidemic as it provides near real-time syndromic data collection, interactive visualization, and automated aberration detection. However, several constraints and challenges were encountered during the pilot implementation of ISS in rural China.

  2. ISS--an electronic syndromic surveillance system for infectious disease in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Weirong; Palm, Lars; Lu, Xin; Nie, Shaofa; Xu, Biao; Zhao, Qi; Tao, Tao; Cheng, Liwei; Tan, Li; Dong, Hengjin; Diwan, Vinod K

    2013-01-01

    Syndromic surveillance system has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation, and it is especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. However, most current syndromic surveillance systems are established in developed countries, and there are very few reports on the development of an electronic syndromic surveillance system in resource-constrained settings. This study describes the design and pilot implementation of an electronic surveillance system (ISS) for the early detection of infectious disease epidemics in rural China, complementing the conventional case report surveillance system. ISS was developed based on an existing platform 'Crisis Information Sharing Platform' (CRISP), combining with modern communication and GIS technology. ISS has four interconnected functions: 1) work group and communication group; 2) data source and collection; 3) data visualization; and 4) outbreak detection and alerting. As of Jan. 31(st) 2012, ISS has been installed and pilot tested for six months in four counties in rural China. 95 health facilities, 14 pharmacies and 24 primary schools participated in the pilot study, entering respectively 74,256, 79,701, and 2330 daily records into the central database. More than 90% of surveillance units at the study sites are able to send daily information into the system. In the paper, we also presented the pilot data from health facilities in the two counties, which showed the ISS system had the potential to identify the change of disease patterns at the community level. The ISS platform may facilitate the early detection of infectious disease epidemic as it provides near real-time syndromic data collection, interactive visualization, and automated aberration detection. However, several constraints and challenges were encountered during the pilot implementation of ISS in rural China.

  3. Dietary intake of PBDEs of residents at two major electronic waste recycling sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, J.K.Y. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Man, Y.B. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Wu, S.C. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    The dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) of local residents from 2 major electronic waste (e-waste) processing sites (Guiyu, Guangdong Province and Taizhou, Zhejiang Province) in China was investigated. Seventy-four food items were collected from these sites, divided into 9 food groups (freshwater fish, marine fish, shellfish, pork, poultry, chicken offal, egg, vegetables and cereals), and examined for residual PBDE concentrations. Out of all food items examined, the freshwater bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) contained extremely high (11,400 ± 254 ng/g wet wt.) concentrations of PBDE, the highest concentrations amongst published data concerning PBDE detected in freshwater fish. Food consumption data obtained through semi-quantitative food intake questionnaires showed that Guiyu residents had a PBDE dietary intake of 931 ± 772 ng/kg bw/day, of which BDE-47 (584 ng/kg bw/day) exceeded the US EPA's reference dose (100 ng/kg/day). Taizhou (44.7 ± 26.3 ng/kg bw/day) and Lin'an (1.94 ± 0.86 ng/kg bw/day) residents exhibited lower readings. The main dietary source of PBDEs in Guiyu and Taizhou residents was seafood (88–98%) and pork (41%) in Lin'an. The present results indicated that health risks arising from PBDE dietary exposure are of significance in terms of public health and food safety to local residents of e-waste processing sites. - Highlights: ► Food basket analysis was conducted in 2 major e-waste processing sites in China. ► Different food items were contaminated by PBDE contained in e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents had an potential unsafe level of PBDE dietary exposure.

  4. An evaluation of legislative measures on electrical and electronic waste in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Chan

    2011-12-01

    With the increasing number of recycling mishaps in connection with waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) in the People's Republic of China, it is imperative that the handling and recycling of WEEE be sufficiently regulated in China. Regulations covering three major issues, namely, take-back issues, controls on hazardous substances in WEEE and the assurance of good environmental management in WEEE plants, were promulgated between 2006 and 2008. The evaluation in this country report shows that few of these regulatory measures have performed satisfactorily in terms of enforcement, of public acceptance and of environmental concerns. In brief, the take-back requirements and the associated financial responsibilities are only vaguely defined; the control on hazardous substances and the so-called "environmental expiry date" requirements cannot be properly enforced, and the resources needed to ensure the satisfactory enforcement of the environmental abatement and pollution control requirements in WEEE plants are overwhelming. In addition, the use of a "multiple enforcement body" approach to the control of hazardous substances in WEEE is an indication that the Chinese government lacks the determination to properly enforce the relevant legal requirements.

  5. 浑善达克沙地稀树疏林草地植被生物量及净初级生产力%Vegetation Biomass and Net Primary Production of Sparse Forest Grassland in Hunshandake Sandland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 李永庚; 刘美珍; 蒋高明

    2011-01-01

    森林和草原等陆地生态系统在全球碳循环中扮演非常重要的角色,而发育在半干旱地区沙地上的疏林草地植被在这方面的作用还不清楚.本文对内蒙古浑善达克沙地榆树( Ulmus pumila L.)疏林草地的生物量、生产力(NPP)以及降水利用效率(RUE)区分不同生境,即固定沙地、半固定沙地、流动沙地、丘间低地、柳灌丛和低湿地进行了研究;分析和比较了植被碳库及NPP的分配情况.结果表明,疏林草地的平均生物量(21.30Mg·hm-2)与NPP( 11.06Mg·hm-2·a-1)分别比典型草原地带的平均值高90%和59%,RUE近于后者的2倍,沙地水平上的地下与地上生物量之比为2.9,说明大量的植被碳贮藏于地下,沙地中乔木对生物量和NPP的贡献不大,分别为10%和1.3%,但对于维持疏林草地的完整性具有重要功能.浑善达克沙地的疏林草地生态系统与地带性的典型温带草原不同,应属于一类温带萨王那生态系统类型,合理的管理和恢复措施将有助于其在畜牧业和碳固持方面生态系统服务功能的实现.%Terrestrial ecosystems are playing important roles in the global carbon cycling. However, the information is still limited with regard to the semiarid sandland, comparing with the thorough studies on forest and grassland. The biomass carbon storage, Net Primary Production (NPP), and Rain Use Efficiency (RUE) of Hunshandake Sandland, a semiarid sandy region in Inner Mongolia covered with vegetation of Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L) sparse forest grassland, were estimated. Six main habitats, I.e. Fixed dunes, semi-fixed dunes, shifting dunes, lowland, willow scrub, and wetland, were compared with each other to analyze the patterns of carbon storage and NPP distribution. The average biomass (21.30Mg·hm-2) and NPP (11.06Mg·hm-2·a-1) of the sparse forest grassland are 90% and 59% higher than the mean level for the surrounding temperate grassland, respectively. Governed by

  6. 毛乌素沙地干旱缺水对植物群落的影响及其解决途径%The effect and solution of water shortage on plant community in Mu Us sandland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东忠; 屈升银; 孙占锋

    2011-01-01

    The chief cause of the water shortage in the Mu Us sandland is that the less precipitations but more evaporation, windy strong wind and extreme illumination made soil mass and plant water to evaporate quickly, therefore lead to the recession of plant community or the death of individual. In order to enhance the effect of planting, we must construct forest ecological system,actively promote the application of drought - resistant and water - saving measures and use the superiority of clonal plants reasonably according to the heterogeneity of sand habitat.%降水量小而蒸发量大是造成毛乌素沙地干旱缺水的首要原因,风多风大及光照强烈加剧了土体和植物水分的散失,因此导致植物群落衰退或个体死亡。为了提高造林效果,必须根据沙地生境的异质性科学构建森林生态系统、积极推广应用抗旱节水措施、合理利用克隆植物的优越性。

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in China: policies and recommendations for sound management of plastics from electronic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kun; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Shi, Yajuan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Xu, Li; Li, Qiushuang; Liu, Shijie

    2013-01-30

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), used as flame retardants (BFRs), are incorporated in plastics of most electronic equipment. Among BFR mixtures, deca-BDE is the most widely used commercial additive in the polymer industry and the use of deca-BDE is currently not subject to any restrictions in China. However, debate over environmental and health risks associated with deca-BDE still remains. Regulatory agencies in developed countries have adopted and/or established environmentally sound strategies for the management of potential threat posed by PBDEs to the environment and human health. No regulations or management policies for PBDEs currently exist in China at either central or provincial government levels. Large amounts of plastics containing PBDEs are still in use and must be disposed of after their lifetimes, creating outdoor reservoirs for the future dispersal of PBDEs into the environment. Concerted action is needed not only to regulate the production and use of PBDEs but also to find ways to effectively manage waste electrical and electronic products that contain PBDEs. This article is the first to investigate the policy issues and current problems related to the use of PBDEs in China. In addition, we estimate the mass flows of PBDEs contained in Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) in China. We suggest alternatives to PBDEs and sound management of plastics used in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) that contain PBDEs.

  8. A new regional total electron content empirical model in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiandi; Wang, Zhengtao; Jiang, Weiping; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Bingbing

    2016-10-01

    Using total electron content (TEC) data over one and a half solar cycles (1999-2015) provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE), this paper proposes a new empirical TEC model for northeast China (40-50N, 120-130E). The model, called TECM-NEC, involves the multiplication of four separable components, including diurnal variation, seasonal variation, geomagnetic field dependency, and solar dependency. Diurnal variation is composed of three parts: the typical daily variation of TEC; corrections of Mid-latitude Summer Nighttime Anomaly (MSNA) that depend on geographic location, season, and local time; and corrections of day-to-night ratio under different seasons and solar activities. Four sub-harmonics of the year with annual, semiannual, four-, and three-month periods are used to describe seasonal variations. For geomagnetic variation, geomagnetic latitude is based on the latest International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF12) model. Compared with similar empirical models, the solar proxy index F10.7P = (F10.7 + F10.7A)/2, where F10.7A is the 81-day running mean of daily F10.7, is chosen as having linear relationship with TEC for the model. This model has 43 coefficients, which are determined by nonlinear least squares fitting (NLSF) technique. The TECM-NEC model fits with the TEC/CODE input data with a bias of 0.03TECU and a RMS deviation of 2.76TECU. The proposed TECM-NEC model can reproduce the MSNA and nighttime TEC enhancements phenomenon over northeast China.

  9. 毛乌素沙地固沙植物披针叶黄华主要传粉昆虫及其访花行为%Main pollinators and their foraging behaviors on a sand-fixing legume,Thermopsis ianceolata, in Mu Us Sandland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红岩; 陈欢; 徐环李

    2012-01-01

    披针叶黄华(Thermopsis lanceolata)是我国西部地区早春重要野生蜜源植物,也是一种重要的固沙植物,然而对其繁殖特性的研究甚少.本文在系统调查披针叶黄华的访花昆虫基础上,确定其主要传粉昆虫种类、访花行为、传粉过程以及日活动规律,以期揭示主要访花者行为对其有性繁殖的影响.作者在内蒙古毛乌素沙地设置1个10m×10 m的样方,于2010和2011年在披针叶黄华盛花期,采用目测、拍照和摄像等方式对传粉昆虫进行观测,记录样方内主要访花昆虫种类、数量、访花行为及日活动规律.研究表明,大和切叶蜂(Megachile japonica)和戎拟孔蜂(Hoplitis princeps)是披针叶黄华的主要传粉者,但两种昆虫的访花频率存在显著差异;晴天时,大和切叶蜂在19:00-13:00和16:00-18:00出现两个活动高峰,而戎拟孔蜂只在11:30-16:30出现1个活动高峰,两种蜂的访花活动高峰期存在互补关系.大和切叶蜂访花同时具有盗蜜行为,但其盗蜜行为对披针叶黄华的结籽率没有显著影响.根据种群数量、访花频率综合判断,大和切叶蜂是披针叶黄华优势传粉蜂.%Thermopsis lanceolata is sand-fixing plant that plays an important role as a spring nectar source in northeastern China; however, little is known about its reproductive characteristics. To ascertain the major pollinators of T. lanceolata, we identified foraging behaviors, pollination process, activity rhythm of floral visitors and the effect of nectar robbers on the seed setting were investigated in Mu Us Sandland, Inner Mongolia. We used photo, video and visual measurement to observe floral visitors in a 10 m x 10 m quadrat. We recorded the species, pollinating behaviors and visiting frequency of all pollinators from 06:00 hours until 19:00 hours in sunny days. Based on visitation frequencies and pollen amounts carried on the body, two bee species, Megachile japonica and Hoplitis princeps were

  10. Transmission electron microscopy study of aerosol particles from the brown hazes in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weijun; Shao, Longyi

    2009-05-01

    Airborne aerosol collections were performed in urban areas of Beijing that were affected by regional brown haze episodes over northern China from 31 May to 12 June 2007. Morphologies, elemental compositions, and mixing states of 810 individual aerosol particles of different sizes were obtained by transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The phases of some particles were verified using selected-area electron diffraction. Aerosol particle types less than 10 μm in diameter include mineral, complex secondary (Ca-S, K-, and S-rich), organic, soot, fly ash, and metal (Fe-rich and Zn-bearing). Most soot, fly ash, and organic particles are less than 2 μm in diameter. Approximately 84% of the analyzed mineral particles have diameters between 2 and 10 μm, while 81% of the analyzed complex secondary and metal particles are much smaller, from 0.1 to 2 μm. Trajectory analysis with fire maps show that southerly air masses arriving at Beijing have been transported through many agricultural biomass burning sites and heavy industrial areas. Spherical fly ash and Fe-rich particles were from industrial emissions, and abundant K-rich and organic particles likely originated from field burning of crop residues. Abundant Zn-bearing particles are associated with industrial activities and local waste incinerators. On the basis of the detailed analysis of 443 analyzed aerosol particles, about 70% of these particles are internally mixed with two or more aerosol components from different sources. Most mineral particles are covered with visible coatings that contain N, O, Ca (or Mg), minor S, and Cl. K- and S-rich particles tend to be coagulated with fly ash, soot, metal, and fine-grained mineral particles. Organic materials internally mixed with K- and S-rich particles can be their inclusions and coatings.

  11. Determination of the optimized single-layer ionospheric height for electron content measurements over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Yuan, Yunbin; Zhang, Baocheng; Wang, Ningbo; Li, Zishen; Liu, Xifeng; Zhang, Xiao

    2017-08-01

    The ionosphere effective height (IEH) is a very important parameter in total electron content (TEC) measurements under the widely used single-layer model assumption. To overcome the requirement of a large amount of simultaneous vertical and slant ionospheric observations or dense "coinciding" pierce points data, a new approach comparing the converted vertical TEC (VTEC) value using mapping function based on a given IEH with the "ground truth" VTEC value provided by the combined International GNSS Service Global Ionospheric Maps is proposed for the determination of the optimal IEH. The optimal IEH in the Chinese region is determined using three different methods based on GNSS data. Based on the ionosonde data from three different locations in China, the altitude variation of the peak electron density (hmF2) is found to have clear diurnal, seasonal and latitudinal dependences, and the diurnal variation of hmF2 varies from approximately 210 to 520 km in Hainan. The determination of the optimal IEH employing the inverse method suggested by Birch et al. (Radio Sci 37, 2002. doi: 10.1029/2000rs002601) did not yield a consistent altitude in the Chinese region. Tests of the method minimizing the mapping function errors suggested by Nava et al. (Adv Space Res 39:1292-1297, 2007) indicate that the optimal IEH ranges from 400 to 600 km, and the height of 450 km is the most frequent IEH at both high and low solar activities. It is also confirmed that the IEH of 450-550 km is preferred for the Chinese region instead of the commonly adopted 350-450 km using the determination method of the optimal IEH proposed in this paper.

  12. Spatial and temporal analysis of the total electron content over China during 2011-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianchang; Zhao, Biqiang; Xiong, Bo; Wan, Weixing

    2016-06-01

    In the present work we investigate variations of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) with empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, the four-year TEC data are derived from ∼250 GPS observations of the crustal movement observation network of China (CMONOC) over East Asian area (30-55°N, 70-140°E) during the period from 2011, January to 2014, December. The first two EOF components together account for ∼93.78% of total variance of the original TEC data set, and it is found that the first EOF component represents a spatial variability of semi-annual variation and the second EOF component exhibits pronounced east-west longitudinal difference with respect to zero valued geomagnetic declination line. In addition, climatology of the vertical plasma drift velocity vdz induced by HWM zonal wind field (∼300 km) are studied in the paper. Results shows vdz displays significant east-west longitudinal difference at 10:00 LT and 20:00 LT, and its daytime temporal variation is consistent with the second EOF principal component, which suggests that the east-west longitudinal variability is partly caused by the thermospheric zonal wind and geomagnetic declination. It is expected that with this dense GPS network, local ionospheric variability can be described more accurately and a more realistic ionospheric model can be constructed and used for the satellite navigation and radio propagation.

  13. Generation amount prediction and material flow analysis of electronic waste: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianbing; Tanaka, Masaru; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2006-10-01

    The draft legislation on e-waste prepared by the Chinese national government assigns management responsibility to local governments. It is an urgent task for the municipal government to plan an effective system as soon as possible to divert the e-waste flow from the existing informal e-waste recycling processes. This paper presents a case study implemented in Beijing, the capital city of China, with the purpose of predicting the amount of obsolete equipment for five main kinds of electronic appliances from urban households and to analyse the flow after the end of their useful phase. The amount to be handled was 885,354 units in 2005 and is predicted to double by 2010. Due to consumption growth and the expansion of urbanization it is estimated that the amount will increase to approximate 2,820,000 units by 2020: 70% of the obsolete appliances will be awaiting collection for possible recycling, 7% will be stored at the owner's home for 1 year on average and 4% will be discarded directly and enter the municipal solid waste collecting system. The remaining items will be reused for about 3 years on average after the change of ownership. The results of this study will assist the waste management authorities of Beijing to plan the collecting system and facilities needed for management of e-waste generated in the near future.

  14. Density and Biomass Dynamics of Hippophae rhamnoides L.subsp.sinensis Population in Mu Us Sandland%毛乌素沙地中国沙棘种群数量动态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李根前; 赵粉侠; 李秀寨; 韦宇

    2004-01-01

    Based on the measurement of all individuals of population at different successional stage and following excavation of clones, the density and biomass dynamics of Hippophae rhamnoides L. subsp, sinensis population in Mu Us sandland were analyzed with the methods of plots arranged with age and reverse age class addition(RAA). The main results were as follows:(1)The density of clone population increased with the population growth before 5-year-old. The population biomass accumulating also increased by Logistic equation in the period of age structure of population developed from increasing type to mid-decreasing type.Then they tended to be decrease. While the population density, population biomass augmented again with the emergence of gap regeneration, and the dominant status of H.rhamnoides L.subsp, sinensis population and the stability of the community were maintained. (2)The decrease process of density of daughter ramets population lagged behind that of mother ramets population,and the numerical ratio of daughter ramets population within the population gradually enlarged. As the population thinned, the composition of population changed from more clones with less daughter ramets to less clones with more daughter ramets and the genetic diversity of population reduced. (3)The prosperous stage of biomass accumulation appeared from 8-year-old to 16-year-old and its peak appeared at 12-year-old. And the relationship between the individual mean weight and population density could be expressed by the law of power-3/2 in the period of age structure of population developed from stable type to decreasing type.

  15. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Wenqing [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Chen, Yaowen [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Gairong [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Luo, Jiayi [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Methods: A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Results: Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18–3.98 μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12–1.63 μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1 μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=−0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=−0.278, P=0.001). Conclusions: This study investigated human mercury exposure

  16. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Gairong; Luo, Jiayi; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-01-01

    Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18-3.98μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12-1.63μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=-0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=-0.278, P=0.001). This study investigated human mercury exposure and suggested elevated hair mercury concentrations in

  17. Management status of end-of-life vehicles and development strategies of used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjun; Chen, Ming

    2012-11-01

    Recycling companies play a leading role in the system of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in China. Automotive manufacturers in China are rarely involved in recycling ELVs, and they seldom provide dismantling information for recycling companies. In addition, no professional shredding plant is available. The used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China has yet to take shape because of the lack of supporting technology and profitable models. Given the rapid growth of the vehicle population and electronic control units in automotives in China, the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry requires immediate development. This paper analyses the current recycling system of ELVs in China and introduces the automotive product recycling technology roadmap as well as the recycling industry development goals. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges of the current used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China are analysed comprehensively based on the 'strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats' (SWOT) method. The results of the analysis indicate that this recycling industry responds well to all the factors and has good opportunities for development. Based on the analysis, new development strategies for the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in accordance with the actual conditions of China are presented.

  18. Online Canton Fairs Ready for Convenient Trade--An Interview with Ding Qiang, General Manager of MOFCOM China International Electronic Commerce Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yinghong; Sun Yongjian

    2006-01-01

    @@ In 2006, the Canton Fairs will greet the 99th and 100th respectively in spring and fall. To meet the need of the development of the convenient trade, the Canton Fairs website, the platform of the online Canton Fairs run by MOFCOM China International Electronic Commerce Center is ready to take several effective measures to offer more convenient services. On March 24, China's Foreign Trade took the occasion to interview with Mr. Ding Qiang, General Manager of MOFCOM China International Electronic Commerce Center.

  19. Design of FELiChEM, the first infrared free-electron laser user facility in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He-Ting; Jia, Qi-Ka; Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2017-01-01

    FELiChEM is a new experimental facility under construction at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC). Its core device is two free electron laser oscillators generating middle-infrared and far-infrared laser and covering the spectral range of 2.5-200 μm. It will be a dedicated infrared light source aiming at energy chemistry research. We present the brief design of the FEL oscillators, with the emphasis put on the middle-infrared oscillator. Most of the basic parameters are determined and the anticipated performance of the output radiation is given. The first light of FELiChEM is targeted for the end of 2017. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (21327901)

  20. Comparative evaluation of environmental contamination and DNA damage induced by electronic-waste in Nigeria and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabi, Okunola A. [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Biosciences and Biotechnology Department, Babcock University, Ilisan-remo, Ogun State (Nigeria); Cell Biology and Genetics Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Bakare, Adekunle A. [Cell Biology and Genetics Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Xu, Xijin; Li, Bin; Zhang, Yuling [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Huo, Xia, E-mail: xhuo@stu.edu.cn [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China)

    2012-04-15

    In the last decade, China and Nigeria have been prime destinations for the world's e-waste disposal leading to serious environmental contamination. We carried out a comparative study of the level of contamination using soils and plants from e-waste dumping and processing sites in both countries. Levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed using gas chromatography/spectrophotometry and heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. DNA damage was assayed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using an alkaline comet assay. Soils and plants were highly contaminated with toxic PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs, and heavy metals in both countries. Soil samples from China and plant samples from Nigeria were more contaminated. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of organics and heavy metals in plant samples and the surrounding soils. In human lymphocytes, all tested samples induced significant (p < 0.05) concentration-dependent increases in DNA damage compared with the negative control. These findings suggest that e-waste components/constituents can accumulate, in soil and surrounding vegetation, to toxic and genotoxic levels that could induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study showed that Nigeria environment is highly contaminated by electronic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The contamination level by heavy metals and organics in soils and plants in Nigeria as a result of the electronic waste is as high as the environment in China, even though China is the recipient of about 70% of the world's e-waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study showed that e-waste leachate is genotoxic and mutagenic.

  1. Electrical and electronic waste management in China: progress and the barriers to overcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianbing; Tanaka, Masaru; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2006-02-01

    Serious adverse impacts on the environment and human health from e-waste recycling have occurred in the past and continue to occur in China today, due to a lack of national management strategies. China has made great efforts to face the challenges of the approaching peak increase in the domestic generation of e-waste and the illegal shipment of e-waste from other countries. This study examined recent progress and analysed the main problems associated with this issue in China. It was found that the material and the financial flows of e-waste in China had their own specific characteristics. Nearly 60% of the generated e-wastes were sold to private individual collectors and passed into informal recycling processes. More than 90% of Chinese citizens are reluctant to pay for the recycling of their e-waste. This is due to their traditional understanding that there remained value in these end-of-life products. Regulations concerning e-waste in China have been drafted but their deficiencies are obvious. The extended producer responsibilities (EPR) have been introduced but are not well defined. Eight formal facilities have been planned and are under construction or are in operation along the eastern coast of China but it will be difficult for them to compete with the informal processes for the reasons identified during the study.

  2. Assessment of toxicity potential of metallic elements in discarded electronics:A case study of mobile phones in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Y. Wu; Y. C. Chan; A. Middendorf; X. Gu; H. W. Zhong

    2008-01-01

    The electronic waste (e-waste) is increasingly flooding Asia, especially China. E-waste could precipitate a growing volume of toxic input to the local environment if it was not handed properly. This makes the evaluation of environmental impact from electronics an essentially important task for the life cycle assessment (LCA) and the end-of-life management of electronic products. This study presented a quantitative investigation on the environmental performance of typical electronics. Two types of disposed mobile phones (MPs), as a representative of consumer electronics, were evaluated in terms of toxicity potential indicator (TPI) with an assumption of worst-case scenario. It is found that the composition and the percentages of constituents in MPs are similar. More than 20 metallic elements make up 35 wt.%-40 wt.% of the total weight, of which 12 elements are identified to be highly hazardous and 12 are less harmful. With the TPI technique, the environmental performance of Pb is attributed to be 20.8 mg-1. The total TPIs of metallic elements in the old and new type MP is 255,403 and 127,639 units, respectively, which is equivalent to the effect of releasing 6.14 and 12.28g Pb into the environment. The average TPI of the old and new type MP is 4.1 and 4.5 mg-1, respectively, which suggests a similar eco-efficiency per unit mass. The new model of MP is more eco-effective than the old one, which is not due to a reduction in the type of hazardous elements, but rather due to a significant miniaturization of the package with less weight. A single MP can have a considerable toxicity to the environment as referred to Pb, which suggests a major concern for the environmental impact of the total e-waste with a huge quantity and a heavy mass in China.

  3. Assessment of toxicity potential of metallic elements in discarded electronics: a case study of mobile phones in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B Y; Chan, Y C; Middendorf, A; Gu, X; Zhong, H W

    2008-01-01

    The electronic waste (e-waste) is increasingly flooding Asia, especially China. E-waste could precipitate a growing volume of toxic input to the local environment if it was not handed properly. This makes the evaluation of environmental impact from electronics an essentially important task for the life cycle assessment (LCA) and the end-of-life management of electronic products. This study presented a quantitative investigation on the environmental performance of typical electronics. Two types of disposed mobile phones (MPs), as a representative of consumer electronics, were evaluated in terms of toxicity potential indicator (TPI) with an assumption of worst-case scenario. It is found that the composition and the percentages of constituents in MPs are similar. More than 20 metallic elements make up 35 wt.%-40 wt.% of the total weight, of which 12 elements are identified to be highly hazardous and 12 are less harmful. With the TPI technique, the environmental performance of Pb is attributed to be 20.8 mg(-1). The total TPIs of metallic elements in the old and new type MP is 255,403 and 127,639 units, respectively, which is equivalent to the effect of releasing 6.14 and 12.28 g Pb into the environment. The average TPI of the old and new type MP is 4.1 and 4.5 mg(-1), respectively, which suggests a similar eco-efficiency per unit mass. The new model of MP is more eco-effective than the old one, which is not due to a reduction in the type of hazardous elements, but rather due to a significant miniaturization of the package with less weight. A single MP can have a considerable toxicity to the environment as referred to Pb, which suggests a major concern for the environmental impact of the total e-waste with a huge quantity and a heavy mass in China.

  4. Design of FELiChEM, the first infrared free-electron laser user facility in China

    CERN Document Server

    Li, He-Ting; Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    FELiChEM is a new experimental facility under construction at University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), whose core device is two free electron laser oscillators generating middle-infrared and far-infrared laser and covering the spectral range of 2.5-200 ?m. It will be a dedicated infrared light source aiming at energy chemistry research. We present the brief design of FEL oscillators with the emphasis put on the middle-infrared oscillator. Most of the basic parameters are determined and the anticipated performance of the output radiation is given. The first light of FELiChEM is targeted for the end of 2017.

  5. A study of the development of bio-energy resources and the status of eco-society in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xia; Huang, Yongmei; Gong, Jirui [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang, Xinshi [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of Botany, CAS, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Industrialization of bio-energy relies on the supply of resources on a large scale. The theoretical biomass resources could reach 2.61-3.51 billion tce (tons of coal equivalent)/a in China, while the available feedstock is about 440-640 million tce/a, however, among this only 1.5-2.5% has been transferred into energy at present. Marginal land utilization has great prospects of supplying bio-energy resources in China, with co-benefits, such as carbon sequestration, water/soil conservation, and wind erosion protection. There is a large area of marginal land in China, especially in northern China, including about 263 million ha of desertification land, 173 million ha of sand-land, and 17 million ha of salinizatin land. The plant species suitable to be grown in marginal lands, including some species in Salix, Hippophae, Tamarix, Caragana, and Prunus is also abundant Biomass feedstock in marginal lands would be 100 million tce/a in 2020, and 200 million tce/a in 2050. As a result, a win-win situation of eco-society and bio-energy development could be realized, with an expected 4-5% reduction of total CO{sub 2} emission in China in 2020-2050. Although much progress has been made in the field of bio-energy research in China, yet significant efforts should be taken in the future to fulfill large-scale industrialization of bio-energy. (author)

  6. Waste electrical and electronic equipment management and Basel Convention compliance in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sadhan Kumar; Debnath, Biswajit; Baidya, Rahul; De, Debashree; Li, Jinhui; Ghosh, Sannidhya Kumar; Zheng, Lixia; Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Liubarskaia, Maria A; Ogola, Jason S; Tavares, André Neiva

    2016-08-01

    Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations account for one-quarter of the world's land area, having more than 40% of the world's population, and only one-quarter of the world gross national income. Hence the study and review of waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems in BRICS nations is of relevance. It has been observed from the literature that there are studies available comparing two or three country's waste electrical and electronic equipment status, while the study encompassing the BRICS nations considering in a single framework is scant. The purpose of this study is to analyse the existing waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems and status of compliance to Basel convention in the BRICS nations, noting possible lessons from matured systems, such as those in the European Union EU) and USA. The study introduced a novel framework for a waste electrical and electronic equipment management system that may be adopted in BRICS nations and revealed that BRICS countries have many similar types of challenges. The study also identified some significant gaps with respect to the management systems and trans-boundary movement of waste electrical and electronic equipment, which may attract researchers for further research.

  7. The status and development of treatment techniques of typical waste electrical and electronic equipment in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunxia; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-04-01

    A large quantity of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is being generated because technical innovation promotes the unceasing renewal of products. China's household appliances and electronic products have entered the peak of obsolescence. Due to lack of technology and equipment, recycling of WEEE is causing serious environment pollution. In order to achieve the harmless disposal and resource utilization of WEEE, researchers have performed large quantities of work, and some demonstration projects have been built recently. In this paper, the treatment techniques of typical WEEE components, including printed circuit boards, refrigerator cabinets, toner cartridges, cathode ray tubes, liquid crystal display panels, batteries (Ni-Cd and Li-ion), hard disk drives, and wires are reviewed. An integrated recycling system with environmentally friendly and highly efficient techniques for processing WEEE is proposed. The orientation of further development for WEEE recycling is also proposed.

  8. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  9. 毛乌素沙地不同植被对土壤有机质和生物学特性的影响%Effect of different vegetations on soil organic matter and biological properties in Muus sandland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓娟; 廖超英; 刘莉丽; 孙长忠; 吕丽霞; 孙文艳

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The research studied the effect of different vegetations on soil organic matter and biological properties in Muus sandland,and provide scientific proof for the sustainable management of land resources and reconstruction of vulnerable ecological environment in study area. [Method] In May 2010 ,compared with drift sand,the amounts of soil organic matter,microorganisms and enzymes activities of 30-year-old Arternisia sphaerocephala , Hedysarum scoparium and Artemisia sphaerocephala X Hedysa- rum scopariurn , 40-year-old P inus s ytvestris var. mongolica , 15-year-old Populus hopeiensis and 20-year-old Armeniaca vulgaris with the similar elevation,aspect and slope were measured, and the relationship among them was studied. Least significant difference (LSD) method was used to analyze the differences of organicmatter and biological properties among sample sites. [Result] The results showed that under the similar stand age, organic matter and biological indicators of 0-5 cm soil layers under H. scoparium X A. sphaero- cephala were higher than those of A. sphaerocephala and H. scopariurn. The number of bacteria and su- crase activity of 0- 5 cm soil layers of P. hopeiensis were significatlly higher than those of P. sytvestris var. rnongolica. Soil organic matter content and microorganisms of 0-5 cm soil layers of A. vulgaris were lower than those in shrub lands. The amounts of organic matter and biological properties in drift sandland had the most remarkable increase in 0-5 cm soil layers. Organic matter content and microorganisms were significant or extremely significant to enzymes activities. [Conclusion] Microorganisms and enzymes activi- ties can be the indicators to judge soil fertility,and enzymes activities can be used to judge the growth of microbial. Mixed forests with nitrogen fixation should be planted in drought sand area and the area of pure forest should be reduced.%【目的】研究不同植被对毛乌素沙地土壤有机质和生物学

  10. Technology Convergence and Divergence in China's Electronic Industries: Evidence from Patents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiang-dong; LIU Xiao-qing

    2006-01-01

    By thoroughly reviewing international studies on technology convergence and divergence, four kinds of hypothesis are proposed based on patent data Herfindhal Index (HI)measurement. The main finding is that technology convergence does exist, based on patent technology records in China, primarily driven by overseas companies' strategic behavior, such as field intensiveness, competition during technology maturity session, and patent technology growth.

  11. Investigation on end-of-life electric and electronic equipment recycling and disposal system in China: legislation, education and dissemination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese obsolete electric and electronic equipments (EEE) recycling and disposal system on the point of view of legislation, education and dissemination were discussed, because of the highly increasing volume of electric and electronic products and that of its obsoletes today in China. The legislations and responsibilities of go vernment, industry and consumer were discussed based on the balance of benefit and responsibility depending on the realization of their benefits in the whole life cycle of products and its status in the whole value chain. Not only the legislation and establishment of the so called "compulsory discarding system" will be a possible and effective solution to the difficulty of the obsolete collection and recycling for obsolete electric and electronic reclaiming industry, but also the education and dissemination. Education and dissemination were discussed as an important role which will emphasize the adjusting of policy and law on the development of electric and electronic industry production and its reclaiming. The education of stockholders' environmental responsibility and the advocating of responsibility sharing should be implement for industry and consumer. Chinese EEE industry should emphasize the control of natural source, and should implement the environmental benign design in their production, such as design for dismantling, no dismantling, thermal treatment and green design. The perspectives for the way to advocate a harmonic society for Chinese people were described.

  12. Photosynthesis Characteristics of a Sand-fixing Pioneer Legume in Hunshandake Sandland%浑善达克沙地固沙先锋豆科植物的光合特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛书丽; 蒋高明

    2011-01-01

    Hedysarum fruticosum var. Lignosum is a superior species in the sand dunes of Hunshandake Sandland. Exploring the photosynthetic characteristics of this species will be helpful to reveal the adaptive mechanisms of the pioneer species in the sandy environment. The photosynthetic characteristics of H. Fruticosum var. Lignosum are monitored and compared with those of Salix gordejevii, a typical C3 species co-existing with H. Fruticosum in semi-fixed or fixed sand dunes. The maximal photosynthetic rate (Pmax) and water use efficiency of H. Fruticosum are approximately one times higher than that of S. Gordejevii. H. Fruticosum could endure high light and temperature at noon and has a high light saturation point and a low light compensation point. Except Ribulose-l.S-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPcase), the activities of photosynthetic carbon assimilation enzymes, such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPcase), NAD-malic enzymes (NAD-ME), NADP-malic enzymes (NADP-ME), NAD-malate dehydrogenase (NAD-MDH), NADP-malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH), and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), in H. Fruticosum are at least four times greater than that in S. Gordejevii, it is suggested that H. Fruticosum might have a C4 photosynthetic syndrome. However, the stable carbon isotope analysis reveals that H. Fruticosum has the 8I3C value of -23×10-3, which is closed to that of C3 plants. Therefore, it is likely that H. Fruticosum is either a C3-C4 intermediate species, or a C3 species displaying C4 metabolic characteristics in the habitat of sand dune. The involvement of C4 metabolism in H. Fruticosum might account for its greater efficiencies for photosynthesis and water use, and allows H. Fruticosum to colonize the shifting sand dune with high temperature, light intensity, and water stress.%豆科植物木岩黄芪是浑善达克沙地的优势种,也是流动沙丘的先锋种,研究其对沙丘恶劣生境的光合适应性有助于揭示固沙植物的适应性机制,为其在沙

  13. 毛乌素沙地樟子松和油松人工林光合生理特性%The Photosynthetic Characteristics of Pinus Sylvestris var, Mongolica and Pinus Tabulae formis in Mu Us Sandland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晓纲; 何茜; 李吉跃; 张方秋; 刘育贤

    2011-01-01

    In the growing season, the daily gas exchange, water use efficiency of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica and Pinus tabulae formis in Mu Us sandland were measured with a portable Li-6400 gas analysis system under natural conditions. The results showed that the diurnal courses of net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate display a singal-peak pattern. Water use efficiency culminates in the early morning. The maximum and the average value of the net photosynthesis of the Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica is larger than that of the Pinus tabulaeformis. The average value of the water use efficiency of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica is 3. 63 tμmolCO2/mmolH2O, which was higher than that of Pinus tabulaeformis (3. 22 μmol CO2/mmolH2O). Regression analysis showed that the net photosynthetic rate of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica was controlled by PAR, Gs and Ci, while for Pinus tabulaeformis was PAR and Gs.%利用Li-6400便携式气体分析系统,在自然条件下对毛乌素沙地腹地樟子松和油松人工林生长季叶片气体交换、水分利用效率及相关环境因子进行测定,同时探讨了影响樟子松、油松光合速率的内外因素.结果表明:生长季内毛乌素地区油松和樟子松的光合速率、蒸腾速率都表现出一定的日变化规律,都呈单峰型变化曲线;6月、7月、8月针叶树水分利用效率曲线呈下降趋势,上午时段的水分利用效率明显高于下午时段的水分利用效率.5月和9月针叶树水分利用效率日变化呈"W"型曲线,樟子松水分利用效率生长季均值为3.6μcmo1O0 /mmo1HO0,油松水分利用效率生长季均值为3.22μmmolCO2/mmolH2O,樟子松的水分利用效率始终高于油松.樟子松的净光合速率主要受光合有效辐射、气孔导度和胞间CO2浓度的影响,限制油松净光合速率的主要因子是光合有效辐射PAR和气孔导度.

  14. Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles from a Mining City in Southwest China Using Electron Probe microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X.; Huang, Y.; Lu, H., III; Liu, Z., IV; Wang, N. V.

    2015-12-01

    Xin Cheng1, Yi Huang1*, Huilin Lu2, Zaidong Liu2, Ningming Wang21 Key Laboratory of Geological Nuclear Technology of Sichuan Province, College of Earth Science, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China. ; E-mail:chengxin_cdut@163.com 2 College of Earth Science, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China. ; *Corresponding author: E-mail: huangyi@cdut.cn Panzhihua is a mining city located at Pan-Xi Rift valley, southwest China. It has a long industrial history of vanadium-titanium magnetite mining, iron and steel smelting, and coal-fired power plants. Atomospheric environment has been seriously contaminated with airborne paticles, which is threatening human health.The harmful effects of aerosols are dependent on certain characteristics such as microphysical properties. However, few studsies have been carried out on morphological information contained on single atmospheric particles in this area. In this study, we provide a detailed morphologically and chemically characterization of airborne particles collected at Panzhihua city in October, 2014, using a quantitative single particle analysis based on EPXMA. The results indicate that based on their chemical composition, five major types of particles were identified. Among these, aluminosilicate particles have typical spherical shapes and are produced during the high-temperature combustion; Fe-containing particles contains high level of Mn, and more likely originated from mineralogical and steel industry; Si-containing particles can originate from mineralogical source; V-Ti-Mn-containing particles are also produced by steel industry; Ca-containing particles,these particles are CaCO3, mainly from the mining of limestone mine. The results help us on tracing and partitioning different sources of atomospheric particles in the industrial area. Fig.1 Fe-rich shperical particles

  15. A Problem Solving Environment for Electronic Commerce and Collaborative Work in the Housing Industry of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUJungang; WANGHongan; DAIGuozhong

    2004-01-01

    Currently, the world is in the times that knowledge economy is growing up rapidly. The gathering, sharing, using and spreading of information have become key factors of influencing competition capability of one enterprise; at the same time, information technologies that support distributed computing and information sharing appear one after the other. Therefore, distributed computing will become an inevitable trend of development of enterprise informatization. As one part of the construction industry, the housing industry is emerging as a new application frontier for information technologies. According to the applications of information technologies in the housing industry, this paper puts forth a Problem Solving Environment for electronic commerce and collaborative work, electronic-PSE (e-PSE), which is an Intranet/Internet platform for solving many problems existing in the housing industry, such as building of virtual organization, system integration, development of new Internet/Intranet application and so on. The information infrastructure framework of e-PSE is presented, whichi ncludes two modules: XML-based electronic commerce platform (XECP), XML-based collaborative work platform(XCWP). XECP provides solutions for integration of construction system and electronic commerce system; XCWP provides solutions for building of virtual organization and implementation of collaborative work of partners. At last,conclusions and prospects are presented.

  16. Hazardous substances in electronics: the effects of European Union risk regulation on China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biedenkopf, K.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that European Union (E) risk regulation of hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (FEE) was both a trigger and formative factor in the devel opment of similar Chinese regulation. The attractiveness and global interdependence of the EU market in FEE impelled a

  17. Study on the Legislation for Electronic Commerce in China%我国电子商务的立法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武振业; 陈旭

    2001-01-01

    电子商务立法是推动电子商务发展的前提和条件。在评析国内外电子商务立法的基础上,讨论了我国电子商务立法的指导思想和原则,分析了我国电子商务的内容,并论述了我国电子商务立法应该注意的问题。%The legislation for electronic commerce is the precondition topull the development of electronic commerce. Based on evaluating the legislation for electronic commerce in home and abroad, the direction thinking and principle of the legislation for electronic commerce is discussed, and the content of electronic commerce in China is analyzed, and the problem that should be paid attention to in the legislation for electronic commerce is studied.

  18. Behavior of urban residents toward the discarding of waste electrical and electronic equipment: a case study in Baoding, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Liu, Lili; Ren, Junshu; Duan, Huabo; Zheng, Lixia

    2012-11-01

    The volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is growing rapidly worldwide, making its management difficult; therefore, this should be improved as a matter of urgency. WEEE includes both essential household appliances [including televisions, refrigerators, and washing machines; but not air conditioners, where the consumption mode is more like information, communication and technology (ICT)] ICT equipment (also called high-tech household appliances). In the present study, Baoding, a medium-sized, prefecture-level city in north central China with a population of 11 million, including 1.1 million urban residents, was selected as a representative city for an investigation of recycling behaviors. A valid sample size of 346 households in Baoding was investigated, and categorized into various income and educational levels. The results showed that the major reason for discarding WEEE was malfunction of the appliance, accounting for 52% of disposals. Surveyed households with either high income or good education were more likely to consume high-tech household appliances, attracted by advanced technology, versatile functions or flexibility of use. Personal computer ownership rates were highest in households with a high income and good education-1.2 and 0.9 per home respectively. WEEE was most often sold to peddlers or hawkers from where the WEEE flowed into the second-hand market to be refurbished or repaired, and then re-sold. However, 56.3% of residents in the college community were in support of charging consumers for disposal and 61.7% were in support of including a disposal surcharge in the purchase price of new products-a percentage approximately three times that for high-income residents. Thus, high educational level appears to be currently the most important factor in raising the potential of a household's willingness to pay for WEEE treatment cost. The findings of this study can be used to develop sound recycling systems for WEEE in mainland China.

  19. Microbiological Characteristics and Clinical Features of Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Infections at a Tertiary Hospital in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruobing; Li, Xuebin; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Yawei; Wang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections is rapidly increasing worldwide. However, the microbiological characteristics and clinical features of symptomatic CIED infections are not well described. The present study included patients with CIED infections in China, and their pocket tissues were collected for clinical microbiological determination. A total of 219 patients with CIED infections were investigated; of these patients, 145 (66.2%) were positive for CIED infection in pocket tissue cultures and 24 (11.0%) were positive in both blood and pocket tissue cultures. Patients with recurrent infections and patients with systemic infections tended to have higher rates of positive cultures from pocket tissue. In addition, patients with lung diseases were more likely to have early CIED infections than late CIED infections, while patients with liver diseases were more susceptible to systemic infections than local infections. Staphylococcus species were the most common cause of CIED infections; coagulase-negative staphylococci was the predominant type (accounting for 45.2% in all cases and 68.3% in culture-positive cases). None of the Staphylococcus isolates were resistant to gentamicin, linezolid or vancomycin. Gram-negative bacilli accounted for 9.1% of all cases and 13.8% of culture-positive cases. Significant differences in the distribution of different pathogens were identified between primary infections and recurrent infections, between local infections and systemic infections, and between early infections and late infections. Our data describe the microbiological characteristics and clinical features of CIED infections, and provide evidence for advisory guidelines on the management of CIED infections in China.

  20. Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers among workers at an electronic waste dismantling region in Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Weiyue; Bi, Xinhui; Sheng, Guoying; Lu, Shaoyou; Fu, Jiamo; Yuan, Jing; Li, Liping

    2007-11-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the PBDE serum levels in residents from an electronic waste dismantling region, residents living within 50 km of the dismantling region, and a referent group with no occupational PBDE exposure. Fourteen PBDE congeners including BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154, BDE-183, BDE-196, BDE-197, BDE-203, BDE-206, BDE-207, BDE-208 and BDE-209 were quantified in these three groups by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. We found that the levels of all PBDE congeners in serum of residents from electronic waste dismantling region were significantly higher than those in the two other groups. The referents showed the lowest PBDE levels. Concentrations of congeners with a high number of bromine substituents, i.e., hepta- to decaBDEs in occupational exposure workers were 11-20 times higher than those in the referent group. BDE-209 was the dominant congener. The highest concentration of BDE-209 was observed among the electronic waste dismantling workers, and it was 3436 ng g(-1) lipid weight (ng g(-1) l.w.), which is the highest concentration of BDE-209 in humans worldwide. Some higher brominated PBDE congeners such as BDE-197, BDE-207 and BDE-208 also showed elevated concentrations in dismantling workers. This study confirms that BDE-209 is released to the environment and can bioaccumulate in the blood of electronic waste dismantling workers, and extensive occupational exposure to PBDEs leads to elevated concentrations of all PBDE congeners in serum.

  1. Electronic Commerce in China%电子商务在中国

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨学农

    1998-01-01

    @@ 1997年7月1日,美国总统克林顿发布了"AFramework for Global Electronic Commerce"--全球电子商务纲要.克林顿还宣布,从1999年1月1日起,美国政府采购将取消纸单证的贸易手续."全球电子商务纲要"作为一个政策性文件,对Internet及电子商务都将产生深远的影响,世界各国已纷纷作出反应,我们对此亦应予以关注.

  2. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference of hair antimony concentrations among different occupation types in e-waste recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure.

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in chicken tissues and eggs from an electronic waste recycling area in southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofei Qin; Yongjian Yang; Zhanfen Qin; Yan Li; Yaxian Zhao; Xijuan Xia; Shishuai Yan; Mi Tian; Xingru Zhao; Xiaobai XU

    2011-01-01

    The levels and distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in chicken tissues from an electronic waste (e-waste)recycling area in southeast China were investigated. Human dietary intake by local residents via chicken muscle and eggs was estimated.The mean PBDEs concentrations in tissues ranged from 15.2 to 3138.1 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and in egg the concentration was 563.5 ng/g lw. The results showed that the level of total PBDEs (∑PBDEs) in the chicken tissue was 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the literature. The large difference of ΣPBDEs concentrations between tissues confirmed that the distribution of PBDEs in tissues depend on tissue-specificity rather than the “lipid-compartment”. BDE-209 was the predominant congener (82.5%-94.7% of ∑PBDEs) in all chicken tissues except in brain (34.7% of ∑PBDEs), which indicated that deca-BDE (the major commercial PBDE formulation comprising 65%-70% of total production) was major pollution source in this area and could be bioaccumulated in terrestrial animals. The dietary PBDEs intake of the local residents from chicken muscle and egg, assuming only local bred chickens and eggs were consumed, ranged from 2.2 to 22.5 ng/(day·kg body weight (bw)) with a mean value of 13.5 ng/(day.kg bw), which was one order of magnitude higher than the value reported in previous studies for consumption of all foodstuffs.

  4. Reflections on China's Implementation of Electronic Monitoring of Drugs%关于我国实施药品电子监管的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓宇; 莫颖宁

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the pros and cons of implementing electronic monitoring of medicines policy in China,with a view of providing a reference for the improvement of domestic for the electronic monitoring system.Methods At the request of Chinese present policies and,combined with learning from foreign experience,We analyzed the pros and cons of electronic monitoring of the implementation,and proposed ways to address recommendations.Results and Conclusion There were many problems with the electronic monitoring system of medicines in China. It was proposed that the legal status and law enforcement of electronic monitoring be strengthened;monitoring technology be improved;publicity be enhanced to raise consumer awareness and encourage public supervision, in order to establish the coexistence of electronic monitoring system and the essential drug system.%目的:探索研究我国实施药品电子监管政策的利弊,以期为加快完善我国药品电子监管制度提供参考。方法在我国现阶段国情和药品监管政策背景下,借鉴国外成熟经验,分析电子监管实施过程中的利与弊,提出解决的方法建议。结果与结论药品电子监管在我国还存在诸多问题,应进一步加强药品电子监管的法律地位和执法力度,提高技术水平,加大宣传力度,提升消费者的认知度,更好的发挥社会督促作用,加快实现电子监管与基本药物制度并存。

  5. 我国电子商务税收制度初探%Study on the Tax System of Electronic Commerce in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李九领; 张磊

    2011-01-01

    It is necessary for a mature tax system of electronic commerce to ensure the development of electronic commerce continuously, healthy and rapidly. The nature of virtual, stealthily and ambiguity of the electronic commerce addressed a serious challenge to traditional tax mode. According to the experience on tax system of electronic commerce from US, Japan, EU, OECE and some developing countries, China needs to establish a sound e -commerce taxation law, consider the fair and efficiency of e - commerce taxation fully, effort to strengthen tax incentives, reinforce the international exchange of tax information and emphasize the cultivation of professionals on electronic commerce taxation to improve the tax collection level of e - commerce.%完善的电子商务税收制度是确保电子商务贸易持续健康快速发展的必要条件。电子商务交易具有虚拟性、隐匿性及模糊性,对传统税收征管方式提出了严峻的挑战。根据美国、日本、欧盟、OECD组织及部分发展中国家在电子商务税收制度方面的经验借鉴。我国需建立健全电子商务税收法律,充分考虑税收公平与效率,强化税收优惠力度,加强国际间的税收信息交流,注重电子商务税务人才的培养。不断提高电子商务税收征管水平。

  6. Visualization issues in the development of electronic atlas in China%中国电子地图发展中的可视化问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英杰; 苏莹; 陈小钢

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of electronic atlas in China, with focus on the issues of visualization. We particularly categorise this development into four periods, and then analyse the characters in each period and discuss the visualization issues. The four periods are highlighted: 1) Infant period ( 2001) characterized as web mapping and adaptive map design with products of Internet maps and atlas as well as adaptive maps. It is obvious that the development follows the logical way from static to dynamic, and even real time visualization, from single user to multiple users, from presentation to exploration for effective communication and knowledge construction. Current research and development projects are focused on customisation of atlas information systems for real-time tasks, Internet operability, small displays and mobile environments. The major challenges involved in each of such customisation processes are identified and commented in relation to the further development of visualization.

  7. 电子健康档案发展国际经验研究%Electronic Health Record Development in Some Developed Countries and Its Reflections to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马琳; 李新伟; 郭珉江; 魏占英; 黄薇

    2011-01-01

    This paper has analyzed the state of the art of Electronic Health Record in selected developed countries, regarding the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia, summarized specific measures in realizing its expectation from six aspects, namely, organizational planning, financial investment, policy and legislation, standards stipulation, security and privacy protection policy, and popularization. All of which by all means provide reference for the development of HER in China.%分析美国、英国、加拿大、澳大利亚等部分国家电子健康档案的发展历程,总结归纳其在组织规划、资金投入、政策立法、标准规范、安全与隐私保障、推广应用等方面的具体做法及对我国电子健康档案的启示.

  8. Vertical distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soil cores taken from a typical electronic waste polluted area in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z Z; Li, Y F; Hou, Y X; Liang, H Y; Qin, Z F; Fu, S

    2010-02-01

    37 PBDE congeners were analyzed at six different depths in two soil cores taken from a typical electronic waste polluted area in South China. The PBDEs were congregated in the surface layer (0-5 cm) of soil cores and were 29 times in MK and 18 times in NW higher than the second lower layers (5-10 cm). As a whole, the concentrations of PBDEs were decreased with the soil depth increased in two cores. Lower brominated PBDE had higher penetrability than the deca-BDE in soil. The deca-BDE could be detected in deeper soil layers (15-20 cm in MK and 20-30 cm in NW) and the percentage of deca-BDE decreased with the increase of depth.

  9. Comparative evaluation of environmental contamination and DNA damage induced by electronic-waste in Nigeria and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Okunola A; Bakare, Adekunle A; Xu, Xijin; Li, Bin; Zhang, Yuling; Huo, Xia

    2012-04-15

    In the last decade, China and Nigeria have been prime destinations for the world's e-waste disposal leading to serious environmental contamination. We carried out a comparative study of the level of contamination using soils and plants from e-waste dumping and processing sites in both countries. Levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed using gas chromatography/spectrophotometry and heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. DNA damage was assayed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using an alkaline comet assay. Soils and plants were highly contaminated with toxic PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs, and heavy metals in both countries. Soil samples from China and plant samples from Nigeria were more contaminated. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of organics and heavy metals in plant samples and the surrounding soils. In human lymphocytes, all tested samples induced significant (pwaste components/constituents can accumulate, in soil and surrounding vegetation, to toxic and genotoxic levels that could induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals.

  10. China's electronic information products on Environmental Liability%论我国电子信息产品的环境侵权民事责任

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      21世纪以来,电子信息技术高速发展,电子产品面临前所未有的高速更新时代,电子信息产品造成的环境污染、生态破坏已经成为人类社会面临的重大问题,也成为新时期关注的重要环境课题。在人类运用各种手段探讨解决的环境问题的同时,法律在其中发挥着其独有的作用,通过将对电子信息产品的环境侵权的民事责任的论述,分析我国目前对于电子信息产品的环境侵权民事责任承担机制中存在的不足,对我国电子信息产品的环境侵权民事责任制度得到更好的完善和发展提出相应的建议。%In 21st century,with the rapid development of electronic information technology,electronic products face an unprecedented era of high-speed updates,electronic information products caused by environmental pollution and ecological destruction have become major problems,which has become the new era of human attention to an important issue.humans use various means to explore ways to solve environmental problems at the same time,the law plays a unique role in the electronic information products will be asked environmental tort civil liability do organize expositions analysis of the present,for electronic information product environmental tort civil liability mechanisms shortcomings of China's electronic information products,environmental tort civil liability system improvement and development to get better recommendations accordingly.

  11. The Relationship between Organizational Factors and the Transfer of Training in the Electronics Industry in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jin

    1996-01-01

    A transfer model was applied to data from a survey of workers in four Chinese electronics firms. Results showed that transfer of training depends on organizational factors that facilitate use of knowledge, skills, and attitudes acquired. Supervision and other human factors were most influential. (SK)

  12. Study on the Development of Electronic Books in China Based on SWOT Analysis%基于SWOT分析的我国电子图书产业发展探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茂强

    2014-01-01

    As a new sunrise industry, in recent years China's electronic book industry has shown a good momentum of development. Through the SWOT analysis on China's electronic book industry, the appropriate price, establishnrent of industry standards, the building of a service platform, establishment and improvement of the electronic book copyright protection mechanism countermeasures are oeis cussed respectively in the paper.%作为新兴的朝阳产业,近几年来我国电子图书产业表现出良好的发展势头。通过SWOT分析法对我国电子图书产业进行分析,提出了适当降价、确立产业标准、搭建服务平台、建立健全电子图书版权保护机制等对策。

  13. On-site and off-site atmospheric PBDEs in an electronic dismantling workshop in south China: Gas-particle partitioning and human exposure assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An Taicheng, E-mail: antc99@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Resources Utilization and Protection, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang Delin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Resources Utilization and Protection, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Guiying; Mai Bixian; Fu Jiamo [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Resources Utilization and Protection, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Gas samples and total suspended particle during work and off work time were investigated on-site and off-site electronic waste dismantling workshop (I- and O-EWDW), then compared with plastic recycling workshop (PRW) and waste incineration plant (WIP). TSP concentrations and total PBDE were 0.36-2.21 mg/m{sup 3} and 27-2975 ng/m{sup 3} at different workshops, respectively. BDE-47, -99, and -209 were major {Sigma}PBDE congeners at I-EWDW and WIP, while BDE-209 was only dominant congener in PRW and control sites during work time and all sites during off work time. The gas-particle partitioning result was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure for all samples, except for WIP and I-EDWD, at park during work time, and residential area during off work time. The predicted urban curve fitted well with measured {phi} values at O-DEWD during work time, whereas it was slightly overestimated or underestimated for others. Exposure assessment revealed the highest exposure site was I-EDWD. - Highlights: > On- and off-site atmospheric PBDEs was monitored in e-waste dismantling workshops in south China. > The gas-particle partitioning result was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure for some samples. > Exposure assessment revealed that workers in I-EDWD were the highest exposure population. - The findings of this study may serve as a valuable reference for future risk assessment and environmental management in Guiyu, South China.

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Electronics Manufacturing Seminar (12th) Held in China Lake, California on 17-19 February 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    Annual Electronics Manufacturing Seminar Proceedings, 1987 Devore, J.A., Solderability, The Journal of Metals , July 1984 Edgington, R.J., and Worreil, C.W...systems, solderability, wire drawing, and hydro- static extrusion. He is a Professional Member of the Institute of Metals , a Fellow of the Institute of...variety of platings. The growth of the compound was the largest in bright tin over bright nickel platings, and the lowest in matte Sn over sulphamate Ni

  15. 浅议我国电子商务征税问题%Discussion on electronic commerce taxation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛于兰

    2014-01-01

    Tax is one of the country's main sources of revenue and its importance is self-evident. In recent years, domestic e-commerce transactions are in a rapid increasing. But there are a series of problems about the taxation of e-commerce. This paper first discusses the necessity of taxation of e-commerce, and then analyzes the impact of e-commerce on the traditional taxation. Finally, it emphatically discusses the e-commerce tax collection and management advice in China.%税收是国家财政收入的主要来源之一,其重要性不言而喻。近些年,国内电子商务交易量每年都在迅速增加,但是对于电子商务是否应征税、如何征税却都存在一系列的问题。文章首先论述了对电子商务进行征税的必要性,分析了电子商务对传统税收带来的冲击,最后着重探讨了我国电子商务税收的征管建议。

  16. China's first WLAN chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The wireless local area network (WLAN) chips independently developed by CAS researchers were in the limelight of the recent Electronic Manufacture Exposition held in Suzhou, east China's Jiangsu Province.

  17. The identification of the pigments used to paint statues of Feixiange Cliff in China in late 19th century by micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Pu-jun; Huang, Wei; Jianhua-Wang; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Xiao-ling

    2010-11-01

    The application of micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to the research of pigments collected from Statues of Feixiange Cliff No. 67 and No. 69 niche of Tang Dynasty in China is reported. Five kinds of pigments were found in the experimental data, including black (carbon), white (gypsum + quartz), blue (lapis lazuli) and green (Paris green + Barium sulphate). After synthesized in 1814, Paris green was reported for a large import as a light and bright green pigment to paint architectures in China from the late 19th century. The analyzed blue pigment demonstrated the similar Raman spectra to the Lâjvardina blue glazed ceramics, which indicated lapis lazuli was an artificial product. This confirmed the painting of Feixiange Cliff in the early Republic of China as the historical record, and also reveals that some pigments were imported from abroad.

  18. Concentrations, profiles, and estimated human exposures for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from electronic waste recycling facilities and a chemical industrial complex in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Cheng, Jinping; Horii, Yuichi; Wu, Qian; Wang, Wenhua

    2008-11-15

    Environmental pollution arising from electronic waste (e-waste) disposal and recycling has received considerable attention in recent years. Treatment, at low temperatures, of e-wastes that contain polyvinylchloride and related polymers can release polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Although several studies have reported trace metals and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) released from e-waste recycling operations, environmental contamination and human exposure to PCDD/Fs from e-waste recycling operations are less well understood. In this study, electronic shredder waste and dust from e-waste facilities, and leaves and surface soil collected in the vicinity of a large scale e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, Eastern China, were analyzed for total PCDD/ Fs including 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. We also determined PCDD/Fs in surface agricultural soils from several provinces in China for comparison with soils from e-waste facilities. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs were high in all of the matrices analyzed and ranged from 30.9 to 11400 pg/g for shredder waste, 3460 to 9820 pg/g dry weight for leaves, 2560 to 148000 pg/g dry weight for workshop-floor dust, and 854 to 10200 pg/g dry weight for soils. We also analyzed surface soils from a chemical industrial complex (a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) in Shanghai. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs in surface soil (44.5-531 pg/g dry wt) from the chemical industrial complex were lower than the concentrations found in soils from e-waste recycling plants, but higher than the concentrations found in agricultural soils. Agricultural soils from six cities in China contained low levels (3.44-33.8 pg/g dry wt) of total PCDD/Fs. Profiles of dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in soils from e-waste facilities in Taizhou differed from the profiles found in agricultural soils. The estimated daily intakes of TEQs of PCDD/ Fs via soil/dust ingestion

  19. Using the Job Burden-Capital Model of Occupational Stress to Predict Depression and Well-Being among Electronic Manufacturing Service Employees in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Shuang; Li, Tao; Yu, Shanfa; Dai, Junming; Liu, Xiaoman; Zhu, Xiaojun; Ji, Yuqing; Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to identify the association between occupational stress and depression-well-being by proposing a comprehensive and flexible job burden-capital model with its corresponding hypotheses. Methods: For this research, 1618 valid samples were gathered from the electronic manufacturing service industry in Hunan Province, China; self-rated questionnaires were administered to participants for data collection after obtaining their written consent. The proposed model was fitted and tested through structural equation model analysis. Results: Single-factor correlation analysis results indicated that coefficients between all items and dimensions had statistical significance. The final model demonstrated satisfactory global goodness of fit (CMIN/DF = 5.37, AGFI = 0.915, NNFI = 0.945, IFI = 0.952, RMSEA = 0.052). Both the measurement and structural models showed acceptable path loadings. Job burden and capital were directly associated with depression and well-being or indirectly related to them through personality. Multi-group structural equation model analyses indicated general applicability of the proposed model to basic features of such a population. Gender, marriage and education led to differences in the relation between occupational stress and health outcomes. Conclusions: The job burden-capital model of occupational stress-depression and well-being was found to be more systematic and comprehensive than previous models. PMID:27529267

  20. Using the Job Burden-Capital Model of Occupational Stress to Predict Depression and Well-Being among Electronic Manufacturing Service Employees in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to identify the association between occupational stress and depression-well-being by proposing a comprehensive and flexible job burden-capital model with its corresponding hypotheses. Methods: For this research, 1618 valid samples were gathered from the electronic manufacturing service industry in Hunan Province, China; self-rated questionnaires were administered to participants for data collection after obtaining their written consent. The proposed model was fitted and tested through structural equation model analysis. Results: Single-factor correlation analysis results indicated that coefficients between all items and dimensions had statistical significance. The final model demonstrated satisfactory global goodness of fit (CMIN/DF = 5.37, AGFI = 0.915, NNFI = 0.945, IFI = 0.952, RMSEA = 0.052. Both the measurement and structural models showed acceptable path loadings. Job burden and capital were directly associated with depression and well-being or indirectly related to them through personality. Multi-group structural equation model analyses indicated general applicability of the proposed model to basic features of such a population. Gender, marriage and education led to differences in the relation between occupational stress and health outcomes. Conclusions: The job burden-capital model of occupational stress-depression and well-being was found to be more systematic and comprehensive than previous models.

  1. Problem and solution in recycling of electronic waste in China%我国电子垃圾回收存在的问题与解决途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李湘洲

    2012-01-01

    Current situation and problems of electronic reference, as well as sorting methods were introduced. The waste recycling in China, the foreign experience for ndustrialization orientation of recycling and utilization of electronic waste was also put forward.%介绍了我国电子垃圾回收利用存在的问题与现状、国外可供借鉴的经验,以及电子垃圾分类情况,最后提出我国电子垃圾再生利用的产业化发展方向。

  2. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil, vegetation, workshop-floor dust, and electronic shredder residue from an electronic waste recycling facility and in soils from a chemical industrial complex in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Addink, Rudolf; Yun, Sehun; Cheng, Jinping; Wang, Wenhua; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-10-01

    The formation and release of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) from the incineration of electronic wastes (e-waste) that contain brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a concern. However, studies on the determination of PBDD/Fs in environmental samples collected from e-waste recycling facilities are scarce. In this study, 11 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDD/Fs and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were determined in electronic shredder waste, workshop-floor dust soil, and leaves (of plants on the grounds of the facility) from a large-scale e-waste recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical-industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) as well as agricultural areas in eastern China. Total PBDD/F concentrations in environmental samples were in the range of 113-818 pg/g dry wt (dw) for leaves, 392-18500 pg/g dw for electronic shredder residues, 716-800000 pg/g dw for soil samples, and 89600-pg/g dw for workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility and in a range from nondetect (ND) to 427 pg/g dw in soil from the chemical-industrial complex. The highest mean concentrations of total PBDD/Fs were found in soil samples and workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility. The dioxin-like toxic equivalent (measured as TEQ) concentrations of PBDD/Fs were greater than the TEQs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) reported in our previous study for the same set of samples. The concentrations of PBDFs were several orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations of PBDDs in samples from the e-waste facility or from soil from the chemical-industrial complex. A significant correlation was found between the concentrations of sigmaPBDD/Fs and sigmaPBDEs (r = 0.769, p waste recycling facilities were higher than the intakes of TEQs contributed by PCDD/ Fs, calculated in our previous study.

  3. Chlorinated and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental samples from an electronic waste recycling facility and a chemical industrial complex in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Horii, Yuichi; Cheng, Jinping; Wang, Wenhua; Wu, Qian; Ohura, Takeshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-02-01

    Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CIPAHs) are a class of halogenated contaminants found in the urban atmosphere; they have toxic potential similar to that of dioxins. Information on the sources of CIPAHs is limited. In this study, concentrations of 20 CIPAHs and 16 parent PAHs were measured in electronic wastes, workshop-floor dust, vegetation, and surface soil collected from the vicinity of an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant), and agricultural areas in central and eastern China. High concentrations of SigmaCIPAHs were found in floor dust (mean, 103 ng/g dry wt), followed in order of decreasing concentration by leaves (87.5 ng/g drywt), electronic shredder waste (59.1 ng/g dry wt), and soil (26.8 ng/g dry wt) from an e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou. The mean concentration of SigmaCIPAHs in soil from the chemical industrial complex (88 ng/g dry wt) was approximately 3-fold higher than the concentration in soil from e-waste recycling facilities. The soils from e-waste sites and industrial areas contained mean concentrations of SigmaCIPAHs 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations in agricultural soils (ND-0.76 ng/g), suggesting that e-waste recycling and chlorine-chemical industries are potential emission sources of CIPAHs. The profiles of CIPAHs in soil and dust were similar to a profile that has been reported previously for fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (6-CIBaP was the predominant compound), but the profiles in vegetation and electronic shredder waste were different from those found in fly ash. Concentrations of 16 parent PAHs were high (150-49,700 ng/g) in samples collected from the e-waste recycling facility. Significant correlation between SigmaCIPAH and SigmaPAH concentrations suggests that direct chlorination of parent PAHs is the major pathway of formation of

  4. [Polychlorinated biphenyls and their methylsulfonyl metabolites in fish from an electronic waste recycling site in south China: tissue distribution and human dietary exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we determined polychlorinated biphenyls and their methylsulfonyl metabolites (MeSO2-PCBs) in the tissues of two fish species-mud carp and northern snakehead-from a natural pond in an electronic waste recycling site in the Pearl River Delta, Southern China. The mean concentrations of PCBs (Σ PCBs )varied from 560 to 10 462 ng x g(-1) wet weight, and from 580 to 50 492 ng x g(-1) wet weight in the tissues of mud carp and northern snakehead, respectively, with the highest levels found in the liver. Lipid contents played an important role in the determination of tissue distribution of PCBs. The mean concentrations of Σ MeSO2-PCBs varied between 0.44 and 53 ng x g(-1) wet weight in tissues of mud carp, while varied between 1.86 and 132 ng x g(-1) wet weight in northern snakehead. These levels were one order of magnitude greater than the highest levels of MeSO2-PCBs previously reported in fish. The EF values of chiral PCBs in mud carp were lower than those in the sediments, with an exception of PCB149. However, the declined EFs in mud carp were rebounded in northern snakehead, and some values were even higher than those in the sediment. This result may suggest that the mud carp and the northern snakehead preferred to biotransform different enantiomers of PCB congeners. The elevated levels of Σ PCBs and Σ MeSO2-PCBs detected in the present study indicated a high exposure risk to the local residents. Restricting the consumption of these fish in the local markets is important and essential for reducing the health risks to local residents.

  5. The Function,Management Mechanism and Development Strategies of Electronic Record Centers in China%中国电子文件中心的功能定位、管理机制及发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖秋会

    2012-01-01

    本文在综述国内外电子文件中心相关研究现状的基础上,论证了中国电子文件中心建设的理论依据及应具有的双重功能,即以长久保存和利用具有重要价值的电子文件为其基本功能,以提供现行文件公共查询和利用服务等为辅助性功能;探讨了电子文件中心管理机制中涉及的诸如电子文件管理流程的设计与优化、电子文件管理系统的功能需求分析等核心问题,最后就中国电子文件中心的政策和法规保障、建设模式、人员构成与职责分配、运行与管理方式等提出了具体的对策。%Based on the review of the domestic and international research progress on electronic record centers,this paper argues that electronic record centers in China should have a dual function,that is,long-term preservation for these electronic records of great value is the basic function and providing public access and utilization of these electronic records is the assistant function.Then,it studies several core issues such as the design and optimization of management process for electronic records,function requirement analysis for the electronic record management system.And finally,it put forward specific strategies in policies and regulations,construction mode,personnel composition,responsibility assignment and operation mode for electronic record centers in China.

  6. ANALYSIS OF PROBLEMS AND COUNTERMEASURES OF ELECTRONIC GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT IN CHINA%我国电子化政府采购存在的问题及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马江; 罗雯

    2015-01-01

    Rapid development of electronic information technology in China make that the electronic government procurement is gradually becoming the dominant direction of government procurement reform of our country. The current situation and existing problem of electronic government procurement in China were analyzed in this paper, and some suggestions and countermeasures were proposed to solve the problems of electronic government procure-ment.%我国电子信息技术的日新月异, 使得我国电子化政府采购逐渐成为我国政府采购改革的主导方向.文章就我国电子化政府采购的现状、 存在问题进行了分析, 并针对存在问题提出了解决问题、 发展我国电子化政府采购相关的对策和建议.

  7. A Statistical Study on Seismo-Ionospheric Anomalies of the Total Electron Content for the Period of 56 M ≥ 6.0 Earthquakes Occurring in China During 1998-2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu J Y; Chen C H; Tsai H F; Le H

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports statistical results of Seismo-Ionospheric Anomalies (SIAs) of the Total Electron Content (TEC) in the Global Ionosphere Map (GIM) associated with 56 M ≥ 6.0earthquakes in China during 1998-2012.To detect SIA,a quartile-based (i.e.median-based) process is performed.TEC anomalies for the period of earthquakes without being led by magnetic storms about 10 days are further isolated and examined to confirm the SIP existence.Results show that SIA is the TEC significantly decrease in the afternoon period 2-9 days before the earthquakes in China,which is in a good agreement with the SIA appearing before the 12 May 2008 M 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake.

  8. Chinas Ingenieure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VonChristophHein; Schanghai

    2005-01-01

    Drei Schlagworte praegen derzeit das Bild von China im Ausland: China wird zur Fabrik der Welt. China wird zum groeBten Markt der Welt. Und China ist ein Hochrisikoland. Bald diirfte sich ein viertes dazugesellen: China wird zum wichtigen Standort fiir Forschung und Entwicklung.

  9. Characterization of size-resolved urban haze particles collected in summer and winter at Taiyuan City, China using quantitative electron probe X-ray microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Hong; Jin, Chun-Song; Zhang, Dong-Peng; Wang, Shu-Rong; Xu, Xiao-Tian; Wang, Xu-Ran; Zhang, Yuan; Wu, Li; Ro, Chul-Un

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study is to characterize the size-resolved urban haze particles and investigate their modification in morphology and composition in summer and winter using the semi-quantitative electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) based on both scanning and transmission electron microscopies equipped with ultrathin-window energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (SEM-EDX and TEM-EDX). The haze and non-haze particles were collected through a seven-stage May cascade impactor on Dec. 29-30, 2009 and Jan. 8-9 and July 11-14, 2010 in Taiyuan, a typical inland city in the North China Plain. Approximately 3752 atmospheric particles in the size ranges of 4-2 μm, 2-1 μm, 1-0.5 μm, and 0.5-0.25 μm in aerodynamic diameter were measured and identified according to their secondary electron or TEM images and elemental atomic concentrations calculated through a Monte Carlo simulation program. Results show that on the haze days many reacted or aged mineral dust particles were encountered, in which the sulfate-containing ones outnumbered the nitrate-containing ones in the winter samples while it was on the contrary in the summer samples, suggesting different haze formation and evolution mechanisms in summer and winter. Furthermore, in the haze events (especially in summer), many CNOS-rich particles, likely mixtures of water-soluble organic carbon with (NH4)2SO4 or NH4HSO4, were observed not only in the submicron but also in the super-micron fractions. The simultaneous observation of the fresh and aged CNOS-rich particles in the same SEM or TEM images implied that the status and components of secondary particles were complicated and changeable. The significant increase of both elemental concentration ratios of [N]/[S] and [C]/[S] in the aged ones compared to the fresh ones indicated that NH4NO3 and secondary organic matter were likely absorbed onto (NH4)2SO4 or NH4HSO4 particles and mixed with them. K-rich, Fe-rich, and heavy metal-containing particles in TEM-EDX measurement

  10. The Development Path of Cross-border-Electronic-Commerce in China Based on SWOT Analysis%基于SWOT分析的我国跨境电商发展路径研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭卫萍; 王丽霞

    2015-01-01

    跨境电商从在我国出现到目前为止,发展迅速,目前已经成为我国进出口贸易的重要组成部分。本文采用SWOT分析法对我国跨境电商的优势、劣势、机会和威胁进行分析,在明确我国跨境电商自身的优势和劣势以及外部的机会和威胁的情况下,从物流、产品、政策以及平台四个层面对我国跨境电商未来的发展路径指明方向。%From the appearance to now, Cross-border-Electronic-Commerce has a rapid development in China, and it has become an important part of China's import and export trade. This paper uses SWOT analysis to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of Cross-border-Electronic-Commerce, on this basis, and points out the direction of the future development path of Cross-border-Electronic-Commerce from logistics, product, policy and platform four levels.

  11. Body loadings and health risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at an intensive electronic waste recycling site in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Janet K Y; Xing, Guan Hua; Xu, Ying; Liang, Ying; Chen, Ling Xuan; Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, Chris K C; Leung, Clement K M; Wong, Ming H

    2007-11-15

    This study is one of the very few investigating the dioxin body burden of a group of child-bearing-aged women at an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site (Taizhou, Zhejiang Province) (24 +/- 2.83 years of age, 40% were primiparae) and a reference site (Lin'an city, Zhejiang Province, about 245 km away from Taizhou) (24 +/- 2.35 years of age, 100% were primiparae) in China. Five sets of samples (each set consisted of human milk, placenta, and hair) were collected from each site. Body burdens of people from the e-waste processing site (human milk, 21.02 +/- 13.81 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g fat (World Health Organization toxic equivalency 1998); placenta, 31.15 +/- 15.67 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g fat; hair, 33.82 +/- 17.74 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g dry wt) showed significantly higher levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/ Fs) than those from the reference site (human milk, 9.35 +/- 7.39 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g fat; placenta, 11.91 +/- 7.05 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g fat; hair, 5.59 +/- 4.36 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g dry wt) and were comparatively higher than other studies. The difference between the two sites was due to e-waste recycling operations, for example, open burning, which led to high background levels. Moreover, mothers from the e-waste recycling site consumed more foods of animal origin. The estimated daily intake of PCDD/Fs within 6 months by breastfed infants from the e-waste processing site was 2 times higher than that from the reference site. Both values exceeded the WHO tolerable daily intake for adults by at least 25 and 11 times, respectively. Our results implicated that e-waste recycling operations cause prominent PCDD/F levels in the environment and in humans. The elevated body burden may have health implications for the next generation.

  12. Mercury levels and estimated total daily intakes for children and adults from an electronic waste recycling area in Taizhou, China: Key role of rice and fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Cheng, Jinping; Zhao, Wenchang; Wang, Wenhua

    2015-08-01

    In order to assess the potential health risks of Hg pollution, total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in air, dust, surface soil, crops, poultry, fish and human hair samples from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area in Taizhou, China. High concentrations of T-Hg and MeHg were found in these multiple matrices, and the mean concentration was 30.7 ng/m(3) of T-Hg for atmosphere samples, 3.1 μg/g of T-Hg for soil, 37.6 μg/g of T-Hg for dust, 20.3 ng/g of MeHg for rice and 178.1 ng/g of MeHg for fish, suggesting that the e-waste recycling facility was a significant source of Hg. The inorganic Hg (I-Hg) levels (0.84 μg/g) in hair samples of e-waste workers were much higher than that in the reference samples. Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that strong positive correlations (phair I-Hg and time staying in industrial area (r=0.81) and between MeHg and fish consumption frequency (r=0.91), imply that workers were mainly exposed to Hg vapor through long-time inhalation of contaminated air and dust, while other population mainly exposed to MeHg through high-frequency fish consumption. The estimated daily intakes of Hg showed that dietary intake was the major Hg exposure source, and Hg intakes from rice and fish were significantly higher than from any other foods. The estimated total daily intakes (TDIs) of MeHg for both children (696.8 ng/(kg·day)) and adults (381.3 ng/(kg·day)) greatly exceeded the dietary reference dose (RfD) of 230 ng/(kg·day), implying greater health risk for humans from Hg exposures around e-waste recycling facilities.

  13. Problems and Trend of Development of Green Logistics by Electronics Industry in China%我国电子产品行业绿色物流现存问题和发展趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商丽景; 贾瑞峰

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, on the basis of an introduction of the current status of the logistics practice of the electronics industry of China, we pointed out the problems existing therein, studied the trend of the development of green logistics by the industry, and finally gave suggestions for the promotion of the green logistics practice in the electronics industry.%在对我国电子产品行业物流现状进行分析的基础上,指出我国电子产品行业绿色物流存在的问题,进而对我国电子产品行业绿色物流的发展趋势进行了研究,最后提出了我国电子产品行业发展绿色物流的建议.

  14. China and Vietnam tourism electronic commercial cooperation research and conception%中越旅游电子商务合作研究与构想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海跃

    2011-01-01

    China and Viet Nam linked land,After the Chinese-Association of Southeast Asian Nations free trading area completes,China and Vietnam continue to strengthen tourism cooperation.With the growing maturity of e-commerce technology and the continuous developm%中国和越南国土相连,中国—东盟自由贸易区建成后,中国与越南的旅游合作不断加强。随着电子商务技术日趋成熟,全球旅游电子商务的不断发展,开展中越旅游电子商务合作是中越旅游业进一步发展与合作的要求和选择。

  15. Electronics Industry Study Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    which has reduced the use and allure of stock options . Another electronics industry official captured this problem saying, “It’s not that the talent...capital gains tax. China reduces its 17% nominal value-added tax to 3% for domestically manufactured semiconductors. China also taxes stock ... options at par value and has no capital gains tax. New fabs in Singapore receive a ten year tax exemption followed by a five year period of reduced tax

  16. 中国少数民族语言电子文件集成共享的体系架构研究%The Architecture of Integrated Sharing of Electronic Records in Minority Languages of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵生辉

    2012-01-01

    从国家层面上确立少数民族语言电子文件共享的整体战略和基础架构是当前我国民族地区档案管理迫切需要解决的问题。本文在概要介绍少数民族语言电子文件共享现状的基础上,系统分析少数民族语言电子文件共享的需求,按照平衡多元性需求和一体性需求的思路设计出两次归档的少数民族语言电子文件集成管理体系、基于分布式数据库的跨地区共享体系、以国家通用语言文字为中介的多语种电子文件共享体系等技术架构。本文旨在探索社会信息化背景下保护语言文字多样性、增强中华民族凝聚力的技术架构和管理模式,成果实施后将对民族团结的整体格局产生深远影响。%It is an exigent task to set national strategy and architecture for sharing of electronic records in minority languages of China among archive management of ethnic minority residence region.Based on introduction of current status,the requirement of sharing of electronic records in minority languages of China is analyzed systematically,according on the principle of balance of diversity and integrity,the integrated management system which electronic records in minority languages are archived twice,the cross region sharing system based on distribute database,and the multiple languages sharing system which take national general language as interlingua are designed.This paper aims to find new management and technical architecture to protect languages diversity as well as enhance the integrity of the country,its conclusion is significant to solidarity of China.

  17. China's First Salvaging Robot for Nuclear Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Researchers from the CAS Institute of Optics and Electronics in Chengdu,capital of southwest China's Sichuan Province, have been successful in building China's first robot for searching and retrieving underwater foreign objects in nuclear power stations.

  18. CHINA TODAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY CHINATODAY UNDER CHINA INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING GROUP IN ENGLISH, SPANISH, FRENCH, ARABIC, CHINESE, AND TURKISH, WITH DIGITAL VERSIONS IN CHINESE, ENGLISH, FRENCH, GERMAN, SPANISH AND ARABIC ON THE INTERNET, SPONSORED BY CHINA WELFARE INSTITUTE.

  19. Expanding China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LisaChiu

    2003-01-01

    CHINA-Enabling A New Era of Changes paints a comprehensive and extremely up-to-date look at the current growth trends in China and examines ways to maintain this fast-paced growth for future generations.

  20. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60-99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12-30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed.

  1. 建立我国网上药店统一电子交易平台的探讨%Exploration on Establishment of Unified Electronic Trading Platform of Online Pharmacies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟令全; 武志昂

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide reference to promote the development of online pharmacies in China. METHODS: The situation and development bottle neck of online pharmacy in China and the necessity, feasibility and development mode of unified electronic trading platform were analyzed according to literature study. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: Up to Sept. 22th, 2011, a total of 48 online pharmacies have been approved, while only 10 pharmacies run formally. The main development bottlenecks of online pharmacies in China are that online pharmacy electronic trading platform hadn't been coupled with online medicare payment system, and there was lack of the influential brand or aircraft carrier class online pharmacies. The establishment of unified electronic trading platforms of online pharmacy contributes to online retail market development with low cost by pharmaceutical enterprise, to the drug price compared by consumers and loyalty of consumer to online pharmacy, to the supervision of the government departments on online drug retail and purchase behavior, and to creating online pharmacies brand website, and it is feasible in the fields of technology, economy and operation. China' s online pharmacies unified electronic trading platform can speed up development and improve the whole level of service through the alliance mode and the third party mode.%目的:为促进我国网上药店的发展提供参考.方法:根据文献,对我国网上药店的现状、发展瓶颈,建立统一电子交易平台的必要性、可行性以及发展模式进行分析.结果与结论:截至2011年9月22日,我国批准的网上药店共48家,而正式经营的仅十余家.我国网上药店统一电子交易平台存在未与医疗保障体系对接、有影响力的品牌或航母级网上药店缺失等主要发展瓶颈.我国网上药店统一电子交易平台的建立利于医药企业低成本开拓网上零售市场、利于消费者比较药品价格及提升消费者对网上药店的忠

  2. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan, E-mail: chanjky@hku.hk [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1–4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60–99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12–30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. - Highlights: ► PCDD/F levels at e-waste recycling sites in China were reviewed. ► Data on environment and body burden and health risk assessment results were reviewed

  3. Financial Denartments Should Quicken Steps of Electronization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ At 2004 China Electronic Finance Forum held in Beijing recently,Pan Xinping, Dean of Software Institute of Graduate Institute of Chinese Academy of Science appealled that China's financial departments should further quicken electronization and establish complete network electronic payment system to offer comprehensive financial service such as checking card, transference and clearance between banks, electronic securities, accounting management,transaction disposal, payment commission and service of report, and establish financial management information system. And it should finish communications between computer systems of all different professional banks, providing strong backing for the development of electronic finance in China.

  4. Financial Denartments Should Quicken Steps of Electronization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

      At 2004 China Electronic Finance Forum held in Beijing recently,Pan Xinping, Dean of Software Institute of Graduate Institute of Chinese Academy of Science appealled that China's financial departments should further quicken electronization and establish complete network electronic payment system to offer comprehensive financial service such as checking card, transference and clearance between banks, electronic securities, accounting management,transaction disposal, payment commission and service of report, and establish financial management information system. And it should finish communications between computer systems of all different professional banks, providing strong backing for the development of electronic finance in China.……

  5. What's So Special about China's Exports?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dani Rodrik

    2006-01-01

    Much more than comparative advantage and free markets have been at play in shaping China's export success. Government policies have helped nurture domestic capabilities in consumer electronics and other advanced areas that would most likely not have developed in their absence. As a result, China has ended up with an export basket that is significantly more sophisticated than what would be normally expected for a country at its income level.This has been an important determinant of China's rapid growth. What matters for China's future growth is not the volume of exports, but whether China will continue to latch on to higher-income products over time.

  6. Domestic Enterprises Fond of Electronic Product Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ On April 20 ended the 2004 China EPC (Electronic Product Code) & Internet of Articles Summit Forum,in Beijing, at which, Global Electronic Product Code (China) Center, namely, EPCglobal China was announced to be established. Two days before, EPC Global tour training organized by the International Articles Coding Association opened a class in Beijing, which was the first stop of global tour training organized by the association.

  7. China Emerging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    has largely masked latent social ills, internal problems, and tenuous governance behind its supersonic growth. The prospects of a failed China are...In 1992, China enacted an internal law on territorial sea and contiguous zone, which claims Chinese sovereignty over all islands that fell within a...to an even stronger future. Economic growth has fueled huge modernization efforts across Chinese industry as well as its military. As China

  8. Smoking Culture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛

    2016-01-01

    Abtract:Smoking culture is deeply rooted in daily routine of Chinese people.The most significant one is that Chinese people have the tendency to send the cigarette as a gift.Only if scientists coordinate with the Chinese government to raise taxes on cigarette, limit the use of smoking scenes, advocate the use of electronic cigarette and educate the public will the deeply imbedded smoking culture in China change!

  9. Elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in hair from workers at an electronic waste recycling facility in Eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jing [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, P.O. Box 144, Shanghai 200444 (China); Cheng Jinping; Wang Wenhua [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Kunisue, Tatsuya [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Wu Minghong [Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, P.O. Box 144, Shanghai 200444 (China); Kannan, Kurunthachalam, E-mail: kkannan@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2011-02-28

    Hair samples collected from e-waste recycling workers (n = 23 males, n = 4 females) were analyzed to assess occupational exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) at a large e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, eastern China. Hair samples from a reference population composed of residents of Shanghai (n = 11) were analyzed for comparison. The mean concentration of {Sigma}PBDEs (range, 22.8-1020 ng/g dw; mean, 157 ng/g dw) found in hair samples from e-waste recycling workers was approximately 3 times higher than the mean determined for the reference samples. The congener profiles of PBDEs in hair from e-waste recycling workers were dominated by BDE 209, whereas the profiles in the reference-population samples showed comparable levels of BDE 47 and BDE 209. Total PCDD/F concentrations in hair from e-waste workers (range, 126-5820 pg/g dw; mean, 1670 pg/g dw) were approximately 18-fold greater than the concentrations measured in hair from the reference population. Concentrations of PCDFs were greater than concentrations of PCDDs, in all of the hair samples analyzed (samples from e-waste and non-e-waste sites). Tetrachlorodibenzofurans (TCDFs) were the major homologues in hair samples. Overall, e-waste recycling workers had elevated concentrations of both PBDEs and PCDD/Fs, indicating that they are exposed to high levels of multiple persistent organic pollutants.

  10. Elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in hair from workers at an electronic waste recycling facility in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Cheng, Jinping; Wang, Wenhua; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Wu, Minghong; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-02-28

    Hair samples collected from e-waste recycling workers (n=23 males, n=4 females) were analyzed to assess occupational exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) at a large e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, eastern China. Hair samples from a reference population composed of residents of Shanghai (n=11) were analyzed for comparison. The mean concentration of ∑PBDEs (range, 22.8-1020 ng/g dw; mean, 157 ng/g dw) found in hair samples from e-waste recycling workers was approximately 3 times higher than the mean determined for the reference samples. The congener profiles of PBDEs in hair from e-waste recycling workers were dominated by BDE 209, whereas the profiles in the reference-population samples showed comparable levels of BDE 47 and BDE 209. Total PCDD/F concentrations in hair from e-waste workers (range, 126-5820 pg/g dw; mean, 1670 pg/g dw) were approximately 18-fold greater than the concentrations measured in hair from the reference population. Concentrations of PCDFs were greater than concentrations of PCDDs, in all of the hair samples analyzed (samples from e-waste and non-e-waste sites). Tetrachlorodibenzofurans (TCDFs) were the major homologues in hair samples. Overall, e-waste recycling workers had elevated concentrations of both PBDEs and PCDD/Fs, indicating that they are exposed to high levels of multiple persistent organic pollutants.

  11. The Review of China Post's Informationizing Constructing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-min; DU Yu-wei; SUN Hao

    2005-01-01

    The article briefly introduces the three stages that China Post experienced and the circumstances of the fundamental network construction, focusing on introducing the three sorts of services based on postal comprehensive computer network's applicable software system: postal financial service; traditional service electrified; electronic postal service. Finally the thinking for future China Post's informationizing constructing is put forward.

  12. China's High-technology Standards Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There are several major technology standards, including audio video coding (AVS), automotive electronics, third generation (3G) mobile phones, mobile television, wireless networks and digital terrestrial television broadcasting, that have been released or are currently under development in China. This article offers a detailed analysis of each standard and studies their impact on China's high-technology industry.

  13. The Current Situation of Government Electronic Procurement in China and the Countermeasures%我国政府电子化采购的发展现状及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田剑

    2015-01-01

    随着电子商务的迅速发展,政府电子化采购已成为一种发展趋势。目前我国政府电子化采购方面存在着采购信息网上公开不规范、实际采购程序与电子化采购程序不相符、电子化采购技术与政府采购制度不匹配等问题,应在借鉴欧美及韩国相关经验基础上,加快中央和地方采购平台的建设,协调顶层设计与采购制度的关系,完善政府电子化采购的相关法律法规,构建政府电子化采购绩效评估体系,共同促进我国政府电子化采购的规范发展。%With the rapid development of e-commerce,traditional government procurement is undergoing a dramatic change toward e-commercialization. There are still some problems with e-procurement in China,such as the not standardized online information transparency,the not compatible real e-procurement procedure with preset one,and the unmatched e-procurement technology with related mechanism. Based on reviewing the experience of government e-procurement in South Korea and other advanced countries, to promote the standardized government e- procurement in China, such four countermeasures are given:first, accelerating the construction of the central and local procurement platform;second, coordinating the relationship between the top design and procurement system;third,improving the relevant laws and regulations of government electronic procurement;and fourth,constructing government electronic procurement performance evaluation system.

  14. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  15. China's Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's National Development and Reform Commission publicized the country's policies and actions for addressing climate change in a report released on November 26,2009.The report highlighted China's efforts in cutting greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 by: (1)Rigorously checking the blind expansion of its energy-and pollution-intensive industries.

  16. China Intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara Harbin Cobb

    2009-01-01

    <正>I’m a few years older than the People’s Re- public of China, but hardly an infant compared to China’s vast history and culture. China and I have intersected at many points, and I want to tell you about a few of them.

  17. Feeding China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China is expected to reap a bumper harvest this autumn, but grain security remains a long-term concern Despite sweeping natural disasters China is on track to achieve a bounti ful harvest for this autumn’s grain yield,which usually accounts fo three fourths of the annual output,said Minister of Agriculture Han Changfu.

  18. 发展我国电子商务的思考%Some Thinking on the Development of Electronic Commerce in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴叶葵

    2001-01-01

    @@1.电子商务的现状   随着电子商务在世界上的迅速发展,我国电子商务也急剧升温。近几年来,我国计算机市场销售量平均年递增31%,1999年已成为全球第四大市场。前些年开展的“金字系统”工程为电子商务打下了基础。据CNNIC统计,截至2000年7月,已建成的ChinaNet、CERNet、CSTNet、ChinaGBN、UNINET、CNCNET六大网络的国际线路总容量为1234M;IP电话出口带宽总量为56M;我国上网的用户人数达到1690万;上网的计算机数达到650万台;我国WWW站点数约27289个。所有这些都为我国电子商务的开展准备了必要的网络物质基础。目前,电子商务已在外经贸、海关、金融、商业等许多领域中得到部分应用。上海市、北京市等都构建了当地的电子商务框架。国内一些电子商务网站已经开通,实现了网上购物和电子付款。“湖南省电子商务系统”是全国第一套基于SET(安全电子交易)的可开展网上支付型电子商务的系统。中国国家电子商务网是国家级电子商务网,同时也是一个集外贸业务管理、信息、服务三位于一体的国家唯一的外贸专用网,该网已逐渐在全国推广应用。这一切都表明,我国的电子商务已经开始起步,并向我们展示了它美好的前景。

  19. 跨国公司功能区位实证研究%Geography of Multinational Corporations in China:An Empirical Study of Fortune Global 500 Multinational Corporations in Electronics and Medical and Chemical Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺灿飞; 肖晓俊

    2011-01-01

    随着交通通讯技术的发展,跨国公司在东道国内部实现功能空间分离.伴随中国渐进式的改革开放进程,全球500强跨国公司逐步在中国实现地理扩张和功能扩张.本文基于1979-2008年电子信息和医药化工产业的全球500强跨国公司在华投资数据研究跨国公司功能区位.研究表明,跨国公司倾向于在已有投资的城市追加投资,不同功能呈现一定差异性地理分布,但功能之间共聚趋势明显.区域性总部和商务功能聚集在一线城市,生产功能布局于省会和一线城市周边地区,研发功能追随生产功能.条件逻辑模型分析表明,跨国公司功能区位存在显著的公司内集聚、跨公司集聚、来源国集聚以及跨功能共聚现象.市场潜力及城市行政地位也是吸引跨国公司投资的重要因素.随着全方位开放格局形成,集聚效应较制度优势更为重要.跨国公司分支机构地理集聚提升一线城市的功能,强化顶级城市的领导力和聚集力.跨国公司的功能片段化布局既依托我国的城市等级体系,又在一定程度上重塑我国城市空间结构,促进城市体系按价值链等级进行专业化分工并推动区域协作.%As transportation and communication technologies develop, multinational corporations are motivated to split different functions along the value chain across locations. Following China's gradual open door policy, multinational corporations (MNCs) have taken an evolutionary approach to enter the Chinese market, gradually increasing their resource commitments and expanding their geographies as they gain local knowledge and develop capabilities in host economies. As a consequence, the geographical agglomeration of foreign investments in China can be understood by the location and co-location of different functions invested by MNCs sequentially. Based on data from the Fortune Global 500 MNCs in electronics and medical and chemical industries investing

  20. 我国电子健康档案发展现状及对策研究%Research on Electronic Health Record Development and Strategies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新伟; 黄薇; 郭珉江

    2011-01-01

    回顾了我国电子健康档案发展历程,总结了部分典型地区工作进展、成功经验和存在的问题,并从组织规划、资金投入、标准规范、实践应用、法规制定等方面提出了政策建议.%The development history of Electronic Health Record is reviewed. Its status, problems and barriers in some pilots are summarized. And policy suggestions are put forward from planning and organization, financing, standard and criterion, application as well as laws and regulations.

  1. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PCDDs/Fs) in dust, soil, sediment and health risk assessment from an intensive electronic waste recycling site in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianfang; Xiao, Xiao; Peng, Ping'an; Huang, Weilin; Chen, Deyi; Cai, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Workshop dust, soil and sediment samples were collected to investigate the level and spatial distribution of PCDDs/Fs at an intensive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in Southern China, and also to characterize the dioxin emission in different e-waste recycling procedures. The concentrations of total PCDDs/Fs ranged from 1866 to 234292 ng kg(-1) for the dust samples, from 3187 to 63998 ng kg(-1) dry wt for the top soils, and 33718 ng kg(-1) for the surface sediment. All the samples were characterized by abnormally high concentrations of OCDD and an extremely low portion of PCDFs. Different e-waste recycling procedures may generate different congener profiles. Open burning and dismantling were the two procedures emitting relatively higher concentrations of PCDDs/Fs in this case, indicating that low-tech recycling operations were one of the major contributors of PCDDs/Fs to the environment. The variation and distinction of the concentrations and homologue/congener profiles among different environmental matrices reveal the characteristics of contaminant environmental behavior and fate during the transportation from "source" to "sink". Daily intake of PCDDs/Fs through soil ingestion and dermal absorption was negligible, but the rough estimated total PCDD/F intake dose far exceeded the tolerance daily intake value of 4 pg-TEQ per kg per day recommended by WHO, indicating that residents in Longtang were at a high risk of exposure to dioxins, especially children.

  2. 我国电子废弃物的管理现状及发展方向%Current management status and prospect of waste electric and electronic equipment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左海强; 陈磊; 汪彩虹

    2012-01-01

    全球日益严重的电子废弃物污染已直接或间接危害到人类的生存和发展,目前发达国家都已制定了电子废弃物法律法规和管理体系,我国电子废弃物管理起步较晚,在借鉴国外先进经验的同时,更应结合本国国情,提高公众参与意识、建立健全电子废弃物回收处置网络,疏堵结合,逐步完善电子废弃物法律体系和管理制度。%Pollution from Waste electric and electronic equipment(WEEE) has been getting more serious and has been effecting the surviving and develompment of human kind worldwide directly or indirectly.Till today many developed countries has corresponsing legislation and executive management in operation.WEEE manegement in China does not have an early start but maybe we should learn from good experience abroad and combine with local situation.Public participation shall be promoted and both to-do and not-to-do should be clarified.Recycling and treatment network on WEEE should be established.Also legal and managemement system must be improved gradually.

  3. On-site and off-site atmospheric PBDEs in an electronic dismantling workshop in south China: gas-particle partitioning and human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Taicheng; Zhang, Delin; Li, Guiying; Mai, Bixian; Fu, Jiamo

    2011-12-01

    Gas samples and total suspended particle during work and off work time were investigated on-site and off-site electronic waste dismantling workshop (I- and O-EWDW), then compared with plastic recycling workshop (PRW) and waste incineration plant (WIP). TSP concentrations and total PBDE were 0.36-2.21 mg/m(3) and 27-2975 ng/m(3) at different workshops, respectively. BDE-47, -99, and -209 were major ∑PBDE congeners at I-EWDW and WIP, while BDE-209 was only dominant congener in PRW and control sites during work time and all sites during off work time. The gas-particle partitioning result was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure for all samples, except for WIP and I-EDWD, at park during work time, and residential area during off work time. The predicted urban curve fitted well with measured φ values at O-DEWD during work time, whereas it was slightly overestimated or underestimated for others. Exposure assessment revealed the highest exposure site was I-EDWD.

  4. Bioaccumulation and translocation of polyhalogenated compounds in rice (Oryza sativa L.) planted in paddy soil collected from an electronic waste recycling site, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mo, Ling; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Mai, Bi-Xian; Peng, Yong-Hong

    2015-10-01

    The bioaccumulation and translocation of polyhalogenated compounds (PHCs) in rice planted in the paddy soils of an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site were investigated, along with the effect of contaminated soils on rice growth. The PHCs included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), and dechlorane plus (DPs). The morphological development and all measured physiological parameters of rice plants except for peroxidase were significantly inhibited by e-waste contaminated soils. Specifically, soil-root bioaccumulation factors (RCFs) increased with increasing logarithm of octanol-water partition coefficient (logKow) for PCBs, but decreased for PBDEs. During translocation from root to stem, translocation factors (TFs) and logKow were positively correlated. However, the accumulation mechanism in the leaf was concentration-dependent. In the high concentration exposure group, translocation play more important role in determination PHCs burden in leaf than atmospheric uptake, with logTF (from stem to leaf) being positively correlated with logKow. In contrast, in the low exposure and control groups, logTF (from stem to leaf) was negatively correlated with logKow. In addition, Syn-DP was selectively accumulated in plant tissues. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that e-waste contaminated soils affect rice growth, revealed the rule of the bioaccumulation and translocation of PHCs in rice plants.

  5. Translating China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    sidney Shapiro, an American-born translator famous for his translation of Chinese literary works, received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Translation by the Translators Association of China on December 2, 2010.

  6. CHINA DEHYDRATED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Across China in 2007,39.93 million hectares of farmland was affected by drought,of which nearly 9 percent became unfertile. Millions of people had difficulty accessing drinking water"Spring rain is as precious as oil."This ancient proverb invented by farmers in north China captures both the im- portance and rarity of springtime rain in the region.Areas south of China’s great Yangtze River receive high levels of rainfall during the country’s mon-

  7. Analysis on policies of promoting Electronic Health Records in China%促进我国电子病历发展的相关政策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广乾

    2011-01-01

    为促进电子病历的健康发展,我们必须首先明确电子病历的属性和定位,正确处理电子病历相关问题的关系,并找到切实可行的推进模式,分阶段加以推进。与此同时,应该高度重视采用云计算等新一代信息技术在电子病历、居民健康档案、区域卫生信息平台建设中的巨大作用,解决电子病历医疗服务对象的身份标识问题,并从电子签名、隐私保护、权利认定与事故责任分担等方面完善相应的管理制度,为促进电子病历有序发展创造良好的软环境。%In order to promote the development of Electronic Health Records (EHR), we must make clear of its attribute and position, and treat correctly the relationship between EHR and other related items, find practical model of promotion, and carry it forward by phase. Meanwhile, we should pay attention to the great role played by cloud computing on EHR, inhabitant health profile and local health information center establishment, and resolve the problem of identification of EHR's objects. And in order to create good soft environments, we should also perfect relevant management systems about digital signature, privacy, right cognition and responsibility share of medical treatment accident.

  8. Quaternary glacial history of the Kanas Valley, Chinese Altai, NW China, constrained by electron spin resonance and optically stimulated luminescence datings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianqiang; Chen, Yixin; Xu, Xiangke; Cui, Zhijiu; Xiong, Heigang

    2017-10-01

    The Chinese Altai is located on the northern edge of Central Asia. Rich geological records of Quaternary glaciations are preserved in this area. However, the glacial history in the Chinese Altai has hardly been investigated. This study aims to rebuild the regional glacial history in the Kanas Valley of the Chinese Altai. We present 14 electron spin resonance (ESR) ages and 3 optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from glacial landforms. By integrating with ages from previous studies, five major glacial advances are identified during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stages (MIS) 6, 5, 4, 3 and 2, with ages of 167.0 ± 16.0-123.0 ± 18.0 ka, 97.0 ± 19.0-78.0 ± 7.0 ka, 76.0 ± 16.0-73.1 ± 6.6 ka, 52.1 ± 7.8-34.4 ± 4.2 ka, and 28.0 ± 3.3-16.1 ± 1.5 ka respectively. The glacial advance during MIS 5 is the local Last Glacial Maximum, and glaciers became successively more restricted from MIS 5 to MIS 2. In addition, the extensive MIS 3 glacial advance in the Chinese Altai contrasts with the absence of MIS 3 glacial advance in the Mongolia Altai. These glacial patterns reflect that precipitation brought by the westerlies might play a primary role on driving glacial advances during the Last Glacial in the Chinese Altai. This glacial chronology is in reasonable agreement with existing glacial chronologies from other parts of the Altai, Tian Shan and Pamir, indicating similar climate controls on the patterns of Quaternary glaciation across Central Asia Highlands.

  9. 中国28种卫矛属植物叶表皮细胞的电镜扫描观察%Observation of Leaf Epidermal Cells of 28 Species of Euonymus in China by Electron Microscope Scanning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑彦超; 明晓; 涂蔷; 吴璇; 王若涵

    2012-01-01

    The leaf epidermal cells of 28 species of Euonymus in China were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the observed objects contain cell boundary, shape of cells, pattern of anticlinal wall and cuticular membrane morphology. The results revealed that there were various types exist in the leaf epidermal cells of Euonymus. Adaxial and abaxial epidermal cells are different among 13 species such as E. vihumoides and E. chuii. The classical taxonomic treatment as five sections of Euonymus is not supported by this research. Affinilive species usually possess same type on the leaf epidermal cells. E. mengzeanus and E. hystrix were supported as independent specie.%使用扫描电子显微镜对中国28种卫矛属植物的叶表皮细胞进行观察,观察对象包括细胞界限、细胞形状、垂周壁样式、角质膜形态.结果表明,叶表皮细胞形态特征在属内存在多种类型,荚迷卫矛、隐刺卫矛等13种的叶上、下表皮细胞形态具有差别,不支持经典分类学中属下5个组的划分,亲缘关系相近的种通常具有同类型的叶表皮细胞形态特征,支持蒙自卫矛、刺猬卫矛作为独立的种存在.

  10. Destination China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows dropped by about 20 percent year on year in the first quarter,raising questions about the country’s attractiveness to foreign investors. Edgar G. Hotard,Chairman of the Monitor Group (China),sat down with Beijing Review reporter Hu Yue on the sidelines of the Boao Forum for Asia on April 17-19,to discuss this issue. The Monitor Group is a global provider of strategy consulting services,headquartered in the United States and with offices in China.

  11. China White

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Lash, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on some themes in Harrison White’s work in the context of China, where the social and cultural construction of markets is quite literal. We explore how we get markets where previously there were no markets and draw on White’s central themes of ‘uncertainty’, ‘value’ and ‘order...

  12. China's Confidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Lin'aiyi

    2008-01-01

    @@ With the spread of the global financial turmoil.China is Under growing tension from its large population,limited resource,environment Problems,and losing its competitive edge in the world as exports are being driven down by shrinking demand abroad as well as higher costs.

  13. China Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Concetta

    1984-01-01

    A math and science high school director, who spent a month studying and traveling in China, comments on cultural differences observed during a visit to a day care center and during shopping trips and relates his experiences jogging during the early morning hours. (RM)

  14. Ephemeral China/Handmade China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A China that is in a frenzied state of economic boom and potential social instability, which is most vividly represented in its architectural and urban developments, is, I hope I will convince you, ephemeral. A quite different China, perhaps is not so visible as its new buildings and cities, is metaphorically ‘handmade’. I should like to extend the meanings of the handmade to the more stable and long lasting attitudes towards social life, and even mortality. My sources for the second China are partially from literature (not from architecture. With the construction boom since the mid-1990s, mainstream Western architectural journals and galleries have been racing to expose new architecture in China; celebrity Western architects have been winning major commissions in China: the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is a case in point. The sheer quantity and speed of China’s development, as evidenced in architecture and urbanisation, causes an ‘unbearable lightness of being’ (to paraphrase Milan Kundera. Does all this then suggest that China, as solidified in its buildings and cities, is no longer ‘handmade’ in the sense that memory and a sense of history are redundant (particularly for a country that has a recorded history of more than 5000 years, which have been so lovingly recorded in handmade artefacts? The true meaning of the handmade, which absorbs labour — an ‘honourable labour’ as Joseph Conrad lovingly put it in his Mirror of the Sea, as well as memory, like that of a home, is a static artefact, which harbours our changing emotion, the frailties of human life, and indeed, the growing awareness that comes with time of our mortality: the handmade offers the necessary enshrinement of life’s vulnerability. Let me assure you, the seemingly fast-changing China, as represented in its new architecture and city forms, as well in its frenzied urbanisation and booming economy, is but a smoke screen. It is, in other words, ephemeral. The

  15. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  17. 美国 E 转诊模式对我国分级诊疗体系建设的启示%Enlightenment of the new model of electronic referral in the United States for diagnosis and classification system construction in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂成; 周典; 杨善发; 徐红兵; 汪卓赟

    2014-01-01

    Electronic referral model,an important part of telemedicine,is a medical service system innovation based on telemedicine,which has gradually became a accepted model by the public.This paper first describes the rise of the U.S.electronic referral model and its characteristics,then summarizes the present situation and progress of informatization of diagnosis and classification in China,and finally discusses the path of sustainable operation of implementing electronic referral model in China by SWOT analysis.%E 转诊模式是基于远程医疗的医疗服务模式创新,它是远程医疗的重要组成部分,并已成为一项逐渐被大众接受的新型医疗服务模式。首先介绍美国 E 转诊模式的兴起及其特点,其次概述我国分级诊疗信息化的现状与进展,最后通过 SWOT 分析探讨我国实施 E 转诊模式可持续运行的路径。

  18. MNCs Look Beyond China for Sourcing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Rising costs are forcing companies to take a closer look at new sourcing locations across Asia,according to a recent KPMG report of multinational corporations (MNCs) in the region.High levels of infrastructure and skills mean certain goods from consumer electronics to furniture are still being sourced from China.However,with the combination of increasing labour costs,rising inflation and a strengthening currency,China is losing its foothold as the world's lowest cost manufacturer of consumer goods.

  19. Case Study:EDS in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Asign that China is quickly moving up the global service outsourcing ranking came earlier this year when EDS (Electronic Data Services), one of the world's leading IT outsourcing companies,announced it would be moving its Asia headquarters to Shanghai from Australia. Recognizing the growing potential of China in this area, the company also announced it would shortly be launching at least two offshore software development centers in the country, with the first location due to be announced at the begining of November.

  20. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  1. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. THIRSTY CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Extreme weather conditions have blighted much of China over the past year and a pattern of increasing drought has emerged. The problem is both economic and human. Swathes of farmland have been hit by drought leading to production losses and millions of people have had difficulty accessing fresh water. While the government is attempting to tackle the issue,increasingly dry weather is something that could prove a long-term problem for the countryA rare longdrought has had severe consequences across China and brought up difficult auestions about the thecause"Guilin tops the world in landscape"is a well-accepted saying for Chinese people. Guilin is a city and tourist resort in south China’s Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and attracts many people because of its charming beauty,

  3. China DBSAT Inaugurated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Direct Broadcast Satellite Co Ltd(China DBSAT),the only satellite operator on the mainland,was inaugurated on December 25,2007 in Beijing,marking the completion of the satellite operation industry integration in mainland China.

  4. Capitalizing China

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Fan; Randall Morck; Bernard Yeung

    2011-01-01

    Despite a vast accumulation of private capital, China is not embracing capitalism. Deceptively familiar capitalist features disguise the profoundly unfamiliar foundations of "market socialism with Chinese characteristics." The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), by controlling the career advancement of all senior personnel in all regulatory agencies, all state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and virtually all major financial institutions state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and senior Party positions in all ...

  5. Is China different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson; Ljungwall, Christer

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  6. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2013-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  7. China Eximbank Promotes China-Tunisia Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Export and Import Bank of China(China Eximbank) and Tunisia Embassy, on March 28,jointly held "China-Tunisia Cooperation Forum" in Beijing. Wei Jianguo, Vice Minister of the Ministry of Commerce,Li Ruogu, President of China Eximbank and Mohamed Nouri Jouini, Minister of the Tunisia Development and International Cooperation Department attended the forum. Government officials and entrepreneurs from both sides had deep communications on the topics of the investment environment, economic and trade cooperation, etc..

  8. Ambient Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2012-10-01

    We report the recent research progress and future prospects of flexible and printed electronics, focusing on molecular electronic material-based thin-film transistors, which are expected to usher in a new era of electronics.

  9. Electron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  10. China Pop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence in this cultu......Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence...... in this cultural sector while promoting a policy of dialogue, integration and exclusion. Cooperation with the state is attractive because it is rewarded with unlimited access to official media, audiences and commercial success. The article focuses on recent trends in China’s most important genres of popular music......: Mandopop, (red) mainstream music and rock music. It argues that the Chinese state’s success in raising the popularity of the mainstream is based on its constant promotion, patriotic education, a general pride in China’s strength, nationalism and – equally important – adaptation and the commercial...

  11. China Energy Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  12. The Top 500 Foreign-invested Enterprises in China (2000-2001)Announced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    CHINA BUSINESS MONTHLY The top 500 foreigninvested enterprises in China (2000-2001) was announced recently. These enterprises were ranked on the basis of their sales revenue. With the annual sales revenue of 31.289 billion yuan in 2000, Motorola (Tianjin) Electronics Limited topped Shanghai Volkswagon Automotive Company Ltd. for the first time and became the No.1 in the new rank. Following them were Guangdong Mobile Technology Co., Ltd., China Offshore Petroleum (China) Limited, SAIC-Volkswagon Sales Co...

  13. South China Sea Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's attempts to solve disputes with ASEAN over the South China Sea help regional peace China's marine economy and security are currently faced with new challenges, requiring careful handling, especially in disputes with ASEAN countries and in promoting common development of the South China Sea. The outcome of how this is dealt with could undoubtedly pave the way for solutions to other oceanic disputes. The South China Sea is located south of

  14. SIAL CHINA 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The 5th edition of SIAL CHINA, organized by China Development Chamber of Commerce and Exposium, will take place from March 30th to April 1 st 2004 in Shanghai New International Expo Centre of Pudong. It has been 5 years since SIAL CHINA firstly held in Beijing in 2000. Now, it has been a typical show in China food industry and became the largest international food show in China.

  15. 5th China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Jiao, Wenhai; Wu, Haitao; Lu, Mingquan

    2014-01-01

    China Satellite Navigation Conference (CSNC) 2014 Proceedings presents selected research papers from CSNC2014, held on 21-23 May in Nanjing, China. The theme of CSNC2014 is 'BDS Application: Innovation, Integration and Sharing'. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 9 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2014, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.  SUN Jiadong is the Chief Designer of the Compass/ BDS, and the Academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS); JIAO Wenhai is a researcher at China Satellite Navigation Office; WU Haitao is a professor at Navigation Headquarters, CAS; LU Mingquan is a professor at Department of Electronic Engineering of Tsinghua University.

  16. Vegetation patterns and species-environment relationships in the Gurbantunggut Desert of China%古尔班通古特沙漠植被与环境关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱亦兵; 吴兆宁; 赵锐锋; 张立运

    2008-01-01

    The Gurbantunggut Desert is the largest stable and semi-stable sand desert in China, yet few data exist on vegetation pattern and species-environment relationships for these diverse desert landscapes. The sand dunes of the survey area are mainly of the longitudinal form from north to south, but checkerboard-shaped and honeycomb-shaped forms are also present, with the height of 10-50 m. We measured vegetation and soil data on north-south transects and compared them with vegetation and soil data on east-west transects. Analysis revealed that the varying trend and strength of the species diversity, dominance and cover of the plant communities in the longitudinal and transverse directions across the landscape are significantly different. The results of CCA ordination show that the microhabitats of soil organic matter (OM), soil salts (TS), sorting index (σ), topsoil water-content (SM) and pH relate to the differences in vegetation observed as differences in species assemblage from salt-intolerant ephemerals, micro-subshrubs and subshrubs to salt-tolerant shrubs and micro-arbors. The terrain (alt.) and soil texture (the contents of Mz and φ1) affect the spatial differentiation of many species. However, this spatial differentiation is not so marked on transects running longitudinally with the landscape, in the same direction as the dunes. The species of the desert vegetation have formed three assemblages under the action of habitat gradients, relating to three sections running transversely across the landscape, at right angles to the direction of the dune crests. In the mid-east section of the study area the topography is higher, with sand-lands or dune-slopes with coarse particles. Here the dominant vegetation comprises shrubs and subshrubs of Seriphidium santolium and Ephedra distachya, with large numbers of ephemeral and ephemeroid plants of Senecio subdentatus,and Carex physodes in spring and summer. On the soil of the dune-slopes in the mid-west of the study area

  17. China opens the door

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, K.

    1997-01-01

    The door to China`s vast market for power generation was opened a bit further for foreign firms in November. That is when power ministry head Shi Dazhen said the country would rely on overseas investors for 20 percent of the funding needed to boost output--double the amount foreigners were previously allowed to contribute. Through 1995, foreigners invested $12.2 billion in China`s electricity industry, accounting for 10 percent of total investment. According to Shi, foreign investors will be asked to provide about $17 billion of the $84 billion China plans to invest in the sector over the next five years. Under China`s Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996-2000), the government aims to boost the country`s power generation capacity at the rate of 15,000 MW to 20,000 MW annually by the year 2000. Since China`s public external debt balance already exceeds $80 billion, however, the government would seem to have little choice but to allow foreigners a greater role. Shi also said that foreigners would be allowed 100 percent ownership of PRC power projects. This is discouraged under China`s current industry guidelines. It is, however, expected to be permitted under China`s first build-operate-transfer (BOT) law, which was anticipated by the end of 1996, says Susan Urkevich, director of project finance at HSBC Investment Bank Asia in Hong Kong. Indeed, China`s first BOT is already happening.

  18. Parametric injection for monoenergetic electron acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguchi, A; Takano, K; Hotta, E; Nemoto, K [Department of Energy Sciences Tokyo Institute of Technology 4259 Nagatsuta-cho Midori-ku Yokohama 226-8502 Japan (Japan); Zhidkov, A [Central Research Instistute of Electric Power Industry 2-6-1 Nagasaka Yokosuka Kanagawa 240-0196 Japan (Japan); Nakajima, K [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK 1-1 Oho Tsukuba Ibaraki 305-0801 Japan (Japan)], E-mail: blue-ayu@plasma.es.titech.ac.jp

    2008-05-01

    Electrons are accelerated in the laser wakefield (LWFA). This mechanism has been studied by 2D or 3D Particle In Cell simulation. However, how the electrons are injected in the wakefield is not understood. In this paper, we consider about the process of self -injection and propose new scheme. When plasma electron density modulates, parametric resonance of electron momentum is induced. The parametric resonance depends on laser waist modulation. We carried out 2D PIC simulation with the initial condition decided from resonance condition. Moreover, we analyze experimental result that generated 200-250 MeV monoenergetic electron beam with 400TW intense laser in CAEP in China.

  19. Cyber policy in China

    CERN Document Server

    Austin, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Few doubt that China wants to be a major economic and military power on the world stage. To achieve this ambitious goal, however, the PRC leadership knows that China must first become an advanced information-based society. But does China have what it takes to get there? Are its leaders prepared to make the tough choices required to secure China's cyber future? Or is there a fundamental mismatch between China's cyber ambitions and the policies pursued by the CCP until now? This book offers the first comprehensive analysis of China's information society. It explores the key practic

  20. Journal of CHINA PLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of CHINA PLASTICS was authorized and approved by The State Committee of Science and Technology of China and The Bureau of News Press of China, and published by The China Plastics Processing Industry Association,Beijing Technology and Business University and The Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry, distributed worldwide. Since its birth in 1987, CHINA PLASTICS has become a leading magazine in plastics industry in China, a national Chinese core journal and journal of Chinese scientific and technological article statistics. It is covered by CA.

  1. An Overview of the Electronic Information Industry in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Yang

    2009-01-01

    @@ With European,American and Japanese economies still in recession,external demand remaining weak,total revenues of China's electronic information industry witnessed a decline in the first four months of 2009,sliding 2.2 percent year-on-year,according to statistics released by China's Ministry of Industry and Information Technology on May 22.

  2. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  3. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  4. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  5. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  6. Progress in study on irrigation practice with saline groundwater on sandlands of Taklimakan Desert Hinterland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xinwen; LI Bingwen; WANG Xiaojing

    2006-01-01

    The study on the distribution and dynamic changes of soil moistures and salts under different irrigating methods and managements of using saline groundwater on the sand lands of the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert, started in 1997. The results show that drip irrigation can be applied to seedlings (furrow irrigation can be applied to level lands) using saline groundwater in the process of constructing the biological shifting sand control system along the desert highway in the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert; an irrigation frequency of 20 days and an irrigation amount of 30 kg/m2.time are suitable to the shifting sand control forest belts at the same year as they were afforested. Along with the increase of forest age, the irrigation norm can be properly increased, the irrigation interval can be prolonged.

  7. Self-shielding Electron Beam Installation for Sterilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linac; Laboratory

    2002-01-01

    China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) has developed a self-shielding electron beam installationfor sterilization as handling letters with anthrax germ or spores which has the least volume and the least

  8. Electronic Prescribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do you prescribe electronically?” For more information about electronic prescribing, call 1-800-MEDICARE (1-800-633- ... TTY users should call 1-877-486-2048 . Electronic eRx Prescribing I went to the pharmacy, and ...

  9. China Disabled Persons' Federation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China Disabled Persons' Federation (CDPF), founded in Beijing in 1988, is a national organization of/for all persons with disabilities (PWDs) of different categories in China. Mr. Deng Pufang is currently the Chairman.

  10. China's Recoverable Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Boehang

    2008-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2006, China had launched 24 recoverable satellites (FSW) in total. Among them, 23 were launched successfully, of which all but one were successfully recovered. Recoverable satellites launched by China are listed in Table 1.

  11. Have Fun in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Xingqi

    2008-01-01

    @@ As a most important part of service industry in China,tourism attracts much attention.Tourism has been developing quickly for a loilg term since China's opening-up and reform and has become Pillar industry in many Places.

  12. China Meets G7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵福

    2004-01-01

    Parties held by the wealthy, seldom welcome poor guests. But last week China made it through the doors into a gathering of the world's richest countries. Jin Renqing, China's finance minister, and Zhou Xiaochuan, governor of the People's Bank of China, joined a meeting of the Group of Seven'on October. It is the first time that China has had direct talks with the club.

  13. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  14. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information P

  15. 75 FR 8746 - Certain Steel Grating From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic filing of a document is permitted, certain... Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8, 2002). Additional written submissions to the... COMMISSION Certain Steel Grating From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission....

  16. 75 FR 17436 - Certain Aluminum Extrusions From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic filing of a document is permitted, certain... Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8, 2002). In accordance with sections 201.16(c... COMMISSION Certain Aluminum Extrusions From China AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  17. 75 FR 66126 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic... (C) of the Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8... COMMISSION Multilayered Wood Flooring From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission....

  18. 76 FR 18781 - Certain Steel Wheels From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ....8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic... (C) of the Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8... COMMISSION Certain Steel Wheels From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission....

  19. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  20. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  1. China resource book

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, K.O.; Eijndthoven, van P.J.

    1999-01-01

    The China Resource Book explains the organisation of the agricultural production in China and relates it to China's efforts to eradicate poverty and achieve self-sufficiency in food. It also highlights the variety of environmental problems, which haverisen since the rapid industrial development in t

  2. Doing Business with China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC. Industry and Trade Administration.

    This publication provides background and practical information for those interested in doing business with China. The United States officially recognized the People's Republic of China (PRC) on January 1, 1979. Chinese leaders view international trade as an important factor in transforming China into a modern industrial state as well as an…

  3. On China dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿恒健

    2016-01-01

    What is china dream? Different people may have different opinions. But there is no doubt everyone to the understanding of the Chinese dream is good. every Chinese yearning for a better life with this kind of good , and hope for a wealthy and prosperous China is saddled with everyone, this dream is a dream that every Chinese people, and is also the China dream.

  4. China-EU Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhongping; Zhang Yimeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ The China-EU relationship attracted global interest in 2006. On the one hand, cooperation between China and the EU was making good progress, but on the other, there were challenges facing both, leading some international policy analysts to conclude that the honeymoon period between China and the EU was over.

  5. Ballet Flourishing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Du Xiaoqing, Executive Editor in Chief of Dance magazine, the leading professional dance periodical in China sponsored by the Dancers Association of China, sat down with Beijing Review reporter Zan Jifang recently to share her understanding of the development of ballet in China

  6. Ballet Flourishing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Du Xiaoqing,Executive Editor in Chief of Dance magazine,the leading professional dance periodical in China sponsored by the Dancers Association of China,sat down with Belling Review reporter Zan Jifang recently to share her understanding of the development of ballet in China

  7. CHINA PRINT 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Introduction CHINA PRINT 2009, the Seventh Beijing International Printing Technology Exhibition, will be held at New China International Exhibition Center from May 12 to 16, 2009.CHINA PRINT, known as the Olympics of China’s print-ing and printing related business, has been organized onceevery four years since 1984 by PEIAC and CIEC. It has be-come one of the

  8. BGCI China office opens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The official opening ceremony of the China Office of Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) was held in the CAS South China Botanical Garden (SCBG) in Guangzhou, capital of south China's Guangdong Province, on 26 February. The event brought together more than 100 high-caliber scholars and officials, including Secretary General of BGCI Mme.

  9. 医药电商冲击下我国零售连锁药店的竞争力提升策略%Strategy of Competitiveness Improvement of Retail Chain Pharmacies in China under the Impact of Phar-maceutical Electronic Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李毅彩

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To explore the strategy of competitiveness improvement of retail chain pharmacies in China under the impact of pharmaceutical electronic commerce. METHODS:The development of pharmaceutical electronic commerce in China is in-troduced. Major problems of retail chain pharmacies development are analyzed to put forward the strategy for promoting their com-petitiveness. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS:Pharmaceutical electronic commerce develops rapidly in China,and there are 3 major operation mode,ie. B2C online pharmacy,third platform and B2B purchase platform. The development of pharmaceutical electron-ic commerce greatly influences the further development of chain pharmacy. Considering rising costs,medical insurance policy ad-justment and brand drug profits lowering,retail chain pharmacies must reposition its value;turn into big health(including diversi-fied category structure,chronic disease management and in-depth professional service);regard O2O E-commerce model as strate-gic move for rapid scale expansion in the future,so as to improve customer loyalty and long-term competitiveness.%目的:探讨医药电商冲击下我国零售连锁药店提高自身竞争力的策略.方法:介绍我国医药电商发展的基本情况,分析零售连锁药店发展面临的主要问题,提出提升零售连锁药店竞争力的策略.结果与结论:我国医药电商发展迅速,目前主要有自营式商对客(B2C)网上药店、第三方平台和商对商(B2B)采购平台3种运营模式.医药电商的发展给零售连锁药店的进一步发展带来了较大影响.面对经营成本上升、医保政策调整、品牌药利润率下降,零售连锁药店必须对自身的价值进行重新定位,进行大健康转型(包括构建多元化品类结构、实施慢病管理、提供深入的专业化服务)等,将线上线下(O2O)作为未来快速扩展规模的战略性举措,以提高消费者的忠诚度、提升长期竞争力.

  10. Debating China's assertiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2012-01-01

    Engaging the recent debate on China's assertive foreign policy, we suggest that it is normal for China – a rising power – to change its policy to a confident or even assertive direction because of its transformed national interests. We argue also that it is better to understand future US–China...... relations as a bargaining process. Whereas China negotiates for a new status in the system with redefined interests, the United States and other countries need to adjust their old political practices. China's ‘core interest’ diplomacy launched in 2009 is the first step in revealing ‘private information...

  11. Some thoughts on development of China rare earth industry and scientific technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dr.Chen Zhanheng

    2011-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ.Media background "Rare earth"has become a hot topic globally since 2009.The Times of UK published an article entitled "China takes charge of keys to technologies'future "on 9th March 2009,in which China was considered to have become the largest monopoly country on rare earth metals' supply and the leading position would make China control the future of consumer electronic products and green technology.Triggered by the article,more and more attentions were paid to "China rare earth"by media inside and outside China.

  12. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  13. Micropower electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Keonjian, Edward

    1964-01-01

    Micropower Electronics deals with the operation of modern electronic equipment at micropower levels and the problems associated with micropower electronics. Topics covered include the relations between minimum required power density and frequency response for semiconductor triode amplifiers; physical realization of digital logic circuits; micropower microelectronic subsystems; and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect devices for micropower logic circuitry. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with an analysis of fundamental relationships and basic requirements pertinent to the ph

  14. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  15. Paper electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-03

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed.

  16. Electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Tonomura, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text

  17. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  18. Electronic Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Meredith Lindsay

    1995-01-01

    The main objective was to assist in the production of electronic images in the Electronic Photography Lab (EPL). The EPL is a new facility serving the electronic photographic needs of the Langley community. The purpose of the Electronic Photography lab is to provide Langley with access to digital imaging technology. Although the EPL has been in operation for less than one year, almost 1,000 images have been produced. The decision to establish the lab was made after careful determination of the centers needs for electronic photography. The LaRC community requires electronic photography for the production of electronic printing, Web sites, desktop publications, and its increased enhancement capabilities. In addition to general use, other considerations went into the planning of the EPL. For example, electronic photography is much less of a burden on the environment compared to conventional photography. Also, the possibilities of an on-line database and retrieval system could make locating past work more efficient. Finally, information in an electronic image is quantified, making measurements and calculations easier for the researcher.

  19. Electron Bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John W.; Miller, Anne-Frances; Jones, Anne K.; King, Paul W.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2016-04-01

    Electron bifurcation is the recently recognized third mechanism of biological energy conservation. It simultaneously couples exergonic and endergonic oxidation-reduction reactions to circumvent thermodynamic barriers and minimize free energy loss. Little is known about the details of how electron bifurcating enzymes function, but specifics are beginning to emerge for several bifurcating enzymes. To date, those characterized contain a collection of redox cofactors including flavins and iron-sulfur clusters. Here we discuss the current understanding of bifurcating enzymes and the mechanistic features required to reversibly partition multiple electrons from a single redox site into exergonic and endergonic electron transfer paths.

  20. 基于电子监测系统的我国产品伤害估计初探%Preliminary Study on the Product Injury Estimation Based on the Electronic Monitoring System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑立伟; 唐宽昊; 王晨铖; 王慧萍

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the definition of product injury monitoring, this article builds the estimation model of product injury in China based on the experience of foreign product injury monitoring system. To facilitate the comparison of different countries, we establishes two indexes named product injury rate and product injury per unit GDP based on the estimation model. This article further explores the social investigation method and injury cost model of product injury to estimate the economic loss caused by product injury. At last, in consideration of the problems and shortcomings of the current product injury monitoring system, the corresponding policy recommendations are put forward to form the whole frame and thinking for product injury monitoring in China.%本文从产品伤害的定义出发,在借鉴国外产品伤害监测及估计方法的基础上,构建了我国产品伤害的估计模型,并利用模型的计算结果建立了产品伤害率与单位GDP产品伤害数指标,对各国多年度数据进行比较。文章进一步探索了对产品伤害经济损失进行估计的社会调查方法以及产品伤害损失模型,针对我国当前产品伤害监测系统存在的问题与不足,提出相应的政策建议,形成我国产品伤害监测工作的整体思路与框架。

  1. China's Energy Strategy and China-Russia Energy Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Yishan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation are based on the estimation of China's energy supply and demand.Therefore, before we get to the main point, we need to analyze the development of energy in China first,and then discuss the issue of China's energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation.

  2. Analysis of FDI's influence on China electronic information product manufacture industry market structure%FDI对我国电子信息产品制造业市场结构的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋娟

    2012-01-01

    By using the electronic information product manufacturing industry in 1992-2008 data,a detailed analysis of the impact of foreign direct investment in China's electronic information product manufacturing industry.The results show that: foreign direct investment to improve electronic information products manufacturing industry,market concentration,resulting in a positive technology spillovers.Foreign direct investment,the negative impact of the electronic information industry is to improve the industry,barriers to entry,narrowing the room for future development of related businesses.%本文利用1992~2008年电子信息产品制造行业的数据,详细分析了外商直接投资对我国电子信息产品制造业的影响。研究结果表明:外商直接投资改善了电子信息产品制造业的市场集中度,产生了积极的技术溢出效应。外商直接投资对电子信息产业的负面影响就是提高了产业的进入壁垒,缩小了相关企业未来的发展空间。

  3. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  4. Review of Researches on the Usage Standard Management of Electronic Resources in China from 2000 to 2010%2000—20l0年我国电子资源使用的规范管理研微

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宛玲; 杜坤

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, electronic resources play an increasingly important role in research, teaching and other works. Through the statistical analysis of the domestic research on the usage standard management of electronic resources from 2000 to 2010, we find that the issue of the usage standard management of electronic resources is increasingly concerned by the public and researchers. But there are still some problems, such as lack of systematic discussion and empirical research, scattered research topics, most research results on guidance proposals, and so on. Our researches about usage standard management of electronic resources should strengthen researches on the user, related technologies, licensing alliance, strengthen the communication between libraries and database providers, and strengthen the analysis and absorption of foreign experience.%目前,电子资源在科研、教学等工作中扮演着越来越重要的角色。通过对2000-2010年我国电子资源使用规范管理研究文献的统计分析发现,虽然公众及科研人员对电子资源使用的规范的关注程度越来越高,但是仍存在缺乏系统性的论述和实证性的研究、研究主题过于分散、研究成果多为指导性建议等问题。我国电子资源使用规范管理研究应加强对用户、相关技术、许可联盟的研究,加强对图书馆与数据库商交流的研究,加强对国外经验的分析与吸收。

  5. Differentiated rare-element mineralization in an ongonite − topazite composite dike at the Xianghualing tin district, Southern China: an electron-microprobe study on the evolution from niobium-tantalum-oxides to cassiterite

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Fang-fang; Wang, Ru-Cheng; Xie, Lei; Zhu, Jin-Chu; Erdmann, Saskia; Che, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Rong-Qing

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Our study characterizes in detail the mineralogical, textural and compositional features of a highly evolved, composite ongonite-topazite dike and its magmatic differentiation history. We present compositional data collected by established techniques, i.e. by electron microprobe and wet-chemical analysis, which provide a detailed framework for future studies that employ state-of-the-art analytical techniques. The studied dike (referred to as the No. 431 dike) crops out...

  6. Innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDonald, Greg; Yow, Yit-Seng; Li, Xing

    China's economy is growing quickly, and is innovation-led.  Europe can relate to China through joint R&D, programmes which offer an alternative vehicle of engagement to the traditional political and economic approaches. Innovation in China: The Dawning of the Asian Century promotes an awareness...... of the dynamics of innovation in China. It examines Chinese and European approaches to science and technology and contends that the ‘rules for survival' in R&D and education are changing in favour of China, in terms of base R&D parameters such as research expenditure, scientists trained, papers published...... and patents awarded. The authors recommend options for Europe and China to connect through longitudinal R&D  projects and ‘carrousel-training exchanges' in environmental and health related fields....

  7. Coal fires in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Yao(车遥); HUANG Wen-hui(黄文辉); ZHANG Ai-yun(张爱云)

    2004-01-01

    Coal fires have a very long history in China; the oldest coal fires have being burning for many million years. Up to now more than 56 coal fires spots were distinguished. They mainly locate in West-North of China, North of China and East-North of China. About millions of tons of coal have been burned in fires every year. Xinjiang Autonomy is the most serious region in coal fires as it has 38 coal fires spots and about 6.85 million tons of coal was burned every year. Coal fires in China ignited by wildfires, spontaneous combustion and human being during mining activities. These fires have released about 0.9 million tons of gasses (including CO, CO2, SO2, NO2 CH4, CO2, H2S etc.) into the atmosphere every year, most of which are brought to the east by wind and resulting more heavier air pollution in northern China.

  8. Understanding China's Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing

    The objective of this paper is to offer a framework of understanding the dialectical nexus between China's internal evolutions and the external influences with a focus on the century-long "challenge-response" dynamism. That is to explore how external factors helped shaping China's internal...... transformations, i.e. how generations of Chinese have been struggling in responding to the external challenges and attempting to sinicize external political ideas in order to change China from within. Likewise, it is equally important to understand how China's inner transformation contributed to reshaping...... the world. Each time, be it China's dominance or decline, the capitalist world system has to adjust and readjust itself to the opportunities and constraints brought about by the "China factors"....

  9. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  10. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  11. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  12. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  13. Stretchable electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Someya, Takao

    2012-01-01

    With its comprehensive coverage this handbook and ready reference brings together some of the most outstanding scientists in the field to lay down the undisputed knowledge on how to make electronics stretchable.As such, it focuses on gathering and evaluating the materials, designs, models and technologies that enable the fabrication of fully elastic electronic devices which can sustain high strain. Furthermore, it provides a review of those specific applications that directly benefit from highly compliant electronics, including transistors, photonic devices and sensors. In addition to stre

  14. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  15. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  16. China Infected with Work Ennui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Results of an Investigation into China's Work Ennui Index completed by the China Human Resources Development Web show that the universal problem of work ennui (or “occupational exhaustion”) has finally hit China.

  17. China Satcom Merged Into CASC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Tong

    2009-01-01

    @@ China Satellite Communications Corporation (China Satcom) merged with China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) recently on the request under regrouping and structure readjustment by the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council (SASAC).

  18. IBF Launched in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ The India Business Forum(IBF)organized by the Confederation of Indian Industry(CII)and the Indian Embassy to China was officially launched in Beijing,on April 16,2009.With the theme of"Impact of Global Economic Crisis:Challenges and Opportunities for India and China",IBF(China)was launched to provide a lobby to promote bilateral trade and economic cooperation between the two countries.

  19. JPRS Report China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    caused by peanut mild mottle virus (PMMV) was predominant throughout all areas. Peanut yellow mosaic and common mosaic caused by cucumber mosaic virus ...Fujian 42 Types and Distribution of Peanut Virus Diseases in China and Detection of the Viruses by Serology 42 TAIWAN Yao Chia-wen on Taiwan’s Legal...Distribution of Peanut Virus Diseases in China and Detection of the Viruses by Serology 40110003 Wuhan ZHONGGUO YOULIAO [OIL CROPS OF CHINA] in

  20. CHINA'S GAS MARKET TODAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Haihong

    2005-01-01

    @@ According to JPMorgan's review 2003 of China's gas market,China's household gas price was one of the lowest in the world, 20% below the global average. Despite the increase in recent years, China's domestic gas price is still relatively low in the global context. It is safe to say that the low gas price is one of the keys attracting keen investments currently from overseas and domestic private capitals.

  1. China-Russia Bond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Zhiye; Ma Zongshi

    2007-01-01

    @@ Thanks to China's successful launching of the Year of Russia, 2006 will surely go down as a milestone in the history of the China-Russia bond. Furthermore, a still-warmer climate will continue to prevail in 2007 when Moscow, in its turn, hosts the Year of China, trying to outshine its next-door neighbor in this regard, as Russian President Vladimir Putin promised in the exchange of new year greetings with his Chinese counterpart, President Hu Jintao.

  2. Industrial robots in China

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Joachim Storm; Tjemsland, Hans Kristian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates the future development of industrial robots in China. It will focus on growth in robot sales toward China and try to identify which companies that are most capable of benefiting from the potential growth. A triangulation approach is applied, where both qualitative and quantitative methods is utilized. SWOT, discrete data and panel data analysis supports our conclusion about a strong growth in China. Porter`s Five Forces and financial analysis have pointed out interest...

  3. Understanding the Real China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING YING

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese officials underlined the need for the EU to gain a more balanced view of China-by looking not only at its progress but also at its challenges-at the recent China-EU strategic dialogue. Chinese State Councilor Dai Bingguo and EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Catherine Ashton co-chaired the September 1 meeting in Guiyang, capital of southwest China's Guizhou Province.

  4. Think London, Think china

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei

    2008-01-01

    @@ The China-UK relationship has a long history and is one of the most important contemporary China-European ties.The UK was the first western country to recognize the People's Republic of China after it was founded in 1949.Later,the two sides reached an agreement to exchange Charges d'Affairs in 1954,and signed the Joint Communiqué for the Agreement on the Exchange of Ambassadors in 1972.

  5. "CHINA IS MY HOME"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>AMemoir of More Than 80 Years in China by Israel Epstein was translated into Chinese and published by the New World Press in April this year to celebrate the author’s 89th birthday. The 415-page book tells about his love for China, his profound friendly sentiments towards the Chinese people, his great expectation for the construction of new China and his confidence in the bright prospects for its future.

  6. China's Foreign Trade Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zuoyan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Profile of route map In 1949,right after the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC),overall economic blockage and embargo imposed by other countries,except the Soviet Union and eastern European countries,separated China from the global economic and trade community.In such a context,China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) was born in May 1952 to facilitate non-governmental trade with other countries,Japan in particular.

  7. Surfing China's National Defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Guilin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Following the start of its first test run on August 20, 2009, the website www.mod.gov.cn of the Ministry of National Defense (MOD) of the People's Republic of China has logged more than 2 billion hits,from many countries and regions including China, the United States,the United Kingdom, Japan, Australia and Singapore. China National Defense News reporters recently interviewed Ji Guilin, the website's Editor in Chief, on its performance and the feedback of netizens.

  8. China Builds Its NASDAQ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Equity market expansion has brought significant investment opportunities to the SME board, which is expected to become China's NASDAQ China CAMC Engineering Co. Ltd., the first company to go public in China since the stock market resumed its financing function, was listed on Shenzhen's small and medium enterprises (SME) board on June 19, with its price rising 332 percent on its debut When Microsoft was listed on NASDAQ 20 years ago, it barely reached the low

  9. 试论图书馆电子文献传递服务%On Library Electronic Document Delivery Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁根度

    2001-01-01

    This essay discusses the impetus of modern information technology to document delivery service, introduces the electronic document delivery mode in Australia, and elaborates the importance, necessity and feasibility of building up electronic document delivery systems in the libraries in China.

  10. Patriotic Education in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangLin; GaoYu

    2005-01-01

    From last year on, a few news media in Japan have reported that China has began anti-Japanese education among the young people since the middle of 1990s. This biased view does not reflect the fact, for China has never conducted the so-called“anti-Japanese education” The education conducted in China now is to promote patriotism rather than instigate anti-Japanese sentiment. During my contacts with Japanese friends I have found that lots of Japanese are not familiar with what China's patriotic education is about. I hope this article can present readers with an objective picture.

  11. The Rise of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Shouming; Cheng Youzhong

    2007-01-01

    Shared ideas wield a decisive influence on a country's external behavior. How China's rise will impact the world is determined by ideas shared by the international community. The identity and role of an emerging China is shaped not merely by its own material factors and subjective efforts. It is also constructed through China's interaction with other countries. The idea of a harmonious culture may eliminate international concerns about China's rise at the root, but this culture needs to be constructed by all the countries in the world.

  12. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  13. Electronic Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Electronic voting technology is a two edged sword. It comes with many risks but brings also many benefits. Instead of flat out rejecting the technology as uncontrollably dangerous, we advocate in this paper a different technological angle that renders electronic elections trustworthy beyond...... the usual levels of doubt. We exploit the trust that voters currently have into the democratic process and model our techniques around that observation accordingly. In particular, we propose a technique of trace emitting computations to record the individual steps of an electronic voting machine...... for a posteriori validation on an acceptably small trusted computing base. Our technology enables us to prove that an electronic elections preserves the voter’s intent, assuming that the voting machine and the trace verifier are independent....

  14. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  15. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    'electronic signature' means data attached to, incorporated in, or logically ... See Cwele v S 2012 4 All SA 497 (SCA); Mohlabeng v Minister of Safety and Security ... ZAKZPHC 51 (2 September 2010); Delta Finance, a Division of Wesbank, ...

  16. Electron Microprobe

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The JEOL JXA-8600 is a conventional hairpin filament thermal emission electron microprobe that is more than 20 years old. It is capable of performing qualitative and...

  17. Rapid Advancement of Immunology Study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The world-renowned Cell Press recently released a new informational supplement--Spotlight on Chi- na-to introduce the rapid developments in the basic and clinical researches in immunology in China. The electronic version of the supplement can be viewed or downloaded for free on the website of the Cell Press (http://www. cell. com/spotlightonchina), and the hard copy will be published along with the new issue of Immunity in November.

  18. Electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Veselková, Zdeňka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with a description of electronic commerce from its beginning up to present situation in this area. It explains basic terms connected with electronic commerce and it summarizes the relevant legislation. Moreover it describes e-contracts and rights and duties of both contractual parties. The main view is the view of Internet retailer, which is reflected in the practical part focused on concrete problems of retailers.

  19. Advances in Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Sally; Second International Conference on Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication (ECWAC 2012)

    2012-01-01

    ECWAC2012 is an integrated conference devoted to Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication. In the this proceedings you can find the carefully reviewed scientific outcome of the second International Conference on Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication (ECWAC 2012) held at March 17-18,2012  in Wuhan, China, bringing together researchers from all around the world in the field.

  20. Advances in Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication v.1

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Sally; Second International Conference on Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication (ECWAC 2012)

    2012-01-01

    ECWAC2012 is an integrated conference devoted to Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication. In the this proceedings you can find the carefully reviewed scientific outcome of the second International Conference on Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication (ECWAC 2012) held at March 17-18,2012  in Wuhan, China, bringing together researchers from all around the world in the field.

  1. Regional Consortia for E-Resources: A Case Study of Deals in the South China Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunrong, Luo; Jingfen, Wang; Zhinong, Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the current situation and the social and economic benefits from the consortia acquisitions of electronic resources by the China Academic Library and Information System (CALIS) South China Regional Centre and to recommend improvements for consortia acquisitions. Design/methodology/approach: Analyses…

  2. Historical occupational trichloroethylene air concentrations based on inspection measurements from shanghai, china

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friesen, Melissa C; Locke, Sarah J; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Coble, Joseph B; Stewart, Patricia A; Ji, Bu-Tian; Bassig, Bryan; Lu, Wei; Xue, Shouzheng; Chow, Wong-Ho; Lan, Qing; Purdue, Mark P; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a carcinogen that has been linked to kidney cancer and possibly other cancer sites including non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Its use in China has increased since the early 1990s with China's growing metal, electronic, and telecommunications industries. We examined historica

  3. Developmental Idealism in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Arland; Xie, Yu

    2016-10-01

    This paper examines the intersection of developmental idealism with China. It discusses how developmental idealism has been widely disseminated within China and has had enormous effects on public policy and programs, on social institutions, and on the lives of individuals and their families. This dissemination of developmental idealism to China began in the 19(th) century, when China met with several military defeats that led many in the country to question the place of China in the world. By the beginning of the 20(th) century, substantial numbers of Chinese had reacted to the country's defeats by exploring developmental idealism as a route to independence, international respect, and prosperity. Then, with important but brief aberrations, the country began to implement many of the elements of developmental idealism, a movement that became especially important following the assumption of power by the Communist Party of China in 1949. This movement has played a substantial role in politics, in the economy, and in family life. The beliefs and values of developmental idealism have also been directly disseminated to the grassroots in China, where substantial majorities of Chinese citizens have assimilated them. These ideas are both known and endorsed by very large numbers in China today.

  4. Heat roadmap China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Weiming; Wang, Yu; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2015-01-01

    District heating is regarded as a key element of energy saving actions in the Chinese national energy strategy, while space heating in China is currently still dominated by coal boilers. However, there is no existing quantitative study to analyse the future heat strategy for China. Therefore...

  5. Action Learning in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  6. China's Innovation Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    China aims to become an innovation-led nation by 2020, but its leadership is generally sceptical--and oftentimes hostile--to the market forces, open exchange of ideas, and creative destruction that have unlocked innovation in other countries. Instead, Beijing hopes to promote innovation in China through a massive expansion in higher education,…

  7. Trilogy of China's Banking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Banks of China will face declining profit rate and slightly increasing non-performing loans ratio in a short term during 2009, but government policies will reduce the negative impact of financial crisis, and China's financial environment is still relatively safe in a global comparison.

  8. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    From September 6th to 12th,a National Cotton CouncilCotton Council International 2010 China leadership team,led by Charles Parker,Vice Chairman of NCC,visited China to see its cotton industrial development and continue building a good relationship with U.S.raw cotton’s largest consumer.

  9. Food irradiation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, L.

    1986-08-01

    The paper concerns food irradiation in The People's Republic of China. Its use is envisaged to prolong storage times and to improve the quality of specific foodstuffs. Commercialisation in China, demonstration plants, seasonal shortages and losses, Shanghai irradiation centre, health and safety approval, prospects for wider applications and worldwide use of food irradiation, are all discussed.

  10. Educational Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meifeng, Liu; Jinjiao, Lv; Cui, Kang

    2010-01-01

    This paper elaborates the two different academic views of the identity of educational technology in China at the current time--advanced-technology-oriented cognition, known as Electrifying Education, and problem-solving-oriented cognition, known as Educational Technology. It addresses five main modes of educational technology in China: as a…

  11. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ During their trip in Beijing,the leadership delegation members,Charles Parker,Harrison Ashley(Vice President of NCC Ginner Services),along with Karin Malmstrom(China Director of CCI)shared a time to accept the interview,giving a general introduction about their China trip and the cotton industry in USA.

  12. China's Innovation Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    China aims to become an innovation-led nation by 2020, but its leadership is generally sceptical--and oftentimes hostile--to the market forces, open exchange of ideas, and creative destruction that have unlocked innovation in other countries. Instead, Beijing hopes to promote innovation in China through a massive expansion in higher education,…

  13. Call From China West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Guo Jin

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 12th East-West China Cooperation and Investment and Trade Fair was held from April 5 to 8 at the International Conference and Exhibition Center in Qu-jiang,Xi'an.Shaanxi province,in the west of China.

  14. NANNING China's Green Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Nanning,the capital city of Guangxi province,is not only the political,economic and cultural center of the province,but also plays an important role in the economic development of southwest China.Nanning's advantageous location makes the city a commercial and communication center,opening China to Southeast Asia.

  15. Ethnic Indentification in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄光学

    2004-01-01

    The ethnic identification has significant theoretical, policy-related and scientific aspects, and it has a direct bearing on the basic work of carrying out the Communist Party of China's (CPC) policy of equality for all ethnic groups. For more than thirty years, Chinese government departments at all levels concerned with ethnic affairs, starting from the actual conditions of all of China's ethnic groups,

  16. Liquidating a China Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RICHARD; HOFFMANN

    2009-01-01

    With the global economic crisis hitting some businesses in China very hard as export sales dry up, now is a timely occasion to remind executives of affected businesses of their responsibilities when having to liquidate a business. China-based subsidiaries may

  17. Outsourcing to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jacqueline

    2004-12-01

    To enhance competitive advantage in the face of increasing globalisation, companies need to consider moving certain operations to China, if they have not done so already. This article describes the evolving nature of outsourcing to China and what companies need to consider to be successful in this business model.

  18. Financial Derivatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Francis Repka sees bright prospects for the future development of the financial derivatives market in China. Repka,Vice President of the Asian Bond Finance Department of Societe Generale, says the situation in France just after the birth of derivatives was very similar to the situation in China today.

  19. China Salutes Chopin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Frederic Franciszek Chopin never visited China during his short yet productive life. He may never have imagined his work would now be played so often and loudly 200 years after his birth in the faraway nation in the East. Interesting ties between China

  20. Invigorating West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The once-poor west China is growing at a faster rate than the east. The trend is set to continue over the next few years. This is good news for China as the country gears up to shrink the economic divide between eastern and western regions.

  1. China's Food Quality Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Editorial Note: This report on China's food security situation aims to put at ease the hearts of consumers at home and abroad.It will convey that China is a responsible country with an effective system for safeguarding every link in the food export chain.Hence,a few bad incidents should not be regarded as representative of all Chinese food exports.

  2. Probing China's Lysine Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The lysine sector in China developed further in 2006. Both the capacity and the output hit new highs and China had a major impact on the global lysine market. The import amount of lysine satisfied only a very small portion of the domestic market's demand.

  3. Luxury Loves China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ With luxury sales in the rest of the world either shrinking or growing more slowly,it showcased a completely different scene in China. Although not immune to the global economic crisis, the country has suffered far less than others,and the continued health of China's luxury market makes it an oasis of hope and possibility in a recession-battered world.

  4. CHINA INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The China International Publishing Group (CIPG) specializes in international communications. Its operationsencompass reporting, editing, translation, publishing, printing, distribution, and the Internet. It incorporates sevenpublishing companies, five magazines and 19 periodicals, published in over 20 languages. The ChinaInternational Book Trading Corporation, another group facet, distributes all of these to over 180 countries and

  5. China Salutes Chopin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING ZHITAO

    2010-01-01

    @@ Frederic Franciszek Chopin never visited China during his short yet productive life. He may never have imagined his work would now be played so often and loudly 200 years after his birth in the faraway nation in the East. Interesting ties between China and the composer who is the pride of Poland will be on show this year.

  6. Action Learning in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  7. Petaflop supercomputers of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoliang CHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ After ten years of development, high performance computing (HPC) in China has made remarkable progress. In November, 2010, the NUDT Tianhe-1A and the Dawning Nebulae respectively claimed the 1st and 3rd places in the Top500 Supercomputers List; this recognizes internationally the level that China has achieved in high performance computer manufacturing.

  8. China's 'recycling economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin.......Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin....

  9. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    We examine whether China has benefited more than other countries from financial sector development by performing a meta-analysis of the relevant literature covering a large number of countries at different stages of development. Although the results for China are inconclusive, they indicate...

  10. China Connections Reference Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalat, Marie B.; Hoermann, Elizabeth F.

    This reference book focuses on six aspects of the geography of the People's Republic of China. They are: territory, governing units, population and land use, waterways, land forms, and climates. Designed as a primary reference, the book explains how the Chinese people and their lifestyles are affected by China's geography. Special components…

  11. Building Bridges to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasta, Stephanie; Scott, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes a theme cycle called "Building Bridges to China" developed for third grade students that focuses on the similarities between the lives of children and families in China and the United States. Explains that the theme cycle addresses the National Geography Standards and three of the National Council for the Social Studies standards. (CMK)

  12. China: Background Notes Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  13. China Sports Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    THE China Sports Museum,inside the National Olympic Sports Center on 3A Anding Road,Andingmenwai, Beijing, is China's First museum dedicated to the nation's sporting history.Its exterior is in the shape of an octagonal spiral, with white

  14. Exploration on the Recycling Mechanism of Waste Household Appliances and Electronic Products in China%我国废旧家电电子产品回收处理机制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐少艺

    2012-01-01

    我国因人口众多,电子电器产品的实际拥有量非常大,当这些产品被淘汰或换代时,产品废弃的数量同样巨大。如何有效地进行废旧电器电子的资源化回收处理,已经成为当前关系到我国经济、社会和环境可持续发展及我国再生资源回收利用面临的一个新课题。分析了我国废旧家电电子产品回收处理现状及存在问题,提出建立相关的法律、法规、市场机制及出台积极的经济政策,同时利用经济政策和利益驱动刺激回收市场发展,并加大绿色技术投入,使得废旧家电回收利用规模化发展。%Our country has a large population, electronic appliances products with the actual ownership is very big, when these products are eliminated or generation, the number of waste products also great. How to effectively carry out of waste electrical and electronic resources recycling processing, already became current relates our country economy, society and the environment sustainable development and our country renewable resource recycling faces a new topic. This article has analyzed our country waste household appliances and electronic products recycling status and problems, proposed the establishment of relevant laws, regulations, the market mechanism and the introduction of active economic policy, while the use of economic policy and interest drive stimulus recycling market development, and increase the green technology investment, the scale development of waste house-hold appliances recycling.

  15. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  16. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources will be high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One...... is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...

  17. Electron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegbahn, Kai

    Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen's discovery of X radiation in 1895 in Wörzburg resulted in an immediate break-through not only in physics but also in Society, the latter mainly because of its sensational radiological applications. Within a short time it furthermore indirectly led to the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel. The discovery of X radiation opened the gate to modern atomic physics, and radioactivity to nuclear physics. Later on, the discovery of X-ray diffraction by Laue, Friedrich and Knipping in 1912 initiated the field of X-ray spectroscopy with its fundamental contributions to atomic and crystal structures. Secondary electrons were early observed in the scattered radiation when X-rays were hitting a sample. The development of the corresponding electron spectroscopy had to wait a much longer time for its maturity. A survey of electron spectroscopy is presented.

  18. Electronic Commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.

  19. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  20. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    ) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  1. China and Coexistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Liselotte

    “Peaceful coexistence,” long a key phrase in China’s strategic thinking, is a constructive doctrine that offers China a path for influencing the international system. So argues Liselotte Odgaard in this timely analysis of China's national security strategy in the context of its foreign policy...... practice. China’s program of peaceful coexistence emphasizes absolute sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of other states. Odgaard suggests that China’s policy of working within the international community and with non-state actors such as the UN aims to win for China greater power...... and influence without requiring widespread exercise of military or economic pressure. Odgaard examines the origins of peaceful coexistence in early Soviet doctrine, its midcentury development by China and India, and its ongoing appeal to developing countries. She reveals what this foreign policy offers China...

  2. Venezuela and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2016-01-01

    draws on this context of 'interdependent hegemony' to explore the existing relationship between Venezuela, as a swing state, and China, as one of the Big Three global powers. Particularly, I focus on Venezuelan efforts to develop, at the domestic and regional level, a counterhegemonic political project...... against the US and how China is considered a valuable ally to acquire more independence. However, this situation of interdependence can paradoxically lead to a new kind of dependence, in this case on China. To analyze these relations, I propose a conceptual framework consisting of three dimensions: 1...... of a political and economic model which can inspire or be followed by other countries. Although China's influence and increasing power in Venezuela is unquestionable in economic terms, the Venezuelan government uses its agreements with China strategically to legitimate its policies, in the name of a South...

  3. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jiang [National Research Center for Science and Technology for Development, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  4. 金融危机下网络教育发展机制思考--以电子科技大学为例%Thinking of Online Educational Development Mechanism under the Financial Crisis--A Case Study of the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周通德; 段培俊; 曹学艳

    2015-01-01

    Online education is an important complement to the traditional education in the information age. It is a good chance to develop the online education in the financial crisis decades. On this basis, this paper presents suggestions on promoting the development of China’s online education from four aspects as follows: increasing the credibility of the online education, exploring innovative models of online education, strengthening resource sharing and industrialization of online education, which are elaborated by case study of the online education in University of Electronic Science and Technology of China.%信息时代,网络教育是对传统教育的重要补充手段。金融危机背景下,网络教育发展恰逢其时,具有巨大的拓展和提升空间。以电子科技大学网络教育为例,从提高网络教育社会公信度、探索网络教育创新模式、加强资源共享和网络教育产业化等四个方面来阐述如何促进我国的网络教育发展。

  5. China from a regional perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper explains the political economic background for China's insertion to the world system. It furthermore expands on a critical perspective on China's soft power strategy. It goes on to discuss China's foreign policy strategy towards Southeast Asia and China's rivalry with the US in the region....

  6. Committed to a Digitized China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Guo Wei, President and CEO of Digital China, answers questions about the company's operating strategies and prospects for China's IT service sector in a written interview with Beijing Review. Beijing Review: Digital China has detailed its strategies as "IT Serves China" and "IT Service on Demand." What is the operating objective for 2006?

  7. CHINA SEEKS REGIONAL ENERGY COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China is seeking to diversify channels for energy cooperation as it faces mounting challenges from surging energy demand, geopolitical risks and price volatility. The endowment and distribution of China's resources does not match the current situation of China's economic development. Those are the opinions aired by officials and experts at an international expo recently held in West China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

  8. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due...

  9. Superconducting electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogalla, Horst

    1994-01-01

    During the last decades superconducting electronics has been the most prominent area of research for small scale applications of superconductivity. It has experienced quite a stormy development, from individual low frequency devices to devices with high integration density and pico second switching

  10. Electronic Portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines three forms of electronic portfolio based on a student's work, a class project about a specific topic, and a class seminar on a broad topic. Discusses logistical problems of management, access, and cross-referencing; technical problems of input, access, and copying; and theoretical issues of the lack of realia, of ownership and copyright,…

  11. Electronic Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Thirty years ago a cashless society was predicted for the near future; paper currency and checks would be an antiquated symbol of the past. Consumers would embrace a new alternative for making payments: electronic money. But currency is still used for 87% of payments, mainly for "nickel and dime" purchases. And checks are the payment…

  12. Electronic spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared region is a versatile spectroscopic technique, as both d-d and charge transfer transitions of supported TMI can be probed. One of the advantages of electronic spectroscopy is that the obtained information is

  13. Electronic Homework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fong-lok; Heyworth, Rex M.

    The Electronic Homework assistant system is composed of two components: the Computer Tutor and the Homework Administrator. The Computer Tutor is an intelligent tutoring system that can provide personal assistance like supplying hints, checking errors, providing remediation and prioritizing problems. The Homework Administrator is a teacher's…

  14. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due to po...

  15. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e...

  16. 2012 International Conference on Mechanical and Electronic Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Sally; ICMEE2012; Advances in Mechanical and Electronic Engineering v.2

    2012-01-01

    This book includes the volume 2 of the proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Mechanical and Electronic Engineering(ICMEE2012), held at June 23-24,2012 in Hefei, China. The conference provided a rare opportunity to bring together worldwide researchers who are working in the fields. This volume 2 is focusing on Mechatronic Engineering and Technology,  Electronic Engineering and Electronic Information Technology .

  17. Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A R; McMullan, G

    2011-08-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) is an important tool for high-resolution structure determination in applications ranging from condensed matter to biology. Electronic detectors are now used in most applications in EM as they offer convenience and immediate feedback that is not possible with film or image plates. The earliest forms of electronic detector used routinely in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were charge coupled devices (CCDs) and for many applications these remain perfectly adequate. There are however applications, such as the study of radiation-sensitive biological samples, where film is still used and improved detectors would be of great value. The emphasis in this review is therefore on detectors for use in such applications. Two of the most promising candidates for improved detection are: monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) and hybrid pixel detectors (of which Medipix2 was chosen for this study). From the studies described in this review, a back-thinned MAPS detector appears well suited to replace film in for the study of radiation-sensitive samples at 300 keV, while Medipix2 is suited to use at lower energies and especially in situations with very low count rates. The performance of a detector depends on the energy of electrons to be recorded, which in turn is dependent on the application it is being used for; results are described for a wide range of electron energies ranging from 40 to 300 keV. The basic properties of detectors are discussed in terms of their modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of spatial frequency.

  18. Review - China's Environmental Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Bleisch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Judith Shapiro. 2012. China's Environmental Challenges. Cambridge: UK and Malden, MA: Polity Press. Judith Shapiro's latest ambitious work picks up the story of modern China's checkered relationship with the environment at approximately the point where her previous study, Mao's War Against Nature (2001, left off. This latest book sets out to address questions of grave importance to China and to the world. The litany of challenges – poisonous water and toxic air, scarcity of water and other resources, deforestation, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity – seem nearly insurmountable, despite evidence of considerable attention from the Chinese government and from China's public, and despite the rocket-like rise of China's economic power and political influence in the world. Shapiro adds to this list the growing problems with lapses in environmental justice, both within China and passed on to its neighbours and to the countries with which it trades. Not only do growing environmental problems affect China's ability to achieve the government's stated goals of a 'harmonious society' with 'moderate prosperity for all,' but these problems, and the ways that ...

  19. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent (H.K.) Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical work

  20. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent(H.K.)Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical work

  1. A Trip to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel; Martin

    2013-01-01

    <正>Editor’s Note:The Vermont School of Colombia is one of the few middle schools in the country that teaches Chinese as the second foreign language.In early June 2013,a 77-member student delegation came to China to attend a summer camp jointly hosted by the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(CPAFFC)and the North China University of Technology(NCUT).The following is an essay written in Chinese by a Colombian student recording his tour in China.

  2. The Spiders of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Sevaral books about Chinese spider systematics and biology have been published,mostly since the later 1970s and the majority of then are designed as classification guides to the spider fauna of a particular area of China,or focused on a particular group ,for example Fauna of Zhejiang Province ,Araneida and Salticids of China. The newly published book "The Spiders of China",in English,differs from all others by including all 2361 described Chinese spider species and by reviewing literature of over 200 years of work on Chinese spider classification.

  3. Analytic of China Cyberattack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available China cyberattack has become aggressive, disruptive, stealthy, and sophisticated. Apparently, China’s advantage is more on the cognitive domain than technical domain since information systems security is art and science—in some case, it is more art than science. Knowledge is the best weapon for cyber warfare since one of the Sun Tze’s Art of War principles is “know your enemy”. Therefore, an analytic of China cyberattack must scrutinize the national interest, goals and philosophies, culture, worldview, and behavioral phenomena of China.

  4. Analytic of China Cyberattack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lai and Syed (Shawon Rahman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available China cyberattack has become aggressive, disruptive, stealthy, and sophisticated. Apparently, China’s advantage is more on the cognitive domain than technical domain since information systems security is art and science—in some case, it is more art than science. Knowledge is the best weapon for cyber warfare since one of the Sun Tze’s Art of War principles is “know your enemy”. Therefore, an analytic of China cyberattack must scrutinize the national interest, goals and philosophies, culture, worldview, and behavioral phenomena of China.

  5. Underground laboratory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heshengc

    2012-09-01

    The underground laboratories and underground experiments of particle physics in China are reviewed. The Jinping underground laboratory in the Jinping mountain of Sichuan, China is the deepest underground laboratory with horizontal access in the world. The rock overburden in the laboratory is more than 2400 m. The measured cosmic-ray flux and radioactivities of the local rock samples are very low. The high-purity germanium experiments are taking data for the direct dark-matter search. The liquid-xenon experiment is under construction. The proposal of the China National Deep Underground Laboratory with large volume at Jinping for multiple discipline research is discussed.

  6. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R......&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China....

  7. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R......&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China....

  8. Quality Assurance System for Electronic Components of Aerospace Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁庶; 张倩旭; 吴琼

    2013-01-01

      $%Along with the development of space technology, the quantity of electronic device and components used in the single aerospace product is get ing more and more, and the requirements of quality and reliability for electronic device and components are becoming stricter and stricter as wel . In China,since the basic level of the electronic device and component industry is increasing and the quality control in the product cycle of design, material selection, proces , manufacturing in the electronic device and component producers is guaranteed in some extent, the quality of electronic device and components is improved observably.

  9. 我国WEEE的盈亏平衡与敏感性分析%Profit and Loss Balance of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment and Sensitivity Analysis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    文章分别从不考虑价格变动影响和考虑价格变动影响两个方面对废弃电器电子产品处理企业的规模经济量进行了估算,并对其进行敏感性分析,结果显示基金补贴最敏感,拆解产物价值次之,在考虑价格变动情况下年固定成本总额和单台处理成本相对敏感,相关税金最不敏感。为此建议不断完善基金补贴政策,出台鼓励回收政策,引导处理企业向细分化发展,鼓励兼并重组。%This paper estimates the scale of economy of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) processing enter⁃prises from two aspects respectively (considering and not considering the impact of price changes),and also makes the sensi⁃tivity analysis on both aspects. The results show that fund subsidies are the most sensitive,followed by dismantling product value. In the case of price changes,the total annual fixed cost and single processing cost are relatively sensitive,whereas re⁃lated taxes are the least sensitive. Therefore,the paper puts forward some suggestions,such as,continuing to improve the fund subsidy policy,introducing incentives to encourage recycling,guiding enterprises to make further subdivision and en⁃couraging enterprises mergers and acquisitions.

  10. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  11. Interacting Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard M.; Reining, Lucia; Ceperley, David M.

    2016-06-01

    Preface; Part I. Interacting Electrons: Beyond the Independent-Particle Picture: 1. The many electron problem: introduction; 2. Signatures of electron correlation; 3. Concepts and models for interacting electrons; Part II. Foundations of Theory for Many-Body Systems: 4. Mean fields and auxiliary systems; 5. Correlation functions; 6. Many-body wavefunctions; 7. Particles and quasi-particles; 8. Functionals in many-particle physics; Part III. Many-Body Green's Function Methods: 9. Many-body perturbation theory: expansion in the interaction; 10. Many-body perturbation theory via functional derivatives; 11. The RPA and the GW approximation for the self-energy; 12. GWA calculations in practice; 13. GWA calculations: illustrative results; 14. RPA and beyond: the Bethe-Salpeter equation; 15. Beyond the GW approximation; 16. Dynamical mean field theory; 17. Beyond the single-site approximation in DMFT; 18. Solvers for embedded systems; 19. Characteristic hamiltonians for solids with d and f states; 20. Examples of calculations for solids with d and f states; 21. Combining Green's functions approaches: an outlook; Part IV. Stochastic Methods: 22. Introduction to stochastic methods; 23. Variational Monte Carlo; 24. Projector quantum Monte Carlo; 25. Path integral Monte Carlo; 26. Concluding remarks; Part V. Appendices: A. Second quantization; B. Pictures; C. Green's functions: general properties; D. Matsubara formulation for Green's functions for T ̸= 0; E. Time-ordering, contours, and non-equilibrium; F. Hedin's equations in a basis; G. Unique solutions in Green's function theory; H. Properties of functionals; I. Auxiliary systems and constrained search; J. Derivation of the Luttinger theorem; K. Gutzwiller and Hubbard approaches; References; Index.

  12. ELECTRON GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  13. DZ-12/4 Multi-energy Electron Linear Accelerator Acceptance Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA; Wen; YE; Hong-sheng; ZHANG; Wei-dong; CHEN; Yi-zhen; LIN; Min; XU; Li-jun; CHEN; Ke-sheng; LI; Ming

    2015-01-01

    DZ-12/4multi-energy electron linear accelerator device established by China Institute of Atomic Energy can provide 6 MeV,8 MeV,10MeV,12MeV electron energy beam,mainly used to establish electron beam reference radiation fields of radiation processing dose level,and

  14. 1976 Tangshan, China Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeastern China. Damage: $5,600 million. The death toll (240,000) was one of largest in recorded history from an earthquake. In addition, around 800,000 were...

  15. South China Flooded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Vehicles traverse a flooded street in Liuzhou, guangxi zhuang Autonomous Region, on May 19.heavy rainstorms repeatedly struck China this month, triggering floods, mudflows and landslides. hunan, guangdong and Jiangxi provinces and Chongqing Municipality were the worst hit.

  16. One Health in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianyong; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Guoling; Lu, Jiahai

    2016-01-01

    As a result of rapid economic growth over the previous three decades, China has become the second largest economy worldwide since 2010. However, as a developing country with the largest population, this rapid economic growth primarily based on excessive consumption and waste of resources. Thus, China has been facing particularly severe ecological and environmental problems in speeding up industrialization and urbanization. The impact of the health risk factors is complex and difficult to accurately predict. Therefore, it is critical to investigate potential threats in the context of the human-animal-environment interface to protect human and animal health. The “One Health” concept recognizes that human health is connected to animal and environmental health. This review primarily discusses specific health problems in China, particularly zoonoses, and explains the origin and development of the One Health approach, as well as the importance of a holistic approach in China. PMID:27906124

  17. Service innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Jin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    the study. 2 Originality/value – The paper addresses the topic of service innovation in China, which has so far received a limited attention in the management literature. By presenting an in-depth case study, the paper highlights main factors and dilemmas underpinning how Chinese companies are seeking......Purpose – The aim of this paper is to advance our understanding of service innovation in China and to identify the major drivers and impediments for manufacturing companies pushing into services in China. Design/methodology/approach – By employing an in-depth longitudinal case of a Chinese company...... Chinese cities. Both internal and external factors played a significant role in influencing the development and implementation of service innovation in the case. The paper details and discusses the factors that affect service innovation in China. Research Limitations – The study is exposed...

  18. China's Military Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Qisong; Li Baowen

    2008-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, China's military diplomacy has displayed an omni-directional and multi-level form, and with an increasing transparency which has increased trust and reduced doubt. China has enhanced its conventional military functions and strengthened its military soft power. This has helped China develop into a responsible state on the world stage. Through military exchanges with other countries, the Chinese military has gradually strengthened its ability to undertake a variety of tasks. The Chinese military has to make greater efforts to counter the perception of a "China threat." There is also a need to establish a system of military spokesmen and to develop a theory of military diplomacy with Chinese characteristics.

  19. One Health in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of rapid economic growth over the previous three decades, China has become the second largest economy worldwide since 2010. However, as a developing country with the largest population, this rapid economic growth primarily based on excessive consumption and waste of resources. Thus, China has been facing particularly severe ecological and environmental problems in speeding up industrialization and urbanization. The impact of the health risk factors is complex and difficult to accurately predict. Therefore, it is critical to investigate potential threats in the context of the human-animal-environment interface to protect human and animal health. The “One Health” concept recognizes that human health is connected to animal and environmental health. This review primarily discusses specific health problems in China, particularly zoonoses, and explains the origin and development of the One Health approach, as well as the importance of a holistic approach in China.

  20. China Fairs & Expos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Construction, City ptanning, Decorations The llth China Beijing International Construction Machinery, Construction Materials machinery & Mining Machinery Exhibition and Technology Seminar Venue: Beijing Jiuhua International Exhibition Center Duration: October 18-October 21,

  1. China Welcomes Global Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China is making an effort to building a fair market to attract overseas investment,China’s vice-premier told the gathering of CEOs in Beijing, adding that the meeting with its influence,will promote global business cooperation.

  2. China vs. AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    CHINA's first HIV positive diagnosis was in 1985, the victim an ArgentineAmerican. At that time most Chinese,medical workers included, thought of AIDS as a phenomenon occurring outside of China. Twenty years later, the number of HIV/AIDS patients has risen alarmingly. In 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health launched an AIDS Epidemiological Investigation across China with the support of the WHO and UN AIDS Program. Its results show that there are currently 840,000 HIV carriers, including 80,000 people with full-blown AIDS, in 31 Chinese provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. This means China has the second highest number of HIV/AIDS cases in Asia and 14th highest in the world. Statistics from the Chinese Venereal Disease and AIDS Prevention Association indicate that the majority of Chinese HIV carriers are young to middle aged, more than half of them between the ages of 20 and 29.

  3. China in My Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reno Calleja

    2009-01-01

    <正>How I became a fan of China Between 1958 and 1964 the Maltese Labour Movement, led by Dom Mintoff, kept Britain under constant pressure to close its military bases and give Malta true independence. After all Malta

  4. The Dancing China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice

    2007-01-01

    @@ China has cemented its position as one of the central pillars of global trade by exporting staggering quantities of manufacturer goods,and is arguably nowsecond to none as the economic hub of Asia.

  5. China's New Deal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEO ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    @@ The RMB4-trillion stimulus package is a bold move, but the economy still needs attention China unveiled a massive spending package in November to bolster investment and consumption as exports falter amid the global economic slowdown.

  6. China Fairs & Expos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Agriculture,Fishery,Animal Husbandry2010 China Husbandry and New Technology,New Product, New Equipment Promotion and Trade Fair Date: April 16-April 18, 2010 Frequency: Yearly Venue: Fujian Economic and Trade Exhibition

  7. Inclusive Education in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永芳

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned about inclusive education in China,which is exemplified bythe following aspects:creating inclusive culture,producing inclusive policies and evolving inclusivepractice.Also,problems related to the inclusion are identified in this paper.

  8. Japan's China Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    TAKAHASHI, Sugio

    2012-01-01

    Structural change in the international order will have the greatest effect in East Asia with the ascendancy of China as a world economic power. A two-pillar post- Cold War policy of “shaping†China into a model country while “hedging†against its potential as a strategic rival has had to give way under the reality that China is not only an actor “to be shaped†but also an actor “to shape†the region. A new China strategy of “integration, balancing, and deterrence†has been...

  9. Winter Storms Paralyze China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Severe snowstorms over broad swaths of eastern and central China have wreaked havoc on traffic throughout the country, creating gigantic passenger backups, spawning acci- dents and leaving at least 24 people dead, according to

  10. China, Sudan Expand Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) signed an agreement with the Ministry of Energy and Mining, the Public of Sudan on jointly conducting petroleum exploration and development with huge investment for block 1,2,4 in Sudan in March 1997.

  11. Local IC Market:Not Made in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAYET SELLAMI

    2006-01-01

    @@ Ranking first in the world's integrated circuits (IC) market with a value of US$40.8 billion, China is becoming the Silicon Valley of the East as overseas investors compete to establish companies and factories to assemble or design chips for cell phones, computers and any other type of electronic device.

  12. An analysis of E-waste flows in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. Veenstra (Albert); C. Wang (Cathy); W. Fan (Wenji); Y. Ru (Yi Hong)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn Europe, legislation about waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) recovery and recycling has been introduced in 2002, and corresponding legislation in the EU Member States was in place in August 2005 (EU-EC 2003). In the same period, China has been developing WEEE regulati

  13. 75 FR 11557 - Woven Electric Blankets From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where... specified in II (C) of the Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173... COMMISSION Woven Electric Blankets From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission....

  14. Spatial distribution of China׳s renewable energy industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Liang; Liang, Hanwei; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2016-01-01

    China applies no efforts to promote the development of renewable energy (REE) so as to enhance China׳s energy security and address climate change. National top-down support scheme and the local renewable energy industry (REEI) development are the two important and intervened countermeasures...... for promoting REEI development in China. Considering China׳s vast regional disparity, the review on the spatial distribution of REEI in provincial level is critical and enlightening for future appropriate policy-making, while to date, there has been few related studies. With this circumstance, this paper made...

  15. China Food Trade Promotes the Development of SIAL China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey Guo

    2011-01-01

    @@ According to SIAL CHINA, the 13th China International Food and Beverages Exhibition (SIAL China 2012) will be held in Shanghai New International Expo Center On May 9, 2012.It is hosted together by COMEXPOSIUM and China Business Development Center.Since it was introduced in China for the first time in 2000, SIAL CHINA has maintained a developed speed.Especially in recent years, relying on both foreign and domestic markets, it expanded the influences quickly and became one of the most important food trade exhibitions in Asia, despite of the financial crisis.

  16. China Report, Economic Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    During this visit to China, Lee Kuan Yew repeatedly emphasized "the existence of broad cooperation between China and Singapore." In the past 20...seek new economic cooperation and trade partners. Lee Kuan Yew himself also thinks that Singapore’s economy is in depression and "it must seek new...that there is great potential for cooperation between the two countries. Accompanying Lee Kuan Yew in this visit were a number of ministers and high

  17. JPRS Report, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Comparing China with South Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong, the ratio was 1 to 6. Compar- ing China with Thailand , India, and Pakistan the ratio was 1 to...Xinjiang, 3,500 tons of tomatoes worth more than 500,000 yuan, were dumped into the Gobi desert and ditches of Manasi County, with bright red juice ... beverages , instant noodles, and other things, the difference between the wages of a janitor, assistant editor, and copy editor will become

  18. One Health in China

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    As a result of rapid economic growth over the previous three decades, China has become the second largest economy worldwide since 2010. However, as a developing country with the largest population, this rapid economic growth primarily based on excessive consumption and waste of resources. Thus, China has been facing particularly severe ecological and environmental problems in speeding up industrialization and urbanization. The impact of the health risk factors is complex and difficult to accu...

  19. China's Regional Autonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Shimin

    2005-01-01

    @@ China is a vast country with a long history and splendid culture. One reason for this is that the Chinese nation consists of many ethnic groups. They have lived, procreated, struggled and made creative achievements on this land for several thousand years. China is a big family consisting of 56 ethnic groups. While the Han ethnic group has the largest population, the population of the other 55 ethnic groups is relatively small, so they are customarily referred to as "ethnic minorities."

  20. PERFECT [CHINA] CO., LTD.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Funded by Perfect Resources (M) Sdn Bhd, Perfect (China) Co., Ltd.was incorporated in 1994 with business anchoring in research pioneering, advanced research and development, productions, sales and marketing and services in a grand scale, modern enterprise group. Today Perfect (China) Co., Ltd.'s wide range of consumer products has created a niche market for health food, personal care, household and beauty & skin care products.

  1. China Franchise Expo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ After seven years' development,China Franchise Expo has seen tremendous growth as the Chinese market has opened up to franchising. The organisers report that there are now over 2,1oo franchise systems operating in China,with over 12o,ooo franchisees which have generated 2.4 million jobs and made an investment of RMB6o billion (approximately C6.25 billion or US$7.4 billion).

  2. China Franchise Expo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      After seven years' development,China Franchise Expo has seen tremendous growth as the Chinese market has opened up to franchising. The organisers report that there are now over 2,1oo franchise systems operating in China,with over 12o,ooo franchisees which have generated 2.4 million jobs and made an investment of RMB6o billion (approximately C6.25 billion or US$7.4 billion).……

  3. JPRS Report China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Xinjiang [Zhang Pingquan; NONGYE JINGJl WENTI, 23 Oct 87] 72 Analysis of Ecotypes of Wild Soybean (G. Soja ) in China [Xu Bao, ct at.; ZIIONGGUO NONGYE...should be suitably limited. 12986 Analysis of Ecotypes of Wild Soybean (G. Soja ) in China 40110011 Beijing ZHONGGUO NONGYE KEXUE [SCIENTIA...of Agricultural Sciences, Gongzhuling, Jilin] [Text] In 1981-1985, the photo-thermo effects on the development of wild soybean (G. soja Sieb, et

  4. DV Fad in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    AS the Digital Video fad sweeps China, the in-phrase on the Internet, in fashion magazines, on campus, and amongst the young generation is "did you DV today?" The word DV has transcended its original meaning to become a kind of lifestyle. When Starbucks and Italo Calvino first entered China, they were regarded as ultimate status symbols, until they became ubiquitous. This is the case with DV: as

  5. Bird Watching in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2006-01-01

    Being based in, and conducting business in, some of China's largest cities is an exciting, yet stressful occupation and 1 like to relax by taking a pair of binoculars, getting out into the open air of China's huge countryside, and spending time seeing what birds I can identify. I'm not really a twitcher (one who relentlessly pursues sightings of as many different species as possible)-just happy to get into nature. In my travels around the country, I listed

  6. China Petrochemical Corporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec Group) is a super-large petroleum and petrochemical enterprise group, established in July 1998 on the basis of the former China Petrochemical Corporation. Sinopec Group is a state-owned company solely invested by the state, function ing as a state-authorized investment organization in which the state holds the controlling share. Headquartered in Beijing, Sinopec Group has a registered capital of 182 billion yuan. The board chairman of Sinopec Group is its legal representative.

  7. Folk Songs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    THE folk song in China is an art form created by working people through the ages to express therr feeling and emotions. In China,as elsewhere,such songsare a repository of the folk wisdomof the nation.Origins of China’s FolkSongsIn primitive society our ances-tors created in their struggle againstnature.In the Xia Dynasty(21st-16th centuries B.C.),Slaves used

  8. JPRS Report, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    relations between China and Japan have been manifested in a series of incidents such as the textbook problem, the Yasukuni Shrine problem, and the Chinese...Pacific region. Japan’s position on the textbook issue, on the Japan- Taiwan relations issue, on the Yasukuni Shrine issue, and on the historical...about the land border between China and Vietnam, creating border controversy areas there. They have also sought to make two-thirds of the ocean area

  9. JPRS Report China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    not distort facts, divulge state secrets, and infringe upon others’ legitimate rights, we must also provide for their relative independence in no...The Study of Species Biology of Chrysanthe- mum The System of Com- puter Data of Plant Gene Chemotaxonomy of Genus Arzemisia of China The...Institute of Biology , Academia Sinica Fudan University Peking University Jiansu Institute of Bot- any South China Institute of Botany

  10. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China)

    1992-12-31

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises` investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  11. Energy for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael J. Economides

    2002-01-01

    @@ Rarely has the world witnessed the breathtaking economic developments currently ongoing in China. Neither the explosive entry in the international scene by the fresh nation of the United States, following World War Ⅰ, nor the reconstruction frenzy of post-World War Ⅱ Europe and Japan can rival the growth of China in the last decade and the even more intense one expected in the future.

  12. Family Planning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱耀华

    1994-01-01

    China is a developing country with vast territory, numerous population and relatively poor economic foundation. The basic features of China's population are of great quantity and considerable annual increase of population as well as its uneven distribution in different regions. For improvement of living standard of the people,Chinese Government began to advocate family planning throughout this country in the beginning of the 1970s while a strenuous effort was made to develop economy.

  13. Bioethics in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, En-Chang

    2008-09-01

    Historically, the preconditions for the emergence of bioethics in China. were political reforms and their applications. The Hanzhong Euthanasia Case and the publication of Qiu Ren-zong's academic work Bioethics played a significant role in the development of bioethics in China. Other contributory factors include the establishment of the Chinese Society of Medical Ethics/Chinese Medical Association (C.M.A), the publication of the Journal of Chinese Medical Ethics, and the teaching and education of bioethics in China. Major achievements of bioethics in China include the establishment of ethics committee and ethics review system, active international communication and cooperation among the academic circles, and the successful management of the 8th World Congress of Bioethics in Beijing in 2006. Chinese bioethics focus on native Chinese realities and conditions, absorb the international research achievements in relevant fields, and combine international ideas with traditional Chinese doctrines. Admittedly, there are still some aspects to be improved, yet bioethics has attracted a lot of attention from the core leadership in China and has gained sound financial support, which augers well for its further development. This article also briefly introduces the development of bioethics in Hong Kong and Taiwan, China.

  14. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  15. Electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  16. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent (H.K.) Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical workof patent application,trademark registration and copyright protection in China;concrete examples of

  17. China's Geo-cultural Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Zhongqi; Huang Renwei; Wang Hui

    2008-01-01

    This paper divides China's geocultural space into global, Asian, and neighboring spheres, explores the major challenges China's geocultural policy faces in each of them, and puts forward options for China's geocultural strategy. It also suggests that the development of China's geoculture should be based on a triple-circled geopolitical pattern, and should adopt a strategy of addressing regional issues first and global issues second. China's priorities should be the building up of its own culture, the consolidation of neighboring geocultural space, promoting the geocultural integration of Asia, becoming more involved in global geocultural interactions, and enhancing China's cultural influence and status.

  18. South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  19. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  20. South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Brian; Blackmore, Graham

    2001-01-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of the three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the South

  1. Electron proton instability in the CSNS ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Na; QIN Qing; LIU Yu-Dong

    2009-01-01

    The electron proton(e-p)instability has been observed in many proton accelerators.It will induce transverse beam size blow-up,cause beam loss and restrict the machine performance.Much research work has been done on the causes,dynamics and cures of this instability.A simulation code is developed to study the e-p instability in the ring of the China Spallation Neutron Source(CSNS).

  2. Electronic Router

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusan, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Electronic Router (E-Router) is an application program for routing documents among the cognizant individuals in a government agency or other organization. E-Router supplants a prior 14 NASA Tech Briefs, May 2005 system in which paper documents were routed physically in packages by use of paper slips, packages could be lost, routing times were unacceptably long, tracking of packages was difficult, and there was a need for much photocopying. E-Router enables a user to create a digital package to be routed. Input accepted by E-Router includes the title of the package, the person(s) to whom the package is to be routed, attached files, and comments to reviewers. Electronic mail is used to notify reviewers of needed actions. The creator of the package can, at any time, see the status of the package in the routing structure. At the end of the routing process, E-Router keeps a record of the package and of approvals and/or concurrences of the reviewers. There are commercial programs that perform the general functions of E-Router, but they are more complicated. E-Router is Web-based, easy to use, and does not require the installation or use of client software.

  3. China English and its Implications for English Teaching in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉凤

    2007-01-01

    China English is an English variety used by native-Chinese people for communication under specific language environment. This study attempts to outline the objective existence of China English and the implications of its linguistic features for English teaching.

  4. China Eximbank:A Bridge Linking China and the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      Established in 1994 and solely owned by the central government, The ExportImport Bank of China (China Eximbank)is a government policy bank under the direct leadership of the State Council.……

  5. Electron-Electron and Electron-Phonon interactions effects on the tunnel electronic spectrum of PbS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyue; Lhuillier, Emmanuel; Yu, Qian; Mottaghizadeh, Alireza; Ulysse, Christian; Zimmers, Alexandre; Dubertret, Benoit; Aubin, Herve

    2015-03-01

    We present a tunnel spectroscopy study of the electronic spectrum of single PbS Quantum Dots (QDs) trapped between nanometer-spaced electrodes, measured at low temperature T=5 K. The carrier filling of the QD can be controlled either by the drain voltage in the shell filling regime or by a gate voltage. In the empty QD, the tunnel spectrum presents the expected signature of the 8x degenerated excited levels. In the drain controlled shell filling regime, the levels degeneracies are lifted by the global electrostatic Coulomb energy of the QD; in the gate controlled shell filling regime, the levels degeneracies are lifted by the intra-Coulomb interactions. In the charged quantum dot, electron-phonons interactions lead to the apparition of Franck-Condon side bands on the single excited levels and possibly Franck Condon blockade at low energy. The sharpening of excited levels at higher gate voltage suggests that the magnitude of electron-phonon interactions is decreased upon increasing the electron filling in the quantum dot. This work was supported by the French ANR Grants 10-BLAN-0409-01, 09-BLAN-0388-01, by the Region Ile-de-France in the framework of DIM Nano-K and by China Scholarship Council.

  6. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises' investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  7. China's urban transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, C

    1995-01-01

    This article describes recent changes in urban patterns in Shanghai-Nanjing, Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan, Canton-Hong Kong, and Dalian-Shenyang. The urban patterns in these metropolitan areas are viewed as part of an urban transition that is responding to population growth, a structural shift in employment, relaxed rules on migration and household registration, and foreign investment and trade. It is argued that these metropolitan coastal areas will form the key growth centers and will lead China's economic development. Urban transition is defined as the shift from rural to urban and from agricultural employment to industrial, commercial, or service employment. China's large cities always dominated as important centers of politics and trade. The recent shift is from interior to coastal cities due to a new world view and a movement away from the isolationism of prior centuries. It is assumed that cities are formed to take advantage of economies of scale in production, consumption, and distribution and to conform to regional specialization. Governments can intervene in growth processes. China's development of cities reflects state controls and market forces. The size and scale of China's population influenced the development process, which resulted in differences in the shape and process of the urban transition. It was under Chinese communism that cities became more than a set of discrete regional urban systems. Reference is made to Oshima's model of change that is specific to monsoon countries. Oshima argues that monsoon agricultural conditions require a distinct strategy based on full employment in order to achieve industrial transition. Rice cultivation requires a large and disciplined labor force. The discussion focuses on other models as well, such as the McGee's model of the extended metropolis and its extension by Zhou Yixing to China. China's changes may not follow Skeldon's models of urbanization in developing countries, because of state control of migration

  8. China FAW Participates in The China Auto International (Syria) Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Yan; Che; Qiang

    2006-01-01

      At the beginning of the new year,a new message was released from the Organization Committee of China Auto International Tour - China FAW Group Corporation and China League of Machinery Industry will jointly sponsor the 4nd China Auto International(Syria) Tour. This is the first time that the giant state-owned auto enterprise participates in the sponsor of international auto exhibition.……

  9. China FAW Participates in The China Auto International (Syria) Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yan; Che Qiang

    2006-01-01

    @@ At the beginning of the new year,a new message was released from the Organization Committee of China Auto International Tour - China FAW Group Corporation and China League of Machinery Industry will jointly sponsor the 4nd China Auto International(Syria) Tour. This is the first time that the giant state-owned auto enterprise participates in the sponsor of international auto exhibition.

  10. Spreading the Bible in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to records of the Bible Society in China, more than 300 million copies of the Bible in Chinese have been published and distributed since 1823. The spread of the Bible in China has gone through five stages.

  11. Foreigners Who Marry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ayoung Frenchman hoped to have his wedding in China because he has loved Chinese culture since he was a child. The Golden Connection Tourist Company of China arranged a wedding in Beijing so that his dream could come true.

  12. Marketing China Around the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China may grow into a global branding powerhouse, one master degree at a time Bringing the first international Master of Marketing program to Beijing, Professor Susan Ellis, Associate Dean of China Programs atMelbourne Business School, knows onething for

  13. 2005 Fairs & Exhibitions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Harbin China International Winter Goods Exhibition DATE: Jan. 5-9 FREQUENCY: Annual FOUNDED TIME: Dec. 2001 VENUE: Harbin China International Conference & Exhibition Center EXHIBITS: winter sports goods and outdoor devices

  14. Developing Good HR in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERT HU

    2006-01-01

    @@ What is the shape of the recruitment market in China at the moment? What you have to understand first is that 20 years ago there was no recruiting market in China. The government allocated all jobs.

  15. CONGRATULATIONS ON AUTO CHINA 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ In April, China Machinery Industry Federation and Media & Press Center of CCPIT have successfully organized the China Auto International(Syria)Exhibition Tour and promoted the "walk out" strategy of Chinese independent brands.

  16. CONGRATULATIONS ON AUTO CHINA 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      In April, China Machinery Industry Federation and Media & Press Center of CCPIT have successfully organized the China Auto International(Syria)Exhibition Tour and promoted the "walk out" strategy of Chinese independent brands.……

  17. China Copper Processing Industry Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>1. Market Consumption The ’China Factor’ and Copper Price Fluctuation We all know China is an enormous consumer of copper,but the exact levels of consumption and where the copper has gone remains a mystery.

  18. Practical electronics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Ian R

    2013-01-01

    Practical Electronics Handbook, Third Edition provides the frequently used and highly applicable principles of electronics and electronic circuits.The book contains relevant information in electronics. The topics discussed in the text include passive and active discrete components; linear and digital I.C.s; microprocessors and microprocessor systems; digital-analogue conversions; computer aids in electronics design; and electronic hardware components.Electronic circuit constructors, service engineers, electronic design engineers, and anyone with an interest in electronics will find the book ve

  19. China's India Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qian

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, with the improvement of relationship between India and China, the scope of India studies in China's IR research has been broadened and the new areas of studies are being explored. The research agenda of India studies has already extended to the areas like economy, society, culture, security, national strategy and their impact on both bilateral and international relations. In this situation, the focuses of India studies in China's IR research can be mainly identified as follows: reviews on India's social, political and economic systems; analysis on the national strategy and foreign policy; Sino-Indian relations; India's relations with some international organizations. However, even though many fresh progresses have been made in India studies, the India studies in China's IR research still lag far behind the study of other important countries like the U.S., UK, Russia and Japan, and more problems and challenges will face in the coming future. The paper believes that a fuller understanding of India probably will not make China and India close friends, but it definitely will help to prevent them from becoming fierce enemies.

  20. Healthy Aging in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James P; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-12-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist. Other positive forces include increasing detection and treatment of disease and the availability of health insurance and health services so that diseases like hypertension and diabetes do not remain silent killers in China. Transparency is eased on the research level by publicly available data such as CHARLS, a sharp departure from prior scientific norm in China. Negative forces center on disturbing trends in personal health behaviors such as growing rates of smoking (among men) and obesity (for both genders), and pollution-,especially in urban centers. Public health campaigns and incentives are needed on all these fronts so that predictable long-term consequences of these behaviors on older age disease are not realized. There will not be a simple demographic fix to healthy aging in China as fertility rates are unlikely to rise much, while migration will likely continue to rise leaving growing numbers of elderly parents geographically separated from their adult children. Government policy will have to allow migration of elderly parents to live with their adult children while reducing the rigid connection of policy (health insurance and health services) with place of residence.

  1. Palaeogeography of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Palaeogeography is a science that studies the features and evolution of physical geography in geological history and human history. The palaeogeography of China has multiple disciplines and multiple types of palaeogeographic map. These perfectly reflect "a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought content". The palaeogeography of China has three characteristics. The first is multiple disciplines flourishing simultaneously. The second is that lithofacies palaeogeography is in a leading position. The third is that palaeogeography of China is closely connected with industrial practice. It is why palaeogeography, especially lithofacies palaeogeography of China, can flourish continually. We have two journals of palaeogeography, i. e. Journal of Palaeogeography (Chinese Edition) and Journal of Palaeogeography (English Edition). The former primarily publishes articles of Chinese authors regarding Chinese palaeogeography and related disciplines and has a foothold in China. The latter will publish the articles of both Chinese and international authors and caters to foreign readers. These two journals will cooperate together and display their own expertise, which will effectively make a great contribution to the development and innovation of Chinese palaeogeography and international palaeogeography.

  2. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  3. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Science in China (monthly) is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Acade-my of Sciences. The primary purpose is to provide regular, rapid and authoritative reviews of current important devel-opments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in both China and other countries. The contents are se-lected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly-esteemed scientists in China today.

  4. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The primary purpose is to provide regular, rapid and authoritative reviews of current important developments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries. The contents are selected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly esteemed scientists in China

  5. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural scienes sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.The primary purpose is to provide regular,rapid and authoritative reviews of currcnt important developments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries.The contents are selected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly esteemed scientists in China today.

  6. WEEE management in Europe and China - A comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhofer, S; Steuer, B; Ramusch, R; Beigl, P

    2016-11-01

    Over the last years Europe and China have developed specific regulations to address the challenge of managing Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). Households in today's urban China are similarly equipped with electrical and electronic appliances as households in European metropolitan areas, which in turn will lead to similar per capita generation rates in WEEE. While the challenge is a similar one, the systems, technologies and legislation in place in Europe and China are partly different, partly aligned to each other. In Europe WEEE collection is based on existing municipal structures. Additionally, retail and other take-back channels are in place. In China the informal sector dominates WEEE collection, being more competitive and flexible and offering pecuniary reimbursement to consumers. In Europe manual dismantling as a first treatment step has been gradually replaced by mechanical break up of appliances, followed by sorting out of hazardous and valuable components. In the subsequent second treatment level, cathode ray tubes are separated, whereby compound materials like motors and coils are mechanically treated, printed circuit boards go to special smelters, and plastics are separated and partly recycled. In China large formal dismantling capacities have been set up in recent years. There dismantling practices follow similar principles as in European plants; however, further processing is only partly implemented in Chinese recycling facilities. Specifically metallurgical treatment of printed circuit boards is still not existent in China. Companies selling electrical and electronic products within the EU are obliged to organise collection and treatment. This has led to a larger number of producer responsibility organisations. Financed and controlled by producers and importers, these systems aim to fulfil legal requirements at optimised costs subject to compliance with environmental standards and monitoring requirements. The Chinese system is built

  7. 78 FR 20891 - Glycine From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    .... Yang, Senior Director China/Non-Market Economy Unit, entitled, ``Issues and Decision Memorandum for the... electronically via Import Administration's Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Centralized Electronic Service... non-market economy (NME) cases.\\6\\ Pursuant to this refinement in practice, for entries that were not...

  8. SEDIMENTARY ORGANIC MATTER' S CLASSIFICATION OF OIL-GAS SOURCE ROCKS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinKuili; LiuDameng; XiaoXianming

    1996-01-01

    According to the study on the oil-gas source rocks in China for ten years,in connection with the microscopic, submicroscopic levels, the authors used the microscope photometry together with transmission electronic microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy and proposed a new classification for Sedimentary organic matters.

  9. China-ASEAN Friendship Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>The CPAFFC launched the China-ASEAN Friendship Tour,a large scale series of activities to celebrate the 15th anniversary of the establishment of dialogue relations between China and ASEAN and the Year of China-ASEAN Friendship and Cooperation.

  10. Global China Insights December 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, Rien T.; Havinga, Marieke; Fischer, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  11. LNG Development Booms in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Decan Hanju

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's LNG imports were 6.769 million tons from January to September in 2010, 70.95% higher than the same period of 2009.42% was from Australia and 16% from Indonesia.LNG is now becoming a major gas source in China.Meanwhile, China is evolving into an important target market for major LNG producing countries.

  12. Development in China and Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Shiwei

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation studies the development of China and Africa over the past two decades. First, China has maintained a high rate of economic growth in the past twenty years. At the same time, we observe a rapid growth in the African export flows to China, even faster than those to the US and EU. We ar

  13. China Offshore Oil Logging Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Kang

    1996-01-01

    @@ China offshore oil logging business entered a faster developing stage sin-ce 1982 with the beginning of international cooperation in its offshore oil exploration. Nearly 90% of the logging expertises of China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)are in China Offshore Oil Logging Company (COOLC), headquartered in Yanjiao, Hebei Province.

  14. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publication sponsored by ChinaPatent Agent(H.K.)Ltd. The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and has been edited and published in HongKong for distribution in China and abroad.

  15. TAIWAN, The Treasure of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The island of Taiwan lies some 120 kilometers off the southeastern coast of mainland China, across the Taiwan Strait, and has an area of 35,801 km2(13,822.8 sq mi). The East China Sea lies to the north, the Philippine Sea to the east, the Luzon Strait directly to the south and the South China Sea to the southwest.

  16. Hotels Continue to Target China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU JIAMIN

    2006-01-01

    @@ Within the global hotel industry, China is the buzzword on everybody's lips.From April 26th to 28th,senior executives of leading international hotel brands and China hoteliers gathered in Shanghai to attend the 2nd China Hotel Investment Summit. The event attracted a record number of over 450international and local delegates from over 20 countries.

  17. Teaching about Ethnicities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Caryn White

    2010-01-01

    A unit on China's ethnicities provides students rich opportunities to explore multiple themes in the social studies while helping them to develop a deeper understanding of recent events in western China. Studying China's ethnic minorities encompasses such topics as stereotyping, cultural diversity, the creation of ethnic identities, and key…

  18. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The primary purpose is to provide regular, rapid and authoritative reviews of current important developments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries. The contents are selected by an extensive editorial committee

  19. China PR Industry Report 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Background The 2005 annual survey on the PR industry in China was conducted by China International Public Relations Association(CIPRA)from January 20the to February 20th ,in order to better reflect the development of the PR service market in China,investigate trends within the PR industry,and promote its continuous development.

  20. Global China Insights June 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingrid Fischer; Rien T. Segers

    2013-01-01

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  1. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.The primary purpose is to provide regular ,rapid and authoritative reviews of current important developments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries.

  2. China Satcom: Innovating Satellite Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China Satellite Communications Group Corporation (China Satcom) is a state-owned large-sized key enterprise formally established on Dec. 19, 2001 according to the general deployment of the State Council on telecommunication system reform. Relying on its complete service system, China Satcom provides various users with specialized and high quality information communication service.

  3. The EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    ” (Shambaugh 2004, 243). He pointed, firstly, at the strong growth in trade relations; the EU also became the largest foreign supplier of technology and equipment, in the form of direct investment, but also through a number of joint technology projects. The EU-China Framework Program became the world’s largest...... common research project. As to political cooperation, numerous meetings have been institutionalised, among them, at the top level an annual EU-China Summit. The contacts have resulted in a number of agreements, for instance on group tourism. According to estimates 100,000 Chinese Students went...... is impressive.” To be sure, there were also points of frictions such as the European arms embargo (introduced after the Tianmen massacre in 1989), but Shambaugh saw it as highly likely that the relationship between EU and China would continue to grow and develop. “Over time it will become a new axis in world...

  4. NEV Technology in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to identify the main determinants of the development of the neighbourhood electric vehicle (NEV) industry in China, including influences from private stakeholders as well as the government, and domestic as well as foreign interest groups. Particular emphasis...... is driven by less formal decisions taken in the nexus between SOEs and relevant state agencies. Hence, although China suffers no lack of legislation at various levels (including laws, decrees, and guidelines) it is often difficult to identify the specific drivers for change. Practical implications...... – The findings are useful for understanding the development of the NEV industry in China. Originality/value – The current paper is the first application of the GIST (Governance of Innovation towards Sustainability Technology) framework to the case of the Chinese NEV industry....

  5. Bringing Biocuration to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhang; Weimin Zhu; Jingchu Luo

    2014-01-01

    Biocuration involves adding value to biomedical data by the processes of standardiza-tion, quality control and information transferring (also known as data annotation). It enhances data interoperability and consistency, and is critical in translating biomedical data into scientific discovery. Although China is becoming a leading scientific data producer, biocuration is still very new to the Chinese biomedical data community. In fact, there currently lacks an equivalent acknowledged word in Chinese for the word ‘‘curation”. Here we propose its Chinese translation as‘‘审编”(Pinyin:shen bian), based on its implied meanings taken by biomedical data community. The 8th International Biocuration Conference to be held in China (http://biocuration2015.tilsi.org) next year bears the potential to raise the general awareness in China of the significant role of biocuration in scientific discovery. However, challenges are ahead in its implementation.

  6. PetroChina & Sinopec

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Back in December,CIB took a cue from Warren Buffett and looked at the recent A-share initial public offering (IPO) of PetroChina(中国石油),China's largest oil company and,at the time,the largest company in the world.We didn't like what we saw.While the argument in favor of PetroChina was obvious-it is of course,the primary provider of refined oil to a country with the fastest-growing oil demand in the world,and operating in a period of exponential growth in oil prices-the negatives were just as striking.It was overvalued from a revenue point of view,and had to contend with state price controls.

  7. Review of the genus Agria (Diptera, Sarcophagidae) from China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ming; Chen, Yi-ou; Pape, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Agria mihalyii (Rohdendorf and Verves, 1978) is recorded from China for the first time, and both sexes are thoroughly documented using a combination of illustrations, photographs and scanning electron microscopy images. The generic affiliation is corroborated from an expanded definition of genus...... Agria Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, and a key to males of the two known species from China is provided. The distribution of coeloconic sensilla on the male pre- and postgonite are shown to possess significant diagnostic and phylogenetic information in this genus....

  8. First China Population Award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The China Population Award is given every two years for family planning implementation, science, and technology, and honorary achievements. The winners for the First China Population Award were as follows: Mr. Zhao Zhihao, governor of Shandong province; Mme. Shang Dewei, retired from the Shanghai family planning committee; Mme. Cui Peihua, director of the Nanche Village, Shidao Town, Rongcheng City, Shandong Province, Family Planning Office; Mme. Xu Aiguang, director of Zhejiang Family Planning Committee; Mr. Ye Wenshi, secretary of Guanghan City Party Committee, Sichuan province; Mr. Zhang Zhiyuan, president of Liaoning Family Planning Association; Mme. Shou Haizhen, director of Jiangsu Family Planning Committee for family planning implementation. Mme. Yan Renying, vice president of the China Family Planning Association, Mr. Wu Jieping, vice president of the China Family Planning Association, and Mr. Lie Zheng (deceased), former president of the Population Association of China received prized for achievements in science and technology. Mr. Ma Yinchu (decreased) honorary president of Peking University, received an honorary prize for his creative views on the contradictions between rapid population growth and increased capital wealth. He recommended population control and improvement in quality of human resources. He recommended the practice of deferred marriage and other solutions to China's population problems. As an ultra-leftist, he was severely criticized, but redeemed in 1981 shortly before he died. The science and technology awards went to Mr. Zheng who established the first population research institute and suggested that reproduction be in balance with material resources. Mr. Jieping was a medical specialist and contributed to research on male birth control. Mme. Renying, as an obstetrician and gynecologist, researched use of prostaglandin injections for ending early pregnancy and reversible female sterilization. She was active in efforts of prevention of

  9. China's Consumption Rises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Zhu

    2011-01-01

    @@ The consumption in China is surging and Chinese consumers are more confident about their future this year despite the inflationary backdrop, according to the 2011 Annual Chinese Consumer Study by McKinsey & Co released recently. The survey estimates that by 2020 and within the course of one decade, real consumption will have doubled to $4.8 trillion and China will then be the world's second-biggest consumer market after the United States.Yet in some respects, private consumption remains stubbornly low.

  10. Visions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI SHI

    2011-01-01

    A100-million-pound Chinese theme park could be built in Britain to attract tourists from across Britain,Europe and even China,said a report published on August 9 by Sheffield Telegraph.Visions of China,the planned theme park,would cover an area of 120 acres in Rotherham,South Yorkshire,and feature distinct Chinese architecture including Chinese gardens,theaters,restaurants,a temple,a children's fantasy land,a Shanghai-style shopping street,a Shaolin pagoda,a hotel and a wellness center.

  11. Pharmaceutical policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Santoro, Michael A; Meng, Qingyue; Liu, Caitlin; Eggleston, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Contradictory goals plague China's pharmaceutical policy. The government wants to develop the domestic pharmaceutical industry and has used drug pricing to cross-subsidize public hospitals. Yet the government also aims to control drug spending through price caps and profit-margin regulations to guarantee access even for poor patients. The resulting system has distorted market incentives, increased consumers' costs, and financially rewarded inappropriate prescribing, thus undermining public health. Pharmaceuticals account for about half of total health spending in China, representing 43 percent of spending per inpatient episode and 51 percent of spending per outpatient visit. Yet some essential medicines are unavailable or of questionable quality.

  12. Western Food in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    AS the Chinese saying goes, "Ask for local custom when you enter a foreign country." Western food’s first introduction to China in the 17th century was accompanied with its adoption to Chinese dining habits. Western food was introduced into China in large scale during the mid-19th and early 20th centuries. However, as early as the 17th century Western missionaries and envoys were introducing food from their homeland to upper-class Chinese as a means of paying tribute or

  13. Why China Is Confident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The global financial crisis is far from over as world economic growth continues to decline. Can China stop the downward tendency of economic growth and reach an economic soft landing? Can China take the lead in getting out of the shadow of the economic crisis? Chen Huai, Director of the Economic Research Institute of China’s Urban and Rural Development under the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, discussed these questions in a recent article in the Economic Information Daily. Edited excerpts follow:

  14. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Fan, Shiwei; Wang, Feixue

    2016-01-01

    These Proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2016, held during 18th-20th May in Changsha, China. The theme of CSNC2016 is Smart Sensing, Smart Perception. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2016, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  15. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fan, Shiwei; Yu, Wenxian

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2017, held during 23th-25th May in Shanghai, China. The theme of CSNC2017 is Positioning, Connecting All. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2017, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  16. Service innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Jin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    to the limitations associated with the use of qualitative methodology based on a single case and geographic delimitation. Rather than providing definite answers, the findings of this study should be seen as propositions which open avenues for future research on the subject. Implications – The findings may be useful...... Chinese cities. Both internal and external factors played a significant role in influencing the development and implementation of service innovation in the case. The paper details and discusses the factors that affect service innovation in China. Research Limitations – The study is exposed...... to create a foundation for growth and development based on innovation. Key words: Service innovation, logistics services, China, case study...

  17. China's Formula,Go!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yinghong; Yang Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ On the first day of November,when Jenson Button cheered his first Formula I World Championship 2009 at the final race of the season in Abu Dhabi,Chinese young university students were busy preparing for their own Formula event.According to a press conference on October 19,2009 in Beijing,the first Formula SAE-China (FSAE) event has set off,and will be officially launch its final race next year from October 14 to October 17 at Shanghai International Circuit,where will also be the Formula 12010 China stop again in next April.

  18. Highlights of China Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Environmental Management:Standards Guide Sustainable Transformation As of December 2010,more than 50,000 enterprises in China passed the ISO 14001 environment management system certification and more than 400 companies completed the voluntary accounting and authentication of carbon emissions.Environmental management system certification is a "green pass" in international trade.ISO has successively developed the ISO 14000 series environmental management standards and China has converted these standards into its national standards,which play a very important role in sustainable transformation and development of enterprises.

  19. Particle Accelerators in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Fang, Shouxian

    As the special machines that can accelerate charged particle beams to high energy by using electromagnetic fields, particle accelerators have been widely applied in scientific research and various areas of society. The development of particle accelerators in China started in the early 1950s. After a brief review of the history of accelerators, this article describes in the following sections: particle colliders, heavy-ion accelerators, high-intensity proton accelerators, accelerator-based light sources, pulsed power accelerators, small scale accelerators, accelerators for applications, accelerator technology development and advanced accelerator concepts. The prospects of particle accelerators in China are also presented.

  20. Computational neuroscience in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate goal of Computational Neuroscience(CNS) is to use and develop mathematical models and approaches to elucidate brain functions.CNS is a young and highly multidisciplinary field.It heavily interacts with experimental neuroscience and such other research areas as artificial intelligence,robotics,computer vision,information science and machine learning.This paper reviews the history of CNS in China,its current status and the prospects for its future development.Examples of CNS research in China are also presented.

  1. China in Overcapacity Exacerbating?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2009-01-01

    @@ The problem of overcapacity has been plaguing China for years.Many economists claim that China's double-edged economic system of foreign trade and investment has resulted in a lack of consumption.It is estimated that approximately 35% of GDP depends solely on exports,some of which has naturally turned into excessive capacity due to the recent lack of external demand from western markets.Repeated build up in certain industries,which the government has failed to restrain,has resulted in prevailing overcapacity,and has also indirectly triggered the flood of anti-dumping cases against Chinese enterprises in recent years.

  2. Electronic Preprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, R.

    1999-12-01

    Despite the tremendous advances in electronic publications and the increasing rapidity with which papers are now moving from acceptance into ``print,'' preprints continue to be an important mode of communication within the astronomy community. The Los Alamos e-preprint service, astro-ph, provides for rapid and cost-free (to authors and readers) dissemination of manuscripts. As the use of astro-ph has increased the number of paper preprints in circulation to libraries has decreased, and institutional preprint series appear to be waning. It is unfortunate, however, that astro-ph does not function in collaboration with the refereed publications. For example, there is no systematic tracking of manuscripts from preprint to their final, published form, and as a centralized archive it is difficult to distribute the tracking and maintenance functions. It retains documents that have been superseded or have become obsolete. We are currently developing a distributed preprint and document management system which can support both distributed collections of preprints (e.g., traditional institutional preprint series), can link to the LANL collections, can index other documents in the ``grey'' literature (observatory reports, telescope and instrument user's manuals, calls for proposals, etc.), and can function as a manuscript submission tool for the refereed journals. This system is being developed to work cooperatively with the refereed literature so that, for example, links to preprints are updated to links to the final published papers.

  3. Sustainable Management of Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information on EPAs strategy for electronics stewardship, certified electronics recyclers and the Challenge; as well as where to donate unwanted electronics, how to calculate benefits, and what's going on with electronics mgmt in their states.

  4. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Conventional computers excel in logic and accurate scientific calculations but make hard work of open ended problems that human brains handle easily. Even von Neumann—the mathematician and polymath who first developed the programming architecture that forms the basis of today's computers—was already looking to the brain for future developments before his death in 1957 [1]. Neuromorphic computing uses approaches that better mimic the working of the human brain. Recent developments in nanotechnology are now providing structures with very accommodating properties for neuromorphic approaches. This special issue, with guest editors James K Gimzewski and Dominique Vuillaume, is devoted to research at the serendipitous interface between the two disciplines. 'Synaptic electronics', looks at artificial devices with connections that demonstrate behaviour similar to synapses in the nervous system allowing a new and more powerful approach to computing. Synapses and connecting neurons respond differently to incident signals depending on the history of signals previously experienced, ultimately leading to short term and long term memory behaviour. The basic characteristics of a synapse can be replicated with around ten simple transistors. However with the human brain having around 1011 neurons and 1015 synapses, artificial neurons and synapses from basic transistors are unlikely to accommodate the scalability required. The discovery of nanoscale elements that function as 'memristors' has provided a key tool for the implementation of synaptic connections [2]. Leon Chua first developed the concept of the 'The memristor—the missing circuit element' in 1971 [3]. In this special issue he presents a tutorial describing how memristor research has fed into our understanding of synaptic behaviour and how they can be applied in information processing [4]. He also describes, 'The new principle of local activity, which uncovers a minuscule life-enabling "Goldilocks zone", dubbed the

  5. Demand of magnetic resonance imaging examination in elderly people with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices: a survey in China%我国接受心血管植入型电子器械治疗的老年患者磁共振检查的需求调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴鹏; 田颖; 任明; 周菁; 何泉; 储慧民; 刘启明; 李述峰; 高兵兵

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the real demand of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination in elderly patients who had been treated with cardiac implantable electronic device(CIED) in China.Methods In this retrospective questionnaire survey,950 elderly patients (age ≥65 years) treated with CIED in eight tertiary arrhythmia centers from 2010 to 2012 were included.The questionnaire comprised of 10 questions regarding MRIexamination.Results Of the 950 patients [age (77± 10) years,536 males],247 (26%) underwent MRI examination before CIED treatment.After CIED treatment,131 (14%) cases had a clear MRI indication within a mean follow-up period of(2.3± 1.1) years,in whom 57 (6%) had underwent MRI examination before CIED treatment.Therefore,totally 321 (33.8%)patients had the real demand of MRI examination in this group.Three hundreds and thirty-two(34.9%)patients concerned the fact that CIED is a contraindication for MRIexamination and 493 (52%) claimed that they would choose MRI compatible CIED in the future replacement procedures.Renminbi 70,000 yuan or less was considered a reasonable price for a MRI compatible pacemaker in 62.3% patients.Conclusions Among elderly patients treated with CIED who lived in the first or second tier cities in China,the real demand for MRIcompatible CIED is high.%目的 回顾性调查我国接受心血管植入型电子器械(CIED)治疗的老年患者对磁共振(MRI)检查的真实需求,为相关的医疗实践提供参考.方法 回顾性问卷调查2010年至2012年间国内8家具有独立心律失常亚专业的综合性三级甲等医院共950例,年龄≥65岁,且已接受CIED治疗的患者,每人接受10个与MRI检查相关的问题.结果 950例患者的平均年龄(77±10)岁,其中男536例(56.4%).植入CIED前,247例(26%)曾接受过MRI检查.在植入CIED后平均(2.3±1.1)年的随访期中,131例(14%)患者被告知有必要进行MRI检查,其中57例(6%)为术前曾接受MRI检查者.因此,CIED

  6. The Development of China's Electronics Industry: Causes and Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShaoqingHuang; WeiguoQiao

    2005-01-01

    The development of China's electronics industry can be attributed to supportive government policies, strong domestic market demand and the opportunities provided by the international transfer of technology in the electronic manufacturing sector. China's enterprises can only continue to develop through technological upgrading due to the lack of core technologies of their own. Since this process is still ongoing, China has not become a competitive country in the field of electronic technology. As a country in transition, government initiatives designed to encourage the development of the electronics industry have also undergone changes in line with economic institutional reform. Direct government intervention policies have been gradually replaced by indirect regulatory policies and the market is playing a more and more important role in the electronics industry.

  7. Electronic Mimosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay; Datta, Meera S.; Rana, Vivek; Grover, Shailesh

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the design of a low-cost, 2D, electromagnetic tracking device for personal computers. This interface makes use of the well-known principle of electromagnetic induction to locate the position of a transmitter in an x-y plane. This device has a ring which is worn by the user on the index finger. The computer monitor is overlaid with a transparent screen equipped with tuned electromagnetic sensors. These sensors pick up the signals transmitted by the transmitter coil on the finger. The receiver circuit extracts the envelope of the received signal and digitizes it. These digitized values of x and y axis signals are read by the computer through the standard parallel port. The system software running on the computer calculates the x and y co-ordinates of the transmitter coil and displays a cursor at that location. The transmitter also has a button which can be used like a mouse button. This keypress information is also transmitted by the electromagnetic means. The device driver for this tracker replaces the standard mouse driver. Hence most applications which use a mouse can also use this tracker. Its name `Mimosa' indicates that the user need not touch the screen (Mimosa Pudica is the Latin name of a plant whose leaves wilt when touched). Presently work is on to achieve uniform sensitivity over the entire screen and reducing transmitter power consumption. In order to demonstrate its working, a small, 3D game was written. The player has to reach a pre-defined location after traversing through a maze. The paper describes the interface electronics, system software, mechanical design and the sample application.

  8. 2nd International Conference on Electric and Electronics (EEIC 2012)

    CERN Document Server

    Advances in Electric and Electronics

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains 108 full length papers presented at the 2nd International Conference on Electric and Electronics (EEIC 2012), held on April 21-22 in Sanya, China, which brings together researchers working in many different areas of education and learning to foster international collaborations and exchange of new ideas. This volume can be divided into two sections on the basis of the classification of manuscripts considered: the first section deals with Electric and the second section with Electronics.

  9. Nanotechnology in paper electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Österbacka, Professor Ronald; Han, Jin-Woo, Dr

    2014-03-01

    The ability to put cutting edge technology on paper—not in words but in a working physical form—has been attracting an increasing number of researchers over the past decade. Paper has many advantages that make it attractive for flexible electronics: it is relatively environmentally benign; it is renewable; it can be recycled; it is light weight; production processes for paper are well advanced; and it is inexpensive. This special issue, with guest editors Ronald Österbacka from Åbo Akademi University in Finland and Jin-Woo Han from the NASA AMES Research Center, features some of the latest in paper electronics research, including developments towards applications in displays, sensing and alternative energy sources, as well as fundamental studies to further our understanding of how paper can be most effectively used in electronics. As Andrew Steckl and colleagues in the US point out, 'Cellulose-based paper substrates were implemented as an electronic substrate as early as 1969, with most advancement occurring in the past decade largely due to technology improvements in thin film deposition and organic materials' [1, 2]. They report a detailed comparison between paper, standard liquid crystal display rigid glass and flexible glass for hosting pentacene organic thin film transistors, and obtain promising results for future paper-based devices. As most meaningful electronic devices rely on transistors to function, transistors feature quite prominently in this special issue. Rodrigo Martins and colleagues in France and Portugal study the effect of fibre type, structure and dimension on paper-based transistors and reveal further insights into how paper properties affect device performance [3]. Qing Wan and colleagues in China bring the state of the art in transistor technology to paper substrates [4], fabricating indium-zinc-oxide (IZO)-based protonic/electronic hybrid thin film transistors on paper and showing that they can be used as artificial synapses. Like the

  10. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  11. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Fridley, D.G.; Levine, M.D. [eds.

    1996-06-01

    The response to the first edition of the China Energy Databook was overwhelmingly positive, and has encouraged us to issue this revised, updated, and expanded edition. It has been a natural counterpart to the Energy Analysis Program`s continuing program of collaborative research with the Energy Research Institute. No other current reference volume dedicated to China`s energy system contains a similar variety and quality of material. We have revised some of the categories and data that appeared in the old volume. The adjustment for energy consumption in the transportation sector, for instance, has been slightly changed to include some fuel use in the commercial sector, which was previously left out. As another example, natural gas consumption statistics in the first edition greatly overstated electric utility use; we have rectified that error. Some tables have changed as statistical collection and reporting practices change in China. Figures on gross output value by sector stop with 1992, and economic output in subsequent years is covered by various measures of value-added, such as national income and gross domestic product.

  12. JPRS Report, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    sweater and a leather suitcase. As a result, the hotel won the "national prize for quality management," a most prestigious award. Tax officialdom is also...and the United States. China has also invested in third world countries, including Madagascar, Malta, Mauritius, Nigeria , and Yemen. The

  13. NFL Delays China Bowl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CORRIE; DOSH

    2007-01-01

    The whistle blows, the crowd roars, and 22 armored athletes crash into each other with such force that players have broken bones, been knocked unconscious, paralyzed or even killed during gameplay. This is football, American style, but China is going to

  14. China and Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China is set to launch feasibility studies on establishing a free trade area with Mongolia,said Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao during his recent visit to Ulan Bator.Wen told Mongolian Prime Minister Sukhbaataryn Batbold on June 1 the two

  15. China Sets Resources Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiMin

    2003-01-01

    All mineral mining in China now has a set road to follow, and straying off its path will attract severe penalties. The country's first-round programs for provincial mineral resources exploitation took effect in mid-January, setting output goals and designating mining regions.

  16. Smart grid in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Simon; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    China is planning to transform its traditional power grid in favour of a smart grid, since it allows a more economically efficient and a more environmentally friendly transmission and distribution of electricity. Thus, a nationwide smart grid is likely to save tremendous amounts of resources...

  17. China Executive Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENWEIXIAN

    2005-01-01

    Beiiing-based CTR Market Research recently completed a survey named China Business Executive Survey in the four Chinese dries of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen. The survey identified 340,000 senior executives in the four cities and found that around 20,000 ofthem have annual income of over 200,000yuan (US$24,000).

  18. Murdoch Retreats from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jessy Zhang

    2006-01-01

    @@ News Corp's Asian flagship enterprise Star Group announced in early June it would sell a 19.9 percent stake in Phoenix Satellite Television to China Mobile. This move is widely interpreted as a signal that Rudolf Murdoch, the helmsman of News Corp,might have lost his patience and could eventually retreat from the Chinese media market.

  19. Red Wine Over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The color red dominates Chinese life and now growing interest in red wine maintains that trend and ushers in a new fashionable addition to local culture There was a time when trying to find a good red wine in China was a difficult affair. But as with all

  20. China's Innovation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Shulin; Schwaag Serber, Sylvia; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    2016-01-01

    In their 2006 article on innovation in China in this journal, Gu and Lundvall pointed to some weaknesses and challenges for China’s growth and they also outlined ideas for policy action to overcome those. In this short note, written in collaboration with Sylvia Schwag Serger, they go back...

  1. JPRS Report, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-31

    commercial guided and regulated through such responsibility con- enterprises is, in essence , to explore, seek, and establish straints. Second, the contract... eucalyptus , poplar, fir and larch. [Text] Beijing, January 19 (XINHUA)-China produced over 12 million tons of aquatic products in 1990, an Experts Call

  2. 2006 China Retail Ranking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEO LIU; JIANG TAO

    2006-01-01

    @@ The rankings of China's leading retailers for fastmoving consumer goods,a collaboration between Beijingbased CTR Market Research and CIB, comes into its third term. According to our findings,with the competitive advantages such as better shopping environments and cheaper prices,the large-scale retailers, or hypermarkets, are continuing to increase their market shares.

  3. JPRS Report, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    of China’s urban state-owned enterprises have changed. Briefly, small enterprises have striven to rede - fine property relations using such methods...commodity economy mesh with public ownership? If the answer is yes, then the ownership right in public ownership must become part of market exchange and

  4. Road Traffic in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jie, L.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is tightly related to the social and economic development in a country. In China the development of the economy has been very fast in the past 30 years and this is still continuing. The transport infrastructure shows a similar pattern, while traffic is also rapidly growing. In urban areas th

  5. Greening China Naturally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shixiong Cao; Ge Sun; Zhiqiang Zhang; Liding Che; Qi Feng; et. al.

    2011-01-01

    China leads the world in afforestation, and is one of the few countries whose forested area is increasing. However, this massive “greening” effort has been less effective than expected; afforestation has sometimes produced unintended environmental, ecological, and socioeconomic consequences, and has failed to achieve the desired ecological benefits. Where afforestation...

  6. China's Mysterious Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Green

    2009-01-01

    @@ Car sales in China are booming,but gasoline consumption seems to be stuck in the slow lane.Chart 1 illustrates this apparent mystery(it shows sales of petroleum and oil products,since.we do not have data on retail gasoline sales).

  7. Comprehensive Engagement With China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-22

    the U.S. invasion of Iraq, condemnation of the U.S. by traditional allies, and a loss of legitimacy due to the detainee abuse scandals .74 Some Chinese...Kaufman, Nicholas R. Lardy, Gordon Chang, “McKinsey Roundtable Series in International Economics: Is China a Google Or an Enron ?” 15 December 2004

  8. Spirulina cultivation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo-Tang; Xiang, Wen-Zhou; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the development and many problems of Spirulina cultivation in China, points out the advantages and disadvantages of open photobioreactor system, and predicts that seawater Spirulina cultivation will be a new trend to be strengthened and emphasized due to its special physiological characteristics, easier management, lower fertilizer cost, and higher resistance to contaminants and rare pollution of chemicals.

  9. JPRS Report, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-30

    CPC Committee secretary is bility has not only depressed enterprise zeal and initia- usually greater than that of the township or town head. tive...Unlike Buddhism or Taoism, for which a believer must achieved varying degrees of development in China’s become either a monk or vegetarian , it has few

  10. China and Global Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zaibang

    2007-01-01

    To enhance global governance has become more urgent with rapid development of globalization in the post-Cold War years. China has benefited from the process of globalization and hence should make greater contribution to the global governance in the future.

  11. Bioethics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese civilization has a long history of 5,000years. It is China's fine tradition to attach importance to ethics and morality, that is "All must regard self-cultivation as the root." Confucius once said that "Benevolence means love of people." He advocated respecting people, concerning about people and caring for people.

  12. JPRS Report, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    difficulties and suffered many hardships. In 1987, exhibitions both in China and abroad that feature signif- Li was diagnosed as having lung cancer just as...their own. To think so they are indeed and outworn or brought up "theories" and "systems" of childish optimists who have seriously underestimated

  13. Chronicling China's Political Journey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Leading Chinese political scientist Zhao Baoxu has produced an overview of the evolution of China's political structure,its political studies as well as its foreign policy over the past six decades in his latest book In Pursuit of Harmony:An Academic Anthology of Zhao Baoxu.

  14. China Reshuffles Export Incentives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    What it means for China's economy... Last month, the Chinese Government made sweeping changes to the export tax breaks that domestic companies receive. Here's what happened: On September 14, the Ministry of Finance, the General Administration of Customs, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of

  15. Nuclear Power in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s vigorous efforts to propel development of nuclear power are paying off as the country’s nuclear power sector advances at an amazing pace. At present, China has set up three enormous nuclear power bases, one each in Qinshan of Zhejiang Province, Dayawan of Guangdong

  16. China's carbon conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ye; Wu, Tong; He, Jiankun; King, David A.

    2013-07-01

    China's carbon dioxide emissions are rising fast. Yet, per capita, gross domestic product and energy use are only a fraction of their United States equivalents. With a growing urban middle class, the trend will continue, but there is progress on the path to a low-carbon economy.

  17. China International Fashion Contest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-six young fashion designers from 17 countries and regions gathered at the Fourth Brother Cup China International Young Fashion Designers Contest in Beijing in mid-April. The designers drew ideas from colorful life and displayed their talents in art through the theme, "Splendid Attire for the Art Festival."

  18. My Classroom: China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the teaching practice of two senior high school English teachers, Yu Huang and Yu Zhu. Their school is in Hezhang County--the No. 2 Middle School in the province of Guizhou. In China, most middle schools consist of six grades of students; the first three years are considered junior middle school and the latter three years…

  19. Will China Save Europe?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China is not the answer to Europe’s crisis, neither will it turn its back With a landslide victory in the Spanish general election on November 20, the People’s Party ousted the ruling Socialist Workers’ Party,which had governed Spain

  20. JPRS Report China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Chaoyang [7458 2600 7122] and Jiang Qianhong [5592 0578 4767]: "At Meeting with Corazon Aquino, Zhao Ziyang Stresses That China Will Maintain Lasting...34] [Excerpts] Beijing, 16 April—Today, when meeting with Philippine President Corazon Aquino at Zhongnanhai, Zhao Ziyang, General Secretary of the CPC Central

  1. China Goes Electric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU SHU JUN

    2011-01-01

    In the history of the auto industry,China is a latecomer,although it became the world's largest auto market in the last two years.Now the country is gearing up to take the lead in at least one field of the auto industry's future:the electric vehicle (EV).

  2. Visions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Britain to build Chinese themed attraction A 100-million-pound Chinese theme park could be built in Britain to attract tourists from across Britain,Europe and even China,said a report published onAugust 9 by Sheffield Telegraph.

  3. Hospital Development In China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVIDWOOD

    2004-01-01

    China represents a complex society with a healthcare industry just emerging from years of public management and government control. The size of the marketplace and the built-in demand for high quality, service-oriented, healthcare provides many opportunities for the development of this industry along international lines.

  4. China's Energy Mix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen

    2007-01-01

    @@ The modern industrial world is underpinned by energy and also driven by energy.Today 80% of the world's energy comes from coal,oil and natural gas.China is known as a country and also one of the largest energy suppliers in the world.

  5. Sister Carrie in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷希

    2015-01-01

    Sister Carrie has received many Chinese scholar's attention, and it has quantity relevance researches. Therefore, it is valuable to study why it is popular in China and it's education meaning for Chinese people. In addition, to analysis the domestic re-searches and find it's exist problems can help us make a new breakthrough from the study.

  6. China's Path Toward Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China outlined the indigenous innovation strategy in its National Medium-and Long-term Science and Technology Development Plan(2006-20)four years ago.What is the main goal of the strategy and how has it been progressing? What are the Central Government's support policies and what efforts are still needed?

  7. China's Western Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU SHUJUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ "Western Development" has become a buzzword in China over the past decade. It has appeared almost everywhere: in government docu-ments, media reports and even ordinary people's conversations. It has become a national campaign in the new century, with a wide variety of resources--human, financial and material-- flowing to the westem part of the country.

  8. Petroleum Exploration in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Guangding

    2003-01-01

    @@ Over the past 50 years, China has experienced a dramatic turn in its petroleum production. Today, our country is facing the same challenge it met 50 years ago. Therefore, we have to renew our once high vigor to seek more petroleum deposits in order to meet the needs of national develop-ment in the new century.

  9. De-carbonizingChina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    zhou; Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    Innovation in the energy sector will pave the way for the country’slow-carbon future Although its per-capita emission is roughly on par with the world’s average, China is the world’s largest carbon dioxide emitter,

  10. CHINA TEXTILE TEST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s textile industry faces difficult times,but can survive them and create a brighter future. Sun Ruizhe,Vice Chairman of the China National Textile and Apparel Council (CNTAC),shared his views with Belling Review while analysing the difficulties China’s textile industry is now confronted with.

  11. Nephrology in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Hong

    2013-09-01

    China has a large population and a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The increasing incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, coupled with an ageing population, will exacerbate the burden of CKD unless effective control and prevention strategies are implemented. The unmet challenges of managing the growing number of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in China are reflected by the lower rate of patients receiving dialysis relative to many Western countries, owing to a lack of financial and clinical resources, and inequalities in access to health care across regions and populations. The feasibility of expanding peritoneal dialysis is being examined, and ongoing health-care reforms provide an invaluable opportunity to improve the status and quality of dialysis for patients with ESRD in China. The Chinese Society of Nephrology (CSN) advocates for efforts focused on preventing CKD coupled with early detection, treatment, and adequate follow-up to reduce mortality and the long-term burden of CKD. In addition, rapid advances in nephrology research, from basic science to clinical epidemiology, as well as broad communication and collaboration between the CSN and other international nephrology societies, will promote the development of nephrology in China.

  12. China Takes Wing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    COVER STORY If all goes according to plan, Chinese air travellers will be boarding big commercial airliners designed and manufactured in China by the year 2020. The aviation market, long dominated by Boeing and Airbus, will face a home grown challenge in

  13. China Launched VAT Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ In order to boost domestic demand,reduce the tax burden on companies,encourage technological upgrades and push for industrial restructuring,China decided to extend its value-added tax(VAT) reform to all industries nationwide beginning January 1,2009.

  14. Cameron in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KERRY BROWN

    2010-01-01

    @@ British Prime Minister David Cameron's fast official visit to China in November had two objectives.One was to lead one of the largest trade delegations ever accompanied by a UK prime minister to an increasingly important market.The other was for him to meet,and get to know,the Chinese leadership and key figures in the government.

  15. Uranium Provinces in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Three uranium provinces are recognized in China, the Southeast China uranium province, the Northeast China-lnner Mongolia uranium province and the Northwest China (Xinjiang) uranium province. The latter two promise good potential for uranium resources and are major exploration target areas in recent years. There are two major types of uranium deposits: the Phanerozoic hydrothermal type (vein type) and the Meso-Cenozoic sandstone type in different proportions in the three uranium provinces. The most important reason or prerequisite for the formation of these uranium provinces is that Precambrian uranium-enriched old basement or its broken parts (median massifs) exists or once existed in these regions, and underwent strong tectonomagmatic activation during Phanerozoic time. Uranium was mobilized from the old basement and migrated upwards to the upper structural level together with the acidic magma originating from anatexis and the primary fluids, which were then mixed with meteoric water and resulted in the formation of Phanerozoic hydrothermal uranium deposits under extensional tectonic environments. Erosion of uraniferous rocks and pre-existing uranium deposits during the Meso-Cenozoic brought about the removal of uranium into young sedimentary basins. When those basins were uplifted and slightly deformed by later tectonic activity, roll-type uranium deposits were formed as a result of redox in permeable sandstone strata.

  16. China: A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Appendix A). From the Plateau of Tibet other less elevated highlands, rugged east-west trending mountains and plateaus interrupted by deep depresions ...China: A Country Study Table 3. Continued Coavmtiomal Convmtioto y Pinyr to Form of Referenc Form of Ream to nn Turpan Pendi Turfan Depresion Sungari

  17. Playing Against China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadvi, Khalid; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Xue, Hong

    2011-01-01

    football production. We draw on evidence from three of the main production locations – China, Pakistan and India. It appears that compliance with labour standards not only has different implications for the three production locations, but also that compliance alone is an insufficient basis for competing...

  18. NBA Scores In China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The NBA China Games delighted Chinese basketball fans and showcased new business opportunities for the sport American Olympic gold medal-winning basketball player Carmelo Anthony made a superb return to Beijing’s Wukesong arena on October 11,pouring in 45 points and grabbing nine rebounds as

  19. The China Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Steve; Juefei, Wang

    1991-01-01

    Nearly half of all Vermont school districts have participated in the China Project since its inception in 1986. During the program's first two years, participants examined Chinese history, politics, economy, geography, philosophy, arts, ancient inventions, foreign policy, social life, women's social status, the Chinese language, and the Beijing…

  20. Reading the World: China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffa, Jane

    1997-01-01

    Presents picture books, fiction, nonfiction, biographies, folklore, and poetry for young students (kindergarten-grade 8) studying China. Suggests activities based on the books using art, physical education, language arts, research skills, math, science, geography, and drama. Highlights books and collections of folk tales with stories about…