Sample records for sandiford cassegrain echelle

  1. A new generation of spectral extraction and analysis package for Fiber Optics Cassegrain Echelle Spectrograph (FOCES) (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Grupp, Frank; Kellermann, Hanna; Brucalassi, Anna; Schlichter, Jörg; Hopp, Ulrich; Bender, Ralf


    We describe a new generation of spectral extraction and analysis software package (EDRS2) for the Fibre Optics Cassegrain Echelle Spectrograph (FOCES), which will be attached to the 2m Fraunhofer Telescope on the Wendelstein Observatory. The package is developed based on Python language and relies on a variety of third party, open source packages such as Numpy and Scipy. EDRS2 contains generalized image calibration routines including overscan correction, bias subtraction, flat fielding and background correction, and can be supplemented by user customized functions to fit other echelle spectrographs. An optimal extraction method is adopted to obtain the one dimensional spectra, and the output multi order, wavelength calibrated spectra are saved in FITS files with binary table format. We introduce the algorithm and performance of major routines in EDRS2.

  2. Cassegrain-Antenna Gain Improvement (United States)

    Galindo, V.; Cha, A. G.; Mittra, R.


    Modified antenna feed with dual-shaped subreflectors yields 10-to20-percent improvement in efficiency of existing large-aperture paraboloidal or Cassegrainian antennas. Such offset dual-shaped subreflector (DSS) feed brings gain of existing paraboloid or Cassegrain antennas up to that of reflector antennas of more recent design at cost considerably lower than for reshaping existing reflecting surfaces. Mathematical procedures developed for synthesizing nearly optimum shapes for DSS elements of new feeds.

  3. NEWS: the near-infrared Echelle for wideband spectroscopy (United States)

    Veyette, Mark J.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Hall, Zachary J.; Taylor, Brian; Ye, Jimmy


    We present an updated optical and mechanical design of NEWS: the Near-infrared Echelle for Wide-band Spectroscopy (formerly called HiJaK: the High-resolution J, H and K spectrometer), a compact, high-resolution, near-infrared spectrometer for 5-meter class telescopes. NEWS provides a spectral resolution of 60,000 and covers the full 0.8-2.5 μm range in 5 modes. We adopt a compact, lightweight, monolithic design and have developed NEWS to be mounted to the instrument cube at the Cassegrain focus of the new 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope.

  4. NEWS: the near-infrared Echelle for wideband spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Veyette, Mark; Hall, Zachary; Taylor, Brian; Ye, Jimmy


    We present an updated optical and mechanical design of NEWS: the Near-infrared Echelle for Wide-band Spectroscopy (formerly called HiJaK: the High-resolution J, H and K spectrometer), a compact, high-resolution, near-infrared spectrometer for 5-meter class telescopes. NEWS provides a spectral resolution of 60,000 and covers the full 0.8-2.5 micron range in 5 modes. We adopt a compact, lightweight, monolithic design and developed NEWS to be mounted to the instrument cube at the Cassegrain focus of the the new 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope.

  5. WES - Weihai Echelle Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Dong-Yang; Cao, Chen; Hu, Shao-Ming; Wittenmyer, Robert A; Hu, Zhong-Wen; Grupp, Frank; Kellermann, Hanna; Li, Kai; Guo, Di-Fu


    The Weihai Echelle Spectrograph (WES) is the first fiber-fed echelle spectrograph for astronomical observation in China. It is primarily used for chemical abundance and asteroseismology studies of nearby bright stars, as well as radial velocity detections for exoplanets. The optical design of WES is based on the widely demonstrated and well-established white-pupil concept. We describe the WES in detail and present some examples of its performance. A single exposure echelle image covers the spectral region 371-1,100 nm in 107 spectral orders over the rectangular CCD. The spectral resolution $R=\\lambda/\\Delta\\lambda$ changes from 40,600 to 57,000 through adjusting the entrance slit width from full to 2.2 pixels sampling at the fiber-exit. The limiting magnitude scales to $V=8$ with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of more than 100 in $V$ for an hour exposure, at the spectral resolution R$\\approx$40,000 in the median seeing of 1.7$^{\\prime\\prime}$ at Weihai Observatory (WHO) for the 1-meter telescope. The radial ve...

  6. Immersion echelle spectrograph (United States)

    Stevens, Charles G.; Thomas, Norman L.


    A small spectrograph containing no moving components and capable of providing high resolution spectra of the mid-infrared region from 2 microns to 4 microns in wavelength. The resolving power of the spectrograph exceeds 20,000 throughout this region and at an optical throughput of about 10.sup.-5 cm.sup.2 sr. The spectrograph incorporates a silicon immersion echelle grating operating in high spectral order combined with a first order transmission grating in a cross-dispersing configuration to provide a two-dimensional (2-D) spectral format that is focused onto a two-dimensional infrared detector array. The spectrometer incorporates a common collimating and condensing lens assembly in a near aberration-free axially symmetric design. The spectrometer has wide use potential in addition to general research, such as monitoring atmospheric constituents for air quality, climate change, global warming, as well as monitoring exhaust fumes for smog sources or exhaust plumes for evidence of illicit drug manufacture.

  7. Shaped cassegrain reflector antenna. [design equations (United States)

    Rao, B. L. J.


    Design equations are developed to compute the reflector surfaces required to produce uniform illumination on the main reflector of a cassegrain system when the feed pattern is specified. The final equations are somewhat simple and straightforward to solve (using a computer) compared to the ones which exist already in the literature. Step by step procedure for solving the design equations is discussed in detail.

  8. A conceptual design for a Cassegrain-mounted high-resolution optical spectrograph for large-aperture telescopes (United States)

    Froning, Cynthia S.; Osterman, Steven; Burgh, Eric; Beasley, Matthew; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Jordan, Steven; Ebbets, Dennis; Lieber, Michael; deCino, James; Castilho, Bruno Vaz; Gneiding, Clemens; César de Oliveira, Antonio


    We present a conceptual design for a high-resolution optical spectrograph appropriate for mounting at Cassegrain on a large aperture telescope. The design is based on our work for the Gemini High Resolution Optical Spectrograph (CUGHOS) project. Our design places the spectrograph at Cassegrain focus to maximize throughput and blue wavelength coverage, delivering R=40,000 resolving power over a continuous 320-1050 nm waveband with throughputs twice those of current instruments. The optical design uses a two-arm, cross-dispersed echelle format with each arm optimized to maximize efficiency. A fixed image slicer is used to minimize optics sizes. The principal challenge for the instrument design is to minimize flexure and degradation of the optical image. To ensure image stability, our opto-mechanical design combines a cost-effective, passively stable bench employing a honeycomb aluminum structure with active flexure control. The active flexure compensation consists of hexapod mounts for each focal plane with full 6-axis range of motion capability to correct for focus and beam displacement. We verified instrument performance using an integrated model that couples the optical and mechanical design to image performance. The full end-to-end modeling of the system under gravitational, thermal, and vibrational perturbations shows that deflections of the optical beam at the focal plane are active control to meet the stability requirement. The design elements and high fidelity modeling process are generally applicable to instruments requiring high stability under a varying gravity vector.

  9. High Efficiency Low Scatter Echelle Grating Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high efficiency low scatter echelle grating will be developed using a novel technique of multiple diamond shaving cuts. The grating will have mirror surfaces on...

  10. Implementation of an Optimised Cassegrain System for Radio Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Holler, C M; Jones, M E; Grainge, K; Kaneko, T


    We present the antenna design for a radio interferometer, the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager, together with its beam pattern measurement. Our aim was to develop a low-cost system with high aperture efficiency and low ground-spill across the frequency range 12-18GHz. We use a modified cassegrain system consisting of a commercially-available paraboloidal primary mirror with a diameter of 3.7m, and a shaped secondary mirror. The secondary mirror is oversized with respect to a ray-optics design and has a surface that is bent towards the primary near its outer edge using a square term for the shaping. The antennas are simple to manufacture and therefore their cost is low. The design increased the antenna gain by approximately 10 per cent compared to a normal Cassegrain system while still maintaining low contamination from ground-spill and using a simple design for the horn.

  11. Groove shape characteristics of echelle gratings with high diffraction efficiency (United States)

    Zhang, Shanwen; Mi, Xiaotao; Zhang, Qian; Jirigalantu; Feng, Shulong; Yu, Haili; Qi, Xiangdong


    The groove shape characteristics of echelle gratings with high diffraction efficiency are investigated. Using the coordinate transformation method (C method), an r-2 aluminum echelle with 79 grooves/mm is optimized through rigorous numerical simulations and shows high diffraction efficiency of 76-81% in the high Littrow orders. A grating is found to be essentially an echelle if it contains a series of reflective facets with a specific tilt angle that are located far from the nonworking facet of the grating and have a deep groove depth; any groove shape that meets these conditions can be called an echelle grating. The underlying mechanism is analyzed phenomenologically using electromagnetic theory. The universal model proposed here, which represents a new cognitive understanding of the concept of the echelle, is ready for use in manufacturing applications and offers a new perspective for the fabrication of these gratings.

  12. Optimum design of Cassegrain antenna for space laser communication (United States)

    Hu, Yuan; Jiang, Lun; Wang, Chao; Li, Yingchao


    The divergence angle is very important index in space laser communication for energy transfer. Typically, the large aperture telescope as optical antenna is used for angle compression, and the divergence angle of communication beam is usually calculated by diffraction limit angle equation 1.22λ/D. This equation expresses the diffraction of a spherical wave through a circular aperture. However, the light source commonly used laser with a Gaussian distribution, and the optical antenna is central obscurations. The antenna parameters which is obscuration ratio and Gaussian beam apodization were significantly relative with the far field energy. In this study, we obtain the mathematic relation between the divergence angle, energy loss and the antenna parameters. From the relationship, we know that the divergence angle smaller as the increase of antenna obscuration ratio. It would tend to enhance the far-field energy density. But a larger obscuration ratio will increase the energy loss. At the same time, the increase of Gaussian beam apodization resulted in the energy of first diffraction ring was raised but the radius of first ring was increased. They were conflict. And then, the antenna parameters of trade-off was found from curves of obscuration ratio and curves of divergence angle. The parameters of a Cassegrain antenna was optimum designed for the energy maximization, and considerd the apodization from mechanical structure blocking. The long-distance laser communications were successful in these airborne tests. Stable communication was demonstrated. The energy gain is sufficient for SNR of high-bandwidth transmission in atmospheric channel.

  13. A new Cassegrain calibration lamp unit for the Blanco Telescope (United States)

    Points, S. D.; James, D. J.; Tighe, R.; Montané, A.; David, N.; Martínez, M.


    The f/8 RC-Cassegrain Focus of the Blanco Telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, hosts two new instruments: COSMOS, a multi-object spectrograph in the visible wavelength range (350 - 1030nm), and ARCoIRIS, a NIR cross-dispersed spectrograph featuring 6 spectral orders spanning 0.8 - 2.45μm. Here we describe a calibration lamp unit designed to deliver the required illumination at the telescope focal plane for both instruments. These requirements are: (1) an f/8 beam of light covering a spot of 92mm diameter (or 10 arcmin) for a wavelength range of 0.35μm through 2.5μm and (2) no saturation of flat-field calibrations for the minimal exposure times permitted by each instrument, and (3) few saturated spectral lines when using the wavelength calibration lamps for the instruments. To meet these requirements this unit contains an adjustable quartz halogen lamp for flat-field calibrations, and one hollow cathode lamp and four penray lamps for wavelength calibrations. The wavelength calibration lamps are selected to provide optimal spectral coverage for the instrument mounted and can be used individually or in sets. The device designed is based on an 8-inch diameter integrating sphere, the output of which is optimized to match the f/8 calibration input delivery system which is a refractive system based on fused-silica lenses. We describe the optical design, the opto-mechanical design, the electronic control and give results of the performance of the system.

  14. High Resolution Stellar Spectroscopy with VBT Echelle Spectrometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N. Kameswara Rao; S. Sriram; K. Jayakumar; F. Gabriel


    The optical design and performance of the recently commissioned fiber fed echelle spectrometer of 2.34 meter Vainu Bappu Telescope are described. The use of it for stellar spectroscopic studies is discussed.

  15. CARMENES: Calar Alto high-resolution search for M dwarfs with exo-earths with a near-infrared Echelle spectrograph (United States)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Mandel, H.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Afonso, C.; Barrado y Navascues, D.; Bean, J. L.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Becerril, S.; Böhm, A.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Costillo, L. P.; Dreizler, S.; Fernández, M.; Francisco, X.; Galadí, D.; Garrido, R.; González Hernández, J. I.; Guàrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; Gutiérrez-Soto, F.; Joergens, V.; Hatzes, A. P.; Helmling, J.; Henning, T.; Herrero, E.; Kürster, M.; Laun, W.; Lenzen, R.; Mall, U.; Martin, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Mirabet, E.; Montes, D.; Morales, J. C.; Morales Muñoz, R.; Moya, A.; Naranjo, V.; Rabaza, O.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Reffert, S.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez Trinidad, A.; Rohloff, R. R.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Schmidt, C.; Seifert, W.; Setiawan, J.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Storz, C.; Suárez, J. C.; Thiele, U.; Wagner, K.; Wiedemann, G.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; del Burgo, C.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Xu, W.


    CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation instrument to be built for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of Spanish and German institutions. Conducting a five-year exoplanet survey targeting ~ 300 M stars with the completed instrument is an integral part of the project. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.52 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 85, 000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. The spectrographs are housed in a temperature-stabilized environment in vacuum tanks, to enable a 1m/s radial velocity precision employing a simultaneous ThAr calibration.

  16. NRES: The Network of Robotic Echelle Spectrographs (United States)

    Siverd, Robert; Brown, Timothy M.; Henderson, Todd; Hygelund, John; Barnes, Stuart; Bowman, Mark; De Vera, Jon; Eastman, Jason D.; Kirby, Annie; Norbury, Martin; Smith, Cary; Taylor, Brook; Tufts, Joseph; Van Eyken, Julian C.


    Las Cumbres Observatory (LCO) is building the Network of Robotic Echelle Spectrographs (NRES), which will consist of four to six identical, optical (390 - 860 nm) high-precision spectrographs, each fiber-fed simultaneously by up to two 1-meter telescopes and a Thorium-Argon calibration source. We plan to install one at up to 6 observatory sites in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, creating a single, globally-distributed, autonomous spectrograph facility using up to ten 1-m telescopes. Simulations suggest we will achieve long-term radial velocity precision of 3 m/s in less than an hour for stars brighter than V = 11 or 12. Following a few months of on-sky evaluation at our BPL test facility, the first spectrograph unit was shipped to CTIO in late 2016 and installed in March 2017. Barring serious complications, we expect regular scheduled science observing to begin in mid-2017. Three additional units are in building or testing phases and slated for deployment in late 2017. Acting in concert, these four spectrographs will provide a new, unique facility for stellar characterization and precise radial velocities. We will briefly overview the LCO telescope network, the NRES spectrograph design, the advantages it provides, and development challenges we encountered along the way. We will further discuss real-world performance from our first unit, initial science results, and the ongoing software development effort needed to automate such a facility for a wide array of science cases.

  17. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Cassegrain IAC80 (United States)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.


    El proyecto de instrumentación de mayor importancia que ha tenido el Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias en los últimos afios ha sido el diseflo y construcción del te1escopio IAC8O. Este requería del esfuerzo con junto en mec´nica, óptica y electrónica, lo que facilitó la estructuración y el crecimiento de los respectivos grupos de trabajo, que posteriormente se integraron en departamentos En su origen (1977), el telescopio IAC80 fue concebido como un sistema clásico tipo Cassegrain, con una razón focal F/i 1.3 para el sistema Casse grain y una razón focal F/20 para el sistema Coudé. Posteriormente, aunque se mantuvo la filosofia de que el sistema básico fuera el F/11.3, se consideró conveniente el diseño de secundarios para razones focales F/16 y F/32, y se eliminó el de F/20. Sin embargo, dada la importancia relativa que un foco estrictamente fotográfico tiene en un telescopio moderno, diseñado básicamente para fotometría fotoeléctrica y con un campo util mínimamente de 40 minutos de arco, se decídió Ilevar a cabo el diseño de un secundario F/8 con un sistema corrector de campo, pero que estuviera formado únicamente por lentes con superficies esféricas para que asl su construcción fuera posible en España ó en México. La creciente utilización de detectores bidimensionales para fines de investigación astron6mica y la viabilidad de que en un futuro cercano éstos tengan un área sensible cada vez mayor, hicieron atractiva la idea de tener diseñado un sistema corrector de campo para el foco primario (F/3), con un campo útil mínimo de un grado, y también con la limitante de que sus componentes tuvieron sólamente supérficies esféricas. Ambos diseños de los sis-temas correctores de campo se llevaron a cabo, en gran medida, como parte de un proyecto de colaboración e intercambio en el área de diseño y evaluación de sistemas ópticos.

  18. An echelle diffraction grating for imaging spectrometer (United States)

    Yang, Minyue; Wang, Han; Li, Mingyu; He, Jian-Jun


    We demonstrate an echelle diffraction grating (EDG) of 17 input waveguides and 33 output waveguides. For each input waveguide, only 17 of 33 output waveguides are used, receiving light ranging from 1520 nm to 1600 nm wavelength. The channel spacing of the EDG is 5 nm, with loss of -6dB and crosstalk of -17dB for center input waveguide and -15dB for edge input waveguides. Based on the 3 μm SOI platform the device is polarization insensitive. As a simple version of EDG spectrometer it is designed to be a part of the on-chip spectroscopic system of the push-broom scanning imaging spectrometer. The whole on-chip spectrometer consists of an optical on-off switch array, a multi-input EDG and detector array. With the help of on-off switch array the multiple input waveguides of the EDG spectrometer could work in a time division multiplexed fashion. Since the switch can scan very fast (less than 10 microseconds), the imaging spectrometer can be operated in push-broom mode. Due to the CMOS compatibility, the 17_channel EDG scales 2.5×3 mm2. The full version of EDG spectrometer is designed to have 129 input waveguides and 257 output waveguides (129 output channel for each input waveguide), working in wavelength ranging from 1250 nm to 1750 nm, and had similar blazed facet size with the 17_channel one, which means similar fabrication tolerance in grating facets. The waveguide EDG based imaging spectrometer can provide a low-cost solution for remote sensing on unmanned aerial vehicles, with advantages of small size, light weight, vibration-proof, and high scalability.

  19. CERES: Collection of Extraction Routines for Echelle Spectra (United States)

    Brahm, Rafael; Jordán, Andrés; Espinoza, Néstor


    The Collection of Extraction Routines for Echelle Spectra (CERES) constructs automated pipelines for the reduction, extraction, and analysis of echelle spectrograph data. This modular code includes tools for handling the different steps of the processing: CCD reductions, tracing of the echelle orders, optimal and simple extraction, computation of the wave-length solution, estimation of radial velocities, and rough and fast estimation of the atmospheric parameters. The standard output of pipelines constructed with CERES is a FITS cube with the optimally extracted, wavelength calibrated and instrumental drift-corrected spectrum for each of the science images. Additionally, CERES includes routines for the computation of precise radial velocities and bisector spans via the cross-correlation method, and an automated algorithm to obtain an estimate of the atmospheric parameters of the observed star.

  20. CERES: A Set of Automated Reduction Routines for Echelle Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Brahm, Rafael; Espinoza, Néstor


    We present the Collection of Extraction Routines for Echelle Spectra (CERES). These routines were developed for the construction of automated pipelines for the reduction, extraction and analysis of spectra acquired with different instruments, allowing the obtention of homogeneous and standardised results. This modular code includes tools for handling the different steps of the processing: CCD reductions, tracing of the echelle orders, optimal and simple extraction, computation of the wavelength solution, estimation of radial velocities, and rough and fast estimation of the atmospheric parameters. Currently, CERES has been used to develop automated pipelines for eleven different spectrographs, namely CORALIE, FEROS, HARPS, PUCHEROS, FIDEOS, CAFE, DuPont/Echelle, Magellan/Mike, Keck/HIRES, Magellan/PFS and APO/ARCES, but the routines can be easily used in order to deal with data coming from other spectrographs. We show the high precision in radial velocity that CERES achieves for some of these instruments and w...

  1. Modelling high resolution Echelle spectrographs for calibrations: Hanle Echelle spectrograph, a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Chanumolu, Anantha; Thirupathi, Sivarani


    We present a modelling scheme that predicts the centroids of spectral line features for a high resolution Echelle spectrograph to a high accuracy. Towards this, a computing scheme is used, whereby any astronomical spectrograph can be modelled and controlled without recourse to a ray tracing program. The computations are based on paraxial ray trace and exact corrections added for certain surface types and Buchdahl aberration coefficients for complex modules. The resultant chain of paraxial ray traces and corrections for all relevant components is used to calculate the location of any spectral line on the detector under all normal operating conditions with a high degree of certainty. This will allow a semi-autonomous control using simple in-house, programming modules. The scheme is simple enough to be implemented even in a spreadsheet or in any scripting language. Such a model along with an optimization routine can represent the real time behaviour of the instrument. We present here a case study for Hanle Echel...

  2. Simulation of the Optical System for the ASTRO-G Offset Cassegrain Antenna (United States)

    Kimura, K.; Toshikawa, T.; Shiroyama, N.; Kurozumi, A.; Ojima, T. K.; Abe, Y.; Yonekura, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Ujihara, H.; Murata, Y.; Tsuboi, M.; Kasuga, T.


    We are developing the satellite (ASTRO-G) for the space VLBI mission, called VSOP-2 (Hirabayashi et al. 2004). This system will have an offset cassegrain antenna, and the three multi-mode feed horns (8, 22, 43 GHz bands) will be chosen by the Cassegrain focus position. We are designing the antenna optics of the three band receivers by using the GRASP physical optics software package on simulated feed configurations. The result of these simulations shows low cross-polarization level, a good radiation pattern, and the antenna efficiencies are 63--68 percent in these bands, assuming a perfect reflector. In this paper, we present these results of simulation of ASTRO-G antenna optics.

  3. CERES: A Set of Automated Routines for Echelle Spectra (United States)

    Brahm, Rafael; Jordán, Andrés; Espinoza, Néstor


    We present the Collection of Elemental Routines for Echelle Spectra (CERES). These routines were developed for the construction of automated pipelines for the reduction, extraction, and analysis of spectra acquired with different instruments, allowing the obtention of homogeneous and standardized results. This modular code includes tools for handling the different steps of the processing: CCD image reductions; identification and tracing of the echelle orders; optimal and rectangular extraction; computation of the wavelength solution; estimation of radial velocities; and rough and fast estimation of the atmospheric parameters. Currently, CERES has been used to develop automated pipelines for 13 different spectrographs, namely CORALIE, FEROS, HARPS, ESPaDOnS, FIES, PUCHEROS, FIDEOS, CAFE, DuPont/Echelle, Magellan/Mike, Keck/HIRES, Magellan/PFS, and APO/ARCES, but the routines can be easily used to deal with data coming from other spectrographs. We show the high precision in radial velocity that CERES achieves for some of these instruments, and we briefly summarize some results that have already been obtained using the CERES pipelines.

  4. Hyperbola-parabola primary mirror in Cassegrain optical antenna to improve transmission efficiency. (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Lu; Yang, HuaJun; Jiang, Ping; Mao, Shengqian; Caiyang, Weinan


    An optical model with a hyperbola-parabola primary mirror added in the Cassegrain optical antenna, which can effectively improve the transmission efficiency, is proposed in this paper. The optimum parameters of a hyperbola-parabola primary mirror and a secondary mirror for the optical antenna system have been designed and analyzed in detail. The parabola-hyperbola primary structure optical antenna is obtained to improve the transmission efficiency of 10.60% in theory, and the simulation efficiency changed 9.359%. For different deflection angles to the receiving antenna with the emit antenna, the coupling efficiency curve of the optical antenna has been obtained.

  5. CAFE: Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Aceituno, J; Grupp, F; Lillo, J; Hernan-Obispo, M; Benitez, D; Montoya, L M; Thiele, U; Pedraz, S; Barrado, D; Dreizler, S; Bean, J


    We present here CAFE, the Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph, a new instrument built at the Centro Astronomico Hispano Alem\\'an (CAHA). CAFE is a single fiber, high-resolution ($R\\sim$70000) spectrograph, covering the wavelength range between 3650-9800\\AA. It was built on the basis of the common design for Echelle spectrographs. Its main aim is to measure radial velocities of stellar objects up to $V\\sim$13-14 mag with a precision as good as a few tens of $m s^{-1}$. To achieve this goal the design was simplified at maximum, removing all possible movable components, the central wavelength is fixed, so the wavelentgth coverage; no filter wheel, one slit and so on, with a particular care taken in the thermal and mechanical stability. The instrument is fully operational and publically accessible at the 2.2m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory. In this article we describe (i) the design, summarizing its manufacturing phase; (ii) characterize the main properties of the instrument; (iii) describe the red...

  6. Multiplexed Cassegrain Reflector Antenna for Simultaneous Generation of Three Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) Modes (United States)

    Byun, Woo Jin; Kim, Kwang Seon; Kim, Bong Su; Lee, Young Seung; Song, Myung Sun; Choi, Hyung Do; Cho, Yong Heui


    A multiplexed Cassegrain reflector antenna with a 2 × 2 open-ended rectangular waveguide (OERW) matrix feed and an orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode mux is proposed for the simultaneous generation of three OAM modes (l = 0, ±1). The OAM mode mux (OMM) was designed using sequential combinations of quadrature hybrids, crossovers, and phase shifters to multiplex and demultiplex three OAM modes at the same time. The 2 × 2 OERW matrix feed and the OMM were separately measured and their performances were verified according to proposed theories. A near-field antenna measurement for a multiplexed Cassegrain reflector antenna was conducted to obtain the far-field magnitude and phase patterns around polar elevation angle θ and azimuthal angle ϕ, thus confirming that our antenna can produce three OAM modes simultaneously. We also measured the communication link characteristics of two identical multiplexed antennas. The measurement results show that the channel isolation of three OAM modes is more than 12.7 [dB] and 17 [dB] for fixed and compensated receiver positions, respectively, indicating that the proposed antenna system can be used for independent communication links with the same frequency and polarisation.

  7. Multiplexed Cassegrain Reflector Antenna for Simultaneous Generation of Three Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) Modes. (United States)

    Byun, Woo Jin; Kim, Kwang Seon; Kim, Bong Su; Lee, Young Seung; Song, Myung Sun; Choi, Hyung Do; Cho, Yong Heui


    A multiplexed Cassegrain reflector antenna with a 2 × 2 open-ended rectangular waveguide (OERW) matrix feed and an orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode mux is proposed for the simultaneous generation of three OAM modes (l = 0, ±1). The OAM mode mux (OMM) was designed using sequential combinations of quadrature hybrids, crossovers, and phase shifters to multiplex and demultiplex three OAM modes at the same time. The 2 × 2 OERW matrix feed and the OMM were separately measured and their performances were verified according to proposed theories. A near-field antenna measurement for a multiplexed Cassegrain reflector antenna was conducted to obtain the far-field magnitude and phase patterns around polar elevation angle θ and azimuthal angle ϕ, thus confirming that our antenna can produce three OAM modes simultaneously. We also measured the communication link characteristics of two identical multiplexed antennas. The measurement results show that the channel isolation of three OAM modes is more than 12.7 [dB] and 17 [dB] for fixed and compensated receiver positions, respectively, indicating that the proposed antenna system can be used for independent communication links with the same frequency and polarisation.

  8. Design and Construction of VUES: the Vilnius University Echelle Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Jurgenson, Colby; McCracken, Tyler; Sawyer, David; Szymkowiak, Andrew; Giguere, Matt; Santoro, Fernando; Muller, Gary


    In February of 2014 the Yale Exoplanet Laboratory was commissioned to design, build, and deliver a high resolution (R = 60,000) spectrograph for the 1.65-meter telescope at the Moletai Astronomical Observatory. The observatory is operated by the Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy at Vilnius University. The Vilnius University Echelle Spectrograph (VUES) is a white-pupil design that is fed via an octagonal fiber from the telescope and has an operational bandpass from 400 to 880 nm. VUES incorporates a novel modular optomechanical design that allows for quick assembly and alignment on commercial optical tables. This approach allowed the spectrograph to be assembled and commissioned at Yale using lab optical tables and then reassembled at the observatory on a different optical table with excellent repeatability. The assembly and alignment process for the spectrograph was reduced to a few days, allowing the spectrograph to be completely disassembled for shipment to Lithuania, and then installed at the ...

  9. Development and investigation of a CPV module with Cassegrain mirror optics (United States)

    Dreger, Max; Wiesenfarth, Maike; Kisser, Arne; Schmid, Tobias; Bett, Andreas W.


    One approach to concentrate the sunlight in concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) modules is using Cassegrain mirror optics. The advantage is that a passively cooled solar cell can be mounted to a large heat spreader that does not shade the primary optics. In addition, the height of the module, hence weight, can be low. The design was selected on the basis of the results of a design study comparing different CPV module approaches presented in [1]. In this work, we present the development of a new prototype micro dish module. First results of the characterization are shown. Besides of the electrical performance, a machined optics and an injection molded was investigated regarding sensitivity to misalignment errors between the optical elements as well as measurement of the acceptance angle in- and outdoors. The machined optics was used as reference.

  10. Effect of random surface errors on radiation characteristics of the side-fed offset Cassegrain antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shao-dong; JIAO Yong-chang; ZHANG Fu-shun


    In this paper the average power pattern of the side-fed offset Cassegrain (SFOC) dual reflector antenna is analyzed,and the effect of the random surface error on radiation characteristics of the antenna is introduced.Here,the random surface error is defined as the error of the standard reflector in its normal direction and the errors in a small zone of the reflector are considered as equal.We also assume that the phase error on the aperture led by the random surface error obeys a Gaussian distribution with zero mean,under which the expression of the average power pattern is deduced.Finally,the data related to the radiation characteristics of the antenna are calculated and the corresponding curves are presented.The obtained results can be used for the user to determine the manufacturing accuracy of the reflector of the SFOC antennas.

  11. SpUpNIC (Spectrograph Upgrade: Newly Improved Cassegrain) on the South African Astronomical Observatory's 74-inch telescope (United States)

    Crause, Lisa A.; Carter, Dave; Daniels, Alroy; Evans, Geoff; Fourie, Piet; Gilbank, David; Hendricks, Malcolm; Koorts, Willie; Lategan, Deon; Loubser, Egan; Mouries, Sharon; O'Connor, James E.; O'Donoghue, Darragh E.; Potter, Stephen; Sass, Craig; Sickafoose, Amanda A.; Stoffels, John; Swanevelder, Pieter; Titus, Keegan; van Gend, Carel; Visser, Martin; Worters, Hannah L.


    SpUpNIC (Spectrograph Upgrade: Newly Improved Cassegrain) is the extensively upgraded Cassegrain Spectrograph on the South African Astronomical Observatory's 74-inch (1.9-m) telescope. The inverse-Cassegrain collimator mirrors and woefully inefficient Maksutov-Cassegrain camera optics have been replaced, along with the CCD and SDSU controller. All moving mechanisms are now governed by a programmable logic controller, allowing remote configuration of the instrument via an intuitive new graphical user interface. The new collimator produces a larger beam to match the optically faster Folded-Schmidt camera design and nine surface-relief diffraction gratings offer various wavelength ranges and resolutions across the optical domain. The new camera optics (a fused silica Schmidt plate, a slotted fold flat and a spherically figured primary mirror, both Zerodur, and a fused silica field-flattener lens forming the cryostat window) reduce the camera's central obscuration to increase the instrument throughput. The physically larger and more sensitive CCD extends the available wavelength range; weak arc lines are now detectable down to 325 nm and the red end extends beyond one micron. A rear-of-slit viewing camera has streamlined the observing process by enabling accurate target placement on the slit and facilitating telescope focus optimisation. An interactive quick-look data reduction tool further enhances the user-friendliness of SpUpNI

  12. AVES: an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph for the VLT (United States)

    Pasquini, Luca; Delabre, Bernard; Avila, Gerardo; Bonaccini, Domenico


    We present the preliminary study of a low cost, high performance spectrograph for the VLT, for observations in the V, R and I bands. This spectrograph is meant for intermediate (R equals 16,000) resolution spectroscopy of faint (sky and/or detector limited) sources, with particular emphasis on the study of solar-type (F-G) stars belonging to the nearest galaxies and to distant (or highly reddened) galactic clusters. The spectrograph is designed to use the adaptive optics (AO) systems at the VLT Telescope. Even if these AO systems will not provide diffraction limited images in the V, R and I bands, the photon concentration will still be above approximately 60% of the flux in an 0.3 arcsecond aperture for typical Paranal conditions. This makes the construction of a compact, cheap and efficient echelle spectrograph possible. AVES will outperform comparable non adaptive optic instruments by more than one magnitude for sky- and/or detector-limited observations, and it will be very suitable for observations in crowded fields.

  13. Design and Construction of VUES: The Vilnius University Echelle Spectrograph (United States)

    Jurgenson, Colby; Fischer, Debra; McCracken, Tyler; Sawyer, David; Giguere, Matt; Szymkowiak, Andrew; Santoro, Fernando; Muller, Gary


    In February 2014, the Yale Exoplanet Laboratory was commissioned to design, build, and deliver a high resolution (R=60,000) spectrograph for the 1.65m telescope at the Molėtai Astronomical Observatory. The observatory is operated by the Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy at Vilnius University. The Vilnius University Echelle Spectrograph (VUES) is a white-pupil design that is fed via an octagonal fiber from the telescope and has an operational bandpass from 400nm to 880nm. VUES incorporates a novel modular optomechanical design that allows for quick assembly and alignment on commercial optical tables. This approach allowed the spectrograph to be assembled and commissioned at Yale using lab optical tables and then reassembled at the observatory on a different optical table with excellent repeatability. The assembly and alignment process for the spectrograph was reduced to a few days, allowing the spectrograph to be completely disassembled for shipment to Lithuania, and then installed at the observatory during a 10-day period in June of 2015.

  14. First Light results from PARAS: The PRL Echelle Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Abhijit; Roy, Arpita; Pathan, Fazalahmed M; Shah, Vishal; Richardson, Eric H; Ubale, Girish; Shah, Rajesh


    We present the first light commissioning results from the Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) optical fiber-fed high resolution cross-dispersed Echelle Spectrograph. It is capable of a single- shot spectral coverage of 3700A to 8600A at R ~ 63,000 and is under very stable conditions of temperature (0.04{\\deg}C at 23{\\deg}C). In the very near future pressure control will also be achieved by enclosing the entire spectrograph in a low-pressure vacuum chamber (~0.01mbar). It is attached to a 1.2m telescope using two 50micron core optical fibers (one for the star and another for simultaneous Th-Ar spectral calibration). The 1.2m telescope is located at Mt. Abu, India, and we are guaranteed about 80 to 100 nights a year for observations with the spectrograph. The instrument will be ultimately used for radial-velocity searches of exoplanets around 1000 dwarf stars, brighter than 10th magnitude, for the next 5 years with a precision of 3 to 5m/s using the simultaneous Th-Ar spectral lamp reference technique. The spect...

  15. IP Pegasi in outburst: Echelle spectroscopy & Modulation Doppler Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Papadaki, C; Steeghs, D


    We analyse a unique set of time-resolved echelle spectra of the dwarf nova IP Peg, obtained at ESO's NTT with EMMI. The dataset covers the wavelength range of 4000-7500A and shows Balmer, HeI, HeII and heavier elements in emission. IP Peg was observed one day after the peak of an outburst. The trailed spectra, spectrograms and Doppler maps show characteristics typical of IP Pegasi during the early stages of its outburst. The high-ionisation line of HeII 4686A is the most centrally located line and has the greatest radial extension compared to the HeI lines. The Balmer lines extend from close to the white dwarf up to approximately 0.45 times R_L, with the outer radius gradually increasing when moving from H delta to H alpha. The application, for the first time, of the modulation Doppler tomography technique, maps any harmonically varying components present in the system configuration. We find, as expected, that part of the strong secondary star emission in Balmer and HeI lines is modulated predominantly with t...

  16. Echelle long-slit optical spectroscopy of evolved stars

    CERN Document Server

    Contreras, C Sanchez; de Paz, A Gil; Goodrich, R


    We present echelle long-slit optical spectra of a sample of objects evolving off the AGB, most of them in the pre-planetary nebula (pPN) phase, obtained with the ESI and MIKE spectrographs at Keck-II and Magellan-I, respectively. The total wavelength range covered with ESI (MIKE) is ~3900 to 10900 A (~3600 to 7200A). In this paper, we focus our analysis mainly on the Halpha profiles. Prominent Halpha emission is detected in half of the objects, most of which show broad Halpha wings (up to ~4000 km/s). In the majority of the Halpha-emission sources, fast, post-AGB winds are revealed by P-Cygni profiles. In ~37% of the objects Halpha is observed in absorption. In almost all cases, the absorption profile is partially filled with emission, leading to complex, structured profiles that are interpreted as an indication of incipient post-AGB mass-loss. All sources in which Halpha is seen mainly in absorption have F-G type central stars, whereas sources with intense Halpha emission span a larger range of spectral type...

  17. Off-the-shelf Echelle Spectroscopy: Two Devices on the Test Block (United States)

    Eversberg, Thomas


    Today, various Echelle spectrographs for small telescopes are available on the market. These instruments are ready-to-use, including professional data reduction chains. Manufacturers claim that their compact instruments can deliver professionally usable data for very low prices. This paper presents extensive tests of the two most popular small-scale Echelle spectrographs for telescopes in the 1 m domain with a focus on radial velocity accuracy.

  18. Efficient approach to designing a Schmidt-Cassegrain objective for a remote sensing satellite. (United States)

    Tawfik, Tamer M


    This paper presents an efficient approach to designing a Schmidt-Cassegrain objective for a remote sensing satellite. The objective is required to have multispectral operational bands, with three spectral channels distributed along the range (0.5 to 0.9 mum), as well as a panchromatic channel; 4 degrees field of view; distortion smaller than 0.3%; and a modulation transfer function, at 50 lines/mm spatial frequency, better than 0.5 and 0.35 at the center and edge of the field of view. The proposed design approach is based on Slyusarev's theory of aberrations and optical design. An image quality index is formulated as a function of optical system component powers and axial distances. For each combination of parameters, there exists a possible solution that can be realized into a thin lens system by solving Seidel sum equations. The final design is then reached by a simple and quick optimization step. The best three designs are compared in terms of initial values of optical system parameters and final design specifications. The best system image quality is thoroughly analyzed. All three presented designs meet and exceed the required design specifications.

  19. 1.2 Meter Shielded Cassegrain Antenna for Close-Packed Radio Interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Patrick M; Huang, Yau-De; Chen, Ming-Tang; Han, Chih-Chiang; Lin, Kai-Yang; Altamirano, Pablo; Granet, Christophe; Ho, Paul T P; Huang, Chih-Wei L; Kesteven, Michael; Li, Chao-Te; Liao, Yu-Wei; Liu, Guo-Chin; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Ong, Ching-Long; Oshiro, Peter; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty


    Interferometric millimeter observations of the cosmic microwave background and clusters of galaxies with arcmin resolutions require antenna arrays with short spacings. Having all antennas co-mounted on a single steerable platform sets limits to the overall weight. A 25 kg lightweight novel carbon-fiber design for a 1.2 m diameter Cassegrain antenna is presented. The finite element analysis predicts excellent structural behavior under gravity, wind and thermal load. The primary and secondary mirror surfaces are aluminum coated with a thin TiO$_2$ top layer for protection. A low beam sidelobe level is achieved with a Gaussian feed illumination pattern with edge taper, designed based on feedhorn antenna simulations and verified in a far field beam pattern measurement. A shielding baffle reduces inter-antenna coupling to below $\\sim$ -135 dB. The overall antenna efficiency, including a series of efficiency factors, is estimated to be around 60%, with major losses coming from the feed spillover and secondary block...

  20. Development of a 0.5m clear aperture Cassegrain type collimator telescope (United States)

    Ekinci, Mustafa; Selimoǧlu, Özgür


    Collimator is an optical instrument used to evaluate performance of high precision instruments, especially space-born high resolution telescopes. Optical quality of the collimator telescope needs to be better than the instrument to be measured. This requirement leads collimator telescope to be a very precise instrument with high quality mirrors and a stable structure to keep it operational under specified conditions. In order to achieve precision requirements and to ensure repeatability of the mounts for polishing and metrology, opto-mechanical principles are applied to mirror mounts. Finite Element Method is utilized to simulate gravity effects, integration errors and temperature variations. Finite element analyses results of deformed optical surfaces are imported to optical domain by using Zernike polynomials to evaluate the design against specified WFE requirements. Both mirrors are aspheric and made from Zerodur for its stability and near zero CTE, M1 is further light-weighted. Optical quality measurements of the mirrors are achieved by using custom made CGHs on an interferometric test setup. Spider of the Cassegrain collimator telescope has a flexural adjustment mechanism driven by precise micrometers to overcome tilt errors originating from finite stiffness of the structure and integration errors. Collimator telescope is assembled and alignment methods are proposed.

  1. Echelle grating multi-order imaging spectrometer utilizing a catadioptric lens (United States)

    Chrisp, Michael P; Bowers, Joel M


    A cryogenically cooled imaging spectrometer that includes a spectrometer housing having a first side and a second side opposite the first side. An entrance slit is on the first side of the spectrometer housing and directs light to a cross-disperser grating. An echelle immersions grating and a catadioptric lens are positioned in the housing to receive the light. A cryogenically cooled detector is located in the housing on the second side of the spectrometer housing. Light from the entrance slit is directed to the cross-disperser grating. The light is directed from the cross-disperser grating to the echelle immersions grating. The light is directed from the echelle immersions grating to the cryogenically cooled detector on the second side of the spectrometer housing.

  2. Optical design of a 4-off-axis-unit Cassegrain ultra-high concentrator photovoltaics module with a central receiver. (United States)

    Ferrer-Rodríguez, Juan P; Fernández, Eduardo F; Almonacid, Florencia; Pérez-Higueras, Pedro


    Ultra-high concentrator photovoltaics (UHCPV), with concentrations higher than 1000 suns, have been pointed out by different authors as having great potential for being a cost-effective PV technology. This Letter presents a UHCPV Cassegrain-based optical design in which the sunrays are concentrated and sent from four different and independent paraboloid-hyperboloid pairs optical units onto a single central receiver. The optical design proposed has the main advantage of the achievement of ultra-high concentration ratios using relative small mirrors with similar performance values of efficiency, acceptance angle, and irradiance uniformity to other designs.

  3. Extracting Radial Velocities of A- and B-type Stars from Echelle Spectrograph Calibration Spectra (United States)

    Becker, Juliette C.; Johnson, John Asher; Vanderburg, Andrew; Morton, Timothy D.


    We present a technique to extract radial velocity (RV) measurements from echelle spectrograph observations of rapidly rotating stars (V sin i≳ 50 km s-1). This type of measurement is difficult because the line widths of such stars are often comparable to the width of a single echelle order. To compensate for the scarcity of lines and Doppler information content, we have developed a process that forward-models the observations, fitting the RV shift of the star for all echelle orders simultaneously with the echelle blaze function. We use our technique to extract RV measurements from a sample of rapidly rotating A- and B-type stars used as calibrator stars observed by the California Planet Survey observations. We measure absolute RVs with a precision ranging from 0.5-2.0 km s-1 per epoch for more than 100 A- and B-type stars. In our sample of 10 well-sampled stars with RV scatter in excess of their measurement uncertainties, three of these are single-lined binaries with long observational baselines. From this subsample, we present detections of two previously unknown spectroscopic binaries and one known astrometric system. Our technique will be useful in measuring or placing upper limits on the masses of sub-stellar companions discovered by wide-field transit surveys, and conducting future spectroscopic binarity surveys and Galactic space-motion studies of massive and/or young, rapidly rotating stars.

  4. Optimum design for Cassegrain optical system%Cassegrain光学天线系统的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓军; 王冰; 杨华军; 江萍; 张瑶


    由于空间光通信中采用的激光束的光场分布呈高斯分布,反射镜对光线的遮挡将严重影响天线的传输效率,从而导致通信质量的下降,针对Cassegrain光学天线,对光学天线的系统结构以及次镜遮拦对天线增益的影响进行了分析,并根据高斯光束经过光学系统的变换与传输特性,分析了采用Cassegrain天线时,遮拦比以及入射光束束腰对光束透过率的影响,提出了一种提高光学天线传输效率的新方案,改进后的天线系统,使得传输效率有了显著提高。%The obscuration caused by the Gaussian distribution of the laser beam in the space optical communication will affect the transmission efficiency of the antenna seriously,which leads to a drop in the quality of communication.The system structure of the optical antenna and the influence on the antenna gain is analyzed,which is caused by the obscuration of the secondary mirror in view of the Cassegrain. According to the transformation and transmission char-acteristics of Gaussian beams through the optical system,the effect of the obscuration and incident beam waist on the light transmittance is analyzed when Cassegrain antenna is used,and a new way is proposed to improve the transfer ef-ficiency of the optical antenna. The improved antenna system makes its transmission efficiency improve significantly.

  5. Determination of chemical concentration with a 2 dimensional CCD array in the Echelle grating spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, D.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Stevens, C.G.


    The Echelle grating spectrometer (EGS) uses a stepped Echelle grating, prisms and a folded light path to miniaturize an infrared spectrometer. Light enters the system through a slit and is spread out along Y by a prism. This light then strikes the grating and is diffracted out along X. This spreading results in a superposition of spectral orders since the grating has a high spectral range. These orders are then separated by again passing through a prism. The end result of a measurement is a 2 dimensional image which contains the folded spectrum of the region under investigation. The data lies in bands from top to bottom, for example, with wavenumber increments as small as 0.1 lying from left to right such that the right end of band N is the same as the left end of band N+1. This is the image which must be analyzed.

  6. High Dispersion Spectroscopy with Ond\\v{r}ejov Echelle Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Grossová, Romana


    Echelle spectrographs with their high resolution plays important role in determination of characteristics of stellar lines. Wide field of applications is focused mainly on the measurements of precise radial velocity applied in exoplanetary research. In my diploma thesis I am concentrated on the calibration of the Ond\\v{r}ejov Echelle Spectrograph at Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences. My role was to investigate the wide field of opportunities how to process the data with the best possible results. Successful reduction was performed by both Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF) and for Open source Pipeline for ESPaDOnS Reduction and Analysis. This thesis includes the comparison of both pipelines.

  7. Optical design of echelle optical splitting system%中阶梯光栅分光光路的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海涛; 黄元申; 李柏承; 倪争技


    为了实现更宽波段范围内的全谱直读并获得较高的分辨率,对中阶梯光栅光谱仪的分光系统进行了研究.简述了中阶梯光栅与中阶梯光栅光谱仪的基本原理,分析了中阶梯光谱仪和普通光谱仪的区别,详细论述了一种利用中阶梯光栅作为主要分光元件,棱镜作为交叉色散原件的中阶梯光栅分光光路的设计方法,并最终在探测面上得到了可探测分析的二维谱图.通过对设计过程的详细论述,可以为今后从事中阶梯光栅光谱仪光学设计的研究者提供参考.%In order to obtain high resolution spectra in a wider range,research on the spectrophotometric system of echelle spectrometers was conducted.The general theories of echelle gratings and echelle spectrometers were introduced briefly,the difference between the echelle spectrometer and ordinary spectral instrument was analyzed,the optical path of echelle beam splitter was designed by using principles of optical imaging,an echelle grating was used as the main spectral elementa and a prism was used to separate the overlapped diffraction orders as a cross disperser,and a two-dimensional spectrum was obtained at the detection surface.It is wished that the detailed dissertation of the designing is useful for the research of the echelle grating spectrograph.

  8. Observations of Ha Line Profiles in Be Stars Using 45 cm Cassegrain Telescope at Arthur C Clarke Institute (United States)

    Gunasekera, S.; Adassuriya, J.; Medagangoda, N. I.


    H-alpha line profiles of 13 Be starts (mv d6.9) were observed using 45 cm Cassegrain telescope at the Arthur C Clarke Institute, Sri Lanka during the period of August 2005 to March 2006. High resolution spectra of these Be stars were obtained using 1200 lines/mm reflective grating in first order with resolution R=λ/Δλ=76800 and linear spectral dispersion 0.31 Å per pixel at 6563 Å in order to find out line parameters such as equivalent width, full width at half-maxima, V/R ratios etc. A study of the correlations between different pairs of parameters was obtained and compared with previous analysis to see the behavior of circumstellar disk. We found a good correlation (0.8) between FWHM and v sin i and strong correlation (0.96) between the Ip/Ic and the equivalent width. The drastic changes of the V/R ratio in profiles HR5941 and HR6712 imply the circumstellar disk is more likely an elliptical shape and undergoes slow apsidal motion. The inclination angles (i) were estimated for each star using the theoretical vsin i values and assuming star rotates in 0.8Vc and are matched with the structure of the line profiles.

  9. Optimized LIBS setup with echelle spectrograph-ICCD system for multi-elemental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unnikrishnan, V K; Alti, K; Nayak, R; Bernard, R; Kartha, V B; Santhosh, C [Centre for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Manipal University, Manipal (India); Khetarpal, N [Department of Biotechnology, Manipal University, Manipal (India); Gupta, G P; Suri, B M, E-mail: santhosh.cls@manipal.ed [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)


    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is well recognized as a promising tool for in situ/remote elemental analysis of environmental, archeological, clinical, and hazardous samples. With the aim of quantifying trace elements in such samples, using LIBS technique, an echelle spectrograph-ICCD system with high sensitivity and good resolution has been assembled. Various important parameters of this system were studied and optimized. Conditions for getting good quality LIBS spectra and signal for multielemental analysis have been achieved, and these are discussed and illustrated in this paper.

  10. A Flexible and Modular Data Reduction Library for Fiber-fed Echelle Spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Sosnowska, Danuta; Figueira, Pedro; Modigliani, Andrea; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Megevand, Denis; Pepe, Francesco


    Within the ESPRESSO project a new flexible data reduction library is being built. ESPRESSO, the Echelle SPectrograph for Rocky Exoplanets and Stable Spectral Observations is a fiber-fed, high-resolution, cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph. One of its main scientific goals is to search for terrestrial exoplanets using the radial velocity technique. A dedicated pipeline is being developed. It is designed to be able to reduce data from different similar spectrographs: not only ESPRESSO, but also HARPS, HARPS-N and possibly others. Instrument specifics are configurable through an input static configuration table. The first written recipes are already tested on HARPS and HARPS-N real data and ESPRESSO simulated data. The final scientific products of the pipeline will be the extracted 1-dim and 2-dim spectra. Using these products the radial velocity of the observed object can be computed with high accuracy. The library is developed within the standard ESO pipeline environment. It is being written in ANSI C and ma...

  11. PEPSI: The high-resolution echelle spectrograph and polarimeter for the Large Binocular Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Strassmeier, K G; Järvinen, A; Weber, M; Woche, M; Barnes, S I; Bauer, S -M; Beckert, E; Bittner, W; Bredthauer, R; Carroll, T A; Denker, C; Dionies, F; DiVarano, I; Döscher, D; Fechner, T; Feuerstein, D; Granzer, T; Hahn, T; Harnisch, G; Hofmann, A; Lesser, M; Paschke, J; Pankratow, S; Plank, V; Plüschke, D; Popow, E; Sablowski, D; Storm, J


    PEPSI is the bench-mounted, two-arm, fibre-fed and stabilized Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument for the 2x8.4 m Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Three spectral resolutions of either 43 000, 120 000 or 270 000 can cover the entire optical/red wavelength range from 383 to 907 nm in three exposures. Two 10.3kx10.3k CCDs with 9-{\\mu}m pixels and peak quantum efficiencies of 96 % record a total of 92 echelle orders. We introduce a new variant of a wave-guide image slicer with 3, 5, and 7 slices and peak efficiencies between 96 %. A total of six cross dispersers cover the six wavelength settings of the spectrograph, two of them always simultaneously. These are made of a VPH-grating sandwiched by two prisms. The peak efficiency of the system, including the telescope, is 15% at 650 nm, and still 11% and 10% at 390 nm and 900 nm, respectively. In combination with the 110 m2 light-collecting capability of the LBT, we expect a limiting magnitude of 20th mag in V in the low-resolution mode. The R=...

  12. Spectroscopic Survey of Eclipsing Binaries with a Low Cost \\'{E}chelle Spectrograph -- Scientific Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Kozłowski, Stanisław K; Sybilski, Piotr; Ratajczak, Milena; Pawłaszek, Rafał K; Hełminiak, Krzysztof G


    We present scientific results obtained with a recently commissioned \\'{e}chelle spectrograph on the 0.5-m Solaris-1 telescope in the South African Astronomical Observatory. BACHES is a low-cost slit \\'{e}chelle spectrograph that has a resolution of 21,000 at 5,500 \\AA. The described setup is fully remotely operated and partly automated. Custom hardware components have been designed to allow both spectroscopic and photometric observations. The setup is controlled via dedicated software. The throughput of the system allows us to obtain spectra with an average SNR of 22 at 6375 {\\AA} for a 30-min exposure of a $V=10$ mag target. The stability of the instrument is influenced mainly by the ambient temperature changes. We have obtained radial velocity RMS values for a bright (V = 5.9 mag) spectroscopic binary as good as 0.59 km s$^{-1}$ and 1.34 km s$^{-1}$ for a $V = 10.2$ mag eclipsing binary. Radial velocity measurements have been combined with available photometric light curves. We present models of six eclipsi...

  13. Echelle grating for silicon photonics applications: integration of electron beam lithography in the process flow and first results (United States)

    Kaschel, Mathias; Letzkus, Florian; Butschke, Jörg; Skwierawski, Piotr; Schneider, Marc; Weber, Marc


    We present the technology steps to integrate an Echelle grating in the process flow of silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators or related active devices. The CMOS-compatible process flow on SOI substrates uses a mix of optical i-line lithography and electron beam lithography (EBL). High speed optical data communication depends on wavelength divisions multiplexing and de-multiplexing devices like Echelle gratings. The minimum feature sizes vary from device to device and reach down to 60 nm inside a modulator, while the total area of a single Echelle grating is up to several mm2 of unprocessed silicon. Resist patterning using a variable shape beam electron beam pattern generator allows high resolution. An oxide hard mask is deposited, patterns are structured threefold by EBL and are later transferred to the silicon. We demonstrate a 9-channel multiplexer featuring a 2 dB on-chip loss and an adjacent channel crosstalk better than -22 dB. Additionally a 45-channel Echelle multiplexer is presented with 5 dB on chip loss and a channel crosstalk better than -12 dB. The devices cover an on-chip area of only 0.08 mm2 and 0.5 mm2 with a wavelength spacing of 10.5 nm and 2.0 nm, respectively.

  14. Circumstellar discs in X/gamma-ray binaries: first results from the Echelle spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Zamanov, R; Martí, J


    Here we report our first spectral observations of Be/X-ray and gamma-ray binaries obtained with the new Echelle spectrograph of the National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen. For four objects (LSI+61303, gamma Cas, MWC 148, 4U 2206+54), we report the parameters and estimate the sizes of their circumstellar discs using different emission lines (H-alpha, H-beta, H-gamma, HeI and FeII). For MWC 148, we find that the compact object goes deeply through the disc. The flank inflections of H-alpha can be connected with inner ring formed at the periastron passage or radiation transfer effects. We point out an intriguing similarity between the optical emission lines of the $\\gamma$-ray binary MWC 148 and the well known Be star $\\gamma$ Cas.

  15. Facet-rotated echelle grating for cyclic wavelength router with uniform loss and flat passband. (United States)

    Mu, Ge; Huang, Pingli; Wu, Lin; He, Jian-Jun


    A novel method for designing a cyclic echelle grating wavelength router with uniform loss and flat passband is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A 4×4 cyclic wavelength router with a channel spacing of 400 GHz at 1550 nm wavelength band is designed and fabricated in InP. Measurement results show that the loss of 16 input-output combinations varies from 9 to 19.3 dB in a conventional design, with a nonuniformity of 10.3 dB, while the 1-dB spectral bandwidth is only 0.3 nm. By rotating angles of grating facets according to an appropriately designed distribution function, the loss nonuniformity is reduced to 1.5 dB, and a flat-top spectral response with 1 dB bandwidth of 1.0 nm is achieved simultaneously.

  16. The list of tantalum lines for wavelengths calibration of the Hamilton echelle-spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Pakhomov, Yu V


    We present solution of the problem of wavelength calibration for Hamilton Echelle spectrograph using hollow cathode lamp, which was operated at Lick Observatory Shane telescope before June 9, 2011. The spectrum of the lamp claimed to be thorium-argon, contains, in addition to the lines of thorium and argon, a number of the unrecognized lines identified by us with tantalum. Using atomic data for measured lines of tantalum and thorium, we estimated the temperature of the gas in the lamp as T=3120+/-60 K. From the atomic line database VALD3 we selected all lines of TaI and TaII which can be seen in the spectrum of the lamp and compiled a list for the use in the processing of spectral observations. We note a limitation of the accuracy of calibration due to the influence of the hyperfine line splitting.

  17. A Laser Frequency Comb System for Absolute Calibration of the VTT Echelle Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Doerr, H -P; Holzwarth, R; Schmidt, T Kentischer und W


    A wavelength calibration system based on a laser frequency comb (LFC) was developed in a co-operation between the Kiepenheuer-Institut f\\"ur Sonnenphysik, Freiburg, Germany and the Max-Planck-Institut f\\"ur Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany for permanent installation at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) on Tenerife, Canary Islands. The system was installed successfully in October 2011. By simultaneously recording the spectra from the Sun and the LFC, for each exposure a calibration curve can be derived from the known frequencies of the comb modes that is suitable for absolute calibration at the meters per second level. We briefly summarize some topics in solar physics that benefit from absolute spectroscopy and point out the advantages of LFC compared to traditional calibration techniques. We also sketch the basic setup of the VTT calibration system and its integration with the existing echelle spectrograph.

  18. Digital TV-echelle spectrograph for simultaneous multielemental analysis using microcomputer control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J.B.; Case, A.L.


    A digital TV-echelle spectrograph with microcomputer control was developed for simultaneous multielemental analysis. The optical system is a commercially available unit originally equipped for film and photomultiplier (single element) readout. The film port was adapted for the intensifier camera. The camera output is digitized and stored in a microcomputer-controlled, 512 x 512 x 12 bit memory and image processor. Multiple spectra over the range of 200 to 800 nm are recorded in a single exposure. Spectra lasting from nanoseconds to seconds are digitized and stored in 0.033 s and displayed on a TV monitor. An inexpensive microcomputer controls the exposure, reads and displays the intensity of predetermined spectral lines, and calculates wavelengths of unknown lines. The digital addresses of unknown lines are determined by superimposing a cursor on the TV display. The microcomputer also writes into memory wavelength fiducial marks for alignment of the TV camera.

  19. A Laser Frequency Comb System for Absolute Calibration of the VTT Echelle Spectrograph (United States)

    Doerr, H.-P.; Steinmetz, T.; Holzwarth, R.; Kentischer, T.; Schmidt, W.


    A wavelength calibration system based on a laser frequency comb (LFC) was developed in a co-operation between the Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Freiburg, Germany and the Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany for permanent installation at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) on Tenerife, Canary Islands. The system was installed successfully in October 2011. By simultaneously recording the spectra from the Sun and the LFC, for each exposure a calibration curve can be derived from the known frequencies of the comb modes that is suitable for absolute calibration at the meters per second level. We briefly summarize some topics in solar physics that benefit from absolute spectroscopy and point out the advantages of LFC compared to traditional calibration techniques. We also sketch the basic setup of the VTT calibration system and its integration with the existing echelle spectrograph.

  20. Transformation a Echelle Fixe et Groupe de Renormalisation pour les Objets Fractals et Multifractals (United States)

    Tremblay, Real

    Dans un premier temps, la description mathematique des fractals et des multifractais est resumee. Une description de quelques-uns des principaux systemes ou apparaissent des spectres d'exposants multifractals est presentee. L'accent est mis sur deux archetypes, le modele de percolation et le modele de rupture dielectrique. Un modele original de cascade multifractale avec interactions inspire des modeles phenomenologiques de la turbulence est presente et son spectre d'exposants calcule analytiquement. Ce travail elargit la classe de modeles pour lesquels on connait le spectre d'exposants exactement. Dans la seconde partie, on trouve une analyse critique de la transformation a echelle fixe. Sont discutees plus particulierement les proprietes que doivent posseder les diagrammes de base pour obtenir une transformation invariante d'echelle. Les differentes hypotheses arbitraires de la theorie sont mises en evidence. L'une de ces hypotheses concerne le traitement auto-coherent des conditions aux frontieres. Considerant cette hypothese comme valable, la theorie utilise la distribution de trous dans un ensemble de Cantor aleatoire. Un calcul exact de cette distribution est donne ici. Enfin, en troisieme et dernier lieu, on retrouve une analyse exhaustive du probleme du crossover dans le modele de percolation avec une resistance non-nulle pour les liens normalement isolants. A l'aide du groupe de renormalisation de Migdal-Kadanoff, on montre qu'il existe un seul exposant de crossover et une seule longueur de coherence. D'autres longueurs de correlation peuvent etre definies, mais elles demeurent dans un rapport fixe le long des axes propres du groupe de renormalisation. La multifractalite est donc, pour ce modele et ceux qui peuvent etre formules de facon analogue, compatible avec l'existence d'une seule longueur de coherence. Ces resultats sont d'application directe pour les proprietes electriques des milieux desordonnes.

  1. The re-flight of the Colorado high-resolution Echelle stellar spectrograph (CHESS): improvements, calibrations, and post-flight results

    CERN Document Server

    Hoadley, Keri; Kruczek, Nicholas; Fleming, Brian; Nell, Nicholas; Kane, Robert; Swanson, Jack; Green, James; Erickson, Nicholas; Wilson, Jacob


    In this proceeding, we describe the scientific motivation and technical development of the Colorado High-resolution Echelle Stellar Spectrograph (CHESS), focusing on the hardware advancements and testing supporting the second flight of the payload (CHESS-2). CHESS is a far ultraviolet (FUV) rocket-borne instrument designed to study the atomic-to-molecular transitions within translucent cloud regions in the interstellar medium (ISM). CHESS is an objective f/12.4 echelle spectrograph with resolving power $>$ 100,000 over the band pass 1000 $-$ 1600 {\\AA}. The spectrograph was designed to employ an R2 echelle grating with "low" line density. We compare the FUV performance of experimental echelle etching processes (lithographically by LightSmyth, Inc. and etching via electron-beam technology by JPL Microdevices Laboratory) with traditional, mechanically-ruled gratings (Bach Research, Inc. and Richardson Gratings). The cross-dispersing grating, developed and ruled by Horiba Jobin-Yvon, is a holographically-ruled, ...

  2. BACHES - a compact \\'echelle spectrograph for radial velocity surveys with small telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Kozłowski, S K; Ratajczak, M; Sybilski, P; Pawłaszek, R K; Hełminiak, K G


    We evaluate a pre-production BACHES \\'{e}chelle spectrograph in terms of its usefulness for radial velocity surveys of binary stars with small telescopes in a remote and autonomous. We use the Solaris-4 observatory located in Casleo, Argentina, that is part of a global network of autonomous observatories as the test-bed for the instrument. The setup is designed in such a way that spectroscopy and photometry can be carried out using the same telescope without the need to mechanically modify the imaging train. We observe single spectroscopic standard stars as well as binary stars up to 9.75 mag. We present results of mechanical tests of the instruments and spectroscopic observations carried out between Nov 26th and Dec 8th 2013. We conclude that BACHES is a very compact and capable spectrograph well suited for remote and autonomous operation. Coupled to a 0.5-m telescope it is capable of obtaining spectra of 10 mag targets with a SNR of 20 for 30-minute exposures. This is a very good result considering the pric...

  3. The PRL Stabilized High Resolution Echelle Fiber-fed Spectrograph: Instrument Description & First Radial Velocity Results

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Abhijit; Roy, Arpita; Dixit, Vaibhav; Richardson, Eric Harvey; Dongre, Varun; Pathan, F M; Chaturvedi, Priyanka; Shah, Vishal; Ubale, Girish P; Anandarao, B G


    We present spectrograph design details and initial radial velocity results from the PRL optical fiber-fed high-resolution cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph (PARAS), which has recently been commissioned at the Mt Abu 1.2 m telescope, in India. Data obtained as part of the post-commissioning tests with PARAS show velocity precision better than 2m/s over a period of several months on bright RV standard stars. For observations of sigma-Dra we report 1.7m/s precision for a period of seven months and 2.1m/s for HD 9407 over a period of 2 months. PARAS is capable of a single-shot spectral coverage of 3800A - 9500A at a resolution of about 67,000. The RV results were obtained between 3800A and 6900A using simultaneous wavelength calibration with a Thorium-Argon (ThAr) hollow cathode lamp. The spectrograph is maintained under stable conditions of temperature with a precision of 0.01 - 0.02C (rms) at 25.55C, and enclosed in a vacuum vessel at pressure of 0.1 +/-0.03 mbar. The blaze peak efficiency of the spectrograp...

  4. PEPSI: the Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument for the LBT (United States)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Woche, M.; Ilyin, I.; Popow, E.; Bauer, S.-M.; Dionies, F.; Fechner, T.; Weber, M.; Hofmann, A.; Storm, J.; Materne, R.; Bittner, W.; Bartus, J.; Granzer, T.; Denker, C.; Carroll, T.; Kopf, M.; DiVarano, I.; Beckert, E.; Lesser, M.


    We present the status of PEPSI, the bench-mounted fibre-fed and stabilized "Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument" for the 2×8.4m Large Binocular Telescope in southern Arizona. PEPSI is under construction at AIP and is scheduled for first light in 2009/10. Its ultra-high-resolution mode will deliver an unprecedented spectral resolution of approximately R=310,000 at high efficiency throughout the entire optical/red wavelength range 390-1050nm without the need for adaptive optics. Besides its polarimetric Stokes IQUV mode, the capability to cover the entire optical range in three exposures at resolutions of 40,000, 130,000 and 310,000 will surpass all existing facilities in terms of light-gathering-power times spectral-coverage product. A solar feed will make use of the spectrograph also during day time. As such, we hope that PEPSI will be the most powerful spectrometer of its kind for the years to come.

  5. Upgraded control, acquisition program and user interface for the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer at San Pedro Martir (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Leonel; Murillo, J.; Quiroz, Fernando; Pedrayes, Maria H.; Meaburn, John; López, Jose A.


    We describe the recent upgrade of the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer, currently in use at San Pedro Mártir. This upgrade has included a user interface and a new CCD acquisition software. The spectrometer control is now done by a microcontroller, whose inputs are new sensors and encoders installed inside the spectrometer. The instrument control is now fully carried out from a graphical user interface running in a personal computer. The acquisition computer sends the images to the GUI through an ethernet link. In this paper, we present the general scheme and the programs developed for Linux (in C++ and Tcl/Tk) that permits an easy integral operation of the instrument, as well as the creation of scripts intended to the optimization of the observing run and the future interaction with the telescope and the guider. This upgraded system has been operated successfully during several campaigns in the 2.1-meter telescope at Observatorio Astronómico Nacional in San Pedro Mártir.

  6. HIRDES - The High-Resolution Double-Echelle Spectrograph for the World Space Observatory Ultraviolet (WSO/UV)

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, K; Gringel, W; Kappelmann, N; Becker-Ross, H; Florek, S; Graue, R; Kampf, D; Reutlinger, A; Neumann, C; Shustov, B; Moisheev, A; Skripunov, E


    The World Space Observatory Ultraviolet (WSO/UV) is a multi-national project grown out of the needs of the astronomical community to have future access to the UV range. WSO/UV consists of a single UV telescope with a primary mirror of 1.7m diameter feeding the UV spectrometer and UV imagers. The spectrometer comprises three different spectrographs, two high-resolution echelle spectrographs (the High-Resolution Double-Echelle Spectrograph, HIRDES) and a low-dispersion long-slit instrument. Within HIRDES the 102-310nm spectral band is split to feed two echelle spectrographs covering the UV range 174-310nm and the vacuum-UV range 102-176nm with high spectral resolution (R>50,000). The technical concept is based on the heritage of two previous ORFEUS SPAS missions. The phase-B1 development activities are described in this paper considering performance aspects, design drivers, related trade-offs (mechanical concepts, material selection etc.) and a critical functional and environmental test verification approach. T...

  7. Thermal optical path difference analysis of off-axis lens ray trace foot-print at Cassegrain telescope correct lens assembly (United States)

    Hsu, Ming-Ying; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Chan, Chia-Yen; Lin, Wei-Cheng; Chan, Shenq-Tsong; Huang, Ting-Ming


    The Cassegrain telescope system in this study, is discussion correct lens thermal OPD (Optical Path Difference) effect optical performance. The correct lens assembly are includes several components such as correct lens, lens mount, spacer, mount barrel and retainer. The heat transfer from surrounding to the correct lens barrel will causes optical system aberration. Meanwhile, the off-axis rays path of the OPD must consider lens incidence point and emergence point. The correct lens temperature distribution is calculate the lens barrel heat transfer analysis, the thermal distortion and stress are solve by FEM (Finite Element Method) software. The temperature calculation results can be weighting to each incidence ray path and calculate thermal OPD. The thermal OPD on Z-direction can be fitted by rigid body motion and Zernike polynomial. The fitting results can be used to evaluate the thermal effect on correct lens assembly in telescope system.

  8. The science case of the PEPSI high-resolution echelle spectrograph and polarimeter for the LBT (United States)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Pallavicini, R.; Rice, J. B.; Andersen, M. I.


    We lay out the scientific rationale for and present the instrumental requirements of a high-resolution adaptive-optics Echelle spectrograph with two full-Stokes polarimeters for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in Arizona. Magnetic processes just like those seen on the Sun and in the space environment of the Earth are now well recognized in many astrophysical areas. The application to other stars opened up a new field of research that became widely known as the solar-stellar connection. Late-type stars with convective envelopes are all affected by magnetic processes which give rise to a rich variety of phenomena on their surface and are largely responsible for the heating of their outer atmospheres. Magnetic fields are likely to play a crucial role in the accretion process of T-Tauri stars as well as in the acceleration and collimation of jet-like flows in young stellar objects (YSOs). Another area is the physics of active galactic nucleii (AGNs) , where the magnetic activity of the accreting black hole is now believed to be responsible for most of the behavior of these objects, including their X-ray spectrum, their notoriously dramatic variability, and the powerful relativistic jets they produce. Another is the physics of the central engines of cosmic gamma-ray bursts, the most powerful explosions in the universe, for which the extreme apparent energy release are explained through the collimation of the released energy by magnetic fields. Virtually all the physics of magnetic fields exploited in astrophysics is somehow linked to our understanding of the Sun's and the star's magnetic fields.

  9. Research on laser beam propagation characteristic of Cassegrain optical antenna%卡塞格伦光学天线光传输特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何文森; 杨华军; 江萍


    The laser beam propagation characteristic of Cassegrain optical antenna is analyzed theoretically.Several important factors (includes antenna gain factor,angle factor,distance factor,obscuration ratio,etc.)affecting the quality of laser beam in space optical communication have been researched in detail.This provides a theoretical basis for practical research on light-transfer characteristic of optical antenna in atmospheric laser communication system and has important practical value.%对卡塞格伦光学天线光传输特性进行了理论分析,重点研究了影响光学天线光传输质量的几个重要因素,并进行了测试结果与仿真验证。为实际研究大气激光通信系统中光学天线的光传输特性提供了理论依据,具有重要的实用价值。

  10. A Digital Low Dispersion Spectral Library Covering the 3500-7500AA Region Using the SAAO Radcliffe 1.9m Telescope's Cassegrain Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    James, David


    We have created a digital spectral library, using low resolution optical spectra, of photometric and spectral standard stars. The data were acquired using the Cassegrain Spectrograph installed on the 1.9m Radcliffe telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory. The library consists of optical wavelength (~ 3500-7500AA) spectra for main sequence and giant stars encompassing those most commonly observed in the Galaxy, namely the late-B, A-, F-, G-, K-, and early- to mid-M stars. We intend that our standard star spectra will be especially useful for spectral classification of stars in the field and Galactic clusters alike, and will have high pedagogic value when included into representative Introductory Astronomy or Stellar Astronomy curricula for undergraduate astronomy major and minor programs. We exploit the spectral library in order to derive spectral types for seventy-six optically and X-ray selected members of the young open cluster NGC 6475. Comparison of spectral-type, optical and infrared phot...

  11. A Digital Low Dispersion Spectral Library Covering the 3500-7500 Å Region Using the SAAO Radcliffe 1.9 m Telescope's Cassegrain Spectrograph (United States)

    James, David J.


    We have created a digital spectral library, using low resolution optical spectra, of photometric and spectral standard stars. The data were acquired using the Cassegrain spectrograph installed on the 1.9 m Radcliffe telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory. The library consists of optical wavelength (sime3500-7500 Å) spectra for main sequence and giant stars encompassing those most commonly observed in the Galaxy, namely the late-B, A, F, G, K, and early- to mid-M stars. We intend that our standard star spectra will be especially useful for spectral classification of stars in the field and Galactic clusters alike and will have high pedagogic value when included into representative "Introductory Astronomy" or "Stellar Astronomy" curricula for undergraduate astronomy major and minor programs. We exploit the spectral library in order to derive spectral types for 76 optically and X-ray selected members of the young open cluster NGC 6475. Comparison of spectral type, optical and infrared photometric data to theoretical colors derived from spectral type show that the reddening of the cluster is EBV = 0.068 ± 0.012 (1σ = 0.058), a vector consistent with earlier surveys. Our analysis also highlights the utility of such spectra in rejecting cluster nonmembers, thereby allowing the creation of a clean sample of bona fide cluster members for follow-up science observations.

  12. 一种典型的卡塞格伦光学天线的设计与分析%The Design and Analysis of a Typical Optical Cassegrain Antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凯; 刘海峰


    基于空间光通信中的卡塞格伦光学天线的重要性,文中介绍了一种典型的卡塞格伦光学天线设计,利用CODE-V软件进行了仿真,并分析了发散角(半角)为2.8263o的点光源在卡塞格伦光学天线中传输的特点。最后,利用MATLAB软件仿真了发射光束发散角与点光源偏离焦点距离之间的关系图。%Based on the importance of the optical Cassegrain antenna in the space optical communication,the paper introduced a typical optical Cassegrain antenna design,and simulated it by using the CODE-V software.The characteristics of transmission of the point light source with divergence angle(half-width)2.82630 through the optical Cassegrain antenna was analysed,and compiled procedures by using the MATLAB software,to describe the relationship between the divergence angle and the distance of the point light source from the focus.

  13. Unexpected series of regular frequency spacing of delta Scuti stars in the non-asymptotic regime -- II. Sample -- echelle diagrams and rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Paparó, M; Hareter, M; Guzik, J A


    A sequence search method was developed for searching for regular frequency spacing in delta Scuti stars by visual inspection and algorithmic search. The sample contains 90 delta Scuti stars observed by CoRoT. An example is given to represent the visual inspection. The algorithm (SSA) is described in detail. The data treatment of the CoRoT light curves, the criteria for frequency filtering and the spacings derived by two methods (three approaches: VI, SSA and FT) are given for each target. Echelle diagrams are presented for 77 targets, for which at least one sequence of regular spacing was identified. Comparing the spacing and the shifts between pairs of echelle ridges revealed that at least one pair of echelle ridges is shifted to midway between the spacing for 22 stars. The estimated rotational frequencies compared to the shifts revealed rotationally split doublets, triplets and multiplets not only for single frequencies, but for the complete echelle ridges in 31 delta Scuti stars. Using several possible ass...



    Jobe, Jérôme; GHUYSEN, Alexandre; D'Orio, Vincenzo


    Les services d’urgence sont régulièrement confrontés au problème d’encombrement à l’admission par une demande qui dépasse l’offre de soins. Il est essentiel de réguler le flux d’entrée par la mise en place d’un dispositif de tri. Ce mécanisme s’affine depuis une quinzaine d’années. Nous proposons un algorithme de tri (ELISA ou Echelle Liégeoise de l’Indice de Sévérité à l’Admission) qui vise à définir l’état d’urgence selon 5 niveaux depuis la catégorie U1 (urgence absolue) à U5 (urgence rela...

  15. Calibrating short-timescale tropospheric phase fluctuations seen by a radio telescope: Limits from subreflector and Cassegrain feed ring radiometer placement (United States)

    Linfield, Roger


    Water vapor radiometers (WVRs) measure tropospheric brightness temperatures and use those measurements to infer path delay. Calibration of short-timescale phase fluctuations at a radio telescope requires that the WVR and radio telescope sample a similar volume of the troposphere. Using a statistical (Kolmogorov frozen flow) model of tropospheric fluctuations, the short-timescale calibration capability of two WVR configurations has been quantified. The first configuration is a WVR mounted, with its own antenna, on the back side of the main radio telescope subreflector, giving a conical beam that is coaxial with the main cylindrical near-field beam of the large telescope. The second configuration uses a Cassegrain feed ring, with the WVR and radio astronomy feeds at different positions on the ring. This second configuration gives a cylindrical calibration near-field beam, offset in angle to the main cylindrical beam. An important application of short-timescale phase calibration is improving the coherence of high-frequency interferometric observations. For two cases of current/near future interest (86 GHz very long baseline interferometry with the Very Long Baseline Array; 350 GHz observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, ALMA), useful calibration could be achieved with either geometry (coaxial conical beam or offset cylindrical beam). For a coaxial conical beam, a 2° WVR beam width would allow significant coherence improvement, but a beam width performance. For an offset cylindrical beam, the desired angular offset (on the sky) is 43 GHz Very Large Array observations, or <=0.3° for 350 GHz ALMA observations.

  16. Corrector systems for cassegrain telescopes. (United States)

    Wilson, R N


    Most modern reflecting telescopes have relative apertures of about f/3 and f/8 for the primary and first secondary foci in accordance with the suggestions of Bowen. The angular field which can be used at the first secondary focus is limited by the size of available plates for large instruments but can approach +/-1 degrees for smaller systems. The factors influencing the choice of the field corrector system in the first secondary focus are discussed. It is an important point whether the Ritchey-Chrétien form of the mirrors is strictly maintained-giving an optimum field without the corrector-or whether the aspheric constants are allowed to vary as free parameters. The differences are small but significant. The performance of a number of secondary focus correctors consisting of one, two, and three elements is discussed, spot diagrams being given in each case. Systems with fixed Ritchey-Chrétien mirror constants are inferior to those with free mirror constants. Test methods for the manufacture of the mirrors of telescopes of this type are compared. A doublet type corrector is suitable for compensation testing of primary mirrors or for secondaries tested from the back, but the testing of the latter from the front is more difficult. Several possible techniques are discussed.

  17. The re-flight of the Colorado high-resolution Echelle stellar spectrograph (CHESS): improvements, calibrations, and post-flight results (United States)

    Hoadley, Keri; France, Kevin; Kruczek, Nicholas; Fleming, Brian; Nell, Nicholas; Kane, Robert; Swanson, Jack; Green, James; Erickson, Nicholas; Wilson, Jacob


    In this proceeding, we describe the scientific motivation and technical development of the Colorado High- resolution Echelle Stellar Spectrograph (CHESS), focusing on the hardware advancements and testing supporting the second flight of the payload (CHESS-2). CHESS is a far ultraviolet (FUV) rocket-borne instrument designed to study the atomic-to-molecular transitions within translucent cloud regions in the interstellar medium (ISM). CHESS is an objective f/12.4 echelle spectrograph with resolving power > 100,000 over the band pass 1000 - 1600 Å. The spectrograph was designed to employ an R2 echelle grating with "low" line density. We compare the FUV performance of experimental echelle etching processes (lithographically by LightSmyth, Inc. and etching via electron-beam technology by JPL Microdevices Laboratory) with traditional, mechanically-ruled gratings (Bach Research, Inc. and Richardson Gratings). The cross-dispersing grating, developed and ruled by Horiba Jobin-Yvon, is a holographically-ruled, "low" line density, powered optic with a toroidal surface curvature. Both gratings were coated with aluminum and lithium fluoride (Al+LiF) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Results from final efficiency and reflectivity measurements for the optical components of CHESS-2 are presented. CHESS-2 utilizes a 40mm-diameter cross-strip anode readout microchannel plate (MCP) detector fabricated by Sensor Sciences, Inc., to achieve high spatial resolution with high count rate capabilities (global rates 1 MHz). We present pre-flight laboratory spectra and calibration results. CHESS-2 launched on 21 February 2016 aboard NASA/CU sounding rocket mission 36.297 UG. We observed the intervening ISM material along the sightline to epsilon Per and present initial characterization of the column densities, temperature, and kinematics of atomic and molecular species in the observation.

  18. Library of medium-resolution fiber optic echelle spectra of F, G, K and M field dwarfs to giant stars

    CERN Document Server

    Montes, D; Welty, A D; Montes, David; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Welty, Alan D.


    We present a library of Penn State Fiber Optic Echelle (FOE) observations of a sample of field stars with spectral types F to M and luminosity classes V to I. The spectral coverage is from 3800 AA to 10000 AA with nominal a resolving power 12000. These spectra include many of the spectral lines most widely used as optical and near-infrared indicators of chromospheric activity such as the Balmer lines (H_alpha, H_beta), Ca II H & K, Mg I b triplet, Na I D_{1} and D_{2}, He I D_{3}, and Ca II IRT lines. There are also a large number of photospheric lines, which can also be affected by chromospheric activity, and temperature sensitive photospheric features such as TiO bands. The spectra have been compiled with the goal of providing a set of standards observed at medium resolution. We have extensively used such data for the study of active chromosphere stars by applying a spectral subtraction technique. However, the data set presented here can also be utilized in a wide variety of ways ranging from radial vel...

  19. Spectrometer system using a modular echelle spectrograph and a laser-driven continuum source for simultaneous multi-element determination by graphite furnace absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, Sebastian; Okruss, Michael; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Huang, Mao Dong, E-mail:; Esser, Norbert; Florek, Stefan


    A multi-element absorption spectrometer system has been developed based on a laser-driven xenon continuum source and a modular simultaneous echelle spectrograph (MOSES), which is characterized by a minimized number of optical components resulting in high optical throughput, high transmittance and high image quality. The main feature of the new optical design is the multifunction usage of a Littrow prism, which is attached on a rotation stage. It operates as an order-sorter for the echelle grating in a double-pass mode, as a fine positioning device moving the echelle spectrum on the detector, and as a forwarder to address different optical components, e.g., echelle gratings, in the setup. Using different prisms, which are mounted back to back on the rotation stage, a multitude of different spectroscopic modes like broad-range panorama observations, specific UV–VIS and NIR studies or high resolution zoom investigations of variable spectral channels can be realized. In the UV panorama mode applied in this work, MOSES has simultaneously detectable wavelength coverage from 193 nm to 390 nm with a spectral resolution λ/Δλ of 55,000 (3-pixel criterion). In the zoom mode the latter can be further increased by a factor of about two for a selectable section of the full wavelength range. The applicability and the analytical performance of the system were tested by simultaneous element determination in a graphite furnace, using eight different elements. Compared to an instrument operating in the optimized single line mode, the achieved analytical sensitivity using the panorama mode was typically a factor of two lower. Using the zoom mode for selected elements, comparable sensitivities were obtained. The results confirm the influence of the different spectral resolutions. - Highlights: • Echelle spectrometer with a full frame CCD array detector • High and variable spectral resolution from λ/Δλ of 55,000 to 95,000 • Laser-driven continuum light source

  20. Background and Scattered-Light Subtraction in the High-Resolution Echelle Modes of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (United States)

    Howk, J. Christopher; Sembach, Kenneth R.


    We present a simple, effective approach for estimating the on-order backgrounds of spectra taken with the highest resolution modes of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Our scheme for determining the on-order background spectrum for STIS E140H and E230H observations uses moderate-order polynomial fits to the interorder scattered light visible in the two-dimensional STIS MAMA images. We present a suite of high-resolution STIS spectra to demonstrate that our background-subtraction routine produces the correct overall zero point as judged by the small residual flux levels in the centers of strongly saturated interstellar absorption lines. Although there are multiple sources of background light in STIS echelle mode data, this simple approach works very well for wavelengths longward of Lyα (λ>~1215 Å). At shorter wavelengths, the smaller order separation and generally lower signal-to-noise ratios of the data can reduce the effectiveness of our background estimation procedure. Slight artifacts in the background-subtracted spectrum can be seen in some cases, particularly at wavelengths of B2B and the GHRS first-order G160M observations of the early-type star HD 218915. We find no significant differences between the GHRS data and the STIS data reduced with our method in either case. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  1. The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF): an optical Echelle spectrograph for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) (United States)

    Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Baldwin, Daniel; Barnes, Stuart; Bean, Jacob; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Brennan, Patricia; Budynkiewicz, Jamie; Chun, Moo-Young; Conroy, Charlie; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Epps, Harland; Evans, Ian; Evans, Janet; Foster, Jeff; Frebel, Anna; Gauron, Thomas; Guzmán, Dani; Hare, Tyson; Jang, Bi-Ho; Jang, Jeong-Gyun; Jordan, Andres; Kim, Jihun; Kim, Kang-Miin; Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia Mendes; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; McCracken, Kenneth; McMuldroch, Stuart; Miller, Joseph; Mueller, Mark; Oh, Jae Sok; Onyuksel, Cem; Ordway, Mark; Park, Byeong-Gon; Park, Chan; Park, Sung-Joon; Paxson, Charles; Phillips, David; Plummer, David; Podgorski, William; Seifahrt, Andreas; Stark, Daniel; Steiner, Joao; Uomoto, Alan; Walsworth, Ronald; Yu, Young-Sam


    The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) will be a cross-dispersed, optical band echelle spectrograph to be delivered as the first light scientific instrument for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) in 2022. G-CLEF is vacuum enclosed and fiber-fed to enable precision radial velocity (PRV) measurements, especially for the detection and characterization of low-mass exoplanets orbiting solar-type stars. The passband of G-CLEF is broad, extending from 3500Å to 9500Å. This passband provides good sensitivity at blue wavelengths for stellar abundance studies and deep red response for observations of high-redshift phenomena. The design of G-CLEF incorporates several novel technical innovations. We give an overview of the innovative features of the current design. G-CLEF will be the first PRV spectrograph to have a composite optical bench so as to exploit that material's extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion, high in-plane thermal conductivity and high stiffness-to-mass ratio. The spectrograph camera subsystem is divided into a red and a blue channel, split by a dichroic, so there are two independent refractive spectrograph cameras. The control system software is being developed in model-driven software context that has been adopted globally by the GMT. G-CLEF has been conceived and designed within a strict systems engineering framework. As a part of this process, we have developed a analytical toolset to assess the predicted performance of G-CLEF as it has evolved through design phases.

  2. CARMENES: Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with a Near-infrared Echelle Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Quirrenbach, A; Mandel, H; Caballero, J A; Ribas, I; Reiners, A; Mundt, R; Abril, M; Afonso, C; Bean, J L; Bejar, V J S; Becerril, S; Boehm, A; Cardenas, C; Claret, A; Colome, J; Costillo, L P; Dreizler, S; Fernandez, M; Francisco, X; Garrido, R; Hernandez, J I Gonzalez; Guenther, E W; Gutierrez-Soto, J; Joergens, V; Hatzes, A P; Henning, T; Herrero, E; Kurster, M; Laun, W; Lenzen, R; Mall, U; Martin, E L; Martin-Ruiz, S; Montes, D; Morales, J C; Munoz, R Morales; Moya, A; Naranjo, V; Rabaza, O; Ramon, A; Rebolo, R; Reffert, S; Rodler, F; Rodriguez, E; Trinidad, A Rodriguez; Rohloff, R -R; Carrasco, M A Sanchez; Schmidt, C; Seifert, W; Setiawan, J; Stahl, O; Suarez, J C; Wiedemann, G; del Burgo, C; Galadi, D; Sanchez-Blanco, E; Xu, W


    CARMENES, Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with a Near-infrared Echelle Spectrograph, is a study for a next-generation instrument for the 3.5m Calar Alto Telescope to be designed, built, integrated, and operated by a consortium of nine German and Spanish institutions. Our main objective is finding habitable exoplanets around M dwarfs, which will be achieved by radial velocity measurements on the m/s level in the near-infrared, where low-mass stars emit the bulk of their radiation.

  3. Development of illumination optics in optical scheme of high-resolution fiber-fed echelle-spectrograph for the Big Telescope Alt-azimuth (BTA) (United States)

    Kukushkin, D. E.; Sazonenko, D. A.; Bakholdin, A. V.; Valyavin, G. G.


    The report describes the development and optimization of optical scheme of the illumination optics of the entrance slit for the high-resolution fiber-fed echelle-spectrograph. The optical system of the illuminator provides the necessary agreement of the numerical apertures of the fiber and spectrograph, as well as it allows to install the necessary equipment to obtain the required structure of the image. As a result of the designing two components illumination system was obtained, which has a good transmission in a specified spectral range and low cost. This research provides a good instrument for performing modern researches for the astronomy.

  4. Echelle spectra of SN2014J from the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope, UT January 27 and January 30, 2014 (United States)

    Ritchey, Adam M.; Welty, Daniel E.; Dahlstrom, Julie A.; York, Donald G.


    Optical spectra of SN2014J were recorded with the ARC echelle spectrograph at Apache Point Observatory, at approximately UT Jan. 27.2 (7 spectra, 8400 s) and UT Jan. 30.4, (6 spectra, 7200s), through thin clouds in seeing averaging 1.0 arcsec. The resolving power is 31,500. Useful interstellar spectra were obtained from 3850A to 9000A; estimated S/N values (photon counts only) near 6563A are 500 on Jan 27 and 400 on Jan 30, and about 1/3 those values at Ca II 3933A.

  5. Development and validation of the 'Echelle de Motivation envers l'Activité Physique en contexte de Santé': A motivation scale towards health-oriented physical activity in French. (United States)

    Boiché, Julie; Gourlan, Mathieu; Trouilloud, David; Sarrazin, Philippe


    This article presents the validation of the 'Echelle de Motivation envers l'Activité Physique en contexte de Santé' including the six forms of motivation underlined by self-determination theory. Study 1 underlines the content validity of a pool of 30 items (N = 20). Study 2 supports the six-factor structure validity of the 18-item Echelle de Motivation envers l'Activité Physique en contexte de Santé (N = 309). Study 3 (N = 191) confirms structure validity, as well as concurrent validity and 2-week temporal reliability. The Echelle de Motivation envers l'Activité Physique en contexte de Santé can be considered as a valid and reliable tool to use in prevention or rehabilitation contexts.

  6. Improved LIBS limit of detection of Be, Mg, Si, Mn, Fe and Cu in aluminum alloy samples using a portable Echelle spectrometer with ICCD camera (United States)

    Mohamed, Walid Tawfik Y.


    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a laser-based technique that can provide non-intrusive, qualitative and quantitative measurement of metals in various environments. LIBS uses the plasma generated by a high-energy laser beam to prepare and excite the sample in one step. In the present work, LIBS has been applied to perform elemental analysis of six trace elements simultaneously in aluminum alloy targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. LIBS limit of detection (LOD) is affected by many experimental parameters such as interferences, self-absorption, spectral overlap and matrix effect. We aimed to improve the LIBS LOD by optimizing these experimental parameters as possible. In doing so, a portable Echelle spectrometer with intensified CCD camera was used to detect the LIBS plasma emission. This advanced Echelle spectrometer provides a constant spectral resolution (CSR) of 7500 corresponding to 4 pixels FWHM over a wavelength range 200-1000 nm displayable in a single spectrum. Then, the calibration curves for iron, beryllium, magnesium, silicon, manganese and copper as minor elements were achieved with linear regression coefficients between 98-99% on average in aluminum standard sample alloys. New LOD values were achieved in the ppm range with high precision (RSD 3-8%). From the application view point, improving LIBS LOD is very important in the on-line industrial process control to follow-up multi-elements for the correct alloying in metals.

  7. Study of the Matrix Effect on the Plasma Characterization of Six Elements in Aluminum Alloys using LIBS with a Portable Echelle Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.


    Full Text Available Volume 2 PROGRESS IN PHYSICS April, 2007 Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to perform a study of the matrix effect on the plasma characterization of Fe, Mg, Be, Si, Mn, and Cu in aluminum alloy targets. The generated plasma emissions due to focusing of a 100 mj Nd: YAG pulsed laser at 1064 nm at the target surface were detected using a portable Echelle spectrometer with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, electron density N e and electron temperature T e assuming the LTE and optically thin plasma conditions. The obtained average values of T e and N e were 7600 K and 3 × 10 17 cm − 3 , respectively, for the six elements in the aluminum alloy samples. The electron density increases with the element concentration while the plasma temperature does not has significance change with concentration. For industrial applications, LIBS with the portable Echelle spectrometer could be applied in the on-line production control that following up elemental concentration in metals and pharmaceuticals by only measuring N e.

  8. Current Calibration Efforts and Performance of the HST Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph: Echelle Flux Calibration, the BAR5 Occulter, and Lamp Lifetimes (United States)

    Monroe, TalaWanda R.; Aloisi, Alessandra; Debes, John H.; Jedrzejewski, Robert I.; Lockwood, Sean A.; Peeples, Molly S.; Proffitt, Charles R.; Riley, Allyssa; Walborn, Nolan R.


    The variety of operating modes of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) continues to allow STIS users to obtain unique, high quality observations and cutting-edge results 19 years after its installation on HST. STIS is currently the only instrument available to the astronomy community that allows high spectral and spatial resolution spectroscopy in the FUV and NUV, including echelle modes. STIS also supports solar-blind imaging in the FUV. In the optical, STIS provides long-slit, first-order spectra that take advantage of HST's superb spatial resolution, as well as several unique unfiltered coronagraphic modes, which continue to benefit the exoplanet and debris-disk communities. The STIS instrument team monitors the instrument’s health and performance over time to characterize the effects of radiation damage and continued use of the detectors and optical elements. Additionally, the STIS team continues to improve the quality of data products for the user community. We present updates on efforts to improve the echelle flux calibration of overlapping spectral orders due to changes in the grating blaze function since HST Servicing Mission 4, and efforts to push the contrast limit and smallest inner working angle attainable with the coronagraphic BAR5 occulter. We also provide updates on the performance of the STIS calibration lamps, including work to maintain the accuracy of the wavelength calibration for all modes.

  9. The coronal line regions of planetary nebulae NGC6302 and NGC6537 3-13 $\\mu$m grating and echelle spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Casassus, S; Barlow, M J; Casassus, Simon; Roche, Patrick F.; Barlow, Mike J.


    We report on advances in the study of the cores of NGC6302 and NGC6537 using infrared grating and echelle spectroscopy. In NGC6302, emission lines from species spanning a large range of ionization potential, and in particular [SiIX]3.934um, are interpreted using photoionization models (including CLOUDY), which allow us to reestimate the central star's temperature to be about 250000K. All of the detected lines are consistent with this value, except for [AlV] and [AlVI]. Aluminium is found to be depleted to one hundredth of the solar abundance, which provides further evidence for some dust being mixed with the highly ionized gas (with photons harder than 154eV). A similar depletion pattern is observed in NGC6537. Echelle spectroscopy of IR coronal ions in NGC6302 reveals a stratified structure in ionization potential, which confirms photoionization to be the dominant ionization mechanism. The lines are narrow (< 22km/s FWHM), with no evidence of the broad wings found in optical lines from species with simila...

  10. 经卡式光学天线发射的高斯光束衍射特性的研究%The Study of Diffraction Characteristics of Gaussian Beam Transmitted by Cassegrain Optical Antenna in Laser Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘龙飞; 佟首峰; 王超


    激光通信发射系统一般都是采用卡塞格林式望远镜作为发射天线,由于激光通信采用的光源波形为高斯光束,卡式光学系统的主次镜光学结构为环形结构,以往对均匀波经圆孔光阑后的衍射特性并不适用于激光通信。对基尔霍夫衍射公式进行了简化,利用数值计算的方法,利用仿真软件得到了高斯光束通过卡式光学天线之后的远场衍射分布特性,并与近场菲涅尔衍射分布特性进行分析比对,给出了卡式光学结构的最佳遮拦比为0.2,理论上可以达到1.5倍的近衍射极限发射束散角,在工程计算中有一定的应用价值。%For laser communication transmitter systems,a Cassegrain telescope is generally used as a transmitting anten-na. As the light wave using in laser communication is a Gaussian light beam, and the optical structure of primary and secondary mirrors of Cassette optical system are ring structures,in the past,the diffractions characteristics that Uniform wave pass through circular aperture are not fit to apply in laser communications. The complicated Kirchhoff diffraction formula is simplified in this paper. The distributed characteristics of far-field diffraction that Gaussian beam pass through Cassette optical antenna are got by using simulation software and compared with the distribution characteristics of near-field Fresnel diffraction. The optimum obscuration ratio of Cassegrain optical structure can be 0.2.Theoretically, a 1.5 times transimitted angle of near diffraction limit can be got. There are some certain values in engineering calculations.

  11. Scientific Objectives and Design Study of an Adaptive Optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph and Imager Coronograph (AVES-IMCO) for the NAOS Visitor Focus at the VLT (United States)

    Pallavicini, Roberto; Zerbi, Filippo; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Bonanno, Giovanni; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Comari, Maurizio; Conconi, Paolo; Delabre, Bernard; Franchini, Mariagrazia; Marcantonio, Paolo Di; Lagrange, Anne-Marie; Mazzoleni, Ruben; Molaro, Paolo; Pasquini, Luca; Santin, Paolo

    We present the scientific case for an Adaptive Optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph and Imager Coronograph (AVES-IMCO) that we propose as a visitor instrument for the secondary port of NAOS at the VLT. We show that such an instrument would be ideal for intermediate resolution (R=16,000) spectroscopy of faint sky-limited objects down to a magnitude of V=24.0 and will complement very effectively the near-IR imaging capabilities of CONICA. We present examples of science programmes that could be carried out with such an instrument and which cannot be addressed with existing VLT instruments. We also report on the result of a two-year design study of the instrument, with specific reference to its use as parallel instrument of NAOS.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Torres-Peimbert


    Full Text Available Presentamos espectroscopía echelle del núcleo sin resolver de las nebulosas bipolares M 2-9 and M 1-91. Los espectros están dominados por líneas de emisión emitidas en un amplio intervalo de condiciones físicas. De las observaciones identificamos las líneas de emisión, las condiciones físicas y los movimientos relativos de las diferentes especies ionizadas en la región circunestelar de ambos objetos. Proponemos que las líneas prohibidas observadas se originan en la parte interior del toro extendido que rodea a cada objeto.

  13. Observation of the June 22, 2015 G4 storm by HiT&MiS: an Echelle Spectrograph for Auroral and Airglow Studies (United States)

    Aryal, S.; Hewawasam, K.; Maguire, R.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cook, T.; Martel, J.; Baumgardner, J. L.


    Observation of the June 22, 2015 G4 storm by HiT&MiS: an Echelle Spectrograph for Auroral and Airglow Studies Saurav Aryal1 , Kuravi Hewawasam1, Ryan Maguire1, Supriya Chakrabarti1, Timothy Cook1, Jason Martel1 and Jeffrey L Baumgardner2, (1) University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, United States, (2)Boston University, Boston, MA, United StatesA High-Throughput and Multi-slit Imaging Spectrograph (HiT&MIS) has been developed by our group. The spectrograph uses an echelle grating that operates at high dispersion orders (28-43) such that extended sources for airglow and auroral emissions can be observed at high resolution (about 0.02 nm). By using four slits (instead of the conventional one slit setup), with the appropriate foreoptics it images extended emissions along a long field of view of about 0.1° × 50°. It observes spectral regions around six prominent atmospheric emission lines (HI 656.3 nm, HI 486.1 nm, OI 557.7 nm, OI 630.0 nm, OI 777.4 nm and N+2 427.8 nm) using order sorting interference filters at the entrance slits and a filter mosaic on an image plane. We present observations from the instrument during the June 22, 2015 G4 storm. OI 557.7 nm (green line) and OI 630.0 nm (red line) showed strong brightness enhancements that lasted throughout the night from 8 P.M June 22, 2015 to 3 AM June 23,2015 when compared to the same times after the storm had passed.

  14. An Optical Design of Small-size Echelle Spectrograph%一种小型中阶梯光栅光谱仪的光学设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯帆; 段发阶; 伯恩; 吕昌荣; 梁春疆


    With the rapid development of spectral analysis technology in the information age, spectral instrument becomes a preferred access to information in various fields for its performance like high precision, low intrusion and small form factor. With the basic theory of optical design as guidance, echelle grating as key part, high resolution and wide detection wavelength as design target, a small size echelle spectrograph based on Czerny-Turner optical structure is designed. The structure of the system parameters is obtained based on the theoretical computation, and the optical system is simulated by the optical design software Zemax. The design results show that the theoretical resolution of the system, which works in the spectrum range from 200 nm to 800 nm, is better than 0.1 nm.%随着信息时代光谱分析技术的飞速发展,光谱仪器的高精度、低干扰、体积小型化等性能优势使其成为各领域各行业的优选信息获取手段。本文以光学设计的基本原理为指导、中阶梯光栅为核心、宽波长范围和高分辨力为设计目标,设计了一种基于切尼尔-特纳型光路结构的小型中阶梯光栅光谱仪系统。通过理论分析和计算,确定了系统的结构参数,并使用Zemax软件进行光学仿真。结果表明,该系统在200~800 nm的波段上理论分辨力优于0.1 nm。

  15. The chemical composition of the galactic H II regions M8 and M17. A revision based on deep vlt echelle spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge García-Rojas


    Full Text Available Presentamos nuevos datos espectrofotométricos de las regiones H II Galácticas M8 y M17. Los datos se obtuvieron a través del espectrógrafo echelle UVES del VLT en el intervalo entre los 3100 y los 10400 Ă. Medimos las intensidades de 375 y 260 líneas de emisión en M8 y M17, respectivamente, incrementando de forma significativa el número de líneas identificadas en estas nebulosas. La mayoría de las líneas detectadas son permitidas. Calculamos las temperaturas y densidades electrónicas usando diferentes diagnósticos, y determinamos las abundancias iónicas de He+, C++, O+ and O++ a partir de líneas debidas únicamente a recombinación, así como las abundancias de un gran número de iones de diferentes elementos usando líneas de excitación colisional. Obtuvimos estimaciones consistentes de t2 usando diferentes indicadores independientes. Detectamos líneas de emisión de la serie de Balmer de deuterio en M8, hasta DÎ; también mostramos que sus intensidades son consistentes con el hecho de que la fluorescencia del continuo es el principal mecanismo de excitación de estas líneas.

  16. Concentration of a Cassegrain solar furnace (United States)

    Cobble, M. H.


    A solar furnace comprising a paraboloidal mirror for tracking the sun and a hyperboloidal reflector having one focus in common with the paraboloid is analyzed to determine the geometric concentration of the system. A numerical ray-trace analysis was carried out to study various geometrical configurations of the two reflectors. In particular, the geometric concentration is calculated for the case when the line joining the foci of the hyperboloid and the axis of revolution of the paraboloid are not coincident.

  17. X-ray study of the structure of polyethylene at the scale of 100-200 Angstrom; Etude par rayons X dela structure du polyethylene a l'echelle de 100-200 Angstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belbeoch nee Goldsztein, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Information on the structure of polyethylene is deduced from a comparison of the results obtained by central diffusion and by other X-ray methods. The structure depends on the thermal and mechanical treatment to which the samples are subjected, as well as on the observation temperature. The central diffusion due to the heterogeneity of the material at the scale of 100-200 Angstrom is bound up with the presence of both the amorphous and crystalline phases. Stretched polythene shows a more or less regular succession of orderly and disorderly regions. When released it has a structure of recrystallisation preceded by 'amorphization'. (author) [French] Les informations sur la structure du polyethylene sont deduites de la confrontation des resultats obtenus par la diffusion centrale et par d'autres methodes de rayons X. La structure depend des traitements thermiques et mecaniques subis par les echantillons ainsi que la temperature d'observation. La diffusion centrale due a l'existence d'heterogeneites de la matiere a l'echelle 100-200 Angstrom est lie a la presence des deux phases amorphe et cristallisee. Le polyethylene etire comporte une succession plus ou moins reguliere de domaines ordonnes et desordonnes. Le polyethylene relaxe a une structure de recristallisation precedee d'une 'amorphisation'. (auteur)

  18. 基于精确光谱响应匹配的星载成像光谱仪交叉辐射定标%Optical Design and Performance Analysis of Light and Small Echelle Spectrograph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冠华; 姜禾; 赵慧洁; 贾斐


    星载遥感器在轨运行中受到外太空环境以及遥感器自身特性衰变的影响,辐射特性会发生变化.为确保星载遥感数据能真实地反映被观测地物目标特征及其变化规律,需要定期对星载遥感器进行在轨辐射定标.环境小卫星超光谱成像仪(HJ1A/HSI)由于缺乏配套的星上定标系统,基于场地定标的方法难以满足高频次定标的需求.以EO-1/Hyperion为参考遥感器,以HJ1A/HSI为待定标遥感器,通过反卷积方法对两成像光谱仪光谱通道之间进行精确光谱响应匹配,消除波段设置的差异性,显著降低了HSI定标系数的不确定度.基于本定标方法得到的HSI 115个波段的绝对定标系数中,Band 1至Band 60之间的定标系数的不确定度稳定在5%~8%,除760 nm附近的氧气吸收波段与940 nm附近的水汽吸收波段外,其余波段的定标系数的不确定度为7%~18%,随着波长的增加,不确定度增大.与传统波段匹配方法相比,提高了约50%的精度,该定标精度基本可以满足遥感数据定量化应用的需求.该方法解决了在轨星载成像光谱仪光谱通道设置差异大、交叉定标精度低,难以实用的问题,为星载成像光谱仪高频率更新辐射定标数据提供了一种有效方法.%The present paper analyzed the influence of the pinhole diameter, grating parameters, CCD pixel size, prism parameters, system aberrations and found that the first three are the main factors, and then deduced the mutual restraint relationship among them. On this basis, a portable high-resolution echelle spectrograph was designed. Applying this design, aberration was fully corrected and spectral resolution achieved the demand. With the Hg lamp calibrated and restored, the actual resolution gets up to 0. 038 ran which is significantly better than target (0. 05@200 nm), while the ordinary grating spectrometers need 500 mm focal length to achieve this resolution. From this result, the

  19. Traduction et etude de validation de la version francaise de l?echelle d?experience temporelle du plaisir (EETP, Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale, TEPS, Gard et al, 2006): Etude chez 125 etudiants et chez 162 sujets presentant un trouble psychiatrique



    Resume Utilisant l?echelle d?experience temporelle du plaisir (TEPS) qui mesure, d?une part, le plaisir lie a la realisation sur le moment du plaisir ou plaisir consommatoire et, d?autre part, le plaisir lie a l?anticipation du plaisir ou plaisir anticipatoire, un travail recent a montre que les schizophrenes se caracterisaient, comparativement a des sujets sains, par une capacite normale a eprouver du plaisir sur le moment mais une capacite plus faible concernant le plaisir antici...

  20. Incrementando la calidad de los espectros echelle (United States)

    Pintado, O. I.; Adelman, S. J.

    For more than 10 years we have obtained spectra with the REOSC and EBASIM spectrograph at CASLEO. Usually we use IRAF to extract the spectra. Then we normalized the 1-d spectra and measured the lines with REDUCE. In this paper we compare the results obtained using each program in different parts of the spectrum measurements process. Wih EBASIM, or 4th magnitude stars and 120 minute exposures we obtain signal-to-noise ratios near 500 in the center of the orders

  1. Properties and Nature of Be Stars: 28. Implications of Systematic Observations for the Nature of the Multiple System with the Be Star o Cassiopeae and its Circumstellar Environment (United States)


    1966, Commun. Lun. Planet. Lab., 4, 99 Kaufer , A. 1988, Rev. Mod. Astrophys., 11, 177 Koubský, P., Ak, H., Harmanec, P., Yang, S., & Božić, H. 2004, (2000). 3. Two echelle spectrograms secured in the Cassegrain focus of the Ondřejov 2-m telescope with the Heros spectrograph ( Kaufer 1988). 4

  2. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Optical Extension for Neutron Capture Elements (United States)

    Melendez, Matthew; O'Connell, Julia; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Donor, John; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Stassun, Keivan G.; APOGEE Team


    The Open Cluster Chemical Abundance & Mapping (OCCAM) survey is a systematic survey of Galactic open clusters using data primarily from the SDSS-III/APOGEE-1 survey. However, neutron capture elements are very limited in the IR region covered by APOGEE. In an effort to fully study detailed Galactic chemical evolution, we are conducting a high resolution (R~60,000) spectroscopic abundance analysis of neutron capture elements for OCCAM clusters in the optical regime to complement the APOGEE results. As part of this effort, we present Ba II, La II, Ce II and Eu II results for a few open clusters without previous abundance measurements using data obtained at McDonald Observatory with the 2.1m Otto Struve telescope and Sandiford Echelle Spectrograph.This work is supported by an NSF AAG grant AST-1311835.

  3. Calibrating echelle spectrographs with Fabry-Perot etalons

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Florian F; Reiners, Ansgar


    Over the past decades hollow-cathode lamps have been calibration standards for spectroscopic measurements. Advancing to cm/s radial velocity precisions with the next generation of instruments requires more suitable calibration sources with more lines and less dynamic range problems. Fabry-Perot interferometers provide a regular and dense grid of lines and homogeneous amplitudes making them good candidates for next generation calibrators. We investigate the usefulness of Fabry-Perot etalons in wavelength calibration, present an algorithm to incorporate the etalon spectrum in the wavelength solution and examine potential problems. The quasi periodic pattern of Fabry-Perot lines is used along with a hollow-cathode lamp to anchor the numerous spectral features on an absolute scale. We test our method with the HARPS spectrograph and compare our wavelength solution to the one derived from a laser frequency comb. The combined hollow-cathode lamp/etalon calibration overcomes large distortion (50 m/s) in the wavelengt...

  4. Development of gas absorption cells for infrared echelle spectrographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín E.L.


    Full Text Available High-resolution spectroscopy in the near-infrared could become the leading method for discovering extra-solar planets around very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. To help to achieve an accuracy of about 1 m/s, we are developing a gas cell which consists of a mixture of gases whose absorption spectral lines span all over the near-infrared region. We here present a summary of the working technique and the main results obtained so far.

  5. Fractals and finite scales; Fractales et echelles finies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubry, J.M


    Fractal description is used in various scientific domains and in particular in the modeling of particle aggregates and in the modeling of the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in turbulent two-phase flows. In particular, the interface geometry between fluids in a turbulent mixing is a crucial parameter for the modeling of mixtures in inertial confinement fusion devices. In this paper, a review of the various fractal dimensions is given first. Then, for a more rigorous use, a probabilistic description of the dimension of an ensemble which is known only up to a finite scale is proposed. This description is based on a probabilistic measurement of the overall fractals. (J.S.) 22 refs.

  6. Optical design of off-axis Cassegrain telescope using freeform surface at the secondary mirror (United States)

    Gautam, Suryakant; Gupta, Amit; Singh, Ganga Sharan


    Freeform surfaces enable imaginative optics by providing abundant degrees of freedom for an optical designer as compared to spherical surfaces. An off-axis two-mirror-based telescope design is presented, in which the primary mirror is a concave prolate spheroid and the secondary mirror is freeform surface-based. The off-axis configuration is employed here for removing the central obscuration problem which otherwise limits the central maxima in the point spread function. In this proposed design, an extended X-Y polynomial is used as a surface descriptor for the off-axis segment of the secondary mirror. The coefficients of this extended polynomial are directly related to the Seidel aberrations, and are thus optimized here for a better control of asymmetric optical aberrations at various field points. For this design, the aperture stop is located 500 mm before the primary mirror and the entrance pupil diameter is kept as 80 mm. The effective focal length is 439 mm and covers a full field of view of 2 deg. The image quality obtained here is near diffraction limited which can be inferred from metrics such as the spot diagram and modulation transfer function.

  7. Application of the geometrical theory of diffraction to Cassegrain subreflectors with laterally defocused feeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.; Rusch, W.


    The geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) as formulated by R. G. Kouyoumjian has been applied to predict the radiation characteristics of hyperboloidal subreflectors with laterally defocused feeds. In caustic or multicaustic directions the scattered fields are determined using an equivalent ring...... current placed along the edge of the subreflector. The theoretical results are compared to measured amplitude and phase data. In order to improve the agreement, the blocking effects of the feed horn have been accounted for using the geometrical theory of diffraction. The calculated subreflector fields...

  8. Chemical Abundance Analysis of Moving Group W11450 (Latham 1)

    CERN Document Server

    O'Connell, Julia E; Frinchaboy, Peter M


    We present elemental abundances for all seven stars in Moving Group W11450 (Latham 1) to determine if they may be chemically related. These stars appear to be both spatially and kinematically related, but no spectroscopic abundance analysis exists in literature. Abundances for eight elements were derived via equivalent width analyses of high resolution (R $\\sim$60,000), high signal-to-noise ratio ($\\langle$SNR$\\rangle\\sim$100) spectra obtained with the Otto Struve 2.1m telescope and Sandiford Echelle Spectrograph at McDonald Observatory. The large star-to-star scatter in metallicity, -0.55 $\\leq$ [Fe/H] $\\leq$ 0.06 dex ($\\sigma$= 0.25), implies these stars were not produced from the same chemically homogeneous molecular cloud, and are therefore not part of a remnant or open cluster as previously proposed. Prior to this analysis, it was suggested that two stars in the group, W11449 & W11450, are possible wide binaries. The candidate wide binary pair show similar chemical abundance patterns with not only ir...

  9. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XXI. CoRoT-19b: a low density planet orbiting an old inactive F9V-star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guenther, E. W.; Díaz, R. F.; Gazzano, J.-C.


    Context. Observations of transiting extrasolar planets are of key importance to our understanding of planets because their mass, radius, and mass density can be determined. These measurements indicate that planets of similar mass can have very different radii. For low-density planets, it is gener......Context. Observations of transiting extrasolar planets are of key importance to our understanding of planets because their mass, radius, and mass density can be determined. These measurements indicate that planets of similar mass can have very different radii. For low-density planets...... physical configurations mimicking a planetary transit signal, we determine the radius and mass of the planet by combining CoRoT photometry with high-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the echelle spectrographs SOPHIE, HARPS, FIES, and SANDIFORD. To improve the precision of its ephemeris and the epoch...... to the end of its main-sequence life. The host star has a mass M∗ = 1.21 ± 0.05  M⊙ and radius R∗ = 1.65  ±  0.04 R⊙. The planet has a mass of MP = 1.11 ± 0.06 MJup and radius of RP = 1.29  ± 0.03 RJup. The resulting bulk density is only ρ = 0.71  ± 0.06 g cm-3, which is much lower than that for Jupiter...

  10. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space missionXIX. CoRoT-19b: A low density planet orbiting an old inactive F9V-star

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, E W; Gazzano, J -C; Mazeh, T; Rouan, D; Gibson, N; Csizmadia, Sz; Aigrain, S; Alonso, R; Almenara, J M; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Barge, P; Bonomo, A S; Borde, P; Bouchy, F; Bruntt, H; Cabrera, J; Carone, L; Carpano, S; Cavarroc, C; Deeg, H J; Deleuil, M; Dreizler, S; Dvorak, R; Erikson, A; Ferraz-Mello, S; Fridlund, M; Gandolfi, D; Gillon, M; Guillot, T; Hatzes, A; Havel, M; Hebrard, G; Jehin, E; Jorda, L; Lammer, H; Leger, A; Moutou, C; Nortmann, L; Ollivier, M; Ofir, A; Pasternacki, Th; Paetzold, M; Parviainen, H; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Samuel, B; Santerne, A; Schneider, J; Tal-Or, L; Tingley, B; Weingrill, J; Wuchterl, G


    Observations of transiting extrasolar planets are of key importance to our understanding of planets because their mass, radius, and mass density can be determined. The CoRoT space mission allows us to achieve a very high photometric accuracy. By combining CoRoT data with high-precision radial velocity measurements, we derive precise planetary radii and masses. We report the discovery of CoRoT-19b, a gas-giant planet transiting an old, inactive F9V-type star with a period of four days. After excluding alternative physical configurations mimicking a planetary transit signal, we determine the radius and mass of the planet by combining CoRoT photometry with high-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the echelle spectrographs SOPHIE, HARPS, FIES, and SANDIFORD. To improve the precision of its ephemeris and the epoch, we observed additional transits with the TRAPPIST and Euler telescopes. Using HARPS spectra obtained during the transit, we then determine the projected angle between the spin of the star and the orbi...

  11. Doped spin ladders under magnetic field; Echelles de spins dopees sous champ magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, G


    This thesis deals with the physics of doped two-leg ladders which are a quasi one-dimensional and unconventional superconductor. We particularly focus on the properties under magnetic field. Models for strongly correlated electrons on ladders are studied using exact diagonalization and density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG). Results are also enlightened by using the bosonization technique. Taking into account a ring exchange it highlights the relation between the pairing of holes and the spin gap. Its influence on the dynamics of the magnetic fluctuations is also tackled. Afterwards, these excitations are probed by the magnetic field by coupling it to the spin degree of freedom of the electrons through Zeeman effect. We show the existence of doping-dependent magnetization plateaus and also the presence of an inhomogeneous superconducting phase (FFLO phase) associated with an exceeding of the Pauli limit. When a flux passes through the ladder, the magnetic field couples to the charge degree of freedom of the electrons via orbital effect. The diamagnetic response of the doped ladder probes the commensurate phases of the t-J model at low J/t. Algebraic transverse current fluctuations are also found once the field is turned on. Lastly, we report numerical evidences of a molecular superfluid phase in the 3/2-spin attractive Hubbard model: at a density low enough, bound states of four fermions, called quartets, acquire dominant superfluid fluctuations. The observed competition between the superfluid and density fluctuations is connected to the physics of doped ladders. (author)

  12. ORFEUS echelle spectra Molecular hydrogen in disk, IVC, and HVC gas in front of the LMC

    CERN Document Server

    Bluhm, H J; Marggraf, O; Richter, P; Bluhm, Hartmut; Boer, Klaas. S. de; Marggraf, Ole; Richter, Philipp


    In front of the LMC molecular hydrogen is found in absorption near 0 km/s, being local disk gas, near +60 km/s in an intermediate velocity cloud, and near +120 km/s, in a high velocity halo cloud. The nature of the gas is discussed based on four ORFEUS far UV spectra of LMC stars and including data from the ground and from the IUE satellite. The local gas is cool and, given a span of sight lines of only 2.5 deg, rather fluffy. The fractional abundance of H_2 varies from log(f)=-5.4 to -3.3. Metal depletions (up to -1.7 dex for Fe) are typical for galactic disk gas. In the IV and HV gas an apparent underabundance of neutral oxygen points to an ionization level of the gas of about 90%. H_2 is detected in IV and HV gas toward HD 269546. In the IV gas we find an H_2 column density of log(N)\\simeq15.6. The H_2 excitation indicates that the line of sight samples a cloud at a temperature below 150 K. Column densities are too small to detect the higher UV pumped excitation levels. The high velocity H_2 (log(N)\\simeq1...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bohigas


    uniforme (Cloudy, versi on 10.00 reproduce la mayor parte del espectro, aunque la intensidad de [O III] 4363 A es mucho mayor que la observada. En este modelo, las abundancias nebulares son m s bajas que las obtenidas con t cnicas usuales y la temperatura y luminosidad estelar son 84900 K y 1025 L? , lo que significa que la progenitora probablemente fue una estrella de =1 M? en secuencia principal.

  14. Large eddy simulation and combustion instabilities; Simulation des grandes echelles et instabilites de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lartigue, G.


    The new european laws on pollutants emission impose more and more constraints to motorists. This is particularly true for gas turbines manufacturers, that must design motors operating with very fuel-lean mixtures. Doing so, pollutants formation is significantly reduced but the problem of combustion stability arises. Actually, combustion regimes that have a large excess of air are naturally more sensitive to combustion instabilities. Numerical predictions of these instabilities is thus a key issue for many industrial involved in energy production. This thesis work tries to show that recent numerical tools are now able to predict these combustion instabilities. Particularly, the Large Eddy Simulation method, when implemented in a compressible CFD code, is able to take into account the main processes involved in combustion instabilities, such as acoustics and flame/vortex interaction. This work describes a new formulation of a Large Eddy Simulation numerical code that enables to take into account very precisely thermodynamics and chemistry, that are essential in combustion phenomena. A validation of this work will be presented in a complex geometry (the PRECCINSTA burner). Our numerical results will be successfully compared with experimental data gathered at DLR Stuttgart (Germany). Moreover, a detailed analysis of the acoustics in this configuration will be presented, as well as its interaction with the combustion. For this acoustics analysis, another CERFACS code has been extensively used, the Helmholtz solver AVSP. (author)

  15. Chemical Abundances of NGC 5461 and NGC 5471 Derived from Echelle Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Luridiana


    Full Text Available Presentamos espectrofotometría de alta resolución de NGC 5461 y NGC 5471, dos regiones H II gigantes en la galaxia M101. Los datos se obtuvieron con el telescopio de 2.1 m del Observatorio Astronómico Nacional en San Pedro Mártir, Baja California. Medimos las intensidades de un conjunto de líneas de recombinación de hidrógeno y de helio, así como líneas prohibidas de un gran número de iones. Calculamos las condiciones físicas en las dos nebulosas y calculamos las abundancias químicas totales tomando en cuenta las abundancias iónicas observadas así como las no observadas; estas últimas las estimamos a partir de factores de corrección de ionización (icf `s. Para NGC 5461 los icf`s se basan en un modelo detallado de fotoionización diseñado específicamente para este objeto (Luridiana & Peimbert 2001, mientras que para NGC 5471 se obtuvieron a partir de un modelo de fotoionizacióon para NGC 2363 (Luridiana, Peimbert, & Leitherer 1999, región que muestra un grado de ionización muy semejante al de NGC 5471. Los icf s así determinados los comparamos con aquellos que se obtienen a partir de las fórmulas de Mathis & Rosa (1991. Dicha comparación muestra importantes discrepancias para algunos de los elementos incluyendo nitrógeno, neón y cloro.

  16. Design of the TMT Mid-Infrared Echelle: Science Drivers and Design Overview (United States)


    identified in some carbonaceous chondrites, a particular class of meteorites. Comets are known to contain molecules of prebiotic interest. Of the...with MIRES, targeting the gas in disks, the interstellar medium, comets , and other environments, also offer the opportunity to explore the...plausibility of an extra-terrestrial origin for the prebiotic compounds that led to the emergence of life on Earth. MIRES imaging of debris disks will

  17. S-process enrichment in the planetary nebula NGC 3918. Results from deep echelle spectrophotometry

    CERN Document Server

    García-Rojas, J; Luridiana, V; Sterling, N C; Morisset, C; Delgado-Inglada, G; Cipriano, L Toribio San


    (Abridged) The chemical content of the planetary nebula NGC 3918 is investigated through deep, high-resolution UVES at VLT spectrophotometric data. We identify and measure more than 750 emission lines, making ours one of the deepest spectra ever taken for a planetary nebula. Among these lines we detect very faint lines of several neutron-capture elements (Se, Kr, Rb, and Xe), which enable us to compute their chemical abundances with unprecedented accuracy, thus constraining the efficiency of the s-process and convective dredge-up in the progenitor star of NGC 3918. We find that Kr is strongly enriched in NGC 3918 and that Se is less enriched than Kr, in agreement with the results of previous papers and with predicted s-process nucleosynthesis. We also find that Xe is not as enriched by the s-process in NGC 3918 as is Kr and, therefore, that neutron exposure is typical of modestly sub-solar metallicity AGB stars. A clear correlation is found when representing [Kr/O] vs. log(C/O) for NGC 3918 and other objects ...

  18. Les sources et les puits d'oxysulfure de carbone (COS) à l'echelle mondiale (United States)

    Servant, J.

    Global sources and sinks of COS and CS 2 are evaluated in order to explain how the COS level is maintained in the atmospheric air. The source intensities of COS in each hemisphere are discussed. Two cases are considered, one with high emissions of COS and CS 2 from soils (case 1), the other with low emissions (case 2). In both cases, the COS emission in the Northern Hemisphere is greater than that in the Southern Hemisphere, by a factor of about two. However, according to the more recent measurements of COS flux is equal or less than 1.1 Tg S yr -1 (Tg = 10 12 g), the main sources of COS are the oceans, anthropogenic activities and CS 2 oxidation: 42%, 29% and 20% of the total, respectively. The oxidation of CS 2 molecules is a non-negligible source. It is shown that vegetation is the main sink with a mean deposition velocity of 0.7·10 -2 cm s -1; stratospheric photolysis is the other sink, which represents 11% of the total. Mean lifetimes of COS molecules in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere are equal to 1.0±1.0 and 6.4±1.8 years, respectively.

  19. Spectroscopic Survey of Eclipsing Binaries with a Low-cost Echelle Spectrograph: Scientific Commissioning (United States)

    Kozłowski, S. K.; Konacki, M.; Sybilski, P.; Ratajczak, M.; Pawłaszek, R. K.; Hełminiak, K. G.


    We present scientific results obtained with a recently commissioned échelle spectrograph on the 0.5 m Solaris-1 telescope in the South African Astronomical Observatory. BACHES is a low-cost slit échelle spectrograph that has a resolution of 21,000 at 5500 Å. The described setup is fully remotely operated and partly automated. Custom hardware components have been designed to allow both spectroscopic and photometric observations. The setup is controlled via dedicated software. The throughput of the system allows us to obtain spectra with an average signal-to-noise ratio of 22 at 6375 Å for a 30 minute exposure of a V = 10 mag target. The stability of the instrument is influenced mainly by the ambient temperature changes. We have obtained radial velocity (RV) rms values for a bright (V = 5.9 mag) spectroscopic binary as good as 0.59 and 1.34 km s-1 for a V = 10.2 mag eclipsing binary. RV measurements have been combined with available photometric light curves. We present models of six eclipsing binary systems, and for previously known targets, we compare our results with those available in the literature. Masses of binary components have been determined with 3% errors for some targets. We confront our results with benchmark values based on measurements from the HARPS and UCLES spectrographs on 4 m class telescopes and find very good agreement. The described setup is very efficient and well suited for a spectroscopic survey. We can now spectroscopically characterize about 300 eclipsing binary stars per year up to 10.2 mag assuming typical weather conditions at SAAO without a single observing trip.

  20. Radiations: large scale monitoring in Japan; Radiations: suivi a grande echelle au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linton, M.; Khalatbari, A.


    As the consequences of radioactive leaks on their health are a matter of concern for Japanese people, a large scale epidemiological study has been launched by the Fukushima medical university. It concerns the two millions inhabitants of the Fukushima Prefecture. On the national level and with the support of public funds, medical care and follow-up, as well as systematic controls are foreseen, notably to check the thyroid of 360.000 young people less than 18 year old and of 20.000 pregnant women in the Fukushima Prefecture. Some measurements have already been performed on young children. Despite the sometimes rather low measures, and because they know that some parts of the area are at least as much contaminated as it was the case around Chernobyl, some people are reluctant to go back home

  1. Large Eddy simulations of jet in cross flow; Simulations aux grandes echelles: application au jet transverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priere, C.


    Nowadays, environmental and economic constraints require considerable research efforts from the gas turbine industry. Objectives aim at lowering pollutants emissions and fuel consumption. These efforts take a primary importance to satisfy a continue growth of energy production and to obey to stringent environmental legislations. Recorded progresses are linked to mixing enhancement in combustors running at lean premixed operating point. Indeed, industry shows itself to be attentive in the mixing enhancement and during the last years, efforts are concentrated on fresh and burned gas dilution. The Jet In Cross Flow (JICF), which constitutes a representative case to further the research effort. It has been to be widely studied both in experimentally and numerically, and is particularly well suited for the evaluation of Large Eddy Simulations (LES). This approach, where large scale phenomena are naturally taken into account in the governing equation while the small scales are modelled, offers the means to well-predict such flows. The main objective of this work is to gauge and to enhance the quality of the LES predictions in JICF configurations by means of numerical tools developed in the compressible AVBP code. Physical and numerical parameters considered in the JICF modelization are taken into account and strategies that are able to enhance quality of LES results are proposed. Configurations studied in this work are the following: - Influences of the boundary conditions and jet injection system on a free JICF - Study of static mixing device in an industrial gas turbine chamber. - Study of a JICF configuration represented a dilution zone in low emissions combustors. (author)

  2. 光子晶体在卡塞格伦光学天线中的应用%Application of Photonic Crystal in Cassegrain Optical Antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱颖; 杨华军; 徐权; 李东; 郑秋贞



  3. Study on the optical transmission characteristics of Cassegrain antenna%卡塞格伦天线光传输特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In this paper,the transmission theory of Casey Glenn optical antenna system are analyzed,the transmission properties of Casey Glenn optical antenna on the basis of the simulation analysis,through the experiment discovered that the transmission efficiency and lotus root axis deviation will directly affect the Casey Glenn antenna efficiency,we expect this research can provide feasible ideas and methods for research of Casey Glenn optics antenna characteristics problems.%本文对卡塞格伦光学天线系统的传输理论进行了分析,在此基础上对卡塞格伦光学天线的传输特性进行了仿真实验分析,通过实验发现偏轴将直接影响卡塞格伦天线的传输效率和藕合效率,期望本文的研究能够为卡塞格伦光学天线特性问题的研究提供可行的思路和方法。

  4. Stray Light Analysis and Test of Cassegrain Optical Antenna%卡塞格伦光学天线杂散光分析与测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷; 马小龙; 李福; 薛彬; 徐广州; 贺应红; 吕娟


    从能量传递及光学天线出瞳允许的杂散光亮度出发,推导得出了杂散光控制指标要求.提出两种消除一次杂光方案.方案一是在主、次镜上设置遮光罩,方案二是设置主镜遮光罩并在出瞳附近设置利奥光阑.理论分析表明方案一因设置次镜遮光罩而增加遮拦比,方案二因在出瞳附近设置利奥光阑而产生渐晕,由于光学天线对发射/接收效率指标要求很高,因此在设计时需兼顾能量.针对某卡塞格伦光学天线仿真分析了两种方案的接收/发射效率和杂散光抑制效果,发现方案二的发射效率和杂散光抑制能力优于方案一,只是边视场的接收效率略低.最终选用方案二作为原理样机的杂散光抑制方案,对其进行杂散光测试,测试结果为:视场外1°~20°系统实测消光比小于-40 dB,满足杂散光指标要求.

  5. 卡塞格伦光学天线偏轴及性能分析%Properties of Cassegrain optical antenna with inclined optical axis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉英华; 杨华军; 徐权; 谢康; 黄金



  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The G+M eclipsing binary V530 Orionis photometry (Torres+, 2014) (United States)

    Torres, G.; Lacy, C. H. S.; Pavlovski, K.; Feiden, G. A.; Sabby, J. A.; Bruntt, H.; Clausen, J. V.


    V530 Ori was monitored spectroscopically with three different instruments over a period of more than 17 yr. Observations began at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in 1996 June with a Cassegrain-mounted echelle spectrograph ("Digital Speedometer", DS; Latham 1992ASPC...32..110L) attached to the 1.5 m Tillinghast reflector at the F. L. Whipple Observatory (Mount Hopkins, AZ). We gathered a further 30 spectra of V530 Ori at the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) from 1999 March to 2001 January, using the coude-feed telescope and the coude spectrometer. Finally, 41 additional observations were obtained at the CfA from 2009 November to 2014 March with the Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph (TRES; Furesz 2008, PhD thesis , Univ. Szeged, Hungary) on the 1.5 m telescope mentioned earlier. Two sets of V-band images of V530 Ori were obtained with independent robotic telescopes operating at the University of Arkansas (URSA WebScope) and near Silver City, NM (NFO WebScope) from 2001 January to 2012 February. Differential photometric measurements of V530 Ori were also gathered with the Stromgren Automatic Telescope at ESO (La Silla, Chile), during several campaigns from 2001 January to 2006 February. (5 data files).

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: weak G-band stars abundances (Palacios+, 2016) (United States)

    Palacios, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Masseron, T.; Thevenin, F.; Itam-Pasquet, J.; Parthasarathy, M.


    Seventeen southern wGb stars were observed at La Silla, ESO Chile, with the high-efficiency Fiber-fed Extended Range Optical Spectrograph FEROS spectrograph mounted on the 2.2m telescope. FEROS is a bench-mounted, thermally controlled, prism-cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph, providing, in a single spectrogram spread over 39 orders, almost complete spectral coverage from ~350 to ~920nm at a resolution of 48000. The FEROS observations were carried out during an observing run between May 10 and 13, 2012. All these spectra were flat-fielded and calibrated by means of ThArNe exposures using standard processing tools available at ESO. In addition, two northern wGb stars, HD 18474 and HD 166208, were observed in service mode at the Observatoire du Pic du Midi, France, with the NARVAL spectrograph mounted on the Bernard Lyot 2.0m telescope. The NARVAL instrument consists of a bench-mounted cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph, fibre-fed from a Cassegrain-mounted polarimeter unit. It was used in its non-polarimetric mode; it provided almost complete spectral coverage from ~375 to ~1050nm at a resolution of 75000 in a single spectrogram spread over 40 orders. (6 data files).

  8. Une methode simple pour la mesure de l'evapotranspiration reelle a l'echelle de la parcelle



    Après avoir passé en revue les différentes méthodes de mesure de l’évapotranspiration réelle, qu’il s’agisse des méthodes directes telles que la pesée ou la mesure du stock en eau du sol ou des méthodes indirectes telles que la méthode du rapport de Bowen et la méthode aérodynamique combinée, on développe une méthode de mesure simple cherchant à allier les avantages de la méthode du rapport de Bowen (deux niveaux de mesure dans l’air seulement) et ceux de la méthode aérodynamique combinée...

  9. Binary-induced magnetic activity? Time-series echelle spectroscopy and photometry of HD123351 = CZ CVn

    CERN Document Server

    Strassmeier, K G; Weber, M; Granzer, T; Bartus, J; Olah, K; Rice, J B


    We present a first and detailed study of the bright and active K0IV-III star HD 123351. The star is found to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary with a period of 147.8919+-0.0003 days and a large eccentricity of e=0.8086+-0.0001. The rms of the orbital solution is just 47 m/s, making it the most precise orbit ever obtained for an active binary system. The rotation period is constrained from long-term photometry to be 58.32+-0.01 days. It shows that HD 123351 is a very asynchronous rotator, rotating five times slower than the expected pseudo-synchronous value. Two spotted regions persisted throughout the 12 years of our observations. Four years of Halpha, CaII H&K and HeI D3 monitoring identifies the same main periodicity as the photometry but dynamic spectra also indicate that there is an intermittent dependence on the orbital period, in particular for Ca ii H&K in 2008. Line-profile inversions of a pair of Zeeman sensitive/insensitive iron lines yield an average surface magnetic-flux density of 54...

  10. Modelling of fractured reservoirs. Case of multi-scale media; Modelisation des reservoirs fractures. Cas des milieux multi-echelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henn, N.


    Some of the most productive oil and gas reservoirs are found in formations crossed by multi-scale fractures/faults. Among them, conductive faults may closely control reservoir performance. However, their modelling encounters numerical and physical difficulties linked with (a) the necessity to keep an explicit representation of faults through small-size grid blocks, (b) the modelling of multiphase flow exchanges between the fault and the neighbouring medium. In this thesis, we propose a physically-representative and numerically efficient modelling approach in order to incorporate sub-vertical conductive faults in single and dual-porosity simulators. To validate our approach and demonstrate its efficiency, simulation results of multiphase displacements in representative field sector models are presented. (author)

  11. 激光雷达偏振成像遥感的望远镜系统偏振分析%Polarization Analysis of The Cassegrain Telescope Used for the Lidar Polarization Active Imaging System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路小梅; 江月松; 饶文辉




    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱嵩松; 李兴国; 缪晨





    Dechamp, Gaelle; Szostak, Berangere


    International audience; Comment et par qui la créativité collaborative entre PME est-elle gérée? Quels sont les effets du territoire local sur la créativité inter-organisationnelle? Les différents niveaux créatifs d'un territoire, identifiés par les chercheurs en économie créative, peuvent-ils se mailler pour favoriser la créativité inter-organisationnelle ? Le but de cette recherche qualitative est de répondre à ces questions, en palliant des manques et malentendus dans la littérature. En ef...

  14. Mechanical aspects of allotropic phase change at the mesoscopic scale; Aspects mecaniques du changement de phase allotropique a l'echelle mesoscopique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valance, St


    The prediction of the mechanical state of steel structures submit to thermo-mechanical loading must take into account consequences of allotropic phase change. Indeed, phase change induce, at least for steels, a mechanism of TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) leading to irreversible deformation even for loading less than elastic yield limit. Homogenized analytical models generally fail to achieve a correct prediction for complex loading. In order to overcome these difficulties, we present a model achieving a sharper description of the phenomenon. The mesoscopic working scale we adopt here is the grain scale size. Hence, we consider that the behaviour of each phase is homogenous in the sense of continuous media mechanic, whereas the front is explicitly described. We work both experimentally and numerically. Experimentally, we designed a test facility enabling thermo mechanical loading of the sample under partial vacuum. Acquisition of sample surface while martensitic transformation is happening leads, under some hypothesis and thanks to Digital Image Correlation, to the partial identification of area affected by transformation. Numerically, the eXtended Finite Element Method is applied for weakly discontinuous displacement fields. Used of this method needs to numerically track the transformation front -discontinuity support. In that goal, based on level set method, we develop FEM numerical scheme enabling recognition and propagation of discontinuity support. Finally, this work is complete by an approach of driving forces introduced through Eshelbian mechanics which are dual of front velocity. (author)

  15. Greenhouse gases regional fluxes estimated from atmospheric measurements; Estimation des flux de gaz a effet de serre a l'echelle regionale a partir de mesures atmospheriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messager, C


    build up a new system to measure continuously CO{sub 2} (or CO), CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O and SF{sub 6} mixing ratios. It is based on a commercial gas chromatograph (Agilent 6890N) which have been modified to reach better precision. Reproducibility computed with a target gas on a 24 hours time step gives: 0.06 ppm for CO{sub 2}, 1.4 ppb for CO, 0.7 ppb for CH{sub 4}, 0.2 ppb for N{sub 2}O and 0.05 ppt for SF{sub 6}. The instrument's run is fully automated, an air sample analysis takes about 5 minutes. In July 2006, I install instrumentation on a telecommunication tall tower (200 m) situated near Orleans forest in Trainou, to monitor continuously greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SF{sub 6}), atmospheric tracers (CO, Radon-222) and meteorological parameters. Intake lines were installed at 3 levels (50, 100 and 180 m) and allow us to sample air masses along the vertical. Continuous measurement started in January 2007. I used Mace Head (Ireland) and Gif-sur-Yvette continuous measurements to estimate major greenhouse gases emission fluxes at regional scale. To make the link between atmospheric measurements and surface fluxes, we need to quantify dilution due to atmospheric transport. I used Radon-222 as tracer (radon tracer method) and planetary boundary layer heights estimates from ECMWF model (boundary layer budget method) to parameterize atmospheric transport. In both cases I compared results to available emission inventories. (author)

  16. Point defects and irradiation in oxides: simulations at the atomic scale; Defauts ponctuels et irradiation dans les oxydes: simulation a l'echelle atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocombette, J.P


    The studies done by Jean-Paul Crocombette between 1996 and 2005 in the Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique of the Direction de l'Energie Nucleaire in Saclay are presented in this Habilitation thesis. These works were part of the material science researches on the ageing, especially under irradiation, of oxides of interest for the nuclear industry. In this context simulation studies at the atomic scale were performed on two elementary components of ageing under irradiation : point defects and displacement cascades ; using two complementary simulation techniques : ab initio electronic structure calculations and empirical potential molecular dynamics. The first part deals with point defects : self defects (vacancies or interstitials) or hetero-atomic dopants. One first recalls the energetics of such defects in oxides, the specific features of defects calculations and the expected accuracy of these calculations. Then one presents the results obtained on uranium dioxide, oxygen in silver and amorphous silica. The second part tackles the modelling of disintegration recoil nuclei in various?displacement cascades created by crystalline matrices for actinide waste disposal. Cascade calculations give access to the amorphization mechanisms under irradiation of these materials. One thus predicts that the amorphization in zircon takes place directly in the tracks whereas in lanthanum zirconate, the amorphization proceeds through the accumulation of point defects. Finally the prospects of these studies are discussed. (author)

  17. Large Eddy Simulations of turbulent flows with heat transfer; Simulation des grandes echelles d'ecoulements turbulents avec transferts de chaleur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatelain, A.


    LES of turbulent flows with heat transfer was used within the framework of conjugate heat transfer problems. The objective of this work lies not only in identifying the various elements likely to impair temperature fluctuations estimations at the fluid/solid interface but also to introduce adequate wall modeling. The choice of a proper convection scheme for the transport of passive scalars led to the adoption of a high order upwind scheme with slope limiter. The use of classical wall models having shown some weaknesses as for the estimation of parietal temperature fluctuations, two new approaches are proposed and tested. The first one relies on a complete resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations on a refined grid close to the wall making it possible to rebuild the temperature fluctuations near the wall. The second one relies on the simultaneous and one dimensional resolution of a turbulent boundary layer equation and a variance transport equation near the wall. (author)

  18. Controle sismique d'un batiment en acier de 3 etages a l'echelle 1/3 par amortisseurs elastomeres et contreventements en chevron (United States)

    Gauron, Olivier

    This study develops an innovative configuration of seismic natural rubber dampers for multistory low- and medium-rise steel braced frames. The dampers are directly integrated in an horizontal position in the seismic force resisting system of the structure. They are connected in a series with typical chevron brace systems. This control system provides not only additional structural damping to the structure but also a period shift, acting in the same way as a base isolation system. First, the fiber reinforced natural rubber used in the application was tested. It exhibited strong non linear dependance of its equivalent viscoelastic properties related to the shear strain. Then, a 1/3-scale 3-story chevron braced steel frame with and without dampers was considered. The structure was build and placed on the shaking table of the University of Sherbrooke Structures Laboratory. Numerical studies show that the efficiency of the control system reduces strongly the seismic induced forces of the undamped structure without any amplification of displacement or drift. Obtained seismic response reduction levels represent significant safety and economical benefits for the proposed application. Finally, the control system viability is experimentally demonstrated by shaking table tests at different reduced seismic intensities. Non linear behavior of the structure due to non linear behavior of the damping material is highlighted, and the dependance of seismic control performances is shown to be related to seismic intensities. Results allow an extrapolation of the experimental control peformances tending to the numerical results at higher intensities. Key-words : chevron braces, damper, multistory building, natural rubber, seismic control, shaking table.

  19. Towards Eulerian-Eulerian large eddy simulation of reactive two-phase plows; Vers la simulation des grandes echelles en formulation Euler-Euler des ecoulements reactifs diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, A.


    Particle laden flows occur in industrial applications ranging from droplets in gas turbines to fluidized bed in chemical industry. Prediction of the dispersed phase properties such as concentration and dynamics are crucial for the design of more efficient devices that meet the new pollutant regulations of the European community. Numerical simulation coupling Lagrangian tracking of discrete particles with DNS or LES of the carrier phase provide a well established powerful tool to investigate particle laden flows. Such numerical methods have the drawback of being numerically very expensive for practical applications. Numerical simulations based on separate Eulerian balance equations for both phases, coupled through inter-phase exchange terms might be an effective alternative approach. This approach has been validated for the case of tracer particles with very low inertia that follow the carrier phase almost instantaneously due to their small response time compared with the micro-scale time scales of the carrier phase. Objective of this thesis is to extend this approach to more inertial particles that occur in practical applications such as fuel droplets in gas turbine combustors. Existing results suggest a separation of the dispersed phase velocity into a correlated and an uncorrelated component. The energy related to the uncorrelated component is about 30% of the total particle kinetic energy when the particle relaxation time is comparable to the Lagrangian integral time scale. The presence of this uncorrelated motion leads to stress terms in the Eulerian balance equation for the particle momentum. Models for this stress terms are proposed and tested. Numerical simulations in the Eulerian framework are validated by comparison with simulations using Lagrangian particle tracking. Additionally coupling of the Eulerian transport equations for the particles to combustion models is tested. (author)

  20. Mechanical study of allotropic phase change at meso-scale;Etude mecanique d'un changement de phase allotropique a l'echelle mesoscopique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coret, M.; Valance, S.; Laniel, R.; Rethore, J. [Universite de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, LaMCoS, UMR 5259, 69 - Villeurbanne (France)


    Two methods are proposed in the following in order to calculate allotropic phase changes. We take into account only the consequences of the volume variation in a same way as in the Greenwood and Johnson's works. In the 80's, Leblond proposed to identify the elasto-plastic evolution law by considering the growth of a hard spherical inclusion in a soft matrix. In the first part, we propose to extend the Leblond's model by considering also the growth of the soft inclusion in the hard matrix that is closer to the end of a cooling transformation. The second part is dedicated to a finer modeling where the phase front is explicitly represented by level sets. The front propagation equations are solved by finite elements and the mechanical simulation is based on the extended Finite Element Method in order to avoid costly re-meshing. (authors)

  1. Study of the permeability up-scaling by direct filtering of geostatistical model; Etude du changement d'echelle des permeabilites par filtrage direct du modele geostatistique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zargar, G.


    In this thesis, we present a new approach, which consists in directly up-scaling the geostatistical permeability distribution rather than the individual realizations. Practically, filtering techniques based on. the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform), allows us to generate geostatistical images, which sample the up-scaled distributions. In the log normal case, an equivalence hydraulic criterion is proposed, allowing to re-estimate the geometric mean of the permeabilities. In the anisotropic case, the effective geometric mean becomes a tensor which depends on the level of filtering used and it can be calculated by a method of renormalisation. Then, the method was generalized for the categorial model. Numerical tests of the method were set up for isotropic, anisotropic and categorial models, which shows good agreement with theory. (author)

  2. Proposed classification scale for radiological incidents and accidents; Elaboration d'une echelle de classement des incidents et accidents radiologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The scale proposed in this report is intended to facilitate communication concerning the severity of incidents and accidents involving the exposure of human beings to ionising radiations. Like the INES, it comprises eight levels of severity and uses the same terms (accident, incident, anomaly, serious and major) for keeping the public and the media informed. In a radiological protection context, the severity of an event is considered as being directly proportional to the risk run by an individual (the probability of developing fatal or non-fatal health effects) following exposure to ionising radiation in an incident or accident situation. However for society, other factors have to be taken into account to determine severity. The severity scale proposed is therefore based on assessment of the individual radiological risk. A severity level corresponding to exposure of a member of the public in an incident or accident situation is determined on the basis of risk assessment concepts and methods derived from international consensus on dose/effect relationships for both stochastic and deterministic effects. The severity of all the possible exposure situations - worker exposure, collective exposure, potential exposure - is determined using a system of weighting in relation to situations involving members of the public. In the case of this scale, to indicate the severity of an event, it is proposed to make use of the most penalizing level of severity, comparing: - the severity associated with the probability of occurrence of deterministic effects and the severity associated with the probability of occurrence of stochastic effects, when the event gives rise to both types of risk; - the severity for members of the public and the severity for exposed workers, when both categories of individuals are involved; - the severity on the proposed radiological protection scale and that obtained using the INES, when radiological protection and nuclear safety aspects are associated with the event in question. (author)

  3. Marine and fluvial facies modelling at petroleum reservoir scale; Modelisation des heterogeneites lithologiques a l'echelle du reservoir petrolier en milieu marin et fluviatile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leflon, B.


    When modelling a petroleum reservoir, well data are very useful to model properties at a sub-seismic scale. Petrophysical properties like porosity or permeability are linked to the rock-type. Two methods based on well data have been developed to model facies. The first one is used to model marine carbonates deposits. The geometry of sedimentary layers is modelled through a special parameterization of the reservoir similar to Wheeler space. The time parameter is defined along the well paths thanks to correlations. The layer thickness is then extrapolated between wells. A given relationship between facies and bathymetry of sedimentation makes it possible to compute bathymetry along the well paths. Bathymetry is then extrapolated from wells and a reference map using the concept of accommodation. The model created this way is stratigraphically consistent. Facies simulation can then be constrained by the computed bathymetry. The second method describes a novel approach to fluvial reservoirs modelling. The core of the method lies in the association of a fairway with the channels to be simulated. Fairways are positioned so that all data are taken in account; they can be stochastic if unknown or explicitly entered if identified on seismic data. A potential field is defined within the fairway. Specifying a transfer function to map this potential field to thickness results in generating a channel inside the fairway. A residual component is stochastically simulated and added to the potential field creating realistic channel geometries. Conditioning to well data is obtained by applying the inverse transfer function at the data location to derive thickness values that will constrain the simulation of residuals. (author)

  4. Up scaling two-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media; Mise a l'echelle des ecoulements diphasiques dans les milieux poreux heterogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artus, V.


    For two-phase flow in heterogeneous media, the emergence of different flow regimes at large-scale is driven by local interactions between the viscous coupling and the heterogeneity. In particular, when the viscosity ratio is favorable, viscous effects induce a transverse flow that stabilizes the front while flooding. However, most of recent stochastic models neglect the influence of the viscous coupling. We developed a stochastic model for the dynamics of the front, taking the viscous coupling into account. For stable cases, this model relates the statistical properties of the front to the statistical properties of the permeability field. For stable flow in stratified media, we show that the front is stationary by parts in the reservoir. These parts can be identified as large-scale hydrodynamic layers and separately coarsened in the large-scale simulation model. For flows with favorable viscosity ratios in isotropic reservoirs, we show that a stationary front occurs, in a statistical sense. For unfavorable viscosity ratios, the flow is driven by the development of viscous fingering. These different regimes lead to different large-scale saturation profiles that can be matched with a macro-dispersion equation, if the effective convective flux is modified to take into account stabilizing or destabilizing viscous effects. (author)

  5. The Solar Spectrum 3069A-2095A from the Echelle Spectrograph Flown in 1961-1964. An Extension of Rowland’s Preliminary Table of Solar Spectrum Wavelengths. (United States)


    thank B. EdlSn and S. Johansson of Lund, L. veyed the literature. The section on Molecular Spectra Iglesias of Madrid, and W. C. Martin and R...2262.24 3h Fe it 2262.261 10 2266.00 4h Feil 5 2265.991 UV 2262.33 2h Cr 41 2262.32 UV 2266.12 4 Fe ll 2266.137 10 2262.45 4 2266.24 5 Fe n 2266.241...Multiplet Wavelength Ref A __ No e A No A 2766.39 5 Cut 18 2766.371 UV 2769.56 3 Feil 199 2769.566 LJV lCo 52 2766.382 UV Cr1 93 2766.39 UV 2769.66 5 Fej

  6. Turbulent viscosity and scale laws in turbulent jets with variable density; Viscosite turbulente et lois d`echelles dans les jets turbulents a masse volumique variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietri, L.; Amielh, M.; Anselmet, F.; Fulachier, L. [Institut de Recherche sur les Phinomenes Hors Equilibre Equipe Turbulence, 13 - Marseille (France)


    Turbulent flows with strong density variations, like helium jets in the ambient air, have specific properties linked with the difference of gas densities. This paper presents some experimental results of turbulence properties inside such flows: the Reynolds tensions and the associated turbulent viscosity, and some characteristics linked with the statistical properties of the different turbulence scales. These last results allows to show the complexity of such flows characterized by the influence of external parameters (Reynolds number, initial density ratio, initial momentum flux) that govern the evolution of these parameters inside the jet from the nozzle up to regions where similarity properties are reached. (J.S.) 12 refs.

  7. Multi scale study of carbon deposits collected in Tore-Supra and TEXTOR tokamaks; Etude multi echelle des depots carbones collectes dans les tokamaks Tore Supra et TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richou, M


    Tokamaks are devices aimed at studying magnetic fusion. They operate with high temperature plasmas containing hydrogen, deuterium or tritium. One of the major issue is to control the plasma-wall interaction. The plasma facing components are most often in carbon. The major drawback of carbon is the existence of carbon deposits and dust, due to erosion. Dust is potentially reactive in case of an accidental opening of the device. These deposits also contain H, D or T and induce major safety problems when tritium is used, which will be the case in ITER. Therefore, the understanding of the deposit formation and structure has become a main issue for fusion researches. To clarify the role of the deposits in the retention phenomenon, we have done different complementary characterizations for deposits collected on similar places (neutralizers) in tokamaks Tore Supra (France) and TEXTOR (Germany). Accessible microporous volume and pore size distribution of deposits has been determined with the analysis of nitrogen and methane adsorption isotherms using the BET, Dubinin-Radushkevich and {alpha}{sub s} methods and the Density Functional Theory (DFT). To understand growth mechanisms, we have studied the deposit structure and morphology. We have shown using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Raman micro-spectrometry that these deposits are non amorphous and disordered. We have also shown the presence of nano-particles (diameter between 4 and 70 nm) which are similar to carbon blacks: nano-particle growth occurs in homogeneous phase in the edge plasma. We have emphasised a dual growth process: a homogenous and a heterogeneous one. (author)

  8. Atomic scale modelling of materials of the nuclear fuel cycle; Modelisation a l'echelle atomique de materiaux nucleaires du cycle du combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolus, M.


    This document written to obtain the French accreditation to supervise research presents the research I conducted at CEA Cadarache since 1999 on the atomic scale modelling of non-metallic materials involved in the nuclear fuel cycle: host materials for radionuclides from nuclear waste (apatites), fuel (in particular uranium dioxide) and ceramic cladding materials (silicon carbide). These are complex materials at the frontier of modelling capabilities since they contain heavy elements (rare earths or actinides), exhibit complex structures or chemical compositions and/or are subjected to irradiation effects: creation of point defects and fission products, amorphization. The objective of my studies is to bring further insight into the physics and chemistry of the elementary processes involved using atomic scale modelling and its coupling with higher scale models and experimental studies. This work is organised in two parts: on the one hand the development, adaptation and implementation of atomic scale modelling methods and validation of the approximations used; on the other hand the application of these methods to the investigation of nuclear materials under irradiation. This document contains a synthesis of the studies performed, orientations for future research, a detailed resume and a list of publications and communications. (author)

  9. Thermo-mechanical behaviour modelling of particle fuels using a multi-scale approach; Modelisation du comportement thermomecanique des combustibles a particules par une approche multi-echelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, V.


    Particle fuels are made of a few thousand spheres, one millimeter diameter large, compound of uranium oxide coated by confinement layers which are embedded in a graphite matrix to form the fuel element. The aim of this study is to develop a new simulation tool for thermo-mechanical behaviour of those fuels under radiations which is able to predict finely local loadings on the particles. We choose to use the square finite element method, in which two different discretization scales are used: a macroscopic homogeneous structure whose properties in each integration point are computed on a second heterogeneous microstructure, the Representative Volume Element (RVE). First part of this works is concerned by the definition of this RVE. A morphological indicator based in the minimal distance between spheres centers permit to select random sets of microstructures. The elastic macroscopic response of RVE, computed by finite element has been compared to an analytical model. Thermal and mechanical representativeness indicators of local loadings has been built from the particle failure modes. A statistical study of those criteria on a hundred of RVE showed the significance of choose a representative microstructure. In this perspective, a empirical model binding morphological indicator to mechanical indicator has been developed. Second part of the work deals with the two transition scale method which are based on the periodic homogenization. Considering a linear thermal problem with heat source in permanent condition, one showed that the heterogeneity of the heat source involve to use a second order method to localized finely the thermal field. The mechanical non-linear problem has been treats by using the iterative Cast3M algorithm, substituting to integration of the behavior law a finite element computation on the RVE. This algorithm has been validated, and coupled with thermal resolution in order to compute a radiation loading. A computation on a complete fuel element reflect a strong interaction between the two scales, that confirm the interest of a such model to compute the behaviour of those fuels. (author)

  10. Multi-scale modelling and numerical simulation of electronic kinetic transport; Modelisation et simulation numerique multi-echelle du transport cinetique electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duclous, R


    This research thesis which is at the interface between numerical analysis, plasma physics and applied mathematics, deals with the kinetic modelling and numerical simulations of the electron energy transport and deposition in laser-produced plasmas, having in view the processes of fuel assembly to temperature and density conditions necessary to ignite fusion reactions. After a brief review of the processes at play in the collisional kinetic theory of plasmas, with a focus on basic models and methods to implement, couple and validate them, the author focuses on the collective aspect related to the free-streaming electron transport equation in the non-relativistic limit as well as in the relativistic regime. He discusses the numerical development and analysis of the scheme for the Vlasov-Maxwell system, and the selection of a validation procedure and numerical tests. Then, he investigates more specific aspects of the collective transport: the multi-specie transport, submitted to phase-space discontinuities. Dealing with the multi-scale physics of electron transport with collision source terms, he validates the accuracy of a fast Monte Carlo multi-grid solver for the Fokker-Planck-Landau electron-electron collision operator. He reports realistic simulations for the kinetic electron transport in the frame of the shock ignition scheme, the development and validation of a reduced electron transport angular model. He finally explores the relative importance of the processes involving electron-electron collisions at high energy by means a multi-scale reduced model with relativistic Boltzmann terms.

  11. Large scale simulation numerical study of transition to turbulence in jets; Etude numerique par simulation des grandes echelles de la transition a la turbulence dans les jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbin, Gerald [Institut National Polytechnique, 38 - Grenoble (France)


    This study highlights the potentialities of the numerical technique of large scale simulation in describing and understanding the turbulent flows in a complex geometry. Particularly, it is focussed on flows of free jet, confined jets and multiple jets of high solidity grid. Spatial simulations of the circular zone close to a free jet, of high Reynolds number were performed. In spite of an evident sensitivity to upstream conditions good agreement between our statistical predictions and different experimental measurements was obtained. The multiple coherent vortical structures implied in the transition to turbulence of the jet were found. At the same time, helical or annular axisymmetric vortices were observed. Also, an original vortical arrangement was evidenced, resulting from the alternating inclination and local pairing of these rings. It could been forced through an ad-hoc excitation which modifies subsequently drastically the jet development. When an axisymmetric excitation is imposed after formation of annular structures, pairs of counter-rotative longitudinal vortices occur and generate lateral jets. Their nature and presence in case of a helical excitation are discussed. An efficient method for controlling their number is developed. Then, one is studied the very low frequency periodic phenomenon of backward-facing transition to turbulence which develops in the confined jet and grid multiple jets (a phenomenon generic in numerous flows). It was found to depend not only on the characteristic of the re-circulation (pre-transition) zones but also on the upstream flow (zone of post-transition stagnation, pressure effect). Large scale transversal motions of the fluid have been found beginning from the grid. An interpretation of this phenomenon is suggested 193 refs., 109 figs.

  12. Kea: a new tool to obtain stellar parameters from low to moderate signal/noise and high-resolution Echelle spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Endl, Michael


    In this paper we describe Kea a new spectroscopic fitting method to derive stellar parameters from moderate to low signal/noise, high-resolution spectra. We developed this new tool to analyze the massive data set of the Kepler mission reconnaissance spectra that we have obtained at McDonald Observatory. We use Kea to determine effective temperatures (T_eff), metallicity ([Fe/H]), surface gravity (log g) and projected rotational velocity (v sin i). Kea compares the observations to a large library of synthetic spectra that covers a wide range of different T_eff, [Fe/H] and log g values. We calibrated Kea on observations of well-characterized standard stars (the Kepler field "platinum" sample) which range in T_eff from 5000 to 6500 K, in [Fe/H] from -0.5 to +0.4 dex and in log g from 3.2 to 4.6 dex. We then compared the Kea results from reconnaissance spectra of 45 KOIs (Kepler Object of Interest) to stellar parameters derived from higher signal/noise spectra obtained with Keck/HIRES. We find typical uncertainti...

  13. Large Eddy simulations of flame/acoustics interactions in a swirl flow; Simulation aux grandes echelles des interactions flamme / acoustique dans un ecoulement vrille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selle, L.


    Swirl flows exhibit a large variety of topologies, depending on the ratio of the flux axial momentum to the axial flux of tangential momentum: this ratio is called swirl number. Above a given critical value for the swirl number, the pressure gradient reverses the flow on the axis of rotation. This central recirculation zone is used in turbines for flame stabilization. And yet, reacting-swirled flows can exhibit combustion instabilities resulting from the coupling between acoustics and unsteady heat release. Combustion instabilities can lead to loss of control or even complete destruction of the system. Their prediction is impossible with standard engineering tools. The work presented here investigates the capabilities of numerical research tools for the prediction of combustion instabilities. Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) is implemented in a code solving the Navier-Stokes equations for compressible-multi-components fluids (code AVBP developed at CERFACS). This method takes into account for the major ingredients of combustion instabilities such as acoustics and flame / vortex interaction. The LES methodology is validated in the swirled flow from a complex industrial burner (SIEMENS PG). Both reactive and non-reactive regimes are successfully compared with experimental data in terms of mean temperature and mean and RMS velocities. Experimental measurements were performed at the university of Karlsruhe (Germany). A detailed analysis of the acoustics and its interaction with the flame front is performed with the code AVSP, also developed at CERFACS. (author)

  14. Associated Absorption Lines in the Radio-Loud Quasar 3C 351 Far-Ultraviolet Echelle Spectroscopy from the Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Q; Brotherton, M; Tripp, T M; Kaiser, M E; Kriss, G A


    As one of the most luminous radio-loud quasars showing intrinsic ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray absorption, 3C 351 provides a laboratory for studying the kinematics and physical conditions of such ionized absorbers. We present an analysis of the intrinsic absorption lines in the high-resolution ($\\sim$ 7 km/s) far-UV spectrum which was obtained from observations with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The spectrum spans wavelengths from 1150 \\AA to 1710 \\AA, and shows strong emission lines from O VI and Ly$\\alpha$. Associated absorption lines are present on the blue wings of the high-ionization emission doublets O VI $\\lambda\\lambda$ 1032,1038 and N V $\\lambda\\lambda$ 1238,1242, as well as the Lyman lines through Ly$\\epsilon$. These intrinsic absorption features are resolved into several distinct kinematic components, covering rest-frame velocities from -40 to -2800 km/s, with respect to the systemic redshift of $z_{em}=0.3721$. For the majority of these abs...

  15. Echelles de temps et échelles d’objets dans l’histoire de la grammaire française

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auroux Sylvain


    Full Text Available Les historiens ont coutume d’enraciner leur discipline dans le « récit » et, par conséquent, d’admettre que la « ligne » de l’histoire est celle d’une temporalité linéaire à quoi se résume la chronologie. Les historiens des sciences ont le plus souvent suivi cette tendance générale, et, cela, pour deux raisons principales. D’abord, ils ont suivi la tentation d’une « histoire » des grands hommes de science et, donc, de la suite des générations. Ensuite, la science est un processus dont on attend non seulement un résultat, mais une suite de résultats. Comme « science » nous n’aurions pas la même représentation de la physique si nous n’étions pas capables de faire une liste de « découvertes ». Je ne connais pas une science humaine qui dispose d’une pareille représentation, même si, sur de courtes périodes, et sur des objets précis on peut en approcher (par exemple en linguistique avec les lois de la grammaire comparée. Quand on se trouve devant une « histoire-récit » de la grammaire française, on se trouve le plus souvent confronté à une série (plus ou moins complète d’auteurs et d’ouvrages. Même si on peut parfois l’inférer à la lecture du texte on ne trouve guère de datation, et surtout pas de listes d’ « inventions » ; on ne suit pas des thématiques qui évolueraient comme dans la physique. Tout ce que l’on admet généralement, c’est le progrès quantitatif des phénomènes abordés et des règles, ou de grands changements théoriques qui rendraient caduques les études antérieures. La grammaire française serait-elle une discipline chaotique qui ne relève d’aucun processus de cumulation ? Nous nous proposons, plutôt que de juger une discipline en tirant des conclusions qui relèvent clairement du choix d’un modèle particulier (le « récit » pour l’histoire, d’interroger ce modèle à partir d’une étude des propriétés de notre objet, la grammaire française.

  16. HARPS3 for a roboticized Isaac Newton Telescope (United States)

    Thompson, Samantha J.; Queloz, Didier; Baraffe, Isabelle; Brake, Martyn; Dolgopolov, Andrey; Fisher, Martin; Fleury, Michel; Geelhoed, Joost; Hall, Richard; González Hernández, Jonay I.; ter Horst, Rik; Kragt, Jan; Navarro, Ramón; Naylor, Tim; Pepe, Francesco; Piskunov, Nikolai; Rebolo, Rafael; Sander, Louis; Ségransan, Damien; Seneta, Eugene; Sing, David; Snellen, Ignas; Snik, Frans; Spronck, Julien; Stempels, Eric; Sun, Xiaowei; Santana Tschudi, Samuel; Young, John


    We present a description of a new instrument development, HARPS3, planned to be installed on an upgraded and roboticized Isaac Newton Telescope by end-2018. HARPS3 will be a high resolution (R≃115,000) echelle spectrograph with a wavelength range from 380-690 nm. It is being built as part of the Terra Hunting Experiment - a future 10- year radial velocity measurement programme to discover Earth-like exoplanets. The instrument design is based on the successful HARPS spectrograph on the 3.6m ESO telescope and HARPS-N on the TNG telescope. The main changes to the design in HARPS3 will be: a customised fibre adapter at the Cassegrain focus providing a stabilised beam feed and on-sky fibre diameter ≍1:4 arcsec, the implementation of a new continuous ow cryostat to keep the CCD temperature very stable, detailed characterisation of the HARPS3 CCD to map the effective pixel positions and thus provide an improved accuracy wavelength solution, an optimised integrated polarimeter and the instrument integrated into a robotic operation. The robotic operation will optimise our programme which requires our target stars to be measured on a nightly basis. We present an overview of the entire project, including a description of our anticipated robotic operation.

  17. X-shooter, the new wide band intermediate resolution spectrograph at the ESO Very Large Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Vernet, Joel; D'Odorico, S; Kaper, L; Kjaergaard, P; Hammer, F; Randich, S; Zerbi, F; Groot, P M; Hjorth, J; Guinouard, I; Navarro, R; Adolfse, T; Albers, P W; Amans, J -P; Andersen, J J; Andersen, M I; Binetruy, P; Bristow, P; Castillo, R; Chemla, F; Christensen, L; Conconi, P; Conzelmann, R; Dam, J; De Caprio, V; Postigo, A De Ugarte; Delabre, B; Di Marcantonio, P; Downing, M; Elswijk, E; Finger, G; Fischer, G; Flores, H; Francois, P; Goldoni, P; Guglielmi, L; Haigron, R; Hanenburg, H; Hendriks, I; Horrobin, M; Horville, D; Jessen, N C; Kerber, F; Kern, L; Kiekebusch, M; Kleszcz, P; Klougart, J; Kragt, J; Larsen, H H; Lizon, J -L; Lucuix, C; Mainieri, V; Manuputy, R; Martayan, C; Mason, E; Mazzoleni, R; Michaelsen, N; Modigliani, A; Moehler, S; Møller, P; Sørensen, A Norup; Nørregaard, P; Peroux, C; Patat, F; Pena, E; Pragt, J; Reinero, C; Riga, F; Riva, M; Roelfsema, R; Royer, F; Sacco, G; Santin, P; Schoenmaker, T; Spano, P; Sweers, E; Ter Horst, R; Tintori, M; Tromp, N; van Dael, P; van der Vliet, H; Venema, L; Vidali, M; Vinther, J; Vola, P; Winters, R; Wistisen, D; Wulterkens, G; Zacchei, A


    X-shooter is the first 2nd generation instrument of the ESO Very Large Telescope(VLT). It is a very efficient, single-target, intermediate-resolution spectrograph that was installed at the Cassegrain focus of UT2 in 2009. The instrument covers, in a single exposure, the spectral range from 300 to 2500 nm. It is designed to maximize the sensitivity in this spectral range through dichroic splitting in three arms with optimized optics, coatings, dispersive elements and detectors. It operates at intermediate spectral resolution (R~4,000 - 17,000, depending on wavelength and slit width) with fixed echelle spectral format (prism cross-dispersers) in the three arms. It includes a 1.8"x4" Integral Field Unit as an alternative to the 11" long slits. A dedicated data reduction package delivers fully calibrated two-dimensional and extracted spectra over the full wavelength range. We describe the main characteristics of the instrument and present its performance as measured during commissioning, science verification and ...

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Kn 26, a new quadrupolar planetary nebula (Guerrero+, 2013) (United States)

    Guerrero, M. A.; Miranda, L. F.; Ramos-Larios, G.; Vazquez, R.


    Narrow-band Hα, [NII] λ6583, and [OIII] λ5007 images of Kn 26 were acquired on June 21, 2009 using ALFOSC (Andalucia Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera) at the 2.56m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) of the Observatorio de Roque de los Muchachos (ORM, La Palma, Spain). Narrow-band H2 2.1218um, Brγ 2.1658um, and K continuum at 2.270um images of Kn 26 were obtained on June 27, 2010 using LIRIS at the Cassegrain focus of the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at the ORM. Intermediate-resolution long-slit spectra of Kn 26 were obtained on October 5, 2011 using the ALBIREO spectrograph at the 1.5m telescope of the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (OSN), Granada, Spain. Long-slit high-dispersion spectroscopy on the Hα and [NII] λ6583 lines of Kn 26 has been acquired on June 13, 2010 using the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer (MES) mounted on the 2.1m (f/7.5) telescope at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de San Pedro Martir (OAN-SPM, Mexico). (2 data files).

  19. HARPS3 for a Roboticized Isaac Newton Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Samantha J; Baraffe, Isabelle; Brake, Martyn; Dolgopolov, Andrey; Fisher, Martin; Fleury, Michel; Geelhoed, Joost; Hall, Richard; Hernandez, Jonay I Gonzalez; ter Horst, Rik; Kragt, Jan; Navarro, Ramon; Naylor, Tim; Pepe, Francesco; Piskunov, Nikolai; Rebolo, Rafael; Sander, Louis; Segransan, Damien; Seneta, Eugene; Sing, David; Snellen, Ignas; Snik, Frans; Spronck, Julien; Stempels, Eric; Sun, Xiaowei; Tschudi, Samuel Santana; Young, John


    We present a description of a new instrument development, HARPS3, planned to be installed on an upgraded and roboticized Isaac Newton Telescope by end-2018. HARPS3 will be a high resolution (R = 115,000) echelle spectrograph with a wavelength range from 380-690 nm. It is being built as part of the Terra Hunting Experiment - a future 10 year radial velocity measurement programme to discover Earth-like exoplanets. The instrument design is based on the successful HARPS spectrograph on the 3.6m ESO telescope and HARPS-N on the TNG telescope. The main changes to the design in HARPS3 will be: a customised fibre adapter at the Cassegrain focus providing a stabilised beam feed and on-sky fibre diameter ~ 1.4 arcsec, the implementation of a new continuous flow cryostat to keep the CCD temperature very stable, detailed characterisation of the HARPS3 CCD to map the effective pixel positions and thus provide an improved accuracy wavelength solution, an optimised integrated polarimeter and the instrument integrated into a...

  20. Role of mesoscale eddies in the global ocean uptake of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}; Role des tourbillons de meso-echelle oceaniques dans la distribution et les flux air-mer de CO{sub 2} anthropique a l'echelle globale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zouhair, Lachkar


    Mesoscale eddies play a fundamental role in ocean dynamics particularly in the Southern Ocean. Global-scale tracer simulations are typically made at coarse resolution without explicitly modeling eddies. Here we ask what role do eddies play in ocean uptake, storage, and meridional transport of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}, CFC-11 and bomb {delta}{sup 14}C. We made global anthropogenic transient tracer simulations in coarse-resolution, ORCA2, and eddy-permitting, ORCA05 and ORCA025, versions of the ocean modelling system NEMO. We focus on the Southern Ocean where tracer air-sea fluxes are largest. Eddies have little effect on bomb {delta}{sup 14}C uptake and storage. Yet for CFC-11 and anthropogenic CO{sub 2}, increased eddy activity reduces southern extra-tropical uptake by 28% and 25% respectively, thereby providing better agreement with observations. It is shown that the discrepancies in the equilibration times between the three tracers determine their respective sensitivities to the model horizontal resolution. Applying Gent and McWilliams (1990) (GM) parameterization of eddies in the non-eddying version of the model does improve results, but not enough. An in-depth investigation of the mechanisms by which eddies affect the uptake of the transient tracers shows that including mesoscale eddies leads to an overall reduction in the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) ventilation, and modifies substantially the spatial distribution of their source regions. This investigation reveals also that the GM parameterization still overestimates the ventilation and the subduction of AAIW in the Indian Ocean where the simulated mixed layer is particularly deep during the winter. This work suggests that most current coarse-resolution models may overestimate the ventilation of AAIW in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. This study shows also that the use of the GM parameterization may be of limited utility where mixed layer is relatively deep and confirms the general need for a more adequate parameterization that represents both the effects of eddies in the ocean interior and in the mixed layer. Finally,we attempt to evaluate the contribution of mesoscale eddies to the meridional transport of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} and CFC-11 at the global scale. The mesoscale variability is found to little affect the annual-mean transport and its traditional hydrographic-based estimates except between the tropics and in the Southern Ocean. In these regions, the meridional distribution of the 'rectified' eddy transport of CFC-11 and anthropogenic CO{sub 2} shows large discrepancies. (author)

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry and spectroscopy of NP Per (Lacy+, 2016) (United States)

    Lacy, C. H. S.; Fekel, F. C.; Pavlovski, K.; Torres, G.; Muterspaugh, M. W.


    From 2011 November through 2014 November, we acquired 56 high-quality spectra of NP Per with the Tennessee State University 2m Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope (AST) and a fiber-fed echelle spectrograph at Fairborn Observatory in southeast Arizona. Of these spectra, 55 were suitable for radial velocity measurements (see Table1). The detector for these observations was a Fairchild 486 CCD, having 4096*4096 15μ pixels. While the spectrograms have 48 orders ranging from 3800 to 8260Å, we have used just the orders that cover the wavelength region from 4920 to 7100Å. We made our observations with a fiber that produced a spectral resolution of 0.4Å, corresponding to a resolving power of 15000 at 6000Å. Our spectra have typical signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) of 40 at 6000Å. We began V-band photometric observations of NP Per with the URSA WebScope on 2003 December 2. URSA is a 10inch Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope made by Meade Instruments Corp., equipped with a V-band filter and a Santa Barbara Instruments Group ST8 CCD camera, housed in a Technical Innovations RoboDome, all controlled by a Macintosh computer in a control room under the observing deck of Kimpel Hall on the University of Arkansas campus at Fayetteville. A larger telescope, the NFO WebScope, was brought to bear on 2005 February 27. Nearly all the observations after this date were obtained with the NFO, which is a robotic 24inch Cassegrain reflector located near Silver City, NM, USA. Both telescopes used Bessel V filters consisting of 2.0mm of GG495 and 3.0mm of BG 39. Exposures were 120 seconds long for both telescopes, and the cadence was typically 150 seconds per image. The images contained the variable star (TYC 2371-0390-1=BD +31 0729) and 2 comparison stars (TYC 2371-156-1 and TYC 2371-1034-1) of approximately the same brightness and color as the variable star. The observations are given in Table6 for the URSA WebScope and in Table7 for the NFO WebScope. Dates of eclipses obtained from the

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometric survey of IC 2391, {eta} Cha, and USco (Oelkers+, 2016) (United States)

    Oelkers, R. J.; Macri, L. M.; Marshall, J. L.; Depoy, D. L.; Lambas, D. G.; Colazo, C.; Stringer, K.


    . The Las Cumbres Global Observatory Telescope Network (LCOGT) provided 30hr of gri photometry from their 1m facilities. The Texas A&M University campus observatory 0.5m telescope provided 30hr of gri photometry. Additionally, the 2.1m telescope at the McDonald Observatory, coupled with the Sandiford Echelle Spectrograph provided 14hr of initial spectroscopic follow up during the Spring of 2015. (3 data files).

  3. Software framework and jet energy scale calibration in the ATLAS experiment; Environnement logiciel et etalonnage de l'echelle en energie des jets dans l'experience ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binet, Sebastien [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Universite Blaise Pascal - CNRS/IN2P3, 63000 Aubiere Cedex (France)


    This thesis presents the work achieved to instrument the ATLAS software framework, ATHENA, with a library of tools and utensils for the physics analysis as well as the extraction of the jet energy scale using physics events (in-situ calibration). The software part presents the various components of the ATHENA framework which handles the simulated and reconstructed data flow as well as the different stages of this process, before and during the data taking. The building of a library of tools easing the reconstruction of physics objects, their association with Monte-Carlo particles and their API is then explained. The need for common language and collaboration-wide utensils is emphasised as it allows to share the workload of validating these tools and to get reproducible physics results. The analysis part deals with the implementation of a light jet energy scale calibration algorithm within the C++ framework. This calibration algorithm makes use of W bosons decaying into light jets within semileptonic t t-bar events. From the processing of fast and full simulation data with this algorithm, it seems possible to reach a percent level knowledge of the light jet energy scale. Finally, the feasibility study of the b-jet energy scale calibration using {gamma}Z{sup 0} {yields} {gamma}b b-bar events is presented. It is shown that a purely sequential approach is not sufficient to extract the signal nor to collect a sufficient amount of Z{sup 0} to calibrate the b-jet energy scale. (author)

  4. The carbon cycle in a land surface model: modelling, validation and implementation at a global scale; Cycle du carbone dans un modele de surface continentale: modelisation, validation et mise en oeuvre a l'echelle globale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibelin, A.L


    ISBA-A-gs is an option of the CNRM land surface model ISBA which allows for the simulation of carbon exchanges between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. The model was implemented for the first time at the global scale as a stand-alone model. Several global simulations were performed to assess the sensitivity of the turbulent fluxes and Leaf Area Index to a doubling of the CO{sub 2} atmospheric concentration, and to the climate change simulated by the end of the 21. century. In addition, a new option of ISBA, referred to as ISBA-CC, was developed in order to simulate a more detailed ecosystem respiration by separating the autotrophic respiration and the heterotrophic respiration. The vegetation dynamics and the carbon fluxes were validated at a global scale using satellite datasets, and at a local scale using data from 26 sites of the FLUXNET network. All these results show that the model is sufficiently realistic to be coupled with a general circulation model, in order to account for interactions between the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the carbon cycle. (author)

  5. Large-scale management of electric grids - Power flux control in an electric network; Gestion des reseaux electriques a grande echelle. Controle des flux de puissance d'un reseau electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalou, M. J. [EIA-FR, Fribourg (Switzerland); Affolter, J.-F. [HEIG-VD, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland)


    Security of supply in electricity networks is a major industrial challenge for the future. It involves power generation, transmission and distribution altogether. Networks gradually approach saturation. This article presents an optimal real-time management method of power flux in an electricity network equipped with FACTS and phase measuring devices. FACTS have to be gradually introduced, however not earlier than in 10 years time, as the reliability of data transmission for their control is currently not high enough, considering the order of magnitude of the involved electric power.

  6. Thermal large Eddy simulations and experiments in the framework of non-isothermal blowing; Simulations des grandes echelles thermiques et experiences dans le cadre d'effusion anisotherme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brillant, G


    The aim of this work is to study thermal large-eddy simulations and to determine the nonisothermal blowing impact on a turbulent boundary layer. An experimental study is also carried out in order to complete and validate simulation results. In a first time, we developed a turbulent inlet condition for the velocity and the temperature, which is necessary for the blowing simulations.We studied the asymptotic behavior of the velocity, the temperature and the thermal turbulent fluxes in a large-eddy simulation point of view. We then considered dynamics models for the eddy-diffusivity and we simulated a turbulent channel flow with imposed temperature, imposed flux and adiabatic walls. The numerical and experimental study of blowing permitted to obtain to the modifications of a thermal turbulent boundary layer with the blowing rate. We observed the consequences of the blowing on mean and rms profiles of velocity and temperature but also on velocity-velocity and velocity-temperature correlations. Moreover, we noticed an increase of the turbulent structures in the boundary layer with blowing. (author)

  7. Multi-scale structuration of the electrode-electrolyte interface for applications in bio-electro-catalysis; Structuration multi-echelle de l'interface electrode-electrolyte pour des applications en bioelectrocatalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, A. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., LACReM, ENSCPB, 33 - Pessac (France)


    In this work, two approaches have been combined to elaborate bio-functionalized interfaces having an original structure and well defined at several characteristic scales. These two approaches are 1)the growth of conducting or non conducting materials through organized structures and 2)the chemistry of non-covalent intermolecular bonds leading to the assembling of molecules towards interfacial structures having greatest size. With a deep physico-chemical characterization, it has been possible to understand the properties of these multi-scale structures and to propose different applications fields as for instance bio-electro-catalysis or photovoltaic cells. (O.M.)

  8. Grain scale stresses and strains determination by X-ray diffraction; Contribution a l'analyse par diffractometrie X des deformations et des contraintes a l'echelle des grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, W


    A new methodology for strain and stress analysis by X ray diffraction (XRD) in single crystal was developed. It can be applied to determine the second order stress (in grain scale) in single and multi-crystal material with non-cubic lattice. This method is based on the method Ortner I. It has introduced the metric tensor G which is deduced from the lattice space measured by XRD. In the developed method, when the crystal reference is non-orthonormal, an orthonormal reference associated with the crystal basis is defined, so all calculation could be done with usual calculation laws. The use of the least square method allows the acquisition of many more measurements than the six absolute necessary. Then a better metric tensor G is calculated and the statistical error is obtained. This developed method was applied in a bi crystal copper. The experimental results have shown that this method is also effective. The second order residuals stresses for coarse Zn grains in a galvanized coating were determined after annealing. The four coarse grains with different orientations were also characterized and demonstrated the elastic and plastic deformation mechanism in a grain or between the grains during in situ tensile loading. So this method is well able to determine the strains and stresses in grain scale in a mono crystal or multi crystal with any crystalline structure. (author)

  9. Thermally accurate LES of the stability-emission performance of staged gas-turbine combustion; Simulation aux grandes echelles de la combustion etagee dans les turbines a gaz et son interaction stabilite-polluants-thermique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, P.


    Modern gas turbines use turbulent lean partially premixed combustion in order to minimise nitrous oxide (NO{sub X}) emissions while ensuring flashback safety. The Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of such a device is the goal of this work. Focus is laid on correctly predicting the NO{sub X} emissions, which are influenced by four factors: heat transfer, mixing quality, combustion modelling and thermo-acoustic stability. As NO{sub X} reaction rates are strongly influenced by temperature, heat transfer by radiation and convection is included. Radiation is predicted by a model, which assumes that the gases are optically thin. Convective heat transfer is included via a newly developed and validated wall-function approach based on the logarithmic law of the wall for temperature. An optimised 2-step reduced chemical reaction scheme for lean methane combustion is presented. This scheme is used for the LES in conjunction with an additional third reaction, fitted to produce the same NO{sub X} reaction rates as in the complete reaction mechanism. Turbulence is accounted for with the thickened flame model in a form, which is optimised for changing equivalence ratios and mesh-resolutions. Mixing is essential not only for predicting flame stabilisation, but also for pollutant emissions as NO{sub X} reaction rates depend exponentially on equivalence ratio. Therefore the full burner geometry, including 16 fuel injections is resolved in LES. Additionally, effusion cooling and film cooling is accounted for in a simplified manner. The non-reacting flow is extensively validated with experimental results. As mixture-fraction fluctuations do not only arise from turbulence, but also from thermo-acoustic instabilities, care was taken to provide acoustic boundary conditions that come close to reality. The resulting LES shows a strong thermo-acoustic instability, comparing well with experimental observations. By making the boundaries completely anechoic it is shown that when the instability disappears, the NO{sub X} levels are reduced by 75%. Additionally, neglecting all heat transfer, effusion and film cooling, the NO{sub X} levels are increased again by one order of magnitude. (author)

  10. Tokamak electron heat transport by direct numerical simulation of small scale turbulence; Transport de chaleur electronique dans un tokamak par simulation numerique directe d'une turbulence de petite echelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labit, B


    In a fusion machine, understanding plasma turbulence, which causes a degradation of the measured energy confinement time, would constitute a major progress in this field. In tokamaks, the measured ion and electron thermal conductivities are of comparable magnitude. The possible sources of turbulence are the temperature and density gradients occurring in a fusion plasma. Whereas the heat losses in the ion channel are reasonably well understood, the origin of the electron losses is more uncertain. In addition to the radial velocity associated to the fluctuations of the electric field, electrons are more affected than ions by the magnetic field fluctuations. In experiments, the confinement time can be conveniently expressed in terms of dimensionless parameters. Although still somewhat too imprecise, these scaling laws exhibit strong dependencies on the normalized pressure {beta} or the normalized Larmor radius, {rho}{sub *}. The present thesis assesses whether a tridimensional, electromagnetic, nonlinear fluid model of plasma turbulence driven by a specific instability can reproduce the dependence of the experimental electron heat losses on the dimensionless parameters {beta} and {rho}{sub *}. The investigated interchange instability is the Electron Temperature Gradient driven one (ETG). The model is built by using the set of Braginskii equations. The developed simulation code is global in the sense that a fixed heat flux is imposed at the inner boundary, leaving the gradients free to evolve. From the nonlinear simulations, we have put in light three characteristics for the ETG turbulence: the turbulent transport is essentially electrostatic; the potential and pressure fluctuations form radially elongated cells called streamers; the transport level is very low compared to the experimental values. The thermal transport dependence study has shown a very small role of the normalized pressure, which is in contradiction with the Ohkama's formula. On the other hand, the crucial role of the electron normalized Larmor has been emphasized: the confinement time is inverse proportional to this parameter. Finally, the low dependence of turbulent transport with the magnetic shear and the inverse aspect ratio is also reported. Although the transport level observed in the simulations is low compared to the experiments, we have tried a direct confrontation with Tore Supra results. This tokamak is well designed to study the electron heat transport. Keeping most of the parameters from a well referenced Tore Supra shot, the nonlinear simulation gives a threshold quite close to the experimental one. The observed turbulent conductivity is a factor fifty lower than the experimental one. An important parameter can not be matched: the normalized Larmor radius, {rho}{sub *}. This limitation has to be overcome in order to confirm this results. Finally, a rigorous confrontation between this result and gyrokinetic simulations has to conclude that the ETG instability cannot describe electron heat loses in tokamaks. (author)

  11. Heat and mass transfer in multi-scale porous structures: application to Diesel particulate filters modelling; Transferts de chaleur et de masse dans des structures poreuses multi-echelles: application a l'etude des filtres a particules Diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxarango, L.


    Ceramic filters appear to be the most promising solution to deal with the future emission standard requirements for diesel powered vehicles. Indeed, this type of Diesel Particulate Filters provides suitable characteristics for high efficiency soot collection. However, this filtration process is characterised by a dramatic increase of the pressure drop imposed in the exhaust line. Thus, the filter has to be cleaned periodically to insure the proper engine operating conditions. This regeneration phase is based on the oxidation of the carbon particles within the apparatus. This complex thermal process is critical for the safety working of Diesel Particulate Filters. Indeed, thermal stresses induced by the heat released during soot oxidation are involved in most of the filter breaking scenario. Numerous geometrical parameters defining the complex multi-scale structure of the apparatus could influence its thermal response. Thus, the geometrical optimization of these filters is a major problematic for the development of new products. This study aims at modelling heat and mass transfer phenomenon within Diesel Particulate Filters. The studied geometrical configuration is based on a ceramic honeycomb with porous walls and alternately plugged channel known as wall-flow DPF. In a first part, the gas flow, particles transport and collection are considered. Given the apparatus particular structure, the problem has to be treated considering various spatial length-scales. The filtering walls are characterised by a micrometric porous structure. The flow modelling with the Darcy law requires determining a particular effective permeability. The laminar flow problem in millimetric channels with wall suction (or injection) is studied. The asymptotic solution for flow in two-dimensional channels is used to derive a one-dimensional system preserving mass and momentum balances. This approach is then extended to the square channel configuration using direct numerical simulations. The particle collection process is modelled as a simple cake layer formation with respect to the gas flow properties. A parametric study carried out on periodic representative cells evidence the heterogeneous distribution of soot along the filter channel. Then, the non-periodic multi-channel case is considered. The particle loading appears to be weakly sensitive to local heterogeneities imposed in a single channel. Finally, the mass and momentum equations are expressed under a macroscopic form. The filtration process could then be simulated in the whole apparatus. During this study, a particular care has been taken to validate each model against experiment. In a second part, the thermal problem is considered. The phenomena occurring at the micrometric scale are taken into account. However, the study focuses more particularly on the scale change allowing describing the honeycomb as an equivalent homogeneous media. The analysis is base on the volume averaging theory. A thermal-equilibrium assumption is considered to express a macroscopic one-equation model including all the thermal exchanges. The local contributions to the macroscopic balance equation are taken into account defining closure problems. These closure problems are computed numerically on a periodic representative cell of the filter to obtain an effective thermal conductivity tensor. The particles oxidation reaction is taken into account as a source term in the macroscopic equation. It includes a global reaction kinetic model. The oxygen transport through the soot layer appears to play a limiting role for the chemical reaction. The complete macroscopic energy balance model is solved numerically with a finite volume method. The measurements obtained from two different experimental apparatus are used to validate the approach. Finally, the influence of some geometrical parameters on the thermal behaviour during regeneration is discussed. (author)

  12. Hydration of swelling clays: multi-scale sequence of hydration and determination of macroscopic energies from microscopic properties; Hydratation des argiles gonflantes: sequence d'hydratation multi-echelle determination des energies macroscopiques a partir des proprietes microscopiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, F


    Smectites have interesting properties which make them potential candidates for engineered barriers in deep geological nuclear waste repository: low permeability, swelling and cations retention. The subject of this thesis consists in the determination of the relationship between hydration properties, swelling properties and cations mobility in relation with confinement properties of clayey materials. The aim is to understand and to predict the behaviour of water in smectites, following two research orientations: the mechanistic aspects and the energetic aspects of the hydration of smectites. We worked on the Na-Ca montmorillonite contained in the MX80 bentonite, with the exchanged homo ionic structure (saturated with alkaline cations and calcium cations). The approach crosses the various scales (microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic) and implied the study of the various components of the system (layer-cation-water), by using original experimental methods (thermo-poro-metry and electric conductivity for various relative humidities (RH) and electrostatic calculations. Initially, the dry state is defined by SCTA (scanning calorimetry thermal analysis). Then a classical characterization of the smectite porosity for the dry state is carried out using mercury intrusion and nitrogen adsorption. We evidenced the existence of a meso-porosity which radius varies from 2 to 10 nm depending on the compensating cation. The thermo-poro-metry and conductivity experiments performed at various hydration states made it possible to follow the increase in the pore sizes and the cations mobility as a function of the hydration state. We highlight in particular the existence of an osmotic mesoscopic swelling for low RH (approximately 50-60%RH for Li and Na). By combining the results of thermo-poro-metry, X-ray diffraction and electric conductivity, we are able to propose a complete hydration sequence for each cation, showing the crucial role of the compensating cation in the hydration of smectites: it is responsible for the structure of porosity in a dry state and of the evolution of the pore sizes as a function of the RH and it modifies the hydration sequence by its mobility inside the interlayer space. The distinction between various types of water in the smectite structure is also achieved by thermo-poro-metry at different RH: water bound to the cations and surfaces, water structured by porosity and free water. This distinction is important to understand the behaviour of smectite and in particular the diffusion properties in clayey materials. The importance of the cation nature is also highlighted by the energetic model. Electrostatic calculations using the PACHA formalism (Electronegativities Equalization method) show that, for the small cations, the hydration energy of the layers is predominant. To obtain these results, we determine the surface enthalpies for the dry state, which show a coherent evolution as a function of the cation partial charge with the increase of pore sizes and thus with particle sizes. Then, using a theoretical model, we calculated swelling energies, surface hydration energies and cation hydration energies. The behaviour of mixed purified clay displays a behaviour closer to that of a calcic clay for the experiments carried out, in contradiction with the fact that the Na cation is the most abundant. This observation implies results on the clay properties, different from that expected for hydration properties, swelling and interlayer cation mobility within the framework of the radioactive waste. (author)

  13. Dislocation glide in Ni-Al solid solutions from the atomic scale up: a molecular dynamics study; Etude du glissement des dislocations dans la solution solide Ni-Al par simulation a l'echelle atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodary, E


    The glide of an edge dislocation in solid solutions is studied by molecular dynamics, at fixed temperature and imposed external stress. We have optimized an EAM potential for Ni(1 a 8% A1): it well reproduces the lattice expansion, local atomic order, stacking fault energy as a function of composition, as well as the elastic properties of the {gamma}' phase with L1{sub 2} structure. On increasing the stress, the dislocation is first immobile, then glides with a velocity proportional to the stress and the velocity saturates on reaching the transverse sound velocity. However, only beyond a static threshold stress, {sigma}{sub s}, does the dislocation glide a distance large enough to allow macroscopic shear; the linear part of the velocity-stress curve extrapolates to zero at a dynamical threshold stress, {sigma}{sub d}, The friction coefficient, and the threshold stresses ({sigma}{sub s} and {sigma}{sub d}), increase with the A1 concentration and decrease with temperature (300 and 500 K). Close to the critical shear stress, {sigma}{sub s}, the dislocation glide is analysed with a 'stop and go' model. The latter yields the flight velocity between obstacles, the mean obstacle density and the distribution of the waiting time on each obstacle as a function of stress, composition and temperature. The obstacle to the glide is proposed to be the strong repulsion between Al atoms brought into nearest neighbour position by the glide process, and not the dislocation-solute interaction. The microscopic parameters so defined are introduced into a micro-mechanical model, which well reproduces the known behaviour of nickel base solid solutions. (author)

  14. Modeling of atmospheric pollution at the regional scale: application to the Esquif campaign; Modelisation a l'echelle regionale de la pollution atmospherique: application a la campagne Esquif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrat, C.


    The Esquif experimental campaign (study and simulation of air quality in Ile-de-France (Paris region, France)) took place between 1998 and 2000 with the aim of better understanding the dynamical and chemical processes leading to atmospheric pollution peaks in Paris. The construction of a rich and diversified database (12 periods of intensive monitoring (PIM)) has been implemented with the aim of improving the existing chemical-transport models in general and air quality forecasting models in particular. In the framework of this study, the data collected during PIM 2 and 6 were used for the validation and analysis of situations of intensive pollution, simulated with the meso-scale numerical meteorological and chemical model Meso-NHC. The validation of both the dynamic fields (temperature and potential temperature, wind, height of the boundary layer) and the chemical fields (mainly O{sub 3}, NO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, PAN, isoprene) of the model allows to discuss some of the parameters of the model such as the initialization, the boundary forcing and the resolution. Then, a study of the dynamical processes allows to analyze the formation and reinforcement of the pollution conditions. Stress is put on the interaction of the regional scale processes with the photochemical pollution events. In this framework, the dynamical-chemical interaction processes are analyzed in detail, in particular when pollution levels are reinforced by the intrusion of residual ozone inside the convective boundary layer, dragged by the turbulence. Also, the impact of the urban hot island and of the urban wind on the redistribution of primary and secondary pollutants are considered. An analysis of the impact of hydrocarbons of biogenic origin on the ozone concentrations with respect to the temperature and to the presence of primary compounds has been performed for the PIM 2 and 6 of the Esquif campaign. (J.S.)

  15. Dynamical and multi scale approach of the relationships between the aquatic organisms and their environment; Approche multi-echelles des relations dynamiques entre les organismes aquatiques et leur environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daufresne, M.


    Identifying the causes of spatio-temporal variations in communities has long been at the core of ecological research. I have studied the dynamic relationship between stream-living organisms and their environment. I have shown, for the first time in large stream ecosystems, the effect of climate change on fish and invertebrate community structures. At the population scale, I enhanced understanding of the influence of high discharge level during emergence on brown trout population dynamics. At the individual scale, an experimental study improved understanding of the influence of stream velocity on downstream displacement of emerging trout. Finally, this work highlighted that environmental constraints could have paradoxical effects at different biological or temporal scales. (author)

  16. Theoretical study of silicon carbide under irradiation at the nano scale: classical and ab initio modelling; Etude theorique a l'echelle nanometrique du carbure de silicium sous irradiation: modelisation classique et ab initio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, G


    The behaviour of silicon carbide under irradiation has been studied using classical and ab initio simulations, focusing on the nano scale elementary processes. First, we have been interested in the calculation of threshold displacement energies, which are difficult to determine both experimentally and theoretically, and also the associated Frenkel pairs. In the framework of this thesis, we have carried out simulations in classical and ab initio molecular dynamics. For the classical approach, two types of potentials have been used: the Tersoff potential, which led to non satisfactory results, and a new one which has been developed during this thesis. This potential allows a better modelling of SiC under irradiation than most of the empirical potentials available for SiC. It is based on the EDIP potential, initially developed to describe defects in silicon, that we have generalized to SiC. For the ab initio approach, the feasibility of the calculations has been validated and average energies of 19 eV for the C and 38 eV for the Si sublattices have been determined, close to the values empirically used in the fusion community. The results obtained with the new potential EDIP are globally in agreement with those values. Finally, the elementary processes involved in the crystal recovery have been studied by calculating the stability of the created Frenkel pairs and determining possible recombination mechanisms with the nudged elastic band method. (author)

  17. Quantification of the greenhouse effect gases at the territorial scale. Final report; Quantification des emissions de gaz a effet de serre a l'echelle territoriale. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnin, G.; Lacassagne, S


    An efficient action against the greenhouse effect needs the implication of the local collectivities. To implement appropriate energy policies, deciders need information and tools to quantify the greenhouse gases and evaluate the obtained results of their greenhouse gases reduction policies. This study is a feasibility study of the tools realization, adapted to the french context. It was done in three steps: analysis of the existing tools, application to the french context and elaboration of the requirements of appropriate tools. This report presents the study methodology, the information analysis and the conclusions. (A.L.B.)

  18. Study of the explosive behaviour at the molecular scale: development of predictive methods; Etude du comportement de l`explosif a l`echelle moleculaire: developpement de methodes predictives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delpeyroux, D.; Simonetti, Ph. [CEA Le Ripault, 37 - Tours (France)


    In the framework of the search for new, less vulnerable, more performing and more safe energetic materials, it is important to reduce the preliminary phase of synthesis tests by a selection of precise and performing molecules and molecular structures. Predictive methods have been developed by the CEA for the a priori evaluation of the energetic performances of a given molecule prior to its synthesis. These methods are based on the fact that macroscopic properties of chemical explosives can be derived from microscopic criteria at the molecular scale. These empirical evaluations focus on the main properties of the explosives which are: the shock sensitivity, the thermal stability, the density, the enthalpy of formation and the detonative properties. (J.S.) 7 refs.

  19. Isotopic variability in some intra-storms in the region of Niamey, Niger; Variabilite isotopique a l`echelle infra-evenement de quelques episodes pluvieux dans la region de Niamey, Niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taupin, J.D.; Gallaire, R. [LTHE/Orstom, domaine universitaire, 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). LGA/Orstom


    During the 1992 rainy season, in the Sahelian region (Niger), some important convective systems were sampled at a scale smaller than the event, to measure the variability of stable isotopes of water (oxygen-18 and deuterium). The evolution of the isotopic content of rainfall shows a good agreement with the processes describes by the physical meteorological model of the Sahelian convective system. With he knowledge of the main mechanisms governing the rain system, isotopes point out the contribution of the different sources of vapour during the storm. (authors) 11 refs.

  20. Evaluation des apports solaires a l'echelle d'un quartier urbain en periode de chauffe selon sa typologie, son orientation et sa latitude dans un contexte de densification de la ville (United States)

    Chenard, Laurent

    Mass urbanization is a major issue for town administrators. Population increase will have an impact on the quality of the environment for citizens. Government will have to take decisions to limit those effects. Green energies are part of the solution to reach fixed goals by the public administration for sustainable development. Passive solar energy is studied in this work in an urban canopy located in five different towns: San Francisco, Montreal, Bordeaux, Lyon and Stockholm. Passive solar energy is calculated in the heating season. Direct and diffuse solar radiation is considered by using the Perez model. Radiosity is not taken into account. Heating demand is calculated by the heating degree day method. Seven urban forms have been created to determine the amount of solar energy entering in every window of the urban canopy while taking into account urban context and forms. Optimal orientation of the canopy shows an increase of 5% of the passive solar radiation from original orientation, 180 degrees rotation from first orientation straight south. This value goes lower when stories are added to the urban context. A rotation of 90 degrees from the first orientation shows a decrease of 6 to 15% in solar passive gain. Densification of the urban canopy by adding stories to the buildings results in a loss up to 65% of the solar gain for the first story. It is showed that solar passive energy has a low ratio of 5% for space heating for old buildings, 1960 constructions. Today's buildings have a difference between passive solar energy and heating demand of 10 to 75% depending on the model and location.

  1. Study of vibrations and stabilization of linear collider final doublets at the sub-nanometer scale; Etude des vibrations et de la stabilisation a l'echelle sous-nanometrique des doublets finaux d'un collisionneur lineaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolzon, B


    CLIC is one of the current projects of high energy linear colliders. Vertical beam sizes of 0.7 nm at the time of the collision and fast ground motion of a few nanometers impose an active stabilization of the final doublets at a fifth of nanometer above 4 Hz. The majority of my work concerned vibrations and active stabilization study of cantilever and slim beams in order to be representative of the final doublets of CLIC. In a first part, measured performances of different types of vibration sensors associated to an appropriate instrumentation showed that accurate measurements of ground motion are possible from 0.1 Hz up to 2000 Hz on a quiet site. Also, electrochemical sensors answering a priori the specifications of CLIC can be incorporated in the active stabilization at a fifth of nanometer. In a second part, an experimental and numerical study of beam vibrations enabled to validate the efficiency of the numerical prediction incorporated then in the simulation of the active stabilization. Also, a study of the impact of ground motion and of acoustic noise on beam vibrations showed that an active stabilization is necessary at least up to 1000 Hz. In a third part, results on the active stabilization of a beam at its two first resonances are shown down to amplitudes of a tenth of nanometer above 4 Hz by using in parallel a commercial system performing passive and active stabilization of the clamping. The last part is related to a study of a support for the final doublets of a linear collider prototype in phase of finalization, the ATF2 prototype. This work showed that relative motion between this support and the ground is below imposed tolerances (6 nm above 0.1 Hz) with appropriate boundary conditions. (author)

  2. Macro-scale turbulence modelling for flows in porous media; Modelisation a l'echelle macroscopique d'un ecoulement turbulent au sein d'un milieu poreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinson, F


    - This work deals with the macroscopic modeling of turbulence in porous media. It concerns heat exchangers, nuclear reactors as well as urban flows, etc. The objective of this study is to describe in an homogenized way, by the mean of a spatial average operator, turbulent flows in a solid matrix. In addition to this first operator, the use of a statistical average operator permits to handle the pseudo-aleatory character of turbulence. The successive application of both operators allows us to derive the balance equations of the kind of flows under study. Two major issues are then highlighted, the modeling of dispersion induced by the solid matrix and the turbulence modeling at a macroscopic scale (Reynolds tensor and turbulent dispersion). To this aim, we lean on the local modeling of turbulence and more precisely on the k - {epsilon} RANS models. The methodology of dispersion study, derived thanks to the volume averaging theory, is extended to turbulent flows. Its application includes the simulation, at a microscopic scale, of turbulent flows within a representative elementary volume of the porous media. Applied to channel flows, this analysis shows that even within the turbulent regime, dispersion remains one of the dominating phenomena within the macro-scale modeling framework. A two-scale analysis of the flow allows us to understand the dominating role of the drag force in the kinetic energy transfers between scales. Transfers between the mean part and the turbulent part of the flow are formally derived. This description significantly improves our understanding of the issue of macroscopic modeling of turbulence and leads us to define the sub-filter production and the wake dissipation. A f - <{epsilon}>f - <{epsilon}{sub w}>f model is derived. It is based on three balance equations for the turbulent kinetic energy, the viscous dissipation and the wake dissipation. Furthermore, a dynamical predictor for the friction coefficient is proposed. This model is then successfully applied to the study of turbulent channel flows. (author)

  3. Dislocations and elementary processes of plasticity in FCC metals: atomic scale simulations; Dislocations et processus elementaires de la plasticite dans les metaux CFC: apports des simulations a l'echelle atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney, D


    We present atomic-scale simulations of two elementary processes of FCC crystal plasticity. The first study consists in the simulation by molecular dynamics, in a nickel crystal, of the interactions between an edge dislocation and glissile interstitial loops of the type that form under irradiation in displacement cascades. The simulations show various atomic-scale interaction processes leading to the absorption and drag of the loops by the dislocation. These reactions certainly contribute to the formation of the 'clear bands' observed in deformed irradiated materials. The simulations also allow to study quantitatively the role of the glissile loops in irradiation hardening. In particular, dislocation unpinning stresses for certain pinning mechanisms are evaluated from the simulations. The second study consists first in the generalization in three dimensions of the quasi-continuum method (QCM), a multi-scale simulation method which couples atomistic techniques and the finite element method. In the QCM, regions close to dislocation cores are simulated at the atomic-scale while the rest of the crystal is simulated with a lower resolution by means of a discretization of the displacement fields using the finite element method. The QCM is then tested on the simulation of the formation and breaking of dislocation junctions in an aluminum crystal. Comparison of the simulations with an elastic model of dislocation junctions shows that the structure and strength of the junctions are dominated by elastic line tension effects, as is assumed in classical theories. (author)

  4. Multi-scale modeling of the thermo-mechanical behavior of particle-based composites; Modelisation multi-echelles du comportement thermo-elastique de composites a renforts spheriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Paola, F.


    The aim of this work was to perform numerical simulations of the thermal and mechanical behavior of a particle-based nuclear fuel. This is a refractory composite material made of UO{sub 2} spherical particles which are coated with two layers of pyrocarbon and embedded in a graphite matrix at a high volume fraction (45 %). The objective was to develop a multi-scale modeling of this composite material which can estimate its mean behavior as well as the heterogeneity of the local mechanical variables. The first part of this work was dedicated to the modeling of the microstructure in 3D. To do this, we developed tools to generate random distributions of spheres, meshes and to characterize the morphology of the microstructure towards the finite element code Cast3M. A hundred of numerical samples of the composite were created. The second part was devoted to the characterization of the thermo-elastic behavior by the finite element modeling of the samples. We studied the influence of different modeling parameters, one of them is the boundary conditions. We proposed a method to vanish the boundary conditions effects from the computed solution by analyzing it on an internal sub-volume of the sample obtained by erosion. Then, we determined the effective properties (elastic moduli, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion) and the stress distribution within the matrix. Finally, in the third part we proposed a multi-scale modeling to determine the mean values and the variance and covariance of the local mechanical variables for any macroscopic load. This statistical approach have been used to estimate the intra-phase distribution of these variables in the composite material. (author)

  5. Multi-scale interaction between magnetic islands and microturbulence in magnetized plasmas; Modelisation et simulation de l'interaction multi-echelle entre ilots magnetiques et la microturbulence dans les plasmas de fusion magnetises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraglia, M.


    In a tokamak, it exists many kinds of instability at the origin of a damage of the confinement and worst of a lost of a confinement. This work presents a study of the dynamics of a magnetic island in presence of turbulence in magnetized plasmas. More precisely, the goal is to understand the multi-scales interaction between turbulence, generated by a pressure gradient and the magnetic field curvature, and a magnetic island formed thanks to a tearing mode. Thanks to the derivation of a 2-dimensional slab model taking into account both tearing and interchange instabilities, theoretical and numerical linear studies show the pressure effect on the magnetic island linear formation and show interchange modes are stabilized in presence of a strong magnetic field. Then, a numerical nonlinear study is presented in order to understand how the interchange mechanism affects the nonlinear dynamics of a magnetic island. It is shown that the pressure gradient and the magnetic field curvature affect strongly the nonlinear evolution of a magnetic island through dynamics bifurcations. The nature of these bifurcations should be characterized in function of the linear situation. Finally, the last part of this work is devoted to the study of the origin of the nonlinear poloidal rotation of the magnetic island. A model giving the different contributions to the rotation is derived. It is shown, thanks to the model and to the numerical studies, that the nonlinear rotation of the island is mainly governed by the ExB poloidal flow and/or by the nonlinear diamagnetic drift. (author)

  6. Multi-scale modeling of the behaviour of water and ions clays; Modelisation multi-echelles du comportement de l'eau et des ions dans les argiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotenberg, B


    Predicting the fate of radioactive waste stored in a clay formation requires a good understanding of the transport properties of water and ions in clays. Their diffusion in this charged porous medium is described by empirical parameters such as their partitioning coefficient Kd which accounts for the interactions with the mineral surfaces. The present work deals with the relevance of this concept and its definition based on microscopic grounds. We have first modeled the ionic contribution to the dielectric properties of clays and suggested an experimental determination of Kd from dielectric spectroscopy measurements. Using microscopic simulations (Monte-Carlo and Molecular Dynamics), we then have computed the Gibbs free energy and enthalpy for ionic exchange in the case of alkaline cations. They control the value of Kd and its evolution with the temperature. The results for cesium are in good agreement with both microcalorimetric measurements and the determination of Kd at different temperatures. We have participated in the development of a new lattice simulation method (Lattice Fokker-Planck), which we have then used to link explicitly the microscopic dynamics of ions to the diffusion-reaction model underlying the definition of Kd. Finally, we have used Molecular Dynamics to investigate the kinetics of exchange of water and ions between clay particles (interlayer) and the extra-particle porosity. The results confirm the generally admitted idea that water and ions can explore the whole porosity, whereas anions are excluded from the interlayers. (author)

  7. Grain scale stresses and strains determination by X-ray diffraction; Contribution a l'analyse par diffractometrie X des deformations et des contraintes a l'echelle des grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, W


    A new methodology for strain and stress analysis by X ray diffraction (XRD) in single crystal was developed. It can be applied to determine the second order stress (in grain scale) in single and multi-crystal material with non-cubic lattice. This method is based on the method Ortner I. It has introduced the metric tensor G which is deduced from the lattice space measured by XRD. In the developed method, when the crystal reference is non-orthonormal, an orthonormal reference associated with the crystal basis is defined, so all calculation could be done with usual calculation laws. The use of the least square method allows the acquisition of many more measurements than the six absolute necessary. Then a better metric tensor G is calculated and the statistical error is obtained. This developed method was applied in a bi crystal copper. The experimental results have shown that this method is also effective. The second order residuals stresses for coarse Zn grains in a galvanized coating were determined after annealing. The four coarse grains with different orientations were also characterized and demonstrated the elastic and plastic deformation mechanism in a grain or between the grains during in situ tensile loading. So this method is well able to determine the strains and stresses in grain scale in a mono crystal or multi crystal with any crystalline structure. (author)

  8. Calibration de l'echelle d'energie des jets et mesure de la masse du quark top dans le canal semi-leptonique dans l'experience ATLAS

    CERN Document Server


    The main goal of this thesis is to provide a measurement as accurate as possible of the top quark mass in the semi-leptonic decay channel. This experimental measurement is made thanks to the ATLAS detector near LHC, a proton-proton collider. The main interests for this precison measurement are the physics constraints to the theoretical models of fundamental constituents. Besides, the top quark mass is a parameter allowing to have more information on the vacuum stability at the Planck scale within the Standard Model. Jet energy calibration is crucial to this measurement. The impact of real data taking conditions on this calibration and on jet performance is detailed. The top quark mass measurement using 2011 data collected at an energy in the center-of-mass of 7 TeV is presented. It is using a tridimensional template analysis method. The measured top quark mass is: mtop = 172.01 ± 0.92 (stat) ± 1.17 (syst) GeV. The 2012 data collected at an energy in the center-of-mass of 8 TeV are also analysed, and a preli...

  9. Multi-scale approach for the study of the behaviour of multiphase systems. Application to non saturated porous media; Approche multi-echelle pour l'etude du comportement des systemes polyphasiques. Application aux milieux poreux non satures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y.


    In this thesis, the modeling of the behaviour of the unsaturated porous media, whose solid phase is composed of elastic linear material, is studied in the framework of micro-mechanics. Firstly, we recall some classical results on the homogenization of the homogeneous materials in the case where the macroscopic behaviour of the materials is elastic linear (chapter 1). This part concerning essentially the bibliography, we present also the applications of the micro-mechanical approach to the drying porous media and the saturated ones. In order to study the unsaturated case, it is necessary to know the distribution of the fluids in the porous space. The methods permitting to determine the equilibrium positions of a capillary interface inside of a porous medium and to study their stability are presented in the second chapter of this thesis, particularly in the case where there is no material exchange between the fluid phases. Then we use the 'classical' linear homogenization approach to study the mechanic behaviour for a porous medium saturated by two fluid phases (chapter 3). The results obtained are applied to estimate the drying strains, in the case where the subjected stress and the temperature remain constant, with taking into account the influence of the morphology characters of the porous space and the domains occupied by the fluid phases. In the fourth chapter, the modeling of the behaviour of a medium containing unsaturated meso-cracks is studied by considering the coupling between the capillary forces and the geometric changes of the cracks. By an example of drying, we show that, in the case where the cracks are very flat, the macroscopic behaviour accounting for the non-linearity differs significantly from the results of the linear approach. The thesis is finished by an examination of a granular material behaviour. To this end, we use a numerical approach based on the periodic hypothesis of the materials studied. All results obtained in this thesis show clearly the importance to take into account the phenomena existing in the pore scale and the morphologic properties of the domains occupied by each phase in order to model the behaviour of the unsaturated porous media. (author)

  10. Inverse modeling for the optimization of primary sources of atmospheric pollution at a regional scale; Modelisation inverse pour l'optimisation des sources primaires de pollution atmospherique a l'echelle regionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pison, I.


    Atmospheric pollution at a regional scale is the result of various interacting processes: emissions, chemistry, transport, mixing and deposition of gaseous species. The forecast of air quality is then performed by models, in which the emissions are taken into account through inventories. The simulated pollutant concentrations depend highly on the emissions that are used. Now inventories that represent them have large uncertainties. Since it would be difficult today to improve their building methodologies, there remains the possibility of adding information to existing inventories. The optimization of emissions uses the information that is available in measurements to get the inventory that minimizes the difference between simulated and measured concentrations. A method for the inversion of anthropogenic emissions at a regional scale, using network measurements and based on the CHIMERE model and its adjoint, was developed and validated. A kriging technique allows us to optimize the use of the information available in the concentration space. Repeated kriging-optimization cycles increase the quality of the results. A dynamical spatial aggregation technique makes it possible to further reduce the size of the problem. The NO{sub x} emissions from the inventory elaborated by AIRPARIF for the Paris area were inverted during the summers of 1998 and 1999, the events of the ESQUIF campaign being studied in detail. The optimization reduces large differences between simulated and measured concentrations. Generally, however, the confidence level of the results decreases with the density of the measurement network. Therefore, the results with the higher confidence level correspond to the most intense emission fluxes of the Paris area. On the whole domain, the corrections to the average emitted mass and to the matching time profiles are consistent with the estimate of 15% obtained during the ESQUIF campaign. (author)

  11. Transfer of reactive solutes in the unsaturated zone of soils at several observation scales; Transfert de solutes reactifs dans la zone non-saturee des sols a differentes echelles d'observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limousin, G


    The transfer of contaminants in the unsaturated zone of soils is driven by numerous mechanisms. Field studies are sometimes difficult to set up, and so the question is raised about the reliability of laboratory measurements for describing a field situation. The nuclear power plant at Brennilis (Finistere, France) has been chosen to study the transfer of strontium, cobalt and inert tracers in the soil of this industrial site. Several observation scales have been tested (batch, stirred flow-through reactor, sieved-soil column, un-repacked or repacked soil-core lysimeter, field experiments) in order to determine, at each scale, the factors that influence the transfer of these contaminants, then to verify the adequacy between the different observation scales and their field representativeness. Regarding the soil hydrodynamic properties, the porosity, the water content in the field, the pore water velocity at the water content in the field, the saturation hydraulic conductivity and the dispersion coefficient of this embanked soil are spatially less heterogeneous than those of agricultural or non-anthropic soils. The results obtained with lysimeter and field experiments suggest that hydrodynamics of this unstructured soil can be studied on a repacked sample if the volume is high compared to the rare big-size stones. Regarding the chemical soil-contaminant interactions, cobalt and strontium isotherms are non-linear at concentration higher than 10{sup -4} mol.L{sup -1}, cobalt adsorption and desorption are fast and independent on pH. On the contrary, at concentration lower than 3.5 x 10{sup -6} mol.L{sup -1}, cobalt and strontium isotherms are linear, cobalt desorption is markedly slower than adsorption and both cobalt partition coefficient at equilibrium and its reaction kinetics are highly pH-dependent. For both elements, the results obtained with batch, stirred flow-through reactor and sieved-soil column are in adequacy. However, strontium batch adsorption measurements at equilibrium do not make possible to describe the results of field transfer experiments. (author)

  12. Scale and the workplace as level of analysis in transport geography Echelle et lieu de travail en tant que niveau d’analyse en géographie des transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Vanoutrive


    Full Text Available It is often stated that one of the advantages of geography is its ability to include various spatial scales (other than the individual. In transport policy, the workplace is increasingly seen as a level of intervention which, as a consequence, should be researched by geographers. The present essay discusses the workplace as level of analysis in transport geography. Exploratory measures indicate that 12 to 65 % of the variance in mode choice can be attributed to this level, with considerable differences between modes. However, these measures ignore the relationships and interactions of and between employees. An alternative, network-based view on workplaces is illustrated by means of a small case study. The empirical examples are the starting point for a discussion of some methodological issues related to analyses at multiple levels.Il est communément admis que la géographie présente entre autres avantages celui de pouvoir intégrer une variété d’échelles spatiales (outre l’échelle individuelle. Les politiques des transports considèrent de plus en plus le lieu de travail comme un niveau d’intervention qui devrait par conséquent se voir investigué par les géographes. Cet article aborde la question du lieu de travail en tant que niveau d’analyse en géographie des transports. Les mesures exploratoires montrent que 12 à 65 % de la variance des choix modaux peuvent être attribués à ce niveau, avec des écarts considérables entre les modes. Toutefois, ces mesures ne prennent pas en compte les relations et interactions des (ou entre travailleurs. Un point de vue alternatif axé sur les réseaux est illustré ici par une étude de cas succincte. Les exemples empiriques sont le point de départ d’une discussion centrée sur différents problèmes méthodologiques relatifs aux analyses multi-niveaux.

  13. Phase-Center Extension for a Microwave Feed Horn (United States)

    Hartop, R. W.; Manshadi, F.


    Corrugated cylindrical tube relocates phase center of Cassegrain antenna feed. Proposed modification increases aperture of Cassegrain antenna from 64 to 70 m. Relatively inexpensive extension moves phase center of feed without incurring cost of redesigning horn and relocating low-noise equipment. Extension does not affect polarization characteristics of feed.

  14. CARMENES: Commissioning and first scientific results at the telescope. A precursor for HIRES@E-ELT (United States)

    Amado, P. J.; The Carmenes Consortium


    CARMENES is the next generation instrument built for the CAHA 3.5m telescope by a large international consortium of 11 institutes in Spain and Germany. It consists of two separate highly-stabilized, high-resolution echelle spectrographs covering both the visible, from 550 to 950 nm, and the near-IR, from 950 to 1700 nm, wavelength ranges with spectral resolution of R=82,000. They are fed by fibres from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope and were designed and built to achieve high-accuracy radial velocities of nearby M-dwarf stars. This contribution overviews the main and unique design characteristics of CARMENES. The instrument MAIV phase was achieved in the last two years (2014-2015) and started commissioning in November 2015. The commissioning phases, both technical and scientific, took six full weeks in the last two months of 2015. They have shown that the instrument is well within requirements and performing to be able to achieve its objective, not proven before in the near-infrared, of providing radial velocities precisions of 5 ms^{-1}, with a goal of 1 ms^{-1}. The Guaranteed Time Observations (GTO) program has started in January 1st, 2016. CARMENES is, therefore, currently conducting a radial-velocity survey of 300 M dwarfs with a precision sufficient for detecting Earth-like planets in their habitable zones. It is also being offered in open time by the CAHA. Its modular design is the idea in which HIRES, the next very high-resolution, high-fidelity spectrograph with wide wavelength coverage at the E-ELT, is based on. This E-ELT instrument might consist of four different high-resolution spectrographs covering the blue, the visible, the near-infrared (Y, J and H bands) and the K band. A proposal to the ESO call for Phase-A studies for a HIRES at the E-ELT was submitted by the HIRES consortium last December. This proposal was accepted by ESO and the Phase-A kick-off meeting between ESO and the consortium took place in March 22, 2016.

  15. CARMENES instrument overview (United States)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Seifert, W.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Antona Jiménez, R.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Azzaro, M.; Bauer, F.; Barrado, D.; Becerril, S.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Benítez, D.; Berdiñas, Z. M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Casal, E.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Czesla, S.; Doellinger, M.; Dreizler, S.; Feiz, C.; Fernández, M.; Galadí, D.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; García-Piquer, A.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Garrido, R.; Gesa, L.; Gómez Galera, V.; González Álvarez, E.; González Hernández, J. I.; Grözinger, U.; Guàrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; de Guindos, E.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Hagen, H.-J.; Hatzes, A. P.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Helmling, J.; Henning, T.; Hermann, D.; Hernández Castaño, L.; Herrero, E.; Hidalgo, D.; Holgado, G.; Huber, A.; Huber, K. F.; Jeffers, S.; Joergens, V.; de Juan, E.; Kehr, M.; Klein, R.; Kürster, M.; Lamert, A.; Lalitha, S.; Laun, W.; Lemke, U.; Lenzen, R.; López del Fresno, Mauro; López Martí, B.; López-Santiago, J.; Mall, U.; Mandel, H.; Martín, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Martínez-Rodríguez, H.; Marvin, C. J.; Mathar, R. J.; Mirabet, E.; Montes, D.; Morales Muñoz, R.; Moya, A.; Naranjo, V.; Ofir, A.; Oreiro, R.; Pallé, E.; Panduro, J.; Passegger, V.-M.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Pérez Medialdea, D.; Perger, M.; Pluto, M.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Redondo, P.; Reffert, S.; Reinhardt, S.; Rhode, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Rodríguez-Pérez, E.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rosich, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sarmiento, L. F.; Schäfer, S.; Schiller, J.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Storz, C.; Stürmer, J.; Suárez, J. C.; Ulbrich, R. G.; Veredas, G.; Wagner, K.; Winkler, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Zechmeister, M.; Abellán de Paco, F. J.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; del Burgo, C.; Klutsch, A.; Lizon, J. L.; López-Morales, M.; Morales, J. C.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Tulloch, S. M.; Xu, W.


    This paper gives an overview of the CARMENES instrument and of the survey that will be carried out with it during the first years of operation. CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation radial-velocity instrument under construction for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is conducting a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~ 300 M dwarfs with the completed instrument. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate echelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. The spectrographs are housed in vacuum tanks providing the temperature-stabilized environments necessary to enable a 1 m/s radial velocity precision employing a simultaneous calibration with an emission-line lamp or with a Fabry-Perot etalon. For mid-M to late-M spectral types, the wavelength range around 1.0 μm (Y band) is the most important wavelength region for radial velocity work. Therefore, the efficiency of CARMENES has been optimized in this range. The CARMENES instrument consists of two spectrographs, one equipped with a 4k x 4k pixel CCD for the range 0.55 - 1.05 μm, and one with two 2k x 2k pixel HgCdTe detectors for the range from 0.95 - 1.7μm. Each spectrograph will be coupled to the 3.5m telescope with two optical fibers, one for the target, and one for calibration light. The front end contains a dichroic beam splitter and an atmospheric dispersion corrector, to feed the light into the fibers leading to the spectrographs. Guiding is performed with a separate camera; on-axis as well as off-axis guiding modes are implemented. Fibers with octagonal cross-section are employed to ensure good stability of the output in the presence of residual guiding errors. The

  16. Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Ian S


    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw the Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  17. Statistics a guide to the use of statistical methods in the physical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, Roger J


    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw The Physics of Stars Second Edition A.C. Phillips Computing for Scienti

  18. Quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandl, Franz


    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw The Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  19. Statistical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandl, Franz


    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition E. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw The Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  20. Development of an automatic system dedicated to the writing of explicit and reduced chemical schemes suited to the photo-oxidant pollution study at different scales; Developpement d'une chaine automatique d'ecriture de schemas chimiques explicites et reduits adaptes a l'etude de la pollution photooxydante aux differentes echelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laval-Szopa, S


    Millions of compounds are involved in atmospheric chemistry. Chemical schemes must then be reduced to model the photo-oxidant pollution using chemistry-transport models (CTM). Such reduced schemes describe the atmospheric VOC oxidation using typically a hundred of species. The reduction methods depend actually on the particular case under consideration. The recent emergence of multi-scale CTM sets the problem of the use of reduced chemical schemes developed for a specified scale to the simultaneous modeling of several space scales. The objective of this work was to develop and assess an automatic procedure allowing to write explicit and reduced chemical schemes suited to the study of photo-oxidant pollution at different scales. The method is based on (1) the development of a tool dedicated to the writing of explicit schemes for VOC oxidation and (2) the assessment of reduced schemes using the explicit scheme as a reference. In order to minimize the problems involved in the development of chemical schemes, an automatic generator of explicit chemical schemes was developed for the tropospheric VOC oxidation. This generator is based on state of the art in terms of reactivity and mechanisms. It allows the writing of the whole set of reactions implied in the oxidation of a given primary compound, from its initiation to its total oxidation in CO{sub 2} et H{sub 2}O. A reference chemical scheme was built, using the generator, for about seventy primary VOC, chosen to be representative of both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. The scheme describes their oxidation through more than 2 millions of reactions and 350.000 species. Three methods were applied to reduce the size of the chemical scheme: (i) use of operators, based on the redundancy of inorganic chemistry implied in the VOC oxidation, (ii) lumping of primary species having similar reactivities and (iii) lumping of secondary products into surrogate species. The number of species in the final reduced scheme is 150, i.e. low enough for 3D modeling purposes using CTM. Tests were carried out with a box model for several typical tropospheric conditions. These tests showed the capacity of the reduced chemical scheme to accurately model the ozone and oxidant chemistry in various tropospheric situations, from polluted to remote conditions. (author)

  1. Link between large scale atmospheric circulation and heat waves for seasonal forecasting and climate change impact studies; Le lien entre circulation atmospherique de grande echelle et canicules pour la prevision a longue echeance et l'impact du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, J.; Cassou, Ch.; Terray, L. [CERFACS, 31 - Toulouse (France); Parey, S.; Dubus, L. [EDF/R and D/MFEE, 78 - Chatou (France)


    Climate models are designed to reproduce the average behaviour of the climatic parameters over quite large geographical areas, and the large scale atmospheric circulation. Large scale atmospheric circulation shows some stable and recurrent patterns, called weather regimes, whose succession can explain the local observed meteorological conditions. These structures are then identified for the summer season and their link with hot and dry days in France are studied. From the 4 identified summer regimes, 2 are associated with an increased occurrence of hot and dry conditions over France. Although this link does not explain the total summer variability, it can help to anticipate hot and dry conditions and it is used here for seasonal forecast perspectives and to analyse the impact of climate change on the occurrence of heat waves. Regarding seasonal forecast, an influence of anomalous tropical conditions (a northern shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone) has been identified as susceptible to increase the occurrence frequency of the 2 regimes linked to hot and dry conditions in France in summer. Thus, if this link can be confirmed and if climate models are able to re-produce it correctly, then it could lead to an interesting anticipation of the possible occurrence of an heat wave in the next summer. As far as climate change is concerned, the study shows that in the future, one of the 2 hot and dry regimes could be more frequent, while the most cold and wet one becomes less frequent. Thus, globally, hot and dry days should occur more frequently. There are however still many uncertainties, as on the one hand, models show different results concerning the future occurrence of the regimes, and on the other hand, the other local mechanisms linked to the heat wave occurrence, like soil moisture content and evolution, are sometimes poorly represented. (authors)

  2. Rating of transport and radiation source events. Draft additional guidance for the INES national officers for pilot use and feedback; Echelle de classement des incidents de radioprotection: document d'application du systeme international propose par l'AIEA pour les sources radioactives et les transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) is a means for promptly communicating to the public in consistent terms the safety significance of any reported event associated with radioactive material and/or radiation and to any event occurring during the transport of radioactive material. As described in the 2001 Edition of the INES User.s Manual, events are classified on the scale at seven levels: the upper levels (4-7) are termed accidents. and the lower levels (1-3) incidents. Events which have no safety significance are classified below scale at Level 0 and termed deviations. An overview of the principles for the rating under INES together with flow charts summarizing the rating process is provided in Appendix I. The 2001 Edition of the INES User.s Manual provides some guidance for the rating of transport and radiation source events. At the technical meeting held in 2002 the INES National Officers requested the IAEA/NEA Secretariat to prepare additional guidance. Progress was reported at the Technical Meeting of the INES National Officers in March 2004 where preparation of this draft additional guidance was requested for pilot use. This note provides additional guidance on the rating of transport and radiation source events. It is for pilot use and feedback and is broadly consistent with the INES User.s Manual. It provides more detailed information and an expanded approach for the rating based on actual exposure of workers and members of the public. It is designed to be used as a self-standing document with limited need for reference to the INES User Manual. (author)

  3. Behaviour at the indicator scale of the elements Zr, Hf and 104, Nb,Ta and Pa (105) in very complexation media; Comportement a l`echelle des indicateurs des elements Zr, Hf, et 104, Nb, Ta, et Pa (105) en milieux tres complexants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroy Guzman, F. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS - IN2P3 Universite Paris Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)


    In order to determine the chemical properties of the trans-actinide elements of Z = 104 and 105 in aqueous solutions we studied their behaviour to ion exchange resin in different complex media. Due to the very short lifetimes (some tens of seconds) et to the low yield of these elements (a few atoms per irradiation hour) only very fast radiochemical techniques can be used. These severe constraints impose comparative studies of these elements with their most likely homologues to be carried out. The corresponding homologues were the elements of group 4 (Zr and Hf) for the element 104 and the elements of group 5 (Nb and Ta) and also Pa for the element 105. The complexation properties of the elements at indicator scale were determined in the media of HF, NH{sub 4}/HClO{sub 4}, NH{sub 4}SCN/HClO{sub 4}, NH{sub 4}SCN/HF and HCl/HF by ion exchange chromatography. The studies in fluorides media allowed us to identify the complexes in solution and to explain the shape of the experimentally observed sorption curves. The decrease of sorption for higher acid concentration in case of HF/HCl medium was interpreted by formation of chloro-fluoro-complexes. In case of the mixture NH{sub 4}SCN/HF, the particularly pronounced anti-synergic effects were observed and discussed. At the same time studies of the Hf and Ta short-lived isotopes were carried out by means of the RACHEL facility operating by the Orsay Tandem accelerator. These realistic simulations allowed optimization of different production, transportation and separation stages of the trans-actinide elements. The two experiments of 104 element production showed that this element forms in HF very stable anionic complexes similarly to its homologues Zr and Hf. (authors). 181 refs.

  4. Multi scale impacts of a (Mg,Ca)-Pb exchange on the permeability increase of a bentonite; Impacts ''multi echelle'' d'un echange (Mg,Ca)-Pb et ses consequences sur l'augmentation de la permeabilite d'une bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozja, N.; Baillif, P.; Touray, J.C.; Pons, Ch.H.; Muller, F.; Burgevin, C. [Institut des Sciences de la Terre d' Orleans, UMR 6313, 45 - Orleans (France)


    The article addresses the structural effects of solutions of lead nitrate on a suspended or compacted bentonite. A permeability increase is observed on compacted clay. Investigating the composition of output solution, using X-Rays Diffusion at Small Angles and Scanning Electron Microscopy, this permeability increase is explained from structural variations at nano-metric (reduction of particle size) and micrometric scales (micro-fissuration of aggregates). (authors)

  5. Large-eddy simulation and Lagrangian stochastic modelling of solid particle and droplet dispersion and mixing. Application to atmospheric pollution; Dispersion et melange turbulents de particules solides et de gouttelettes par une simulation des grandes echelles et une modelisation stochastique lagrangienne. Application a la pollution de l'atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinkovic, I.


    In order to study atmospheric pollution and the dispersion of industrial stack emissions, a large eddy simulation with the dynamic Smagorinsky-Germano sub-grid-scale model is coupled with Lagrangian tracking of fluid particles containing scalar, solid particles and droplets. The movement of fluid particles at a sub-grid level is given by a three-dimensional Langevin model. The stochastic model is written in terms of sub-grid-scale statistics at a mesh level. By introducing a diffusion model, the coupling between the large-eddy simulation and the modified three-dimensional Langevin model is applied to passive scalar dispersion. The results are validated by comparison with the wind-tunnel experiments of Fackrell and Robins (1982). The equation of motion of a small rigid sphere in a turbulent flow is introduced. Solid particles and droplets are tracked in a Lagrangian way. The velocity of solid particles and droplets is considered to have a large scale component (directly computed by the large-eddy simulation) and a sub-grid scale part. Because of inertia and gravity effects, solid particles and droplets, deviate from the trajectories of the surrounding fluid particles. Therefore, a modified Lagrangian correlation timescale is introduced into the Langevin model previously developed for the sub-grid velocity of fluid particles. Two-way coupling and collisions are taken into account. The results of the large-eddy simulation with solid particles are compared with the wind-tunnel experiments of Nalpanis et al. (1993) and of Taniere et al. (1997) on sand particles in saltation and in modified saltation, respectively. A model for droplet coalescence and breakup is implemented which allows to predict droplet interactions under turbulent flow conditions in the frame of the Euler/Lagrange approach. Coalescence and breakup are considered as a stochastic process with simple scaling symmetry assumption for the droplet radius, initially proposed by Kolmogorov (1941). At high-frequency of breakup/coalescence phenomena, this stochastic process is equivalent to the evolution of the probability density function of droplet radii, which is governed by a Fokker-Planck equation. The parameters of the model are obtained dynamically by relating them to the local resolved properties of the dispersed phase compared to the main fluid. Within each grid cell, mass conservation is applied. The model is validated by comparison with the agglomeration model of Ho and Sommerfeld (2002), the stochastic model for secondary breakup of Apte et al. (2003) and the experimental results on secondary breakup in a coaxial jet of Lasheras et al. (1998). The large-eddy simulation coupled with Lagrangian particle tracking and the model for droplet coalescence and breakup is applied to the study of the atmospheric dispersion of wet cooling tower plumes. The simulations are done for different droplet size distributions and volume fractions. We focused on the influence of these parameters on mean concentration, concentration variance and mass flux profiles. In order to gain insight into the transport of solid particles and droplets in a turbulent boundary layer flow, the evolution of particles that were initially distributed in an uniform way in the flow, is analysed. This simple test case represents a first approach for understanding the phenomena that take place within large clouds of pollution, sand storms or when fog disappears under the influence of a rising wind. The period and the size of regions of preferential concentration are determined. This regions are of particular interest in the study of atmospheric dispersion of particles because they can lead to pollution peaks in an otherwise, not polluted atmosphere. (author)

  6. Development of a single ion micro-irradiation facility for experimental radiobiology at cell level; Developpement d'une ligne d'irradiation microfaisceau en mode ion par ion pour la radiobiologie experimentale a l'echelle cellulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barberet, Ph


    A micro-irradiation device has been developed for radiobiology applications at the scale of the cell. This device is based on an upgrade of an existing micro-beam line that was already able to deliver a 1 to 3 MeV proton or alpha beam of low intensity and whose space resolution is lower than 1 micrometer in vacuum. The important part of this work has been the development of an irradiation stage designed to fit on the micro-probe and able to deliver ions in the air with an absolute accuracy of a few micrometers. A program has been set up to monitor the complete irradiation line in testing and in automatic irradiation operating phases. Simulation tools based on Monte-Carlo calculations have been validated through comparisons with experimental data particularly in the field of spatial resolution and of the number of ions delivered. The promising results show the possibility in a near future to use this tool to study the response of cells to very low irradiation doses down to the extreme limit of one ion per cell.

  7. Study of the energetic behaviour of explosives at the molecular scale: modeling of the decomposition reaction mechanisms and the TRISP experiment; Etude du comportement energetique de l`explosif a l`echelle moleculaire: modelisation des mecanismes reactionnels de decomposition et experience TRISP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delpeyroux, D.; Lafon, C.; Mathieu, D.; Simonetti, Ph. [CEA Le Ripault, 37 - Tours (France)


    In order to study the energetic behaviour of explosive compounds in relation with their molecular structure, an analysis of the reaction mechanisms involved during the decomposition is performed using the calculation methods of quantum chemistry. This paper explains the procedure used and the first results obtained. The identification of the reaction products is made with the ultra-fast infrared spectroscopy TRISP developed in this study for the validation of the results. (J.S.) 2 refs.

  8. Regional-Scale CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity Estimation in Mesozoic Aquifers of Poland; L'evaluation de la capacite du stockage du CO{sub 2} a l'echelle regionale dans des couches aquiferes Mesozoiques en Pologne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uliasz-Misiak, B. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Drilling, Oil and Gas, A. Mickiewicza 30 Ave., 30-059 Krakow (Poland)


    The CO{sub 2} storage capacity estimated at the regional scale provides a preliminary recognition of as far as the possible uses of CO{sub 2} sequestration as an option of emission reduction. There has been presented the estimation of CO{sub 2} storage capacity for aquifers of Lower Cretaceous, Lower Jurassic and Lower Triassic of Polish Lowland. The Lower Jurassic deposits exhibit the greatest CO{sub 2} storage capacity of all the horizons, storage capacity of the Lower Triassic deposits is lower, the smallest capacity was estimated for the Lower Cretaceous deposits. The use of specific capacity maps for carbon dioxide in aquifers has been suggested in order to estimate the potential on national and basin scale as well as the search for prospective areas for CO{sub 2} storage. (author)

  9. Multi-scale study of the interaction mechanisms of aquo-uranyl ions with titanium oxide surfaces (powders and monocrystals); Etude multi-echelle des mecanismes d'interaction des ions aquo uranyle avec les surfaces de l'oxyde de titane (poudres et monocristaux)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenborre, J


    The aim of this work is the study, at a molecular scale, of the sorption mechanisms corresponding to UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} /TiO{sub 2} system. The first step of the study is the hydrated solid characterization and the second step is the sorption mechanisms study. The work is performed using a multi-scale approach, which is composed by three parts. At first, we have obtained macroscopic data corresponding to the uranyl retention on the solid. Moreover, we have used CD-MUSIC model in order to calculate the surface acidity constants of the hydrated solid. In a second part, we have performed a multi-spectroscopic study (TRLFS, XPS, DRIFT, SHG) in order to characterize the system at a molecular scale. Finally, all these results were obtained on the solid TiO{sub 2} under different forms (rutile or anatase phases and (110), (001), (111) rutile single crystals). From the structural results, we have determined that there are two sorption sites towards the free uranyl ion onto the titania surface, whatever the studied solid (powder and single crystal). Moreover, these two reactive sorption sites don't present the same reactivity towards free uranyl ion: the more reactive sorption site is assigned to a bridging-bridging oxygen atoms and the less reactive sorption site is assigned to a bridging-top oxygen atoms. Thus, using this methodology, we can conclude that it is possible to understand the powder surface properties using the single crystals surface results. Finally, with the multi-scale approach, we have used the spectroscopic results obtained on UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}/TiO{sub 2} system as constraints during macroscopic data simulation using a surface complexation model (CCM). (author)

  10. Study of the reactive processes during CO{sub 2} injection into sedimentary reservoirs: Experimental quantification of the processes at meso-scale; Quantification experimentale a l'echelle mesoscopique des processus reactionnels dans le cadre de l'injection de CO{sub 2} dans des roches carbonatees et silicatees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luquot, L.


    In order to minimize CO{sub 2} atmospheric concentration, a solution consists in sequestrating CO{sub 2} in geological reservoirs. To estimate long term risks, it is necessary to quantify the couplings between reaction processes as well as structural and hydrodynamical modifications. We realised two experimental benches enabling injecting CO{sub 2}-enriched-brine in conditions corresponding to in situ storage (T {<=} 200 C and P {<=} 200 bar) and developed an experimental protocol using X-Ray microtomography and fluid and rock analyses in order to measure the variations of physical and chemical parameters. The study of carbonated reservoirs near the injection well, allows quantifying different k-phi relationships depending on the dissolution processes and triggered by the local fluid chemical composition and initials conditions. Away from the injection well, we observe carbonate precipitation decreasing the permeability. The study of fractured cap-rock samples shows that alternative percolation of CO{sub 2}-enriched-brine and CO{sub 2} gas increases the fracture permeability. The study of silicated rocks indicates carbonate precipitation in zeolite sandstone and sintered dunite grains. Nevertheless, in zeolite sandstone we also observe the precipitation of clay particles located in the fluid pathways which decrease strongly the permeability. (author)

  11. The study of permeabilities, measured at various scales, of a fluviatile sandstone reservoir. Development and application of a well test numerical simulator; Etude des permeabilites mesurees a differentes echelles d`un reservoir greseux fluviatile. Developpement et application d`un simulateur numerique de tests de puits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquin, T.


    The general problem of a single phase fluid flow through heterogenous porous media, is studied, focusing on well test data interpretation in the context of reservoir characterization; a 3D finite volume code, with capacity of local refinement, is developed to simulate well tests. After a review of traditional techniques used to interpret well test data, and their extension to heterogenous media using a weighting function that depends upon the flow geometry, an analysis is carried out for 2D correlated lognormal permeability distributions: it compares well to numerical well tests performed on low variance permeability distributions but needs further investigation for high variance. For 3D heterogenous permeability fields, well bore pressure cannot be estimated by analytical means; therefore a more empirical approach is used to study the permeability field of a reservoir used by Gaz de France as an underground gas storage. Simulated well tests are performed on a reservoir model based upon core measurements and log analysis. The numerical investigation reveals inconsistencies in the treatment of available data, which can be corrected so geology is better taken into account

  12. Report of study group 3.2 ''small scale LNG projects and modular systems''; Rapport du groupe d'etude 3.2 ''projets de GNL a petite echelle et systemes modulaires''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, B.


    This report details the work undertaken by Study Group 3.2 during the triennium 1997-2000. The Study Group has held three meetings in Stavanger (Norway) in Dubai (UAE) and in London (UK) between March 1998 and October 1999. The study group membership is listed in appendix 1. The subject treated by the Study Group is 'Small Scale LNG Projects and Modular Systems' The study report undertakes a general survey of: 1) the state of the art of the technology; 2) the potential market applications; 3) prospects for gas development and marginal fields. The study addresses three main items: a) Adapting regulation to compact LNG production systems (e.g. distances between equipment in fixed installations); b) LNG production in a marine environment; c) The need for substantial cost reductions. The questions that are addressed in this study report are: Will small scale LNG projects be economically viable? When an onshore industry moves offshore - which standards are to be applied? (author)

  13. Scale interactions in economics: application to the evaluation of the economic damages of climatic change and of extreme events; Interactions d'echelles en economie: application a l'evaluation des dommages economiques du changement climatique et des evenements extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallegatte, S


    Growth models, which neglect economic disequilibria, considered as temporary, are in general used to evaluate the damaging effects generated by climatic change. This work shows, through a series of modeling experiences, the importance of disequilibria and of endogenous variability of economy in the evaluation of damages due to extreme events and climatic change. It demonstrates the impossibility to separate the evaluation of damages from the representation of growth and of economic dynamics: the comfort losses will depend on both the nature and intensity of impacts and on the dynamics and situation of the economy to which they will apply. Thus, the uncertainties about the damaging effects of future climatic changes come from both scientific uncertainties and from uncertainties about the future organization of our economies. (J.S.)

  14. RF Design and Predicted Performance for a Future 34-meter Shaped Dual-reflector Antenna System Using the Common Aperture X-S Feedhorn (United States)

    Williams, W. F.


    The Networks Consolidation Program (NCP) will utilize 34-meter shaped dual-reflector Cassegrain antennas. The shaping calculations, the X/S-band feedhorn to be used, and the predicted RF performance of this antenna system are discussed.

  15. Alternative design for extremely large telescopes and options to use the VATT for ELT design demonstration (United States)

    Ackermann, Mark R.; McGraw, John T.; Zimmer, Peter C.


    A variety of optical designs for extremely large telescopes (ELTs) can be found throughout the technical literature. Most feature very fast primary mirrors of either conic or spherical figure. For those designs with conic primary mirrors, many of the optical approaches tend to be derivatives of either the aplanatic Cassegrain or Gregorian systems. The Cassegrain approach is more common as it results in a shorter optical system, but it requires a large convex aspheric secondary mirror, which is extremely difficult and expensive to test. The Gregorian approach is physically longer and suffers from greater field curvature. In some design variations, additional mirrors are added to reimage and possibly flatten a Cassegrain focus. An interesting alternative ELT design uses a small Cassegrain system to image the collimated output of a Gregorian-Mersenne concentrator. Another alternative approach, currently in favor for use on the European ELT, uses three powered mirrors and two flat mirrors to reimage a Cassegrain focus out the side similar to a Nasmyth system. A preliminary examination suggests that a small, fast primary mirror, such as that used on the VATT, might be used for a subscale prototype of current ELT optical design options.

  16. Comparison of various methods for mathematical analysis of the Foucault knife edge test pattern to determine optical imperfections (United States)

    Gatewood, B. E.


    The linearized integral equation for the Foucault test of a solid mirror was solved by various methods: power series, Fourier series, collocation, iteration, and inversion integral. The case of the Cassegrain mirror was solved by a particular power series method, collocation, and inversion integral. The inversion integral method appears to be the best overall method for both the solid and Cassegrain mirrors. Certain particular types of power series and Fourier series are satisfactory for the Cassegrain mirror. Numerical integration of the nonlinear equation for selected surface imperfections showed that results start to deviate from those given by the linearized equation at a surface deviation of about 3 percent of the wavelength of light. Several possible procedures for calibrating and scaling the input data for the integral equation are described.

  17. CoRoT LRa02_E2_0121: Neptune-size planet candidate turns into a hierarchical triple system with a giant primary

    CERN Document Server

    Tal-Or, L; Mazeh, T; Bouchy, F; Moutou, C; Alonso, R; Gandolfi, D; Aigrain, S; Auvergne, M; Barge, P; Bonomo, A S; Borde, P; Deeg, H; Ferraz-Mello, S; Deleuil, M; Dvorak, R; Erikson, A; Fridlund, M; Gillon, M; Guenther, E W; Guillot, T; Hatzes, A; Jorda, L; Lammer, H; Leger, A; Llebaria, A; Ollivier, M; Patzold, M; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Rouan, D; Tsodikovich, Y; Wuchterl, G


    This paper presents the case of CoRoT LRa02_E2_0121, which was initially classified as a Neptune-size transiting-planet candidate on a relatively wide orbit of 36.3 days. Follow-up observations were performed with UVES, Sandiford, SOPHIE and HARPS. These observations revealed a faint companion in the spectra. To find the true nature of the system we derived the radial velocities of the faint companion using TODMOR - a two-dimensional correlation technique, applied to the SOPHIE spectra. Modeling the lightcurve with EBAS we discovered a secondary eclipse with a depth of ~0.07%, indicating a diluted eclipsing binary. Combined MCMC modeling of the lightcurve and the radial velocities suggested that CoRoT LRa02_E2_0121 is a hierarchical triple system with an evolved G-type primary and an A-type:F-type grazing eclipsing binary. Such triple systems are difficult to discover.

  18. CTK-II & RTK: The CCD-cameras operated at the auxiliary telescopes of the University Observatory Jena (United States)

    Mugrauer, M.


    The Cassegrain-Teleskop-Kamera (CTK-II) and the Refraktor-Teleskop-Kamera (RTK) are two CCD-imagers which are operated at the 25 cm Cassegrain and 20 cm refractor auxiliary telescopes of the University Observatory Jena. This article describes the main characteristics of these instruments. The properties of the CCD-detectors, the astrometry, the image quality, and the detection limits of both CCD-cameras, as well as some results of ongoing observing projects, carried out with these instruments, are presented. Based on observations obtained with telescopes of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated by the Astrophysical Institute of the Friedrich-Schiller-University.

  19. Stratospheric aftermath of the 2010 Storm on Saturn as observed by the TEXES instrument. I. Temperature structure

    CERN Document Server

    Fouchet, Thierry; Spiga, Aymeric; Fletcher, Leigh N; Guerlet, Sandrine; Leconte, Jérémy; Orton, Glenn S


    We report on spectroscopic observations of Saturn's stratosphere in July 2011 with the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES) mounted on the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF). The observations, targeting several lines of the CH$_4$ $\

  20. X-shooter, the new wide band intermediate resolution spectrograph at the ESO Very Large Telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernet, J.; Dekker, H.; D'Odorico, S.


    X-shooter is the first 2nd generation instrument of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). It is a very efficient, single-target, intermediate-resolution spectrograph that was installed at the Cassegrain focus of UT2 in 2009. The instrument covers, in a single exposure, the spectral range from 300 t...

  1. X-shooter, the new wide band intermediate resolution spectrograph at the ESO Very Large Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernet, J.; Dekker, H.; D'Odorico, S.; Kaper, L.; Kjaergaard, P.; Hammer, F.; Randich, S.; Zerbi, F.; Groot, P.J.; Hjorth, J.; Guinouard, I.; Navarro, R.; Adolfse, T.; Albers, P.W.; Amans, J.-P.; Andersen, J.J.; Andersen, M.I.; Binetruy, P.; Bristow, P.; Castillo, R.; Chemla, F.; Christensen, L.; Conconi, P.; Conzelmann, R.; Dam, J.; De Caprio, V.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Delabre, B.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Downing, M.; Elswijk, E.; Finger, G.; Fischer, G.; Flores, H.; François, P.; Goldoni, P.; Guglielmi, L.; Haigron, R.; Hanenburg, H.; Hendriks, I.; Horrobin, M.; Horville, D.; Jessen, N.C.; Kerber, F.; Kern, L.; Kiekebusch, M.; Kleszcz, P.; Klougart, J.; Kragt, J.; Larsen, H.H.; Lizon, J.-L.; Lucuix, C.; Mainieri, V.; Manuputy, R.; Martayan, C.; Mason, E.; Mazzoleni, R.; Michaelsen, N.; Modigliani, A.; Moehler, S.; Møller, P.; Norup Sørensen, A.; Nørregaard, P.; Péroux, C.; Patat, F.; Pena, E.; Pragt, J.; Reinero, C.; Rigal, F.; Riva, M.; Roelfsema, R.; Royer, F.; Sacco, G.; Santin, P.; Schoenmaker, T.; Spano, P.; Sweers, E.; ter Horst, R.; Tintori, M.; Tromp, N.; van Dael, P.; van Vliet, H.; Venema, L.; Vidali, M.; Vinther, J.; Vola, P.; Winters, R.; Wistisen, D.; Wulterkens, G.; Zacchei, A.


    X-shooter is the first 2nd generation instrument of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). It is a very efficient, single-target, intermediate-resolution spectrograph that was installed at the Cassegrain focus of UT2 in 2009. The instrument covers, in a single exposure, the spectral range from 300 to

  2. X-shooter: UV-to-IR intermediate-resolution high-efficiency spectrograph for the ESO VLT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Odorico, S.; Andersen, M.I.; Conconi, P.; De Caprio, V.; Delabre, B.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Dekker, H.; Downing, M.D.; Finger, G.; Groot, P.; Hanenburg, H.H.; Hammer, F.; Horville, D.; Hjorth, J.; Kaper, L.; Klougart, J.; Kjaergaard-Rasmussen, P.; Lizon, J.-L.; Marteaud, M.; Mazzoleni, R.; Michaelsen, N.; Pallavicini, R.; Rigal, F.; Santin, P.; Norup Soerensen, A.; Spano, P.; Venema, L.; Vola, P.; Zerbi, F.M.; Hasinger, G.; Turner, M.J.L.


    X-shooter is a single target spectrograph for the Cassegrain focus of one of the VLT UTs. It covers in a single exposure the spectral range from the UV to the H band with a possible extension into part of the K band. It is designed to maximize the sensitivity in this spectral range through the

  3. Compact Concentrators for Solar Cells (United States)

    Whang, V. S.


    Each cell in array has own concentrator. A Cassegrain Reflector combination of paraboloidal and hyperboloidar mirrors-used with conical reflector at each element of array. Three components direct light to small solar cell. No cooling fins, fans, pumps, or heat pipes needed, not even in vacuum.

  4. Radio frequency and microwave subsystems section. Dual-frequency feed cone assemblies for 34-meter antennas (United States)

    Hartop, R. W.


    New Cassegrain cone assemblies were designed for the upgrade of three 26 meter-diameter antennas to 34 meter-diameter with improved performance. The new dual-frequency feed cone (SXD) provided both S- and X-band feed systems and traveling wave masers with a reflex reflector system to permit simultaneous operation analogous to the 64-meter antennas.

  5. The ICE spectrograph for PEPSI at the LBT: preliminary optical design (United States)

    Pallavicini, Roberto; Zerbi, Filippo M.; Spano, Paolo; Conconi, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Ruben; Molinari, Emilio; Strassmeier, Klaus G.


    We present a preliminary design study for a high-resolution echelle spectrograph (ICE) to be used with the spectropolarimeter PEPSI under development at the LBT. In order to meet the scientific requirements and take full advantage of the peculiarities of the LBT (i.e. the binocular nature and the adaptive optics capabilities), we have designed a fiber-fed bench mounted instrument for both high resolution (R ≍ 100,000; non-AO polarimetric and integral light modes) and ultra-high resolution (R ≍ 300,000; AO integral light mode). In both cases, 4 spectra per order (two for each primary mirror) shall be accomodated in a 2-dimensional cross dispersed echelle format. In order to obtain a resolution-slit product of ≍ 100,000 as required by the science case, we have considered two alternative designs, one with two R4 echelles in series and the other with a sigle R4 echelle and fiber slicing. A white-pupil design, VPH cross-dispersers and two cameras of different focal length for the AO and non-AO modes are adopted in both cases. It is concluded that the single-echelle fiber-slicer solution has to be preferred in terms of performances, complexity and cost. It can be implemented at the LBT in two phases, with the long-camera AO mode added in a second phase depending on the availability of funds and the time-scale for implementation of the AO system.

  6. Data Reduction with the MIKE Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Bernstein, Rebecca A; Prochaska, J Xavier


    This manuscript describes the design, usage, and data-reduction pipeline developed for the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrometer used with the Magellan telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory. We summarize the basic characteristics of the instrument and discuss observational procedures recommended for calibrating the standard data products. We detail the design and implementation of an IDL based data-reduction pipeline for MIKE data (since generalized to other echelle spectrometers, e.g. Keck/HIRES, VLT/UVES). This includes novel techniques for flat-fielding, wavelength calibration, and the extraction of echelle spectroscopy. Sufficient detail is provided in this manuscript to enable inexperienced observers to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the instrument and software package and an assessment of the related systematics.

  7. BESO: first light at the high-resolution spectrograph for the Hexapod-Telescope (United States)

    Steiner, Ingo; Stahl, Otmar; Seifert, Walter; Chini, Rolf; Quirrenbach, Andreas


    BESO (Bochum Echelle Spectrograph for OCA)is a high-resolution echelle spectrograph which has been built by Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum and Landessternwarte Heidelberg. It is fiber-coupled to the 1.5m Hexapod-Telescope at the Observatario Cerro Armazones (OCA), Chile. The first light spectra show that the resolution of 48.000 over a spectral range from 370 nm to 840 nm has been achieved. An alignment by design approach has been followed to assemble the fiber-head optics at the telescope side of fiber coupled instrument.

  8. FISICA: The Florida image slicer for infrared cosmology and astrophysics (United States)

    Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Elston, Richard; Guzman, Rafael; Raines, S. Nicholas; Julian, J.; Gruel, N.; Boreman, Glenn; Hoffmann, Jeff; Rodgers, Michael; Glenn, Paul; Hull-Allen, Greg; Myrick, Bruce; Flint, Scott; Comstock, Lovell


    We report on the design and status of the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Cosmology and Astrophysics (FISICA) - a fully-cryogenic all-reflective image-slicing integral field unit for the FLAMINGOS near-infrared spectrograph. Designed to accept input beams near f/15, FISICA with FLAMINGOS provides R ˜ 1300 spectra over a 16 × 33″ field-of-view on the Cassegrain f/15 focus of the KPNO 4-m telescope, or a 6 × 12″ field-of-view on the Nasmyth or Bent Cassegrain foci of the Gran Telescopio Canarias 10.4-m telescope. FISICA accomplishes this using three sets of "monolithic" powered mirror arrays, each with 22 mirrored surfaces cut into a single piece of aluminum. We review the optical and opto-mechanical design, fabrication, laboratory test results, and on-telescope performance for FISICA.

  9. Development of a Speckle Interferometer and the Measurement of Fried's Parameter $(r_{o})$ at the Telescope Site

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, S K; Chandra, A U; Chinnappan, V


    A new optical speckle interferometer for use at the 2.34 meter Vainu Bappu Telescope (VBT), at Vainu Bappu Observatory (VBO), Kavalur, India, has been designed and developed. Provisions have been made for observation both at the prime focus (f/3.25), as well as at the Cassegrain focus (f/13) of the said telescope. The technical details of this sensitive instrument and the design features are described. An interface between the telescope and the afore-mentioned interferometer is made based on a concept of eliminating the formation of eddies due to the hot air entrapment. The performances of this instrument has been tested both at the laboratory, as well as at the Cassegrain end of the telescope. It is being used routinely to observe the speckle-grams of close-binary (separation $<$1 arc second) stars. The size of the Fried's parameter, r$_{o}$, is also measured.

  10. Airport Solar Photovoltaic Concentrator Project. Phase 1 - final report, June 1, 1978-February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The system design, analysis, and specification, site preparation, and operation and evaluation plan for a 500 kWe photovoltaic power supply to be located at the Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport in Phoenix, Arizona, are presented. The solar cell arrays are concentrator silicon solar cells with tracking 70X Cassegrain-type concentrators. The power conditioning system, tracking system, and control systems are described in detal. Environmental impact studies are described. Component specifications and drawings are included. (WHK)

  11. A large aperture balloon-borne telescope for a submillimeter wavelength survey of the galactic plane (United States)

    Silverberg, R. F.; Hauser, M. G.; Walser, D. W.; Flanick, A.; Silver, A. D.; Smith, J.; Gezari, D. Y.; Kelsall, T.; Cheung, L. H.; Skillman, T. L., Jr.


    A balloon-borne, 1.2 meter Cassegrain telescope with a servo-controlled chopping secondary mirror has been developed and used to survey the Galactic Plane at submillimeter wavelengths. The telescope pointing system uses a gyroscope as the primary stabilization reference and makes use of microprocessors for pointing control, on-board data collection, and telemetry formatting. A description of the telescope, multi-channel liquid-helium-cooled focal plane and the aspect and orientation subsystems are presented.

  12. Active terahertz wave imaging system for detecting hidden objects (United States)

    Gan, Yuner; Liu, Ming; Zhao, Yuejin


    Terahertz wave can penetrate the common dielectric materials such as clothing, cardboard boxes, plastics and so on. Besides, the low photon energy and non-ionizing characteristic of the terahertz wave are especially suitable for the safety inspection of the human body. Terahertz imaging technology has a tremendous potential in the field of security inspection such as stations, airports and other public places. Terahertz wave imaging systems are divided into two categories: active terahertz imaging systems and passive terahertz imaging systems. So far, most terahertz imaging systems work at point to point mechanical scan pattern with the method of passive imaging. The imaging results of passive imaging tend to have low contrast and the image is not clear enough. This paper designs and implements an active terahertz wave imaging system combining terahertz wave transmitting and receiving with a Cassegrain antenna. The terahertz wave at the frequency of 94GHz is created by impact ionization avalanche transit time (IMPATT) diode, focused on the feed element for Cassegrain antenna by high density polyethylene (HDPE) lens, and transmitted to the human body by Cassegrain antenna. The reflected terahertz wave goes the same way it was emitted back to the feed element for Cassegrain antenna, focused on the horn antenna of detector by another high density polyethylene lens. The scanning method is the use of two-dimensional planar mirror, one responsible for horizontal scanning, and another responsible for vertical scanning. Our system can achieve a clear human body image, has better sensitivity and resolution than passive imaging system, and costs much lower than other active imaging system in the meantime.

  13. Controllo remoto del Dho's Observatory. IV - L'equilibratura e la correzione del periodismo (United States)

    Dho, Mario


    In this paper we outline the telescope balancing, an operation that is absolutely necessary to the correct behaviour of the pointing and tracking devices, as well as to improve the self-center and self-mosaic functions which are offered by the observatory control software. Besides, we will see how periodic errors have been reduced at the Schmidt-Cassegrain of the Dho's Observatory in Chiusa di Pesio and will schematise the several phases of remote digital imaging, also in automatic mode.

  14. A Comparison of the Astrometric Precision and Accuracy of Double Star Observations with Two Telescopes (United States)

    Alvarez, Pablo; Fishbein, Amos E.; Hyland, Michael W.; Kight, Cheyne L.; Lopez, Hairold; Navarro, Tanya; Rosas, Carlos A.; Schachter, Aubrey E.; Summers, Molly A.; Weise, Eric D.; Hoffman, Megan A.; Mires, Robert C.; Johnson, Jolyon M.; Genet, Russell M.; White, Robin


    Using a manual Meade 6" Newtonian telescope and a computerized Meade 10" Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope, students from Arroyo Grande High School measured the well-known separation and position angle of the bright visual double star Albireo. The precision and accuracy of the observations from the two telescopes were compared to each other and to published values of Albireo taken as the standard. It was hypothesized that the larger, computerized telescope would be both more precise and more accurate.

  15. ASTRA Spectrophotometer: Reduction and Flux Calibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Smalley, B; Adelman, S J; Smalley, Barry; Gulliver, Austin F.; Adelman, Saul J.


    The ASTRA Cassegrain Spectrophotometer and its automated 0.5-m telescope at Fairborn Observatory in Arizona will produce a large quantity of high precision stellar flux distributions. A separate paper (Adelman et al. 2007) presented a review of the design criteria for the system and an overview of its operation. This paper discusses the techniques used in the data reduction to final flux calibrations.

  16. Minimizing Actuator-Induced Residual Error in Active Space Telescope Primary Mirrors (United States)


    Table 3.1: Summary of reflecting telescope configurations. Name Primary Secondary - Tertiary Correction Newtonian Paraboloid None/flat None...Spherical (has coma) Gregorian Paraboloid Ellipsoidal None Spherical (has coma) Classic Cassegrain Paraboloid Hyperboloid None Spherical (has coma) Schmidt...The sphere that best matches the paraboloidal curvature near the optical axis can be defined as, (s + RoC)2 + x 2 = RoC 2 or re-arranging, s = -RoC

  17. Observations of the filamentary nebula Simeiz 22 (United States)

    Lozinskaya, T. A.; Sitnik, T. G.; Toropova, M. S.; Klement'eva, A. Yu.


    Interference-filter photographs of the nebula Simeiz 22 (Sharpless 188) in the (S II), (N II), (O III) lines, taken with a contact image tube at the Cassegrain focus of the 125-cm Crimean reflector, have been processed by photographic equidensitometry, yielding detailed isophotes in each line. The nebula morphology differs in the three lines, showing the stratified emission typical of planetary nebulae. The origin of Simeiz 22 is discussed; indirect arguments point to mass loss by the central star.

  18. Observations of the thin filamentary nebula Simeiz 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozinskaya, T.A.; Sitnik, T.G.; Toropova, M.S.; Klement' eva, A.Yu. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR) Gosudarstvennyj Astronomicheskij Inst. ' ' GAISh' ' )


    The (N 2), (S 2) and (0 3) image-converter photographs of the rebula Simeiz 22 made through interfererce filters in the Cassegrain focus of the 125-cm reflector are presented. Detailed isophote systems in every line are obtained by photographic eguidepsitometry methods. Our narrow-bandrass photographs show variations in the nebula morphology, including the emission stratification typical of planetary nebulae. The origin of the nebula is discussed; some indirect arguments showing mass loss by the central star are presented.

  19. Opposed port alignment system (OPAS): a commercial astronomical telescope modified for viewing the interior of the NIF target chamber (United States)

    Manuel, Anastacia M.; McCarville, Tom J.; Seppala, Lynn G.; Klingmann, Jeff L.; Kalantar, Daniel H.


    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires high resolution live images of regions inside the target chamber in order to align diagnostic instruments to fusion targets and to monitor target stability. To view the interior of the target chamber, we modified a commercial 11-inch Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope to develop the Opposed Port Alignment System (OPAS). There are two OPAS systems installed on the target chamber ports directly opposite the diagnostics. This paper describes the optical design, highlighting the two key modifications of the telescope. The first key modification was to reposition the Schmidt corrector plate and to uniquely mount the secondary mirror to a precision translation stage to adjust focus from 5.5 m to infinity. The stage is carefully aligned to ensure that the telescope's optical axis lies on a straight line during focus adjustments. The second key modification was a custom three element lens that flattens the field, corrects residual aberrations of the Schmidt-Cassegrain and, with a commercial 1:1 relay lens, projects the final image plane onto a large format 50 mega-pixel camera. The OPAS modifications greatly extend the Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope's field of view, producing nearly diffraction-limited images over a flat field covering +/-0.4 degrees. Also discussed in the paper are the alignment procedure and the hardware layout of the telescope.

  20. CoRoT 105906206: a short-period and totally eclipsing binary with a Delta Scuti type pulsator

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Ronaldo; Gandolfi, Davide; Lehmann, Holger; Hatzes, Artie P


    Eclipsing binary systems with pulsating components allow the determination of several physical parameters of the stars, such as mass and radius, that, when combined with the pulsation properties, can be used to constrain the modeling of stellar interiors and evolution. Hereby, we present the results of the study of CoRoT 105906206, an eclipsing binary system with a pulsating component located in the CoRoT LRc02 field. The analysis of the CoRoT light curve was complemented by high-resolution spectra from the Sandiford at McDonald Observatory and FEROS at ESO spectrographs, which revealed a double-lined spectroscopic binary. We used an iterative procedure to separate the pulsation-induced photometric variations from the eclipse signals. First, a Fourier analysis was used to identify the significant frequencies and amplitudes due to pulsations. Second, after removing the contribution of the pulsations from the light curve we applied the PIKAIA genetic-algorithm approach to derive the best parameters that describ...

  1. KOI-127b: a very low-albedo, Saturn-mass transiting planet around a metal rich solar-like star

    CERN Document Server

    Gandolfi, D; Fridlund, M; Hatzes, A P; Deeg, H J; Frasca, A; Lanza, A F; Moroni, P G Prada; Tognelli, E; McQuillan, A; Aigrain, S; Alonso, R; Antoci, V; Cabrera, J; Carone, L; Csizmadia, Sz; Djupvik, A A; Günther, E W; Jessen-Hansen, J; Ofir, A; Telting, J


    We report the discovery of KOI-127b, a Saturn-mass transiting planet in a 3.6-day orbit around a metal-rich solar-like star. We combined the publicly available Kepler photometry (quarters 1-13) with high-resolution spectroscopy from the Sandiford@McDonald and FIES@NOT spectrographs. We derived the system parameters via a simultaneous joint fit to the photometric and radial velocity measurements. Our analysis is based on the Bayesian approach and is carried out by sampling the parameter posterior distributions using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. KOI-127b is a moderately inflated planet with a mass of Mp=0.430+/-0.032 Mjup, radius of Rp=0.960+/-0.016 Rjup, and bulk density of 0.603+/-0.055 g/cm^3. It orbits a slowly rotating (P=36+/-6 days) G5V star with M*=0.95+/-0.04 Msun, R*=0.99+/-0.02 Rsun, Teff=5520+/-60 K, [M/H]=0.20+/-0.05, and an age of 7.5+/-2.0 Gyr. The lack of detectable planetary occultation with a depth larger than about 10 ppm, implies a planet's geometric and Bond albedo of Ag<0.087+/-...

  2. Time-dependent excitation and ionization modelling of absorption-line variability due to GRB080310

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vreeswijk, P.M.; De Cia, A.; Jakobsson, P.


    We model the time-variable absorption of Feii, Feiii, Siii, Cii and Crii detected in Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) spectra of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 080310, with the afterglow radiation exciting and ionizing the interstellar medium in the host galaxy at a redshift of z = 2.427...

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: TiII in Milky way and Magellanic clouds (Welty+, 2010) (United States)

    Welty, D. E.; Crowther, P. A.


    The spectroscopic data collected in this survey were obtained using either the Kitt Peak 0.9-m coude feed telescope and echelle spectrograph or the ESO/VLT UT2 telescope and UVES spectrograph between 1994 Sep and 2004 Dec. (5 data files).

  4. VLT/UVES abundances in four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies. I. Nucleosynthesis and abundance ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shetrone, M; Venn, KA; Tolstoy, E; Primas, F; Hill, [No Value; Kaufer, A


    We have used the Ultraviolet Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on Kueyen (UT2) of the Very Large Telescope to take spectra of 15 individual red giants in the Sculptor, Fornax, Carina, and Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph's). We measure the abundances of alpha-, iron peak, first s-process, second s-pr

  5. Abundances in the metal poor dwarf Ross 451 (United States)

    Spiesman, William J.


    High dispersion echelle spectra of the high velocity subdwarf Ross 451 (= G236-080) were obtained using the 4-m telescope at Kitt Peak. Initial abundance determinations for six elements are presented, using absolute oscillator strengths and metal-poor stellar-atmosphere models.

  6. The SONG prototype: Efficiency of a robotic telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. F.; Grundahl, F.; Beck, A. H.


    The Stellar Observations Network Group prototype telescope at the Teide Observatory has been operating in scientific mode since March 2014. The first year of observations has entirely been carried out using the high resolution echelle spectrograph. Several asteroseismic targets were selected for ...

  7. On the design of the PEPSI spectropolarimeter for the LBT (United States)

    Ilyin, I.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Woche, M.; Dionies, F.; Di Varano, I.


    We present the design concept of the spectropolarimeter for the high-resolution echelle spectrograph PEPSI to be installed at the 2×8.4 m Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in Arizona. We discuss the optical key elements, the principles of operations of the instrument and its instrumental polarization effects.

  8. The nature of proximate damped Lyman α systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellison, S.L.; Prochaska, J.X.; Hennawi, J.; Lopez, S.; Usher, C.; Wolfe, A.M.; Russell, D.M.; Benn, C.R.


    We present high-resolution echelle spectra of seven proximate damped Lyman α (PDLA) systems. The relative velocity separation of each PDLA from the background quasar is ΔV < 3000 km s−1. Combining our sample with a further nine PDLAs from the literature we compare the chemical properties of the prox

  9. Keck telescope constraint on cosmological variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malec, A.L.; Buning, R.; Murphy, M.T.; Milutinovic, N.; Ellison, S.L.; Prochaska, J.X.; Kaper, L.; Tumlinson, J.; Carswell, R.F.; Ubachs, W.


    Molecular transitions recently discovered at redshift z(abs) = 2.059 towards the bright background quasar J2123-0050 are analysed to limit cosmological variation in the proton-to-electron mass ratio, mu equivalent to m(p)/m(e). Observed with the Keck telescope, the optical echelle spectrum has the h

  10. First constraint on cosmological variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio from two independent telescopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. van Weerdenburg; M.T. Murphy; A.L. Malec; L. Kaper; W. Ubachs


    A high signal-to-noise spectrum covering the largest number of hydrogen lines (90 H2 lines and 6 HD lines) in a high-redshift object was analyzed from an observation along the sight line to the bright quasar source J2123-005 with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph on the European Southe

  11. Abundance of nine beta Cephei stars (Morel+, 2006) g spectroscopy with Ta/Al DROIDs: performance for different geometries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morel, T.; Butler, K.; Aerts, C.C.; Neiner, C.; Briquet, M.; Hijmering, R.A.; Jerjen, I.; Verhoeve, P.; Martin, D.D.E.; Peacock, A.; Kozorezov, A.G.; Venn, R.


    The equivalent widths (EWs) were measured on high-resolution spectra obtained with various echelle spectrographs (see Table 2 of paper for further details). Our EWs are systematically larger than the values quoted by Gies & Lambert (1992ApJ...387..673G) for the seven stars in common, but a similar t

  12. Observations of the radial velocity of the Sun as measured with the novel SONG spectrograph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallé, P. L.; Grundahl, F.; Hage, A. Triviño;


    Deployment of the prototype node of the SONG project took place in April 2012 at Observatorio del Teide (Canary Islands). Its key instrument (echelle spectrograph) was installed and operational a few weeks later while its 1 m feeding telescope suffered a considerable delay to meet the required...

  13. The bispectrum of the Lyman-alpha forest at z~2-2.4 from a Large sample of UVES QSO Absorption Spectra (LUQAS)

    CERN Document Server

    Viel, M; Heavens, A; Hähnelt, M G; Kim, T S; Springel, V; Hernquist, L


    We present a determination of the bispectrum of the flux in the Lyman-alpha forest of QSO absorption spectra obtained from LUQAS which consists of spectra observed with the high resolution Echelle spectrograph UVES. Typical errors on the observed bispectrum as obtained from a jack-knife estimator are ~ 50%. For wavenumbers in the range 0.03 s/km 2.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Red giants abundances in 4 open clusters (Reddy+, 2012) (United States)

    Reddy, A. B. S.; Giridhar, S.; Lambert, D. L.


    Clusters were selected from the New catalogue of optically visible open clusters and candidates (Dias et al., 2002, Cat. B/ocl). Observations were conducted during 1999 February 6-10 with Tull echelle coude spectrograph on the 2.7-m Harlan J. Smith telescope at the McDonald observatory. (2 data files).

  15. The redshift of the Einstein ring in MG 1549+305

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treu, T.; Koopmans, L. V. E.


    A deep spectrum taken with the Echelle Spectrograph and Imager (ESI) at the Keck II Telescope as part of the Lenses Structure and Dynamics (LSD) Survey reveals the redshifts of the extremely red source of the radio Einstein ring in the gravitational lens system MG 1549+305 (zs= 1.170 +/- 0.001) and

  16. Observations of the radial velocity of the Sun as measured with the novel SONG spectrograph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallé, P. L.; Grundahl, F.; Hage, A. Triviño


    Deployment of the prototype node of the SONG project took place in April 2012 at Observatorio del Teide (Canary Islands). Its key instrument (echelle spectrograph) was installed and operational a few weeks later while its 1 m feeding telescope suffered a considerable delay to meet the required sp...

  17. Prediction du transfert thermique parietal pour la chambre de combustion d'une turbine a gaz (United States)

    Gosselin, Pierre

    Des travaux ont demontre que la temperature de paroi pouvait etre predite avec precision (+/-6 a 10%) pour une chambre de combustion a pleine-echelle. Pour les resultats obtenus d'une autre chambre, aussi identique mais de plus petit diametre, la prediction de temperature de paroi n'offrait pas la meme precision de calcul. Cette etude est limitee aux turbines aeronautiques. L'objectif a ete de reevaluer globalement la prediction de la temperature de paroi d'une chambre de combustion de type GHOST a la lumiere des resultats obtenus des programmes experimentaux, tout en prenant en consideration l'influence des differents types de carburants. Par l'analyse du grand nombre de donnees experimentales, des modifications furent apportees a la methode de prediction utilisee pour les chambres a pleine echelle afin de reduire l'erreur de prediction pour les echelles a 1:2 (basse pression), 1:3 (basse pression) et 1:3 (haute pression). Une modelisation de la chambre de combustion a ete effectuee. L'analyse numerique nous a demontree que le code FLUENT/UNS predisait tres bien l'ecoulement a froid a l'interieur de la chambre de combustion GHOST echelle 1:1. La prediction etait acceptable au niveau des profils de temperature a l'interieur de la chambre. Cependant, une lacune a ete observee au niveau du modele d'evaporation du code.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radial velocity curves of alpha Lib A (Fuhrmann+, 2014) (United States)

    Fuhrmann, K.; Chini, R.; Barr, A.; Buda, L.-S.; Kaderhandt, L.; Pozo, F.; Ramolla, M.


    Our observations of α Lib A consist of optical spectra secured with the BESO high-resolution echelle spectrograph of the Universitetssternwarte Bochum near Cerro Armazones in Chile. The full record of the total of 55 radial velocities is given in Table 1. Intense Doppler-monitoring of alpha Lib A started in 2012 August and was continued until 2013 September. (1 data file).

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Abundances of the Ret II brightest red giant members (Ji+, 2016) (United States)

    Ji, A. P.; Frebel, A.; Simon, J. D.; Chiti, A.


    On 2015 October 1-4 we obtained high-resolution spectra of the brightest nine confirmed members in Reticulum II. We used the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay telescope with a 1.0" slit, which provides a spectral resolution of ~22000 and ~28000 at red and blue wavelengths, respectively. (2 data files).

  20. VLT/UVES abundances in four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies. II. Implications for understanding galaxy evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E; Venn, KA; Shetrone, M; Primas, F; Hill, [No Value; Kaufer, A; Szeifert, T


    We have used the Ultraviolet Visual-Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on Kueyen (UT2) of the Very Large Telescope to take spectra of 15 individual red giant stars in the centers of four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph's) : Sculptor, Fornax, Carina, and Leo I. We measure the abundance variations of

  1. A set of innovative immersed grating based spectrometer designs for METIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agócs, T.; Navarro, R.; Venema, L.; Amerongen, A.H. van; Tol, P.J.J.; Brug, H. van; Brandl, B.R.; Molster, F.; Todd, S.


    We present innovative, immersed grating based optical designs for the SMO (Spectrograph Main Optics) module of the Mid-infrared E-ELT Imager and Spectrograph, METIS. The immersed grating allows a significant reduction of SMO volume compared to conventional echelle grating designs, because the diffra

  2. Mechanical conceptual design of 6.5 meter telescope: Telescopio San Pedro Mártir (TSPM) (United States)

    Uribe, Jorge; Bringas, Vicente; Reyes, Noe; Tovar, Carlos; López, Aldo; Caballero, Xóchitl; Martínez, César; Toledo, Gengis; Lee, William; Carramiñana, Alberto; González, Jesús; Richer, Michael; Sánchez, Beatriz; Lucero, Diana; Manuel, Rogelio; Rubio, Saúl; González, Germán.; Hernández, Obed; Segura, José; Macias, Eduardo; García, Mary; Lazaro, José; Rosales, Fabián.; del Llano, Luis


    Telescopio San Pedro Mártir (TSPM) project intends to build a 6.5 meters telescope with alt-azimuth design, currently at the conceptual design. The project is an association between Instituto de Astronomía de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (IA-UNAM) and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica Electrónica (INAOE) in partnership with department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory of University of Arizona and Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory of Harvard University. Conceptual design of the telescope is lead and developed by the Centro de Ingeniería y Desarrollo Industrial (CIDESI). An overview of the feasibility study and the structural conceptual design are summarized in this paper. The telescope concept is based on telescopes already commissioned such as MMT and the Baade and Clay Magellan telescopes, building up on these proven concepts. The main differences relative to the Magellan pair are; the elevation axis is located 1 meter above the primary mirror vertex, allowing for a similar field of view at the Cassegrain and both Nasmyth focal stations; instead of using a vane ends to position the secondary mirror TSPM considers an Steward platform like MMT; finally TSPM has a larger floor distance to m1 cell than Magellans and MMT. Initially TSPM will operate with an f/5 Cassegrain station, but the design considers further Nasmyth configurations from a Cassegrain f/5 up to a Gregorian f/11. The telescope design includes 7 focal stations: 1 Cassegrain; 2 Nasmyth; and 4 folded-Cassegrain. The telescope will be designed and manufactured in Mexico, will be design in Queretaro by CIDESI and built between Queretaro and Michoacán manufacturing facilities; it will be preassembled in these facilities and disassembled to send it to the San Pedro Mártir Observatory for final integration. The azimuth and altitude structure is planned to be constructed in modules and transported by truck and shipped to Ensenada and finally to the OAN where is going

  3. Developpement D'un Modele Climatique Regional: Fizr Simulation des Conditions de Janvier de la Cote Ouest Nord Americaine (United States)

    Goyette, Stephane


    Le sujet de cette these concerne la modelisation numerique du climat regional. L'objectif principal de l'exercice est de developper un modele climatique regional ayant les capacites de simuler des phenomenes de meso-echelle spatiale. Notre domaine d'etude se situe sur la Cote Ouest nord americaine. Ce dernier a retenu notre attention a cause de la complexite du relief et de son controle sur le climat. Les raisons qui motivent cette etude sont multiples: d'une part, nous ne pouvons pas augmenter, en pratique, la faible resolution spatiale des modeles de la circulation generale de l'atmosphere (MCG) sans augmenter a outrance les couts d'integration et, d'autre part, la gestion de l'environnement exige de plus en plus de donnees climatiques regionales determinees avec une meilleure resolution spatiale. Jusqu'alors, les MCG constituaient les modeles les plus estimes pour leurs aptitudes a simuler le climat ainsi que les changements climatiques mondiaux. Toutefois, les phenomenes climatiques de fine echelle echappent encore aux MCG a cause de leur faible resolution spatiale. De plus, les repercussions socio-economiques des modifications possibles des climats sont etroitement liees a des phenomenes imperceptibles par les MCG actuels. Afin de circonvenir certains problemes inherents a la resolution, une approche pratique vise a prendre un domaine spatial limite d'un MCG et a y imbriquer un autre modele numerique possedant, lui, un maillage de haute resolution spatiale. Ce processus d'imbrication implique alors une nouvelle simulation numerique. Cette "retro-simulation" est guidee dans le domaine restreint a partir de pieces d'informations fournies par le MCG et forcee par des mecanismes pris en charge uniquement par le modele imbrique. Ainsi, afin de raffiner la precision spatiale des previsions climatiques de grande echelle, nous developpons ici un modele numerique appele FIZR, permettant d'obtenir de l'information climatique regionale valide a la fine echelle spatiale

  4. Study of the hydrolysis of protactinium (V), at tracer scale, by solvent extraction method with thenoyl-tri-fluoro-acetone (TTA) as chelating agent. Characterization of the partition of TTA in the system TTA / H{sub 2}O / toluene / Na{sup +} / H{sup +} / ClO{sub 4}{sup -}; Contribution a l'etude thermodynamique de l'hydrolyse de Pa(V) a l'echelle des traces par la technique d'extraction liquide-liquide avec la thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). Caracterisation du partage de la thenoyltrifluoroacetone dans le systeme TTA / H{sub 2}O / toluene / Na{sup +} / H{sup +} / ClO{sub 4}{sup -}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaussaud, Ch


    Hydrolysis of protactinium (V) according to the reactions: PaO(OH){sup 2+} +H{sub 2}O {r_reversible} PaO(OH){sub 2}{sup +} + H{sup +} (K{sub 2}] PaO(OH){sup 2+} +2H{sub 2}O {r_reversible} PaO(OH){sub 5} + H{sup +} (K{sub 3}) has been studied, at tracer scale, by solvent extraction method, with thenoyl-tri-fluoro-acetone (TTA) as chelating agent. A previous study concerning the partition of TTA between two immiscible phases (corresponding to TTA/toluene/Na{sup +}/H{sup +}/ClO{sub 4}{sup -} system) has allowed a complete characterization of this system (partition constants, standard thermodynamic values, TTA hydration degree in toluene). Owing to specific properties of protactinium (V) (sorption onto various materials, formation of colloids), an extremely rigorous protocol has been established, protocol which could be used for other hydrolysable elements. Hydrolysis constants were deduced from a systematic study of partition of Pa(V) as a function TTA and proton concentration, ionic strength and temperature. Extrapolations to zero ionic strength were performed using SIT model and the specific interaction coefficients {epsilon}{sub (i,j)} as well as the Pitzer parameters {beta}{sup (0)} and {beta}{sup (1)} were determined. Standard thermodynamic data relative to hydrolysis equilibriums of Pa(V) were also estimated. (author)

  5. Speckle interferometric observations of close binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, S K; Yeswanth, L; Anbazhagan, P


    Speckle interferometric technique is employed to record a series of hundreds of short-exposure images of several close binary stars with sub-arcsecond separation through a narrow band filter at the Cassegrain focus of the 2.34 meter (m) Vainu Bappu telescope (VBT), situated at Vainu Bappu Observatory (VBO), Kavalur, India. The data are recorded sequentially by a Peltier-cooled intensified CCD camera with 10 ms exposure. The auto-correlation method is applied to determine the angular separations and position angles of these binary systems.

  6. In situ spectral calibration method for the impurity influx monitor (divertor) for ITER using angled physical contact fibers. (United States)

    Iwamae, A; Ogawa, H; Sugie, T; Kusama, Y


    The in situ calibration method for the impurity influx monitor (divertor) is experimentally examined. The total reflectance of the optical path from the focal point of the Cassegrain telescope to the first mirror is derived using a micro retroreflector array. An optical fiber with angled physical contact (APC) connectors reduces the return edge reflection. APC fibers and a multimode coupler increase the signal-to-noise ratio by about one order compared to that of triple-branched fibers and enable measurement of the wavelength dependence of the total reflectance of the optical system even after potential deterioration of mirror surfaces reduces reflectance.

  7. Application of binary optical element to infrared hyperspectral detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Qiang(孙强); YU; Bin(于斌); LIU; Yuling(刘玉玲); LU; Zhenwu(卢振武); CHEN; Bo(陈波); WANG; Zhaoqi(王肇圻); MU; Guoguang(母国光)


    Binary optical element (BOE) is applied to infrared hyperspectral detector. A new type of infrared hyperspectral detecting image system is designed based on the characteristics of abundant color-dispersion of BOE, and an example of combining refractive-diffractive zoom optical system with Cassegrain system is presented. The system not only has simple structure, long back-working distance and few requirements for material but also can increase the image resolution, abilities of accepting ray energy and registration. Consequently, by adding an appropriate stare array detector to the system, the detecting precision can be raised.

  8. Design and analysis of isostatic mounts on a spaceborne lightweight primary mirror (United States)

    Chan, C. Y.; Chen, Y. C.; Chang, S. T.; Huang, T. M.; Hsu, M. Y.


    The paper is aimed at obtaining the optimum isostatic mount configuration for a ZERODUR® primary mirror with a predesigned lightweight configuration on the back for a space Cassegrain telescope. The finite element analysis and Zernike polynomial fitting based on the Taguchi method are applied to the whole optimization process. Under the integrated optomechanical analysis, three isostatic mounts are bonded to the center of gravity of the mirror. Geometrical control factors and levels have been selected to minimize the optical aberrations under self-weight loading. The optimum isostatic mount with the least induced astigmatism value is finally attained under the Taguchi method.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: K2-19b light curve (Armstrong+, 2015) (United States)

    Armstrong, D. J.; Santerne, A.; Veras, D.; Barros, S. C. C.; Demangeon, O.; Lillo-Box, J.; McCormac, J.; Osborn, H. P.; Tsantaki, M.; Almenara, J.-M.; Barrado, D.; Boisse, I.; Bonomo, A. S.; Brown, D. J. A.; Bruno, G.; Rey Cerda, J.; Courcol, B.; Deleuil, M.; Diaz, R. F.; Doyle, A. P.; Hebrard, G.; Kirk, J.; Lam, K. W. F.; Pollacco, D. L.; Rajpurohit, A.; Spake, J.; Walker, S. R.


    The Near Infrared Transiting ExoplanetS (NITES) Telescope is a semi-robotic 0.4m (f/10) Meade LX200GPS Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope installed at the ORM, La Palma. One transit of K2-19b was observed on 2015 Feb 28. The telescope was defocused slightly to 3.3 FWHM and 814 images of 20s exposure time were obtained with 5s dead time between each. Observations were obtained without a filter. The table presents data taken with the NITES telescope shown in Figure 1 of the publication. (1 data file).

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BVRcIC photometry of V2615 Oph (Munari+, 2008) (United States)

    Munari, U.; Henden, A.; Valentini, M.; Siviero, A.; Dallaporta, S.; Ochner, P.; Tomasoni, S.


    The BVRcIc photometric evolution of NOph07 has been monitored, for seven months and over a 7mag decline, with three different telescopes: (a) the Sonoita Research Observatory (SRO) 0.35-m Celestron C14 robotic telescope (b) the 0.30-m Meade RCX-400 f/8 Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope owned by Associazione Astrofili Valle di Cembra (Trento, Italy), and (c) the 0.50-m f/8 Ritchey-Cretien telescope operated on top of Mt. Zugna by Museo Civico di Rovereto (Trento, Italy) (1 data file).

  11. Asymmetric spline surfaces - Characteristics and applications. [in high quality optical systems design (United States)

    Stacy, J. E.


    Asymmetric spline surfaces appear useful for the design of high-quality general optical systems (systems without symmetries). A spline influence function defined as the actual surface resulting from a simple perturbation in the spline definition array shows that a subarea is independent of others four or more points away. Optimization methods presented in this paper are used to vary a reflective spline surface near the focal plane of a decentered Schmidt-Cassegrain to reduce rms spot radii by a factor of 3 across the field.

  12. Design optical antenna and fiber coupling system based on the vector theory of reflection and refraction. (United States)

    Jiang, Ping; Yang, Huajun; Mao, Shengqian


    A Cassegrain antenna system and an optical fiber coupling system which consists of a plano-concave lens and a plano-convex lens are designed based on the vector theory of reflection and refraction, so as to improve the transmission performance of the optical antenna and fiber coupling system. Three-dimensional ray tracing simulation are performed and results of the optical aberrations calculation and the experimental test show that the aberrations caused by on-axial defocusing, off-axial defocusing and deflection of receiving antenna can be well corrected by the optical fiber coupling system.

  13. RZ Cassiopeia: Eclipsing Binary with Pulsating Component

    CERN Document Server

    Golovin, A


    We report time-resolved VR-band CCD photometry of the eclipsing binary RZ Cas obtained with 38-cm Cassegrain telescope at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory during July 2004 - October 2005. Obtained lightcurves clearly demonstrates rapid pulsations with the period about 22 minutes. Periodogram analysis of such oscillations also is reported. On the 12, January, 2005 we observed rapid variability with higher amplitude (~0.^m 1) that, perhaps, may be interpreted as high-mass-transfer-rate event and inhomogeneity of accretion stream. Follow-up observations (both, photometric and spectroscopic) of RZ Cas are strictly desirable for more detailed study of such event.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: V346 Cen multiwavelength light curves (Mayer+, 2016) (United States)

    Mayer, P.; Harmanec, P.; Wolf, M.; Nemravova, J.; Prsa, A.; Fremat, Y.; Zejda, M.; Liska, J.; Jurysek, J.; Honkova, K.; Masek, M.


    We present photographic light curves from O'Connell (1939, Publications of the Riverview College Observatory, 2, 5), uvby light curves from Gimenez et al. (1986A&AS...66...45G), BVR light curves from 0.6 m reflector with a CCD camera, Mt. John, New Zealand, green light curve from Sonnar 4/135mm telephoto lens with a CCD ATIK16IC camera, Sutherland, South Africa and BVRI light curves from 0.3m Meade Schmidt-Cassegrain reflector with a CCD camera. (5 data files).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Della Prugna


    Full Text Available The Cassegrain-Coud 1 meter Car to the focal plane of the primary f/5 l Zeiss telescope at the Venezuelan National Astronomical Observatory uses six optical elements. Removal of the secondary convex mirror gives accessspheroidal mirror, but spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism and eld curvature severely hamper its imaging capabilities. In order to carry out prime-focus imaging, we designed and manufactured a corrector group, called GAnAs, to minimize these aberrations over a circular eld of 300. The corrector group is a hybrid con guration with two thin aspherical 4th-order plates and a meniscus lens.

  16. Blind iterative deconvolution of binary star images

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, S K


    The technique of Blind Iterative De-convolution (BID) was used to remove the atmospherically induced point spread function (PSF) from short exposure images of two binary stars, HR 5138 and HR 5747 obtained at the cassegrain focus of the 2.34 meter Vainu Bappu Telescope(VBT), situated at Vainu Bappu Observatory (VBO), Kavalur. The position angles and separations of the binary components were seen to be consistent with results of the auto-correlation technique, while the Fourier phases of the reconstructed images were consistent with published observations of the binary orbits.

  17. Auto-correlation of Binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, S K


    Speckle interferometric technique is used to record a series of short exposure images of several close binary stars with sub-arcsecond separation through a narrow band filter centred at H$\\alpha$ at the Cassegrain focus of the 2.34 meter Vainu Bappu telescope (VBT), situated at Vainu Bappu Observatory (VBO), Kavalur. The auto-correlation method is developed under Image Reduction Analysis Facility (IRAF). Wiener filter is included in the programme to eliminate spurious high frequency contributions; a few sets of data provide the optimised results. The auto-correlated image of these stars gives the separation of the binary components.

  18. Cámara CCD Directa con el Telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO: algunos diagnósticos (United States)

    Cellone, S. A.

    Se efectuaron algunas pruebas con la cámara CCD (+ Reductor Focal) instalada en el foco Cassegrain del Telescopio de 2.15 m del Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO). Las conclusiones más significativas son: Los tiempos de exposición efectivos difieren de los nominales en una fracción apreciable de segundo. En exposiciones de menos de 3 segundos, la iluminación no es pareja en todo el detector. En consecuencia, se recomiendan los pasos a seguir por los astrónomos tanto durante la observación como en la reducción de sus datos.

  19. A 1.2 meter balloon-borne telescope for a submillimeter wave sky survey (United States)

    Silverberg, R. F.; Hauser, M. G.; Mather, J. C.; Gezari, D. Y.; Kelsall, T.; Cheung, L. H.


    A balloon-borne, 1.2 meter Cassegrain telescope designed for diffraction-limited imagery at 100 microns is being developed for a survey of the Galactic plane at submillimeter wavelengths. The telescope pointing system is servocontrolled using a gyroscope for the primary stabilization reference. Extensive use is made of microprocessors for flight sequencing, pointing control and stabilization, and telemetry formatting. A description of the telescope, helium-cooled detectors, and the orientation subsystems are presented together with a brief discussion of the proposed astronomical observations.

  20. Determinación de abundancia de Hidrógeno en cuatro estrellas Wolf-Rayet (United States)

    Gamen, R. C.; Niemela, V. S.

    Medium resolution optical CCD spectra of four stars with WN type emission lines, have been obtained with the Cassegrain REOSC spectrograph attached to the 2.15 m telescope at CASLEO (San Juan, Argentina), during March 1999. The spectra cover the wavelength range λλ3800 -- 5500Å. From these spectra we have determined the contribution of Hydrogen, detected by oscillation in the Pickering decrement of HeII emission lines, for 4 galactic Wolf-Rayet stars, namely WR 10 = HD 65865, WR 29 = LSS 1964, WR 54 = LSS 3111 and WR 58 = LSS 3162. Our results agree with those previously published by Smith et al. in 1966 (MNRAS, 281, 163).

  1. Single dish performance of KVN 21-m radio telescopes:Simultaneous observations at 22 and 43 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sang-Sung; Oh, Chung Sik; Han, Seog-Tae; Je, Do-Heung; Kim, Kee-Tae; Wi, Seog-Oh; Cho, Se-Hyung; Sohn, Bong Won; Kim, Jaeheon; Lee, Jeewon; Oh, Se-Jin; Song, Min-Gyu; Kang, Jiman; Jung, Moon-Hee; Lee, Jeong Ae; Oh, Junghwan; Bae, Jae-Han; Yun, So-Young; Lee, Jung-Won; Kim, Bong Gyu; Chung, Hyunsoo; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Hyun Goo; Kim, Hyo Ryoung; Yeom, Jae-Hwan; Kurayama, Tomoharu; Jung, Taehyun; Park, Pulun; Kim, Min Joong; Yoon, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Won-Ju


    We report simultaneous multi-frequency observing performance at 22 and 43 GHz of the 21-m shaped-Cassegrain radio telescopes of the Korean VLBI Network (KVN). KVN is the first millimeter-dedicated VLBI network in Korea having a maximum baseline length of 480 km. It currently operates at 22 and 43 GHz and planed to operate in four frequency bands, 22, 43, 86, and 129 GHz. The unique quasioptics of KVN enable simultaneous multi-frequency observations based on efficient beam filtering and accuarate antenna-beam alignment at 22 and 43 GHz. We found that the offset of the beams is within 20 degrees.

  2. Discovery and classification of 18 new supernovae by the Palomar Transient Factory (United States)

    Arcavi, I.; Xu, D.; Matheson, T.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Gal-Yam, A.; Quimby, R.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Ofek, E. O.; Nugent, P. E.; Sullivan, M.; Howell, D. A.; Bloom, J. S.; Ben-Ami, S.; Cooke, J.; Cenko, S. B.; Law, N.


    We report the discovery and spectroscopic classification of 18 new supernovae from PTF (ATel #1964; The supernovae were discovered by Oarical, an autonomous software framework of the PTF collaboration, as well as by Galaxy Zoo Supernovae (arXiv:1011.2199), based on observations made with the Palomar 48-inch Oschin Schmidt telescope. Spectroscopy was undertaken with the R-C spectrograph mounted at the Cassegrain focus of the Mayall 4-m telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory on UT 2010 November 2-4.

  3. Discovery and classification of 17 new supernovae by the Palomar Transient Factory (United States)

    Ben-Ami, S.; Badenes, C.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Matheson, T.; Xu, D.; Gal-Yam, A.; Arcavi, I.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Quimby, R.; Yaron, O.; Stenberg, A.; Green, Y.; Nugent, P. E.; Howell, D. A.; Sullivan, M.; Cooke, J.; Cenko, S. B.; Law, N.; Levitan, D.; Ofek, E. O.; Poznanski, D.; Palomar Transient Factory


    We report the discovery and spectroscopic classification of 17 new supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF; ). The supernovae were discovered and classified by Oarical, an autonomous software framework of the PTF collaboration, based on observations made with the Palomar 48-inch Oschin Schmidt telescope. Spectroscopy was undertaken with the R-C spectrograph mounted at the Cassegrain focus of the Mayall 4-m telescope at Kitt Peak Observatory on UT 2010 October 8-10 by Ben- Ami, Badenes, Kulkarni, and Matheson.

  4. Solar coronal observations at high frequencies


    Katsiyannis, A. C.; Mathioudakis, M.; Phillips, K. J. H.; Williams, D. R.; F. P. Keenan


    The Solar Eclipse Coronal Imaging System (SECIS) is a simple and extremely fast, high-resolution imaging instrument designed for studies of the solar corona. Light from the corona (during, for example, a total solar eclipse) is reflected off a heliostat and passes via a Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope and beam splitter to two CCD cameras capable of imaging at 60 frames a second. The cameras are attached via SCSI connections to a purpose-built PC that acts as the data acquisition and storage syst...

  5. Dual-frequency feed system for 26-meter antenna conversion (United States)

    Hartop, R. W.


    New cassegrain feed cone assemblies were designed as part of the upgrade of three 26-meter diameter antennas to 34-meter diameter with improved performance. The new dual-frequency feed cone (SXD) will provide both S- and X-band feed systems and traveling wave masers, with a reflex reflector system to permit simultaneous operation analogous to the 64-meter antennas. Tasks involved in adding the X-band receiving capability and improving the S-band feed performance in support of Voyager and later missions described in.

  6. The Arcetri 40-50 GHz receiver for the Medicina Radiotelescope. (United States)

    Tofani, G.; Catarzi, M.; Natale, V.

    Numerous spectral lines of relevant astronomical importance are available in the wavelength range between 20 and 70 GHz. In this band transitions of several molecules like SiO, CS, HNCO, CH3OH, H2CO plays a central role in the different phases of the interstellar medium. In order to extend the observations with the Medicina Radiotelescope of Galactic masers, a cooled receiver operating in the range 40-50 GHz has been built for continuum and line observations. The system has been tested at the Cassegrain focus of the Medicina Radiotelescope on continuum and SiO maser sources.

  7. Quantum Mechanics (United States)

    Mandl, F.


    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw The Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scientists R. J. Barlow and A. R. Barnett Quantum Mechanics aims to teach those parts of the subject which every physicist should know. The object is to display the inherent structure of quantum mechanics, concentrating on general principles and on methods of wide applicability without taking them to their full generality. This book will equip students to follow quantum-mechanical arguments in books and scientific papers, and to cope with simple cases. To bring the subject to life, the theory is applied to the all-important field of atomic physics. No prior knowledge of quantum mechanics is assumed. However, it would help most readers to have met some elementary wave mechanics before. Primarily written for students, it should also be of interest to experimental research workers who require a good grasp of quantum mechanics without the full formalism needed by the professional theorist. Quantum Mechanics features: A flow diagram allowing topics to be studied in different orders or omitted altogether. Optional "starred" and highlighted sections containing more advanced and specialized material for the more ambitious reader. Sets of problems at the end of each chapter to help student understanding. Hints and solutions to the problems are given at the end of the book.

  8. C. C. Rafn, J. J. A. Worsaae, Archaeology, History and Danish National Identity in the Schleswig-Holstein Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stephen Briggs


    Full Text Available Between 1789 and 1815 Europe was devastated by a series of intermittent Wars waged by the French. The first part came about through the French Revolution, the second, the Napoleonic Wars, were about Bonaparte’s thirst for conquest. Almost at the end of them, Denmark’s attempted neutrality was to cost her the loss of Norway by cessation to Sweden under the Treaty of Kiel in 1814. The Norwegians felt particularly aggrieved by this, a ploy on the part of the British to disarm the Scandinavians and retain British Naval access to the Baltic. Thus began a half a century of particular national insecurity for Denmark, during which she felt under constant threat from German ambition through an increasingly powerful, predatory Prussia. Schleswig-Holstein was particularly at risk of annexation, because though much of Slesvig was culturally and ethnically Danish, southern Jutland had been strongly infiltrated by German influences unchecked for many decades (Sandiford 1975: 21. With a small population (2,225,000 in 1848 and now detached from those potentially sympathetic in Scandinavia, Denmark would have difficulty effectively opposing any major industrial power. Britain and Germany aside, there was also Russia, still largely undeveloped, but a power with strong Baltic interests. Maintaining Denmark’s borders through this delicately balanced neutrality was not going to be easy for such a small nation state. Would it be remotely possible to achieve this passively by developing trade? Could enduring borders otherwise be protected by influencing perceptions of Denmark’s historic cultural identity and ethnicity?

  9. Improved Ni I log(gf) Values and Abundance Determinations in the Photospheres of the Sun and Metal-poor Star HD 84937

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, M P; Sneden, C; Cowan, J J


    Atomic transition probability measurements for 371 Ni I lines in the UV through near IR are reported. Branching fractions from data recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a new echelle spectrograph are combined with published radiative lifetimes to determine these transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found in comparisons to previously reported Ni I transition probability measurements. Use of the new echelle spectrograph, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enable a reduction of systematic errors and overall improvement in transition probability uncertainty over previous measurements. The new Ni I data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to derive new, more accurate Ni abundances. Lines covering a wide range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects.

  10. Improved Ti II log(gf) Values and Abundance Determinations in the Photospheres of the Metal-Poor Star HD 84937

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, M P; Sneden, C; Cowan, J J


    Atomic transition probability measurements for 364 lines of Ti II in the UV through near IR are reported. Branching fractions from data recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a new echelle spectrometer are combined with published radiative lifetimes to determine these transition probabilities. The new results are in generally good agreement with previously reported FTS measurements. Use of the new echelle spectrometer, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enables a reduction of systematic errors and overall improvement in transition probability accuracy over previous measurements. The new Ti II data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to derive new, more accurate Ti abundances. Lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects. The Ti abundances derived using Ti II for these two stars match those derived using Ti I and support the relative Ti/...

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Abundances of bright metal-poor stars (Schlaufman+, 2014) (United States)

    Schlaufman, K. C.; Casey, A. R.


    As input to our sample selection, we use the APASS DR6 Catalog, the 2MASS All-Sky Point Source Catalog, and the AllWISE Source Catalog (Henden+ 2012JAVSO..40..430H; Skrutskie+ 2006AJ....131.1163S; Wright+ 2010AJ....140.1868W; Mainzer+ 2011ApJ...731...53M). We followed up our metal-poor star candidates with the Mayall 4m/Echelle, Gemini South/GMOS-S, and Magellan/MIKE telescopes and spectrographs. We observed 98 stars with the Mayall 4m/Echelle on 2013 June 25-27. We observed 90 stars with Gemini South/GMOS-S in service mode from 2014 March to July (R~3700). We observed 416 stars with Magellan/MIKE on 2014 June 21-23 and July 8-10 (R~41000 in the blue and R~35000 in the red). (3 data files).

  12. Carbon abundances and radial gradients in NGC300 and other nearby spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Cipriano, L Toribio San; Esteban, C


    We present preliminary results of deep echelle spectrophotometry of a sample of HII regions along the disk of the Scd galaxy NGC300 obtained with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) with the aim of detect and measure very faint OII and CII permitted lines. We focus this study on the C and O abundances obtained from faint optical recombination lines (ORLs) instead of the most commonly used collisionally excited lines (CELs). We have derived the ionic abundances of C++ from the CII 4267 angstrom RL and O++ from the multiplet 1 of OII around 4649 angstrom in several objects. Finally, we have computed the radial gradients of C/H, O/H and C/O ratios in NGC300 from RLs, which has allowed the comparison with similar data obtained by our group in other nearby spiral galaxies.

  13. BESO: a high-resolution spectrograph for the Hexapod-Telescope (United States)

    Steiner, Ingo; Seifert, Walter; Stahl, Otmar; Lemke, Roland; Chini, Rolf; Appenzeller, Immo


    BESO (Bochum Echelle Spectrograph for OCA) is a high-resolution echelle spectrograph which is built by the Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum and the Landessternwarte Heidelberg. It will be operated with the 1.5m Hexapod-Telescope at the Observatorio Cerro Armazones (OCA), Chile - the new observatory of the Ruhr-Universitaet and the Universidad Catolica del Norte in Antofagasta. The site at 2800m altitude is located 30 km east of Paranal and provides superb observing conditions. BESO is fiber-coupled to the Hexapod-Telescope, covers a spectral range of 370 to 840nm with a resolution of 48,000. Instrument controls are embedded in the ALMA Common Software environment. The spectrograph is part of a monitoring project that studies the variability of young stars and AGN.

  14. Segunda discontinuidad de Balmer y procesos físicos en envolturas extendidas de estrellas Be (United States)

    Bibbo, I.; Cruzado, A.; Ringuelet, A.

    We study a group of Be stars in which the second Balmer jump is observed. Our aim is to correlate the second Balmer jump with other spectral features. Spectroscopic observations were performed with the 2.15 m telescope at Complejo Astronómico el Leoncito, CASLEO (San Juan, Argentina). In December 2001 and August 2002 high resolution echelle spectra were obtained with a REOSC echelle spectrograph. We find that, when a second Balmer jump in emission is observed, an emission in λ = 4233,17 Å of FeII multiplet 27 is also, generally seen. Besides, the electron temperature of the region of the envelope where the second jump is formed is estimated assuming that radiative recombinations cause the flux emission in the Balmer continuum. The temperature values obtained in this way are found correlated with the measure of the second Balmer jump.

  15. Discovery of non-radial pulsations in the spectroscopic binary Herbig Ae star RS Cha

    CERN Document Server

    Böhm, T; Catala, C; Alecian, E; Pollard, K; Wright, D


    In this article we present a first discovery of non radial pulsations in both components of the Herbig Ae spectroscopic binary star RS Cha. The binary was monitored in quasi-continuous observations during 14 observing nights (Jan 2006) at the 1m Mt John (New Zealand) telescope with the Hercules high-resolution echelle spectrograph. The cumulated exposure time on the star was 44 hrs, corresponding to 255 individual high-resolution echelle spectra with $R = 45000$. Least square deconvolved spectra (LSD) were obtained for each spectrum representing the effective photospheric absorption profile modified by pulsations. Difference spectra were calculated by subtracting rotationally broadened artificial profiles; these residual spectra were analysed and non-radial pulsations were detected. A subsequent analysis with two complementary methods, namely Fourier Parameter Fit (FPF) and Fourier 2D (F2D) has been performed and first constraints on the pulsation modes have been derived. In fact, both components of the spect...

  16. A high-resolution spectroscopic survey of late-type stars: chromospheric activity, rotation, kinematics, and age

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Santiago, J; Galvez-Ortiz, M C; Crespo-Chacon, I; Martinez-Arnaiz, R M; Fernandez-Figueroa, M J; De Castro, E; Cornide, M


    Aims: We present a compilation of spectroscopic data from a survey of 144 chromospherically active young stars in the solar neighborhood which may be used to investigate different aspects of the formation and evolution of the solar neighborhood in terms of kinematics and stellar formation history. The data have already been used by us in several studies. With this paper, we make all these data accessible to the scientific community for future studies on different topics. Methods: We performed spectroscopic observations with echelle spectrographs to cover the entirety of the optical spectral range simultaneously. Standard data reduction was performed with the IRAF ECHELLE package. We applied the spectral subtraction technique to reveal chromospheric emission in the stars of the sample. The equivalent width of chromospheric emission lines was measured in the subtracted spectra and then converted to fluxes using equivalent width-flux relationships. Radial and rotational velocities were determined by the cross-co...

  17. X-rays from superbubbles in the large magellanic cloud; 4, the blowout structure of N44

    CERN Document Server

    Magnier, E A; Hwang, U; Smith, R C; Magnier, Eugene A; Chu, You Hua; Hwang, Una; Smith, R Chris


    We have used optical echelle spectra along with ROSAT and ASCA X-ray spectra to test the hypothesis that the southern portion of the N44 X-ray bright region is the result of a blowout structure. Three pieces of evidence now support this conclusion. First, the filamentary optical morphology corresponding with the location of the X-ray bright South Bar suggests the blowout description (Chu et al 1993). Second, optical echelle spectra show evidence of high velocity (~90 km/sec) gas in the region of the blowout. Third, X-ray spectral fits show a lower temperature for the South Bar than the main superbubble region of Shell 1. Such a blowout can affect the evolution of the superbubble and explain some of the discrepancy discussed by Oey & Massey (1995) between the observed shell diameter and the diameter predicted on the basis of the stellar content and Weaver et al.'s (1977) pressure-driven bubble model.

  18. Systèmes de référence spatio-temporels. Colloque André Danjon "L'astronomie, la recherche et le temps présent". (United States)

    Capitaine, N.; Débarbat, S.

    Contents: 1. Séance commémorative. 2. Méchanique céleste, informatique et relativité. 3. L'astrolabe de Danjon et ses développements. 4. Echelles de temps et astrométrie. 5. Techniques performantes en astrométrie moderne. 6. Des techniques spatiales aux systèmes de reference. 7. Radioastronomie et astronomie.

  19. Photoelectrochemistry of Electronic and Electro-Optical Materials (United States)


    Etching of Blazed Echelle Gratings in n-GaAs", presented at the Fall Meeting of the Electrochemical Society , Chicago, IL, October 9-14, 1988. 3...SiC", Fall Meeting of the Electrochemical Society , Hollywood, FL, October 15-20, 1989. 5. "Morphology Control of Photoelectrochemically Etched...Profiles in n-GaAs", presented at the Fall Meeting of the Electrochemical Society , Hollywood, FL, October 15-20, 1989. 6. "The Evaluation of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Torres-Peimbert


    Full Text Available In gaseous nebulae the abundances of heavy elements derived from recombination lines are systematically higher than those derived from collisionally excited lines. The possible explanations to obtain compatible solutions are: either to attribute the difference to the presence of temperature inhomogeneities or to the presence of dense clumps of colder enriched material. We have obtained long slit echelle spectrograms in several planetary nebulae to try to shed light on this topic. We present preliminary results for NGC 6543.

  1. The Atmosphere as Laboratory: Aeronomy by Astronomy (United States)

    Slanger, T. G.; Cosby, P. C.; Huestis, D. L.


    Astronomical sky spectra, which are byproducts of long-slit observations with echelle spectrographs on large telescopes, provide a unique platform for studying the optical emissions of excited molecules and atoms in the terrestrial atmosphere that can greatly extend present knowledge based on laboratory spectra. This paper summarizes some of the advances that have been made in our understanding of the lower electronic states of O2 and other species from the sky spectra and from direct observations of the Venus nightglow.

  2. TEDI: the TripleSpec Exoplanet Discovery Instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Edelstein, Jerry; Erskine, David J; Feuerstein, W Michael; Marckwordt, Mario; Wishnow, Ed; Lloyd, James P; Herter, Terry; Muirhead, Phillip; Gull, George E; Henderson, Charles; Parshley, Stephen C


    The TEDI (TripleSpec - Exoplanet Discovery Instrument) will be the first instrument fielded specifically for finding low-mass stellar companions. The instrument is a near infra-red interferometric spectrometer used as a radial velocimeter. TEDI joins Externally Dispersed Interferometery (EDI) with an efficient, medium-resolution, near IR (0.9 - 2.4 micron) echelle spectrometer, TripleSpec, at the Palomar 200" telescope. We describe the instrument and its radial velocimetry demonstration program to observe cool stars.

  3. Abundances and ADFs in PNe with WC central stars

    CERN Document Server

    García-Rojas, Jorge; Morisset, Christophe; Ruiz, Maria Teresa


    We present preliminary results obtained from the analysis of very deep echelle spectra of a dozen planetary nebulae with [WC] or weak emission lines (wels) central stars. The computed abundance discrepancy factors (ADFs) are moderate, with values lower than 4. In principle, no evidence of the H-poor metal enriched inclusions proposed by Liu et al. (2000) have been found. However, a detailed analysis of the data is in progress.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Infrared spectroscopy of symbiotic stars. XI. (Fekel+, 2017) (United States)

    Fekel, F. C.; Hinkle, K. H.; Joyce, R. R.; Wood, P. R.


    Our spectroscopic observations in the southern hemisphere were initially acquired from 2001 March through 2002 December. We observed at the Mount Stromlo Observatory (MSO), which is located near Canberra, Australia, and used the 1.88m telescope and coude spectrograph. The detector to record our spectra was an infrared camera, NICMASS, that was developed at the University of Massachusetts. It produced a 2 pixel resolving power of 44000 at a wavelength of 1.623μm. Between 2003 February and 2010 June we obtained some additional spectra with the 8m Gemini South telescope, located at Cerro Pachon, Chile. We used the Phoenix cryogenic echelle spectrograph. That spectrograph enabled us to observe at several different infrared wavelength regions including 1.563, 2.226, and 2.364μm, and the Gemini South spectra have a resolving power equal to either 50000 or 70000. >From 2009 May through 2010 June we also used the 1.5m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). That telescope is operated by the Small and Moderate Aperature Research Telescope System (SMARTS) consortium of universities and other organizations. During that time period, we acquired five spectra with the 1.5m telescope, a fiber fed echelle spectrograph, and a 2K SITe CCD. The spectra have a resolving power of ~25000 at 5500Å. The echelle spectrograms from the 1.5m SMARTS telescope cover the wavelength range 4020-7300Å. We chose to measure velocities in one of the reddest orders of the SMARTS echelle spectrograms at a wavelength region near 7130Å. (5 data files).

  5. Le Sommeil et l’Age: de la Physiopathologie a la Therapeutique (Sleep and Age: From Physiopathology to Therapeutics) (United States)


    34 ; ceux du matin paradoxal, ne sont pas alterds de la m~me faqon par le supportant momns bien le travail postd. Avec: l’Age. les processus de...Echelles Visuelles netironales et dans les connections chuinlques avec le Analogiques). Les vdtdrans, peut- etre en raison de leur noyau suprachiasmatique...semble etre influencde de fagon negative -u acucseetd ~id par le vieillissement, et peut devenir responsable 11 un raccou mniricisemnstade p mrisdembebe

  6. The SONG prototype: Efficiency of a robotic telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. F.; Grundahl, F.; Beck, A. H.


    The Stellar Observations Network Group prototype telescope at the Teide Observatory has been operating in scientific mode since March 2014. The first year of observations has entirely been carried out using the high resolution echelle spectrograph. Several asteroseismic targets were selected...... targets would reveal potential problems. In this paper the performance of the first robotic SONG node is described to illustrate the efficiency and possibilities in having a robotic telescope....

  7. The Star Formation History of Orion and its Environs (United States)

    Calvert, Nuria


    During the period of performance, we have obtained the following observations and carried out the analysis of the Orion associations itemized below: 1) Detailed analysis of newly discovered stars in strips at declinations +1 degree and -1 degree; 2) Disk evolution in the Ori OB1 association; 3) Spitzer proposal; 4) Multifiber echelle spectroscopy; 5) Slit spectroscopy of bright candidates; 6) Other multifiber spectroscopy; 7) UBVRI photometry; 8) Near and mid-IR photometry.

  8. A High Resolution Spectrograph for the 72 cm Waltz Telescope at Landessternwarte, Heidelberg

    CERN Document Server

    Tala, M; Grill, M; Harris, R J; Stürmer, J; Schwab, C; Gutcke, T; Reffert, S; Quirrenbach, A; Seifert, W; Mandel, H; Geuer, L; Schäffner, L; Thimm, G; Seemann, U; Tietz, J; Wagner, K


    The Waltz Spectrograph is a fiber-fed high-resolution \\'echelle spectrograph for the 72 cm Waltz Telescope at the Landessternwarte, Heidelberg. It uses a 31.6 lines/mm 63.5$^{\\circ}$ blaze angle \\'echelle grating in white-pupil configuration, providing a spectral resolving power of $R\\sim$65,000 covering the spectral range between 450$-$800\\,nm in one CCD exposure. A prism is used for cross-dispersion of \\'echelle orders. The spectrum is focused by a commercial apochromat onto a 2k$\\times$2k CCD detector with 13.5$\\mu$m per pixel. An exposure meter will be used to obtain precise photon-weighted midpoints of observations, which will be used in the computation of the barycentric corrections of measured radial velocities. A stabilized, newly designed iodine cell is employed for measuring radial velocities with high precision. Our goal is to reach a radial velocity precision of better than 5 m/s, providing an instrument with sufficient precision and sensitivity for the discovery of giant exoplanets. Here we descr...

  9. The discovery of a planetary candidate around the evolved low-mass Kepler giant star HD 175370 (United States)

    Hrudková, M.; Hatzes, A.; Karjalainen, R.; Lehmann, H.; Hekker, S.; Hartmann, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Prins, S.; Van Winckel, H.; De Nutte, R.; Dumortier, L.; Frémat, Y.; Hensberge, H.; Jorissen, A.; Lampens, P.; Laverick, M.; Lombaert, R.; Pápics, P. I.; Raskin, G.; Sódor, Á.; Thoul, A.; Van Eck, S.; Waelkens, C.


    We report on the discovery of a planetary companion candidate with a minimum mass M sin i = 4.6 ± 1.0 MJupiter orbiting the K2 III giant star HD 175370 (KIC 007940959). This star was a target in our programme to search for planets around a sample of 95 giant stars observed with Kepler. This detection was made possible using precise stellar radial velocity measurements of HD 175370 taken over five years and four months using the coudé echelle spectrograph of the 2-m Alfred Jensch Telescope and the fibre-fed echelle spectrograph High Efficiency and Resolution Mercator Echelle Spectrograph of the 1.2-m Mercator Telescope. Our radial velocity measurements reveal a periodic (349.5 ± 4.5 d) variation with a semi-amplitude K = 133 ± 25 m s- 1, superimposed on a long-term trend. A low-mass stellar companion with an orbital period of ˜88 yr in a highly eccentric orbit and a planet in a Keplerian orbit with an eccentricity e = 0.22 are the most plausible explanation of the radial velocity variations. However, we cannot exclude the existence of stellar envelope pulsations as a cause for the low-amplitude radial velocity variations and only future continued monitoring of this system may answer this uncertainty. From Kepler photometry, we find that HD 175370 is most likely a low-mass red giant branch or asymptotic giant branch star.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Keck+Magellan survey for LLSs. III. (Prochaska+, 2015) (United States)

    Prochaska, J. X.; O'Meara, J. M.; Fumagalli, M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Burles, S. M.


    The sample presented in this manuscript is intended to be a nearly all-inclusive set of Lyman Limit Systems (LLSs) discovered in the high-dispersion (echelle or echellette; R>5000) spectra that we have gathered at the Keck and Magellan telescopes. Regarding Keck, we have examined all of the data obtained by Principal Investigators (PIs) A. M. Wolfe and J. X. Prochaska at the W. M. Keck Observatory through 2012 April, and from PIs Burles, O'Meara, Bernstein, and Fumagalli at Magellan through 2012 July. We also include the Keck spectra analyzed by Penprase et al. (2010, J/ApJ/721/1). We present data obtained at the W. M. Keck and Las Campanas Observatories using the twin 10m Keck I and Keck II telescopes and the twin 6.5m Baade and Clay telescopes. Altogether, we used four spectrometers: (1) the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES); (2) the Echellette Spectrograph and Imager (ESI); (3) the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE); and (4) the Magellan Echellette Spectrograph (MagE). Observing logs for the HIRES and MIKE spectra are provided in Tables 1 and 2. (5 data files).

  11. Eclipse parcial de Luna - 23-24 de Marzo de 1997 (United States)

    Arquiola, A. P.; Arquiola, F. E.

    Luego de varios años en que las condiciones climáticas no nos permitían registrar el fenómeno, pudimos observar y realizar secuencias fotográficas del eclipse parcial Luna. Siendo de una magnitud de 0.92 (muy cercano a la totalidad) se obtuvo una serie de fotografías muy claras y preferentemente con gran contraste a fin de destacar las tonalidades de las sombras, en especial la penumbra, que desde ya el clima nos favoreció. Los métodos fotográficos fueron, en primer lugar, con telezoom de 210mm a f/4.5 con película color de 1600 ASA; y el ya clásico método a foco primario en el Telescopio Schmidt - Cassegrain de 200mm a f/10. Paralelamente a la observación del eclipse, estábamos al instante comunicados por correo electrónico con otros observadores desde diferentes lugares del mundo intercambiando reportes, y también usuarios en general de la red, de esta forma se hizo muy especial el fenómeno. Instrumentos utilizados : Telescopio Schmidt-Cassegrain 200mm f/10, Cámara fotográfica Minolta con Telezoom 210mm f/4.5, Película 1600 ASA color, Telescopio Refractor 80mm a f/15

  12. A new alignment procedure for the South African Astronomical Observatory's 74-inch telescope (United States)

    Crause, Lisa A.; Booth, John A.; Doss, David; Loubser, Egan; O'Connor, James E.; Sass, Craig; Sickafoose, Amanda A.; Worters, Hannah L.


    Considerable effort has gone into improving the performance and reliability of the SAAO's 74-inch telescope. This included replacing the telescope encoders, refining the pointing model and increasing the telescope throughput. The latter involved re-aluminising the primary and formulating a procedure to ensure optimal alignment of the telescope mirrors. To this end, we developed the necessary hardware and techniques to ensure that such alignment is achieved and maintained, particularly following re-aluminising of the mirrors. In essence, the procedure involves: placing a Taylor Hobson Alignment Telescope on the mechanical rotation axis of the 74-inch (which we define to be the optical axis, since the Cassegrain instruments attach to the associated turntable), then adjusting the tip/tilt of the secondary mirror to get it onto that axis and, lastly, adjusting the tip/tilt of the primary mirror to eliminate coma. An eyepiece (or wavefront camera) is installed at the Cassegrain port for this final step since comatic star images indicate the need to tip/tilt the primary mirror to align it to the secondary. Tuning out any brightness gradients seen in an out-of-focus image of a bright star may also be used for feedback when adjusting the tip/tilt of the primary mirror to null coma.

  13. FISICA: the Florida imager slicer for infrared cosmology and astrophysics (United States)

    Eikenberry, Stephen; Raines, S. Nicholas; Gruel, Nicolas; Elston, Richard; Guzman, Rafael; Julian, Jeff; Boreman, Glenn; Glenn, Paul; Hull-Allen, Gregory; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Rodgers, Michael; Thompson, Kevin; Flint, Scott; Comstock, Lovell; Myrick, Bruce


    We report on the design, fabrication, and on-sky performance of the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Cosmology and Astrophysics (FISICA) - a fully-cryogenic all-reflective image-slicing integral field unit for the FLAMINGOS near-infrared spectrograph. Designed to accept input beams near f/15, FISICA with FLAMINGOS provides R~1300 spectra over a 16x33-arcsec field-of-view on the Cassegrain f/15 focus of the KPNO 4-meter telescope, or a 6x12-arcsec field-of-view on the Nasmyth or Bent Cassegrain foci of the Gran Telescopio Canarias 10.4-meter telescope. FISICA accomplishes this using three sets of "monolithic" powered mirror arrays, each with 22 mirrored surfaces cut into a single piece of aluminum. We review the optical and opto-mechanical design and fabrication of FISICA, as well as laboratory test results for FISICA integrated with the FLAMINGOS instrument. Finally, we present performance results from observations with FISICA at the KPNO 4-m telescope and comparisons of FISICA performance to other available IFUs on 4-m to 8-m-class telescopes.

  14. High Power mm-Wave Transmitter System for Radar or Telecommunications (United States)

    Stride, S. L.; McMaster, R. L.; Pogorzelski, R. J.


    Future NASA deep space missions able to provide tens of kilo-watts of spacecraft DC power, make it feasible to employ high power RF telecommunications systems. Traditional flight systems (e.g., Cassini), constrained by limited DC power, used a single high-gain 4m Cassegrain reflector fed by a single lower power (20W) transmitter. Increased available DC power means that high power (1000 W) transmitters can be used. Rather than continue building traditional single-transmitter systems it now becomes feasible to engineer and build multi-element active arrays that can illuminate a dish. Illuminating a 2m dish with a spherical wavefront from an offset 1kW active array can provide sufficient ERP (Effective Radiated Power) when compared to a larger Cassegrain dish. Such a system has the advantage of lower mass, lower volume, improved reliability, less stringent pointing requirements, lower cost and risk. We propose to design and build a prototype Ka-band transmit antenna with an active sub-array using 125W TWTAs. The system could be applied to a telecommunications downlink or radar transmitter used for missions such as JIMO.

  15. Soft X ray/extreme ultraviolet images of the solar atmosphere with normal incidence multilayer optics (United States)

    Lindblom, Joakim Fredrik

    The first high resolution Soft X-Ray/Extreme Ultraviolet (XUV) images of the Sun with normal incidence multilayer optics were obtained by the Standford/MSFC Rocket X-Ray Spectroheliograph on 23 Oct. 1987. Numerous images at selected wavelengths from 8 to 256 A were obtained simultaneously by the diverse array of telescopes flown on-board the experiment. These telescopes included single reflection normal incidence multilayer systems (Herschelian), double reflection multilayer systems (Cassegrain), a grazing incidence mirror system (Wolter-Schwarzschild), and hybrid systems using normal incidence multilayer optics in conjunction with the grazing incidence primary (Wolter-Cassegrain). Filters comprised of approximately 1700 A thick aluminum supported on a nickel mesh were used to transmit the soft x ray/EUV radiation while preventing the intense visible light emission of the Sun from fogging the sensitive experimental T-grain photographic emulsions. These systems yielded high resolution soft x ray/EUV images of the solar corona and transition region, which reveal magnetically confined loops of hot solar plasma, coronal plumes, polar coronal holes, supergranulation, and features associated with overlying cool prominences. The development, testing, and operation of the experiments, and the results from the flight are described. The development of a second generation experiment, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array, which is scheduled to fly in the summer of 1990, and a recently approved Space Station experiment, the Ultra-High Resolution XUV Spectroheliograph, which is scheduled to fly in 1996 are also described.

  16. Optimal design of a new type space laser communication optical system (United States)

    Yan, Pei-pei; Deng, Xiao-guo; Li, Gang; Liu, Kai; Duan, Jing; Shan, Qiu-sha; Jiang, Kai; Zhang, Yu


    A design of a laser communications optical system with high transmitting and receiving performance is given. The traditional on-axis Cassegrain optical antenna has the default that the transmitting and receiving power decreased greatly because of the obscuration of the secondary mirror. Considering that the eccentric-pupil Cassegrain optical antenna is designed. The optical antenna system in transceiver has been designed by means of CODEV software. It improves the efficiency of transmitting and receiving power effectively. Its properties have been analyzed, such as gain, image quality, and transmission efficiency. Meanwhile, the materials of optical elements have been analyzed. The power decline curve has been obtained by means of the detailed analysis of antenna system in partial axis situation. The system includes transmitter channel, receiving channel and experiment channel. It can realize the functions of transmitter-receiver isolation and multi-light ways using dichroic mirrors and beam splitting prisms. The system volume and weight are reduced greatly. The complexity of conventional laser communication system is reduced enormously at the same time. It has important reference significance and application value.

  17. Preliminary design of the full-Stokes UV and visible spectropolarimeter for UVMag/Arago

    CERN Document Server

    Pertenais, Martin; Pares, Laurent; Petit, Pascal; Snik, Frans; van Harten, Gerard


    The UVMag consortium proposed the space mission project Arago to ESA at its M4 call. It is dedicated to the study of the dynamic 3D environment of stars and planets. This space mission will be equipped with a high-resolution spectropolarimeter working from 119 to 888 nm. A preliminary optical design of the whole instrument has been prepared and is presented here. The design consists of the telescope, the instrument itself, and the focusing optics. Considering not only the scienti?c requirements, but also the cost and size constraints to ?t a M-size mission, the telescope has a 1.3 m diameter primary mirror and is a classical Cassegrain-type telescope that allows a polarization-free focus. The polarimeter is placed at this Cassegrain focus. This is the key element of the mission and the most challenging to be designed. The main challenge lies in the huge spectral range offered by the instrument; the polarimeter has to deliver the full Stokes vector with a high precision from the FUV (119 nm) to the NIR (888 nm...

  18. The design of ERIS for the VLT (United States)

    Amico, P.; Marchetti, E.; Pedichini, F.; Baruffolo, A.; Delabre, B.; Duchateau, M.; Ekinci, M.; Fantinel, D.; Fedrigo, E.; Finger, G.; Frank, C.; Hofmann, R.; Jolley, P.; Lizon, J. L.; Le Louarn, M.; Madec, P.-Y.; Soenke, C.; Weisz, H.


    The Enhanced Resolution Imager and Spectrograph (ERIS) is the next-generation instrument planned for the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF)1. It is an AO assisted instrument that will make use of the Deformable Secondary Mirror and the new Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF), and it is designed for the Cassegrain focus of the telescope UT4. The project just concluded its conceptual design phase and is awaiting formal approval to continue to the next phase. ERIS will offer 1-5 μm imaging and 1-2.5 μm integral field spectroscopic capabilities with high Strehl performance. As such it will replace, with much improved single conjugated AO correction, the most scientifically important and popular observing capabilities currently offered by NACO2 (diffraction limited imaging in JM band, Sparse Aperture Masking and APP coronagraphy) and by SINFONI3, whose instrumental module, SPIFFI, will be re-used in ERIS. The Cassegrain location and the performance requirements impose challenging demands on the project, from opto-mechanical design to cryogenics to the operational concept. In this paper we describe the baseline design proposed for ERIS and discuss these technical challenges, with particular emphasis on the trade-offs and the novel solutions proposed for building ERIS.

  19. Comparative efficiency analysis of fiber-array and conventional beam director systems in volume turbulence. (United States)

    Vorontsov, Mikhail; Filimonov, Grigory; Ovchinnikov, Vladimir; Polnau, Ernst; Lachinova, Svetlana; Weyrauch, Thomas; Mangano, Joseph


    The performance of two prominent laser beam projection system types is analyzed through wave-optics numerical simulations for various atmospheric turbulence conditions, propagation distances, and adaptive optics (AO) mitigation techniques. Comparisons are made between different configurations of both a conventional beam director (BD) using a monolithic-optics-based Cassegrain telescope and a fiber-array BD that uses an array of densely packed fiber collimators. The BD systems considered have equal input power and aperture diameters. The projected laser beam power inside the Airy size disk at the target plane is used as the performance metric. For the fiber-array system, both incoherent and coherent beam combining regimes are considered. We also present preliminary results of side-by-side atmospheric beam projection experiments over a 7-km propagation path using both the AO-enhanced beam projection system with a Cassegrain telescope and the coherent fiber-array BD composed of 21 densely packed fiber collimators. Both wave-optics numerical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that, for similar system architectures and turbulence conditions, coherent fiber-array systems are more efficient in mitigation of atmospheric turbulence effects and generation of a hit spot of the smallest possible size on a remotely located target.

  20. Filter Mounting and Mechanism Design for the Pan-STARRS PS1 Prototype Telescope System (United States)

    Ryan, A.; Morgan, J.; Siegmund, W.; Hude, C.

    The Pan-STARRS PS1 telescope is a 1.8m Cassegrain telescope with a 7 square degree field of view and a 1.4 billion pixel CCD camera. The required clear aperture at the filters is 496mm in diameter, and therefore the filters needed are quite large. The Pan-STARRS filter complement consists of six octagonal shaped filters that have a distance between the flats of 538mm and a thickness of 10mm. The automated mechanism that will move the filters needs to fit into a small area. A filter wheel would be prohibitively large, so the mechanism will consist of three layers with two athermally mounted filters that slide on each layer. Each layer will be identical to the other two to provide interchangeability and commonality in manufacturing. The layers will be stacked and held together with top and bottom cover plates to form a rigid structure. The shutter will be mounted to the bottom of the mechanism and they will be installed as one unit. A separate structure will be utilized to clamp the mechanism to the telescope cassegrain core registration points. This installation system will allow the mechanism to be isolated from other structural loads and be easily removed without affecting the camera. This talk will present the detailed design of the mechanism an its performance to date.

  1. An integrated thermo-structural model to design a polarimeter for the GTC (United States)

    Di Varano, I.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Woche, M.; Laux, U.


    The GTC (Gran Telescopio Canarias), with an equivalent aperture of 10.4 m, effective focal length of 169.9 m, located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos , in La Palma, Canary Islands, will host on its Cassegrain focus the GRAPE polarimeter (GRAntecan PolarimEter). At such focus the plate scale is 1.21 arcsec/mm and the unvignetted FOV 8 arcmin. The instrument will provide full Stokes polarimetry in the spectral range 380-1500 nm, feeding simultaneously up to two spectrographs. At the moment an interface to HORS (High Optical Resolution Spectrograph) is being defined, located on the Nasmyth platform, it has a FWHM resolving power of about 25,000 (5 pixel) within a spectral range of 400-680 nm. The rotator and instrumental flanges for the Cassegrain focus are currently under definition. Hereafter I present the state of art of the mechanical design of the polarimeter, whose strategy is based on an integrated model of Zemax design into ANSYS FEM static and dynamic analyses with thermal loads applied, in order to retrieve tip-tilt, decentering errors and other significant parameters to be looped back to the Zemax model. In such a way it is possible to compare and refine the results achieved through the tolerance analysis.

  2. 连续相位变化毫米波衍射天线%Millimeter wave diffraction antenna based on continuous phase correction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鑫; 潘文武; 薛长江; 余川; 屈劲; 陈世韬; 施美友


    A Cassegrain phase-correcting Fresnel zone plate antenna has been designed based on the Fresnel principle and the Cas-segrain antenna design method. It consists of a suite of Fresnel zone continuous phase correcting concentric rings, and its diameter of aperture is 200 mm. Compared with the traditional paraboloid antenna, the Cassegrain Fresnel zone plate antenna has a flat and light structure. It precedes the discrete phase diffraction antenna in radiation performance. The simulation has been performed based on the physical optics method, and the test has been performed with the near-field scanning system. The test shows that, at 95 GHz the antenna has an efficiency of 65%. Its 3 dB beam widths are 0. 95° and 1. 05°, and its gain is 44. 1 dB.%基于菲涅尔原理及卡塞格伦天线设计方法,设计了一种口面直径为200 mm的卡赛格伦菲涅耳相位修正平面天线.天线采用连续相位修正方式,由一组同心菲涅耳相位修正圆环组成,与传统卡赛格伦抛物面天线相比,该天线具有平面化结构,大大减小了天线自身重量,天线辐射性能较离散相位衍射天线有大幅度提高.在95 GHz频率下,采用物理光学法进行仿真计算,并采用近场扫描系统进行了天线性能测试,天线3dB波束宽度分别为0.95°及1.05°,天线实测增益为44.1 dB,天线口面效率为65%.

  3. Performing simulations for the WSO-UV Spectrographs (United States)

    Marcos-Arenal, P.; Gómez de Castro, A. I.; Perea Abarca, B.; Sachkov, M.


    The World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) is a space telescope, equipped with a high resolution spectrograph (WUVS - WSO UltraViolet Spectrograph) that provides high resolution spectroscopy (R˜55,000) in two channels VUVES and UVES. VUVES is a far UV echelle spectrograph designed to observe point sources in the range 1020-1800 Å. UVES is the near UV echelle spectrograph, working in the range 1740-3100 Å. These instruments can be evaluated, in terms of performance, from an appropriate overall instrument model through simulations of the expected observations. Since it is not feasible to build and test a prototype of a space-based instrument, numerical simulations performed by an end-to-end simulator are used to model the noise level expected to be present in the observations. The performance of the instrument can be evaluated in terms of noise source response, data quality, and fine-tuning of the instrument design for different types of configurations and observing strategies. The WUVS Simulator has been implemented as a further development of the PLATO Simulator, adapting it to an echelle spectrograph and the WUVS instrument specific characteristics. It has been designed to generate synthetic time series of CCD images by including models of the CCD and its electronics, the telescope optics, the jitter movements of the spacecraft and all important natural noise sources. We provide a detailed description of several noise sources and discuss their properties, in connection with the optical design, the quantum efficiency of the detectors, etc. The expected overall noise budget of the output spectra is evaluated as a function of different sets of input parameters describing the instrument properties.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectroscopy of subsystems in four multiple stars (Tokovinin, 2016) (United States)

    Tokovinin, A.


    Most spectra were taken with the 1.5m telescope located at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory (CTIO) in Chile and operated by the Small & Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) Consortium ( The observing time was allocated through NOAO (programs 14B-0009, 15A-0055, 15B-0012). The observations were made with the CHIRON fiber-fed echelle spectrograph by the telescope operators in service mode. HIP64478 was observed in the fiber mode with a spectral resolution of R=28000, while all of the other stars were observed in the slicer mode with R=80000. A few spectra taken in 2010 at the same telescope with the Fiber Echelle (FECH) with a resolution of R=44000 are used, as well as the radial velocities measured with the echelle spectrometer at the Du Pont 2.5m telescope. The radial velocities were derived from the Cross-Correlation Function (CCF) of the spectrum with a binary mask in the spectral range from 4500 to 6500Å. Identifications and basic data on the four multiple systems studied here are given in Table1. Table2 contains the average parameters of the CCFs. Spectroscopic orbital elements derived in this work are listed in Table3. The visual orbits are assembled in Table4. The observations used in orbit calculations are listed in two tables. Table 5 gives, for each date, the radial velocities of the primary and secondary components. The resolved measurements are listed in Table6 in a similar way as the radial velocities. (6 data files).

  5. The STIS MAMA status: Current detector performance (United States)

    Danks, A. C.; Joseph, C.; Bybee, R.; Argebright, V.; Abraham, J.; Kimble, R.; Woodgate, B.


    The STIS (Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph) is a second generation Hubble instrument scheduled to fly in 1997. Through a variety of modes, the instrument will provide spectral resolutions from R approximately 50 in the objective spectroscopy mode to 100,000 in the high resolution echelle mode in the wavelength region from 115 to 1000 nm. In the UV the instrument employs two MAMA (Multimode Anode Microchannel plate Arrays) 1024 by 1024 pixel detectors, which provide high DQE (Detective Quantum Efficiency), and good dynamic range and resolution. The current progress and performance of these detectors are reported, illustrating that the technology is mature and that the performance is very close to flight requirements.

  6. Langue et identité dans l'espace digital

    CERN Document Server

    Bastian, Sabine; Burr, Elisabeth


    L'internet et surtout le WWW favorisent non seulement la coexistence de langues (nationales, regionales, creoles) et de dialectes, mais egalement leur perennisation et leur reanimation ou bien leur mise en ecriture. En outre, il existe de plus en plus de communautes linguistiques qui emploient les possibilites offertes par les nouvelles technologies pour se presenter a l''echelle mondiale avec leur langue, leur civilisation et leur patrimoine culturel. Ce volume reunit des contributions concernant la (R)Evolution des Medias presentees par des representant(e)s de differents pays et regions - f

  7. Abundancias químicas de estrellas de Mercurio-Manganeso obtenidas con espectros EBASIM (United States)

    Pintado, O. I.; Adelman, S. J.

    Se determinan las abundancias químicas de estrellas de HgMn usando espectros obtenidos con EBASIM en CASLEO en un rango de longitud de onda comprendido entre los 400 y 890 nm. Los valores iniciales de temperatura efectiva y gravedad superficial se calculan con la fotometría uvbyβ. Las abundancias se calculan usando WIDTH9 y SYNTHE. Los resultados se comparan análisis realizados por los autores usando espectros obtenidos con el espectrógrado REOSC del CASLEO, el espectrógrafo echelle del Telescopio Anglo-Australiano y el espectrógrafo Coudé del Dominion Astrophysical Observatory.

  8. Abundancias químicas de ψ Octantis (United States)

    Medina, M. C.; Pintado, O. I.

    Se determinan las abundancias químicas de ψ Oct usando espectros obtenidos con EBASIM en CASLEO. Los valores iniciales de temperatura efectiva y gravedad superficial se calculan con la fotometría uvbyβ. Esta estrella fue estudiada por Pintado y Adelman (1996) usando espectros REOSC y Adelman y otros (1993), este último basado en espectros echelle obtenidos con el Telescopio Anglo Australiano. Comparamos nuestros resultados con los de los trabajos anteriormente mencionados, pudiéndose realizar una evaluación de la calidad de los espectros EBASIM.

  9. Detection of deuterium Balmer lines in the Orion Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Hébrard, G; Vidal-Madjar, A; Walsh, J R; Ferlet, R


    The detection and first identification of the deuterium Balmer emissionlines, D-alpha and D-beta, in the core of the Orion Nebula is reported.Observations were conducted at the 3.6m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, usingthe Echelle spectrograph Gecko. These lines are very narrow and have identical11 km/s velocity shifts with respect to H-alpha and H-beta. They are probablyexcited by UV continuum fluorescence from the Lyman (DI) lines and arise fromthe interface between the HII region and the molecular cloud.

  10. AVES-IMCO: an adaptive optics visible spectrograph and imager/coronograph for NAOS (United States)

    Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Lagrange, A.-M.; Mouillet, D.; Chauvin, G.; Stadler, E.; Charton, J.; Lacombe, F.; AVES-IMCO Team


    The NAOS adaptive optics system will very soon provide diffraction-limited images on the VLT, down to the visible wavelengths (0.020 arcseconds at 0.83 micron for instance). At the moment, the only instrument dedicated to NAOS is the CONICA spectro-imager, operating in the near-infrared from 1 to 5 microns. We are now proposing to ESO, in collaboration with an Italian group, the development of a visible spectrograph/imager/coronograph, AVES-IMCO (Adaptive Optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph and IMager/COronograph). We present here the general concept of the new instrument as well as its expected performances in the different modes.

  11. Near-IR Direct Detection of Water Vapor in Tau Bootis b (United States)


    impossi- ble, thanks to modern infrared echelle spectrographs. Snellen et al. (2010) detected CO on HD 209458 b with a precision of 2 km s−1 using the...Koch, D. G., Basri, G., et al. 2011, ApJ, 736, 19 Brogi, M., Snellen , I. A. G., de Kok, R. J., et al. 2012, Natur, 486, 502 Butler, R. P., Marcy, G. W...Barbe, A., et al. 2009, JQSRT, 110, 533 Scargle, J. D. 1982, ApJ, 263, 835 Sneden, C. 1973, ApJ, 184, 839 Snellen , I. A. G., de Kok, R. J., de Mooij, E

  12. HERMES at Mercator, competitive high-resolution spectroscopy with a small telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Raskin, Gert


    HERMES, a fibre-fed high-resolution (R=85000) echelle spectrograph with good stability and excellent throughput, is the work-horse instrument of the 1.2-m Mercator telescope on La Palma. HERMES targets building up time series of high-quality data of variable stellar phenomena, mainly for asteroseismology and binary-evolution research. In this paper we present the HERMES project and discuss the instrument design, performance, and a future upgrade. We also present some results of the first four years of HERMES observations. We illustrate the value of small telescopes, equipped with efficient instrumentation, for high-resolution spectroscopy.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectroscopy of V Tri (Ren+, 2017) (United States)

    Ren, A. B.; Zhang, X. B.; Fu, J. N.; Zhang, Y. P.; Cang, T. Q.; Fox-Machado, L.; Li, C. Q.; Khokhuntod, P.; Luo, Y. P.


    The spectroscopic observations for V Tri were carried out with the 2.12m telescope at the Observatorio Astronemico Nacional on the Sierra San Pedro Martir (OAN-SPM) in Mexico on 2015 November 03 and 05. We used a 2048*2048 E2V CCD-4240 to collect the high-resolution (the maximum resolution is R=18000 at 5000Å) echelle spectra at the slit size 1''. The spectral range coverage was from 3800 to 7100Å (4 data files).

  14. Exoplanets search and characterization with the SOPHIE spectrograph at OHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hébrard G.


    Full Text Available Several programs of exoplanets search and characterization have been started with SOPHIE at the 1.93-m telescope of Haute-Provence Observatory, France. SOPHIE is an environmentally stabilized echelle spectrograph dedicated to high-precision radial velocity measurements. The objectives of these programs include systematic searches for exoplanets around different types of stars, characterizations of planet-host stars, studies of transiting planets through RossiterMcLaughlin effect, follow-up observations of photometric surveys. The instrument SOPHIE and a review of its latest results are presented here.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: LCES HIRES/Keck radial velocity Exoplanet Survey (Butler+, 2017) (United States)

    Butler, R. P.; Vogt, S. S.; Laughlin, G.; Burt, J. A.; Rivera, E. J.; Tuomi, M.; Teske, J.; Arriagada, P.; Diaz, M.; Holden, B.; Keiser, S.


    We present 60949 precision radial velocities of 1624 stars obtained over the past 20 years from the Lick-Carnegie Exoplanet Survey Team (LCES) survey with the HIgh-Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) spectrometer on the Keck I telescope. We tabulate a list of 357 significant periodic signals that are of constant period and phase, and not coincident in period and/or phase with stellar activity indices. For this survey, the HIRES spectrometer was configured to operate at a nominal spectral resolving power of R~60000 and wavelength range of 3700-8000Å. (4 data files).

  16. H 2-12, A Misidentified Planetary Nebula in Kepler SNR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Riesgo


    Full Text Available Presentamos imágenes de banda angosta y espectros echelle de rendija larga de H 2–12. Esta nebulosa ha sido clasificada como una nebulosa planetaria. Sin embargo, los datos presentados aquí muestran que este objeto es en realidad parte de los nudos y filamentos más brillantes localizados en la parte occidental de la remanente de supernova de Kepler. Por lo tanto, la clasificación de H 2–12 como una nebulosa planetaria debe ser considerada como errónea.

  17. Spectroscopic study of B and A normal stars (United States)

    Adelman, S.; López García, Z.; Malaroda, S.; Grosso, M.

    In order to obtain the performance of the bench echelle EBASIM attached at ``Jorge Sahade" telescope at Complejo Astonómico El Leoncito, Casleo, in San Juan, a comparison between the equivalent widths measured in the spectra obtained with this spectrograph for the normal star 30 Peg, and the ones obtained at Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, DAO, was done. The CASLEO spectra were reduced using IRAF package and the ones taken at DAO with the REDUCE programm. We have observed that, in general, the measured Casleo equivalent width are grater than the DAO.

  18. Ground-Based Detection of Exoatmospheric Calcium (United States)

    Rojo, Patricio M.; Astudillo-Defru, Nicola


    Data acquired with HDS@Subaru for HD209458b is re-analyzed. A new pipeline performs an automated search for the exoatmospheric presence of several elements without any a-priori assumptions on its existence or strength. We analyzed thousands of lines in the full spectral range of this optical echelle spectrograph using a robust method to correct for the telluric contamination. We recover previous detections of Sodium and Halpha, and present the first strong detection of Calcium in an Extrasolar Atmosphere as well as the tentative detection of other elements. The Calcium detection is in disagreement with theoretical thermal-equilibrium models.

  19. The circumstellar medium of the peculiar supernova SN1997ab

    CERN Document Server

    Salamanca, I M; Tenorio-Tagle, G; Telles, E; Terlevich, R J; Muñoz-Tunón, C; Salamanca, Isabel; Cid-Fernandes, Roberto; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Telles, Eduardo; Terlevich, Roberto J.; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana


    We report the detection of the slow moving wind into which the compact supernova remnant SN 1997ab is expanding. Echelle spectroscopy provides clear evidence for a well resolved narrow (Full Width at Zero Intensity, FWZI ~ 180 km/s) P-Cygni profile, both in Ha and Hb, superimposed on the broad emission lines of this compact supernova remnant. From theoretical arguments we know that the broad and strong emission lines imply a circumstellar density (n ~ 10^7 cm^-3). This, together with our detection, implies a massive and slow stellar wind experienced by the progenitor star shortly prior to the explosion.

  20. PEPSI, the High-Resolution Optical-IR Spectrograph for the LBT (United States)

    Andersen, Michael; Strassmeier, Klaus; Hoffman, Axel; Woche, Manfred; Spano, Paolo

    PEPSI is a high resolution fibre feed optical-IR polarimetric echelle spectrograph for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). PEPSI utilizes the two 8.4m LBT apertures to simultaneously record four polarization states at a resolution of 120.000. The extension of the coverage towards the IR is mainly motivated by the larger Zeeman splitting of IR lines, which would allow to study weaker/fainter magnetic structures on stars. The two optical arms, which also have an integral light mode with R up to 300.000, are under construction, while the IR arm is being designed.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: STELLA-SES Radial Veocities of HD 208472 (Ozdarcan+, 2016) (United States)

    Ozdarcan, O.; Carroll, T. A.; Kunstler, A.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Evren, S.; Weber, M.; Granzer, T.


    Precise radial velocity measurement of HD 208472 based on 229 high resolution Stella Echelle Spectrograph (SES) spectra obtained at STELLA robotic observatory on Tenerife, Spain from March 22, 2009 to July 20, 2011 are presented. High precision radial velocities allow one to trace spot jitter effect on measured radial velocities via residuals from spectroscopic orbit solution. In case of HD 208472, removing spot jitter effect from measured velocities, precision on calculated orbital parameters were improved by factor of 4 without changing the actual value of parameters. (1 data file).

  2. Doppler Tomography of Cataclysmic Variables with a 6.5-m class Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Echevarría


    Full Text Available Se est llevando a cabo un proyecto a largo plazo de espectroscop a de alta dispersi n (R 20000 para observar y analizar una muestra de variables catacl smicas con el telescopio de 2.1-m en el Observatorio Astron mico Nacional en San Pedro M rtir y el espectr grafo echelle. La herramienta principal para este an lisis es la tomograf a Doppler. En esta contribuci n presentamos nuestro trabajo y abordamos la pregunta: >C mo podr amos mejorar este proyecto con un telescopio de clase 6.5-m?

  3. The _ carinae like feii-rich spectrum of fbs0022-021

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zharikov


    Full Text Available Informamos sobre los resultados de observaciones espectrosc opicas Echelle y B&C del objeto con l neas de emisi on FBS 0022 - 21 obtenidas en el Observatorio de San Pedro M artir, M exico. Analizamos los espectros de las l neas de emisi on junto con datos del optico e IR disponibles. El espectro rico en FeII del objeto se asemeja fuertemente al del sistema binario peculiar Car. Se discuten las condiciones f sicas que dan lugar a tal espectro y la naturaleza de este peculiar objeto.

  4. Low-amplitude and long-period radial velocity variations in giants HD 3574, 63 Cygni, and HD 216946 (Research Note)

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, B -C; Park, M -G; Hatzes, A P; Kim, K -M


    Aims. We study the low-amplitude and long-period variations in evolved stars using precise radial velocity measurements. Methods. The high-resolution, fiber-fed Bohyunsan Observatory Echelle Spectrograph (BOES) was used from September 2004 to May 2014 as part of the exoplanet search program at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO). Results. We report the detection of low-amplitude and long-period orbital radial velocity variations in three evolved stars, HD 3574, 63 Cyg, and HD 216946. They have periods of 1061, 982, and 1382 days and semi-amplitudes of 376, 742, and 699 m/s, respectively.

  5. Atlas of Vega: 3850 -- 6860 \\AA

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyun-Sook; Valyavin, G; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Shimansky, V; Galazutdinov, G A


    We present a high resolving power ($\\lambda$ / $\\Delta\\lambda$ = 90,000) and high signal-to-noise ratio ($\\sim$700) spectral atlas of Vega covering the 3850 -- 6860 \\AA wavelength range. The atlas is a result of averaging of spectra recorded with the aid of the echelle spectrograph BOES fed by the 1.8-m telescope at Bohyunsan observatory (Korea). The atlas is provided only in machine-readable form (electronic data file) and will be available in the SIMBAD database upon publication.

  6. SALT Spectroscopy of Evolved Massive Stars (United States)

    Kniazev, A. Y.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Berdnikov, L. N.


    Long-slit spectroscopy with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) of central stars of mid-infrared nebulae detected with the Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) led to the discovery of numerous candidate luminous blue variables (cLBVs) and other rare evolved massive stars. With the recent advent of the SALT fiber-fed high-resolution echelle spectrograph (HRS), a new perspective for the study of these interesting objects is appeared. Using the HRS we obtained spectra of a dozen newly identified massive stars. Some results on the recently identified cLBV Hen 3-729 are presented.

  7. Spectroscopic Observations of \\delta Sco Through the 2011 Periastron Passage

    CERN Document Server

    Rivinius, Th; Baade, D; Carciofi, A C; Otero, S; Miroshnichenko, A S; Manset, N


    We present prelimiary results from a coordinated spectroscopic campaign in 2011, centered on the \\delta Sco periastron passage in July. Data have mostly been obtained with the FEROS/2.2 m at La Silla and ESPaDOnS/CFHT at Mauna Kea echelle instruments. Main results include the absence of tidally induced disturbance to the main \\beta Cephei pulsation mode and the absence of tidally triggered mass-ejection at time of periastron proper. The observed (as far as yet analyzed) variations are compatible with the picture of a disk that is disturbed on its outer radius, with the disturbance propagating inwards after the periastron.

  8. Spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas: Setting up of high-performance laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Unnikrishnan; Kamlesh Alti; Rajesh Nayak; Rodney Bernard; V B Kartha; C Santhosh; G P Gupta; B M Suri


    It is a well-known fact that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has emerged as one of the best analytical techniques for multi-elemental compositional analysis of samples. We report assembling and optimization of LIBS set up using high resolution and broad-range echelle spectrograph coupled to an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) to detect and quantify trace elements in environmental and clinical samples. Effects of variations of experimental parameters on spectroscopy signals of copper and brass are reported. Preliminary results of some plasma diagnostic calculations using recorded time-resolved optical emission signals are also reported for brass samples.

  9. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at high temperatures in industrial boilers and furnaces. (United States)

    Blevins, Linda G; Shaddix, Christopher R; Sickafoose, Shane M; Walsh, Peter M


    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied (1) near the superheater of an electric power generation boiler burning biomass, coal, or both; (2) at the exit of a glass-melting furnace burning natural gas and oxygen; and (3) near the nose arches of two paper mill recovery boilers burning black liquor. Difficulties associated with the high temperatures and high particle loadings in these environments were surmounted by use of novel LIBS probes. Echelle and linear spectrometers coupled to intensified CCD cameras were used individually and sometimes simultaneously. Elements detected include Na, K, Ca, Mg, C, B, Si, Mn, Al, Fe, Rb, Cl, and Ti.

  10. SALT spectroscopy of evolved massive stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kniazev, A Y; Berdnikov, L N


    Long-slit spectroscopy with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) of central stars of mid-infrared nebulae detected with the Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) led to the discovery of numerous candidate luminous blue variables (cLBVs) and other rare evolved massive stars. With the recent advent of the SALT fibre-fed high-resolution echelle spectrograph (HRS), a new perspective for the study of these interesting objects is appeared. Using the HRS we obtained spectra of a dozen newly identified massive stars. Some results on the recently identified cLBV Hen 3-729 are presented.

  11. Haro15: Is it actually a low metallicity galaxy?

    CERN Document Server

    Firpo, V; Hagele, G; Díaz, A I; Morrell, N


    We present a detailed study of the physical properties of the nebular material in multiple knots of the blue compact dwarf galaxy Haro 15. Using long slit and echelle spectroscopy, obtained at Las Campanas Observatory, we study the physical conditions (electron density and temperature), ionic and total chemical abundances of several atoms, reddening and ionization structure. The latter was derived by comparing the oxygen and sulphur ionic ratios to their corresponding observed emission line ratios (the eta and eta' plots) in different regions of the galaxy. Applying direct and empirical methods for abundance determination, we perform a comparative analysis between these regions.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Reflectance spectra of 12 Trojans and Hildas (Marsset+, 2014) (United States)

    Marsset, M.; Vernazza, P.; Gourgeot, F.; Dumas, C.; Birlan, M.; Lamy, P.; Binzel, R. P.


    We present 17 reflectance spectra of 12 high albedo (pv>0.14) Trojans (8 objects) and Hildas (4 objects) obtained with the ESO/VLT Echelle spectrograph X-SHOOTER in the 0.3-2.2um spectral range (14 spectra) and with the NASA/IRTF spectrograph SpeX in the 0.8-2.5um spectral range (3 spectra). X-SHOOTER spectra were normalized to unity at 0.55um and SpeX spectra were normalized to unity at 2.2um . The spectra presented in this work were collected between April and December 2013. (18 data files).

  13. Mathematical model of orbital and ground-based cross-dispersion spectrographs (United States)

    Yushkin, M. V.; Fatkhullin, T. A.; Panchuk, V. E.


    We present the technique and algorithm of numerical modeling of high-resolution spectroscopic equipment. The software is implemented in C++ using nVidia CUDA technology. We report the results of currently developedmodeling of new-generation echelle spectrographs. To validate the algorithms used to construct the mathematical model, we present the results of modeling of NES spectrograph of the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. A comparison of simulated and real images of the spectra acquired with NES spectrograph demonstrates good agreement between the model constructed and experimental data.

  14. The calculation of electromagnetic fields in the Fresnel and Fraunhofer regions using numerical integration methods (United States)

    Schmidt, R. F.


    Some results obtained with a digital computer program written at Goddard Space Flight Center to obtain electromagnetic fields scattered by perfectly reflecting surfaces are presented. For purposes of illustration a paraboloidal reflector was illuminated at radio frequencies in the simulation for both receiving and transmitting modes of operation. Fields were computed in the Fresnel and Fraunhofer regions. A dual-reflector system (Cassegrain) was also simulated for the transmitting case, and fields were computed in the Fraunhofer region. Appended results include derivations which show that the vector Kirchhoff-Kottler formulation has an equivalent form requiring only incident magnetic fields as a driving function. Satisfaction of the radiation conditions at infinity by the equivalent form is demonstrated by a conversion from Cartesian to spherical vector operators. A subsequent development presents the formulation by which Fresnel or Fraunhofer patterns are obtainable for dual-reflector systems. A discussion of the time-average Poynting vector is also appended.

  15. Automated Alignment and On-Sky Performance of the Gemini Planet Imager Coronagraph

    CERN Document Server

    Savransky, Dmitry; Poyneer, Lisa A; Dunn, Jennifer; Macintosh, Bruce A; Sadakuni, Naru; Dillon, Daren; Goodsell, Stephen J; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Rantakyrö, Fredrik; Cardwell, Andrew; Serio, Andrew


    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a next-generation, facility instrument currently being commissioned at the Gemini South observatory. GPI combines an extreme adaptive optics system and integral field spectrograph (IFS) with an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph (APLC) producing an unprecedented capability for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. GPI's operating goal of $10^{-7}$ contrast requires very precise alignments between the various elements of the coronagraph (two pupil masks and one focal plane mask) and active control of the beam path throughout the instrument. Here, we describe the techniques used to automatically align GPI and maintain the alignment throughout the course of science observations. We discuss the particular challenges of maintaining precision alignments on a Cassegrain mounted instrument and strategies that we have developed that allow GPI to achieve high contrast even in poor seeing conditions.

  16. Design and finite element analysis of lightmass silicon carbide primary mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yuan-yuan; ZHANG Yu-min; HAN Jie-cai; ZHANG Jian-han; YAO Wang; ZHOU Yu-feng


    Primary mirror is one of the key components in the space remote sensing system. To minimize the mass of the mirror without compromising its stiffness and decrease the deformation of the mirror surface at the different temperatures are the mainly two objects in the development of the primary mirror. Silicon carbide (SiC),the most promising optical material,was used as the material of the primary mirror with triangle lightmass structure in a Cassegrain system. By using finite element method,the properties of the SiC mirror were compared with that of the traditional Be mirror and fused silica mirror. The results of static,dynamic and thermo-mechanical analysis indicate that the deformation of the mirror surface caused by temperature field is much bigger than that caused by gravity field. The SiC mirror has the best overall properties,and the SiC material is much suitable for the primary mirror.

  17. The Zadko Telescope: Exploring the transient Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Coward, D M; Tanga, P; Turpin, D; Zadko, J; Dodson, R; Devogéle, M; Howell, E J; Kennewell, J A; Boër, M; Klotz, A; Dornic, D; Moore, J A; Heary, A


    The Zadko Telescope is a 1 m f/4 Cassegrain telescope, situated in the state of Western Australia about 80 km north of Perth. The facility plays a niche role in Australian astronomy, as it is the only meter class facility in Australia dedicated to automated follow-up imaging of alerts or triggers received from different external instruments/detectors spanning the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Furthermore the location of the facility at a longitude not covered by other meter class facilities provides an important resource for time critical projects. This paper reviews the status of the Zadko facility and science projects since it began robotic operations in March 2010. We report on major upgrades to the infrastructure and equipment (2012-2014) that has resulted in significantly improved robotic operations. Secondly, we review the core science projects, which include automated rapid follow-up of gamma ray burst (GRB) optical afterglows, imaging of neutrino counterpart candidates from the ANTARES neutrino obs...

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CCD UBV photometry of close visual doubles (Nakos+ 1997) (United States)

    Nakos, T.; Sinachopoulos, D.; van Dessel, E.


    We present V magnitudes, (B-V) and (U-B) colours of close visual double star components, and their differences as well as separations and position angles of 40 visual double stars. The common properties of the members of this sample are the small angular separation ρ, which is less than 7", and the common spectral type of the primaries, which are of G-type. The observations made with the Bessel U, B and V filters, while the astrometry was performed in the V filter only. For the observations, the CCD camera attached to the Cassegrain focus of the 90 cm Dutch telescope, at La Silla, Chile, had been used. From the analysis of the data we concluded that from the sample of the fourty double stars observed seven proved to be physical pairs, while the rest must have common origin components. (3 data files).

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: S5 0716+714 polarization & brightness 1991-2004 (Doroshenko+ 2017) (United States)

    Doroshenko, V. T.; Kiselev, N. N.


    The brightness and polarization measurements for S5 0716+714 were made with a double-beam five channel photometer-polarimeter designed and constructed by V. Piirola. The instrument is mounted at the Cassegrain focus (f/12.8) of the 125-cm CrAO telescope (AZT11). Apart from the AZT11 data, we used the observations of S5 0716+714 carried out by V.T. Doroshenko in 2000-2009 with the 60-cm telescope at the Southern Station of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute with a single-channel photon-counting photometer in a UBV system close to the Johnson standard system. (3 data files).

  20. Critical illumination condenser for x-ray lithography (United States)

    Cohen, S.J.; Seppala, L.G.


    A critical illumination condenser system is disclosed, particularly adapted for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography based on a ring field imaging system and a laser produced plasma source. The system uses three spherical mirrors and is capable of illuminating the extent of the mask plane by scanning either the primary mirror or the laser plasma source. The angles of radiation incident upon each mirror of the critical illumination condenser vary by less than eight (8) degrees. For example, the imaging system in which the critical illumination condenser is utilized has a 200 {micro}m source and requires a magnification of 26. The three spherical mirror system constitutes a two mirror inverse Cassegrain, or Schwarzschild configuration, with a 25% area obstruction (50% linear obstruction). The third mirror provides the final pupil and image relay. The mirrors include a multilayer reflective coating which is reflective over a narrow bandwidth. 6 figs.

  1. A New Method of Designing Circularly Symmetric Shaped Dual Reflector Antennas Using Distorted Conics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asif Zaman


    Full Text Available A new method of designing circularly symmetric shaped dual reflector antennas using distorted conics is presented. The surface of the shaped subreflector is expressed using a new set of equations employing differential geometry. The proposed equations require only a small number of parameters to accurately describe practical shaped subreflector surfaces. A geometrical optics (GO based method is used to synthesize the shaped main reflector surface corresponding to the shaped subreflector. Using the proposed method, a shaped Cassegrain dual reflector system is designed. The field scattered from the subreflector is calculated using uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD. Finally, a numerical example is provided showing how a shaped subreflector produces more uniform illumination over the main reflector aperture compared to an unshaped subreflector.

  2. The first spectra for the RX J0440.9+4431 from 2m Terskol telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew; Reshetnyk, V M


    We present the first results on the spectra of Be/X-ray binary RX J0440.9+4431 obtained with the 2m Ritchey-Cretein-Coude telescope with Cassegrain Multi Mode Spectrograph (CMMS) (with R = 14000) at Terskol observatory. The H-alpha line profile indicates that the new episode of the V/R variability is occuring in the system. The profiles of the H-alpha, H-beta and HeI 7065.71, 6678.15, 5875.97 lines were analyzed and equivalent width were determined. We compared our H-alpha line profile parameters with the previous results from the literature and estimated characteristic time scale for disc changes as about 14 years.

  3. Metrology Camera System of Prime Focus Spectrograph for Subaru Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shiang-Yu; Chang, Yin-Chang; Huang, Pin-Jie; Hu, Yen-Sang; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Tamura, Naoyuki; Takato, Naruhisa; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Gunn, James E; Karr, Jennifer; Yan, Chi-Hung; Mao, Peter; Ohyama, Youichi; Karoji, Hiroshi; Sugai, Hajime; Shimono, Atsushi


    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a new optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph designed for the prime focus of the 8.2m Subaru telescope. The metrology camera system of PFS serves as the optical encoder of the COBRA fiber motors for the configuring of fibers. The 380mm diameter aperture metrology camera will locate at the Cassegrain focus of Subaru telescope to cover the whole focal plane with one 50M pixel Canon CMOS sensor. The metrology camera is designed to provide the fiber position information within 5{\\mu}m error over the 45cm focal plane. The positions of all fibers can be obtained within 1s after the exposure is finished. This enables the overall fiber configuration to be less than 2 minutes.

  4. The Manchester occulting mask imager (MOMI) first results on the environment of P Cygni

    CERN Document Server

    O'Connor, J; Bryce, M


    The design and first use of the Manchester occulting mask imager (MOMI) is described. This device, when combined with the Cassegrain or Ritchey-Chretien foci of large telescopes, is dedicated to the imagery of faint line emission regions around bright central sources. Initial observations, with MOMI on the Nordic Optical telescope (NOT), of the V=4.8 mag P~Cygni environment, have revealed a $\\geq$~5~arcmin long [NII] 6584A emitting filament projecting from the outer nebular shell of this luminous blue variable (LBV) star. The presence of a mono-polar lobe older than both the inner (22 arcsec diameter) and outer (1.6 arcmin diameter) shells is suggested.

  5. International Year of Astronomy Events in a Small, Midwestern Community (United States)

    Brevik, C. E.


    Dickinson State University is a small, liberal arts college located in Southwestern North Dakota. With extremely dark skies and a safe, family-friendly nighttime environment, this rural location provides excellent opportunities for clear astronomical viewing. However, the university does not offer a physics or an astronomy major. Therefore, a concentrated effort was needed to develop a trained workforce of interested college students who could help manage public viewing sessions. Once oriented to the fundamentals of telescope viewing, this group of students offered numerous community-related activities to support the International Year of Astronomy. These efforts, designed to share the excitement of the universe with kids and adults alike, included a variety of events such as public presentations and star parties. The star parties were aided by the purchase of a 14” automated Cassegrain telescope funded by a grant from the North Dakota Space Grant Consortium.

  6. Millimeter-wave double-dipole antennas for high-gain integrated reflector illumination (United States)

    Filipovic, Daniel F.; Ali-Ahmad, Walid Y.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.


    A double-dipole antenna backed by a ground plane has been fabricated for submillimeter wavelengths. The double-dipole antenna is integrated on a thin dielectric membrane with a planar detector at its center. Measured feed patterns at 246 GHz agree well with theory and demonstrate a rotationally symmetric pattern with high coupling efficiency to Gaussian beams. The input impedance is around 50 ohms, and will match well to a Schottky diode or SIS detector. The double-dipole antenna served as the feed for a small machined parabolic reflector. The integrated reflector had a measured gain of 37 dB at 119 microns. This makes the double-dipole antenna ideally suited as a feed for high resolution tracking or for long focal length Cassegrain antenna systems.

  7. A new photoelectron imager for X-ray astronomical polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Monaca, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Costa, E; Soffitta, P.; Di Persio, G.; Manzan, M.; Martino, B.; Patria, G. [CNR, Rome (Italy). Ist. di Astrofisica Spaziale; Cappuccio, G. [CNR, Monterotondo (Italy). Ist. di Strutturistica Chimica]|[INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Zema, N. [CNR, Rome (Italy). Ist. di Struttura della Materia


    A new photoelectron imager for X-ray astronomical polarimetry (PIAP) has been developed and tested at the Frascati (Rome, Italy) National Laboratories of National Institute of Nuclear Physics (LNF-INFN). A charge-coupled device (CCD) is placed on one of the two conjugate foci of a Cassegrain reflective optics onto which are focused UV photons emitted by means of gas scintillation. This X-ray detector has been built to image the angular distribution of the photoelectron tracks, whose anisotropy measures the X-ray polarization. First tests, performed by using mixtures based on argon gas and benzene at low pressure, show events which are candidate tracks of photoelectrons and Auger electrons produced by a {sup 55}Fe source.

  8. Influence functions of a thin shallow meniscus-shaped mirror. (United States)

    Arnold, L


    Thin shallow spherical shell theory is used to derive the general influence function, owing to uniform and/or discrete (actuators) loads, for a thin shallow meniscus-shaped mirror of uniform thickness with a central hole and supported at discrete points. Small elastic deformations are considered. No symmetry on the load distribution constrains the model. Explicit analytical expressions of the set of equations are given for calculating the influence functions. Results agree with the finite element analysis (FEA) to within 1%. When the FEA requires megabytes of RAM memory, the analytical method needs only kilobytes and typically runs 30 times faster. This is a crucial advantage for the iterative optimization of mirror supports such as large passive or active meniscus-shaped primary mirror supports or Cassegrain/Gregorian adaptive secondary actuator configurations. References are given on estimating the shear effects (thick mirror), the thickness variation effect, and the influence of the size of the support pads.

  9. The Diffuse Interstellar Cloud Experiment: a high-resolution far-ultraviolet spectrograph. (United States)

    Schindhelm, Eric; Beasley, Matthew; Burgh, Eric B; Green, James C


    We have designed, assembled, and launched a sounding rocket payload to perform high-resolution far-ultraviolet spectroscopy. The instrument is functionally a Cassegrain telescope followed by a modified Rowland spectrograph. The spectrograph was designed to achieve a resolving power (R=λ/δλ) of 60,000 in a compact package by adding a magnifying secondary optic. This is enabled by using a holographically ruled grating to minimize aberrations induced by the second optic. We designed the instrument to observe two stars on opposing sides of a nearby hot/cold gas interface. Obtaining spectra of the O VI doublet in absorption toward these stars can provide new insight into the processes governing hot gas in the local interstellar medium. Here we present the optical design and alignment of the telescope and spectrograph, as well as flight results.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Circumnuclear star-forming regions (Alvarez-Alvarez+, 2015) (United States)

    Alvarez-Alvarez, M.; Diaz, A. I.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.


    In order to achieve our scientific goals, we have studied a diverse population of galaxies with reported circumnuclear rings of SFRs in the bibliography. The data were acquired during five observing runs. For the first two runs (from 1988 to 1990), we used a blue sensitive GEC CCD at the f/15 Cassegrain focus of the 1.0m. Jacobus Kaptein Telescope of the Isaac Newton Group at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain. The CCD had 578x385 pixels 22um wide. The last three observing runs were carried on from 1999 to 2000 at the Centro Astronomico Hispano Aleman de Calar Alto, Almeria, Spain. (3 data files).

  11. Das Kölner 3m-Radioteleskop: I. Die Empfänger (United States)

    Bester, M.; Hilberath, W.; Jacobs, K.; Vowinkel, B.; Winnewisser, G.

    Auf Grund der hohen Oberflächengenauigkeit des Hauptreflektors von 30 μm (rms) ist das Teleskop bis ca. 600 GHz (0.5 mm) einsetzbar. Die entsprechenden Empfänger sind im Sekundärfokus des Cassegrain-Systems untergebracht. Momentan steht ein Heterodynempfänger mit Schottky-Mischer für den Bereich 70 - 90 GHz zur Verfügung. Ein zweiter Empfänger mit SIS-Mischer für den Bereich 140 - 150 GHz ist zur Zeit im Aufbau. Weitere Empfänger für 230 GHz und für den Submm-Bereich sind in Planung.

  12. Airborne microwave radiometric imaging system (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Li, Futang; Zhang, Zuyin


    A dual channel Airborne Microwave Radiometric Imaging system (AMRI) was designed and constructed for regional environment mapping. The system operates at 35GHz, which collects radiation at horizontal and vertical polarized channels. It runs at mechanical conical scanning with 45 degrees incidence angle. Two Cassegrain antennas with 1.5 degrees beamwidth scan the scene alternately and two pseudo- color images of two channels are displayed on the screen of PC in real time. Simultaneously, all parameters of flight and radiometric data are sorted in hard disk for post- processing. The sensitivity of the radiometer (Delta) T equals 0.16K. A new displaying method, unequal size element arc displaying method, is used in image displaying. Several experiments on mobile tower were carried out and the images demonstrate that the AMRI is available to work steadily and accurately.

  13. An Easily Designed and Constructed Optical Polarimeter for Small Telescopes (United States)

    Topasna, G. A.; Topasna, D. M.; Popko, G. B.


    We have designed, constructed, and tested an optical polarimeter for use with the Virginia Military Institute (VMI) 0.5 m, f/13.5 Cassegrain telescope. Our instrument is based on the common dual-beam design that utilizes a rotatable half-wave plate and Wollaston prism to image starlight onto a CCD detector after it has passed through a broadband filter. The usable field of view is lsim10'' and the operational range of the instrument is 400-700 nm. Measurements of unpolarized stars demonstrate that the instrumental polarization is lsim0.05%. Observations of seven standard stars were in agreement with their accepted values by an order of Δp(%) lsim 0.23 for the degree of polarization and Δθ(°) lsim 0.94 for the position angle.

  14. A New Archive of UKIRT Legacy Data at CADC (United States)

    Bell, G. S.; Currie, M. J.; Redman, R. O.; Purves, M.; Jenness, T.


    We describe a new archive of legacy data from the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC) containing all available data from the Cassegrain instruments. The desire was to archive the raw data in as close to the original format as possible, so where the data followed our current convention of having a single data file per observation, it was archived without alteration, except for minor fixes to headers of data in FITS format to allow it to pass fitsverify and be accepted by CADC. Some of the older data comprised multiple integrations in separate files per observation, stored in either Starlink NDF or Figaro DST format. These were placed inside HDS container files, and DST files were rearranged into NDF format. The describing the observations is ingested into the CAOM-2 repository via an intermediate MongoDB header database, which will also be used to guide the ORAC-DR pipeline in generating reduced data products.

  15. Adaptive optics at Lick Observatory: system architecture and operations (United States)

    Brase, James M.; An, Jong; Avicola, Kenneth; Bissinger, Horst D.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Gavel, Donald T.; Johnston, Brooks; Max, Claire E.; Olivier, Scot S.; Presta, Robert W.; Rapp, David A.; Salmon, J. Thaddeus; Waltjen, Kenneth E.; Fisher, William A.


    We will describe an adaptive optics system developed for the 1 meter Nickel and 3 meter Shane telescopes at Lick Observatory. Observing wavelengths will be in the visible for the 1 meter telescope and in the near IR on the 3 meter. The adaptive optics system design is based on a 69 actuator continuous surface deformable mirror and a Hartmann wavefront sensor equipped with an intensified CCD framing camera. The system has been tested at the Cassegrain focus of the 1 meter telescope where the subaperture size is 12.5 cm. The wavefront control calculations are performed on a four processor single board computer controlled by a Unix-based system. We will describe the optical system and give details of the wavefront control system design. We will present predictions of the system performance and initial test results.

  16. Security scanning at 94GHz (United States)

    Anderton, Rupert N.; Appleby, Roger; Beale, John E.; Coward, Peter R.; Price, Sean


    It is well known that millimetre waves can pass through clothing. In short range applications such as in the scanning of people for security purposes, operating at W band can be an advantage. The size of the equipment is decreased when compared to operation at Ka band and the equipments have similar performance. In this paper a W band mechanically scanned imager designed for imaging weapons and contraband hidden under clothing is discussed. This imager is based on a modified folded conical scan technology previously reported. In this design an additional optical element is added to give a Cassegrain configuration in image space. This increases the effective focal length and enables improved sampling of the image and provides more space for the receivers. This imager is constructed from low cost materials such as polystyrene, polythene and printed circuit board materials. The trade off between image spatial resolution and thermal sensitivity is discussed.

  17. The High-Resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Galarce, D S; Boerner, P; Soufli, R; De Pontieu, B; Katz, N; Title, A; Gullikson, E M; Robinson, J C; Baker, S L


    The High-resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE) is a Cassegrain telescope that will be made entirely of Silicon Carbide (SiC), optical substrates and metering structure alike. Using multilayer coatings, this instrument will be tuned to operate at the 465 {angstrom} Ne VII emission line, formed in solar transition region plasma at {approx}500,000 K. HiLiTE will have an aperture of 30 cm, angular resolution of {approx}0.2 arc seconds and operate at a cadence of {approx}5 seconds or less, having a mass that is about 1/4 that of one of the 20 cm aperture telescopes on the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument aboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This new instrument technology thus serves as a path finder to a post-AIA, Explorer-class missions.

  18. Sodium temperature/wind lidar based on laser-diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers deployed at Tromsø, Norway (69.6°N, 19.2°E). (United States)

    Kawahara, T D; Nozawa, S; Saito, N; Kawabata, T; Tsuda, T T; Wada, S


    An Nd:YAG laser-based sodium temperature/wind lidar was developed for the measurement of the northern polar mesosphere and lower thermosphere at Tromsø (69.6N, 19.2E), Norway. Coherent light at 589 nm is produced by sum frequency generation of 1064 nm and 1319 nm from two diode laser end-pumped pulsed Nd:YAG lasers. The output power is as high as 4W, with 4 mJ/pulse at 1000 Hz repetition rate. Five tilting Cassegrain telescopes enable us to make five-direction (zenith, north, south, east, west) observation for temperature and wind simultaneously. This highly stable laser system is first of its kind to operate virtually maintenance-free during the observation season (from late September to March) since 2010.

  19. Solar coronal observations at high frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Katsiyannis, A C; Phillips, K J H; Williams, D R; Keenan, F P


    The Solar Eclipse Coronal Imaging System (SECIS) is a simple and extremely fast, high-resolution imaging instrument designed for studies of the solar corona. Light from the corona (during, for example, a total solar eclipse) is reflected off a heliostat and passes via a Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope and beam splitter to two CCD cameras capable of imaging at 60 frames a second. The cameras are attached via SCSI connections to a purpose-built PC that acts as the data acquisition and storage system. Each optical channel has a different filter allowing observations of the same events in both white light and in the green line (Fe XIV at 5303 A). Wavelet analysis of the stabilized images has revealed high frequency oscillations which may make a significant contribution on the coronal heating process. In this presentation we give an outline of the instrument and its future development.

  20. Broadband feed designs of C-band for e-MERLIN (United States)

    Su, Yan; Roddis, Neil; Nan, Rendong D.; Peng, Bo; Zhou, Jianfeng


    As part of a major enhancement, designated e-MERLIN, to its MERLIN array of radio telescopes there is a need for new feed designs to cover 4GHz to 8GHz band, for large paraboloid dishes (up to 76 m etres diameter) operating in both prime-focus and cassegrain configurations. The requirement, in each case, for good return loss and constant beam width across an octave band, presents a set of difficult challenges. The feed designs for e-MERLIN are introduced here. The prototypes of the prime-focus feeds and the e-system corrugated horn feed have been designed, manufactured and tested, both in the laboratory and on the respective telescope. The complete corrugated horn for the Cambridge telescope will shortly be manufactured and measured.

  1. Digitalización de espectros fotográficos de standards MK (United States)

    Corti, M.; Morrell, N.

    Se digitalizaron 70 espectros fotográficos de estrellas standards de clasificación MK con tipos espectrales comprendidos entre O3 y A2 y diferentes clases de luminosidad. Las observaciones utilizadas consisten en espectrogramas cuya dispersión recíproca es de 43 Å~mm-1, obtenidos con el telescopio de 1m de Cerro Tololo y su espectrógrafo Cassegrain, durante los años 1982 a 1985. Los trazados digitales se obtuvieron con el instrumento Grant de la Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas de La Plata y posteriormente fueron calibrados en longitud de onda y rectificados utilizando rutinas comprendidas dentro del paquete de procesamiento de imágenes IRAF. El material resultante puede utilizarse como ayuda para la clasificación de espectros obtenidos con similar configuración instrumental.

  2. Enabling Remote and Automated Operations at The Red Buttes Observatory (United States)

    Ellis, Tyler G.; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kasper, David; Yeigh, Rex R.


    The Red Buttes Observatory (RBO) is a 60 centimeter Cassegrain telescope located ten miles south of Laramie, Wyoming. The size and proximity of the telescope comfortably make the site ideal for remote and automated observations. This task required development of confidence in control systems for the dome, telescope, and camera. Python and WinSCP script routines were created for the management of science images and weather. These scripts control the observatory via the ASCOM standard libraries and allow autonomous operation after initiation.The automation tasks were completed primarily to rejuvenate an aging and underutilized observatory with hopes to contribute to an international exoplanet hunting team with other interests in potentially hazardous asteroid detection. RBO is owned and operated solely by the University of Wyoming. The updates and proprietor status have encouraged the development of an undergraduate astronomical methods course including hands-on experience with a research telescope, a rarity in bachelor programs for astrophysics.

  3. KOALA, a wide-field 1000 element integral-field unit for the Anglo-Australian Telescope: assembly and commissioning (United States)

    Zhelem, Ross; Brzeski, Jurek; Case, Scott; Churilov, Vladimir; Ellis, Simon; Farrell, Tony; Green, Andrew; Heng, Anthony; Horton, Anthony; Ireland, Michael; Jones, Damien; Klauser, Urs; Lawrence, Jon; Miziarski, Stan; Orr, David; Pai, Naveen; Staszak, Nick; Tims, Julia; Vuong, Minh; Waller, Lew; Xavier, Pascal


    The KOALA optical fibre feed for the AAOmega spectrograph has been commissioned at the Anglo-Australian Telescope. The instrument samples the reimaged telescope focal plane at two scales: 1.23 arcsec and 0.70 arcsec per image slicing hexagonal lenslet over a 49x27 and 28x15 arcsec field of view respectively. The integral field unit consists of 2D hexagonal and circular lenslet arrays coupling light into 1000 fibres with 100 micron core diameter. The fibre run is over 35m long connecting the telescope Cassegrain focus with the bench mounted spectrograph room where all fibres are reformatted into a one-dimensional slit. Design and assembly of the KOALA components, engineering challenges encountered, and commissioning results are discussed.

  4. Design, performance prediction, and measurements of the interface region imaging spectrograph (IRIS) telescope (United States)

    Podgorski, William A.; Cheimets, Peter N.; Golub, Leon; Lemen, James R.; Title, Alan M.


    This paper discusses the design of the IRIS Small Explorer (SMEX) Cassegrain telescope, as well as its intended and measured performance. Lockheed Martin, along with SAO, Montana State University, and Stanford University are developing the IRIS instrument for a mission to examine the solar spectra in two bands, one centered on 1369 Å, and the other centered on 2810 Å. SAO led the design and construction of the telescope feed, with assistance from Lockheed and Montana State University. The telescope posed a number of implementation challenges, which are discussed here, including the fact that no effective filters exist to isolate the science spectra to the exclusion of the rest of the solar flux, making it necessary to allow full sunlight into the telescope.

  5. The 6.5-m MMT Telescope: status and plans for the future (United States)

    Williams, G. Grant; Ortiz, R.; Goble, W.; Gibson, J. D.


    The MMT Observatory, a joint venture of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona, operates the 6.5-m MMT telescope on the summit of Mount Hopkins approximately 45 miles south of Tucson, AZ. The upgraded telescope has been in routine operation for nearly fifteen years and, as such, is a very reliable and productive general purpose astronomical instrument. The telescope can be configured with one of three secondary mirrors that feed more than ten instruments at the Cassegrain focus. In this paper we provide an overview of the the telescope, its current capabilities, and its performance. We will review the existing suite of instruments and their different modes of operation. We will describe some of the general operations challenges and strategies for the Observatory. Finally, we will discuss plans for the near-term future including technical upgrades, new instrumentation and routine queue operation of MMIRS and Binospec.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WOCS. LXXII. A uvbyCaHb study of NGC 2506 (Anthony-Twarog+, 2016) (United States)

    Anthony-Twarog, B. J.; Deliyannis, C. P.; Twarog, B. A.


    NGC2506 was observed using the 1.0m telescope operated by the SMARTS consortium at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) over the UT dates 2011 December 16-22. The telescope was equipped with an STA 4000*4000 CCD camera yielding a field of view of 20' on a side at the Cassegrain focus of the 1.0m telescope. Filters owned by the University of Kansas were used to obtain images in each of the extended Stromgren system bandpasses (uvbyCa and the two Hβ bandpasses). With the exception of 2011 December 20/21, all of the nights were photometric. Table2 describes calibrated photometry for 2229 stars. (1 data file).

  7. An analysis of the moon's surface using reflected illumination from the earth during a waning crescent lunar phase (United States)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Linton-Petza, Maggie


    There have been many articles written concerning the lunar after-glow, the spectacular reflection from the moon's surface, and the possible observation of luminescence on the dark side of the moon. The researcher, using a 600 mm cassegrain telescope lense and Kodak 400 ASA T-Max film, photographed the crescent moon whose dark side was clearly visible by the reflected light from earth. The film was digitized to a Perkin-Elmer 1010M microdensitometer for enhancement and enlargement. The resulting pictures indicate a completely different land pattern formation than observed during a full moon. An attempt is made to analyze the observed structures and to compare them to the pictures observed during the normal full moon. There are boundaries on the digitized dark section of the moon that can be identified with structures seen during the normal full moon. But, these variations do change considerably under enhancement.

  8. The U.C. Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory and Department of Physics Submillimeter Receiver (United States)

    Harris, A. I.; Jaffe, D. T.; Genzel, R.


    The UCB submm heterodyne receiver is a complete system for high-resolution astronomical spectroscopy in the 350-micron and 450-micron atmospheric windows. This compact system mounts directly at the Cassegrain focus of large optical and IR telescopes. It consists of a laser local oscillator, open structure mixer, quasi-optical coupling system, a broad-band IF system, and an acoustooptical spectrometer. The local oscillator is a 1-m-long submm laser optically pumped by a CO2 laser. The mixer is a quasi-optical corner-cube antenna structure and Schottky diode. The mixer is currently operated at room temperature, and its performance at 77 K is being evaluated. The system noise temperature is less than 7000 K SSB during observations.

  9. A portable Ka-band front-end test package for beam-waveguide antenna performance evaluation. Part 1: Design and ground tests (United States)

    Otoshi, T. Y.; Stewart, S. R.; Franco, M. M.


    A unique experimental method was used to test the beam waveguide (BWG) antenna at Deep Space Station (DDS) 13 in the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex near Barstow, California. The methodology involved the use of portable test packages to make measurements of operating noise temperatures and antenna efficiencies (as functions of antenna pointing angles) at the Cassegrain focal point and the final focal point located in a subterranean pedestal room. Degradations caused by the BWG mirror systems were determined by making comparisons of the measured parameters at the two focal points of the antenna. Previous articles were concerned with the design, performance characteristics, and test results obtained with an X-band test package operating at 32 GHz. Noise temperature measurement results are presented for the Ka-band test package in an on-the-ground test configuration.

  10. Design and performance analysis of the DSS-13 beam waveguide antenna (United States)

    Veruttipong, T.; Imbriale, W.; Bathker, D.


    A new 34 m research and development antenna is currently being constructed prior to introducing beam waveguide (BWG) antennas and Ka-band (32 GHz) frequencies into the NASA/JPL Deep Space Network. The new 34 m antenna, fed with either a center or bypass BWG, will lose less than 0.2 dB (excluding surface root mean square and mirror misalignment losses), as compared with a standard-fed Cassegrain antenna a X- (8.4 GHz) and Ka-bands. The antenna is currently under construction and is scheduled to be completed July 1990. Phase 1 of the project is for independent X- and Ka-band receive-only tests. Phase 2 of the project is for simultaneous S- (2.3 GHz) and X-band or X- and Ka-band operation, and the design is currently under way.

  11. The MANIFEST fibre positioning system for the Giant Magellan Telescope (United States)

    Lawrence, Jon S.; Brown, David M.; Brzeski, Jurek; Case, Scott; Colless, Matthew; Farrell, Tony; Gers, Luke; Gilbert, James; Goodwin, Michael; Jacoby, George; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Ireland, Michael; Kuehn, Kyler; Lorente, Nuria P. F.; Miziarski, Stan; Muller, Rolf; Nichani, Vijay; Rakman, Azizi; Richards, Samuel; Saunders, Will; Staszak, Nick F.; Tims, Julia; Vuong, Minh; Waller, Lew


    MANIFEST is a fibre feed system for the Giant Magellan Telescope that, coupled to the seeing-limited instruments GMACS and G-CLEF, offers qualitative and quantitative gains over each instrument's native capabilities in terms of multiplex, field of view, and resolution. The MANIFEST instrument concept is based on a system of semi-autonomous probes called "Starbugs" that hold and position hundreds of optical fibre IFUs under a glass field plate placed at the GMT Cassegrain focal plane. The Starbug probes feature co-axial piezoceramic tubes that, via the application of appropriate AC waveforms, contract or bend, providing a discrete stepping motion. Simultaneous positioning of all Starbugs is achieved via a closed-loop metrology system.

  12. The FORS1 catalogue of stellar magnetic field measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnulo, S; Landstreet, J D; Izzo, C


    The FORS1 instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope was used to obtain low-resolution circular polarised spectra of nearly a thousand different stars, with the aim of measuring their mean longitudinal magnetic fields. A catalogue of FORS1 magnetic measurements would provide a valuable resource with which to better understand the strengths and limitations of this instrument and of similar low-dispersion, Cassegrain spectropolarimeters. However, FORS1 data reduction has been carried out by a number of different groups using a variety of reduction and analysis techniques. Our understanding of the instrument and our data reduction techniques have both improved over time. A full re-analysis of FORS1 archive data using a consistent and fully documented algorithm would optimise the accuracy and usefulness of a catalogue of field measurements. Based on the ESO FORS pipeline, we have developed a semi-automatic procedure for magnetic field determinations, which includes self-consistent checks for field detection relia...

  13. CARMENES: A New Visible/Near-IR Radial-Velocity Spectrograph (United States)

    Quirrenbach, Andreas; Carmenes Consortium


    CARMENES is a next-generation radial-velocity instrument that has been constructed for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. It consists of two separate échelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. CARMENES saw "First Light" on Nov 9, 2015. We report on results from the commissioning and the first months of operation, and discuss the plans for the large M dwarf survey that is the core science program of CARMENES. With a bit of luck, CARMENES may find a few planets that are very well suited for characterization by JWST. In the longer run, CARMENES will be an excellent instrument for radial-velocity follow-up of transit survey missions such as TESS and PLATO.

  14. The ACTS multibeam antenna (United States)

    Regier, Frank A.


    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be launched in 1993 is briefly introduced. Its multibeam antenna, consisting of electrically similar 30 GHz receive and 20 GHz transmit offset Cassegrain systems, both utilizing orthogonal polarizations, is described. Dual polarization is achieved by using one feed assembly for each polarization in conjunction with nested front and back subreflectors, the gridded front subreflector acting as a window for one polarization and a reflector for the other. The antennas produce spot beams with approximately 0.3 degree beamwidth and gains of approximately 50 dbi. High surface accuracy and high edge taper produce low sidelobe levels and high cross-polarization isolation. A brief description is given of several Ka-band components fabricated for ACTS. These include multiflare antenna feedhorns, beam-forming networks utilizing latching ferrite waveguide switches, a 30 GHz HEMT low-noise amplifier and a 20 GHz TWT power amplifier.

  15. The ACTS multibeam antenna (United States)

    Regier, Frank A.


    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be launched in 1993 is briefly introduced. Its multibeam antenna, consisting of electrically similar 30 GHz receive and 20 GHz transmit offset Cassegrain systems, both utilizing orthogonal polarizations, is described. Dual polarization is achieved by using one feed assembly for each polarization in conjunction with nested front and back subreflectors, the gridded front subreflector acting as a window for one polarization and a reflector for the other. The antennas produce spot beams with approximately 0.3 degree beamwidth and gains of approximately 50 dbi. High surface accuracy and high edge taper produce low sidelobe levels and high cross-polarization isolation. A brief description is given of several Ka-band components fabricated for ACTS. These include multiflare antenna feedhorns, beam-forming networks utilizing latching ferrite waveguide switches, a 30 GHz HEMT low-noise amplifier and a 20 GHz TWT power amplifier.

  16. A Doppler lidar with CO2-laser intracavity detection (United States)

    Godlevskii, A. P.; Gordov, E. P.; Zhiliba, A. I.; Sharin, P. P.

    A version of a high-sensitive Doppler lidar, based on intracavity coherent laser detection is described. The device consists of a CO2 laser, transmitting-receiving optical system, and signal-processing unit. Laser-intensity stabilization is achieved by decreasing the mechanical disturbance of the laser resonator, and the optical tract is formed by a Cassegrain telescope. A portion of the laser beam reflected back by a Breuster window of the gas discharge tube is focused by a spherical mirror onto a photodetector. Results of laboratory and real-atmosphere experiments are reported, and it is shown that vibrations of a retroreflector with an amplitude of 50 micron are detected at distances up to 500 m.

  17. NASA ACTS Multibeam Antenna (MBA) System. [Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (United States)

    Choung, Youn H.; Stiles, W. Herschel; Wu, Joseph; Wong, William C.; Chen, C. Harry


    The design of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite MBA system, which provides both spot beam and scanning beam coverage to both high and low burst rates data-users is examined. The MBA consists of receive and transmit antennas installed on a common precision mounting platform that is integrated to the bus through three flexures; a lightweight system with low thermal distortion is obtained by using composite materials for the MBA structures. The RF design, which is a Cassegrain reflector with a large equivalent focal length/aperture size, is described. Consideration is given to the position of the feed in order to minimize scan loss and sidelobe levels, the size of the subreflector in order to minimize feed spillover, and antenna performance degradation caused by reflector surface distortion. Breadbroad model test result reveal that the maximum sidelobe level outside the 2.5 HPBW region is -30 dB or lower relative to the power.

  18. Report on the QUaD Experiment (United States)

    Hinderks, James


    The QUaD (QUEST at DASI) experiment is a millimeter-wave polarimeter designed to probe the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization over a multipole range of 100 to 2500. QUaD observes the CMB with an array of 31 polarization-sensitive bolometers split between two frequency bands centered at 100 and 150 GHz. The telescope is a 2.6 m on-axis Cassegrain design with beam sizes of 6.3' and 4.2' at the two respective observing frequencies. QUaD was commissioned at the South Pole in the Austral summer of 2004/2005. It has since completed two full seasons of observations with a third season underway. I will report on the status of QUaD observations and analysis. QUaD is a collaboration between institutions in the US, the UK and Ireland and is funded by the NSF, PPARC and Enterprise Ireland.

  19. Prime focus architectures for large space telescopes: reduce surfaces to save cost (United States)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Lillie, C. F.


    Conceptual architectures are now being developed to identify future directions for post JWST large space telescope systems to operate in the UV Optical and near IR regions of the spectrum. Here we show that the cost of optical surfaces within large aperture telescope/instrument systems can exceed $100M/reflection when expressed in terms of the aperture increase needed to over come internal absorption loss. We recommend a program in innovative optical design to minimize the number of surfaces by considering multiple functions for mirrors. An example is given using the Rowland circle imaging spectrometer systems for UV space science. With few exceptions, current space telescope architectures are based on systems optimized for ground-based astronomy. Both HST and JWST are classical "Cassegrain" telescopes derived from the ground-based tradition to co-locate the massive primary mirror and the instruments at the same end of the metrology structure. This requirement derives from the dual need to minimize observatory dome size and cost in the presence of the Earth's 1-g gravitational field. Space telescopes, however function in the zero gravity of space and the 1- g constraint is relieved to the advantage of astronomers. Here we suggest that a prime focus large aperture telescope system in space may have potentially have higher transmittance, better pointing, improved thermal and structural control, less internal polarization and broader wavelength coverage than Cassegrain telescopes. An example is given showing how UV astronomy telescopes use single optical elements for multiple functions and therefore have a minimum number of reflections.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BVRI photometry of S5 0716+714 (Liao+, 2014) (United States)

    Liao, N. H.; Bai, J. M.; Liu, H. T.; Weng, S. S.; Chen, L.; Li, F.


    The variability of S5 0716+714 was photometrically monitored in the optical bands at Yunnan Observatories, making use of the 2.4m telescope ( and the 1.02m telescope ( The 2.4m telescope, which began working in 2008 May, is located at the Lijiang Observatory of Yunnan Observatories, where the longitude is 100°01'51''E and the latitude is 26°42'32''N, with an altitude of 3193m. There are two photometric terminals. The PI VersArry 1300B CCD camera with 1340*1300 pixels covers a field of view 4'48''*4'40'' at the Cassegrain focus. The readout noise and gain are 6.05 electrons and 1.1 electrons ADU-1, respectively. The Yunnan Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera (YFOSC) has a field of view of about 10'*10' and 2000*2000 pixels for photometric observation. Each pixel corresponds to 0.283'' of the sky. The readout noise and gain of the YFOSC CCD are 7.5 electrons and 0.33 electrons ADU-1, respectively. The 1.02m telescope is located at the headquarters of Yunnan Observatories and is mainly used for photometry with standard Johnson UBV and Cousins RI filters. An Andor CCD camera with 2048*2048 pixels has been installed at its Cassegrain focus since 2008 May. The readout noise and gain are 7.8 electrons and 1.1 electrons ADU-1, respectively. (1 data file).

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry and spectroscopy of LS V+44 17 (Yan+, 2016) (United States)

    Yan, J.; Zhang, P.; Liu, W.; Liu, Q.


    Most of our spectra of RX J0440.9+4431 were obtained with the 2.16m telescope at Xinglong Station of National Astronomical Observatories. The optical spectroscopy with an intermediate resolution was made with a CCD grating spectrograph at the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. We took the red spectra covering from 5500 to 6700Å. Sometimes low-resolution spectra (covering from 4300 to 6700Å) were also obtained. In 2012 March and 2013 November, we also carried out the spectroscopic observations with the Yunnan Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera (YFOSC) instrument of the Lijiang 2.4m telescope in the Yunnan Astronomical Observatory. The Grism #8 was used with a resolution of 1.47Å/pixel, with a spectral range from 5050 to 9750Å. The journal of our observations is summarized in Table1. Since 2007, we performed systematic photometric observations on a sample of X-ray binaries with the 100cm Education and Science Telescope (EST) and the 80cm Tsinghua-NAOC Telescope (TNT) at Xinglong Station of NAOC. The EST, manufactured by EOS Technologies, is an altazimuth-mounted reflector with Nasmyth foci at a focal ratio of f/8. TNT is an equatorial-mounted Cassegrain system with a focal of f/10, made by AstroOptik, funded by Tsinghua University in 2002 and jointly operated with NAOC. Both telescopes are equipped with the same type of Princeton Instrument 1340*1300 thin back-illuminated CCD. The CCD cameras use standard Johnson-Cousins UBVRI filters made by Custom Scientific. The BVRI differential magnitudes and their errors are listed in Table2. (2 data files).

  2. Optimization Design of Long Focal Distance and Large Aperture Infrared Optical System%长焦距大口径红外光学系统的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付学志; 王日胜; 胡兵; 李岩


    针对某长焦距大口径光电设备的特殊要求,基于卡塞格林光学折反系统达到了较好的红外成像质量和紧凑的结构尺寸。首先通过计算对红外光学系统进行了初步焦距分配;然后对卡塞格林反射组件和红外组件进行了分段优化设计,特别是为克服温度变化对焦距和像质的影响,在后组设计三片透镜作为调焦组,保证了成像质量;最后,为了消除杂光的影响,分别对轴上、轴外光线进行追迹并设计了主、次镜遮光罩。设计结果分析表明主要指标均满足设计要求。%According to the special requirements of a large aperture and long focal length optical equipment, better quality of infrared imaging and compact structure was achieved based on Cassegrain optical catadioptric system. Firstly, focal length assignment was calculated. Then, Cassegrain reflect component and infrared component was optimized respectively. Specially, in order to overcome the impact of temperature’s change on focal length and image quality, designed three lenses as focus group. Lastly, the main and subordinate lens’s hoods were designed to eliminate the influence of stray light. The design results show that the main indexes meet the design requirements.

  3. Analysis of a generalized dual reflector antenna system using physical optics (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Lagin, Alan R.


    Reflector antennas are widely used in communication satellite systems because they provide high gain at low cost. Offset-fed single paraboloids and dual reflector offset Cassegrain and Gregorian antennas with multiple focal region feeds provide a simple, blockage-free means of forming multiple, shaped, and isolated beams with low sidelobes. Such antennas are applicable to communications satellite frequency reuse systems and earth stations requiring access to several satellites. While the single offset paraboloid has been the most extensively used configuration for the satellite multiple-beam antenna, the trend toward large apertures requiring minimum scanned beam degradation over the field of view 18 degrees for full earth coverage from geostationary orbit may lead to impractically long focal length and large feed arrays. Dual reflector antennas offer packaging advantages and more degrees of design freedom to improve beam scanning and cross-polarization properties. The Cassegrain and Gregorian antennas are the most commonly used dual reflector antennas. A computer program for calculating the secondary pattern and directivity of a generalized dual reflector antenna system was developed and implemented at LeRC. The theoretical foundation for this program is based on the use of physical optics methodology for describing the induced currents on the sub-reflector and main reflector. The resulting induced currents on the main reflector are integrated to obtain the antenna far-zone electric fields. The computer program is verified with other physical optics programs and with measured antenna patterns. The comparison shows good agreement in far-field sidelobe reproduction and directivity.

  4. Matera Laser Ranging Observatory (MLRO): An overview (United States)

    Varghese, Thomas K.; Decker, Winfield M.; Crooks, Henry A.; Bianco, Giuseppe


    The Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) is currently under negotiation with the Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) of the Allied Signal Aerospace Company (ASAC) to build a state-of-the-art laser ranging observatory for the Centro di Geodesia Spaziale, in Matera, Italy. The contract calls for the delivery of a system based on a 1.5 meter afocal Cassegrain astronomical quality telescope with multiple ports to support a variety of experiments for the future, with primary emphasis on laser ranging. Three focal planes, viz. Cassegrain, Coude, and Nasmyth will be available for these experiments. The open telescope system will be protected from dust and turbulence using a specialized dome which will be part of the building facilities to be provided by ASI. The fixed observatory facility will be partitioned into four areas for locating the following: laser, transmit/receive optics, telescope/dome enclosure, and the operations console. The optical tables and mount rest on a common concrete pad for added mechanical stability. Provisions will be in place for minimizing the effects of EMI, for obtaining maximum cleanliness for high power laser and transmit optics, and for providing an ergonomic environment fitting to a state-of-the-art multipurpose laboratory. The system is currently designed to be highly modular and adaptable for scaling or changes in technology. It is conceived to be a highly automated system with superior performance specifications to any currently operational system. Provisions are also made to adapt and accommodate changes that are of significance during the course of design and integration.

  5. The Stellar and Gas Kinematics of NGC 1569 (United States)

    Jackson, Megan C.; Hunter, D. A.


    The intrinsic shape of dwarf irregular (dIm) galaxies remains controversial. Projected minor-to-major axis ratios provide insufficient data to determine the shapes of dIm galaxies. However, the stellar velocity dispersion coupled with the maximum rotational velocity derived from HI observations gives a measure of how kinematically hot a system is, and, therefore, indicates its structure. We present, for the first time, the stellar kinematics of NGC 1569 obtained using the KPNO 4-m+Echelle spectrograph. These data are combined with the HI rotation velocity obtained from VLA observations acquired by the THINGS group. NGC 1569 is the first of four dIm galaxies for which optical spectroscopic observations have been completed. The PI's dissertation thesis project will be based on the completion of observations obtained using the KPNO 4-m+Echelle spectrograph for a total sample of 4 dIm galaxies, including NGC 1569. We would like to thank the NSF for the funding necessary for the VLA observations as well as the Lowell Observatory Pre-doctoral Program which has made it possible for the PI to complete her Ph. D. thesis project.

  6. Kinematic study of planetary nebulae in NGC 6822

    CERN Document Server

    Flores-Durán, S N; Hernández-Martínez, L; García-Rojas, J; Ruiz, M T


    By measuring precise radial velocities of planetary nebulae (which belong to the intermediate age population), H II regions, and A-type supergiant stars (which are members of the young population) in NGC 6822, we aim to determine if both types of population share the kinematics of the disk of H I found in this galaxy. Spectroscopic data for four planetary nebulae were obtained with the high spectral resolution spectrograph Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) on the Magellan telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Data for other three PNe and one H II region were obtained from the SPM Catalog of Extragalactic Planetary Nebulae which employed the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer attached to the 2.1m telescope at the Observatorio Astron\\'omico Nacional, M\\'exico. In the wavelength calibrated spectra, the heliocentric radial velocities were measured with a precision better than 5-6 km s$^{-1}$. Data for three additional H II regions and a couple of A-type supergiant stars were collected from the literature. The...

  7. The Pathfinder Testbed: Exploring Techniques for Achieving Precision Radial Velocities in the Near-Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsey, Larry; Redman, Stephen; Bender, Chad; Roy, Arpita; Zonak, Stephanie; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Wolszczan, Alex


    The Penn State Pathfinder is a prototype warm fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph with a Hawaii-1 NIR detector that has already demonstrated 7-10 m/s radial velocity precision on integrated sunlight. The Pathfinder testbed was initially setup for the Gemini PRVS design study to enable a systematic exploration of the challenges of achieving high radial velocity precision in the near-infrared, as well as to test possible solutions to these calibration challenges. The current version of the Pathfinder has an R3 echelle grating, and delivers a resolution of R~50,000 in the Y, J or H bands of the spectrum. We will discuss the on sky-performance of the Pathfinder during an engineering test run at the Hobby Eberly Telescope as well the results of velocity observations of M dwarfs. We will also discuss the unique calibration techniques we have explored, like Uranium-Neon hollow cathode lamps, notch filter, and modal noise mitigation to enable high precision radial velocity observation in the NIR. The Pathfinder is a proto...

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Abundances for red giants in NGC 6342 and NGC 6366 (Johnson+, 2016) (United States)

    Johnson, C. I.; Caldwell, N.; Rich, R. M.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Hsyu, T.


    The spectra for this project were obtained using the Hectochelle and Hydra multi-fiber bench spectrographs mounted on the MMT 6.5m and WIYN 3.5m telescopes, respectively. NGC6342 was observed with Hectochelle on 2014 June 18 and also with Hydra on 2013 June 27. However, NGC6366 was only observed with Hydra on 2012 May 18. The Hectochelle observations consisted of a 2400 and 2065s exposure set using the 110 line/mm Echelle grating, the "CJ26" filter, and 2*1 (spatial*dispersion) binning to achieve a resolving power of R=λ/Δλ~38000. Similarly, the Hydra observations consisted of 3*3600s exposures with the bench configured to use the 316line/mm Echelle grating, the X18 filter, the red camera and fibers, and 2*1 binning to achieve a resolving power of R~18000. The spectra spanned approximately 6140-6310Å for the Hectochelle data and 6080-6390Å for the Hydra data. The target stars for both clusters were selected using photometry and coordinates available through the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS; Cutri et al. 2003, Cat. II/246). (5 data files).

  9. The discovery of a planetary candidate around the evolved low-mass Kepler giant star HD 175370

    CERN Document Server

    Hrudková, M; Karjalainen, R; Lehmann, H; Hekker, S; Hartmann, M; Tkachenko, A; Prins, S; van Winckel, H; de Nutte, R; Dumortier, L; Frémat, Y; Hensberge, H; Jorissen, A; Lampens, P; Laverick, M; Lombaert, R; Pápics, P I; Raskin, G; Sódor, Á; Thoul, A; van Eck, S; Waelkens, C


    We report on the discovery of a planetary companion candidate with a minimum mass Msini = 4.6 M_J orbiting the K2 III giant star HD 175370 (KIC 007940959). This star was a target in our program to search for planets around a sample of 95 giant stars observed with Kepler. This detection was made possible using precise stellar radial velocity measurements of HD 175370 taken over five years and four months using the coude echelle spectrograph of the 2-m Alfred Jensch Telescope and the fibre-fed echelle spectrograph HERMES of the 1.2-m Mercator Telescope. Our radial velocity measurements reveal a periodic (349.5 days) variation with a semi-amplitude K = 133 m/s, superimposed on a long-term trend. A low-mass stellar companion with an orbital period of ~88 years in a highly eccentric orbit and a planet in a Keplerian orbit with an eccentricity e = 0.22 are the most plausible explanation of the radial velocity variations. However, we cannot exclude the existence of stellar envelope pulsations as a cause for the low-...

  10. Oxygen emission line properties from analysis of MAVEN-IUVS Echellograms of the Martian atmosphere (United States)

    Mayyasi, Majd A.; Clarke, John T.; Stewart, Ian; McClintock, William; Schneider, Nicholas M.; Jakosky, Bruce; IUVS Team


    The high resolution echelle mode of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) instrument has been used to spectrally image the sunlit limb of Mars during the spacecraft periapse orbital segments. When multiple images are co-added over a few hours, there are detectable spectral emission features that have been identified to originate from atomic and molecular neutral species such as H, D, N, O, CO as well as from C+ ions. The echelle detector has a localized spectral resolution of ~0.008 Angstrom and is therefore capable of spectrally resolving the oxygen resonant triplet (130.217, 130.486 and 130.603 nm) and forbidden doublet (135.560 and 135.851 nm) emission lines. The brightness of each of these emission lines has been determined and will be compared with detected brightnesses of other species. The emission line integrated brightness ratios are being analyzed for insights into the abundance, excitation, and variability of oxygen in the martian atmosphere.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Line list for stellar chemical abundances (Bedell+, 2014) (United States)

    Bedell, M.; Melendez, J.; Bean, J. L.; Ramirez, I.; Leite, P.; Asplund, M.


    The five solar spectra used in this analysis were obtained with very high resolution and signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) characteristic of data used in past stellar abundance analyses. Two spectra were taken with the Echelle SpectroPolarimetric Device for the Observation of Stars (ESPaDOnS) instrument (Donati 2003, Solar Polarization (ASP Conf. Ser. 307), ed. J. Trujillo-Bueno & J. Sanchez Almeida (San Francisco, CA: ASP), 41) at the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on the night of 2013 March 4. The asteroids Ceres and Vesta were each observed in "star only" mode at a spectral resolving power R=81000. The remaining three solar spectra were taken with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph (Bernstein et al. 2003SPIE.4841.1694B) at the 6.5 m Magellan Clay telescope. The asteroid Vesta was observed twice and Iris was observed once during three separate observing runs spanning January to September of 2011. All observations were carried out in MIKE's standard setup with the 0.35 arcsec width slit, giving a spectral resolving power of R=83000 on the blue CCD and 65000 on the red CCD. (1 data file).

  12. Warm Dark Matter as a solution to the small scale crisis: new constraints from high redshift Lyman-alpha forest data

    CERN Document Server

    Viel, M; Bolton, J S; Haehnelt, M G


    We present updated constraints on the free-streaming of warm dark matter (WDM) particles derived from an analysis of the Lya flux power spectrum measured from high-resolution spectra of 25 z > 4 quasars obtained with the Keck High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) and the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph. We utilize a new suite of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations that explore WDM masses of 1, 2 and 4 keV (assuming the WDM consists of thermal relics), along with different physically motivated thermal histories. We carefully address different sources of systematic error that may affect our final results and perform an analysis of the Lya flux power with conservative error estimates. By using a method that samples the multi-dimensional astrophysical and cosmological parameter space, we obtain a lower limit mwdm > 3.3 keV (2sigma) for warm dark matter particles in the form of early decoupled thermal relics. Adding the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Lya flux power spectrum does...

  13. Instruments,observational techniques and data processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A brief description of the NAO coudé echellc spectrograph mounted on the 2.16m telescope at Xinglong station is given. This echelle spectrograph is located at the coudé focus with a prism cross disperser. The echelle image covers the spectral region from 330 to 1100 nm displayed in 80 spectral orders in one exposure through two light beams. With a slit height of 2 mm, spectral orders are separatedby 15 to 23 pixels in blue region and by 7 to 19 pixels in red region. Alternatively,two additional resolution modes corresponding to different focal length cameras with resolving power R = 16000, 170000 in the blue beam and R = 13000, 170000 in the red beam could be provided by this spectrograph. The bias, dark, wavelength calibration, flat field and science exposure are described in details. The limiting magnitude for 1 hour exposure with an S/N ratio of 100 scales to V = 9.5 in the red path and to V = 7.2 in the blue path.

  14. A Correlation Between Circumstellar Disks and Rotation in the Upper Scorpius OB Association

    CERN Document Server

    Dahm, S E; White, R J


    We present projected rotational velocities for 20 early-type (B8-A9) and 74 late-type (F2-M8) members of the ~5 Myr old Upper Scorpius OB Association derived from high dispersion optical spectra obtained with the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) on Keck I and the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) on the Magellan Clay telescope. The spectroscopic sample is composed of stars and brown dwarfs with infrared signatures of circumstellar disks, both primordial and debris, and non-excess sources of comparable spectral type. We merge projected rotational velocities, accretion diagnostics, and Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) 24 micron photometry to examine the relationship between rotation and circumstellar disks. The rotational velocities are strongly correlated with spectral type, a proxy for mass, such that the median vsini for B8-A9 type stars is: 195(+/-)70 km/s, F2-K4: 37.8(+/-)7.4 km/s, K5-K9: 13.8(+21.3/-8.2) km/s, M0-M5:...

  15. Open source pipeline for ESPaDOnS reduction and analysis (United States)

    Martioli, Eder; Teeple, Doug; Manset, Nadine; Devost, Daniel; Withington, Kanoa; Venne, Andre; Tannock, Megan


    OPERA is a Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) open source collaborative software project currently under development for an ESPaDOnS echelle spectro-polarimetric image reduction pipeline. OPERA is designed to be fully automated, performing calibrations and reduction, producing one-dimensional intensity and polarimetric spectra. The calibrations are performed on two-dimensional images. Spectra are extracted using an optimal extraction algorithm. While primarily designed for CFHT ESPaDOnS data, the pipeline is being written to be extensible to other echelle spectrographs. A primary design goal is to make use of fast, modern object-oriented technologies. Processing is controlled by a harness, which manages a set of processing modules, that make use of a collection of native OPERA software libraries and standard external software libraries. The harness and modules are completely parametrized by site configuration and instrument parameters. The software is open- ended, permitting users of OPERA to extend the pipeline capabilities. All these features have been designed to provide a portable infrastructure that facilitates collaborative development, code re-usability and extensibility. OPERA is free software with support for both GNU/Linux and MacOSX platforms. The pipeline is hosted on SourceForge under the name "opera-pipeline".

  16. Design study of the PEPSI polarimeter for the LBT (United States)

    Hofmann, A.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Woche, M.


    We present the conceptual design of the two polarimetric channels of the PEPSI spectropolarimeter for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The two direct Gregorian f/15 focii of the LBT will take up two identical but independent full-Stokes IQUV polarimeters that themselves fiberfeed a high-resolution Echelle spectrograph (see the accompanying paper by Zerbi et al.). The polarizing units will be based on super-achromatic Fresnel-rhomb retarders and Foster prisms. A total of four fibers are foreseen to simultaneously direct two ordinary and two extraordinary light beams to the Echelle spectrograph. Both polarimetric units are layed out in a modular design, each one optimized to the polarization state in which it is used. A number of observing modes can be chosen that are optimized to the type of polarization that is expected from the target, e.g. circularly and linearly polarized light simultaneously, or linearly polarized light in both polarimeters, or integral light from one and polarized light from the other telescope, a.s.o.. Calibration would be provided for each polarimeter separately.

  17. PEPSI spectro-polarimeter for the LBT (United States)

    Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Hofmann, Axel; Woche, Manfred F.; Rice, John B.; Keller, Christoph U.; Piskunov, N. E.; Pallavicini, Roberto


    PEPSI (Postham Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument) is to use the unique feature of the LBT and its powerful double mirror configuration to provide high and extremely high spectral resolution full-Stokes four-vector spectra in the wavelength range 450-1100nm. For the given aperture of 8.4m in single mirror mode and 11.8m in double mirror mode, and at a spectral resolution of 40,000-300,000 as designed for the fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph, a polarimetric accuracy between 10-4 and 10-2 can be reached for targets with visual magnitudes of up to 17th magnitude. A polarimetric accuracy better than 10-4 can only be reached for either targets brighter than approximately 10th magnitude together wiht a substantial trade-off wiht the spectral resolution or with spectrum deconvolution techniques. At 10-2, however, we will be able to observe the brightest AGNs down to 17th magnitude.

  18. Can we use adaptive optics for UHR spectroscopy with PEPSI at the LBT? (United States)

    Sacco, Germano G.; Pallavicini, Roberto; Spano, Paolo; Andersen, Michael; Woche, Manfred F.; Strassmeier, Klaus G.


    We investigate the potential of using adaptive optics (AO) in the V, R, and I bands to reach ultra-high resolution (UHR, R >= 200,000) in echelle spectrographs at 8-10m telescopes. In particular, we investigate the possibility of implementing an UHR mode for the fiber-fed spectrograph PEPSI (Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectrographic Instrument) being developed for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). By simulating the performances of the advanced AO system that will be available at first light at the LBT, and by using first-order estimates of the spectrograph performances, we calculate the total efficiency and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of PEPSI in the AO mode for stars of different magnitudes, different fiber core sizes, and different fractions of incident light diverted to the wavefront sensor. We conclude that AO can provide a significant advantage, of up to a factor ~2 in the V, R and I bands, for stars brighter than mR ~ 12 - 13. However, if these stars are observed at UHR in non-AO mode, slit losses caused by the need to use a very narrow slit can be compensated more effectively by the use of image slicers.

  19. Optical design of the PEPSI high-resolution spectrograph at LBT (United States)

    Andersen, Michael I.; Spano, Paolo; Woche, Manfred; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Beckert, Erik


    PEPSI is a high-resolution, fiber fed echelle spectrograph with polarimetric capabilities for the LBT. In order to reach a maximum resolution R=120.000 in polarimetric mode and 300.000 in integral light mode with high efficiency in the spectral range 390-1050~nm, we designed a white-pupil configuration with Maksutov collimators. Light is dispersed by an R4 31.6 lines/mm monolithic echelle grating mosaic and split into two arms through dichroics. The two arms, optimized for the spectral range 390-550~nm and 550-1050~nm, respectively, consist of Maksutov transfer collimators, VPH-grism cross dispersers, optimized dioptric cameras and 7.5K x 7.5K 8~μ CCDs. Fibers of different core sizes coupled to different image-slicers allow a high throughput, comparable to that of direct feed instruments. The optical configuration with only spherical and cylindrical surfaces, except for one aspherical surface in each camera, reduces costs and guarantees high optical quality. PEPSI is under construction at AIP with first light expected in 2006.

  20. Precise Radial Velocities of Polaris: Detection of Amplitude Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Han, Inwoo; Park, Myeong-Gu; Kim, Kang-Min


    We present a first results from a long-term program of a radial velocity study of Cepheid Polaris (F7 Ib) aimed to find amplitude and period of pulsations and nature of secondary periodicities. 264 new precise radial velocity measurements were obtained during 2004-2007 with the fiber-fed echelle spectrograph Bohyunsan Observatory Echelle Spectrograph (BOES) of 1.8m telescope at Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO) in Korea. We find a pulsational radial velocity amplitude and period of Polaris for three seasons of 2005.183, 2006.360, and 2007.349 as 2K = 2.210 +/- 0.048 km/s, 2K = 2.080 +/- 0.042 km/s, and 2K = 2.406 +/- 0.018 km/s respectively, indicating that the pulsational amplitudes of Polaris that had decayed during the last century is now increasing rapidly. The pulsational period was found to be increasing too. This is the first detection of a historical turnaround of pulsational amplitude change in Cepheids. We clearly find the presence of additional radial velocity variations on a time scal...

  1. Cold gas and a Milky Way-type 2175 {\\AA} bump in a metal-rich and highly depleted absorption system

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Jingzhe; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Ge, Jian; Prochaska, J Xavier; Ji, Tuo; Zhang, Shaohua; Rahmani, Hadi; Jiang, Peng; Schneider, Donald P; Lundgren, Britt; Pâris, Isabelle


    We report the detection of a strong Milky Way-type 2175 \\AA$ $ extinction bump at $z$ = 2.1166 in the quasar spectrum towards SDSS J121143.42+083349.7 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 10. We conduct follow up observations with the Echelle Spectrograph and Imager (ESI) onboard the Keck-II telescope and the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on the VLT. This 2175 \\AA$ $ absorber is remarkable in that we simultaneously detect neutral carbon (C I), neutral chlorine (Cl I), and carbon monoxide (CO). It also qualifies as a damped Lyman alpha system. The J1211+0833 absorber is found to be metal-rich and has a dust depletion pattern resembling that of the Milky Way disk clouds. We use the column densities of the C I fine structure states and the C II/C I ratio (under the assumption of ionization equilibrium) to derive the temperature and volume density in the absorbing gas. A Cloudy photoionization model is constructed, which utilizes additional atoms/ions to constrain the physica...

  2. Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network (United States)

    Ge, Jian; Zhao, Bo; Groot, John; Chang, Liang; Varosi, Frank; Wan, Xiaoke; Powell, Scott; Jiang, Peng; Hanna, Kevin; Wang, Ji; Pais, Rohan; Liu, Jian; Dou, Liming; Schofield, Sidney; McDowell, Shaun; Costello, Erin; Delgado-Navarro, Adriana; Fleming, Scott; Lee, Brian; Bollampally, Sandeep R.; Bosman, Troy; Jakeman, Hali; Fletcher, Adam; Marquez, Gabriel


    We report design, performance and early results from two of the Extremely High Precision Extrasolar Planet Tracker Instruments (EXPERT) as part of a global network for hunting for low mass planets in the next decade. EXPERT is a combination of a thermally compensated monolithic Michelson interferometer and a cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph for extremely high precision Doppler measurements for nearby bright stars (e.g., 1m/s for a V=8 solar type star in 15 min exposure). It has R=18,000 with a 72 micron slit and a simultaneous coverage of 390-694 nm. The commissioning results show that the instrument has already produced a Doppler precision of about 1 m/s for a solar type star with S/N~100 per pixel. The instrument has reached ~4 mK (P-V) temperature stability, ~1 mpsi pressure stability over a week and a total instrument throughput of ~30% at 550 nm from the fiber input to the detector. EXPERT also has a direct cross-dispersed echelle spectroscopy mode fed with 50 micron fibers. It has spectral resolution of R=27,000 and a simultaneous wavelength coverage of 390-1000 nm.

  3. Reconnaissance Invariante des Formes avec le Filtre de Fourier-Mellin et un Reseau Neuronique (United States)

    Lejeune, Claude

    Le filtre de Fourier-Mellin est applique a un ensemble d'objets pour generer des vecteurs invariants sous translation, rotation et changement d'echelle. C'est la premiere methode permettant d'obtenir ces trois invariants simultanement. Le calcul des vecteurs invariants est fait numeriquement et optiquement. Les vecteurs ainsi obtenus sont utilises comme entrees dans un reseau neuronique backpropagation pour faire la classification des prototypes qui lui sont presentes. Les dimensions des vecteurs invariants sont tres petites par rapport aux objets d'entree et permettent d'utiliser un reseau possedant un nombre restreint de connexions. Il devient possible d'entrai ner le reseau dans des temps relativement courts sur un ordinateur du type PC. Une fois le reseau entrai ne, nous lui presentons des vecteurs invariants provenant d'objets se retrouvant dans l'ensemble d'entrai nement mais ayant subi des rotations et des changements d'echelle. Ce nouveau groupe represente l'ensemble de rappel. La performance de la methode est tres bonne avec des taux de succes superieurs a 85%.

  4. The Angular Expansion and Distance of the Planetary Nebula BD+30 3639

    CERN Document Server

    Li, J; Borkowski, K J; Li, Jianyang; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.


    The WFPC2 camera aboard the HST was used to obtain images of the planetary nebula BD+30 3639 at two epochs separated by 5.663 years. The expansion of the nebula in the H-alpha and [N II] bands has been measured using several methods. Detailed expansion maps for both emission lines were constructed from nearly 200 almost independent features. There is good agreement between the (independent) H-alpha and [N II] proper motions. The central velocity split is measured from the STIS echelle spectra of the C II] 2326A multiplet to be +/-36.3 km/s at a position angle of 99 degrees. The angular displacement along this slit position was measured to be 4.25 mas/yr at 2".47 from the center. We constructed a tilted ellipsoidal shell model by fitting the radio brightness variation of the 5 and 15 GHz VLA observations, and making use of the ground-based echelle spectra from Bryce & Mellema (1999), to estimate distance. Our model has an axial ratio of 1.56, is inclined to the line of sight by 9.7 degrees, and exhibits an...

  5. High resolution catalogue of emission lines in the spectra of comet C/2002 C1 Ikeya-Zhang (United States)

    Capria, M. T.; Cremonese, G.; de Sanctis, M. C.; Buzzoni, A.


    The comet C/2002 C1 Ikeya-Zhang was observed at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo in Canary Islands with the echelle spectrograph SARG during the night 19-20 of April 2002. One echelle spectrum composed by 55 orders covering the spectral range from 462 to 792 nm with R=57000 was acquired. The observations were performed in the frame of a program aimed to collect, catalogue and identify cometary emission lines in the optical part of the spectral range. In this range many important lines of daughters molecules and ions can be found; most of these lines were detected many times with low resolution spectroscopy, but the cataloguing with high resolution spectroscopy was done until now for few comets, and many lines still remain unidentified. We present here a first version of our catalogue, in which the line identification, based on wavelength coincidence only, is made using as starting line lists the ones compiled by Brown et al. [1] and Cochran and Cochran [2]. The O(1S) and O(1D) metastable lines are also clearly visible in our spectra and well separated from the other cometary and telluric lines, so we present also a preliminary estimate of the ratio of the green and red lines. [1] M.E. Brown et al. (1996) AJ, 112. [2] A. Cochran and D. Cochran (2002) Icarus, 157.

  6. Radial Velocities with PARAS (United States)

    Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, S.; Chakraborty, A.; Pathan, F. M.; Anandarao, B. G.


    The Physical Research Laboratory Advanced Radial-velocity All-sky Search (PARAS) is an efficient fiber-fed cross-dispersed high-resolution echelle spectrograph that will see first light in early 2010. This instrument is being built at the Physical Research laboratory (PRL) and will be attached to the 1.2m telescope at Gurushikhar Observatory at Mt. Abu, India. PARAS has a single-shot wavelength coverage of 370nm to 850nm at a spectral resolution of R 70000 and will be housed in a vacuum chamber (at 1x10-2 mbar pressure) in a highly temperature controlled environment. This renders the spectrograph extremely suitable for exoplanet searches with high velocity precision using the simultaneous Thorium-Argon wavelength calibration method. We are in the process of developing an automated data analysis pipeline for echelle data reduction and precise radial velocity extraction based on the REDUCE package of Piskunov & Valenti (2002), which is especially careful in dealing with CCD defects, extraneous noise, and cosmic ray spikes. Here we discuss the current status of the PARAS project and details and tests of the data analysis procedure, as well as results from ongoing PARAS commissioning activities.

  7. The spectroscopic evolution of the $\\gamma$-ray emitting classical nova Nova Mon 2012. I. Implications for the ONe subclass of classical novae

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, S N; Schwarz, G J; Augusteijn, T; Cheung, C C; Walter, F M; Starrfield, S


    Nova Mon 2012 was the first classical nova to be detected as a high energy $\\gamma$-ray transient, by Fermi-LAT, before its optical discovery. We study a time sequence of high resolution optical echelle spectra (Nordic Optical Telescope) and contemporaneous NOT, STIS UV, and CHIRON echelle spectra (Nov 20/21/22). We use [O III] and H$\\beta$ line fluxs to constrain the properties of the ejecta. We derive the structure from the optical and UV line profiles and compare our measured line fluxes for with predictions using Cloudy with abundances from other ONe novae. Mon 2012 is confirmed as an ONe nova. We find E(B-V)=0.85$\\pm$0.05 and hydrogen column density $\\approx 5\\times 10^{21}$ cm$^{-2}$. The corrected continuum luminosity is nearly the same in the entire observed energy range as V1974 Cyg, V382 Mon, and Nova LMC 2000 at the same epoch after outburst. The distance, about 3.6 kpc, is quite similar to V1974 Cyg. The line profiles can be modeled using an axisymmetric bipolar geometry for the ejecta with variou...

  8. Spectroscopic Instrumentation in Undergraduate Astronomy Laboratories (United States)

    Ludovici, Dominic; Mutel, Robert Lucien; Lang, Cornelia C.


    We have designed and built two spectrographs for use in undergraduate astronomy laboratories at the University of Iowa. The first, a low cost (appx. $500) low resolution (R ~ 150 - 300) grating-prism (grism) spectrometer consists of five optical elements and is easily modified to other telescope optics. The grism spectrometer is designed to be used in a modified filter wheel. This type of spectrometer allows students to undertake projects requiring sensitive spectral measurements, such as determining the redshifts of quasars. The second instrument is a high resolution (R ~ 8000), moderate cost (appx. $5000) fiber fed echelle spectrometer. The echelle spectrometer will allow students to conduct Doppler measurements such as those used to study spectroscopic binaries. Both systems are designed to be used with robotic telescope systems. The availability of 3D printing enables both of these spectrographs to be constructed in hands-on instrumentation courses where students build and commission their own instruments. Additionally, these instruments enable introductory majors and non-majors laboratory students to gain experience conducting their own spectroscopic observations.

  9. Carbon and oxygen abundances from recombination lines in low-metallicity star-forming galaxies. Implications for chemical evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Esteban, C; Carigi, L; Peimbert, M; Bresolin, F; López-Sánchez, A R; Mesa-Delgado, A


    We present deep echelle spectrophotometry of the brightest emission-line knots of the star-forming galaxies He 2-10, Mkn 1271, NGC 3125, NGC 5408, POX 4, SDSS J1253-0312, Tol 1457-262, Tol 1924-416 and the HII region Hubble V in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822. The data have been taken with the Very Large Telescope Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph in the 3100-10420 $\\AA$ range. We determine electron densities and temperatures of the ionized gas from several emission-line intensity ratios for all the objects. We derive the ionic abundances of C$^{2+}$ and/or O$^{2+}$ from faint pure recombination lines (RLs) in several of the objects, permitting to derive their C/H and C/O ratios. We have explored the chemical evolution at low metallicities analysing the C/O vs. O/H, C/O vs. N/O and C/N vs. O/H relations for Galactic and extragalactic HII regions and comparing with results for halo stars and DLAs. We find that HII regions in star-forming dwarf galaxies occupy a different locus in the C/O...

  10. NGC 2579 and the carbon and oxygen abundance gradients beyond the solar circle

    CERN Document Server

    Esteban, C; Copetti, M V F; García-Rojas, J; Mesa-Delgado, A; Castañeda, H O; Péquignot, D


    We present deep echelle spectrophotometry of the Galactic HII region NGC 2579. The data have been taken with the Very Large Telescope Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph in the 3550--10400 \\AA\\ range. This object, which has been largely neglected, shows however a rather high surface brightness, a high ionization degree and is located at a galactocentric distance of 12.4 $\\pm$ 0.7 kpc. Therefore, NGC 2579 is an excellent probe for studying the behaviour of the gas phase radial abundance gradients in the outer disc of the Milky Way. We derive the physical conditions of the nebula using several emission line-intensity ratios as well as the abundances of several ionic species from the intensity of collisionally excited lines. We also determine the ionic abundances of C$^{2+}$, O$^+$ and O$^{2+}$ -- and therefore the total O abundance -- from faint pure recombination lines. The results for NGC 2579 permit to extend our previous determinations of the C, O and C/O gas phase radial gradients of the inner Galactic...

  11. Two Ring Nebulae around Blue Supergiants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Weis, K; Duschl, W J; Bomans, D J


    Ring nebulae are often found around massive stars such as Wolf-Rayet stars, OB and Of stars and Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs). In this paper we report on two ring nebulae around blue supergiants in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The star Sk-69 279 is classified as O9f and is surrounded by a closed shell with a diameter of 4.5 pc. Our echelle observations show an expansion velocity of 14 km/s and a high [N II]6583A/H alpha ratio. This line ratio suggests nitrogen abundance enhancement consistent with those seen in ejectas from LBVs. Thus the ring nebula around Sk-69 279 is a circumstellar bubble. The star Sk-69 271, a B2 supergiant, is surrounded by an H alpha arc resembling an half shell. Echelle observations show a large expanding shell with the arc being part of the approaching surface. The expansion velocity is about 24 km/s and the [N II]6583A/H alpha is not much higher than that of the background emission. The lack of nitrogen abundance anomaly suggests that the expanding shell is an interstellar bubble wi...

  12. CHIRON - A Fiber Fed Spectrometer for Precise Radial Velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Bonati, Marco; Giguere, Matthew J; Moore, Peter; Schwab, Christian; Spronck, Julien F P; Szymkowiak, Andrew


    The CHIRON optical high-resolution echelle spectrometer was commissioned at the 1.5m telescope at CTIO in 2011. The instrument was designed for high throughput and stability, with the goal of monitoring radial velocities of bright stars with high precision and high cadence for the discovery of low-mass exoplanets. Spectral resolution of R=79,000 is attained when using a slicer with a total (including telescope and detector) efficiency of 6% or higher, while a resolution of R=136,000 is available for bright stars. A fixed spectral range of 415 to 880 nm is covered. The echelle grating is housed in a vacuum enclosure and the instrument temperature is stabilized to +-0.2deg. Stable illumination is provided by an octagonal multimode fiber with excellent light-scrambling properties. An iodine cell is used for wavelength calibration. We describe the main optics, fiber feed, detector, exposure-meter, and other aspects of the instrument, as well as the observing procedure and data reduction.

  13. Unexpected series of regular frequency spacing of delta Scuti stars in the non-asymptotic regime -- I. The methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Paparó, M; Hareter, M; Guzik, J A


    A sequence search method was developed to search regular frequency spacing in delta Scuti stars by visual inspection and algorithmic search. We searched for sequences of quasi-equally spaced frequencies, containing at least four members per sequence, in 90 delta Scuti stars observed by CoRoT. We found an unexpectedly large number of independent series of regular frequency spacing in 77 delta Scuti stars (from 1 to 8 sequences) in the non-asymptotic regime. We introduce the sequence search method presenting the sequences and echelle diagram of CoRoT 102675756 and the structure of the algorithmic search. Four sequences (echelle ridges) were found in the 5-21 d^{-1} region, where the pairs of the sequences are shifted (between 0.5-0.59 d^{-1}) by twice the value of the estimated rotational splitting frequency (0.269 d^{-1}). The general conclusions for the whole sample are also presented in this paper. The statistics of the spacings derived by the sequence search method, by FT and that of the shifts are also com...

  14. New Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Heavy Elements in Four Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Sobeck, Jennifer S; Beers, Timothy C; Cowan, John J; Frebel, Anna; Ivans, Inese I; Schatz, Hendrik; Sneden, Christopher; Thompson, Ian B


    Elements heavier than the iron group are found in nearly all halo stars. A substantial number of these elements, key to understanding neutron-capture nucleosynthesis mechanisms, can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We report the results of an observing campaign using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to study the detailed heavy element abundance patterns in four metal-poor stars. We derive abundances or upper limits from 27 absorption lines of 15 elements produced by neutron-capture reactions, including seven elements (germanium, cadmium, tellurium, lutetium, osmium, platinum, and gold) that can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We also examine 202 heavy element absorption lines in ground-based optical spectra obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle Spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory and the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on the Keck I Telescope on Mauna Kea. We have detected up to 34 elements hea...

  15. The Solar Neighborhood. XXVI. AP Col: The Closest (8.4 pc) Pre-Main-Sequence Star

    CERN Document Server

    Riedel, Adric R; Henry, Todd J; Melis, Carl; Jao, Wei-Chun; Subasavage, John P; 10.1088/0004-6256/142/4/104


    We present the results of a multi-technique investigation of the M4.5Ve flare star AP Col, which we discover to be the nearest pre-main-sequence star. These include astrometric data from the CTIO 0.9m, from which we derive a proper motion of 342.0+/-0.5 mas yr^-1, a trigonometric parallax of 119.21+/-0.98 mas (8.39+/-0.07 pc), and photometry and photometric variability at optical wavelengths. We also provide spectroscopic data, including radial velocity (22.4+/-0.3 km s^-1), lithium Equivalent Width (EW) (0.28+/-0.02 A), H-alpha EW (-6.0 to -35 A), {\\it vsini} (11+/-1 km s^-1), and gravity indicators from the Siding Spring 2.3-m WiFeS, Lick 3-m Hamilton echelle, and Keck-I HIRES echelle spectrographs. The combined observations demonstrate that AP Col is the closer of only two known systems within 10 pc of the Sun younger than 100 Myr. Given its space motion and apparent age of 12-50 Myr, AP Col is likely a member of the recently proposed ~40 Myr old Argus/IC 2391 association.

  16. Monitoring the Variable Interstellar Absorption toward HD 219188 with HST/STIS

    CERN Document Server

    Welty, Daniel E


    We discuss the results of continued spectroscopic monitoring of the variable intermediate-velocity (IV) absorption at v = -38 km/s toward HD 219188. After reaching maxima in mid-2000, the column densities of both Na I and Ca II in that IV component declined by factors >= 2 by the end of 2006. Comparisons between HST/STIS echelle spectra obtained in 2001, 2003, and 2004 and HST/GHRS echelle spectra obtained in 1994--1995 indicate the following: (1) The absorption from the dominant species S II, O I, Si II, and Fe II is roughly constant in all four sets of spectra -- suggesting that the total N(H) and the (mild) depletions have not changed significantly over a period of nearly ten years. (2) The column densities of the trace species C I (both ground and excited fine-structure states) and of the excited state C II* all increased by factors of 2--5 between 1995 and 2001 -- implying increases in the hydrogen density n_H (from about 20 cm^{-3} to about 45 cm^{-3}) and in the electron density n_e (by a factor >= 3) ...

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Interferometry and spectroscopy of sigma Orionis (Schaefer+, 2016) (United States)

    Schaefer, G. H.; Hummel, C. A.; Gies, D. R.; Zavala, R. T.; Monnier, J. D.; Walter, F. M.; Turner, N. H.; Baron, F.; Ten Brummelaar, T.; Che, X.; Farrington, C. D.; Kraus, S.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.


    Interferometric data on the σ Orionis triple system were collected between 2010 and 2013 at the CHARA Array located on Mount Wilson, California. The array has six 1m telescopes arranged in a Y configuration with baselines ranging from 34 to 331m. here are two telescopes in each arm, labeled as E (East), W (West), and S (South). We used the Michigan Infrared Combiner (MIRC) to combine the light from three to six telescopes simultaneously. All data were collected after the photometric channels were installed in MIRC; the photometric channels measure the amount of light received from each telescope during the observations to improve the calibration. We used the low spectral resolution prism (R~42) to disperse the fringes across eight spectral channels in the H band (λ=1.5-1.8μm). Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) observations of σ Orionis were collected over a period from 2000 to 2013. Initially, the observations were obtained with the 3-beam combiner, and then, starting in 2002, with the 6-beam hybrid combiner. The NPOI beam combiners disperse the light and record the visibility spectra from 550 to 850 nm in 16 spectral channels. In total, some 59 nights of observations were executed, of which 26 nights were of good quality. The calibrators were selected from a list of single stars maintained at NPOI with diameters estimated from V and (V-K) using the surface brightness relation published by Mozurkewich et al. 2003AJ....126.2502M and van Belle et al. 2009MNRAS.394.1925V. The information for all of the calibrators is given in Table5. We obtained new spectroscopic radial velocity measurements of σ Orionis Aa,Ab using the 1.5m telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). We obtained 40 observations on 29 nights using the Fiber Echelle (FE) Spectrograph ( (R=25000, λ=4800-7000Å) between UT 2008 September 23 and 2009 February 21. Additional observations were obtained using the

  18. Astronomy in Iran (United States)

    Sobouti, Y.


    Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan, Iran In spite of her renowned pivotal role in the advancement of astronomy on the world scale during 9th to 15th centuries, Iran's rekindled interest in modern astronomy is a recent happening. Serious attempts to introduce astronomy into university curricula and to develop it into a respectable and worthwhile field of research began in the mid 60's. The pioneer was Shiraz University. It should be credited for the first few dozens of astronomy- and astrophysics- related research papers in international journals, for training the first half a dozen of professional astronomers and for creating the Biruni Observatory. Here, I take this opportunity to acknowledge the valuable advice of Bob Koch and Ed Guinan, then of the University of Pennsylvania, in the course of the establishment of this observatory. At present the astronomical community of Iran consists of about 65 professionals, half university faculty members and half MS and PhD students. The yearly scientific contribution of its members has, in the past three years, averaged to about 15 papers in reputable international journals, and presently has a healthy growth rate. Among the existing observational facilities, Biruni Observatory with its 51 cm Cassegrain, CCD cameras, photometers and other smaller educational telescopes, is by far the most active place. Tusi Observatory of Tabriz University has 60 and 40 cm Cassegrains, and a small solar telescope. A number of smaller observing facilities exist in Meshed, Zanjan, Tehran, Babol and other places. The Astronomical Society of Iran (ASI), though some 30 years old, has expanded and institutionalized its activities since early 1990's. ASI sets up seasonal schools for novices, organizes annual colloquia and seminars for professionals and supports a huge body of amateur astronomers from among high school and university students. Over twenty of ASI members are also members of IAU and take active part in its

  19. ERIS: preliminary design phase overview (United States)

    Kuntschner, Harald; Jochum, Lieselotte; Amico, Paola; Dekker, Johannes K.; Kerber, Florian; Marchetti, Enrico; Accardo, Matteo; Brast, Roland; Brinkmann, Martin; Conzelmann, Ralf D.; Delabre, Bernard A.; Duchateau, Michel; Fedrigo, Enrico; Finger, Gert; Frank, Christoph; Rodriguez, Fernando G.; Klein, Barbara; Knudstrup, Jens; Le Louarn, Miska; Lundin, Lars; Modigliani, Andrea; Müller, Michael; Neeser, Mark; Tordo, Sebastien; Valenti, Elena; Eisenhauer, Frank; Sturm, Eckhard; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; George, Elisabeth M.; Hartl, Michael; Hofmann, Reiner; Huber, Heinrich; Plattner, Markus P.; Schubert, Josef; Tarantik, Karl; Wiezorrek, Erich; Meyer, Michael R.; Quanz, Sascha P.; Glauser, Adrian M.; Weisz, Harald; Esposito, Simone; Xompero, Marco; Agapito, Guido; Antichi, Jacopo; Biliotti, Valdemaro; Bonaglia, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Carbonaro, Luca; Cresci, Giovanni; Fini, Luca; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio T.; Quirós-Pacheco, Fernando; Riccardi, Armando; Di Rico, Gianluca; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Dolci, Mauro


    The Enhanced Resolution Imager and Spectrograph (ERIS) is the next-generation adaptive optics near-IR imager and spectrograph for the Cassegrain focus of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) Unit Telescope 4, which will soon make full use of the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF). It is a high-Strehl AO-assisted instrument that will use the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and the new Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF). The project has been approved for construction and has entered its preliminary design phase. ERIS will be constructed in a collaboration including the Max- Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich and the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and will offer 1 - 5 μm imaging and 1 - 2.5 μm integral field spectroscopic capabilities with a high Strehl performance. Wavefront sensing can be carried out with an optical high-order NGS Pyramid wavefront sensor, or with a single laser in either an optical low-order NGS mode, or with a near-IR low-order mode sensor. Due to its highly sensitive visible wavefront sensor, and separate near-IR low-order mode, ERIS provides a large sky coverage with its 1' patrol field radius that can even include AO stars embedded in dust-enshrouded environments. As such it will replace, with a much improved single conjugated AO correction, the most scientifically important imaging modes offered by NACO (diffraction limited imaging in the J to M bands, Sparse Aperture Masking and Apodizing Phase Plate (APP) coronagraphy) and the integral field spectroscopy modes of SINFONI, whose instrumental module, SPIFFI, will be upgraded and re-used in ERIS. As part of the SPIFFI upgrade a new higher resolution grating and a science detector replacement are envisaged, as well as PLC driven motors. To accommodate ERIS at the Cassegrain focus, an extension of the telescope back focal length is required, with modifications of the guider arm assembly. In this paper we report on the status of the

  20. Optical design for the 450, 350, and 200 µm ArTeMiS camera (United States)

    Dubreuil, Didier; Martignac, Jérôme; Toussaint, Jean Christian; Visticot, François; Delisle, Cyrille; Gallais, Pascal; Le Pennec, Jean; Lerch, Thierry; André, Philippe; Lortholary, Michel; Maffei, Bruno; Haynes, Vic; Hurtado, Norma; Pisano, Giampaolo; Revéret, Vincent; Rodriguez, Louis; Talvard, Michel


    ArTeMiS is a submillimeter camera planned to work simultaneously at 450 μm, 350 μm and 200 μm by use of 3 focal planes of, respectively, 8, 8 and 4 bolometric arrays, each one made of 16 x18 pixels. In July 2013, with a preliminary setting reduced to 4 modules and to the 350 μm band, ArTeMiS was installed successfully at the Cassegrain focus of APEX, a 12 m antenna located on the Chajnantor plateau, Chile. After the summary of the scientific requirements, we describe the main lines of the ArTeMiS nominal optical design with its rationale and performances. This optical design is highly constrained by the room allocation available in the Cassegrain cabin. It is an all-reflective design including a retractable pick off mirror, a warm Fore Optics to image the focal plane of the telescope inside the cryostat, and the cold optics. The large size of the field of view at the focal plane of the telescope, 72 mm x 134 mm for the 350 μm and 450 μm beams, leads to the use of biconical toroidal mirrors. In this way, the nominal image quality obtained on the bolometric arrays is only just diffraction limited at some corners of the field of view. To keep a final PSF as much uniform as possible across the field of view, we have used the technic of manufacturing by diamond turning to machine the mirrors. This approach, while providing high accuracy on the shape of the mirrors, made easier the control of the two sub units, the Fore Optics and the cold optics, in the visible domain and at room temperature. Moreover, the use of the similar material (Aluminium alloy 6061) for the optical bench and the mirrors with their mount ensures a homothetic shrinking during the cooling down. The alignment protocol, drew up at the early step of the study, is also presented. It required the implementation of two additional mechanisms inside the cryostat to check the optical axis of the cold optics, in the real conditions of operation of ArTeMiS. In this way, it was possible to pre-align the

  1. Dual-band co-aperture infrared optical system design for irradiance measurement (United States)

    Mu, Da; Mi, Shilong; Mu, Meng


    Irradiance is a basic parameter in radiation measurement and play a big role in the research of radiation source.Since infrared target simulator is difficult to precisely calibrate itself and the irradiance value of standard blackbody is infinitely small,besides,some other objective environment factors like dust,dirty spot,vapour,especially the temperature lay worse effect on common infrared system,so it's crucial to decrease energy deficiency and various aberrations throughout integrated elements of optical system to increase measurement precision. Therefore,in this paper, a relatively precise imaging system is designed to measure the irradiance of the simulator itself--the dual-band co-aperture infrared optical system,it can work well under bad conditions said above,particularly when the target isn't fill up with the FOV(field of view). Generally infrared optical system needs big clear aperture, as for the objective of this system,an improved Cassegrain optical system as the co-aperture can be used to receive middle-wave infrared(MWIR3~5μm) and long-wave infrared(LWIR8~12μm) from standard blackbody radiation.As we all know that Cassegrain system has a satisfying relatively bigger aperture and reflective system has no chromatic aberration problem, a proper obstruction ratio of second lens and a hole in the centre of primary lens of the original system must be changed reasonably .So the radiation with least energy deficiency and aberration can be received successfully now. The two beams depart from the hole of primary lens separated by a coated (reflect MWIR and transmit LWIR film or vice versa) beam splitter, then the two different wavelength waves can be divided into two different optical path and finally received by MWIR and LWIR detectors respectively.The design result shows that the distortions of system are both small and the curves of modulation transfer function (MTF) approach the diffraction limit simultaneously in MWIR( 3~5μm) and LWIR( 8~12

  2. Testing the Prediction of Iron Alteration Minerals on Low Albedo Asteroids (United States)

    Jarvis, K. S.; Vilas, Faith; Howell, E.; Kelley, M.; Cochran, A.


    Absorption features centered near 0.60 - 0.65 and 0.80 - 0.90 micron were identified in the spectra of three low-albedo main-belt (165, 368, 877) and two low-albedo outer-belt (225, 334) asteroids (Vilas et al., Icarus, v. 109,274,1994). The absorption features were attributed to charge transfer transitions in iron alteration minerals such as goethite, hematite, and jarosite, all products of aqueous alteration. Concurrently, Jarvis et al. (LPSC XXIV, 715, 1993) presented additional spectra of low-albedo asteroids that had absorption features centered near 0.60 - 0.65 micron without the longer wavelength feature. Since these two features in iron oxides originate from the same ground state, and the longer wavelength feature requires less energy to exist, the single shorter wavelength feature cannot be caused by the iron alteration minerals. In addition, spectra of minerals such as hematite and goethite show a rapid increase in reflectance beginning near 0.5 micron absent in the low-albedo asteroid spectra. The absence of this rise has been attributed to its suppresion from opaques in the surface material. Spectra on more than one night were available for only one of these five asteroids, 225 Henrietta, and showed good repeatability of the 0.65-micron feature. We have acquired additional spectra of all five asteroids in order to test the repeatability of the 0.65-micron feature, and the presence and repeatability of the features centered near 0.8 - 0.9 micron. We specifically will test the possibility that longer wavelength features could be caused by incomplete removal of telluric water. Asteroid 877 Walkure is a member of the Nysa-Hertha family, and will be compared to spectra of other members of that family. Data were acquired in 1996 and 1999 on the 2.1-m telescope with a facility cassegrain spectrograph, McDonald Observatory, Univ. Of Texas, and the 1.5-m telescope with facility cassegrain spectrograph at CTIO. This research is supported by the NASA Planetary

  3. Analysis of Segmented Reflector Antenna for a Large Millimeter Wave Radio Telescope. (United States)

    Cortes-Medellin, German


    positioning errors, requiring that the subreflector actuators be able to maintain is optimum position within a small fraction of a wavelength. With the interest to use a focal plane array in the LMT, we have made a comparative study of the imaging properties of the LMT with that of two aplanatic Cassegrain designs, namely, the Schwarzschild and the Ritchey-Chretien telescope. We found that operating at millimeter wavelengths the three Cassegrain systems have an equivalent performance. This study also revealed the potential benefits of an aplanatic configuration at shorter wavelengths or smaller system focal ratios.

  4. Nova Delphini 2013: Backyard Analysis of a Classical Nova (United States)

    Reid, Piper


    On August 14, 2013, Nova Delphini was discovered by Koichi Itagaki. This nova erupted to a maximum brightness of magnitude 4.4 by August 16, 2013. The extraordinary brightness of this event has allowed many amateur astronomers to have the chance to study it. More than 750 amateur astronomers have contributed to the AAVSO photometry database of Nova Delphini.1 The amount and quality of spectroscopic data gathered is unprecedented as well, as over 700 individual spectra have been collected so far in the ARAS database.2 A nova is a class of variable star that undergoes a cataclysmic eruption, which can be observed through a sudden increase in brightness that declines over a series of months or years. At the center of a nova is an accreting white dwarf star which is collecting hydrogen from its surroundings. The accreting mass causes a nuclear reaction on the surface of the white dwarf and as the pressure increases the reaction becomes super-critical and a thermonuclear runaway is ignited causing the brightness increase as well as triggering the ejection of a shell of material form the star. The stages of a classical nova outburst are outlined along with techniques available to amateur astronomers for study of these phenomena. The author’s equipment and software setup are detailed. Results obtained using a low resolution grating, Schmidt-cassegrain telescope and CCD camera that were acquired while Nova Delphini was in the “fireball stage” 3 and subsequent “iron curtain phase”3 are compared and discussed. Results obtained using a high resolution spectroscope, Schmidt-cassegrain telescope and CCD camera that were acquired during the “lifting of the iron curtain phase”3 are also presented. References 1. Turner, Rebecca. “AAVSO - Nova Del 2013” 20 Aug 2013 Web. 8 Sep 2013 2. Tessier, Francois. “ARAS Spectral Database - Nova-Del-2013” 22 Sep 2013 Web. 22 Sep 2013 3. Shore, Steven N. “Spectroscopy of Novae - A User’s Manual” arXiv:1211.3176 [astro

  5. Normal Incidence Two-mirror Reflecting Systems Designed at EUV and X-ray%极紫外与X射线波段正入射两镜反射系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈正祥; 穆宝忠; 王占山; 王利; 马彬; 季一勤; 刘华松


    基于三级象差理论,分析了几何象差对正入射望远镜性能的影响,总结了弥散斑角宽度θ随着系统f数和半视场角uP的变化趋势.弥散斑的角宽度θ随着半视场角uP的增大而增大,随着系统f数的增大而减小.当f数小于10或者半视场角uP大于0.005弧度时,弥散斑角宽度θ变化比较剧烈.详细讨论了四种典型的反射系统,Dall-Kirkham系统和反Dall-Kirkham系统的弥散斑角宽尺寸在一个数量级上,大约为卡塞格林系统的十倍.R-C系统的弥散斑角宽最小,几乎是卡塞格林系统的十分之一.通过本文的结论公式可以估算一个光学系统的象差尺寸并避免进行光线追迹.%Based on the third-order aberration theory of two-mirror reflecting system, the influence of the geometrical aberrations on the performance of normal incidence telescopes was analyzed. The change trends of the angular size of the blur spot θ with the f-number and half-field angle uP were concluded. The angular blur spot θ increased with the increase of the half-field angle uP and the decrease of f-number, and the θ increased more sharply when the f-number was less than 10 or the half-field angle uP was more than 0.005. And, four kinds of typical reflecting systems were discussed in detail. Comparing the results, it is found that the angular blur spots in a Dall-Kirkham system and an inverse Dall-Kirkham system are at the same order of magnitude, which is almost ten times of a Cassegrain system's. The θ of an R-C system is the smallest, which is one tenth of a Cassegrain system's. It is useful to estimate the size of the aberration blur by the formulae without going to the trouble of making a raytrace analysis.

  6. The peculiar abundance pattern of the new Hg-Mn star HD 30085

    CERN Document Server

    Monier, R; Royer, F; Griffin, R E M


    Using high-dispersion, high-quality spectra of HD 30085 obtained with the echelle spectrograph SOPHIE at Observatoire de Haute Provence, we show that this star contains strong lines of the s-process elements Sr II, Y II and Zr II. Line syntheses of the lines yield large overabundances of Sr, Y, Zr which are characteristic of HgMn stars. The Sr-Y-Zr triad of abundances is inverted in HD 30085 compared to that in our solar system. The violation of the odd-even rule suggests that physical processes such as radiative diffusion, chemical fractionation and others must be at work in the atmosphere of HD 30085, and that the atmosphere is stable enough to sustain them.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectral atlas of HD 50138 (Borges Fernandes+, 2009) (United States)

    Borges Fernandes, M.; Kraus, M.; Chesneau, O.; Domiciano de Souza, A.; de Araujo, F. X.; Stee, P.; Meilland, A.


    In this table, it is described the lines identified, with their radial velocities and equivalent widths in the high-resolution FEROS spectra obtained in 1999 and 2007. FEROS is a bench-mounted Echelle spectrograph with fibers, which covers a sky area of 2" of diameter, with a wavelength coverage from 360nm to 920nm and a spectral resolution of R=55000 (in the region around 600nm). The spectrum of 1999 was obtained with an exposure time of 180 seconds and has a S/N ratio of approximately 80 in the 550nm region. In 2007, we were able to take two consecutive spectra of the star, both with 180 seconds of exposure time. Since these spectra do not show significant differences, we added them up for a better S/N ratio, which is around 250. (1 data file).

  8. SS Cygni Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Smith


    Full Text Available New spectroscopic and photometric observations of SS Cygni, the brightest dwarf nova system, have been obtained, with the aim of mapping starspots on the surface of the secondary star. Four nights of echelle spectroscopy in quiescence have been obtained using the 2.2-m telescope at San Pedro Martir (Mexico in August 2012 and another two nights at the 3.5-m telescope at Apache Point Observatory, USA, in September 2012, but these data are still being reduced. Simultaneous CCD photometry was also obtained at the two sites, and the Mexican photometry was extended into the subsequent long outburst. This presentation reveals some interesting photometric behaviour in that outburst, but further data will be necessary before the nature of the behaviour can be determined.

  9. On the nature of the UX Ursa Majoris-type nova-like variables - CPD-48 deg 1577 (United States)

    Sion, E. M.


    A series of low-dispersion spectra and one high-dispersion spectrum have been obtained of the catacylsmic variable CPD-48 deg 1577. Like other UX UMa stars, this variable exhibits the flat continuum of a luminous, thick, steady state accretion disk dominating its light from the far UV to the infrared. A wind mass loss rate of less than about 10 to the -9th solar mass/yr and an accretion rate of roughly 5 x 10 to the -9th solar mass/yr is roughly consistent with the range which characterizes other UX UMa stars. An SWP echelle spectrum reveals detailed line profile information on the N V, Si IV, and C IV resonance lines. He II 1640 A is remarkably weak and even absent in two of the spectra. The known properties and evolutionary status of CPD-48 deg 1577 and the other UX UMa stars are summarized.

  10. Tissue differentiation by means of high resolution optical emission spectroscopy during electrosurgical intervention (United States)

    Bürger, Ines; Scharpf, Marcus; Hennenlotter, Jörg; Nüßle, Daniela; Spether, Dominik; Neugebauer, Alexander; Bibinov, Nikita; Stenzl, Arnulf; Fend, Falko; Enderle, Markus; Awakowicz, Peter


    Electrosurgery is the use of radio-frequency electric current for the cutting of biological tissue e.g. for resection of tumour tissue. In this work, the optical emission of plasma being generated during the electrosurgical procedure is investigated with a high resolution echelle spectrometer to find differences between tumour tissue and normal renal tissue in a pre-clinical ex vivo study. Trace elements like zinc, iron, copper and cadmium are present in the tissue spectra as well as the electrolytes magnesium, calcium, sodium and potassium and some diatomic molecules such as hydroxyl radical, cyano radical, dicarbon, nitrogen monohydride and molecular nitrogen which are mainly dissociated from polyatomic molecules. With the atomic emission line of cadmium at 228.8 nm the treated tissue can be differentiated in tumorous and healthy tissue with correct assignment of 95% for tumour tissue and 92% for normal renal tissue.

  11. A set of innovative immersed grating based spectrometer designs for METIS (United States)

    Agócs, Tibor; Navarro, Ramon; Venema, Lars; van Amerongen, Aaldert H.; Tol, Paul J. J.; van Brug, Hedser; Brandl, Bernhard R.; Molster, Frank; Todd, Stephen


    We present innovative, immersed grating based optical designs for the SMO (Spectrograph Main Optics) module of the Mid-infrared E-ELT Imager and Spectrograph, METIS. The immersed grating allows a significant reduction of SMO volume compared to conventional echelle grating designs, because the diffraction takes place in high refractive index silicon. Additionally, using novel optimization techniques and technical solutions in silicon micromachining offered by the semiconductor industry, further improvements can be achieved. We show optical architectures based on compact, double-pass Three Mirror Anastigmat (TMA) designs, which appear advantageous in terms of one or several of the following: optical performance, reduction of volume, ease of manufacturing and testing. We explore optical designs, where the emphasis is put on manufacturability and we investigate optical solutions, where the ultimate goal is the highest possible optical performance. These novel, silicon immersed grating based design concepts are applicable for future earth and space based spectrometers.

  12. Spectroscopic Comparison of Metal-Rich RRab Stars of the Galactic Field with Their Metal-Poor Counterparts

    CERN Document Server

    Chadid, Merieme; Preston, George W


    We investigate atmospheric properties of 35 stable RRab stars that possess the full ranges of period, light amplitude, and metal abundance found in Galactic RR Lyrae stars. Our results are derived from several thousand echelle spectra obtained over several years with the du Pont telescope of Las Campanas Observatory. Radial velocities of metal lines and the Halpha line were used to construct curves of radial velocity versus pulsation phase. From these we estimated radial velocity amplitudes for metal lines (formed near the photosphere) and Halpha Doppler cores (formed at small optical depths). We also measured Halpha emission fluxes when they appear during primary light rises. Spectra shifted to rest wavelengths, binned into small phase intervals, and coadded were used to perform model atmospheric and abundance analyses. The derived metallicities and those of some previous spectroscopic surveys were combined to produce a new calibration of the Layden abundance scale. We then divided our RRab sample into metal...

  13. Revisiting The Brightest RV Tauri Star: First Ionization Potential (FIP) Effect in R Sct (United States)

    Yolalan, Gizay; Sahin, Timur


    We have derived elemental abundances of the brightest RV Tauri star, R Sct. The abundance analysis of the star is based on high resolution and high quality (S/N>300) echelle spectra, mainly obtained for radial velocity study of a large sample of IRAS like RV Tau sample stars, from the McDonald Observatory (R~48,000). Our analysis is based on optical spectra obtained at only one phase of the variation. The standard 1D LTE analysis provided a fresh determination of the atmospheric parameters: Teff=5000 K, logg=1.05 cgs, and a microturbulence velocity ξ=3.4 km/s and [Fe/H] = -0.33. We report on chemical abundances of 10 neutral and ionized species identified over 4800 - 5600 A wavelength region. In an effort to explain observed deficiency in abundances, possible scenarios including FIP is investigated.

  14. The San Pedro M\\'artir Kinematic Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    López, J A; García-Díaz, M T; Clark, D M; Meaburn, J; Riesgo, H; Steffen, W; Lloyd, M


    The San Pedro M\\'artir kinematic catalogue of galactic planetary nebulae provides spatially resolved, long-slit Echelle spectra for about 600 planetary nebulae. The data are presented wavelength calibrated and corrected for heliocentric motion. For most objects multiple spectra have been acquired and images with accurate slit positions on the nebulae are also presented for each object. This is the most extensive and homogeneous single source of data concerning the internal kinematics of the ionized nebular material in planetary nebulae. Data can be retrieved for individual objects or selected by groups that share some common characteristics, such as by morphological classes, galactic population, binary cores, presence of fast outflows, etc. The catalogue is available through the world wide web at .

  15. The Farid & Moussa Raphael Observatory (United States)

    Hajjar, R.


    The Farid & Moussa Raphael Observatory (FMRO) at Notre Dame University Louaize (NDU) is a teaching, research, and outreach facility located at the main campus of the university. It located very close to the Lebanese coast, in an urbanized area. It features a 60-cm Planewave CDK telescope, and instruments that allow for photometric and spetroscopic studies. The observatory currently has one thinned, back-illuminated CCD camera, used as the main imager along with Johnson-Cousin and Sloan photometric filters. It also features two spectrographs, one of which is a fiber fed echelle spectrograph. These are used with a dedicated CCD. The observatory has served for student projects, and summer schools for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. It is also made available for use by the regional and international community. The control system is currently being configured for remote observations. A number of long-term research projects are also being launched at the observatory.

  16. Social behaviour in pervasive developmental disorders: effects of informant, group and "theory-of-mind". (United States)

    Hughes, C; Soares-Boucaud, I; Hochmann, J; Frith, U


    Theory of mind skills and a range of social behaviour in everyday life were assessed in a sample of 21 children with pervasive developmental disorders and 22 normally-developing preschoolers. Parents, teachers and therapists were interviewed using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales and a new supplementary scale, the "Echelle d'Adaptation Sociale pour Enfants" (EASE). Teachers and therapists were able to differentiate subtle forms of social problems in everyday life between subgroups of children diagnosed later to have either autism (n = 13) or PDDNOS (n = 8), according to DSM-III-R (1) criteria. This study offers a (small) cross-cultural replication of recent work suggesting that differences in the mentalising skills of children with autism are reflected in the everyday social behaviour of this group. A significant effect of informant was found for the PDD group, and this effect was particularly pronounced when children with autism were considered separately. The implications of informant differences are discussed.

  17. Structure and Evolution of Nearby Stars with Planets II. Physical Properties of ~1000 Cool Stars from the SPOCS Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, G; Sills, A; Rasio, F A; Fischer, D A; Valenti, J A; Takeda, Genya; Ford, Eric B.; Sills, Alison; Rasio, Frederic A.; Fischer, Debra A.; Valenti, Jeff A.


    We derive detailed theoretical models for 1074 nearby stars from the SPOCS (Spectroscopic Properties of Cool Stars) Catalog. The California and Carnegie Planet Search has obtained high-quality echelle spectra of over 1000 nearby stars taken with the Hamilton spectrograph at Lick Observatory, the HIRES spectrograph at Keck, and UCLES at the Anglo Australian Observatory. A uniform analysis of the high-resolution spectra has yielded precise stellar parameters, enabling systematic error analyses and accurate theoretical stellar modeling. We have created a large database of theoretical stellar evolution tracks using the Yale Stellar Evolution Code (YREC) to match the observed parameters of the SPOCS stars. Our very dense grids of evolutionary tracks eliminate the need for interpolation between stellar evolutionary tracks and allow precise determinations of physical stellar parameters (mass, age, radius, size and mass of the convective zone, etc.). Combining our stellar models with the observed stellar atmospheric ...

  18. Demonstration of on-sky calibration of astronomical spectra using a 25 GHz near-IR laser frequency comb. (United States)

    Ycas, Gabriel G; Quinlan, Franklyn; Diddams, Scott A; Osterman, Steve; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Redman, Stephen; Terrien, Ryan; Ramsey, Lawrence; Bender, Chad F; Botzer, Brandon; Sigurdsson, Steinn


    We describe and characterize a 25 GHz laser frequency comb based on a cavity-filtered erbium fiber mode-locked laser. The comb provides a uniform array of optical frequencies spanning 1450 nm to 1700 nm, and is stabilized by use of a global positioning system referenced atomic clock. This comb was deployed at the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly telescope at the McDonald Observatory where it was used as a radial velocity calibration source for the fiber-fed Pathfinder near-infrared spectrograph. Stellar targets were observed in three echelle orders over four nights, and radial velocity precision of ∼10 m/s (∼6 MHz) was achieved from the comb-calibrated spectra.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 5yr radial velocity measurements of 19 Cepheids (Anderson+, 2016) (United States)

    Anderson, R. I.; Casertano, S.; Riess, A. G.; Melis, C.; Holl, B.; Semaan, T.; Papics, P. I.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Eyer, L.; Mowlavi, N.; Palaversa, L.; Roelens, M.


    We here present a detailed investigation of spectroscopic binarity of the 19 Cepheids for which HST/WFC3 spatial scan parallaxes are being recorded (Riess+ 2014ApJ...785..161R; Casertano+ 2016ApJ...825...11C). We have secured time-series observations from three different high-resolution echelle spectrographs: Coralie (R~60000) at the Swiss 1.2m Euler telescope located at La Silla Observatory, Chile; Hermes (R~85000) at the Flemish 1.2m Mercator telescope located at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain; Hamilton (R~60000) at the 3m Shane telescope located at Lick Observatory, California, USA. (8 data files).

  20. The Homunculus: a Unique Astrophysical Laboratory (United States)

    Gull, T. R.; Nielsen, K. E.

    η Car is surrounded by bipolar shells, the Homunculus and the internal Little Homunculus, that are observed in both emission and absorption. Thin disks, located between the bipolar lobes, include the very bright Weigelt blobs and the neutral emission structure called the Strontium filament. All are affected by changes in UV and X-Ray flux of the binary system. For example, the normally ionized Little Homunculus recombines during the few month long spectroscopic minimum and then reionizes. Spectral data, obtained with Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) and with Very Large Telescope UltraViolet Echelle Spectrograph (VLT/UVES), provide a wealth of information on spectroscopic properties of neutral and singly-ionized metals and on chemistry of nitrogen rich, carbon, oxygen poor, dense, warm gas. This information is important to understand gamma ray bursters (GRB) that reveal red-shifted near-UV metallic absorptions from pre-GRB stellar ejecta.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NIR spectra of 10 PNe in LMC and SMC (Mashburn+, 2016) (United States)

    Mashburn, A. L.; Sterling, N. C.; Madonna, S.; Dinerstein, H. L.; Roederer, I. U.; Geballe, T. R.


    In Table 1, we provide an observing log and nebular and stellar parameters for our sample. Nine of the 10 PNe were observed with the Folded-Port InfraRed Echellette (FIRE) spectrograph on the 6.5m Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in 2013 January 21, 22 and August 11, 12. We used a 0.75" slit width to provide a resolution R=4800 in echelle mode, covering the spectral range 0.83-2.45um. LMC SMP 62 and SMC SMP 20 were observed in the K band with the Gemini Near-InfraRed Spectrograph (GNIRS) on the 8.1m Gemini South telescope (resolving power of R=4000 in the wavelength range 2.1-2.3um) in 2006 August 16. The data were taken in queue mode under observing program GS-2006B-Q-51. (2 data files).

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: GJ 536 HARPS and HARPS-N data (Suarez Mascareno+, 2017) (United States)

    Suarez Mascareno, A.; Gonzalez Hernandez, J. I.; Rebolo, R.; Astudillo-Defru, N.; Bonfils, X.; Bouchy, F.; Delfosse, X.; Forveille, T.; Lovis, C.; Mayor, M.; Murgas, F.; Pepe, F.; Santos, N. C.; Udry, S.; Wunsche, A.; Velasco, S.


    The star GJ 536 is part of the Bonfils et al. (2013, Cat. J/A+A/549/A109) sample and has been extensively monitored since mid-2004. We have used 146 HARPS spectra taken over 11.7 yr along with 12 HARPS-N spectra taken during April and May 2016. HARPS (Mayor et al., 2003Msngr.114...20M) and HARPS-N (Cosentino et al. 2012, in Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, SPIE, 8446, 84461) are two fibre-fed high-resolution echelle spectrographs installed at the 3.6m ESO telescope in La Silla Observatory (Chile) and at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo in the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (Spain), respectively. (1 data file).

  3. The intergalactic medium thermal history at redshift z=1.7--3.2 from the Lyman alpha forest: a comparison of measurements using wavelets and the flux distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Garzilli, A; Kim, T -S; Leach, S; Viel, M


    We investigate the thermal history of the intergalactic medium (IGM) in the redshift interval z=1.7--3.2 by studying the small-scale fluctuations in the Lyman alpha forest transmitted flux. We apply a wavelet filtering technique to eighteen high resolution quasar spectra obtained with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), and compare these data to synthetic spectra drawn from a suite of hydrodynamical simulations in which the IGM thermal state and cosmological parameters are varied. From the wavelet analysis we obtain estimates of the IGM thermal state that are in good agreement with other recent, independent wavelet-based measurements. We also perform a reanalysis of the same data set using the Lyman alpha forest flux probability distribution function (PDF), which has previously been used to measure the IGM temperature-density relation. This provides an important consistency test for measurements of the IGM thermal state, as it enables a direct comparison of the constraints obtained using t...

  4. Observations and Analysis of the GK Persei Nova Shell and its "Jet-like" Feature

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, E; Boumis, P; Akras, S


    GK Persei (1901, the 'Firework Nebula') is an old but bright nova remnant that offers a chance to probe the physics and kinematics of nova shells. The kinematics in new and archival longslit optical echelle spectra were analysed using the shape software. New imaging from the Aristarchos telescope continues to track the proper motion, extinction and structural evolution of the knots, which have been observed intermittently over several decades. We present for the first time, kinematical constraints on a large faint 'jet' feature, that was previously detected beyond the shell boundary. These observational constraints allow for the generation of models for individual knots, interactions within knot complexes, and the 'jet' feature. Put together, and taking into account dwarf-nova accelerated winds emanating from the central source, these data and models give a deeper insight into the GK Per nova remnant as a whole.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: High-resolution GC abundances. II. (Colucci+, 2017) (United States)

    Colucci, J. E.; Bernstein, R. A.; McWilliam, A.


    The observations and reductions of the original training set sample are described in detail in Paper I (McWilliam & Bernstein, 2008ApJ...684..326M) and Cameron (2009PhDT........20C). The data were obtained using the echelle spectrograph on the 2.5m du Pont telescope at Las Campanas. The spectra cover the range 3700-7800Å. All clusters, excluding NGC 2808, were observed during lunar dark time in 2000 July. NGC 2808 was observed during lunar dark time in 2001 January. The total integration time for each cluster is summarized in Table 1, along with the general properties of the clusters. (6 data files).

  6. Development and construction of MAROON-X

    CERN Document Server

    Seifahrt, Andreas; Stürmer, Julian; Gers, Luke; Grobler, Deon S; Reed, Tony; Jones, Damien J


    We report on the development and construction of a new fiber-fed, red-optical, high-precision radial-velocity spectrograph for one of the twin 6.5m Magellan Telescopes in Chile. MAROON-X will be optimized to find and characterize rocky planets around nearby M dwarfs with an intrinsic per measurement noise floor below 1 m/s. The instrument is based on a commercial echelle spectrograph customized for high stability and throughput. A microlens array based pupil slicer and double scrambler, as well as a rubidium-referenced etalon comb calibrator will turn this spectrograph into a high-precision radial-velocity machine. MAROON-X will undergo extensive lab tests in the second half of 2016.

  7. Study of the atmospheric conditions at Cerro Armazones using astronomical data

    CERN Document Server

    Lakicevic, Masha; Noll, Stefan; Kausch, Wolfgang; Unterguggenberger, Stefanie; Kerber, Florian


    Aims: We studied the precipitable water vapour (PWV) content near Cerro Armazones and discuss the potential use of our technique of modelling the telluric absorbtion lines for the investigation of other molecular layers. The site is designated for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) and the nearby planned site for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Methods: Spectroscopic data from the Bochum Echelle Spectroscopic Observer (BESO) instrument were investigated by using line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) radiative transfer models for the Earths atmosphere with the telluric absorption correction tool molecfit. All observations from the archive in the period from December 2008 to the end of 2014 were investigated. The dataset completely covers the El Nino event registered in the period 2009-2010. Models of the 3D Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) were used for further comparison. Moreover, for those days with coincidence of data from a similar study with VLT/X-shooter and microwave rad...

  8. Improved parameters of the hydrogen-deficient binary star KSPer

    CERN Document Server

    Kipper, Tonu


    Using the high resolution spectral observations obtained with the Nasmyth Echelle Spectrograph NES of the 6m telescope we analysed the optical spectrum of the hydrogen-deficient binary star KSPer. The atmospheric parameters derived are: effective temperature Teff=9500+/-300 K, surface gravity log g=2.0+/-0.5, and microturbulent velocity Vt=9.5+/-0.5km/s. The hydrogen deficiency is H/He=3x10^{-5}, iron abundance is reduced by 0.8dex; nitrogen abundance is very high [N/Fe]=1.4, but carbon and oxygen abundances are low. The star luminosity is log L/Lo=3.3. A complex absorption and emission structure of the NaI D doublet was revealed. We suggest that the emission component forms in the circumbinary gaseous envelope.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Pan-Pacific Planet Search (PPPS). V. 164 stars (Wittenmyer+, 2016) (United States)

    Wittenmyer, R. A.; Liu, F.; Wang, L.; Casagrande, L.; Johnson, J. A.; Tinney, C. G.


    The Pan-Pacific Planet Search (PPPS) operated at the 3.9m Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) from 2009 to 2014, targeting 164 southern hemisphere evolved stars (see Paper I, Wittenmyer et al. 2011, Cat. J/ApJ/743/184). All observations were carried out at the AAT using its UCLES echelle spectrograph. The PPPS program uses the Doppler technique for measuring precise radial velocities, with an iodine absorption cell to calibrate the spectrograph point-spread function. An iodine-free "template" observation is acquired for each target at a resolution R~60000 and a signal-to-noise of 100-300pixel-1. In this work, we use the iodine-free templates to determine spectroscopic stellar atmospheric parameters. (5 data files).

  10. A Search for Stars of Very Low Metal Abundance. VI. Detailed Abundances of 313 Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Thompson, Ian B; Shectman, Stephen A; Sneden, Christopher; Burley, Gregory S; Kelson, Daniel D


    We present radial velocities, equivalent widths, model atmosphere parameters, and abundances or upper limits for 53 species of 48 elements derived from high resolution optical spectroscopy of 313 metal-poor stars. A majority of these stars were selected from the metal-poor candidates of the HK Survey of Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We derive detailed abundances for 61% of these stars for the first time. Spectra were obtained during a 10-year observing campaign using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, the Robert G. Tull Coude Spectrograph on the Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory, and the High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We perform a standard LTE abundance analysis using MARCS model atmospheres, and we apply line-by-line statistical corrections to minimize systematic abundance differences arising when different sets of lines are available for analysis. We identify several ab...

  11. Accretion of a Terrestrial-Like Minor Planet by a White Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Melis, Carl; Dufour, P; Zuckerman, B; Burgasser, Adam J; Bergeron, P; Bochanski, J; Simcoe, R


    We present optical and infrared characterization of the polluted DAZ white dwarf GALEX J193156.8+011745. Imaging and spectroscopy from the ultraviolet to the thermal infrared indicates that the white dwarf hosts excess infrared emission consistent with the presence of an orbiting dusty debris disk. In addition to the five elements previously identified, our optical echelle spectroscopy reveals chromium and manganese and enables restrictive upper limits on several other elements. Synthesis of all detections and upper limits suggests that the white dwarf has accreted a differentiated parent body. We compare the inferred bulk elemental composition of the accreted parent body to expectations for the bulk composition of an Earth-like planet stripped of its crust and mantle and find relatively good agreement. At least two processes could be important in shaping the final bulk elemental composition of rocky bodies during the late phases of stellar evolution: irradiation and interaction with the dense stellar wind.

  12. Grisms Developed for FOCAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ebizuka, Noboru; Oka, Keiko; Yamada, Akiko; Kashiwagi, Masako; Kodate, Kashiko; Hattori, Takashi; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Iye, Masanori


    Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph (FOCAS) is a versatile common-use optical instrument for the 8.2m Subaru Telescope, offering imaging and spectroscopic observations. FOCAS employs grisms with resolving powers ranging from 280 to 8200 as dispersive optical elements. A grism is a direct-vision grating composed of a transmission grating and prism(s). FOCAS has five grisms with replica surface-relief gratings including an echelle-type grism, and eight grisms with volume-phase holographic (VPH) gratings. The size of these grisms is 110 mm X 106 mm in aperture with a maximum thickness of 110 mm. We employ not only the dichromated gelatin, but also the hologram resin as a recording material for VPH gratings. We discuss the performance of these FOCAS grisms measured in the laboratory, and verify it by test observations, and show examples of astronomical spectroscopic observations.

  13. The optical design of the G-CLEF Spectrograph: the first light instrument for the GMT (United States)

    Ben-Ami, Sagi; Epps, Harland; Evans, Ian; Mueller, Mark; Podgorski, William; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew


    The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF), the first major light instrument for the GMT, is a fiber-fed, high-resolution echelle spectrograph. In the following paper, we present the optical design of G-CLEF. We emphasize the unique solutions derived for the spectrograph fiber-feed: the Mangin mirror that corrects the cylindrical field curvature, the implementation of VPH grisms as cross dispersers, and our novel solution for a multi-colored exposure meter. We describe the spectrograph blue and red cameras comprised of 7 and 8 elements respectively, with one aspheric surface in each camera, and present the expected echellogram imaged on the instrument focal planes. Finally, we present ghost analysis and mitigation strategy that takes into account both single reflection and double reflection back scattering from various elements in the optical train.

  14. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of some very Active Southern Stars (United States)

    Soderblom, David R.; King, Jeremy R.; Henry, Todd J.


    We have obtained high-resolution echelle spectra of 18 solar-type stars that an earlier survey showed to have very high levels of Ca II H and K emission. Most of these stars belong to close binary systems, but five remain as probable single stars or well-separated binaries that are younger than the Pleiades on the basis of their lithium abundances and H.alpha emission. Three of these probable single stars also lie more than 1 mag above the main sequence in a color-magnitude diagram, and appear to have ages of 10 to 15 Myr. Two of them, HD 202917 and HD 222259, also appear to have a kinematic association with the pre-main-sequence multiple system HD 98800.

  15. The peculiar nova V1309 Sco/Nova Sco 2008: A candidate twin of V838 Mon

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Elena; Williams, Robert E; Preston, George; Bensby, Thomas


    Nova Scorpii 2008 was the target of our Directory Discretionary Time proposal at VLT+UVES in order to study the evolution, origin and abundances of the heavy-element absorption system recently discovered in 80% of classical novae in outburst. The early decline of Nova Scorpii 2008 was monitored with high resolution echelle spectroscopy at 5 different epochs. The analysis of the absorption and the emission lines show many unusual characteristics. Nova Scorpii 2008 is confirmed to differ from a common Classical Nova as well as a Symbiotic Recurrent Nova, and it shows characteristics which are common to the so called, yet debated, red-novae. The origin of this new nova remains uncertain.

  16. Modeling Mid-Ultraviolet Spectra. I. Temperatures of Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, R C; Rood, R T; Peterson, Ruth C.; Dorman, Ben; Rood, Robert T.


    Determining the properties of old stellar systems using evolutionary population synthesis requires a library of model stellar fluxes. The reliability of the interpretation of the observations depends to a great extent on the reliability of the flux library. The mid-ultraviolet waveband of these systems is dominated by the contribution from the main sequence turnoff stars. Here we present detailed spectral synthesis calculations which match accurately the mid-ultraviolet spectrum of a set of nearby stars with a range of metallicities. We have redetermined temperatures of our sample of eight nearby, mildly to extremely metal-poor turnoff stars, by simultaneously analyzing mid-ultraviolet and optical echelle spectra. An attempt is made to fit all mid-UV lines individually, by modifying line parameters for lines whose energy levels have been measured in the laboratory and adding approximate identifications for the strongest missing lines. Without recourse to additional missing opacity, this suffices to reproduce ...

  17. The Properties of Ly-Alpha Absorbers at Redshifts Between 0.9z<1.5 (United States)

    Jannuzi, Buell


    We propose to use STIS to obtain new Echelle resolution {10 km/ sec} spectra of three bright quasars which, when combined with archived and scheduled observations, will be used to characterize the properties of Ly-Alpha absorbers in the redshift range 0.9zz 1 {e.g., Zhang et al. 1997; Dave et al. 1998; Riediger et al. 1998; and Theuns et al. 1998}. While the simulations have all managed to reproduce the general observed properties of z 3 absorbers, they make different predictions for these properties at z 1. These differences arise because the expansion history of the universe and the rate of structure formation depend on the values of Omega and Lambda, and both affect the evolution of statistical properties of the absorbers. More broadly, comparison between the properties at z 1 and those at higher redshifts can test whether structure in the Ly-Alpha forest is evolving in the manner predicted by gravitational instability theories.

  18. RR Lyrae Atmospherics: Wrinkles Old and New. A Preview

    CERN Document Server

    Preston, George W


    I report some results of an echelle spectroscopic survey of RR Lyrae stars begun in 2006 that I presented in my Henry Norris Lecture of January 4, 2010. Topics include (1) atmospheric velocity gradients, (2) phase-dependent envelope turbulence as it relates to Peterson's discoveries of axial rotation on the horizontal branch and to Stothers' explanation of the Blazhko effect, (3) the three apparitions of hydrogen emission during a pulsation cycle, (4) the occurrence of He I lines in emission and absorption, (5) detection of He II emission and metallic line-doubling in Blazhko stars, and finally (6) speculation about what helium observations of RR Lyrae stars in omega Centauri might tell us about the putative helium populations and the horizontal branch of that strange globular cluster.

  19. In-flight performance and calibration of SPICAV SOIR onboard Venus Express. (United States)

    Mahieux, Arnaud; Berkenbosch, Sophie; Clairquin, Roland; Fussen, Didier; Mateshvili, Nina; Neefs, Eddy; Nevejans, Dennis; Ristic, Bojan; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Wilquet, Valérie; Belyaev, Denis; Fedorova, Anna; Korablev, Oleg; Villard, Eric; Montmessin, Franck; Bertaux, Jean-Loup


    Solar occultation in the infrared, part of the Spectoscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Venus (SPICAV) instrument onboard Venus Express, combines an echelle grating spectrometer with an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). It performs solar occultation measurements in the IR region at high spectral resolution. The wavelength range probed allows a detailed chemical inventory of Venus's atmosphere above the cloud layer, highlighting the vertical distribution of gases. A general description of the instrument and its in-flight performance is given. Different calibrations and data corrections are investigated, in particular the dark current and thermal background, the nonlinearity and pixel-to-pixel variability of the detector, the sensitivity of the instrument, the AOTF properties, and the spectral calibration and resolution.

  20. HD 101065, the Most Peculiar Star: First Results from Precise Radial Velocity Study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D. E. Mkrtichian; A. P. Hatzes


    In this paper we discuss the prospects for asteroseismology with spatial resolution and motivate studies of the most chemically peculiar roAp star HD 101065. We present the first results from a high-precision radial velocity (RV) study of HD 101065 based on data spanning four nights that were acquired using the HARPS echelle-spectrometer at the ESO 3.6 m telescope. The analysis of individual nights showed the amplitude and phase modulation of the dominant mode. The analysis of the whole data set showed the presence of multi-periodic oscillations with two groups of equally-spaced modes. We find = 65.2 Hz and = 7.3 Hz for the large and the small spacing, respectively. HD 101065 is the only roAp star to show the existence of two groups of = 0, 2 and = 1, 3 excited modes.

  1. The STELLA Robotic Observatory on Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus G. Strassmeier


    Full Text Available The Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (AIP and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC inaugurated the robotic telescopes STELLA-I and STELLA-II (STELLar Activity on Tenerife on May 18, 2006. The observatory is located on the Izaña ridge at an elevation of 2400 m near the German Vacuum Tower Telescope. STELLA consists of two 1.2 m alt-az telescopes. One telescope fiber feeds a bench-mounted high-resolution echelle spectrograph while the other telescope feeds a wide-field imaging photometer. Both scopes work autonomously by means of artificial intelligence. Not only that the telescopes are automated, but the entire observatory operates like a robot, and does not require any human presence on site.

  2. KIC 11285625: a double-lined spectroscopic binary with a gamma Dor pulsator discovered from Kepler space photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Debosscher, J; Tkachenko, A; Pavlovski, K; Maceroni, C; Kurtz, D; Beck, P G; Bloemen, S; Degroote, P; Lombaert, R; Southworth, J


    We present the first binary modelling results for the pulsating eclipsing binary KIC 11285625, discovered by the Kepler mission. An automated method to disentangle the pulsation spectrum and the orbital variability in high quality light curves, was developed and applied. The goal was to obtain accurate orbital and component properties, in combination with essential information derived from spectroscopy. A binary model for KIC 11285625 was obtained, using a combined analysis of high-quality space-based Kepler light curves and ground-based high-resolution HERMES echelle spectra. The binary model was used to separate the pulsation characteristics from the orbital variability in the Kepler light curve in an iterative way. We used an automated procedure to perform this task, based on the JKTEBOP binary modelling code, and adapted codes for frequency analysis and prewhitening of periodic signals. Using a disentangling technique applied to the composite HERMES spectra, we obtained a higher signal-to-noise mean compo...

  3. Numerical simulation of space UV spectrographs (United States)

    Yushkin, Maksim; Fatkhullin, Timur; Panchuk, Vladimir; Sachkov, Mikhail; Kanev, Evgeny


    Based on the ray tracing method, we developed algorithms for constructing numerical model of spectroscopic instrumentation. The Software is realized in C ++ using nVidia CUDA technology. The software package consists of three separate modules: the ray tracing module, a module for calculating energy efficiency and module of CCD image simulation. The main objective of this work was to obtain images of the spectra for the cross-dispersed spectrographs as well as segmented aperture Long Slit Spectrograph. The software can be potentially used by WSO-UV project. To test our algorithms and the software package we have performed simulations of the ground cross-dispersed Nasmyth Echelle Spectrometer (NES) installed on the platform of the Nasmyth focus of the Russian 6-meter BTA telescope. The comparison of model images of stellar spectra with observations on this device confirms that the software works well. The high degree of agreement between the theoretical and real spectra is shown.

  4. Impact of instrumental systematic errors on fine-structure constant measurements with quasar spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Whitmore, J B


    We present a new `supercalibration' technique for measuring systematic distortions in the wavelength scales of high resolution spectrographs. By comparing spectra of `solar twin' stars or asteroids with a reference laboratory solar spectrum, distortions in the standard thorium--argon calibration can be tracked with $\\sim$10\\,m\\,s$^{-1}$ precision over the entire optical wavelength range on scales of both echelle orders ($\\sim$50--100\\,\\AA) and entire spectrographs arms ($\\sim$1000--3000\\,\\AA). Using archival spectra from the past 20 years we have probed the supercalibration history of the VLT--UVES and Keck--HIRES spectrographs. We find that systematic errors in their wavelength scales are ubiquitous and substantial, with long-range distortions varying between typically $\\pm$200\\,m\\,s$^{-1}$\\,per 1000\\,\\AA. We apply a simple model of these distortions to simulated spectra which characterize the large UVES and HIRES quasar samples which previously indicated possible evidence for cosmological variations in the ...

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectra of HD 120678 (Gamen+, 2012) (United States)

    Gamen, R.; Arias, J. I.; Barba, R. H.; Morrell, N. I.; Walborn, N. R.; Sota, A.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Alfaro, E. J.


    We observed the spectrum of HD 120678 from the Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito (CASLEO) in Argentina, as well as from the La Silla (ESO) and Las Campanas (LCO) Observatories in Chile, during several nights between May 2006 and September 2011. Most of the observations were obtained with the echelle spectrographs attached to the 2m class telescopes of these observatories. Three additional spectrograms were taken with the MIKE spectrograph at the 6.5m LCO/Magellan II (Clay) telescope. Two more spectrograms were obtained with the Boller & Chivens (B&C) spectrograph attached to the 2.5m LCO/du Pont telescope in the context of the GOSSS project. The 10 spectra are shown in the Figure 1. (3 data files).

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Abundances of late-type stars (Roederer+, 2014) (United States)

    Roederer, I. U.; Jacobson, H. R.; Thanathibodee, T.; Frebel, A.; Toller, E.


    We obtained observations covering the NUV spectral range from the Barbara A. Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). These observations were taken using the medium- or high-resolution echelle gratings in the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS; Kimble et al. 1998ApJ...492L..83K; Woodgate et al. 1998PASP..110.1183W) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Spectra downloaded from the MAST have been reduced by the calstis pipeline and combined by Ayres (2010, Cat. J/ApJS/187/149). Spectra obtained previously by our own observing programs were reduced by the calstis pipeline and processed as described in Roederer et al. (2012ApJS..203...27R, 2014ApJ...791...32R) and Placco et al. (2014ApJ...790...34P). (4 data files).

  7. Externally Dispersed Interferometry for Resolution Boosting and Doppler Velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D J


    Externally dispersed interferometry (EDI) is a rapidly advancing technique for wide bandwidth spectroscopy and radial velocimetry. By placing a small angle-independent interferometer near the slit of an existing spectrograph system, periodic fiducials are embedded on the recorded spectrum. The multiplication of the stellar spectrum times the sinusoidal fiducial net creates a moire pattern, which manifests high detailed spectral information heterodyned down to low spatial frequencies. The latter can more accurately survive the blurring, distortions and CCD Nyquist limitations of the spectrograph. Hence lower resolution spectrographs can be used to perform high resolution spectroscopy and radial velocimetry (under a Doppler shift the entire moir{acute e} pattern shifts in phase). A demonstration of {approx}2x resolution boosting (100,000 from 50,000) on the Lick Obs. echelle spectrograph is shown. Preliminary data indicating {approx}8x resolution boost (170,000 from 20,000) using multiple delays has been taken on a linear grating spectrograph.

  8. Chemical Abundances of the magnetic CP star HD 168733 (United States)

    Collado, A.; López-García, Z.


    A detailed abundance analysis has been carried out for the magnetic CP star HD 168733 using high-resolution spectra obtained with the EBASIM echelle spectrograph at the 2.1 m CASLEO telescope in Argentina. The spectral coverage is 382-700 nm. It is neither a silicon nor a mercury-manganese star. Compared to the Sun, C and N are slightly overabundant, while Mg and S are deficient, Si is normal and P and Cl are overabundant. The iron peak elements Sc, Ti, Cr and Fe are overabundant. Lines of Ti III and Fe III are also identified. HD 168733 shows a great overabundance of Ga, Sr, Y, Zr, Xe, Pt, Hg and of some rare earths.

  9. A possible activity cycle in Proxima Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Cincunegui, C; Mauas, P J D; Cincunegui, Carolina; D\\'iaz, Rodrigo F.; Mauas, Pablo J. D.


    Several late-type stars present activity cycles resembling the Solar one. This fact has been observed mostly in stars ranging from F to K, i.e., in stars with a radiative core and an outer convective layer. This work aims at studying whether an activity cycle can be detected in the dM5.5e star Proxima Centauri, which is supposed to be completely convective. We present periodical medium-resolution echelle observations covering the complete visual range, which were taken at the CASLEO Argentinean Observatory. These observations are distributed over 7 years. We discarded the spectra that present flare activity, and analyze the remaining activity levels using four different statistical techniques to look for a period of activity. We find strong evidence of a cyclic activity, with a period of around 442 days. We also estimate that the Ca II S index varies around 130% due to activity variations outside of flares.

  10. O2+ Recombination abundances in planetary nebulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Kingsburgh


    Full Text Available Presentamos abundancias O2+/H+ calculadas a partir de espectroscop a echelle de cuatro nebulosas planetarias, NGC 6210, NGC 6826, Hu2{1 y NGC 6543. Hemos utilizado las l neas prohibidas de excitaci on colisional, as como l neas permi- tidas de recombinaci on. Encontramos que el cociente de las abundancias derivadas de l neas de recombinaci on a aquellas encontradas con l neas de excitaci on colisional var an de pr acticamente la unidad (1.2 para Hu 2{1 hasta 6.6, para una observaci on fuera de centro de NGC 6826. Los valores correspondientes de t2 van de 0.016 a 0.087.

  11. HR8844: A new hot Am star ?

    CERN Document Server

    Monier, R; Royer, F


    Using one archival high dispersion high quality spectrum of HR8844 (A0V) obtained with the echelle spectrograph SOPHIE at Observatoire de Haute Provence, we show that this star is not a superficially normal A0V star as hitherto thought. The model atmosphere and spectrum synthesis modeling of the spectrum of HR8844 reveals large departures of its abundances from the solar composition. We report here on our first determinations of the elemental abundances of 41 elements in the atmosphere of HR8844. Most of the light elements are underabundant whereas the very heavy elements are overabundant in HR8844.This interesting new chemically peculiar star could be a hybrid object between the HgMn stars and the Am stars.

  12. Magnetic fields and differential rotation on the pre-main sequence I: The early-G star HD 141943 - brightness and magnetic topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Marsden, S C; Vélez, J C Ramírez; Alecian, E; Brown, C J; Carter, B D; Donati, J F; Dunstone, N; Hart, R; Semel, M; Waite, I A


    Spectroscopic and spectropolarimetric observations of the pre-main sequence early-G star HD 141943 were obtained at four observing epochs (in 2006, 2007, 2009 and 2010). The observations were undertaken at the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope using the UCLES echelle spectrograph and the SEMPOL spectropolarimeter visitor instrument. Brightness and surface magnetic field topologies were reconstructed for the star using the technique of least-squares deconvolution to increase the signal-to-noise of the data. The reconstructed brightness maps show that HD 141943 had a weak polar spot and a significant amount of low latitude features, with little change in the latitude distribution of the spots over the 4 years of observations. The surface magnetic field was reconstructed at three of the epochs from a high order (l <= 30) spherical harmonic expansion of the spectropolarimetric observations. The reconstructed magnetic topologies show that in 2007 and 2010 the surface magnetic field was reasonably balanced betwee...

  13. Preliminary design of the Visible Spectro-Polarimeter for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    de Wijn, Alfred G; Nelson, Peter G; Huang, Pei


    The Visible Spectro-Polarimeter (ViSP) is one of the first light instruments for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST). It is an echelle spectrograph designed to measure three different regions of the solar spectrum in three separate focal planes simultaneously between 380 and 900 nm. It will use the polarimetric capabilities of the ATST to measure the full Stokes parameters across the line profiles. By measuring the polarization in magnetically sensitive spectral lines the magnetic field vector as a function of height in the solar atmosphere can be obtained, along with the associated variation of the thermodynamic properties. The ViSP will have a spatial resolution of 0.04 arcsec over a 2 arcmin field of view (at 600 nm). The minimum spectral resolving power for all the focal planes is 180,000. The spectrograph supports up to 4 diffraction gratings and is fully automated to allow for rapid reconfiguration.

  14. High-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of hot subdwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Petit, P; Bagnulo, S; Charpinet, S; Wade, G A; Green, E M


    We report on high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of the hot subdwarf stars HD 76431 and Feige 66, using the ESPaDOnS echelle spectropolarimeter at CFHT. We compute cross-correlation Stokes I and V line profiles to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio. We then average all available cross-correlation profiles of each star to further decrease the noise level. Although both targets were previously reported to host kilo-gauss magnetic fields, we do not derive any evidence of large-scale photospheric fields from our sets of observations, in spite of tight error bars on the longitudinal field of the order of 60 gauss for HD 76431 and 200 gauss for Feige 66. A new analysis of FORS1 observations of HD 76431, which provided the basis for the original claim of field detection, confirms the absence of any detectable Zeeman signature, with an error bar of about 100 gauss on the longitudinal magnetic field.

  15. Development and construction of MAROON-X (United States)

    Seifahrt, Andreas; Bean, Jacob L.; Stürmer, Julian; Gers, Luke; Grobler, Deon S.; Reed, Tony; Jones, Damien J.


    We report on the development and construction of a new fiber-fed, red-optical, high-precision radial-velocity spectrograph for one of the twin 6.5m Magellan Telescopes in Chile. MAROON-X will be optimized to find and characterize rocky planets around nearby M dwarfs with an intrinsic per measurement noise floor below 1ms-1. The instrument is based on a commercial echelle spectrograph customized for high stability and throughput. A microlens array based pupil slicer and double scrambler, as well as a rubidium-referenced etalon comb calibrator will turn this spectrograph into a high-precision radial-velocity machine. MAROON-X will undergo extensive lab tests in the second half of 2016.

  16. Qui sera le nouvel Einstein ? Vers une nouvelle theorie de la gravitation (United States)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.


    Un debat de plus d'un siecle a resurgi ces toutes dernieres annees avec une vigueur nouvelle. L'enjeu ? Mettre fin, ni plus ni moins, a l'une des contradictions les plus inouies de la physique fondamentale, en reconciliant mecanique quantique et relativite generale. En effet, a l'heure ou la gravitation semble enfin sur le point de fusionner avec les trois autres forces de la nature. il est certain que la relativite d'Einstein doit etre bientot remplacer par une autre theorie... Reste quye tous les physiciens sont loin de s'accorder sur la marche a suivree. Gravitation quantique, relativite d'echelle, supersymetrie, les candidates ne manquent pas.

  17. Integration of a thermo-structural analysis with an optical model for PEPSI polarimeter (United States)

    Di Varano, Igor; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Ilyin, Ilya; Woche, Manfred; Kaercher, Hans J.


    The two spectropolarimeters for PEPSI (Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument) have been de¬signed in order to reconstruct the full Stokes vector measuring linear and circular polarization simultaneously with a re¬solving power of 120,000. The polarimeters will be attached to the Gregorian focus of the so far largest LBT 2x8.4m telescope and will feed together with permanent focus stations the spectrograph via 44m long fibers connection. The spectrograph will be located in a pressure-temperature controlled chamber within the telescope pier. We present hereafter the last results from combined structural and CFD analyses in order to fulfill the optical requirements.

  18. Multi-resolution waveguide image slicer for the PEPSI instrument (United States)

    Beckert, Erik; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Woche, Manfred; Harnisch, Gerd; Hornaff, Marcel; Weber, Michael; Barnes, Stuart


    A waveguide image slicer with resolutions up to 270.000 (planned: 300.000) for the fiber fed PEPSI echelle spectrograph at the LBT and single waveguide thicknesses of down to 70 μm has been manufactured and tested. The waveguides were macroscopically prepared, stacked up to an order of seven and thinned back to square stack cross sections. A high filling ratio was achieved by realizing homogenous adhesive gaps of 3.6 μm, using index matching adhesives for TIR within the waveguides. The image slicer stacks are used in immersion mode and are miniaturized to enable implementation in a set of 2x8. The overall efficiency is between 92 % and 96 %.

  19. Waveguide image-slicers for ultrahigh resolution spectroscopy (United States)

    Beckert, Erik; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Woche, Manfred; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, Andreas; Andersen, Michael


    Waveguide image-slicer prototypes with resolutions up to 310.000 for the fiber fed PEPSI echelle spectrograph at the LBT and single waveguide thicknesses of down to 30 μm have been manufactured. The waveguides were macroscopically prepared, stacked up to an order of 7 and thinned back to square stack cross sections. A high filling ratio was achieved by realizing homogenous adhesive gaps of 4.6 μm, using index matching adhesives for TIR within the waveguides. The image-slicer stacks can be used in immersion mode and are miniaturized to be implemented in a set of four, measurements indicate an overall efficiency of above 80% for them.

  20. PEPSI-feed: linking PEPSI to the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope using a 450m long fibre (United States)

    Sablowski, D. P.; Weber, M.; Woche, M.; Ilyin, I.; Järvinen, A.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Gabor, P.


    Limited observing time at large telescopes equipped with the most powerful spectrographs makes it almost impossible to gain long and well-sampled time-series observations. Ditto, high-time-resolution observations of bright targets with high signal-to-noise are rare. By pulling an optical fibre of 450m length from the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) to the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) to connect the Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument (PEPSI) to the VATT, allows for ultra-high resolution time-series measurements of bright targets. This article presents the fibre-link in detail from the technical point-of-view, demonstrates its performance from first observations, and sketches current applications.