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Sample records for sandia quartz resonator

  1. Simulation of quartz resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmann, M.; Radius, R.; Mohr, R.

    Quartz resonators are suitable as novel sensor elements in the field of profilometry and three dimensional measurement techniques. This application requires a tailoring of the oscillator circuit which is performed by a network analysis program. The equivalent network parameters are computed by a finite element analysis. The mechanical loading of the quartz is modeled by a viscous damping approach.

  2. Quartz resonator processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Roswell D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a single chamber ultra-high vacuum processing system for the oduction of hermetically sealed quartz resonators wherein electrode metallization and sealing are carried out along with cleaning and bake-out without any air exposure between the processing steps. The system includes a common vacuum chamber in which is located a rotatable wheel-like member which is adapted to move a plurality of individual component sets of a flat pack resonator unit past discretely located processing stations in said chamber whereupon electrode deposition takes place followed by the placement of ceramic covers over a frame containing a resonator element and then to a sealing stage where a pair of hydraulic rams including heating elements effect a metallized bonding of the covers to the frame.

  3. Hexagonal quartz resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Roswell D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A generally flat, relatively thin AT-cut piezoelectric resonator element structured to minimize the force-frequency effect when mounted and energized in a housing. The resonator is in the form of an equilateral hexagon with the X crystallographic axis of the crystal passing through one set of opposing corners with mounting being effected at an adjacent set of corners respectively .+-.60.degree. away from the X axis which thereby results in a substantially zero frequency shift of the operating frequency.

  4. Electronic dipole resonance in smoky quartz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssen, J.; Volger, J.

    1967-01-01

    Microwave absorption in smoky quartz mono-crystal is ascribed to resonance transitions of trapped electrons between initially configurational degenerated states, which are Stark-splitted by a polarizing electric field.

  5. Quartz resonator instabilities under cryogenic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryachev, Maxim; Galliou, Serge; Abbe, Philippe; Bourgeois, Pierre-Yves; Grop, Serge; Dubois, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    The phase noise of a quartz crystal resonator working at liquid helium temperatures is studied. Measurement methods and the device environment are explained. The phase noise is measured for different resonance modes, excitation levels, amount of operating time, device orientations in relation to the cryocooler vibration axis, and temperatures. Stability limits of a frequency source based on such devices are evaluated in the present measurement conditions. The sources of phase flicker and white noises are identified. Finally, the results are compared with previous works.

  6. The Characteristics of the Shear-Vibrating Quartz Crystal Resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjie Tian; Lingling Liu; Junling Lu; Fuxue Zhang

    2006-01-01

    According to the piezoelectric equation and the vibration theory of the quartz crystal, the relations between the vibrating frequency and structural parameters under the thickness-shear-vibration of AT-cut quartz crystal have been studied.The frequency conditions under which quartz crystal resonator formed stationary wave inside the electrode district and the transmission characteristics of wave outside the electrode district have also been discussed. A quartz crystal resonator was developed based on this analysis. The experiment showed that the force-sensing characteristics were independent of the fixation of the crystal edge. The detecting distinguish ability was up to 0.001 °, and the short-term frequency stability was up to 1.38x 10-10/min.

  7. Quartz resonator fluid density and viscosity monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen J.; Wiczer, James J.; Cernosek, Richard W.; Frye, Gregory C.; Gebert, Charles T.; Casaus, Leonard; Mitchell, Mary A.

    1998-01-01

    A pair of thickness-shear mode resonators, one smooth and one with a textured surface, allows fluid density and viscosity to be independently resolved. A textured surface, either randomly rough or regularly patterned, leads to trapping of liquid at the device surface. The synchronous motion of this trapped liquid with the oscillating device surface allows the device to weigh the liquid; this leads to an additional response that depends on liquid density. This additional response enables a pair of devices, one smooth and one textured, to independently resolve liquid density and viscosity; the difference in responses determines the density while the smooth device determines the density-viscosity product, and thus, the pair determines both density and viscosity.

  8. A one-kilogram quartz resonator as a mass standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, John; Howe, David

    2013-02-01

    The SI unit of mass, the kilogram, is defined by a single artifact, the International Prototype Kilogram. This artifact, the primary mass standard, suffers from long-term instabilities that are neither well understood nor easily monitored. A secondary mass standard consisting of a 1-kg quartz resonator in ultrahigh vacuum is proposed. The frequency stability of such a resonator is likely to be far higher than the mass stability of the primary mass standard. Moreover, the resonator would provide a link to the SI time-interval unit. When compared with a laboratory-grade atomic frequency standard or GPS time, the frequency of the resonator could be monitored, on a continuous basis, with 10(-15) precision in only a few days of averaging. It could also be coordinated, worldwide, with other resonator mass standards without the need to transport the standards.

  9. Theoretical model and optimization of a novel temperature sensor based on quartz tuning fork resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Xu; Bo, You; Xin, Li; Juan, Cui

    2007-12-01

    To accurately measure temperatures, a novel temperature sensor based on a quartz tuning fork resonator has been designed. The principle of the quartz tuning fork temperature sensor is that the resonant frequency of the quartz resonator changes with the variation in temperature. This type of tuning fork resonator has been designed with a new doubly rotated cut work at flexural vibration mode as temperature sensor. The characteristics of the temperature sensor were evaluated and the results sufficiently met the target of development for temperature sensor. The theoretical model for temperature sensing has been developed and built. The sensor structure was analysed by finite element method (FEM) and optimized, including tuning fork geometry, tine electrode pattern and the sensor's elements size. The performance curve of output versus measured temperature is given. The results from theoretical analysis and experiments indicate that the sensor's sensitivity can reach 60 ppm °C-1 with the measured temperature range varying from 0 to 100 °C.

  10. Determination of the shear modulus in self-assembled monolayers using quartz resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.W.; Martin, S.J.; Frye, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    This work examined self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of n-alkane thiols using quartz resonators to determine the shear storage and loss moduli. Network analyzer measurements of electrical admittance at fundamental and corresponding harmonic values are fit to an equivalent circuit model. Shear modulus depends on frequency; the modulus values are three orders of magnitude lower than expected for a liquid or elastomeric polymer, more like those of a dense gas or supercritical fluid. A density of around 0.45 g/cm{sup 3} is calculated for a dodecane thiol SAM; this is roughly half of the bulk density. In conclusion, quartz resonators can be used to inertially deform SAMs.

  11. Formation of continuous metallic film on quartz studied by noncontact resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, N., E-mail: nobutomo@me.es.osaka-u.ac.jp; Yoshimura, N.; Ogi, H.; Hirao, M. [Osaka University, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2015-08-28

    Dynamics of continuous film formation of metallic films on quartz substrates is studied using an electrodeless resonance method. Bare quartz is used as a substrate, and a metallic film is deposited on it. We use antenna transmission technique to measure the evolution of resonance frequencies and internal friction of the substrate during and after deposition, and the morphological transition between discontinuous islands and a continuous film is detected. By comparison with atomic force microscopy images, we confirm that the frequency drop and the internal-friction peak that appear during deposition indicate this transition. We also find that Pt film shows unexpected morphology change after deposition.

  12. Determination of Mass Sensitivity of Crystal Quartz Resonators at Students' Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greczylo, Tomasz; Mazur, Piotr; Debowska, Ewa; Wieczorek, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an experiment in which students determine the mass sensitivity of three crystal quartz resonators, designed to be carried out in "Physics Laboratory II" at the Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Wroclaw. The authors discuss the process of setting up the experiment and the results of the measurements. They clearly…

  13. Determination of Mass Sensitivity of Crystal Quartz Resonators at Students' Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greczylo, Tomasz; Mazur, Piotr; Debowska, Ewa; Wieczorek, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an experiment in which students determine the mass sensitivity of three crystal quartz resonators, designed to be carried out in "Physics Laboratory II" at the Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Wroclaw. The authors discuss the process of setting up the experiment and the results of the measurements.…

  14. Transverse waveguide mode suppression for Pt-electrode SAW resonators on quartz and LGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulendyk, Bennett J; Pereira da Cunha, Mauricio

    2011-12-01

    SAW resonators on ST-X quartz and langasite (LGS) [0°, 144°, 24°] are currently being used for hydrogen fluoride (HF) vapor sensing and high-temperature sensing, respectively. For these applications, the use of Pt-based electrodes allows the resonators to withstand the targeted harsh environments. This work reveals that for Pt-electrode resonators with conventional short-circuit gratings on the aforementioned quartz and LGS orientations, acoustic energy leaks from the grating region to the bus bars, thus degrading the resonator response. To resolve this problem, this paper proposes and implements open-circuit gratings for resonators fabricated with these substrate/metal combinations. The open-circuit gratings guide the acoustic energy within the grating region, resulting in greater quality factors and reduced losses in the resonator response. In addition, scalar potential theory is utilized in this work to identify transverse waveguide modes in the responses of open-circuit grating resonators on quartz and LGS. A transverse waveguide mode dispersion relation was derived to extend the scalar potential theory to account for asymmetry in the slowness curve around the propagation direction. This is the case for several commonly used LGS orientations, in particular LGS [0°, 144°, 24°]. Finally, this work addresses spurious transverse mode mitigation by scaling both the transducer's grating aperture and electrode overlap width. Open circuit grating resonators with appropriately scaled transducer designs were fabricated and tested, resulting in a 71% increase in quality factor and a spurious mode rejection of over 26 dBc for Pt-electrode devices on ST-X quartz. This progress directly translates into better frequency resolution and increased dynamic range for HF vapor sensors and high-temperature SAW devices.

  15. Dew point fast measurement in organic vapor mixtures using quartz resonant sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing; Liu, Jia; Meng, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    A fast dew point sensor has been developed for organic vapor mixtures by using the quartz crystal with sensitive circuits. The sensor consists of the quartz crystal and a cooler device. Proactive approach is taken to produce condensation on the surface of the quartz crystal, and it will lead to a change in electrical features of the quartz crystal. The cessation of oscillation was measured because this phenomenon is caused by dew condensation. Such a phenomenon can be used to detect the dew point. This method exploits the high sensitivity of the quartz crystal but without frequency measurement and also retains the stability of the resonant circuit. It is strongly anti-interfered. Its performance was evaluated with acetone-methanol mixtures under different pressures. The results were compared with the dew points predicted from the universal quasi-chemical equation to evaluate the performance of the proposed sensor. Though the maximum deviations of the sensor are less than 1.1 °C, it still has a fast response time with a recovery time of less than 10 s, providing an excellent dehumidifying performance.

  16. Recent progress in the performances of ultrastable quartz resonators and oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salzenstein Patrice

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stressed compensated (SC cut led recently to the best frequency stability ever obtained with a quartz oscillator, 2.5 × 10−14 for the flicker frequency modulation (FFM floor. This result is confirmed in this paper with a 3.2 × 10−14 ± 1.1 × 10−14. The quartz resonator is integrated in a 5 MHz enhanced aging box double oven controlled oscillator. After reminding a bit of history, this paper describes how the first significant development in terms of ultra-stable quartz state-of-the-art oscillators was performed in the last 20 years, how the resonators were chosen, and main information about the development of adequate electronics and how to mechanically and thermally stabilized such an ultra-stable oscillator. We also present how to characterize the expected performances, and hot topics in quartz based oscillators.

  17. RESEARCH ON A SCANNING NEAR-FIELD MICROSCOPY BASED ON A QUARTZ RESONATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A scanning near-field acoustic microscopy(SNAM) us ed in imaging the topography of precise surfaces is presented. As a micro-force sensor, a non-encapsulated 1 MHz quartz resonator is damped by hydrodynamic fo rces when approaching an object. Thus the oscillating characteristics of the leg of the quartz resonator change. While measuring the decrease of the amplitude o f vibrating, the shape of the object can be obtained. Based on the analyses of t he principle and key parameters of SNAM, a SNAM is exploited. A lateral resoluti on of 0.5 μm and vertical resolution of 2 nm has been achieved in the experimen ts.

  18. PARALLEL FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF HIGH FREQUENCY VIBRATIONS OF QUARTZ CRYSTAL RESONATORS ON LINUX CLUSTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Wang; Yu Wang; Wenke Hu; Wenhua Zhao; Jianke Du; Dejin Huang

    2008-01-01

    Quartz crystal resonators are typical piezoelectric acoustic wave devices for frequency control applications with mechanical vibration frequency at the radio-frequency (RF) range. Precise analyses of the vibration and deformation are generally required in the resonator design and improvement process. The considerations include the presence of electrodes, mountings, bias fields such as temperature, initial stresses, and acceleration. Naturally, the finite element method is the only effective tool for such a coupled problem with multi-physics nature. The main challenge is the extremely large size of resulted linear equations. For this reason, we have been employing the Mindlin plate equations to reduce the computational difficulty. In addition, we have to utilize the parallel computing techniques on Linux clusters, which are widely available for academic and industrial applications nowadays, to improve the computing efficiency. The general principle of our research is to use open source software components and public domain technology to reduce cost for developers and users on a Linux cluster. We start with a mesh generator specifically for quartz crystal resonators of rectangular and circular types, and the Mindlin plate equations are implemented for the finite element analysis. Computing techniques like parallel processing, sparse matrix handling, and the latest eigenvalue extraction package are integrated into the program. It is clear from our computation that the combination of these algorithms and methods on a cluster can meet the memory requirement and reduce computing time significantly.

  19. Polythiophene derivative on quartz resonators for miRNA capture and assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, Al; Cheema, Jamal Ahmed; Rajwar, Deepa; Ammanath, Gopal; Xiaohu, Liu; Koon, Lim Seng; Yi, Wang; Yildiz, Umit Hakan; Liedberg, Bo

    2015-12-07

    A novel approach for miRNA assay using a cationic polythiophene derivative, poly[3-(3'-N,N,N-triethylamino-1'-propyloxy)-4-methyl-2,5-thiophene hydrobromide] (PT), immobilized on a quartz resonator is proposed. The cationic PT enables capturing of all RNA sequences in the sample matrix via electrostatic interactions, resulting in the formation of PT-RNA duplex structures on quartz resonators. Biotinylated peptide nucleic acid (b-PNA) sequences are subsequently utilized for the RNA assay, upon monitoring the PT-RNA-b-PNA triplex formation. Signal amplification is achieved by anchoring avidin coated nanoparticles to b-PNA in order to yield responses at clinically relevant concentration regimes. Unlike conventional nucleic acid assay methodologies that usually quantify a specific sequence of RNA, the proposed approach enables the assay of any RNA sequence in the sample matrix upon hybridization with a PNA sequence complementary to the RNA of interest. As an illustration, successful detection of mir21, (a miRNA sequence associated with lung cancer) is demonstrated with a limit of detection of 400 pM. Furthermore, precise quantification of mir21 in plasma samples is demonstrated without requiring PCR and sophisticated instrumentation.

  20. Photolithography and Selective Etching of an Array of Quartz Tuning Fork Resonators with Improved Impact Resistance Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu

    2001-08-01

    Quartz tuning fork blanks with improved impact-resistant characteristics for use in Qualcomm mobile station modem (MSM)-3000 central processing unit (CPU) chips for code division multiple access (CDMA), personal communication system (PCS), and global system for mobile communication (GSM) systems were designed using finite element method (FEM) analysis and suitable processing conditions were determined for the reproducible precision etching of a Z-cut quartz wafer into an array of tuning forks. Negative photoresist photolithography for the additive process was used in preference to positive photoresist photolithography for the subtractive process to etch the array of quartz tuning forks. The tuning fork pattern was transferred via a conventional photolithographical chromium/quartz glass template using a standard single-sided aligner and subsequent negative photoresist development. A tightly adhering and pinhole-free 600/2000 Å chromium/gold mask was coated over the developed photoresist pattern which was subsequently stripped in acetone. This procedure was repeated on the back surface of the wafer. With the protective metallization area of the tuning fork geometry thus formed, etching through the quartz wafer was performed at 80°C in a ± 1.5°C controlled bath containing a concentrated solution of ammonium bifluoride to remove the unwanted areas of the quartz wafer. The quality of the quartz wafer surface finish after quartz etching depended primarily on the surface finish of the quartz wafer prior to etching and the quality of quartz crystals used. Selective etching of a 100 μm quartz wafer could be achieved within 90 min at 80°C. A selective etching procedure with reproducible precision has thus been established and enables the photolithographic mass production of miniature tuning fork resonators.

  1. Electronic nose based on multipatterns of ZnO nanorods on a quartz resonator with remote electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wooree; Jung, Namchul; Lee, Moonchan; Yun, Minhyuk; Jeon, Sangmin

    2013-08-27

    An electrodeless monolithic multichannel quartz crystal microbalance (MQCM) sensor was developed via the direct growth of ZnO nanorod patterns of various sizes onto an electrodeless quartz crystal plate. The patterned ZnO nanorods acted as independent resonators with different frequencies upon exposure to an electric field. The added mass of ZnO nanostructures was found to significantly enhance the quality factor (QF) of the resonator in electrodeless QCM configuration. The QF increased with the length of the ZnO nanorods; ZnO nanorods 5 μm in length yielded a 7-fold higher QF compared to the QF of a quartz plate without ZnO nanorods. In addition, the ZnO nanorods offered enhanced sensitivity due to the enlarged sensing area. The developed sensor was used as an electronic nose for detection of vapor mixtures with impurities.

  2. Resonance frequency-retuned quartz tuning fork as a force sensor for noncontact atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooe, Hiroaki; Sakuishi, Tatsuya; Arai, Toyoko, E-mail: arai@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Nogami, Makoto; Tomitori, Masahiko [Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)

    2014-07-28

    Based on a two-prong type quartz tuning fork, a force sensor with a high Q factor, which we call a retuned fork sensor, was developed for non-contact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) with atomic resolution. By cutting a small notch and attaching an AFM tip to one prong, its resonance frequency can be retuned to that of the other intact prong. In balancing the two prongs in this manner, a high Q factor (>50 000 in ultrahigh vacuum) is obtained for the sensor. An atomic resolution image of the Si(111)-7 × 7 surface was demonstrated using an nc-AFM with the sensor. The dependence of the Q factor on resonance frequency of the sensor and the long-range force between tip and sample were measured and analyzed in view of the various dissipation channels. Dissipation in the signal detection circuit turned out to be mainly limited by the total Q factor of the nc-AFM system.

  3. Electron spin resonance and thermoluminescence in powder form of clear fused quartz: effects of grinding

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjbar, A H; Randle, K

    1999-01-01

    Clear fused quartz (CFQ) tubes were powdered either manually by using a mortar and pestle (for coarse production) or mechanically, using a micronising mill (for fine production). A high and multisignal electron spin resonance (ESR) background was found in the fine powder even after annealing it at 900 deg. C for 20 min. In the case of the coarse powder, the signal (ESR background) varied inversely with particle size and was quite high for particle sizes lower than 38 mu m. In a subsidiary experiment, using fine SiO sub 2 powder (99.8% pure, with the particle size of approx 0.007 mu m), manufactured by using flame hydrolysis, only a weak background signal was found. The sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma-ray irradiated powders (approx 22 Gy) were subjected to ESR analysis or thermoluminescence (TL) readout. The ESR intensity of the coarse powder varied directly with particle size. Thus, the intensity for a particle size of 20-38 mu m was very low and almost the same as the unirradiated intensity. In TL readout the results w...

  4. Effects of mode coupling on the admittance of an AT-cut quartz thickness-shear resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Hui-Jing; Yang Jia-Shi; Zhang Wei-Ping; Wang Ji

    2013-01-01

    We study the effects of couplings to flexure and face-shear modes on the admittance of an AT-cut quartz plate thickness-shear mode resonator.Mindlin's two-dimensional equations for piezoelectric plates are employed.Electrically forced vibration solutions are obtained for three cases:pure thickness-shear mode alone; two coupled modes of thickness shear and flexure; and three coupled modes of thickness shear,flexure,and face shear.Admittance is calculated and its dependence on the driving frequency and the length/thickness ratio of the resonator is examined.Results show that near the thickness-shear resonance,admittance assumes maxima,and that for certain values of the length/thickness ratio,the coupling to flexure causes severe admittance drops,while the coupling to the face-shear mode causes additional admittance changes that were previously unknown and hence are not considered in current resonator design practice.

  5. Sandia National Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 60 years, Sandia has delivered essential science and technology to resolve the nation's most challenging security issues.Sandia National Laboratories...

  6. Analysis of contributions of nonlinear material constants to temperature-induced velocity shifts of quartz surface acoustic wave resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Kosinski, John A; Zuo, Lei

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we examine the significance of the various higher-order effects regarding calculating temperature behavior from a set of material constants and their temperature coefficients. Temperature-induced velocity shifts have been calculated for quartz surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators and the contributions of different groups of nonlinear material constants (third-order elastic constants (TOE), third-order piezoelectric constants (TOP), third-order dielectric constants (TOD) and electrostrictive constants (EL)) to the temperature-induced velocity shifts have been analyzed. The analytical methodology has been verified through the comparison of experimental and analytical results for quartz resonators. In general, the third-order elastic constants were found to contribute most significantly to the temperature-induced shifts in the SAW velocity. The contributions from the third-order dielectric constants and electrostrictive constants were found to be negligible. For some specific cases, the third-order piezoelectric constants were found to make a significant contribution to the temperature-induced shifts. The significance of each third-order elastic constant as a contributor to the temperature-velocity effect was analyzed by applying a 10% variation to each of the third-order elastic constants separately. Additionally, we have considered the issues arising from the commonly used thermoelastic expansions that provide a good but not exact description of the temperature effects on frequency in piezoelectric resonators as these commonly used expansions do not include the effects of higher-order material constants.

  7. Disposable micro-fluidic biosensor array for online parallelized cell adhesion kinetics analysis on quartz crystal resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cama, G.; Jacobs, T.; Dimaki, Maria

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution we present a new disposable micro-fluidic biosensor array for the online analysis of adherent Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK-II) cells on quartz crystal resonators (QCRs). The device was conceived for the parallel cultivation of cells providing the same experimental conditions...... molding process was simulated in order to optimize the mold geometry and minimize the shrinkage and the warpage of the parts. MDCK-II cells were cultivated in the biosensor array. Parallel cultivation of cells on the gold surface of the QCRs led to first observations of the impact of the cell distribution...

  8. Shocked quartz: A {sup 29}Si magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiske, P.S.; Nellis, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Physics and Space Technology Directorate; Xu, Z.; Stebbins, J.F. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences

    1998-11-01

    Quantitative {sup 29}Si NMR spectra of single-crystal {alpha}-quartz, shock compressed to 12--38 GPa and recovered, provide new information about the complex response of quartz to shock loading. Spectra from samples recovered from shock pressures of 12--20 GPa show a broadening of the {sup 29}Si NMR peak and the development of asymmetry toward lower NMR frequency (indicating an increase in the mean Si-O-Si intertetrahedral bond angle). NMR spectra of samples shock compressed above {approximately}25 GPa show increasing amounts of a separate amorphous phase of SiO{sub 2} with a mean Si-O-Si bond angle roughly 5{degree} narrower, and 10--15% denser, than fused SiO{sub 2}. Small amounts of crystalline material remain with a mean Si-O-Si bond angle up to 3{degree} larger than unshocked {alpha}-quartz. The recovery of dense glass indicates that post-shock temperatures were sufficiently low to also preserve stishovite, had any been created in the experiments. The paucity of stishovite or Si in an amorphous phase in the recovered samples suggests that the formation of stable, high-coordinated Si is kinetically hindered in shock compression experiments up to about 35--40 GPa, except in regions of high temperature, such as planar deformation features (PDFs), microfaults (pseudotachylites), or voids.

  9. Fabrication of SMD 32.768 kHz tuning fork-type crystals: photolithography and selective etching of an array of quartz tuning fork resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. [Dept. of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea); Lee, J.Y.; Park, T.S. [Research and Development Center, Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd., Suwon (Korea)

    2001-09-01

    Negative photoresist photolithography was used to etch array of quartz tuning forks for use in Qualcomm trademark mobile station modem (MSM)-3000{sup TM} central processing unit (CPU) chips of code division multiple access (CDMA), personal communication system (PCS), and global system for mobile communication (GSM) units. It was found superior to positive photoresist photolithography. Quartz tuning fork blanks with optimum shock-resistant characteristics were designed using finite element method (FEM) and processing condition was devised for reproducible precision etching of Z-cut quartz wafer into array of tuning forks. Tuning fork pattern was transferred via ordinary photolithographical chromium/quartz glass template using a standard single-sided aligner and subsequent negative photoresist development. Tightly adhering and pinhole-free 600/2000 A chromium/gold mask is coated over the developed photoresist pattern which was subsequently stripped in acetone. This procedure was repeated on the backside of the wafer. With protective metallization area of tuning fork geometry thus formed, etching through quartz wafer was done at 80 C in a {+-} 1.5 C controlled bath containing concentrated solution of ammonium bifluoride to remove unwanted area of the quartz wafer. Surface finish of quartz wafer prior to etching and the quality of quartz crystals used primarily affected the quality of quartz wafer surface finish after quartz etching. At 80 C, selective etching of 100 {mu}m quartz wafer could be effected within 90 min. Reproducible precision selective etching method has thus been established and enables mass production of miniature tuning fork resonators photolithographically. (orig.)

  10. Vacuum electrolysis of quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, James Claude

    1976-01-13

    The disclosure is directed to a method for processing quartz used in fabricating crystal resonators such that transient frequency change of resonators exposed to pulse irradiation is virtually eliminated. The method involves heating the crystal quartz in a hydrogen-free atmosphere while simultaneously applying an electric field in the Z-axis direction of the crystal. The electric field is maintained during the cool-down phase of the process.

  11. Derivation of the shear compliance of thin films on quartz resonators from comparison of the frequency shifts on different harmonics: A perturbation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannsmann, Diethelm

    2001-06-01

    Viscoelastic effects contribute to the shift in resonance frequency of quartz crystal resonators induced by deposition of thin films on the resonator surface. In turn, the mechanical stiffness of the film can be experimentally determined from a comparison of the resonance shifts on different harmonics. When the film is much thinner than the wavelength of shear sound, a series expansion of the viscoelastic effects to third order in film thickness leads to rather simple equations. When plotting the normalized frequency shift {delta}f/f versus the square of the overtone order n{sup 2} one finds a linear relationship, where the slope is determined by the film{close_quote}s elastic compliance. When the same analysis is carried out on the resonance bandwidths rather than the frequency shifts the viscous compliance is obtained. The effects of asymmetric coatings, electrodes, and liquid media are discussed. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Sandia OpenSHMEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-15

    Sandia OpenSHMEM is an implementation of the OpenSHMEM Standard over the Portals 4 Networking API and the OpenFabrics Interface (OFI). Sandia OpenSHMEM is designed to be a low-overhead implementation of the OpenSHMEM standard which takes advantage of the many features of the Portals 4 specification.

  13. Microelectronics at Sandia Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, W.J.; Gregory, B.L.; Franzak, E.G.; Hood, J.A.

    1975-12-31

    The microelectronics capability at Sandia Laboratories spans the complete range of component activity from initial design to final assembly into subsystems and systems. Highly reliable, radiation-tolerant devices and integrated circuits can be designed, fabricated, and incorporated into printed circuit assemblies or into thick- or thin-film hybrid microcircuits. Sandia has an experienced staff, exceptional facilities and aggressive on-going programs in all these areas. The authors can marshall a broad range of skills and capabilities to attack and solve problems in design, fabrication, assembly, or production. Key facilities, programs, and capabilities in the Sandia microelectronics effort are discussed in more detail in this booklet.

  14. Inside Sandia, April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, T. [ed.

    1996-04-01

    Brief articles in this issue are entitled: New testing techniques, textiles on the information superhighway, and knowledge preservation; Structural health monitoring techniques and robust analysis tools assess aging and damaged structures; Sandia`s VCSELs (Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers): sparking a laser diode revolution; Fiber-optic instrumentation trims weeks off the wait for cervical cancer test results; DAMA (Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture) project boosts competitiveness of US textile industry; SEAMIST (Science and Engineering Associates Membrane Instrumentation and Sampling Technique) cuts contamination cleanup costs; RePAVing the roads to the past (Relevant Point of Access Video); and Sandia receives DOE basic energy sciences award for sol-gel achievements.

  15. Sandia QIS Capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Richard P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a broad set of capabilities in quantum information science (QIS), including elements of quantum computing, quantum communications, and quantum sensing. The Sandia QIS program is built atop unique DOE investments at the laboratories, including the MESA microelectronics fabrication facility, the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) facilities (joint with LANL), the Ion Beam Laboratory, and ASC High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities. Sandia has invested $75 M of LDRD funding over 12 years to develop unique, differentiating capabilities that leverage these DOE infrastructure investments.

  16. Development of SMD 32.768 kHz tuning fork-type crystals using photolithography and selective etching process. Pt. I. Selective etching of an array of quartz tuning fork resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. [Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd., Suwon City (Korea); Kang, K.M. [National Univ. of Technology, Seoul (Korea). Dept. of Materials Engineering

    2001-05-01

    Negative photoresist photolithography was found superior to previously used positive photoresist photolithography to etch array of quartz tuning forks for use in Qualcomm trademark mobile station modem (MSM), 3000{sup TM} central processing unit (CPU), chips of code division multiple access (CDMA), personal communication system (PCS), and global system for mobile communication (GSM) units. Optimum processing condition was devised for reproducible precision etching of Z-cut quartz wafer into array of tuning forks. Tuning fork pattern was transferred via ordinary photolithographical chromium/quartz glass template using a standard single-sided aligner and subsequent negative photoresist development. A tightly adhering and pinhole-free 600/2000 A chromium/gold mask is coated over the developed photoresist pattern which was subsequently stripped in acetone. This procedure was repeated on the backside of the wafer. With protective metallization area of tuning fork geometry thus formed, etching through quartz wafer was done at 80 C in a {+-} 1.5 C controlled bath containing concentrated solution of ammonium bifluoride to remove unwanted area of the quartz wafer. The quality of quartz wafer surface finish after quartz etching depended primarily on the surface finish of quartz wafer prior to etching and the quality of quartz crystals used. At 80 C, selective etching of 100 {mu}m quartz wafer could be effected within 90 min. Reproducible precision selective etching method has thus been established and enables mass production of miniature tuning fork resonators with electrode patterns on them photolithographically. (orig.)

  17. Sandia Strategic Plan 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Sandia embarked on its first exercise in corporate strategic planning during the winter of 1989. The results of that effort were disseminated with the publication of Strategic Plan 1990. Four years later Sandia conducted their second major planning effort and published Strategic Plan 1994. Sandia`s 1994 planning effort linked very clearly to the Department of Energy`s first strategic plan, Fueling a Competitive Economy. It benefited as well from the leadership of Lockheed Martin Corporation, the management and operating contractor. Lockheed Martin`s corporate success is founded on visionary strategic planning and annual operational planning driven by customer requirements and technology opportunities. In 1996 Sandia conducted another major planning effort that resulted in the development of eight long-term Strategic Objectives. Strategic Plan 1997 differs from its predecessors in that the robust elements of previous efforts have been integrated into one comprehensive body. The changes implemented so far have helped establish a living strategic plan with a stronger business focus and with clear deployment throughout Sandia. The concept of a personal line of sight for all employees to this strategic plan and its objectives, goals, and annual milestones is becoming a reality.

  18. Sandia Strategic Plan 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Sandia embarked on its first exercise in corporate strategic planning during the winter of 1989. The results of that effort were disseminated with the publication of Strategic Plan 1990. Four years later Sandia conducted their second major planning effort and published Strategic Plan 1994. Sandia`s 1994 planning effort linked very clearly to the Department of Energy`s first strategic plan, Fueling a Competitive Economy. It benefited as well from the leadership of Lockheed Martin Corporation, the management and operating contractor. Lockheed Martin`s corporate success is founded on visionary strategic planning and annual operational planning driven by customer requirements and technology opportunities. In 1996 Sandia conducted another major planning effort that resulted in the development of eight long-term Strategic Objectives. Strategic Plan 1997 differs from its predecessors in that the robust elements of previous efforts have been integrated into one comprehensive body. The changes implemented so far have helped establish a living strategic plan with a stronger business focus and with clear deployment throughout Sandia. The concept of a personal line of sight for all employees to this strategic plan and its objectives, goals, and annual milestones is becoming a reality.

  19. Inducing Strong Nonlinearities in a High-$Q$ System: Coupling of a Bulk Acoustic Wave Quartz Resonator to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device

    CERN Document Server

    Goryachev, Maxim; Galliou, Serge; Tobar, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    A system consisting of a SQUID amplifier coupled to a Bulk Acoustic Wave resonator is investigated experimentally from the small to large signal regimes. Both parallel and series connection topologies of the system are verified. The study reveals significant non-Duffing response that is associated with the nonlinear characteristics of Josephson junctions. The nonlinearity provides quasi-periodic structure of the spectrum in both incident power and frequency. The result gives an insight into the open loop behaviour of a future Cryogenic Quartz Oscillator operating with a SQUID amplifier as the active device.

  20. Sandia energy titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, J.L. (ed.)

    1977-06-01

    This bibliography of reports, periodical arricles, and conference papers represents research carried out by Sandia Laboratories in energy and conservation. Within each of the approximately 300 entries, authors are listed alphabetically in each subject category. The following subjects are covered: Conservation, drilling technology, environment and safety, fossil energy, geothermal energy, nuclear energy, and solar energy. (MCW)

  1. Sandia WIPP calibration traceability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhen, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dean, T.A. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed to establish calibration traceability for the instrumentation used by Sandia National Laboratories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during testing from 1980-1985. Identifying the calibration traceability is an important part of establishing a pedigree for the data and is part of the qualification of existing data. In general, the requirement states that the calibration of Measuring and Test equipment must have a valid relationship to nationally recognized standards or the basis for the calibration must be documented. Sandia recognized that just establishing calibration traceability would not necessarily mean that all QA requirements were met during the certification of test instrumentation. To address this concern, the assessment was expanded to include various activities.

  2. Advanced bridge instrument for the measurement of the phase noise and of the short-term frequency stability of ultra-stable quartz resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Sthal, Fabrice; Salzenstein, Patrice; Galliou, Serge; Cibiel, Gilles; Rubiola, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    High-stability quartz oscillators are needed in a number of space applications. A short-term stability of parts in 10^{-14} [Allan deviation \\sigma y(\\tau) ] is sometimes required, for integration time \\tau of approximately 1-10 s. The Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the FEMTO-ST Institute (formerly LPMO and LCEP), have been collaborating for many years in this domain, aiming at measuring and at understanding the oscillator noise. The highest stability has been observed on 5 MHz and 10 MHz bulk acoustic-wave resonators. Yet this stability is still not sufficient, or the the manufacturing method is not reproducible. Recently, the analysis of a few premium-stability oscillators has demonstrated that the oscillator frequency instability is due to the fluctuation of the resonator natural frequency, rather than to the noise of the sustaining amplifier via the Leeson effect. It is therefore natural to give attention to the measurement of the resonator fluctuations.

  3. This is Sandia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    Sandia is a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory operated for the Department of Energy with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California, and a test range near Tonapah, Nevada. It has major research and development responsibilities for nuclear weapons, arms control, energy, the environment, economic competitiveness, and other areas of importance to the needs of the nation. The principal mission is to support national defense policies by ensuring that the nuclear weapon stockpile meets the highest standards of safety, reliability, security, use control, and military performance. This publication gives a brief overview of the multifaceted research programs conducted by the laboratory.

  4. Microscopic insight into role of protein flexibility during ion exchange chromatography by nuclear magnetic resonance and quartz crystal microbalance approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Dongxia; Ge, Jia; Huang, Yongdong; Zhao, Lan; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2016-03-18

    Driven by the prevalent use of ion exchange chromatography (IEC) for polishing therapeutic proteins, many rules have been formulated to summarize the different dependencies between chromatographic data and various operational parameters of interest based on statically determined interactions. However, the effects of the unfolding of protein structures and conformational stability are not as well understood. This study focuses on how the flexibility of proteins perturbs retention behavior at the molecular scale using microscopic characterization approaches, including hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) exchange detected by NMR and a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The results showed that a series of chromatographic retention parameters depended significantly on the adiabatic compressibility and structural flexibility of the protein. That is, softer proteins with higher flexibility tended to have longer retention times and stronger affinities on SP Sepharose adsorbents. Tracing the underlying molecular mechanism using NMR and QCM indicated that an easily unfolded flexible protein with a more compact adsorption layer might contribute to the longer retention time on adsorbents. The use of NMR and QCM provided a previously unreported approach for elucidating the effect of protein structural flexibility on binding in IEC systems.

  5. Sandia Combustion Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  6. Sandia National Laboratories embraces ISDN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolendino, L.F.; Eldridge, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), a multidisciplinary research and development laboratory located on Kirtland Air Force Base, has embraced Integrated Services Digital Network technology as an integral part of its communication network. Sandia and the Department of Energy`s Albuquerque Operations Office have recently completed the installation of a modernized and expanded telephone system based, on the AT&T 5ESS telephone switch. Sandia is committed to ISDN as an integral part of data communication services, and it views ISDN as one part of a continuum of services -- services that range from ISDN`s asynchronous and limited bandwidth Ethernet (250--1000 Kbps) through full bandwidth Ethernet, FDDI, and ATM at Sonet rates. Sandia has demonstrated this commitment through its use of ISDN data features to support critical progmmmatic services such as access to corporate data base systems. In the future, ISDN will provide enhanced voice, data communication, and video services.

  7. Electrochemistry, surface plasmon resonance, and quartz crystal microbalance: an associative study on cytochrome c adsorption on pyridine tail-group monolayers on gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Tércio de F; de Sousa, Ticyano P; de Abreu, Dieric S; Felício, Nathalie H; Bernhardt, Paul V; Lopes, Luiz G de F; Sousa, Eduardo H S; Diógenes, Izaura C N

    2013-07-25

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and electrochemistry techniques were used to study the electron-transfer (ET) reaction of cytochrome c (Cyt c) on gold surfaces modified with thionicotinamide, thioisonicotinamide, 4-mercaptopyridine, 5-(4-pyridyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol, 5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol, 4,4'-bipyridine, and 4,4'-dithiopyridine. The electrochemical results showed that the ET process is complex, being chiefly diffusional with steps depending on the orientation of the pyridine or phenyl tail group of the modifiers. The correlation between the electrochemical results and those acquired by SPR and QCM indicated the presence of an adlayer of Cyt c adsorbed on the thiolate SAMs. This adlayer, although being not electroactive, is essential to assess the ET reaction of Cyt c in solution. The results presented in this work are consistent with the statement (Feng, Z. Q.; Imabayashi, S.; Kakiuchi, T.; Niki, K. J. Electroanal. Chem. 1995, 394, 149-154) that the ET reaction of Cyt c can be explained in terms of the through-bond tunneling mechanism.

  8. Development of the Sandia Cooler.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Koplow, Jeffrey P.; Staats, Wayne Lawrence,; Curgus, Dita Brigitte; Leick, Michael Thomas.; Matthew, Ned Daniel; Zimmerman, Mark D.; Arienti, Marco; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Hecht, Ethan S.; Spencer, Nathan A.; Vanness, Justin William.; Gorman, Ryan

    2013-12-01

    This report describes an FY13 effort to develop the latest version of the Sandia Cooler, a breakthrough technology for air-cooled heat exchangers that was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The project was focused on fabrication, assembly and demonstration of ten prototype systems for the cooling of high power density electronics, specifically high performance desktop computers (CPUs). In addition, computational simulation and experimentation was carried out to fully understand the performance characteristics of each of the key design aspects. This work culminated in a parameter and scaling study that now provides a design framework, including a number of design and analysis tools, for Sandia Cooler development for applications beyond CPU cooling.

  9. Sandia Laboratories energy programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundergan, C.D.; Mead, P.L.; Gillespie, R.S. (eds.)

    1977-03-01

    As one of the multiprogram laboratories of the Energy Research and Development Administration, Sandia Laboratories applies its resources to a number of nationally important programs. About 75 percent of these resources are applied to research and development for national security programs having to do primarily with nuclear weapons--the principal responsibility of the Laboratories. The remaining 25 percent are applied to energy programs and energy-related activities, particularly those requiring resources that are also used in nuclear weapon and other national security programs. Examples of such energy programs and activities are research into nuclear fusion, protection of nuclear materials from theft or diversion, and the disposal of radioactive waste. A number of technologies and disciplines developed for the weapon program are immediately applicable for the development of various energy sources. Instruments developed to detect, measure, and record the detonation of nuclear devices underground, now being used to support the development of in-situ processing of coal and oil shale, are examples. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of these and other energy programs being conducted by these laboratories in the development of economical and environmentally acceptable alternative energy sources. Energy programs are undertaken when they require capabilities used at the Laboratories for the weapon program, and when they have no adverse effect upon that primary mission. The parallel operation of weapon and energy activities allows optimum use of facilities and other resources.

  10. Sandia Technology engineering and science accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report briefly discusses the following research being conducted at Sandia Laboratories: Advanced Manufacturing -- Sandia technology helps keep US industry in the lead; Microelectronics-Sandia`s unique facilities transform research advances into manufacturable products; Energy -- Sandia`s energy programs focus on strengthening industrial growth and political decisionmaking; Environment -- Sandia is a leader in environmentally conscious manufacturing and hazardous waste reduction; Health Care -- New biomedical technologies help reduce cost and improve quality of health care; Information & Computation -- Sandia aims to help make the information age a reality; Transportation -- This new initiative at the Labs will help improve transportation, safety,l efficiency, and economy; Nonproliferation -- Dismantlement and arms control are major areas of emphasis at Sandia; and Awards and Patents -- Talented, dedicated employees are the backbone of Sandia`s success.

  11. Evaluation and optimization of quartz resonant-frequency retuned fork force sensors with high Q factors, and the associated electric circuits, for non-contact atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooe, Hiroaki; Fujii, Mikihiro; Tomitori, Masahiko; Arai, Toyoko

    2016-02-01

    High-Q factor retuned fork (RTF) force sensors made from quartz tuning forks, and the electric circuits for the sensors, were evaluated and optimized to improve the performance of non-contact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) performed under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. To exploit the high Q factor of the RTF sensor, the oscillation of the RTF sensor was excited at its resonant frequency, using a stray capacitance compensation circuit to cancel the excitation signal leaked through the stray capacitor of the sensor. To improve the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio in the detected signal, a small capacitor was inserted before the input of an operational (OP) amplifier placed in an UHV chamber, which reduced the output noise from the amplifier. A low-noise, wideband OP amplifier produced a superior S/N ratio, compared with a precision OP amplifier. The thermal vibrational density spectra of the RTF sensors were evaluated using the circuit. The RTF sensor with an effective spring constant value as low as 1000 N/m provided a lower minimum detection limit for force differentiation. A nc-AFM image of a Si(111)-7 × 7 surface was produced with atomic resolution using the RTF sensor in a constant frequency shift mode; tunneling current and energy dissipation images with atomic resolution were also simultaneously produced. The high-Q factor RTF sensor showed potential for the high sensitivity of energy dissipation as small as 1 meV/cycle and the high-resolution analysis of non-conservative force interactions.

  12. A 7.2 keV spherical crystal backlighter system for Sandia's Z Pulsed Power Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollmeier, M.; Knapp, P. F.; Ampleford, D. J.; Loisel, G. P.; Robertson, G.; Shores, J. E.; Smith, I. C.; Speas, C. S.; Porter, J. L.; McBride, R. D.

    2016-10-01

    Many experiments on Sandia's Z facility, a 30 MA, 100 ns rise-time, pulsed-power driver, use a monochromatic Quartz crystal imaging backlighter system at 1.865 keV (Si Heα) or 6.151 keV (Mn Heα) x-ray energy to radiograph an imploding liner (cylindrical tube) or wire array. The x-ray source is generated by the Z-Beamlet Laser (ZBL), which provides up to 4.5 kJ at 527 nm during a 6 ns window. Radiographs of an imploding thick-walled Beryllium liner at a convergence ratio of about 20 [CR =Rin . (0) /Rin . (t) ] were too opaque to identify the inner surface of the liner with high confidence, demonstrating the need for a higher-energy x-ray backlighter between 6 and 10 keV. We present the design, test and first application of a Ge (335) spherical crystal x-ray backlighter system using the 7.242 keV Co Heα resonance line. The system operates at an almost identical Bragg angle as the existing 1.865 and 6.151 keV backlighters, enhancing our capabilities such as two-color, two-frame radiography, without changing detector shielding hardware. SAND No: SAND2016-6724 A. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. DoE NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  14. NMSBA: Sandia Biotech 2016 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffing, Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this project is to modify the FluorAbody plasmid previously developed by Sandia Biotech to include a binding site for biotin by introducing the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP)and a gold binding protein (GBP) into a loop of the red fluorescent protein (mRFP).

  15. Discrimination of aromas from several kinds of alcohol using synthetic-resin-film-coated quartz resonator smell sensor; Gosei jushimaku wo tofushita suisho shindoshishiki nioi sensor ni yoru sake no shurui hanbetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Morita, T. Dogami, N.; Nanto, H. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan); Doguchi, Y. [Industrial Research Institute of Ishikawa Prefecture, Ishikawa (Japan)

    1997-08-20

    Transient response curves for aromas from several kinds of alcohol such as Fruit Liquor (8%), Wine (14%), Japanese Sake (15%) and Whisky (43%) are observed using quartz-crystal-resonator gas sensor coated with synthetic-resin-film(acrylic resin, alkyd resin or urethane resin). The pattern recognition analysis using principal component analysis or neural network analysis is carried out using four parameters which characterize the transient response curves. The recognition probability of neural network for four kinds of alcohol is 100% for 20 trials. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Using phonon resonances as a route to all-angle negative refraction in the far-infrared region: the case of crystal quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues da Silva, R; Macêdo da Silva, R; Dumelow, T; da Costa, J A P; Honorato, S B; Ayala, A P

    2010-10-15

    We consider how all-angle negative refraction may be induced in anisotropic crystals by making use of the phonon response. We investigate the example of crystal quartz at far-infrared wavelengths. Reflection and transmission measurements confirm the expected behavior, and show relatively high transmission efficiency at frequencies at which negative refraction occurs.

  17. A new equation of state for α-quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyar, Rudolph; Carpenter, John

    2015-06-01

    Quartz (SiO2) is often used as an optically transparent window for visar signals in shock experiments and is itself an active component of the experiments. Therefore, the shock response of quartz is an important input that must be known to high fidelity for precise measurement of other materials. We describe on-going work to develop a wide-range equation of state table that includes multiple phases and incorporates the latest high quality experimental and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The emphasis in this work is the proper description of α-quartz along its principal Hugoniot through Stishovite and liquid phases. While molecular dissociation occurs at high pressures and temperatures, we find that an additional dissociation model is unnecessary. Although SiO2 possesses a number of solid phases, we restrict our focus to α-quartz and Stishovite as these two provide the density change along the Hugoniot path. We compare the model to recently measured data on Sandia's Z-machine. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE.

  18. Committee to evaluate Sandia`s risk expertise: Final report. Volume 1: Presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, E.C.

    1998-05-01

    On July 1--2, 1997, Sandia National Laboratories hosted the External Committee to Evaluate Sandia`s Risk Expertise. Under the auspices of SIISRS (Sandia`s International Institute for Systematic Risk Studies), Sandia assembled a blue-ribbon panel of experts in the field of risk management to assess their risk programs labs-wide. Panelists were chosen not only for their own expertise, but also for their ability to add balance to the panel as a whole. Presentations were made to the committee on the risk activities at Sandia. In addition, a tour of Sandia`s research and development programs in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission was arranged. The panel attended a poster session featuring eight presentations and demonstrations for selected projects. Overviews and viewgraphs from the presentations are included in Volume 1 of this report. Presentations are related to weapons, nuclear power plants, transportation systems, architectural surety, environmental programs, and information systems.

  19. Voltage-controlled narrowband and wide, variable-range four-segment quartz crystal oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslan, Ruzaini; Satoh, Tomio; Akitsu, Tetsuya

    2012-03-01

    In this work, our goal is to develop a voltage-controlled variable-frequency quartz crystal oscillator with narrowband response, wide, variable frequency range and the capacity to oscillate across the series resonance frequency using a four-segment configuration of a quartz crystal oscillator. In conventional quartz oscillators, the quartz resonator is inserted in the feedback loop between the input and the output of the active circuit, providing sufficient gain and the phase relation. In the oscillator developed here, the quartz crystal resonator is inserted between the loop circuit and the ground potential. The performance of the voltage-controlled variable-frequency oscillator is demonstrated across the series resonance frequency.

  20. Mobile robotics research at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, W.D.

    1998-09-01

    Sandia is a National Security Laboratory providing scientific and engineering solutions to meet national needs for both government and industry. As part of this mission, the Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center conducts research and development in robotics and intelligent machine technologies. An overview of Sandia`s mobile robotics research is provided. Recent achievements and future directions in the areas of coordinated mobile manipulation, small smart machines, world modeling, and special application robots are presented.

  1. Charter of the Sandia National Laboratories Sandia Postdoctoral Development (SPD) Association.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Amber Alane Fisher; McBride, Amber Alane Fisher; Rodgers, Theron; Dong, Wen; Juan, Pierre-Alexandre; Barkholtz, Heather; Alley, William Morgan; Wolk, Benjamin Matthew; Vane, Zachary Phillips; Priye, Aashish; Ball, Cameron Scott; McBride, Amber Alane Fisher

    2017-03-01

    The SNL SPD Association represents all personnel that are classified as Postdoctoral Appointees at Sandia National Laboratories. The purpose of the SNL SPD Association is to address the needs and concerns of Postdoctoral Appointees within Sandia National Laboratories.

  2. Mass flux response comparisons of a 200-MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator microbalance to a 15-MHz thermoelectric quartz crystal microbalance (TQCM) in a high-vacuum environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Donald A.; Bowers, William D.

    1994-10-01

    Using a 200 MHz Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) resonator device as a high-vacuum molecular deposition microbalance, similar to a bulk quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and an often-used 15 MHz thermoelectric QCM (TQCM), a comparison of various parameters was made during a high-vacuum outgassing experiment. The source of molecular outgassing was a bright aluminum foil which was cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature and alternately, to ambient temperature. The two sensors, the SAW QCM and the TQCM were placed next to each other and viewed only the aluminum foil. In this high-vacuum environment, a comparison between various parameters, i.e., mass sensitivity, long term drift rate, stability, thermal effects and dynamic range of the SAW and the TQCM, was obtained.

  3. Sandia`s computer support units: The first three years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Labs. Computing Dept.

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes the method by which Sandia National Laboratories has deployed information technology to the line organizations and to the desktop as part of the integrated information services organization under the direction of the Chief Information officer. This deployment has been done by the Computer Support Unit (CSU) Department. The CSU approach is based on the principle of providing local customer service with a corporate perspective. Success required an approach that was both customer compelled at times and market or corporate focused in most cases. Above all, a complete solution was required that included a comprehensive method of technology choices and development, process development, technology implementation, and support. It is the authors hope that this information will be useful in the development of a customer-focused business strategy for information technology deployment and support. Descriptions of current status reflect the status as of May 1997.

  4. Sandia software guidelines: Software quality planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. In consonance with the IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans, this volume identifies procedures to follow in producing a Software Quality Assurance Plan for an organization or a project, and provides an example project SQA plan. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Sandia National Laboratories analysis code data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, mission is to solve important problems in the areas of national defense, energy security, environmental integrity, and industrial technology. The Laboratories` strategy for accomplishing this mission is to conduct research to provide an understanding of the important physical phenomena underlying any problem, and then to construct validated computational models of the phenomena which can be used as tools to solve the problem. In the course of implementing this strategy, Sandia`s technical staff has produced a wide variety of numerical problem-solving tools which they use regularly in the design, analysis, performance prediction, and optimization of Sandia components, systems and manufacturing processes. This report provides the relevant technical and accessibility data on the numerical codes used at Sandia, including information on the technical competency or capability area that each code addresses, code ``ownership`` and release status, and references describing the physical models and numerical implementation.

  6. Sandia concentrator array testing experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwin, H. J.; Rogers, C. B.; Beavis, L. C.

    An assortment of PV concentrator modules and arrays have been tested and evaluated at the Sandia outdoor test facility. These test items include actively-cooled parabolic reflector and linear Fresnel lens concentrators, and actively- and passively-cooled point focus collectors. Maximum power efficiencies were measured over a range of sunlight intensities and cell temperatures, then a linear equation relating efficiency to cell temperature and insolation was developed for each module and array by using a multiple linear regression analysis technique on the data. An evaluation of the suitability of Polyvinyl-Butyral (PVB) as a material used to laminate solar cells to glass is presented. Some general observations are made on the accuracy of tracking systems, and the maintenance of these systems.

  7. Sandia`s network for supercomputing `95: Validating the progress of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, T.J.; Vahle, O.; Gossage, S.A.

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Networking Integration Department at Sandia National Laboratories has used the annual Supercomputing conference sponsored by the IEEE and ACM for the past three years as a forum to demonstrate and focus communication and networking developments. For Supercomputing `95, Sandia elected: to demonstrate the functionality and capability of an AT&T Globeview 20Gbps Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switch, which represents the core of Sandia`s corporate network, to build and utilize a three node 622 megabit per second Paragon network, and to extend the DOD`s ACTS ATM Internet from Sandia, New Mexico to the conference`s show floor in San Diego, California, for video demonstrations. This paper documents those accomplishments, discusses the details of their implementation, and describes how these demonstrations supports Sandia`s overall strategies in ATM networking.

  8. SAW Temperature Sensor on Quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhgoon, Sergei; Shvetsov, Alexander; Ancev, Ivan; Bogoslovsky, Sergei; Sapozhnikov, Gennadiy; Trokhimets, Konstantin; Derkach, Mikhail

    2015-06-01

    For biomedical applications, narrow temperature range and high sensor accuracy requirements define the need for high temperature sensitivity. Wireless SAW sensors connected to antennas need a reference element to account for changes in electromagnetic coupling between the transmitter and receiver antennas. A pair of sensors with different temperature sensitivities may serve as a self-referenced sensor assembly. This justifies the need for materials with useful SAW resonator properties and with the largest difference between temperature coefficients of frequency (TCF) for a resonator pair on a single substrate. We have identified several cuts of quartz having useful properties with a TCF difference up to 140 ppm/°C for a pair of resonators on a single substrate. As a rule, placing such resonators on a single substrate requires their rotation by up to 90° relative to each other. The limited range of cuts presents a unique opportunity to place both resonators along the X+90° direction with one resonator using Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu (BGS) waves (with electrodes placed along the x-axis) and the other one (with electrodes inclined by about ±10° to the x-axis) using quasi-Rayleigh waves. These cuts are close to the 70°Y cut where a high TCF difference is reached together with acceptable characteristics of the resonators. Resonators were designed for all useful cuts (including the 70°Y cut) and tested. The use of different periods in reflectors and interdigital transducer (IDT) together with individual choice of gaps between reflectors and IDT meant achieving low spurious content in resonator responses. The quality factors reached values up to 3500 at central frequencies around 915 MHz for both BGS and quasi-Rayleigh types of waves. The measured difference of the TCF is about 138 ppm/°C on 70°Y cut that is close to the calculated value.

  9. Radiation Damage of Quartz Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Hagopian, V

    1999-01-01

    Quartz fibers are used in high energy physics experiments as the active medium in high radiation area calorimetry. Quartz fibers are also used in the transmission of optical signals. Even though quartz does not damage by moderate amounts of irradiation, the clad of the fibers and the protective coating ( buffer) do damage reducing light transmission. Various types of quartz fibers have been irradiated and measured for light transmission. The most radiation hard quartz fibers are those with quartz clad and aluminum buffer.

  10. QUARTZ FIBER ELECTROSCOPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, R.P.

    1957-09-17

    An instrument carried unobtrusively about the person such as in a finger ring to indicate when that person has been exposed to an unusual radiation hazard is described. A metallized quartz fiber is electrically charged to indicate a full scale reading on an etched glass background. The quartz fiber and the scale may be viewed through a magnifying lens for ease of reading. Incident radiation will ionize gaseous particles in the sealed structure thereby allowing the charge to leak off the quartz fiber with its resulting movement across the scale proportionally indicating the radiation exposure.

  11. Building business from technology: The Sandia experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traylor, L.B.

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes New Ventures, a new initiative at Sandia National Laboratories that encourages the creation of new businesses based on laboratory technology as a timely, efficient means of technology transfer. Sandia`s New Ventures program has shown that a dedicated effort can produce significant results. In the three years prior to this program`s launch, just two ventures per year on average were created based on laboratory technology. By comparison, the New Ventures program has enabled 20 new ventures in its first nine months of full operation.

  12. Building business from technology: The Sandia experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traylor, L.B.

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes New Ventures, a new initiative at Sandia National Laboratories that encourages the creation of new businesses based on laboratory technology as a timely, efficient means of technology transfer. Sandia`s New Ventures program has shown that a dedicated effort can produce significant results. In the three years prior to this program`s launch, just two ventures per year on average were created based on laboratory technology. By comparison, the New Ventures program has enabled 20 new ventures in its first nine months of full operation.

  13. Basic characteristics of quartz crystal sensor with interdigitated electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Muramatsu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes basic characteristics of the quartz crystal sensor with interdigitated electrodes (IDE quartz crystal sensor which is for simultaneous monitoring of mass, viscosity, conductivity and dielectric changes of liquids or thin films. As the IDE quartz crystal sensor has three terminals for a pair of IDEs on the one side and a counter electrode on the other side, the resonance properties have been analyzed using the electrical equivalent circuit models and measured experimentally for all connecting types of electrode pairs. The IDE quartz crystal has shown clear resonance curves for calculating the resonance frequency and resonance resistance values as well as normal quartz crystal in the air and in contact with liquid. Small shifts in the resonance frequency and resonance resistance depending on the connecting types have been obtained and analyzed using the equivalent circuit models. We have found the integrated quartz crystal and IDE sensors could be monitored simultaneously by only one impedance analyzer. Finally, two types of measuring systems have been demonstrated for continuous measuring methods.

  14. NNSA Master Asset Map - Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billie, Gepetta S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report gives information on the following topics related to Sandia National Laboratories: site leadership's vision, condition, footprint management, major gaps and risks, and proposed investment plan.

  15. Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities: computation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    This report characterizes the computation systems capabilities at Sandia Laboratories. Selected applications of these capabilities are presented to illustrate the extent to which they can be applied in research and development programs. 9 figures.

  16. Sandia software guidelines: Volume 5, Tools, techniques, and methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. This volume describes software tools and methodologies available to Sandia personnel for the development of software, and outlines techniques that have proven useful within the Laboratories and elsewhere. References and evaluations by Sandia personnel are included. 6 figs.

  17. Pathfinder radar development at Sandia National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Steven

    2016-05-01

    Since the invention of Synthetic Aperture Radar imaging in the 1950's, users or potential users have sought to exploit SAR imagery for a variety of applications including the earth sciences and defense. At Sandia Laboratories, SAR Research and Development and associated defense applications grew out of the nuclear weapons program in the 1980's and over the years has become a highly viable ISR sensor for a variety of tactical applications. Sandia SAR systems excel where real-­-time, high-­-resolution, all-­-weather, day or night surveillance is required for developing situational awareness. This presentation will discuss the various aspects of Sandia's airborne ISR capability with respect to issues related to current operational success as well as the future direction of the capability as Sandia seeks to improve the SAR capability it delivers into multiple mission scenarios. Issues discussed include fundamental radar capabilities, advanced exploitation techniques and human-­-computer interface (HMI) challenges that are part of the advances required to maintain Sandia's ability to continue to support ever changing and demanding mission challenges.

  18. Biomedical engineering at Sandia National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanner, Mary Ann

    1994-12-01

    The potential exists to reduce or control some aspects of the U.S. health care expenditure without compromising health care delivery by developing carefully selected technologies which impact favorably on the health care system. A focused effort to develop such technologies is underway at Sandia National Laboratories. As a DOE National Laboratory, Sandia possesses a wealth of engineering and scientific expertise that can be readily applied to this critical national need. Appropriate mechanisms currently exist to allow transfer of technology from the laboratory to the private sector. Sandia's Biomedical Engineering Initiative addresses the development of properly evaluated, cost-effective medical technologies through team collaborations with the medical community. Technology development is subjected to certain criteria including wide applicability, earlier diagnoses, increased efficiency, cost-effectiveness and dual-use. Examples of Sandia's medical technologies include a noninvasive blood glucose sensor, computer aided mammographic screening, noninvasive fetal oximetry and blood gas measurement, burn diagnostics and laser debridement, telerobotics and ultrasonic scanning for prosthetic devices. Sandia National Laboratories has the potential to aid in directing medical technology development efforts which emphasize health care needs, earlier diagnosis, cost containment and improvement of the quality of life.

  19. Sandia's Z-Backlighter Laser Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, P.; Schwarz, J.; Schollmeier, M.; Geissel, M.; Smith, I.; Kimmel, M.; Speas, C.; Shores, J.; Armstrong, D.; Bellum, J.; Field, E.; Kletecka, D.; Porter, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Z-Backlighter Laser Facility at Sandia National Laboratories was developed to enable high energy density physics experiments in conjunction with the Z Pulsed Power Facility at Sandia National Laboratories, with an emphasis on backlighting. Since the first laser system there became operational in 2001, the facility has continually evolved to add new capability and new missions. The facility currently has several high energy laser systems including the nanosecond/multi-kilojoule Z-Beamlet Laser (ZBL), the sub-picosecond/kilojoule- class Z-Petawatt (ZPW) Laser, and the smaller nanosecond/100 J-class Chaco laser. In addition to these, the backlighting mission requires a regular stream of coated consumable optics such as debris shields and vacuum windows, which led to the development of the Sandia Optics Support Facility to support the unique high damage threshold optical coating needs described.

  20. Sandia Software Guidelines, Volume 2. Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. In consonance with the IEEE Standards for software documentation, this volume provides guidance in the selection of an adequate document set for a software project and example formats for many types of software documentation. A tutorial on life cycle documentation is also provided. Extended document thematic outlines and working examples of software documents are available on electronic media as an extension of this volume.

  1. Simulation and off-line programming at Sandia`s Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, P.G.; Fahrenholtz, J.C.; McDonald, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center] [and others

    1997-11-01

    One role of the Intelligent Robotics and System Center (ISRC) at Sandia National Laboratories is to address certain aspects of Sandia`s mission to design, manufacture, maintain, and dismantle nuclear weapon components. Hazardous materials, devices, and environments are often involved. Because of shrinking resources, these tasks must be accomplished with a minimum of prototyping, while maintaining high reliability. In this paper, the authors describe simulation, off-line programming/planning, and related tools which are in use, under development, and being researched to solve these problems at the ISRC.

  2. Average life of oxygen vacancies of quartz in sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DIAO; Shaobo(刁少波); YE; Yuguang(业渝光)

    2002-01-01

    Average life of oxygen vacancies of quartz in sediments is estimated by using the ESR (electron spin resonance) signals of E( centers from the thermal activation technique. The experimental results show that the second-order kinetics equation is more applicable to the life estimation compared with the first order equation. The average life of oxygen vacancies of quartz from 4895 to 4908 deep sediments in the Tarim Basin is about 1018 a at 27℃.

  3. SAPLE: Sandia Advanced Personnel Locator Engine.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procopio, Michael J.

    2010-04-01

    We present the Sandia Advanced Personnel Locator Engine (SAPLE) web application, a directory search application for use by Sandia National Laboratories personnel. SAPLE's purpose is to return Sandia personnel 'results' as a function of user search queries, with its mission to make it easier and faster to find people at Sandia. To accomplish this, SAPLE breaks from more traditional directory application approaches by aiming to return the correct set of results while placing minimal constraints on the user's query. Two key features form the core of SAPLE: advanced search query interpretation and inexact string matching. SAPLE's query interpretation permits the user to perform compound queries when typing into a single search field; where able, SAPLE infers the type of field that the user intends to search on based on the value of the search term. SAPLE's inexact string matching feature yields a high-quality ranking of personnel search results even when there are no exact matches to the user's query. This paper explores these two key features, describing in detail the architecture and operation of SAPLE. Finally, an extensive analysis on logged search query data taken from an 11-week sample period is presented.

  4. Quartz crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for growing single crystals from an amorphous substance that can undergo phase transformation to the crystalline state in an appropriate solvent. The process is carried out in an autoclave having a lower dissolution zone and an upper crystallization zone between which a temperature differential (.DELTA.T) is maintained at all times. The apparatus loaded with the substance, solvent, and seed crystals is heated slowly maintaining a very low .DELTA.T between the warmer lower zone and cooler upper zone until the amorphous substance is transformed to the crystalline state in the lower zone. The heating rate is then increased to maintain a large .DELTA.T sufficient to increase material transport between the zones and rapid crystallization. .alpha.-Quartz single crystal can thus be made from fused quartz in caustic solvent by heating to 350.degree. C. stepwise with a .DELTA.T of 0.25.degree.-3.degree. C., increasing the .DELTA.T to about 50.degree. C. after the fused quartz has crystallized, and maintaining these conditions until crystal growth in the upper zone is completed.

  5. Sandia Agile MEMS Prototyping, Layout Tools, Education and Services Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schriner, H.; Davies, B.; Sniegowski, J.; Rodgers, M.S.; Allen, J.; Shepard, C.

    1998-05-01

    Research and development in the design and manufacture of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is growing at an enormous rate. Advances in MEMS design tools and fabrication processes at Sandia National Laboratories` Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL) have broadened the scope of MEMS applications that can be designed and manufactured for both military and commercial use. As improvements in micromachining fabrication technologies continue to be made, MEMS designs can become more complex, thus opening the door to an even broader set of MEMS applications. In an effort to further research and development in MEMS design, fabrication, and application, Sandia National Laboratories has launched the Sandia Agile MEMS Prototyping, Layout Tools, Education and Services Program or SAMPLES program. The SAMPLES program offers potential partners interested in MEMS the opportunity to prototype an idea and produce hardware that can be used to sell a concept. The SAMPLES program provides education and training on Sandia`s design tools, analysis tools and fabrication process. New designers can participate in the SAMPLES program and design MEMS devices using Sandia`s design and analysis tools. As part of the SAMPLES program, participants` designs are fabricated using Sandia`s 4 level polycrystalline silicon surface micromachine technology fabrication process known as SUMMiT (Sandia Ultra-planar, Multi-level MEMS Technology). Furthermore, SAMPLES participants can also opt to obtain state of the art, post-fabrication services provided at Sandia such as release, packaging, reliability characterization, and failure analysis. This paper discusses the components of the SAMPLES program.

  6. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxamusa, S H

    2011-11-16

    We are using a Qpod quartz crystal microbalance (manufactured by Inficon) for use as a low-volume non-volatile residue analysis tool. Inficon has agreed to help troubleshoot some of our measurements and are requesting to view some sample data, which are attached. The basic principle of an NVR analysis is to evaporate a known volume of solvent, and weigh the remaining residue to determine the purity of the solvent. A typical NVR analysis uses 60 g of solvent and can measure residue with an accuracy of +/- 0.01 mg. The detection limit is thus (0.01 mg)/(60 g) = 0.17 ppm. We are attempting to use a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to make a similar measurement. The attached data show the response of the QCM as a 5-20 mg drop of solvent evaporates on its surface. The change in mass registered by the QCM after the drop evaporates is the residue that deposits on the crystal. On some measurements, the change in mass in less than zero, which is aphysical since the drop will leave behind {>=}0 mass of residue. The vendor, Inficon, has agreed to look at these data as a means to help troubleshoot the cause.

  7. Compilation of Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundergan, C. D.; Mead, P. L. [eds.

    1975-11-01

    This report is a compilation of 17 individual documents that together summarize the technical capabilities of Sandia Laboratories. Each document in this compilation contains details about a specific area of capability. Examples of application of the capability to research and development problems are provided. An eighteenth document summarizes the content of the other seventeen. Each of these documents was issued with a separate report number (SAND 74-0073A through SAND 74-0091, except -0078). (RWR)

  8. Sandia National Laboratories focus issue: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boye, Robert

    2014-08-20

    For more than six decades, Sandia has provided the critical science and technology to address the nation's most challenging issues. Our original nuclear weapons mission has been complemented with work in defense systems, energy and climate, as well as international and homeland security. Our vision is to be a premier science and engineering laboratory for technology solutions to the most challenging problems that threaten peace and freedom for our nation and the globe.

  9. Resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    an impetus or drive to that account: change, innovation, rupture, or discontinuity. Resonances: Historical Essays on Continuity and Change explores the historiographical question of the modes of interrelation between these motifs in historical narratives. The essays in the collection attempt to realize...... theoretical consciousness through historical narrative ‘in practice’, by discussing selected historical topics from Western cultural history, within the disciplines of history, literature, visual arts, musicology, archaeology, philosophy, and theology. The title Resonances indicates the overall perspective...

  10. Overview of Sandia's electric vehicle battery program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. P.

    1993-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is actively involved in several projects which are part of an overall Electric Vehicle Battery Program. Part of this effort is funded by the United States Department of Energy/Office of Transportation Technologies (DOE/OTT) and the remainder is funded through the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). DOE/OTT supported activities include research and development of zinc/air and sodium/sulfur battery technologies as well as double layer capacitor (DLC) R&D. Projects in the USABC funded work include lithium/polymer electrolyte (LPE) R&D, sodium/sulfur activities and battery test and evaluation.

  11. Sandia technology engineering and science accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    Sandia is a DOE multiprogram engineering and science laboratory with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California, and a test range near Tonapah, Nevada. We have major research and development responsibilities for nuclear weapons, arms control, energy, the environment, economic competitiveness, and other areas of importance to the needs of the nation. Our principal mission is to support national defense policies by ensuring that the nuclear weapon stockpile meets the highest standards of safety, reliability, security, use control, and military performance. Selected unclassified technical activities and accomplishments are reported here. Topics include advanced manufacturing technologies, intelligent machines, computational simulation, sensors and instrumentation, information management, energy and environment, and weapons technology.

  12. Sandia software guidelines. Volume 3. Standards, practices, and conventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-07-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. In consonance with the IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans, this volume identifies software standards, conventions, and practices. These guidelines are the result of a collective effort within Sandia National Laboratories to define recommended deliverables and to document standards, practices, and conventions which will help ensure quality software. 66 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Site Environmental Report for 2007: Sandia National Laboratories, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Environmental Management Dept.

    2008-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) is a government-owned/contractor-operated laboratory. Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, operates the laboratory for the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The NNSA Sandia Site Office oversees operations at the site, using Sandia Corporation as a management and operating contractor. This Site Environmental Report for 2007 was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A (DOE 2004a). The report provides a summary of environmental monitoring information and compliance activities that occurred at SNL/CA during calendar year 2007. General site and environmental program information is also included.

  14. Site environmental report for 2003 Sandia National Laboratories, California.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2004-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) is a government-owned/contractor-operated laboratory. Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, operates the laboratory for the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration. The DOE Sandia Site Office oversees operations at the site, using Sandia Corporation as a management and operating contractor. This Site Environmental Report for 2003 was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A. The report provides a summary of environmental monitoring information and compliance activities that occurred at SNL/CA during calendar year 2003. General site and environmental program information is also included.

  15. Site environmental report for 2004 Sandia National Laboratories, California.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) is a government-owned/contractor-operated laboratory. Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, operates the laboratory for the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration. The DOE Sandia Site Office oversees operations at the site, using Sandia Corporation as a management and operating contractor. This Site Environmental Report for 2004 was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A. The report provides a summary of environmental monitoring information and compliance activities that occurred at SNL/CA during calendar year 2004. General site and environmental program information is also included.

  16. Site environmental report for 2005 Sandia National Laboratories, California.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2006-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) is a government-owned/contractor-operated laboratory. Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, operates the laboratory for the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The DOE/NNSA Sandia Site Office (SSO) oversees operations at the site, using Sandia Corporation as a management and operating contractor. This Site Environmental Report for 2005 was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A. The report provides a summary of environmental monitoring information and compliance activities that occurred at SNL/CA during calendar year 2005. General site and environmental program information is also included.

  17. Site environmental report for 2006 Sandia National Laboratories, California.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2007-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) is a government-owned/contractor-operated laboratory. Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, operates the laboratory for the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The NNSA Sandia Site Office oversees operations at the site, using Sandia Corporation as a management and operating contractor. This Site Environmental Report for 2006 was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A (DOE 2004a). The report provides a summary of environmental monitoring information and compliance activities that occurred at SNL/CA during calendar year 2006. General site and environmental program information is also included.

  18. Site environmental report for 2008 Sandia National Laboratories, California.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2009-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) is a government-owned/contractor operated laboratory. Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, operates the laboratory for the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The NNSA Sandia Site Office oversees operations at the site, using Sandia Corporation as a management and operating contractor. This Site Environmental Report for 2008 was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A (DOE 2004a). The report provides a summary of environmental monitoring information and compliance activities that occurred at SNL/CA during calendar year 2008. General site and environmental program information is also included.

  19. Teamwork and diversity: A survey at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apodaca, T.; Berman, M.; Griego, C.; Jansma, R.; Leatherwood, M.; Lovato, L.; Sanchez, A.

    1995-11-01

    In September, 1994, Sandia`s Diversity Leadership and Education Outreach Center arid the Corporate Diversity Team commissioned a Diversity Action Team (DAT-Phase II) to address the area of team- work. The goal of this DAT was to identify ways to capitalize on the diversity of people to enhance team success at Sandia. Given a six- month lifetime and funding levels of 12 hours per person per month, we chose to accomplish our goal by gathering and analyzing data on the performance and diversity of Sandia teams and publishing this report of our findings. The work presented herein builds on earlier work of this team.

  20. Power Supplies for Space Systems Quality Assurance by Sandia Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, R. L.; Harnar, R. R.

    1976-07-01

    The Sandia Laboratories` participation in Quality Assurance programs for Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators which have been used in space systems over the past 10 years is summarized. Basic elements of this QA program are briefly described and recognition of assistance from other Sandia organizations is included. Descriptions of the various systems for which Sandia has had the QA responsibility are presented, including SNAP 19 (Nimbus, Pioneer, Viking), SNAP 27 (Apollo), Transit, Multi Hundred Watt (LES 8/9 and MJS), and a new program, High Performance Generator Mod 3. The outlook for Sandia participation in RTG programs for the next several years is noted.

  1. A History of Building 828, Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, Rebecca

    1999-08-01

    This report documents the history of Building 828 in Sandia National Laboratories' Technical Area I. Building 828 was constructed in 1946 as a mechanical test laboratory for Los Alamos' Z-Division (later Sandia) as it moved to Sandia Base. The building has undergone significant remodeling over the years and has had a variety of occupants. The building was evaluated in compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act, but was not eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. Nevertheless, for many Labs employees, it was a symbol of Sandia's roots in World War II and the Manhattan Project.

  2. Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Nanobalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzelt, György

    The method of piezoelectric microgravimetry (nanogravimetry) using an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) or nanobalance (EQCN) can be considered as a novel and much more sensitive version of electrogravimetry. The EQCN technique has become a widely used technique in several areas of electrochemistry, electroanalytical chemistry, bioelectrochemistry, etc. [1-10]. Obviously, mass changes occurring during adsorption, sorption, electrosorption, electrodeposition, or spontaneous deposition can be followed, which is very helpful for the elucidation of reaction mechanism via identification of the species accumulated on the surface. These investigations include metal and alloy deposition, underpotential deposition, electroplating, synthesis of conducting polymers by electropolymerization, adsorption of biologically active materials, and analytical determination of small ions and biomolecules. Of course, the opposite processes, i.e., spontaneous dissolution, electrodissolution, corrosion, can also be studied. Electrochemical oscillations, in which the formation and oxidation of chemisorbed molecular fragments play a determining role, have been studied, too. The majority of the investigations have been devoted to ion and solvent transport associated with the redox transformations of electrochemically active polymers. Similar studies have been carried out regarding polynuclear surface layers such as metal hexacyanometalates as well as inorganic and organic microcrystals of different compositions.

  3. Nanosatellite program at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Kern, J.P.; Schoeneman, J.L.

    1999-11-11

    The concept of building extremely small satellites which, either independently or as a collective, can perform missions which are comparable to their much larger cousins, has fascinated scientists and engineers for several years now. In addition to the now commonplace microelectronic integrated circuits, the more recent advent of technologies such as photonic integrated circuits (PIC's) and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) have placed such a goal within their grasp. Key to the acceptance of this technology will be the ability to manufacture these very small satellites in quantity without sacrificing their performance or versatility. In support of its nuclear treaty verification, proliferation monitoring and other remote sensing missions, Sandia National laboratories has had a 35-year history of providing highly capable systems, densely packaged for unintrusive piggyback missions on government satellites. As monitoring requirements have become more challenging and remote sensing technologies become more sophisticated, packaging greater capability into these systems has become a requirement. Likewise, dwindling budgets are pushing satellite programs toward smaller and smaller platforms, reinforcing the need for smaller, cheaper satellite systems. In the next step of its miniaturization plan, Sandia has begun development of technologies for a highly integrated miniature satellite. The focus of this development is to achieve nanosat or smaller dimensions while maintaining significant capability utilizing semiconductor wafer-level integration and, at the same time promoting affordability through modular generic construction.

  4. HyMARC (Sandia) Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Stavila, Vitalie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Klebanoff, Leonard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kolasinski, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); El Gabaly Marquez, Farid [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhou, Xiaowang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); White, James Lawrence [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The Sandia HyMARC team continued its development of new synthetic, modeling, and diagnostic tools that are providing new insights into all major classes of storage materials, ranging from relatively simple systems such as PdHx and MgH2, to exceptionally complex ones, such as the metal borohydrides, as well as materials thought to be very well-understood, such as Ti-doped NaAlH4. This unprecedented suite of capabilities, capable of probing all relevant length scales within storage materials, is already having a significant impact, as they are now being used by both Seedling projects and collaborators at other laboratories within HyMARC. We expect this impact to grow as new Seedling projects begin and through collaborations with other scientists outside HyMARC. In the coming year, Sandia efforts will focus on the highest impact problems, in coordination with the other HyMARC National Laboratory partners, to provide the foundational science necessary to accelerate the discovery of new hydrogen storage materials.

  5. Sandia combustion research program: Annual report, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, R.E.; Sanders, B.R.; Ivanetich, C.A. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    More than a decade ago, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Our strategy was to apply the rapidly increasing capabilities in lasers and computers to combustion science and technology. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''User Facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative--involving US universities, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions of several research projects which have been stimulated by Working Groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship Program has been instrumental in the success of some of the joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents research results of calendar year 1987, separated thematically into nine categories. Refereed journal articles appearing in print during 1987, along with selected other publications, are included at the end of Section 10. In addition to our ''traditional'' research--chemistry, reacting flow, diagnostics, engine combustion, and coal combustion--you will note continued progress in somewhat recent themes: pulse combustion, high temperature materials, and energetic materials, for example. Moreover, we have just started a small, new effort to understand combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  6. Quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based trace gas sensors using different quartz tuning forks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yufei; Yu, Guang; Zhang, Jingbo; Yu, Xin; Sun, Rui; Tittel, Frank K

    2015-03-27

    A sensitive trace gas sensor platform based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) is reported. A 1.395 μm continuous wave (CW), distributed feedback pigtailed diode laser was used as the excitation source and H2O was selected as the target analyte. Two kinds of quartz tuning forks (QTFs) with a resonant frequency (f0) of 30.72 kHz and 38 kHz were employed for the first time as an acoustic wave transducer, respectively for QEPAS instead of a standard QTF with a f0 of 32.768 kHz. The QEPAS sensor performance using the three different QTFs was experimentally investigated and theoretically analyzed. A minimum detection limit of 5.9 ppmv and 4.3 ppmv was achieved for f0 of 32.768 kHz and 30.72 kHz, respectively.

  7. Sandia National Laboratories Institutional Plan: FY 1996--2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Sandia`s Institutional Plan is by necessity a large document. As their missions have grown and diversified over the past decades, the variety of technical and site activities has increased. The programs and activities described here cover an enormous breadth of scientific and technological effort--from the creation of new materials to the development of a Sandia-wide electronic communications system. Today, there are three major themes that greatly influence this work. First, every federally funded institution is being challenged to find ways to become more cost effective, as the US seeks to reduce the deficit and achieve a balanced federal spending plan. Sandia is evaluating its business and operational processes to reduce the overall costs. Second, in response to the Galvin Task Force`s report ``Alternative Futures for the Department of Energy National Laboratories``, Sandia and the Department of Energy are working jointly to reduce the burden of administrative and compliance activities in order to devote more of the total effort to their principal research and development missions. Third, they are reevaluating the match between their missions and the programs they will emphasize in the future. They must demonstrate that Sandia`s roles--in national security, energy security, environmental integrity, and national scientific and technology agenda support--fit their special capabilities and skills and thus ensure their place in these missions for the longer planning horizon. The following areas are covered here: Sandia`s mission; laboratory directives; programmatic activities; technology partnerships and commercialization; Sandia`s resources; and protecting resources and the community.

  8. Sandia Technology: Engineering and science accomplishments, February 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is one of the Department of Energy`s primary research and development laboratories. Our essential mission is to support the national interests of the US in defense, energy, and the environment. Managed by Martin Marietta Corporation for DOE, Sandia focuses its resources on problems of national interest that require the integration of science and technology for their solution. We all hope that this period of sweeping alterations in international affairs will result in a successful transition from the Cold War to a period of sustainable global security and prosperity. In the meantime, our nation`s interests are best served by continued commitment to Sandia`s traditional responsibilities. Nonetheless, as momentous developments are reshaping the world, Sandia is also changing from its beginning as a closed operation concentrating on classified defense programs, Sandia has become a more accessible resource that focuses on research and development partnerships with industry and universities as a way to ensure continued success in DOE`s evolving core mission area of nuclear weapons, energy, environment, and the basis sciences. Through these collaborative efforts, Sandia and its partners are also benefiting the economic competitiveness of our nation. Sandia places a special emphasis on working with small businesses as both technology transfer partners and suppliers of goods and services. We are also reaching out the the larger community surrounding Sandia, striving to provide technological solution and accurate information to meet community needs. We believe that the dialogue we are creating will benefit Sandia, the community, and the nation. Our goal is to render `` exceptional service in the national interest`` by returning maximum value on the investment in the labs. As you review this document, look for new ways in which Sandia can contribute to the solution of problems facing our nation.

  9. Sandia`s network for Supercomputing `94: Linking the Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Sandia National Laboratories using switched multimegabit data service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahle, M.O.; Gossage, S.A.; Brenkosh, J.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Networking Integration Dept.

    1995-01-01

    Supercomputing `94, a high-performance computing and communications conference, was held November 14th through 18th, 1994 in Washington DC. For the past four years, Sandia National Laboratories has used this conference to showcase and focus its communications and networking endeavors. At the 1994 conference, Sandia built a Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS) network running at 44.736 megabits per second linking its private SMDS network between its facilities in Albuquerque, New Mexico and Livermore, California to the convention center in Washington, D.C. For the show, the network was also extended from Sandia, New Mexico to Los Alamos National Laboratory and from Sandia, California to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This paper documents and describes this network and how it was used at the conference.

  10. 1992 DOE/Sandia crystalline photovoltaic technology project review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maish, A. [ed.

    1992-07-01

    This document serves as the proceedings for the annual project review meeting held by Sandia National Laboratories` Photovoltaic Technology and Photovoltaic Evaluation Departments. It contains information supplied by organizations making presentations at the meeting, which was held July 14--15, 1992 at the Sheraton Old Town Hotel in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Overview sessions covered the Department of Energy (DOE) program, including those at Sandia and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and non-DOE programs, including the EPRI concentrator collector program, The Japanese crystalline silicon program, and some concentrating photovoltaic activities in Europe. Additional sessions included papers on Sandia`s Photovoltaic Device Fabrication Laboratory`s collaborative research, cell processing research, the activities of the participants in the Concentrator Initiative Program, and photovoltaic technology evaluation at Sandia and NREL.

  11. Tonopah test range - outpost of Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.

    1996-03-01

    Tonopah Test Range is a unique historic site. Established in 1957 by Sandia Corporation, Tonopah Test Range in Nevada provided an isolated place for the Atomic Energy Commission to test ballistics and non-nuclear features of atomic weapons. It served this and allied purposes well for nearly forty years, contributing immeasurably to a peaceful conclusion to the long arms race remembered as the Cold War. This report is a brief review of historical highlights at Tonopah Test Range. Sandia`s Los Lunas, Salton Sea, Kauai, and Edgewood testing ranges also receive abridged mention. Although Sandia`s test ranges are the subject, the central focus is on the people who managed and operated the range. Comments from historical figures are interspersed through the narrative to establish this perspective, and at the end a few observations concerning the range`s future are provided.

  12. Energy technologies at Sandia National Laboratories: Past, Present, Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    We at Sandia first became involved with developing energy technology when the nation initiated its push toward energy independence in the early 1970s. That involvement continues to be strong. In shaping Sandia's energy programs for the 1990s, we will build on our track record from the 70s and 80s, a record outlined in this publication. It contains reprints of three issues of Sandia's Lab News that were devoted to our non-nuclear energy programs. Together, they summarize the history, current activities, and future of Sandia's diverse energy concerns; hence my desire to see them in one volume. Written in the fall of 1988, the articles cover Sandia's extremely broad range of energy technologies -- coal, oil and gas, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaics, wind, rechargeable batteries, and combustion.

  13. Massively Parallel Computing: A Sandia Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosanjh, Sudip S.; Greenberg, David S.; Hendrickson, Bruce; Heroux, Michael A.; Plimpton, Steve J.; Tomkins, James L.; Womble, David E.

    1999-05-06

    The computing power available to scientists and engineers has increased dramatically in the past decade, due in part to progress in making massively parallel computing practical and available. The expectation for these machines has been great. The reality is that progress has been slower than expected. Nevertheless, massively parallel computing is beginning to realize its potential for enabling significant break-throughs in science and engineering. This paper provides a perspective on the state of the field, colored by the authors' experiences using large scale parallel machines at Sandia National Laboratories. We address trends in hardware, system software and algorithms, and we also offer our view of the forces shaping the parallel computing industry.

  14. Sandia Data Archive (SDA) file specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Daniel H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ao, Tommy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Sandia Data Archive (SDA) format is a specific implementation of the HDF5 (Hierarchal Data Format version 5) standard. The format was developed for storing data in a universally accessible manner. SDA files may contain one or more data records, each associated with a distinct text label. Primitive records provide basic data storage, while compound records support more elaborate grouping. External records allow text/binary files to be carried inside an archive and later recovered. This report documents version 1.0 of the SDA standard. The information provided here is sufficient for reading from and writing to an archive. Although the format was original designed for use in MATLAB, broader use is encouraged.

  15. Space robotics programs at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klarer, P.

    1993-01-01

    Existing robotic rover and space satellite technologies at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), coupled with existing launch vehicles and converted military Multiple Independent Reentry Vehicle (MIRV) technologies, can be applied towards the realization of a robotic lunar rover mission in the near term. SNL`s Advanced Vehicle Development Department has been designing, producing, and operating prototype rover systems at the Robotic Vehicle Range facility since 1984, and has extensive experience with teleoperated and semiautonomous mobile robotic systems. SNL`s Space Systems Directorate has been designing, producing, and operating satellite systems and subsystems in earth orbit for national security missions since the early 1960`s. The facilities and robotic vehicle fleet at SNL`s Robotic Vehicle Range (SNL-RVR) have been used to support technology base development in applications ranging from DoD battlefield and security missions, to multi-agency nuclear emergency response team exercises and the development of a prototype robotic rover for planetary exploration. Recent activities at the SNL-RVR include the Robotic All Terrain Lunar Exploration Rover (RATLER) prototype development program, exploratory studies on a Near Term Lunar Return Mission scenario for small robotic rovers based on existing space hardware technology, and demonstrations of the utility of existing rover technologies for performing remote field geology tasks similar to those envisioned on a robotic lunar rover mission. Specific technologies demonstrated include low data rate teleoperation, multi-vehicle control, remote site and sample inspection, and standard bandwidth stereo vision. The paper describes Sandia National Laboratories` activities in the Space Robotics area, and highlights the laboratory`s supporting technical capabilities.

  16. Micromachined sensor and actuator research at Sandia`s Microelectronics Development Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.H.

    1996-11-01

    An overview of the surface micromachining program at the Microelectronics Development Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories is presented. Development efforts are underway for a variety of surface micromachined sensors and actuators for both defense and commercial applications. A technology that embeds micromechanical devices below the surface of the wafer prior to microelectronics fabrication has been developed for integrating microelectronics with surface-micromachined micromechanical devices. The application of chemical-mechanical polishing to increase the manufacturability of micromechanical devices is also presented.

  17. ByLaws for the Governance of the Sandia National Laboratories Sandia Postdoctoral Development (SPD) Association.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Amber Alane Fisher; McBride, Amber Alane Fisher; Rodgers, Theron; Dong, Wen; Juan, Pierre-Alexandre; Barkholtz, Heather; Alley, William Morgan; Wolk, Benjamin Matthew; Vane, Zachary Phillips; Priye, Aashish; Ball, Cameron Scott

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the rules of governance for the Sandia Postdoctoral Development (SPD) Association. This includes election procedures for filling vacancies on the SPD board, an all-purpose voting procedure, and definitions for the roles and responsibilities of each SPD board member. The voting procedures can also be used to amend the by-laws, as well as to create, dissolve, or consolidate vacant SPD board positions.

  18. Development of explosive event scale model testing capability at Sandia`s large scale centrifuge facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchat, T.K.; Davie, N.T.; Calderone, J.J. [and others

    1998-02-01

    Geotechnical structures such as underground bunkers, tunnels, and building foundations are subjected to stress fields produced by the gravity load on the structure and/or any overlying strata. These stress fields may be reproduced on a scaled model of the structure by proportionally increasing the gravity field through the use of a centrifuge. This technology can then be used to assess the vulnerability of various geotechnical structures to explosive loading. Applications of this technology include assessing the effectiveness of earth penetrating weapons, evaluating the vulnerability of various structures, counter-terrorism, and model validation. This document describes the development of expertise in scale model explosive testing on geotechnical structures using Sandia`s large scale centrifuge facility. This study focused on buried structures such as hardened storage bunkers or tunnels. Data from this study was used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of existing hydrocodes and structural dynamics codes developed at Sandia National Laboratories (such as Pronto/SPH, Pronto/CTH, and ALEGRA). 7 refs., 50 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Market Assessment and Commercialization Strategy for the Radial Sandia Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Shandross, Richard [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Weintraub, Daniel [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This market assessment and commercialization report characterizes and assesses the market potential of the rotating heat exchanger technology developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), known as the Radial Sandia Cooler. The RSC is a novel, motor-driven, rotating, finned heat exchanger technology. The RSC was evaluated for the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation markets. Recommendations for commercialization were made based on assessments of the prototype RSC and the Sandia Cooler technology in general, as well as an in-depth analysis of the six most promising products for initial RSC commercialization.

  20. Vibration control for precision manufacturing at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinnerichs, T.; Martinez, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural Dynamics and Vibration Control Dept.

    1995-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs R and D in structural dynamics and vibration suppression for precision applications in weapon systems, space, underwater, transportation and civil structures. Over the last decade these efforts have expanded into the areas of active vibration control and ``smart`` structures and material systems. In addition, Sandia has focused major resources towards technology to support weapon product development and agile manufacturing capability for defense and industrial applications. This paper will briefly describe the structural dynamics modeling and verification process currently in place at Sandia that supports vibration control and some specific applications of these techniques to manufacturing in the areas of lithography, machine tools and flexible robotics.

  1. Site Environmental Report for 2012 Sandia National Laboratories California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) is a government-owned/contractor-operated laboratory. Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, manages and operates the laboratory for the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The NNSA Sandia Field Office administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at the site. This Site Environmental Report for 2012 was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting (DOE 2011d). The report provides a summary of environmental monitoring information and compliance activities that occurred at SNL/CA during calendar year 2012. General site and environmental program information is also included.

  2. Site environmental report for 2011. Sandia National Laboratories, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) is a government-owned/contractoroperated laboratory. Sandia Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, manages and operates the laboratory for the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The NNSA Sandia Site Office administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at the site. This Site Environmental Report for 2011 was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting (DOE 2011d). The report provides a summary of environmental monitoring information and compliance activities that occurred at SNL/CA during calendar year 2011. General site and environmental program information is also included.

  3. Radiation Testing at Sandia National Laboratories: Sandia – JPL Collaboration for Europa Lander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Ion Beam Lab.; Olszewska-Wasiolek, Maryla Aleksandra [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Gamma Irradiation Facility

    2017-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is assisting Jet Propulsion Laboratory in undertaking feasibility studies and performance assessments for the Planetary Protection aspect of the Europa Lander mission. The specific areas of interest for this project are described by task number. This white paper presents the evaluation results for Task 2, Radiation Testing, which was stated as follows: Survey SNL facilities and capabilities for simulating the Europan radiation environment and assess suitability for: A. Testing batteries, electronics, and other component and subsystems B. Exposing biological organisms to assess their survivability metrics.

  4. Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities: design, definition, and fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    This report characterizes the design definition and fabrication capabilities at Sandia Laboratories. Selected applications of these capabilities are presented to illustrate the extent to which they can be applied in research and development programs. 13 figures.

  5. Sandia National Laboratories corporate mentor program : program review, May 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tibbetts, Tiffany; Tarro, Talitha; Dudeck, William; Bristol, Colette; Stephens, Jim

    2005-01-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories Corporate Mentor Program provides a mechanism for the development and retention of Sandia's people and knowledge. The relationships formed among staff members at different stages in their careers offer benefits to all. These relationships can provide experienced employees with new ideas and insight and give less experienced employees knowledge of Sandia's culture, strategies, and programmatic direction. The program volunteer coordinators are dedicated to the satisfaction of the participants, who come from every area of Sandia. Since its inception in 1995, the program has sustained steady growth and excellent customer satisfaction. This report summarizes the accomplishments, activities, enhancements, and evaluation data for the Corporate Mentor Program for the 2003/2004 program year ending May 1, 2004.

  6. Site Environmental Report for 2016 Sandia National Laboratories California.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility. The management and operations of the facility are under a contract with the DOE’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). On May 1, 2017, the name of the management and operating contractor changed from Sandia Corporation to National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC (NTESS). The DOE, NNSA, Sandia Field Office administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at the site. This Site Environmental Report for 2016 was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting (DOE 2012). The report provides a summary of environmental monitoring information and compliance activities that occurred at SNL/CA during calendar year 2016, unless noted otherwise. General site and environmental program information is also included.

  7. Electromodulated absorption in smoky quartz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, W.E. van den; Volger, J.

    1974-01-01

    The optical absorption coefficient of “smoky” quartz (containing aluminium) can be modulated by applying an electric field. The effect saturates at high fields and low temperatures and reaches a maximum at 535 nm. The results are discussed in terms of a model consisting of a colour centre, dipolar i

  8. Laser welding of fused quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltch, Martin S.; Carpenter, Robert W.; Archer, III, McIlwaine

    2003-06-10

    Refractory materials, such as fused quartz plates and rods are welded using a heat source, such as a high power continuous wave carbon dioxide laser. The radiation is optimized through a process of varying the power, the focus, and the feed rates of the laser such that full penetration welds may be accomplished. The process of optimization varies the characteristic wavelengths of the laser until the radiation is almost completely absorbed by the refractory material, thereby leading to a very rapid heating of the material to the melting point. This optimization naturally occurs when a carbon dioxide laser is used to weld quartz. As such this method of quartz welding creates a minimum sized heat-affected zone. Furthermore, the welding apparatus and process requires a ventilation system to carry away the silicon oxides that are produced during the welding process to avoid the deposition of the silicon oxides on the surface of the quartz plates or the contamination of the welds with the silicon oxides.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories Institutional Plan: FY 1999-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garber, D.P.

    1999-01-06

    This Institutional Plan is the most comprehensive yearly "snapshot" available of Sandia National Laboratories' major programs, facilities, human resources, and budget. The document also includes overviews of our missions, organization, capabilities, planning functions, milestones, and accomplishments. The document's purpose is to provide the above information to the US Department of Energy, key congressional committees, Sandia management, and other present and potential customers. Chapter 2 presents information about Sandia's mission and summarizes our recent revision of Sandia's Strategic Plan. Chapter 3 presents an overview of Sandia's strategic objectives, chapter 4 lists laboratory goals and milestones for FY 1999, and chapter 5 presents our accomplishments during FY 1998. Chapters 3 through 5 are organized around our eight strategic objectives. The four primary objectives cover nuclear weapons responsibilities, nonproliferation and materials control, energy and critical infrastructures, and emerging national security threats. The major programmatic initiatives are presented in chapter 7. However, the programmatic descriptions in chapter 6 and the Associated funding tables in chapter 9 continue to be presented by DOE Budget and Reporting Code, as in previous Sandia institutional plans. As an aid to the reader, the four primary strategic objectives in chapter 3 are cross-referenced to the program information in chapter 6.

  10. Partnering with Sandia National Laboratories through alliances or consortia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winchell, B.M.

    1994-12-01

    To better facilitate working with industry, groups of industrial participants, and partners in alliances or consortia, Sandia National Laboratories presents information helpful to those outside groups as to the forms of arrangements that may be used to better facilitate partnering relationships between Sandia National Laboratories and consortia or alliances of outside parties. It is expected that these alliances and consortia will include both large and small for-profit industrial concerns, as well as not-for-profit entities such as universities, institutes, other research facilities, and other nonprofit institutions or consortia containing institutions. The intent of this report is to provide such outside groups with information that will facilitate rapid interactions with Sandia National Laboratories through some of these forms of business which will be discussed in this report. These are not the only approaches to facilitating business interactions with Sandia National Laboratories and it is not intended that this report be legal advice or required approaches to doing business with Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this report is merely to suggest ways in which Sandia National Laboratories can work with outside parties in the most expeditious manner.

  11. Partnering with Sandia National Laboratories through alliances or consortia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winchell, B.M.

    1994-04-01

    To better facilitate working with industry, groups of industrial participants, and partners in alliances or consortia, Sandia National laboratories presents information helpful to those outside groups as to the forms of arrangements that may be used to better facilitate partnering relationships between Sandia National Laboratories and consortia or alliances of outside parties. It is expected that these alliances and consortia will include both large and small for-profit industrial concerns, as well as not-for-profit entities such as universities, institutes, other research facilities, and other nonprofit institutions or consortia containing institutions. The intent of this report is to provide such outside groups with information that will facilitate rapid interactions with Sandia National Laboratories through some of these forms of business which will be discussed in this report. These are not the only approaches to facilitating business interactions with Sandia National Laboratories and it is not intended that this report be legal advice or required approaches to doing business with Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this report is merely to suggest ways in which Sandia National Laboratories can work with outside parties in the most expeditious manner.

  12. 2nd Sandia Fracture Challenge Summit: Sandia California's Modeling Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlson, Kyle N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, Arthur [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Foulk, James W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Team Sandia California (Team H) used the Sandia code SIERRA Solid Mechanics: Implicit (SIERRA SM) to model the SFC2 challenge problem. SIERRA SM is a Lagrangian, three-dimensional, implicit code for the analysis of solids and structures. It contains a versatile library of continuum and structural elements, and an extensive library of material models. For all SFC2 related simulations, our team used Q1P0, 8 node hexahedral elements with element side lengths on the order 0.175 mm in failure regions. To model crack initiation and failure, element death removed elements from the simulation according to a continuum damage model. SIERRA SM’s implicit dynamics, implemented with an HHT time integration scheme for numerical damping [1], was used to model the unstable failure modes of the models. We chose SIERRA SM’s isotropic Elasto Viscoplastic material model for our simulations because it contains most of the physics required to accurately model the SFC2 challenge problem such as the flexibility to include temperature and rate dependence for a material.

  13. Direct monitoring of paraquat induced cell death using quartz crystal sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong-Yun [School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Technology, 1404-1 Katakura, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0982 (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering and NTRC, Dong-A University, 840 Hadan 2-dong, Saha-gu, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyen-Wook, E-mail: nanokang@bs.teu.ac.j [School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Technology, 1404-1 Katakura, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0982 (Japan); Kaneko, Seiichi [School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Technology, 1404-1 Katakura, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0982 (Japan); Kwon, Young-Soo, E-mail: yskwon@dau.ac.k [Department of Electrical Engineering and NTRC, Dong-A University, 840 Hadan 2-dong, Saha-gu, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Muramatsu, Hiroshi, E-mail: muramatu@bs.teu.ac.j [School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Technology, 1404-1 Katakura, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0982 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    Paraquat, a nonselective herbicide and pesticide, has been implicated as an environmental toxicity which caused cell death. In order to investigate the influence of paraquat, we used a quartz crystal sensor with a micro CCD camera that measured morphology and resonance characteristics simultaneously. Human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) was cultured onto an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface of quartz crystal modified on a collagen film. After the growth of the cells, paraquat was injected to the chamber and the resonance responses of the quartz crystal were directly monitored with morphology. We analyzed changes of the cells by the resonance frequency (F) and the resonance resistance (R) responses (F-R diagram). With this analysis, we also observed the morphologies during cell culturing. From the data, we could know that paraquat caused the weakening and death of the cells. Namely, paraquat plays an important role in the free radicals production that led to apoptosis and cell death.

  14. Finishing of AT-cut quartz crystal wafer with nanometric thickness uniformity by pulse-modulated atmospheric pressure plasma etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Kazuya; Ueda, Masaki; Shibahara, Masafumi; Zettsu, Nobuyuki

    2011-04-01

    Quartz resonator is a very important device to generate a clock frequency for information and telecommunication system. Improvement of the productivity of the quartz resonator is always required because a huge amount of the resonator is demanded for installing to various electronic devices. Resonance frequency of the quartz resonator is decided by the thickness of the quartz crystal wafer. Therefore, it is necessary to uniform the thickness distribution of the wafer with nanometric level. We have proposed the improvement technique of the thickness distribution of the quartz crystal wafer by numerically controlled correction using atmospheric pressure plasma which is non-contact and chemical removal technique. Heating effects of the quartz wafer in the removal rate and the correction accuracy were investigated. The heating of the substrate and compensate of the scanning speed of the worktable according to the variation of the surface temperature enabled an increase of 50% in the etching rate and 10-nanometric-level accuracy in the correction of the thickness distribution of the quartz wafer, respectively.

  15. Shock metamorphism of deformed quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Andrew J.; Christie, John; Tyburczy, James; Ahrens, Thomas; Pongratz, Peter

    1988-01-01

    The effect produced by shock loading (to peak pressures of 12 and 24) on deformed synthetic quartz containing a dislocation and abundant bubbles and small inclusions was investigated, and the relationships between preexisting dislocation density shock lamellae in the target material were examined. The resultant material was found to be inhomogeneously deformed and extremely fractured. Results of TEM examinations indicate that no change in dislocation density was caused by shock loading except in regions containing shock lamellae, where the dislocation density was lowered. The shock-induced defects tend to nucleate on and be controlled by preexisting stress concentrators; shock lamellae, glassy veins, and most curviplanar defects form in tension, presumably during release. An extremely mobile silica fluid is formed and injected into fractures during release, which forcibly removes crystalline fragments from vein walls. It is concluded that shock deformation in quartz is dominated by fracture and melting.

  16. Luminescence sensitivity changes in quartz

    CERN Document Server

    Wintle, A G

    1999-01-01

    In the luminescence dating of sedimentary or heated quartz, some heat treatment is usually applied to the sample immediately prior to the measurement of the optically stimulated luminescence. In this paper we report experiments on a 30,000-year-old sedimentary quartz, in which we use the luminescence response to a test dose to monitor the changes in sensitivity that are caused by holding the quartz at temperatures from 160 to 280 deg. C for times from 10 s to 22 h. For an optically bleached sample, the monitoring is by both optically stimulated luminescence and the 110 deg. C TL peak; both luminescence signals are shown to have the same sensitisation (i.e. activation energy) characteristics. For natural or laboratory irradiated samples only the 110 deg. C TL peak can be used; sensitivity increases of up to a factor of 1.3 and 3 are observed for the natural and laboratory irradiated aliquots, respectively. Up to four exponential components are used to deconvolve the sensitivity change data; the dominant compon...

  17. Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with Right-Angle Prism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongning Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A right-angle prism was used to enhance the acoustic signal of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS system. The incident laser beam was parallelly inverted by the right-angle prism and passed through the gap between two tuning fork prongs again to produce another acoustic excitation. Correspondingly, two pairs of rigid metal tubes were used as acoustic resonators with resonance enhancement factors of 16 and 12, respectively. The QEPAS signal was enhanced by a factor of 22.4 compared with the original signal, which was acquired without resonators or a prism. In addition, the system noise was reduced a little with double resonators due to the Q factor decrease. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR was greatly improved. Additionally, a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient (NNEA of 5.8 × 10−8 W·cm−1·Hz−1/2 was achieved for water vapor detection in the atmosphere.

  18. The response of quartz crystals coated with thin fatty acid film to organic gases

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, C N; Kim, K H; Kwon, Y S

    1999-01-01

    We tried to apply a quartz crystal as a sensor by using the resonant frequency and the resistance properties of quartz crystals. Four kinds of fatty acids that have the same head groups were coated on the surfaces of the quartz crystals, and the shift of the resonant frequency and the resistance were observed based on the lengths of the tail groups. Myristic acid (C sub 1 sub 4), palmitic acid (C sub 1 sub 6), stearic acid (C sub 1 sub 8), and arachidic acid (C sub 2 sub 0) were deposited on the surfaces of quartz crystals by using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. As a result, the resonant frequency change was more sensitive to high molecular-weight fatty acids than to low molecular-weight ones. We also observed the effect of temperature on stearic acid LB films, and the response properties of quartz crystals coated with stearic-acid LB films to organic gases were investigated. As a result, the sensitivity of quartz crystals to organic gases was higher for higher molecular-weight gas, and we found that quar...

  19. Sandia SWiFT Site Safe Work Planning Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility provides research site with multiple wind turbines at a scale useful for the experimental study of wake dynamics, advanced rotor development, turbine control, and advanced sensing for production-scale wind farms. Safety of workers and the public is the top and overriding priority at SWiFT. Central to safe operations are formal planning processes . This manual provides an overview of test planning and work planning processes and requirements in adherence with the Sandia corporate Engineered Safety Work Planning and Control process. It is required reading for all SWiFT site staff, Sandia workers, and collaborators who oversee, conduct, or participate in test activities or who are involved in modifying Sandia SWiFT site assets.

  20. 1993 Site environmental report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, T.A.; Cheng, C.F.; Cox, W.; Durand, N.; Irwin, M.; Jones, A.; Lauffer, F.; Lincoln, M.; McClellan, Y.; Molley, K. [and others

    1994-11-01

    This 1993 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 0.0016 millirem. The total population within a 50-mile (80 kilometer) radius of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico received an estimated collective dose of 0.027 person-rem during 1993 from the laboratories operations, As in the previous year, the 1993 operations at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico had no discernible impact on the general public or on the environment. This report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  1. 1992 Environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, T.; Cox, W.; Hwang, H.; Irwin, M.; Jones, A.; Matz, B.; Molley, K.; Rhodes, W.; Stermer, D.; Wolff, T.

    1993-09-01

    This 1992 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, envirorunental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 0.0034 millirem. The total population within a 50-mile radius of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico received an estimated collective dose of 0.019 person-rem during 1992 from the laboratories` operations. As in the previous year, the 1992 operations at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico had no discernible impact on the general public or on the environment.

  2. Nuclear energy related capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, Susan Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories' technology solutions are depended on to solve national and global threats to peace and freedom. Through science and technology, people, infrastructure, and partnerships, part of Sandia's mission is to meet the national needs in the areas of energy, climate and infrastructure security. Within this mission to ensure clean, abundant, and affordable energy and water is the Nuclear Energy and Fuel Cycle Programs. The Nuclear Energy and Fuel Cycle Programs have a broad range of capabilities, with both physical facilities and intellectual expertise. These resources are brought to bear upon the key scientific and engineering challenges facing the nation and can be made available to address the research needs of others. Sandia can support the safe, secure, reliable, and sustainable use of nuclear power worldwide by incorporating state-of-the-art technologies in safety, security, nonproliferation, transportation, modeling, repository science, and system demonstrations.

  3. Double Shock Experiments on the Sandia Z Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanshaw, Heath; Knudson, Marcus; Desjarlais, Michael; Lemke, Ray

    2011-06-01

    The double shock layered high-velocity flyer plate is one new capability being developed on Sandia's Z machine. With this technique, dynamic material data at high energy densities can be obtained at points in phase space which lie neither on principal Hugoniots nor on quasi-isentropic ramp curves. For example, the hypothesized HCP to BCC phase transition in beryllium can be measured, as can the high pressure melt curve. Another example is a postulated refreeze of tantalum. We discuss the double shock experiments being performed on Z, including accessible conditions, design and experimental methods, and analysis of results. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories Institutional Plan FY1994--1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This report presents a five year plan for the laboratory. This plan takes advantage of the technical strengths of the lab and its staff to address issues of concern to the nation on a scope much broader than Sandia`s original mission, while maintaining the general integrity of the laboratory. The plan proposes initiatives in a number of technologies which overlap the needs of its customers and the strengths of its staff. They include: advanced manufacturing technology; electronics; information and computational technology; transportation energy technology and infrastructure; environmental technology; energy research and technology development; biomedical systems engineering; and post-cold war defense imperatives.

  5. PDC (polycrystalline diamond compact) bit research at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Glowka, D.A.

    1989-06-01

    From the beginning of the geothermal development program, Sandia has performed and supported research into polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits. These bits are attractive because they are intrinsically efficient in their cutting action (shearing, rather than crushing) and they have no moving parts (eliminating the problems of high-temperature lubricants, bearings, and seals.) This report is a summary description of the analytical and experimental work done by Sandia and our contractors. It describes analysis and laboratory tests of individual cutters and complete bits, as well as full-scale field tests of prototype and commercial bits. The report includes a bibliography of documents giving more detailed information on these topics. 26 refs.

  6. New developments in THz quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Patimisco, Pietro; Sampaolo, Angelo; Giglio, Marilena; Vitiello, Miriam S.; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Tittel, Frank K.

    2016-09-01

    We will report on new developments of quartz-enhanced photo-acoustic (QEPAS) sensor employing THz quantum cascade laser (QCLs). The extension of the QEPAS technique in the THz range was made possible by the realization of custom made QTFs. With the aim to improve the QTF acousto-electric transduction efficiency, we designed and realized new QTF designs. A detailed analysis of the quality factor, the resonance frequency and the electrical resistance of custom quartz tuning forks (QTFs) with different geometrical parameters is reported. The custom QTFs were employed in QEPAS sensors using THz QCLs as the laser excitation sources and targeting CH3OH and H2S. Minimum detection limits of a few tens of ppb and normalized noise equivalent absorption factors down to 3.75×10-11 cm-1W/Hz½ were achieved.

  7. Sandia bicycle commuters group -- pollution prevention at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrons, R.

    1998-06-01

    The Sandia Bicycle Commuters Group (SBCG) formed three years ago for the purpose of addressing issues that impact the bicycle commuting option. The meeting that launched the SBCG was scheduled in conjunction with National Bike-to-Work day in May 1995. Results from a survey handed out at the meeting solidly confirmed the issues and that an advocacy group was needed. The purpose statement for the Group headlines its web site and brochure: ``Existing to assist and educate the SNL workforce bicyclist on issues regarding Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) access, safety and bicycle-supporting facilities, in order to promote bicycling as an effective and enjoyable means of commuting.`` The SNL Pollution Prevention (P2) Team`s challenge to the SNL workforce is to ``prevent pollution, conserve natural resources, and save money``. In the first winter of its existence, the SBCG sponsored a winter commute contest in conjunction with the City`s Clean Air Campaign (CAC). The intent of the CAC is to promote alternative (to the single-occupant vehicle) commuting during the Winter Pollution Advisory Period (October 1--February 28), when the City runs the greatest risk of exceeding federal pollution limits.

  8. Sandia bicycle commuters group -- pollution prevention at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrons, R.

    1998-06-01

    The Sandia Bicycle Commuters Group (SBCG) formed three years ago for the purpose of addressing issues that impact the bicycle commuting option. The meeting that launched the SBCG was scheduled in conjunction with National Bike-to-Work day in May 1995. Results from a survey handed out at the meeting solidly confirmed the issues and that an advocacy group was needed. The purpose statement for the Group headlines its web site and brochure: ``Existing to assist and educate the SNL workforce bicyclist on issues regarding Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) access, safety and bicycle-supporting facilities, in order to promote bicycling as an effective and enjoyable means of commuting.`` The SNL Pollution Prevention (P2) Team`s challenge to the SNL workforce is to ``prevent pollution, conserve natural resources, and save money``. In the first winter of its existence, the SBCG sponsored a winter commute contest in conjunction with the City`s Clean Air Campaign (CAC). The intent of the CAC is to promote alternative (to the single-occupant vehicle) commuting during the Winter Pollution Advisory Period (October 1--February 28), when the City runs the greatest risk of exceeding federal pollution limits.

  9. Energy Systems Integration Partnerships: NREL + Sandia + Johnson Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-05

    NREL and Sandia National Laboratories partnered with Johnson Controls to deploy the company's BlueStream Hybrid Cooling System at ESIF's high-performance computing data center to reduce water consumption seen in evaporative cooling towers.

  10. 1995 Site environmental report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyr, L.J.; Duncan, D. [eds.; Sanchez, R.

    1996-09-01

    This 1995 report contains data from routine radiological and non-radiological environmental monitoring activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration and various waste management programs at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included.

  11. Site environmental report for 2009 : Sandia National Laboratories, California.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) is a government-owned/contractor-operated laboratory. Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, operates the laboratory for the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The NNSA Sandia Site Office oversees operations at the site, using Sandia Corporation as a management and operating contractor. This Site Environmental Report for 2009 was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A (DOE 2004a). The report provides a summary of environmental monitoring information and compliance activities that occurred at SNL/CA during calendar year 2009. General site and environmental program information is also included. The Site Environmental Report is divided into ten chapters. Chapter 1, the Executive Summary, highlights compliance and monitoring results obtained in 2009. Chapter 2 provides a brief introduction to SNL/CA and the existing environment found on site. Chapter 3 summarizes SNL/CA's compliance activities with the major environmental requirements applicable to site operations. Chapter 4 presents information on environmental management, performance measures, and environmental programs. Chapter 5 presents the results of monitoring and surveillance activities in 2009. Chapter 6 discusses quality assurance. Chapters 7 through 9 provide supporting information for the report and Chapter 10 is the report distribution list.

  12. Evaluation of Strontium Selectivity by Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieves (SOMS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigali, Mark J.; Stewart, Thomas Austin

    2016-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with Pleasanton Ridge Research Company (PRRC) to determine whether Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieves (SOMS) and modified SOMs materials can be synthesized in large batches and produced in granular form. Sandia National Laboratories tested these SOMS and its variants based in aqueous chemical environments for an application-based evaluation of material performance as a sorbent. Testing focused primarily on determining the distribution coefficients (K d ) and chemical selectivity SOMs for alkali earth (Sr) ions in aqueous and dilute seawater solutions. In general the well-crystallized SOMS materials tested exhibited very high K d values (>10 6 ) in distilled water but K d values dropped substantially (%7E10 2 -10 3 ) in the dilute seawater (3%). However, one set of SOMS samples (1.4.2 and 1.4.6) provided by PRRC yielded relatively high K d (approaching 10 4 ) in dilute seawater. Further examination of these samples by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the presence of at least two phases at least one of which may be accounting for the improved K d values in dilute seawater. Evaluation of Strontium Selectivity by Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieves (SOMS) January 20, 2016

  13. Power source evaluation capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, D.H.; Butler, P.C.

    1996-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories maintains one of the most comprehensive power source characterization facilities in the U.S. National Laboratory system. This paper describes the capabilities for evaluation of fuel cell technologies. The facility has a rechargeable battery test laboratory and a test area for performing nondestructive and functional computer-controlled testing of cells and batteries.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Management System program manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2014-04-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 436.1.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Management System program manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2013-04-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 436.1.

  16. Isotopic power supplies for space and terrestrial systems: quality assurance by Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannigan, R.L.; Harnar, R.R.

    1981-09-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories participation in Quality Assurance (QA) programs for Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators which have been used in space and terrestrial systems over the past 15 years is summarized. Basic elements of the program are briefly described and recognition of assistance from other Sandia organizations is included. Descriptions of the various systems for which Sandia has had the QA responsibility are also presented. In addition, the outlook for Sandia participation in RTG programs for the next several years is noted.

  17. An analysis of microsystems development at Sandia National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Gilbert V.; Myers, David R.

    2011-06-01

    While Sandia initially was motivated to investigate emergent microsystem technology to miniaturize existing macroscale structures, present designs embody innovative approaches that directly exploit the fundamentally different material properties of a new technology at the micro- and nano-scale. Direct, hands-on experience with the emerging technology gave Sandia engineers insights that not only guided the evolution of the technology but also enabled them to address new applications that enlarged the customer base for the new technology. Sandia's early commitment to develop complex microsystems demonstrated the advantages that early adopters gain by developing an extensive design and process tool kit and a shared awareness of multiple approaches to achieve the multiple goals. As with any emergent technology, Sandia's program benefited from interactions with the larger technical community. However, custom development followed a spiral path of direct trial-and-error experience, analysis, quantification of materials properties at the micro- and nano-scale, evolution of design tools and process recipes, and an understanding of reliability factors and failure mechanisms even in extreme environments. The microsystems capability at Sandia relied on three key elements. The first was people: a mix of mechanical and semiconductor engineers, chemists, physical scientists, designers, and numerical analysts. The second was a unique facility that enabled the development of custom technologies without contaminating mainline product deliveries. The third was the arrival of specialized equipment as part of a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) enabled by the National Competitiveness Technology Transfer Act of 1989. Underpinning all these, the program was guided and sustained through the research and development phases by accomplishing intermediate milestones addressing direct mission needs.

  18. The SEMATECH - Sandia National Laboratories partnership: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carayannis, E. [George Washington Univ., DC (United States). School of Business and Public Management; Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    SEMATECH was established in 1987 for defense and economic reasons to help the U.S. regain a competitive posture in semiconductor manufacturing. For 10 years SEMATECH was jointly funded by the federal government and semiconductor manufacturing companies representing 85 percent of the U.S. semiconductor industry. SEMATECH has spent about 80 percent of these funds on activities intended to produce useful results between 1 and 3 years. Very early in the establishment of SEMATECH, its members determined that their first priority would be to strengthen their U.S. based suppliers of semiconductor manufacturing equipment. This has been the primary thrust of SEMATECH. SEMATECH first held some 30 workshops on a broad set of technical topics to assess the needs and opportunities to help the industry recover. These workshops scoped manufacturing areas where SEMATECH should focus. These early meetings were an early form of what later came to be termed roadmapping. The scope of R&D needs identified in these workshops well exceeded what SEMATECH could hope to accomplish with its $200 million annual budget. Wayne Johnson of Sandia participated in five of these workshops and used the knowledge gained as the basis for proposals later submitted to SEMATECH on behalf of Sandia. In the fall of 1989 the SETEC program was established at Sandia to support SEMATECH. This was initially a funds-in, work-for-others project that was fully funded by SEMATECH. Thus, the early work was entirely focused on SEMATECH`s needs. Later in the program when SEMATECH funds were supplemented by Department of Energy Cooperative Research and Development funds, attention was given to how this project would benefit Sandia`s defense microelectronics program.

  19. Development of Quartz Fiber Calorimetry

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD40 \\\\ \\\\ Very Forward Calorimeters (VFCs) in LHC detectors should cover the pseudorapidity range from $\\eta$~=~2.5 to at least $\\eta$~=~5 in order to compute missing transverse energy and for jet tagging. Operation at such high rapidity requires the use of a calorimetry technique that is very radiation resistant, fast and insensitive to radioactivity (especially to neutrons). This can be accomplished through the Quartz-Calorimeter~(Q-Cal) concept of embedding silica core fibers, that resist to the Gigarad radiation level, into an absorber. In this calorimeter the shower particles produce light through the Cherenkov effect generating a signal less than 10~ns in duration. Unique to this new technology the visible energy of hadronic showers has a transverse dimension nearly an order of magnitude smaller than that in conventional calorimeters, enabling precise spatial resolution, sharper isolation cuts and better jet recognition against the minimum bias events background. Last but not least, most radioactive ...

  20. The Quartz Analog Watch: A Wonder Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, H. Richard, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Summarizes how a quartz watch works. Discusses the quartz crystal, its form, and how its frequency is set to a standard; the integrated circuit chip that drives the crystal in vibration, scales its frequency down, and forms pulses that turn the motor; and the motor that drives the gear train that turns the hands. (ZWH)

  1. Viscoelastic coupling of nanoelectromechanical resonators.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonson, Robert Joseph; Staton, Alan W.

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes work to date on a new collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) to utilize nanoelectromechanical resonators designed at Caltech as platforms to measure the mechanical properties of polymeric materials at length scales on the order of 10-50 nm. Caltech has succeeded in reproducibly building cantilever resonators having major dimensions on the order of 2-5 microns. These devices are fabricated in pairs, with free ends separated by reproducible gaps having dimensions on the order of 10-50 nm. By controlled placement of materials that bridge the very small gap between resonators, the mechanical devices become coupled through the test material, and the transmission of energy between the devices can be monitored. This should allow for measurements of viscoelastic properties of polymeric materials at high frequency over short distances. Our work to date has been directed toward establishing this measurement capability at Sandia.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Management System Program Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2011-04-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1. Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) has maintained functional environmental programs to assist with regulatory compliance for more than 30 years. During 2005, these existing programs were rolled into a formal environmental management system (EMS) that expands beyond the traditional compliance focus to managing and improving environmental performance and stewardship practices for all site activities. An EMS is a set of inter-related elements that represent a continuing cycle of planning, implementing, evaluating, and improving processes and actions undertaken to achieve environmental policy and goals. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard for Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 (ISO 2004). The site received ISO 14001 certification in September 2006. SNL/CA's EMS Program is applicable to the Sandia, Livermore site only. Although SNL/CA operates as one organizational division of the overall Sandia National Laboratories, the EMS Program is site-specific, with site-specific objectives and targets. SNL/CA (Division 8000) benefits from the organizational structure as it provides corporate level policies, procedures, and standards, and established processes that connect to and support elements of the SNL/CA EMS Program. Additionally, SNL/CA's EMS Program benefits from two corporate functional programs (Facilities Energy Management and Fleet Services programs) that maintain responsibility for energy management and fleet services for all Sandia locations. Each EMS element is further enhanced with site-specific processes and standards. Division 8000 has several groups operating at Sandia National Laboratories

  3. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Management System program manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2012-03-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 436.1. Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) has maintained functional environmental programs to assist with regulatory compliance for more than 30 years. During 2005, these existing programs were rolled into a formal environmental management system (EMS) that expands beyond the traditional compliance focus to managing and improving environmental performance and stewardship practices for all site activities. An EMS is a set of inter-related elements that represent a continuing cycle of planning, implementing, evaluating, and improving processes and actions undertaken to achieve environmental policy and goals. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard for Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 (ISO 2004). The site first received ISO 14001 certification in September 2006 and recertification in 2009. SNL/CA's EMS Program is applicable to the Sandia, Livermore site only. Although SNL/CA operates as one organizational division of the overall Sandia National Laboratories, the EMS Program is site-specific, with site-specific objectives and targets. SNL/CA (Division 8000) benefits from the organizational structure as it provides corporate level policies, procedures, and standards, and established processes that connect to and support elements of the SNL/CA EMS Program. Additionally, SNL/CA's EMS Program benefits from two corporate functional programs (Facilities Energy and Water Resource Management and Fleet Services programs) that maintain responsibility for energy management and fleet services for all Sandia locations. Each EMS element is further enhanced with site-specific processes and standards. Division 8000 has

  4. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Management System Program Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-04-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1. Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) has maintained functional environmental programs to assist with regulatory compliance for more than 30 years. During 2005, these existing programs were rolled into a formal environmental management system (EMS) that expands beyond the traditional compliance focus to managing and improving environmental performance and stewardship practices for all site activities. An EMS is a set of inter-related elements that represent a continuing cycle of planning, implementing, evaluating, and improving processes and actions undertaken to achieve environmental policy and goals. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard for Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 (ISO 2004). The site received ISO 14001 certification in September 2006. SNL/CA's EMS Program is applicable to the Sandia, Livermore site only. Although SNL/CA operates as one organizational division of the overall Sandia National Laboratories, the EMS Program is site-specific, with site-specific objectives and targets. SNL/CA (Division 8000) benefits from the organizational structure as it provides corporate level policies, procedures, and standards, and established processes that connect to and support elements of the SNL/CA EMS Program. Additionally, SNL/CA's EMS Program benefits from two corporate functional programs (Facilities Energy Management and Fleet Services Environmental programs) that maintain responsibility for energy management and fleet services for all Sandia locations. Each EMS element is further enhanced with site-specific processes and standards. Division 8000 has several groups operating at Sandia

  5. Alteration in the Madera limestone and Sandia formation from core hole VC-1 Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Terry E. C.

    1988-06-01

    Core hole VC-1 penetrated the southwestern ring fracture zone of the 1.1 Ma Valles caldera and at a depth of 333 m intersected the top of the Paleozoic section including the Abo Formation, Madera Limestone, and Sandia Formation, reaching a total depth of 856 m. The Paleozoic rocks, which consist of thin-bedded limestone, siltstone, mudstone, sandstone, and local conglomerate, are overlain by volcanic rocks of the caldera moat that are less than 0.6 Ma. Diagenetic and at least three hydrothermal alteration stages were identified in the Madera Limestone and Sandia Formation. Diagenetic clay alteration was pervasive throughout the sedimentary rocks. Volcanic activity at 16.5 Ma and continuing through the formation of the Valles caldera resulted in high thermal gradients, which caused recrystallization of diagenetic clay minerals. Interstratified smectite-illite is the most diagnostic clay mineral throughout the section; structurally, the illite component in the ordered interstratified illite-smectite changes gradationally from 70% at the top of the Madera Limestone to 95% at the base of the section in the Sandia Formation. Pyrite that occurs as small clots and lenses as well as finely disseminated is interpreted as being of diagenetic origin, especially in organic-rich beds. Low permeability of much of the Paleozoic section precluded the deposition of hydrothermal minerals except in fractures and intergranular space in some of the more permeable sandstone and brecciated horizons. Three stages of hydrothermal mineral deposition are defined. Stage I is widespread and includes mainly chlorite, calcite, pyrite, and interstratified smectite-illite that was formed prior to caldera development at temperatures approximating 200°C. Stage II is characterized by quartz, sericite, and scarce sulfides deposited locally by fluids at approximately 275°C shortly before or at the time of early caldera-related volcanism. The Stage III hydrothermal event, associated with formation of

  6. A brief history of Sandia's National security missions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drewien, Celeste A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); O' Canna, Myra Lynn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stikar, John Anthony. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    To help members of the workforce understand what factors contribute to Sandia National Laboratories national security mission, the authors describe the evolution of Sandias core mission and its other mission components. The mission of Sandia first as a division of Los Alamos and later as Sandia Corporation underlies our core nuclear weapon mission of today. Sandias mission changed in 1963 and twice more in the 1970s. This report should help staff and management appreciate the need for mission evolution. A clear definition and communication of a consistent corporate mission statement is still needed.

  7. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide, Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report contains a comprehensive National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide for the Sandia National Laboratories. It is based on the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) NEPA regulations in 40 CFR Parts 1500 through 1508; the US Department of Energy (DOE) N-EPA implementing procedures in 10 CFR Part 102 1; DOE Order 5440.1E; the DOE ``Secretarial Policy Statement on the National Environmental Policy Act`` of June 1994- Sandia NEPA compliance procedures-, and other CEQ and DOE guidance. The Guide includes step-by-step procedures for preparation of Environmental Checklists/Action Descriptions Memoranda (ECL/ADMs), Environmental Assessments (EAs), and Environmental Impact Statements (EISs). It also includes sections on ``Dealing With NEPA Documentation Problems`` and ``Special N-EPA Compliance Issues.``

  8. 1980 environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millard, G.C.; Simmons, T.N.; Gray, C.E.; O' Neal, B.L.

    1981-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque is located south of the city on two broad mesas. The local climate is arid continental. Radionuclides are potentially released from five technical areas from the Laboratories' research activities. Sandia's environmental monitoring program searches for cesium-137, tritium, uranium, alpha emitters, and beta emitters in water, soil, air, and vegetation. No activity was found in public areas in excess of that found in local background in 1980. The Albuquerque population receives only 0.11 person-rem (estimated) from airborne radioactive releases. While national security research is the Laboratories' major responsibility, energy research is a major area of activity. Both these research areas cause radioactive releases.

  9. Tiger Team assessment of the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-01

    This report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, located in Albuquerque, New Mexico. SNL, Albuquerque, is operated by the Sandia Corporation (a wholly owned subsidiary of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The environmental assessment also included DOE tenant facilities at Ross Aviation, Albuquerque Microelectronics Operation, and the Central Training Academy. The assessment was conducted from April 15 to May 24, 1991, under the auspices of DOE's Office of Special Projects under the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health (ES H). The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing ES H disciplines, management, self-assessments, and quality assurance; transportation; and waste management operations. Compliance with applicable federal, state, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal SNL, Albuquerque, requirements were assessed. In addition, an evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of DOE and SNL, Albuquerque management of ES H programs was conducted.

  10. Airbags to Martian Landers: Analyses at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwinn, K.W.

    1994-03-01

    A new direction for the national laboratories is to assist US business with research and development, primarily through cooperative research and development agreements (CRADAs). Technology transfer to the private sector has been very successful as over 200 CRADAs are in place at Sandia. Because of these cooperative efforts, technology has evolved into some new areas not commonly associated with the former mission of the national laboratories. An example of this is the analysis of fabric structures. Explicit analyses and expertise in constructing parachutes led to the development of a next generation automobile airbag; which led to the construction, testing, and analysis of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Mars Environmental Survey Lander; and finally led to the development of CAD based custom garment designs using 3D scanned images of the human body. The structural analysis of these fabric structures is described as well as a more traditional example Sandia with the test/analysis correlation of the impact of a weapon container.

  11. Sandia and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, 1974--1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MORA,CARL J.

    2000-04-11

    Engineers have learned to design and build big projects, which certainly describes the WIPP project, but also includes defense projects, highway networks, space exploration, the Internet, etc., through what has been called a messily complex embracing of contradictions. When something massive and complicated has to be built these days, it leads to a protracted political process in which every special interest makes a stand, lobbyists exert what influence they can, lawmakers bicker, contractors change things, Congress struggles with costs, environmentalists hold things up--and this is good. It may seem amazing that anything gets done, but when it does, everyone has had their say. It's an intensely democratic, even if expensive and time-consuming, process. The corporate historian of Sandia National Laboratories presents a unique background of the WIPP project and Sandia's part in it.

  12. 1994 Site Environmental Report Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyr, L.J.; Wiggins, T.; White, B.B. [eds.] [and others

    1995-09-01

    This 1994 report contains data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included. The maximum off-site dose impact from air emissions was calculated to be 1.5 x 10{sup -4} millirem. The total population within a 50-mile radius of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico received an estimated collective dose of 0.012 person-rem during 1994 from the laboratories` operations. This report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  13. Sandia National Laboratories, California proposed CREATE facility environmental baseline survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catechis, Christopher Spyros

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Environmental Programs completed an environmental baseline survey (EBS) of 12.6 acres located at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) in support of the proposed Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology and Education (CREATE) Facility. The survey area is comprised of several parcels of land within SNL/CA, County of Alameda, California. The survey area is located within T 3S, R 2E, Section 13. The purpose of this EBS is to document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property; identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property; develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks; and ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property.

  14. Sandia equation of state data base: seslan File

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerley, G.I. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (US); Christian-Frear, T.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (US)

    1993-06-24

    Sandia National Laboratories maintains several libraries of equation of state tables, in a modified Sesame format, for use in hydrocode calculations and other applications. This report discusses one of those libraries, the seslan file, which contains 78 tables from the Los Alamos equation of state library. Minor changes have been made to these tables, making them more convenient for code users and reducing numerical difficulties that occasionally arise in hydrocode calculations.

  15. DESALINATION AND WATER TREATMENT RESEARCH AT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigali, Mark J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Altman, Susan J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Biedermann, Laura [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuzio, Stephanie P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nenoff, Tina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rempe, Susan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Water is the backbone of our economy - safe and adequate supplies of water are vital for agriculture, industry, recreation, and human consumption. While our supply of water today is largely safe and adequate, we as a nation face increasing water supply challenges in the form of extended droughts, demand growth due to population increase, more stringent health-based regulation, and competing demands from a variety of users. To meet these challenges in the coming decades, water treatment technologies, including desalination, will contribute substantially to ensuring a safe, sustainable, affordable, and adequate water supply for the United States. This overview documents Sandia National Laboratories' (SNL, or Sandia) Water Treatment Program which focused on the development and demonstration of advanced water purification technologies as part of the larger Sandia Water Initiative. Projects under the Water Treatment Program include: (1) the development of desalination research roadmaps (2) our efforts to accelerate the commercialization of new desalination and water treatment technologies (known as the 'Jump-Start Program),' (3) long range (high risk, early stage) desalination research (known as the 'Long Range Research Program'), (4) treatment research projects under the Joint Water Reuse & Desalination Task Force, (5) the Arsenic Water Technology Partnership Program, (6) water treatment projects funded under the New Mexico Small Business Administration, (7) water treatment projects for the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), (8) Sandia- developed contaminant-selective treatment technologies, and finally (9) current Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funded desalination projects.

  16. Sandia National Laboratories, California Waste Management Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2010-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Waste Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This annual program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Waste Management (WM) Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  17. Implementing a lessons learned process at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fosshage, Erik D.; Drewien, Celeste A.; Eras, Kenneth; Hartwig, Ronald Craig; Post, Debra S.; Stoecker, Nora Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The Lessons Learned Process Improvement Team was tasked to gain an understanding of the existing lessons learned environment within the major programs at Sandia National Laboratories, identify opportunities for improvement in that environment as compared to desired attributes, propose alternative implementations to address existing inefficiencies, perform qualitative evaluations of alternative implementations, and recommend one or more near-term activities for prototyping and/or implementation. This report documents the work and findings of the team.

  18. Sandia non-fusion R&D supported by FES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygren, Richard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-03

    Until 2012, Sandia participated regularly in non-fusion R&D that was supported primarily through our collaborations with companies in the DOE program for Small Business Innovative Research but also in some work-for-others contracts. In this work, funds were recovered from collaborating institutions for the staff time and materials used, but FES had supported the facility itself and in doing so enabled the contributions to the non-fusion R&D below.

  19. Sandia wind program FY94 annual operating plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodd, H.M.

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the objectives, accomplishments and activity plan for the Sandia Wind Energy Technology Program. The status of the current program is summarized and the planned FY94 activities are defined. Appendices detailing the cost, performance and schedule associated with these activities are also included. Funding requirements are given for several scenarios in order to reflect the impact of funding variability on program progress.

  20. Sandia National Laboratories, California Hazardous Materials Management Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2011-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Hazardous Materials Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the calender past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Hazardous Materials Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  1. Mechanical twinning in small quartz crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughner, J. W.; Newnham, R. E.; Cross, L. E.

    1982-02-01

    Quartz is known to be ferrobielastic; that is, quartz crystals have domain states (Dauphiné twins) which differ in their elastic compliance values and which can be switched by an appropriately oriented stress. Polycrystalline quartz has also been reported (Tullis 1970) to show preferential orientation of these domains following application of large uniaxial stresses. These experiments were designed to study twinning of synthetic quartz “grains” (minimum size 0.07×0.07×0.02 cm) in specially-constructed composites and of grains in three natural quartz aggregates — a quartzite, a novaculite, and a jasper. Backreflection X-ray techniques were used to verify twinning in the composite grains, while special electroding and electrical detection allowed the twinning processes to be examined in “real time.” Small synthetic quartz crystals were found to behave identically to the massive samples previously studied. Electrical pulses due to the reversal of piezoelectric coefficient d 11 in twinned quartz were detected from quartzite and from the man-made composites. Novaculite also gave electrical pulses which were probably from twinning (evidenced by the correlation of expected and observed pulse sizes and shapes), while no pulses from the jaspers indicative of twinning were detected. Grain size distribution differences are considered the main structural reason for the different behaviors.

  2. Site Environmental Report for 2010 Sandia National Laboratories, California.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2011-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) is a government-owned/contractor-operated laboratory. Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, manages and operates the laboratory for the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The NNSA Sandia Site Office administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at the site. This Site Environmental Report for 2010 was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A (DOE 2004a). The report provides a summary of environmental monitoring information and compliance activities that occurred at SNL/CA during calendar year 2010. General site and environmental program information is also included. The Site Environmental Report is divided into ten chapters. Chapter 1, the Executive Summary, highlights compliance and monitoring results obtained in 2010. Chapter 2 provides a brief introduction to SNL/CA and the existing environment found on site. Chapter 3 summarizes SNL/CA's compliance activities with the major environmental requirements applicable to site operations. Chapter 4 presents information on environmental management, performance measures, and environmental programs. Chapter 5 presents the results of monitoring and surveillance activities in 2010. Chapter 6 discusses quality assurance. Chapters 7 through 9 provide supporting information for the report and Chapter 10 is the report distribution list.

  3. Summary of Sandia research on metal tritides : FY 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browning, James Frederick (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Kammler, Daniel R.; Snow, Clark Sheldon; Ferrizz, Robert Matthew; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Wixom, Ryan R.; Espada, Loren I.

    2008-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has cradle to grave responsibility for all neutron generators in the US nuclear weapons stockpile. As such, much research effort is exerted to develop a comprehensive understanding of all the major components of a neutron generator. One of the key components is the tritium containing target. The target is a thin metal tritide film. Sandia's research into metal tritides began in the early 1960's with a collaboration with the Denver Research Institute (DRI) and continues to this day with a major in house research effort. This document is an attempt to briefly summarize what is known about the aging of erbium tritide and to review the major publications conducted at Sandia in FY 07. First, a review of our knowledge of helium in erbium tritide will be presented. Second, executive summaries of the six major SAND reports regarding neutron tube targets published in FY07 by Department 2735, the Applied Science and Technology Maturation Department, and research partners are presented.

  4. A spin label study of the effects of asbestos, quartz, and titanium dioxide dusts on the bovine erythrocyte membrane.

    OpenAIRE

    Leyko, W; Gendek, E

    1985-01-01

    The effects of five UICC asbestos samples, titanium dioxide, and quartz on the bovine red cell membrane have been studied in erythrocyte ghosts by the spin labelling technique. Analysis of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of two sulphydryl reactive spin labels and one fatty acid spin label in red cell ghosts showed modifications in membrane protein after asbestos treatment but no alterations in membrane lipids. In experiments with quartz no membrane changes were noted but tit...

  5. Monolithic Micromachined Quartz Resonator based Infrared Focal Plane Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-05

    etching of glass using nitrogen trifluoride based gas . MEMS Personnel Working on the Project • Dr. Srinivas Tadigadapa, Professor, Penn State...source could be varied. • The RF power supplied operated at 13.56 MHz. RF Power Supply RF Matching Network Gas Inlet ICP Source Antenna Magnetic...500-2000 Substrate Power Watts 100-475 O2 Flow Rate sccm 5-100 SF6 Flow Rate sccm 5-50 C4F8 Flow Rate sccm 5-50 CH4 Flow Rate sccm 5-50 Ar Flow

  6. Automated X-ray Orientation for Quartz Crystal Resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    stepping rate imposed by the motor and controller of 2000 steps/sec. Thus, the maximum time spent in the initial reflec- tion search will be 18 sec/blank...rotational adjustment in each of these planes. 26 Subsequent realization by ARACOR that the outboard detectors must now have rotational capabilities imposed ...218.12, HKL MAAX=3 8/25 133’ 2 02 3’. % % 3 ’ 223 2 S\\ \\ 2 2 P 32 1 L -P j C8 A Ji-’ oI I - 2 2~ 1 ’ g 1 3 *𔃽’ 2 3 2 2 3 1 ’ 57 Figurae 6. AT PATTERN

  7. Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Patimisco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A detailed review on the development of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensors (QEPAS for the sensitive and selective quantification of molecular trace gas species with resolved spectroscopic features is reported. The basis of the QEPAS technique, the technology available to support this field in terms of key components, such as light sources and quartz-tuning forks and the recent developments in detection methods and performance limitations will be discussed. Furthermore, different experimental QEPAS methods such as: on-beam and off-beam QEPAS, quartz-enhanced evanescent wave photoacoustic detection, modulation-cancellation approach and mid-IR single mode fiber-coupled sensor systems will be reviewed and analysed. A QEPAS sensor operating in the THz range, employing a custom-made quartz-tuning fork and a THz quantum cascade laser will be also described. Finally, we evaluated data reported during the past decade and draw relevant and useful conclusions from this analysis.

  8. Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patimisco, Pietro; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Tittel, Frank K; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2014-03-28

    A detailed review on the development of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensors (QEPAS) for the sensitive and selective quantification of molecular trace gas species with resolved spectroscopic features is reported. The basis of the QEPAS technique, the technology available to support this field in terms of key components, such as light sources and quartz-tuning forks and the recent developments in detection methods and performance limitations will be discussed. Furthermore, different experimental QEPAS methods such as: on-beam and off-beam QEPAS, quartz-enhanced evanescent wave photoacoustic detection, modulation-cancellation approach and mid-IR single mode fiber-coupled sensor systems will be reviewed and analysed. A QEPAS sensor operating in the THz range, employing a custom-made quartz-tuning fork and a THz quantum cascade laser will be also described. Finally, we evaluated data reported during the past decade and draw relevant and useful conclusions from this analysis.

  9. Quartz Mountain/Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frates, Mary Y.; Madeja, Stanley S.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the Quartz Mountain Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute program. It is designed to nurture artistic talent and to provide intensive arts experiences in music, dance, theater, and the visual arts for talented students aged 14-18. (AM)

  10. Intensity of quartz cathodoluminescence and trace-element content in quartz from the porphyry copper deposit at Butte, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, B.G.; Reed, M.H.; Dilles, J.H.; Kent, A.J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Textures of hydrothermal quartz revealed by cathodoluminescence using a scanning electron microscope (SEM-CL) reflect the physical and chemical environment of quartz formation. Variations in intensity of SEM-CL can be used to distinguish among quartz from superimposed mineralization events in a single vein. In this study, we present a technique to quantify the cathodoluminescent intensity of quartz within individual and among multiple samples to relate luminescence intensity to specific mineralizing events. This technique has been applied to plutonic quartz and three generations of hydrothermal veins at the porphyry copper deposit in Butte, Montana. Analyzed veins include early quartz-molybdenite veins with potassic alteration, pyrite-quartz veins with sericitic alteration, and Main Stage veins with intense sericitic alteration. CL intensity of quartz is diagnostic of each mineralizing event and can be used to fingerprint quartz and its fluid inclusions, isotopes, trace elements, etc., from specific mineralizing episodes. Furthermore, CL intensity increases proportional to temperature of quartz formation, such that plutonic quartz from the Butte quartz monzonite (BQM) that crystallized at temperatures near 750 ??C luminesces with the highest intensity, whereas quartz that precipitated at ???250 ??C in Main Stage veins luminesces with the least intensity. Trace-element analyses via electron microprobe and laser ablation-ICP-MS indicate that plutonic quartz and each generation of hydrothermal quartz from Butte is dominated by characteristic trace amounts of Al, P, Ti, and Fe. Thus, in addition to CL intensity, each generation of quartz can be distinguished based on its unique trace-element content. Aluminum is generally the most abundant element in all generations of quartz, typically between 50 and 200 ppm, but low-temperature, Main Stage quartz containing 400 to 3600 ppm Al is enriched by an order of magnitude relative to all other quartz generations. Phosphorous

  11. Sandia capabilities for the measurement, characterization, and analysis of heliostats for CSP.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andraka, Charles E.; Christian, Joshua Mark; Ghanbari, Cheryl M.; Gill, David Dennis; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Kolb, William J.; Moss, Timothy A.; Smith, Edward J.; Yellowhair, Julius

    2013-07-01

    The Concentrating Solar Technologies Organization at Sandia National Laboratories has a long history of performing important research, development, and testing that has enabled the Concentrating Solar Power Industry to deploy full-scale power plants. Sandia continues to pursue innovative CSP concepts with the goal of reducing the cost of CSP while improving efficiency and performance. In this pursuit, Sandia has developed many tools for the analysis of CSP performance. The following capabilities document highlights Sandias extensive experience in the design, construction, and utilization of large-scale testing facilities for CSP and the tools that Sandia has created for the full characterization of heliostats. Sandia has extensive experience in using these tools to evaluate the performance of novel heliostat designs.

  12. Prototype dish testing and analysis at Sandia National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, J. W.; Houser, R. M.; Erdman, W. W.

    1991-12-01

    During the past year, Sandia National Laboratories performed on-sun testing of several dish concentrator concepts. These tests were undertaken at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF). Two of the tests were performed in support of the DOE Concentrator Receiver Development Program. The first was on-sun testing of the single-element stretched-membrane dish; this 7-meter diameter dish uses a single preformed metal membrane with an aluminized polyester optical surface and shows potential for future dish-Stirling systems. The next involved two prototype facets from the Faceted Stretched-Membrane Dish Program. These facets, representing competitive design concepts, are closest to commercialization. Five 1-meter triangular facets were tested on-sun as part of the development program for a solar dynamic system on Space Station Freedom. While unique in character, all the tests utilized the Beam Characterization System (BCS) as the main measurement tool and all were analyzed using the Sandia-developed CIRCE2 computer code. The BCS is used to capture and digitize an image of the reflected concentrator beam that is incident on a target surface. The CIRCE2 program provides a computational tool, which when given the geometry of the concentrator and target as well as other design parameters will predict the flux distribution of the reflected beam. One of these parameters, slope error, is the variable that has a major effect in determining the quality of the reflected beam. The methodology used to combine these two tools to predict uniform slope errors for the dishes is discussed in this document. As the Concentrator Development Programs continue, Sandia will test and evaluate two prototype dish systems. The first, the faceted stretched-membrane dish, is expected to be tested in 1992, followed by the full-scale single-element stretched-membrane dish in 1993. These tests will use the tools and methodology discussed in this document.

  13. Sandia National Laboratories, California Chemical Management Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2012-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Chemical Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the calender past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Chemical Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. SNL/CA is responsible for tracking chemicals (chemical and biological materials), providing Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) and for regulatory compliance reporting according to a variety of chemical regulations. The principal regulations for chemical tracking are the Emergency Planning Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and the California Right-to-Know regulations. The regulations, the Hazard Communication/Lab Standard of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) are also key to the CM Program. The CM Program is also responsible for supporting chemical safety and information requirements for a variety of Integrated Enabling Services (IMS) programs primarily the Industrial Hygiene, Waste Management, Fire Protection, Air Quality, Emergency Management, Environmental Monitoring and Pollution Prevention programs. The principal program tool is the Chemical Information System (CIS). The system contains two key elements: the MSDS library and the chemical container-tracking database that is readily accessible to all Members of the Sandia Workforce. The primary goal of the CM Program is to ensure safe and effective chemical management at Sandia/CA. This is done by efficiently collecting and managing chemical information for our customers who include Line, regulators, DOE and ES and H programs to ensure compliance with regulations and to streamline customer business processes that require chemical information.

  14. 1983 environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millard, G.C.; Gray, C.E.; O' Neal, B.L.

    1984-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is located south of Albuquerque on Kirtland Air Force Base. Because radionuclides are potentially released from its research activities, SNL has a continuing environmental monitoring program which analyzes for cesium-137, tritium, uranium, alpha emitters, and beta emitters in water, soil, air, and vegetation. Measured radiation levels in public areas were consistent with local background in 1983. The Albuquerque population received an estimated 0.250 person-rem from airborne radioactive releases, whereas it received greater than 49,950 person-rem from naturally occurring radionuclides. 23 references, 6 figures, 15 tables.

  15. Sandia and NJ TRANSIT Authority Developing Resilient Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanley, Charles J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ellis, Abraham [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Through the memorandum of understanding between the Depratment of Energy (DOE), the New Jersey Transit Authority (NJ Transit), and the New Jersey Board of Public Utilities, Sandia National Labs is assisting NJ Transit in developing NJ TransitGrid: an electric microgrid that will include a large-scale gas-fired generation facility and distributed energy resources (photovoltaics [PV], energy storage, electric vehicles, combined heat and power [CHP]) to supply reliable power during storms or other times of significant power failure. The NJ TransitGrid was awarded $410M from the Department of Transportation to develop a first-of-its-kind electric microgrid capable of supplying highly-reliable power.

  16. History of Sandia National Laboratories` auxiliary closure mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weydert, J.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ponder, G.M. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-12-01

    An essential component of a horizontal, underground nuclear test setup at the Nevada Test Site is the auxiliary closure system. The massive gates that slam shut immediately after a device has been detonated allow the prompt radiation to pass, but block debris and hot gases from continuing down the tunnel. Thus, the gates protect experiments located in the horizontal line-of-sight steel pipe. Sandia National Laboratories has been the major designer and developer of these closure systems. This report records the history of SNL`s participation in and contributions to the technology of auxiliary closure systems used in horizontal tunnel tests in the underground test program.

  17. Sandia, California Tritium Research Laboratory transition and reutilization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, T.B. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes a project within Sandia National Laboratory to convert the shut down Tritium Research Laboratory into a facility which could be reused within the laboratory complex. In the process of decommissioning and decontaminating the facility, the laboratory was able to save substantial financial resources by transferring much existing equipment to other DOE facilities, and then expeditiously implementing a decontamination program which has resulted in the building being converted into laboratory space for new lab programs. This project of facility reuse has been a significant financial benefit to the laboratory.

  18. Vibration control for precision manufacturing at Sandia National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnerichs, Terry D.; Martinez, David R.

    1995-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs R&D in structural dynamics and vibration suppression of precision applications in weapon systems, space, underwater, transportation and civil structures. Over the last decade these efforts have expanded into the areas of active vibration control and 'smart' structures and material systems, In addition, major resources have been focused towards technology to support weapon product development and agile manufacturing capability for defense and industrial applications. This paper will briefly describe the structural dynamics modeling and verification process that supports vibration control and some specific applications of these techniques to manufacturing in the areas of lithography, machine tools and flexible robotics.

  19. 1990 DOE/SANDIA crystalline photovoltaic technology project review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruby, D.S. (ed.)

    1990-07-01

    This document serves as the proceedings for the annual project review meeting held by Sandia's Photovoltaic Cell Research Division and Photovoltaic Technology Division. It contains information supplied by each organization making a presentation at the meeting, which was held August 7 through 9, 1990 at the Sheraton Hotel in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sessions were held to discuss national photovoltaic programs, one-sun crystalline silicon cell research, concentrator silicon cell research, concentrator 3-5 cell research, and concentrating collector development.

  20. Statement of Work Electrical Energy Storage System Installation at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenkman, Benjamin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Sandia is seeking to procure a 1 MWh energy storage system. It will be installed at the existing Energy Storage Test Pad, which is located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This energy storage system will be a daily operational system, but will also be used as a tool in our Research and development work. The system will be part of a showcase of Sandia distributed energy technologies viewed by many distinguished delegates.

  1. Energetic materials research and development activities at Sandia National Laboratories supported under DP-10 programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratzel, A.C. III

    1998-09-01

    This report provides summary descriptions of Energetic Materials (EM) Research and Development activities performed at Sandia National Laboratories and funded through the Department of Energy DP-10 Program Office in FY97 and FY98. The work falls under three major focus areas: EM Chemistry, EM Characterization, and EM Phenomenological Model Development. The research supports the Sandia component mission and also Sandia's overall role as safety steward for the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  2. Study on digital correlation demodulation technology of micro quartz tuning fork gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhixiong; Feng, Lihui; Sun, Yu-Nan

    2010-11-01

    A signal demodulation scheme for micro quartz tuning fork gyroscope based on digital correlation demodulation technology is proposed. In the operation of quartz gyroscope the reference signal should be in the resonance state with steady amplitude and the reference signal should be in-phase and has the same frequency with the driving signal. The quartz gyroscope signal processing platform is designed on the foundation of DEC6713 DSP development board successfully. The adaptive algorithm including the reference signal frequency tacking, the amplitude automatic gain controlling, the reference signal phase locking, and complex correlation demodulation are devised, and the algorithm is programmed. It is proved that the digital signal process scheme is feasible by means of experimentation.

  3. Detection of Glypican-3 Proteins for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Marker Using Wireless-Electrodeless Quartz-Crystal Microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogi, Hirotsugu; Omori, Toshinobu; Hatanaka, Kenichi; Hirao, Masahiko; Nishiyama, Masayoshi

    2008-05-01

    Pure shear-wave resonances were excited and detected in 18- and 30-µm-thick electrodeless AT-cut quartz plates in liquids using line antennas contactlessly, achieving high-frequency quartz-crystal microbalances (QCMs). Their fundamental resonance frequencies (85 and 54 MHz) were monitored to study interactions in real time between human glypican-3 and an anti-glypican-3 antibody: glypican-3 is a prospective protein marker for hepatocellular carcinoma. Their affinity was determined by the Langmuir kinetics. This study demonstrates the high ability of the wireless-electrodeless QCM for detection of the protein markers and development of drugs for disorders.

  4. LABCOM resonator Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keres, L.J.

    1990-11-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop quartz crystal resonator designs, production processes, and test capabilities for 5-MHz, 6.2-MHz, and 10-MHz resonators for Tactical Miniature Crystal Oscillator (TMXO) applications. GE Neutron Devices (GEND) established and demonstrated the capability to produce and test quartz crystal resonators for use in the TMXO developed by the US Army ERADCOM (now LABCOM). The goals in this project were based on the ERADCOM statement of work. The scope of work indicated that the resonator production facilities for this project would not be completely independent, but that they would be supported in part by equipment and processes in place at GEND used in US Department of Energy (DOE) work. In addition, provisions for production test equipment or or eventual technology transfer costs to a commercial supplier were clearly excluded from the scope of work. The demonstrated technical capability of the deep-etched blank design is feasible and practical. It can be manufactured in quantity with reasonable yield, and its performance is readily predictable. The ceramic flatpack is a very strong package with excellent hermeticity. The four-point mount supports the crystal to reasonable shock levels and does not perturb the resonator's natural frequency-temperature behavior. The package can be sealed with excellent yields. The high-temperature, high-vacuum processing developed for the TMXO resonator, including bonding the piezoid to its mount with conductive polyimide adhesive, is consistent with precision resonator fabrication. 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  5. RF and mm-Wave Photonics at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vawter, G.A.; Sullivan, C.

    1999-07-08

    RF and mm-wave photonic devices and circuits have been developed at Sandia National Laboratories for applications ranging from RF optical data links to optical generation of mm-wave frequencies. This talk will explore recent high-speed photonics technology developments at Sandia including: (1) A monolithic optical integrated circuit for all-optical generation of mm-waves. Using integrated mode-locked diode lasers, amplifiers, and detectors, frequencies between 30 GHz and 90 GHz are generated by a single monolithic (Al,Ga)As optical circuit less than 2mm in its largest dimension. (2) Development of polarization-maintaining, low-insertion-loss, low v-pi, Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulators with DC-to-potentially-K-band modulation bandwidth. New low-loss polarization-maintaining waveguide designs using binary alloys have been shown to reduce polarization crosstalk in undoped (Al,Ga)As waveguides, yielding high extinction ratio (>40dB) and low on-chip loss (<6dB) in Mach-Zehnder interferometers. RF drive voltage is reduced through use of 45rnrn-active length devices with modulator sensitivity, v-pi, less than 3V.

  6. A combined nanoplasmonic and electrodeless quartz crystal microbalance setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Elin M.; Langhammer, Christoph; Zoric, Igor; Kasemo, Bengt [Department of Applied Physics, Chemical Physics Group, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Edvardsson, Malin E. M. [Department of Applied Physics, Biological Physics Group, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2009-12-15

    We have developed an instrument combining localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensing with electrodeless quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The two techniques can be run simultaneously, on the same sensor surface, and with the same time resolution and sensitivity as for the individual techniques. The electrodeless QCM eliminates the need to fabricate electrodes on the quartz crystal and gives a large flexibility in choosing the surface structure and coating for both QCM-D and LSPR. The performance is demonstrated for liquid phase measurements of lipid bilayer formation and biorecognition events, and for gas phase measurements of hydrogen uptake/release by palladium nanoparticles. Advantages of using the combined equipment for biomolecular adsorption studies include synchronized information about structural transformations and extraction of molecular (dry) mass and degree of hydration of the adlayer, which cannot be obtained with the individual techniques. In hydrogen storage studies the combined equipment, allows for synchronized measurements of uptake/release kinetics and quantification of stored hydrogen amounts in nanoparticles and films at practically interesting hydrogen pressures and temperatures.

  7. ESEEM of industrial quartz powders: insights into crystal chemistry of Al defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Maurizio; Di Benedetto, Francesco; Bartali, Laura; Innocenti, Massimo; Fornaciai, Gabriele; Montegrossi, Giordano; Pardi, Luca A.; Zoleo, Alfonso; Capacci, Fabio

    2012-06-01

    A set of raw industrial materials, that is, pure quartz and quartz-rich mixtures, were investigated through electron paramagnetic resonance and electron spin echo-envelope modulation spectroscopies, with the aim of evaluating the effective role played by defect centres and of assessing whether they can be used to monitor changes in the physical properties of quartz powders with reference to their health effects. The obtained results point to two interactions of the Al defect centres with H+, hosted in sites within the channels parallel and perpendicular to the c axis of quartz, respectively. These two Al/H+ (hAl) centres exhibit a weak chemical bond, and their relative amounts appear to be modified/controlled by the thermo-mechanical processes underwent by powders. Indeed, a mechanically promoted inter-conversion between the two kinds of site is suggested. As a consequence, the hAl centres are effective in monitoring even modest activations of powders, through thermal or mechanical processes, and they are also supposed to play a specific, relevant role in quartz reactivity during the considered industrial processes.

  8. Experimental studies in magnetically induced transverse force-frequency effect in thin quartz microresonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatipoglu, Gokhan [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Tadigadapa, Srinivas, E-mail: sat10@psu.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2015-07-21

    In this work, the transverse force-frequency sensitivity of magnetostrictive Metglas{sup ®} (Fe{sub 85}B{sub 5}Si{sub 10}) thin film coated AT-cut thickness shear mode quartz thin plate microresonator (500 μm × 500 μm × 19 μm) is experimentally measured and modeled in Lagrangian formulation by coupling magnetostrictive deformation equations with the basic plate equations from the theory of small deformation. The quartz plate resonator is fabricated by micromachining techniques and released into fixed-free structure using focused ion beam milling. Application of a magnetic field results in the out-of-plane bending of the structure due to elastic coupling between the magnetostrictive Metglas{sup ®} and quartz resonator layers. As a result of the transverse loading and out-of-plane bending, the admittance characteristics of the resonator shifts, and these shifts are recorded in real time utilizing a network analyzer. The sensitivity is experimentally measured to be 162.3 mdeg/Oe for phase, corresponding to a frequency sensitivity of Δf/H = 11 Hz/Oe. The equivalent force-frequency sensitivity can then be calculated as 2.36 μN/Hz using the developed model. The coupled domain analysis fits well with the experimental data. Further reduction of quartz thickness and optimization of the thickness ratio of the magnetostrictive to quartz layers offers the possibility of exploiting the stress sensitivity of plate microresonators as sensitive magnetic field sensors capable of low nanoTesla to picoTesla level magnetic flux densities.

  9. Phase-referenced nonlinear spectroscopy of the α-quartz/water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Paul E.; Saslow, Sarah A.; Wang, Hong-Fei; Geiger, Franz M.; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

    2016-12-01

    Probing the polarization of water molecules at charged interfaces by second harmonic generation spectroscopy has been heretofore limited to isotropic materials. Here we report non-resonant nonlinear optical measurements at the interface of anisotropic z-cut α-quartz and water under conditions of dynamically changing ionic strength and bulk solution pH. We find that the product of the third-order susceptibility and the interfacial potential, χ(3) × Φ(0), is given by (χ1(3)-iχ2(3)) × Φ(0), and that the interference between this product and the second-order susceptibility of bulk quartz depends on the rotation angle of α-quartz around the z axis. Our experiments show that this newly identified term, iχ(3) × Φ(0), which is out of phase from the surface terms, is of bulk origin. The possibility of internally phase referencing the interfacial response for the interfacial orientation analysis of species or materials in contact with α-quartz is discussed along with the implications for conditions of resonance enhancement.

  10. Estimating Quartz Reserves Using Compositional Kriging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Taboada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine spatial distribution and volume of four commercial quartz grades, namely, silicon metal, ferrosilicon, aggregate, and kaolin (depending on content in impurities in a quartz seam. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the reserves in the seam were determined from samples collected from outcrops, blasting operations, and exploratory drilling, and compositional kriging was used to calculate the volume and distribution of the reserves. A more accurate knowledge of the deposit ensures better mine planning, leading to higher profitability and an improved relationship with the environment.

  11. Respiratory Monitoring by Porphyrin Modified Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Woo Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A respiratory monitoring system based on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor with a functional film was designed and investigated. Porphyrins 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-sulfophenyl-21H,23H-porphine (TSPP and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-sulfophenyl-21H, 23H-porphine manganese (III chloride (MnTSPP used as sensitive elements were assembled with a poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride (PDDA. Films were deposited on the QCM resonators using layer-by-layer method in order to develop the sensor. The developed system, in which the sensor response reflects lung movements, was able to track human respiration providing respiratory rate (RR and respiratory pattern (RP. The sensor system was tested on healthy volunteers to compare RPs and calculate RRs. The operation principle of the proposed system is based on the fast adsorption/desorption behavior of water originated from human breath into the sensor films deposited on the QCM electrode.

  12. Conformal coating value/risk assessment for Sandia satellite programs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russick, Edward Mark; Thayer, Gayle Echo

    2008-03-01

    Conformal coatings are used in space applications on printed circuit board (PCB) assemblies primarily as a protective barrier against environmental contaminants. Such coatings have been used at Sandia for decades in satellite applications including the GPS satellite program. Recently, the value of conformal coating has been questioned because it is time consuming (requiring a 5-6 week schedule allowance) and delays due to difficulty of repairs and rework performed afterward are troublesome. In an effort to find opportunities where assembly time can be reduced, a review of the literature as well as discussions with satellite engineers both within and external to Sandia regarding the value of conformal coating was performed. Several sources on the value of conformal coating, the functions it performs, and on whether coatings are necessary and should be used at all were found, though nearly all were based on anecdotal information. The first section of this report, titled 'Conformal Coating for Space Applications', summarizes the results of an initial risk-value assessment of the conformal coating process for Sandia satellite programs based on information gathered. In the process of collecting information to perform the assessment, it was necessary to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the entire satellite box assembly process. A production time-line was constructed and is presented in the second section of this report, titled 'Satellite Box Assembly', specifically to identify potential sources of time delays, manufacturing issues, and component failures related to the conformal coating process in relation to the box assembly. The time-line also allows for identification of production issues that were anecdotally attributed to the conformal coating but actually were associated with other production steps in the box assembly process. It was constructed largely in consultation with GPS program engineers with empirical knowledge of times required

  13. Sandia`s network for SC `97: Supporting visualization, distributed cluster computing, and production data networking with a wide area high performance parallel asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, T.J.; Martinez, L.G.; Vahle, M.O.; Archuleta, T.V.; Williams, V.K.

    1998-05-01

    The advanced networking department at Sandia National Laboratories has used the annual Supercomputing conference sponsored by the IEEE and ACM for the past several years as a forum to demonstrate and focus communication and networking developments. At SC `97, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) combined their SC `97 activities within a single research booth under the Advance Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) banner. For the second year in a row, Sandia provided the network design and coordinated the networking activities within the booth. At SC `97, Sandia elected to demonstrate the capability of the Computation Plant, the visualization of scientific data, scalable ATM encryption, and ATM video and telephony capabilities. At SC `97, LLNL demonstrated an application, called RIPTIDE, that also required significant networking resources. The RIPTIDE application had computational visualization and steering capabilities. This paper documents those accomplishments, discusses the details of their implementation, and describes how these demonstrations support Sandia`s overall strategies in ATM networking.

  14. Ultrasensitive quartz crystal microbalance integrated with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Abhijat

    In this thesis, an ultrasensitive Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) which can be configured as a versatile (bio)chemical sensor is presented. The high sensitivity of the QCM was achieved via miniaturization using micromachining techniques. The absolute mass sensitivity of sensor was increased by decreasing the thickness and the area of the electrodes of the resonators. Through optimal design, microfabrication, and miniaturization the mass sensitivity of the sensors was increased by more than four orders of magnitude to less than 1 pg/Hz; as compared to 17 ng/Hz for commercially available 5 MHz bulk resonators. Miniaturization of the resonators enables their fabrication in an array format with each pixel of the array being individually addressed. This enables true spatial and temporal mass sensing capabilities. The fabricated resonators were tested for operation in air and water and high quality factors of 7500 and ˜2000 were obtained respectively. A dielectric etch process was developed to achieve the miniaturization of the sensors. The optimization of the dielectric etch process was achieved using statistical techniques such as Design of Experiment (DOE). An etch rate of 0.5 microm/min at rms surface roughness of less than 2 nm was achieved after the optimization process. The process parameters, namely the ICP power, the substrate power, the flow rate of gases, the operating pressure of the etch tool, distance of substrate holder from the source, and the temperature of substrate holder, were quantitatively related to the etch rate and rms surface roughness using least square fit to the etch data. The QCMs were integrated with carbon nanotubes using a simple spray-on technique. It was found that the addition of carbon nanotubes onto the electroded surface of the resonator increased its Q-factor by as much as 100%. It was proposed that the carbon nanotubes due to their high stiffness suppress the out-of-plane flexural vibrations in the QCMs thereby suppressing an

  15. The Frequency Dependence of the Added Mass of Quartz Tuning Fork Immersed in He II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, I.; Klokol, K.; Sokolov, S.; Sheshin, G.

    2016-11-01

    We measured the dependences of the resonance frequency of tuning forks immersed in liquid helium at T = 0.365 K in the pressure interval from saturated vapor pressure to 24.8 atm. The quartz tuning forks have been studied with different resonance frequencies of 6.65, 8.46, 12.1, 25.0 and 33.6 kHz in vacuum. The measurements were taken in the laminar flow regime. The experimental data allow us to determine the added mass of a quartz tuning fork in He II. It was found that the added mass per unit length of the prong fork is frequency dependent. Some possible qualitative explanations for such dependence are proposed. In addition, we observed, at T = 0.365 K, the changes in added mass with pressure according to the pressure dependence of He II density.

  16. Ultraminiature resonator accelerometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, D.R.; Kravitz, S.H.; Vianco, P.T.

    1996-04-01

    A new family of microminiature sensors and clocks is being developed with widespread application potential for missile and weapons applications, as biomedical sensors, as vehicle status monitors, and as high-volume animal identification and health sensors. To satisfy fundamental technology development needs, a micromachined clock and an accelerometer have initially been undertaken as development projects. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micromachined silicon package is used as the frequency-modulated basic component of the sensor family. Resonator design philosophy follows trapped energy principles and temperature compensation methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20--100 MHz range, corresponding to quartz wafer thicknesses in the 75--15 micron range. High-volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Chemical etching of quartz, as well as micromachining of silicon, achieves the surface and volume mechanical features necessary to fashion the resonating element and the mating package. Integration of the associated oscillator and signal analysis circuitry into the silicon package is inherent to the realization of a size reduction requirement. A low temperature In and In/Sn bonding technology allows assembly of the dissimilar quartz and silicon materials, an otherwise challenging task. Unique design features include robust vibration and shock performance, capacitance sensing with micromachined diaphragms, circuit integration, capacitance-to-frequency transduction, and extremely small dimensioning. Accelerometer sensitivities were measured in the 1--3 ppm/g range for the milligram proof-mass structures employed in the prototypes evaluated to date.

  17. Calendar Year 2009 Annual Site Environmental Report for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Karen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bailey-White, Brenda [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bonaguidi, Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, Mendy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Byrd, Caroline [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cabble, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Castillo, Dave [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coplen, Amy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Curran, Kelsey [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Deola, Regina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Duran, Leroy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eckstein, Joanna [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fitzgerald, Tanja [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); French, Chris [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gerard, Morgan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzales, Linda [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gorman, Susan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jackson, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jarry, Jeff [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Adrian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lauffer, Franz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mauser, Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mayeux, Lucie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCord, Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Oborny, Stephanie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Perini, Robin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Puissant, Pamela [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reiser, Anita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roma, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Salinas, Stephanie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Skelly, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ullrich, Rebecca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wagner, Katrina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wrons, Ralph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2010-09-30

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a government-owned/contractor operated facility. Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC), manages and operates the laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The DOE/NNSA, Sandia Site O ffice (SSO) administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at the site. This annual report summarizes data and the compliance status of Sandia Corporation’s environmental protection and monitoring programs through December 31, 2009. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention (P2), environmental restoration (ER), oil and chemical spill prevention, and implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2008a) and DOE Manual 231.1-1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2007).

  18. Annual Site Environmental Report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Calendar year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agogino, Karen [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Sanchez, Rebecca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2008-09-30

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a government-owned/contractor-operated facility. Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, manages and operates the laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The DOE/NNSA Sandia Site Office (SSO) administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at the site. This annual report summarizes data and the compliance status of Sandia Corporation’s environmental protection and monitoring programs through December 31, 2007. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention (P2), environmental restoration (ER), oil and chemical spill prevention, and implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2007a) and DOE Manual 231.1-1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2007).

  19. Data Acquisition System for Quartz Crystal Microbalances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Romero Felizardo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a data acquisition system used in a mass sensor: quartz crystal microbalance. This system reads the frequency of this sensor along the time and sends the collected data to the computer through a serial interface.

  20. Bubble Formation in Silicon-Quartz Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Kakimoto, K.; EGUCHI, M.; Ozoe, H.

    1997-01-01

    Bubble formation at an interface between silicon melt and a quartz crucible was studied by thermodynamical calculation and visualization of bubble formation using X-ray radiography. A phase diagram of silicon-oxygen (Si-O) system is also calculated from the reported thermodynamical data. Critical temperature and radius of bubble formation at the interface was discussed.

  1. Time-resolved luminescence from quartz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chithambo, M.L.; Ankjærgaard, C.; Pagonis, V.

    2016-01-01

    Time-resolved optical stimulation of luminescence has become established as a key method for measurement of optically stimulated luminescence from quartz, feldspar and α-Al2O3:C, all materials of interest in dosimetry. The aim of time-resolved optical stimulation is to separ

  2. 1991 Environmental monitoring report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, T.; Cox, W.; Hwang, S.; Jones, A.; Longley, S.; Parsons, A.; Wolff, T.; Fish, J.; Ward, S.

    1992-11-01

    This 1991 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress such as National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration (ER), and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNL, Albuquerque) are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} mrem. The total population within a 50-mile radius of SNL, Albuquerque, received a collective dose of 0.53 person-rem during 1991 from SNL, Albuquerque, operations. As in the previous year, the 1991 operations at SNL, Albuquerque, had no discernible impact on the general public or on the environment.

  3. 1990 Environmental Monitoring Report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, S.; Yeager, G.; Wolff, T.; Parsons, A.; Dionne, D.; Massey, C.; Schwartz, B.; Fish, J.; Thompson, D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Goodrich, M. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1991-05-01

    This 1990 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress such as National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNL, Albuquerque) are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 2.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} mrem. The total 50-mile population received a collective dose of 0.82 person-rem during 1990 from SNL, Albuquerque, operations. As in the previous year, the 1990 SNL operations had no adverse impact on the general public or on the environment. This report is prepared for the US Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1. 97 refs., 30 figs., 137 tabs.

  4. Epidemiologic surveillance. Annual report for Sandia National Laboratories 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. In this annual report, 1994 morbidity data for the Sandia National Laboratories are summarized. These analyses focus on absences of 5 or more consecutive workdays occurring among workers aged 15-76 years. They are arranged in five sets of tables that present: (1) the distribution of the labor force by occupational category and pay status; (2) the absences per person, diagnoses per absence, and diagnosis rates for the whole work force; (3) diagnosis rates by type of disease or injury; (4) diagnosis rates by occupational category; and (5) relative risks for specific types of disease or injury by occupational category.

  5. Sandia National Laboratories shock thermodynamics applied research (STAR) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asay, J.R.

    1981-08-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories Shock Thermodynamics Applied Research (STAR) Facility has recently consolidated three different guns and a variety of instrumentation capabilities into a single location. The guns available at the facility consist of a single-stage light gas gun, a single-stage propellant gun and a two-stage light gas gun, which cover a velocity range from 15 m/s to 8 km/s. Instrumentation available at the facility includes optical and microwave interferometry, time-resolved holography, fast x-radiography, framing and streak photography, fast multi-wavelength pyrometry, piezoelectric and piezoresistive gauges and computer data reduction. This report discusses the guns and instrumentation available at the facility and selected recent applications.

  6. Tritium monitoring at the Sandia Tritium Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, T.K.

    1978-10-01

    Sandia Laboratories at Livermore, California, is presently beginning operation of a Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL). The laboratory incorporates containment and cleanup facilities such that any unscheduled tritium release is captured rather than vented to the atmosphere. A sophisticated tritium monitoring system is in use at the TRL to protect operating personnel and the environment, as well as ensure the safe and effective operation of the TRL decontamination systems. Each monitoring system has, in addition to a local display, a display in a centralized control room which, when coupled room which, when coupled with the TRL control computer, automatically provides an immediate assessment of the status of the entire facility. The computer controls a complex alarm array status of the entire facility. The computer controls a complex alarm array and integrates and records all operational and unscheduled tritium releases.

  7. 1989 Environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, S.; Chavez, G.; Phelan, J.; Parsons, A.; Yeager, G.; Dionne, D.; Schwartz, B.; Wolff, T.; Fish, J.; Gray, C.; Thompson, D.

    1990-05-01

    This 1989 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNL, Albuquerque) are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 8.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} mrem. The total Albuquerque population received a collective dose of 0.097 person-rem during 1989 from SNL, Albuquerque, operations. As in the previous year, SNL, Albuquerque, operations in 1989 had no adverse impact on the general public or on the environment. 46 refs., 20 figs., 31 tabs.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (Rev 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goke, Sarah Hayes [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Elliott, Nathan Ryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories’ Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual is intended to provide extended technical discussion and justification of the internal dosimetry program at SNL. It serves to record the approach to evaluating internal doses from radiobioassay data, and where appropriate, from workplace monitoring data per the Department of Energy Internal Dosimetry Program Guide DOE G 441.1C. The discussion contained herein is directed primarily to current and future SNL internal dosimetrists. In an effort to conserve space in the TBM and avoid duplication, it contains numerous references providing an entry point into the internal dosimetry literature relevant to this program. The TBM is not intended to act as a policy or procedure statement, but will supplement the information normally found in procedures or policy documents. The internal dosimetry program outlined in this manual is intended to meet the requirements of Federal Rule 10CFR835 for monitoring the workplace and for assessing internal radiation doses to workers.

  9. Organizational cultural assessment of the Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-01

    An Organizational Cultural Assessment (OCA) was performed at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) by administering an Organizational Culture Survey (OCS) that queried employees on the subjects of organizational culture, various aspects of communications, employee commitment, work group cohesion, coordination of work, environmental concerns, hazardous nature of work, safety, and overall job satisfaction. The purpose of the OCS is to measure in a quantitative and objective way the values, attitudes, and beliefs of the individuals working within the organization. The OCS administration at SNL was the fifth to occur at a DOE facility. The sample was randomly selected from each Vice Presidency group, the largest organizational unit at SNL. Scores and significance are discussed and statistically significant differences between groups are identified and discussed.

  10. Sandia Lightning Simulation Facility Building 888. Hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banda, Z.; Barnett, B.

    1994-10-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Sandia Lightning Simulation Facility, Building 888. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 23 meters. The highest emergency classification is a Site Area Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is 65 meters.

  11. Sandia Administrative Micrographics Facility, Building 802: Hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swihart, A.

    1994-12-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Sandia Administrative Micrographics Facility, Building 802. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 33 meters. The highest emergency classification is a Site Area Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is 75 meters.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories' new high level acoustic test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J. D.; Hendrick, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    A high intensity acoustic test facility has been designed and is under construction at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. The chamber is designed to provide an acoustic environment of 154dB (re 20 {mu}Pa) overall sound pressure level over the bandwidth of 50 Hz to 10,000 Hz. The chamber has a volume of 16,000 cubic feet with interior dimensions of 21.6 ft {times} 24.6 ft {times} 30 ft. The construction of the chamber should be complete by the summer of 1990. This paper discusses the design goals and constraints of the facility. The construction characteristics are discussed in detail, as are the acoustic performance design characteristics. The authors hope that this work will help others in designing acoustic chambers. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  13. 1989 Environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, S.; Chavez, G.; Phelan, J.; Parsons, A.; Yeager, G.; Dionne, D.; Schwartz, B.; Wolff, T.; Fish, J.; Gray, C.; Thompson, D.

    1990-05-01

    This 1989 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNL, Albuquerque) are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 8.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} mrem. The total Albuquerque population received a collective dose of 0.097 person-rem during 1989 from SNL, Albuquerque, operations. As in the previous year, SNL, Albuquerque, operations in 1989 had no adverse impact on the general public or on the environment. 46 refs., 20 figs., 31 tabs.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories, California sewer system management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Robert C.

    2010-02-01

    A Sewer System Management Plan (SSMP) is required by the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Order No. 2006-0003-DWQ Statewide General Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR) for Sanitary Sewer Systems (General Permit). DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Sandia Site Office has filed a Notice of Intent to be covered under this General Permit. The General Permit requires a proactive approach to reduce the number and frequency of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) within the State. SSMPs must include provisions to provide proper and efficient management, operation, and maintenance of sanitary sewer systems and must contain a spill response plan. Elements of this Plan are under development in accordance with the SWRCB's schedule.

  15. Baseline ecological footprint of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coplen, Amy K.; Mizner, Jack Harry,; Ubechel, Norion M.

    2009-01-01

    The Ecological Footprint Model is a mechanism for measuring the environmental effects of operations at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). This analysis quantifies environmental impact associated with energy use, transportation, waste, land use, and water consumption at SNL/NM for fiscal year 2005 (FY05). Since SNL/NMs total ecological footprint (96,434 gha) is greater than the waste absorption capacity of its landholdings (338 gha), it created an ecological deficit of 96,096 gha. This deficit is equal to 886,470lha, or about 3,423 square miles of Pinyon-Juniper woodlands and desert grassland. 89% of the ecological footprint can be attributed to energy use, indicating that in order to mitigate environmental impact, efforts should be focused on energy efficiency, energy reduction, and the incorporation of additional renewable energy alternatives at SNL/NM.

  16. Low Temperature Quartz Crystal Oscillator Fast Warm-Up Saw Oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    and given at I Hz from the carrier. From these experimental data the dependance between 1/F noise and Q-fact : is determined by using a regression...for the thermal phonons. The anharmonicities are introduced by means of a strain dependance of the phono frequencies. A detailed description of the...study shown for the first time a correlation between 1/F noise and Q-factor in quartz crystal resonators. This dependance was confirmed on the one

  17. Linear combinations of the third-order elastic and piezoelectric constants of quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, C K

    1990-01-01

    The DC-field-induced change in the resonant frequency of the extentional mode of quartz rods is related to the third-order elastic and the third-order piezoelectric constants. Five linear combinations of these constants are determined by least-squares fit to data obtained from 50 different rods. The results are notable for their small standard errors of about two percent on average. They also agree very well with the values obtained independently by the transit-time method.

  18. Nanocharacterization of Soft Biological Samples in Shear Mode with Quartz Tuning Fork Probes

    OpenAIRE

    Manel Puig-Vidal; Laura Gonzalez; Jorge Otero

    2012-01-01

    Quartz tuning forks are extremely good resonators and their use is growing in scanning probe microscopy. Nevertheless, only a few studies on soft biological samples have been reported using these probes. In this work, we present the methodology to develop and use these nanosensors to properly work with biological samples. The working principles, fabrication and experimental setup are presented. The results in the nanocharacterization of different samples in different ambients are presented by...

  19. Identifying well-bleached quartz using the different bleaching rates of quartz and feldspar luminescence signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, A.S.; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Masuda, N.;

    2012-01-01

    When dating older sedimentary deposits using quartz, there are no unambiguous methods for identifying the presence of incomplete bleaching. Current statistical analysis of dose distributions depends entirely on the assumption that incomplete bleaching and mixing are the main causes of any excess...... in relative bleaching rates of quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and feldspar luminescence stimulated at 50 °C by infrared light (IR50) and feldspar luminescence stimulated at 290 °C by infrared light after a stimulation at 50 °C (pIRIR290), and use recently deposited samples to determine...... that the large aliquot data are more likely to be correct. We conclude that a comparison of quartz and feldspar doses provides a useful independent method for identifying well-bleached quartz samples, and that it is unwise to apply statistical models to dose distributions without clear evidence for the physical...

  20. Millimeter And Submillimeter-Wave Integrated Circuits On Quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Imran; Mazed, Mohammad; Siegel, Peter; Smith, R. Peter

    1995-01-01

    Proposed Quartz substrate Upside-down Integrated Device (QUID) relies on UV-curable adhesive to bond semiconductor with quartz. Integrated circuits including planar GaAs Schottky diodes and passive circuit elements (such as bandpass filters) fabricated on quartz substrates. Circuits designed to operate as mixers in waveguide circuit at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. Integrated circuits mechanically more robust, larger, and easier to handle than planar Schottky diode chips. Quartz substrate more suitable for waveguide circuits than GaAs substrate.

  1. Surface Acoustic WaveAmmonia Sensors Based on ST-cut Quartz under Periodic Al Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yau Su

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface acoustic wave (SAW devices are key components for sensing applications. SAW propagation under a periodic grating was investigated in this work. The theoretical method used here is the space harmonic method. We also applied the results of SAW propagation studied in this work to design a two-port resonator with an Al grating on ST-cut quartz. The measured frequency responses of the resonator were similar to the simulation ones. Then, the chemical interface of polyaniline/WO3 composites was coated on the SAW sensor for ammonia detection. The SAW sensor responded to ammonia gas and could be regenerated using dry nitrogen.

  2. Emission polarization study on quartz and calcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, R. K.

    1972-01-01

    Calculation of the spectral emission polarization of quartz and calcite polished plates for observation angles of 20 and 70 deg by the substitution of complex index of refraction values for each mineral into Fresnel's equations. The emission polarization is shown to be quite wavelength-dependent, demonstrating that selected narrow or medium-width spectral bands exhibit a significantly higher percentage of polarization than a broad spectral band for these two minerals. Field measurements with a broadband infrared radiometer yield polarizations on the order of 2% for a coarse-grained granite rock and beach sand (both quartz-rich). This implies that a more sensitive detector with a selected medium-width filter may be capable of measuring emission polarization accurately enough to make this parameter useful as a remote sensing tool for discrimination among rocks on the basis of texture.

  3. Axiomatic Design of Micro Quartz Rate Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yang-he; ZHANG Hong-hai; LIU Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Quartz rate sensors (QRS) made out of one single piece of quartz crystal are inertial devices which can be used for general rate control, stabilization, automotive and aerospace/defense markets,etc. The mechanical design of the QRS has been investigated based on axiomatic design. The axiomatic design matrix of the mechanical structure of Coriolis Vibratory Gyroscopes (CVG) has been proposed. The mechanical function of QRS is divided into three Function Requirements ( FR ) , i. e. , FR1 is the drive mode, FR2 is the sense mode, FR3 is a coupled connection where the Coriolis force can couple the two modes with a term proportional to the rotational rate. A new QRS which is easy to be fabricated has been put forward. Furthermore, the new QRS indicated that the axiomatic design is a help to functional design of products.

  4. The CMS forward calorimeter with quartz fibres

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    Part of the forward hadron calorimeter for the CMS experiment at the LHC is seen here. The calorimeter will be placed at the ends of the experiment barrel to measure the energy of particles produced in the 14 TeV proton-proton collisions. In consists of an iron absorber and specially designed radiation-hard quartz so that it survives the high radiation levels produced by collisions.

  5. THE FRICTION OF QUARTZ IN HIGH VACUUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    the effects of surface cleanliness . Ultra-high vacuums (to 10 to the minus 10th power torr) and high temperatures (to 350 deg C) were combined with...chemical cleaning and careful handling techniques to produce the maximum surface cleanliness . The coefficient of static friction under varying...on 30-40 mesh glass balls. The coefficient of friction of smooth quartz was found to vary from 0.1 to 1.0 depending on the surface cleanliness . The

  6. History and testimony of competency-based development at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, Rebecca A.; Narahara, Sheryl K.

    2004-04-01

    More than ten years ago, Sandia managers defined a set of traits and characteristics that were needed for success at Sandia. Today, the Sandia National Laboratories Success Profile Competencies continue to be powerful tools for employee and leadership development. The purpose of this report is to revisit the historical events that led to the creation and adaptation of the competencies and to position them for integration in future employee selection, development, and succession planning processes. This report contains an account of how the competencies were developed, testimonies of how they are used within the organization, and a description of how they will be foundational elements of new processes.

  7. Technical review of the Sandia Laboratories' Particle Beam Fusion Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-18

    This report considers the technical aspects of Sandia Laboratories' Particle Beam Fusion Program and examines the program's initial goals, the progress made to date towards reaching those goals, and the future plans or methods of reaching those original or modified goals. A summary of Sandia Laboratories' effort, which seeks to demonstrate that high voltage pulsed power generated high-current electron or light ion beams can be used to ignite a deuterium or tritium pellet, is provided. A brief review and assessment of the Sandia Pulse Power Program is given. Several critical issues and summaries of the committee members' opinions are discussed.

  8. Guidelines for Sandia ASCI Verification and Validation Plans - Content and Format: Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TRUCANO,TIMOTHY G.; MOYA,JAIME L.

    1999-12-01

    This report summarizes general guidelines for the development of Verification and Validation (V and V) plans for ASCI code projects at Sandia National Laboratories. The main content categories recommended by these guidelines for explicit treatment in Sandia V and V plans are (1) stockpile drivers influencing the code development project (2) the key phenomena to be modeled by the individual code; (3) software verification strategy and test plan; and (4) code validation strategy and test plans. The authors of this document anticipate that the needed content of the V and V plans for the Sandia ASCI codes will evolve as time passes. These needs will be reflected by future versions of this document.

  9. Force chain forming quartz in an ultramylonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, Rüdiger; Morales, Luiz F. G.; Peters, Max

    2014-05-01

    Polymineralic ultramylonites often show microstructures indicative of grain size sensitive creep with dissolution precipitation or diffusion accommodated grain boundary sliding. Typically phases show an anticorrelated distribution, the grain size is small and a crystallographic preferred orientation is absent. The latter observation is usually thought to originate from rigid body rotation of grains because flow dominated by diffusion creep operates at differential stresses, which are too low to activate crystal-plastic mechanisms. Here, we present quartz texture measurements from a natural ultramylonite, deformed under upper amphibolite facies conditions from the Nordmannvik Nappe, Upper Allochton of the Norwegian Caledonides. The ultramylonite has a mean grain size crystal-plastic processes. Alternative texture forming processes (e.g. growth textures) are also discussed. The texture in the foliation parallel clusters is thought to be an inherited texture from lower strain stages in the ultramylonite, as it is mostly present in the least deformed parts of the ultramylonite. However, we suggest that the texture formed in the foliation oblique clusters is related to a dynamic formation of force chains between quartz grains, where differential stresses become high enough for plastic yielding. The presence of force chains questions whether ultramylonites necessarily need to possess a linear viscous rheology, even if microstructures would indicate a diffusion creep mechanism. Pennacchioni G., Menegon L., Leiss B., Nestola F., Bromiley G., 2010: Development of crystallographic preferred orientation and microstructure during plastic deformation of natural coarse?grained quartz veins. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, B12405

  10. Flow regimes of the superfluid helium caused by oscillating quartz tuning fork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chagovets, V; Gritsenko, I; Rudavskii, E; Sheshin, G; Zadorozhko, A; Verkin, B [Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov 61103 (Ukraine)], E-mail: sheshin@ilt.kharkov.ua

    2009-02-01

    The laminar-turbulent flow transition in HeII was studied with an oscillating quartz tuning fork. At temperatures from 200 mK to 3.0 K a current-voltage characteristic were recorded with varying driving voltage from 10{sup -5} to 10 V. A resonance frequency and a width of the resonance curve were also registered. It is found that at temperatures below {approx} 0.8 K the laminar-turbulent transition proceeds through an intermediate region clearly seen in the current - voltage characteristic curves. In this case the resonance curve changes in its shape - there appears a plateau near the maximum. An increase in the resonance curve width suggests the existence of excess dissipation related to the generation of quantized vortices in HeII in the vicinity of the oscillating surface. Estimation of the possible size of the vortices may suggest that these are generated on the oscillating surface roughness.

  11. Testing the reliability of ESR dating of optically exposed buried quartz sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rink, W.J. [School of Geography and Geology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., L8S 4K1 (Canada)], E-mail: rinkwj@mcmaster.ca; Bartoll, J.; Schwarcz, H.P. [School of Geography and Geology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., L8S 4K1 (Canada); Shane, P. [Department of Geology, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Bar-Yosef, O. [Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Optical dating of quartz by optically stimulated luminescence has a time range that is generally less than about 500 ka, due to relatively rapid saturation of the available luminescence defects in quartz. We test here a new method, electron spin resonance (ESR) optical dating of quartz, in which radiation-sensitive defects at aluminum and titanium atoms on silicon sites give rise to signals which can only be detected near liquid nitrogen temperature and which have a much higher capacity to absorb radiation dose before saturating than optical luminescence-detected signals. Our results show this method yields agreement with independent age control out to about 2.5 million years, extending here the dating range of optically exposed quartz in sediments in along-shore sediments (aeolian and waterlain) by a factor of about 5. Three sites in along-shore lacustrine and marine aeolian environments yielded very good agreement with independent age control. Details of single saturating exponential fitting in relation to agreement with expected burial doses and annealing of Al and Ti signals provide additional data to consider the best approaches to the dating method. Furthermore, we propose a new criterion for ESR optical dating: both the Al signal and Ti signal ages must agree to insure accurate burial ages. Moreover, when Al signal ages are lower than Ti signal ages, then the Al signal may be taken as the minimum burial age.

  12. Understanding optically stimulated charge movement in quartz and feldspar using time-resolved measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankjaergaard, C.

    2010-02-15

    through the shallow traps. The results from feldspars show the relative roles of an IR excited state (IR resonance), band tails and the conduction band in determining charge transport. It is suggested that unlike quartz, the excited state lifetime does not play an important role in our measurements. Finally, it is shown that one of these routes favors production if a least fading signal (due to quantum mechanical tunnelling) in feldspars. Although, results are only presented for some quartz and feldspar samples, they were found to be very similar within the each group during the course of this work. (Author)

  13. 1996 Site environmental report Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, C.H. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Duncan, D. [ed.] [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sanchez, R. [Jobs Plus, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is operated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission to provide weapon component technology and hardware for national security needs, and to conduct fundamental research and development (R&D) to advance technology in energy research, computer science, waste management, electronics, materials science, and transportation safety for hazardous and nuclear components. In support of this mission, the Environmental Safety and Health (ES&H) Center at SNL/NM conducts extensive environmental monitoring, surveillance, and compliance activities to assist SNL`s line organizations in meeting all applicable environmental regulations applicable to the site including those regulating radiological and nonradiological effluents and emissions. Also herein are included, the status of environmental programs that direct and manage activities such as terrestrial surveillance; ambient air and meteorological monitoring; hazardous, radioactive, and solid waste management; pollution prevention and waste minimization; environmental restoration (ER); oil and chemical spill prevention; and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation. This report has been prepared in compliance with DOE order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection.

  14. Sandia's mentoring program : an ongoing success.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, Soila

    2003-12-01

    This report summarizes the Mentoring Program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), which has been an on-going success since its inception in 1995. The Mentoring Program provides a mechanism to develop a workforce able to respond to changing requirements and complex customer needs. The program objectives are to enhance employee contributions through increased knowledge of SNL culture, strategies, and programmatic direction. Mentoring is a proven mechanism for attracting new employees, retaining employees, and developing leadership. It helps to prevent the loss of corporate knowledge from attrition and retirement, and it increases the rate and level of contributions of new managers and employees, also spurring cross-organizational teaming. The Mentoring Program is structured as a one-year partnership between an experienced staff member or leader and a less experienced one. Mentors and mentees are paired according to mutual objectives and interests. Support is provided to the matched pairs from their management as well as division program coordinators in both New Mexico and California locations. In addition, bi-monthly large-group training sessions are held.

  15. Synthetic aperture radar and interferometry development at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-04-01

    Environmental monitoring, earth-resource mapping, and military systems require broad-area imaging at high resolutions. Many times the imagery must be acquired in inclement weather or during night as well as day. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides such a capability. SAR systems take advantage of the long-range propagation characteristics of radar signals and the complex information processing capability of modern digital electronics to provide high resolution imagery. SAR complements photographic and other optical imaging capabilities because of the minimum constrains on time-of-day and atmospheric conditions and because of the unique responses of terrain and cultural targets to radar frequencies. Interferometry is a method for generating a three-dimensional image of terrain. The height projection is obtained by acquiring two SAR images from two slightly differing locations. It is different from the common method of stereoscopic imaging for topography. The latter relies on differing geometric projections for triangulation to define the surface geometry whereas interferometry relies on differences in radar propagation times between the two SAR locations. This paper presents the capabilities of SAR, explains how SAR works, describes a few SAR applications, provides an overview of SAR development at Sandia, and briefly describes the motion compensation subsystem.

  16. Sandia National Laboratories/California site environmental report for 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condouris, R.A. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Holland, R.C. [Science Applications International Corp. (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is committed to conducting its operations in an environmentally safe and sound manner. It is mandatory that activities at SNL/California comply with all applicable environmental statutes, regulations, and standards. Moreover, SNL/California continuously strives to reduce risks to employees, the public, and the environment to the lowest levels reasonably possible. To help verify effective protection of public safety and preservation of the environment, SNL/California maintains an extensive, ongoing environmental monitoring program. This program monitors all significant effluents and the environment at the SNL/California site perimeter. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) performs off-site external radiation monitoring for both sites. These monitoring efforts ensure that emission controls are effective in preventing contamination of the environment. As part of SNL/California`s Environmental Monitoring Program, an environmental surveillance system measures the possible presence of hazardous materials in groundwater, stormwater, and sewage. The program also includes an extensive environmental dosimetry program, which measures external radiation levels around the Livermore site and nearby vicinity. The Site Environmental Report describes the results of SNL/California`s environmental protection activities during the calendar year. It also summarizes environmental monitoring data and highlights major environmental programs. Overall, it evaluates SNL/California`s environmental management performance and documents the site`s regulatory compliance status.

  17. Chunk projectile launch using the Sandia Hypervelocity Launcher Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Trucano, T.G.; Reinhart, W.D.; Hall, C.A.

    1994-07-01

    An experimental technique is described to launch an intact ``chunk,`` i.e. a 0.3 cm thick by 0.6 cm diameter cylindrical titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) flyer, to 10.2 km/s. The ability to launch fragments having such an aspect ratio is important for hypervelocity impact phenomenology studies. The experimental techniques used to accomplish this launch were similar but not identical to techniques developed for the Sandia HyperVelocity Launcher (HVL). A confined barrel impact is crucial in preventing the two-dimensional effects from dominating the loading response of the projectile chunk. The length to diameter ratio of the metallic chunk that is launched to 10.2 km/s is 0.5 and is an order of magnitude larger than those accomplished using the conventional hypervelocity launcher. The multi-dimensional, finite-difference (finite-volume), hydrodynamic code CTH was used to evaluate and assess the acceleration characteristics i.e., the in-bore ballistics of the chunky projectile launch. A critical analysis of the CTH calculational results led to the final design and the experimental conditions that were used in this study. However, the predicted velocity of the projectile chunk based on CTH calculations was {approximately} 6% lower than the measured velocity of {approximately}10.2 km/S.

  18. Feasibility study of medical isotope production at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, C.D.; Miller, D.L.; Carson, S.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Regulatory Assessment Dept.] [and others

    1995-12-01

    In late 1994, Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, (SNL/NM), was instructed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (IPDP) to examine the feasibility of producing medically useful radioisotopes using the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) and the Hot Cell Facility (HCF). Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) would be expected to supply the targets to be irradiated in the ACRR. The intent of DOE would be to provide a capability to satisfy the North American health care system demand for {sup 99}Mo, the parent of {sup 99m}Tc, in the event of an interruption in the current Canadian supply. {sup 99m}Tc is used in 70 to 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures in the US. The goal of the SNL/NM study effort is to determine the physical plant capability, infrastructure, and staffing necessary to meet the North American need for {sup 99}Mo and to identify and examine all issues with potential for environmental impact.

  19. Sandia-Power Surety Task Force Hawaii foam analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntyre, Annie

    2010-11-01

    The Office of Secretary of Defense (OSD) Power Surety Task Force was officially created in early 2008, after nearly two years of work in demand reduction and renewable energy technologies to support the Warfighter in Theater. The OSD Power Surety Task Force is tasked with identifying efficient energy solutions that support mission requirements. Spray foam insulation demonstrations were recently expanded beyond field structures to include military housing at Ft. Belvoir. Initial results to using the foam in both applications are favorable. This project will address the remaining key questions: (1) Can this technology help to reduce utility costs for the Installation Commander? (2) Is the foam cost effective? (3) What application differences in housing affect those key metrics? The critical need for energy solutions in Hawaii and the existing relationships among Sandia, the Department of Defense (DOD), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Forest City, make this location a logical choice for a foam demonstration. This project includes application and analysis of foam to a residential duplex at the Waikulu military community on Oahu, Hawaii, as well as reference to spray foam applied to a PACOM facility and additional foamed units on Maui, conducted during this project phase. This report concludes the analysis and describes the utilization of foam insulation at military housing in Hawaii and the subsequent data gathering and analysis.

  20. Technology integration project: Environmental Restoration Technologies Department Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C.V.; Burford, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Restoration Technologies; Allen, C.A. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories Environmental Restoration Technologies Department is developing environmental restoration technologies through funding form the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Science and Technology. Initially, this technology development has been through the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). It is currently being developed through the Contaminant Plume containment and Remediation Focus Area, the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area, and the Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Cross-Cutting Program. This Technology Integration Project (TIP) was responsible for transferring MWLID-developed technologies for routine use by environmental restoration groups throughout the DOE complex and commercializing these technologies to the private sector. The MWLID`s technology transfer/commercialization successes were achieved by involving private industry in development, demonstration, and technology transfer/commercialization activities; gathering and disseminating information about MWLID activities and technologies; and promoting stakeholder and regulatory involvement. From FY91 through FY95, 30 Technical Task Plans (TTPs) were funded. From these TTPs, the MWLID can claim 15 technology transfer/commercialization successes. Another seven technology transfer/commercialization successes are expected. With the changeover to the focus areas, the TIP continued the technology transfer/commercialization efforts begun under the MWLID.

  1. Luminescence sensitivity changes in quartz as a result of annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Agersnap Larsen, N.; Mejdahl, V.

    1995-01-01

    Retrospective dosimetry using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) on quartz extracted from (for example) bricks needs to account for strong OSL sensitivity changes that are known to occur depending on the previous thermal treatment of the sample. Non-heated quartz exhibits OSL orders of magni......Retrospective dosimetry using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) on quartz extracted from (for example) bricks needs to account for strong OSL sensitivity changes that are known to occur depending on the previous thermal treatment of the sample. Non-heated quartz exhibits OSL orders...... of magnitude less per unit radiation than that for heated material. The reason these temperature-induced sensitivity changes occur in quartz is presently not well understood. This phenomenon is also seen in the related area of luminescence dating in which sedimentary quartz and quartz from heated...

  2. Effects of citric acid on separation of sillimanite from quartz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晔; 雷东升; 鲁巍; 许时

    2002-01-01

    Quartz is the main gangue mineral of sillimanite. The results show that Al3+ and Fe3+ ion can activate the floatation of quartz and make the separation of quartz and sillimanite difficult when anion collector is used, and citric acid can inhibit the quartz activated by metallic ion and have slight influence on the sillimanite. X-ray photoelectronic energy spectrum analysis indicates that there are obvious electronic energy peaks on the surface of the quartz before citric acid is added into the ore pulp in presence of Al3+ and Fe3+, and after citric acid is added, the energy peak vanished. So citric acid can make Al3+ and Fe3+ on the surface of quartz solve and decrease the active points on the surface of quartz which can adsorb anion collector.

  3. Amorphization of α-Quartz under Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillard, L.; Duraud, J. P.

    1996-12-01

    The course of radiation induced damage produced in α-quartz by neutrons, ions, electrons or photons — commonly known as metamictization — has been re-analyzed by careful comparison of available experimental data. Specific interest was devoted to confront experimental metamict state features with current structural models. It comes out that the metamict state of irradiated quartz should exhibit some structural characteristics of the modulated structure proposed for vitreous silica. The metamictization process is consistent with a structural relaxation process of a highly defective quartz matrix. According to this new point defect analysis, structural relaxation should be triggered by a critical concentration of oxygen vacancy point defects likely to significantly lower the connectivity of the SiO{2} network. Various experimental results are interpreted by incorporating the influence of the SiO{2} crystalline polymorph and the influence of the nature of the irradiating particle to the point defect model. Nous avons étudié les modifications de propriétés et de structures de monocristaux de quartz α, consécutives à une irradiation sévère par des neutrons, des ions, des électrons ou des photons. Ce phénomène d'altération du quartz sous irradiation porte le nom de métamictisation. Notre travail exploite les recoupements de travaux antérieurs. Une attention particulière a été portée à la confrontation entre les données structurales expérimentales disponibles sur l'état métamicte du quartz et les modèles structuraux proposés. L'état métamicte du quartz présente ainsi les caractéristiques structurales du modèle de structure modulée, avancé pour décrire la structure de la silice thermique. Le mécanisme de métamictisation procéderait par relaxation de la matrice cristalline fortement endommagée. Ce phénomène de relaxation serait initié par l'apparition de concentration critique de défauts ponctuels de type lacunes d

  4. A spin label study of the effects of asbestos, quartz, and titanium dioxide dusts on the bovine erythrocyte membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyko, W; Gendek, E

    1985-04-01

    The effects of five UICC asbestos samples, titanium dioxide, and quartz on the bovine red cell membrane have been studied in erythrocyte ghosts by the spin labelling technique. Analysis of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of two sulphydryl reactive spin labels and one fatty acid spin label in red cell ghosts showed modifications in membrane protein after asbestos treatment but no alterations in membrane lipids. In experiments with quartz no membrane changes were noted but titanium dioxide altered the proteins bound with the protein reactive spin label used in the present study. The possible mechanism for these effects is discussed.

  5. Calendar Year 2013 Annual Site Environmental Report for Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Stacy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is a government-owned/contractor-operated facility. Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, manages and operates the laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The DOE/NNSA, Sandia Field Office administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at the site. This annual report summarizes data and the compliance status of Sandia Corporation’s sustainability, environmental protection, and monitoring programs through December 31, 2013. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention, environmental restoration, oil and chemical spill prevention, and implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2012).

  6. Calendar year 2003 annual site environmental report for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Katrina; Sanchez, Rebecca V.; Mayeux, Lucie; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2004-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and managed by the Sandia Site Office (SSO), Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sandia Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, operates SNL/NM. This annual report summarizes data and the compliance status of Sandia Corporation's environmental protection and monitoring programs through December 31, 2003. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention (P2), environmental restoration (ER), oil and chemical spill prevention, and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, ''Environmental Protection Program'' (DOE 2003a) and DOE Order 231.1 Chg.2, ''Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting'' (DOE 1996).

  7. Calendar year 2002 annual site environmental report for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Katrina; Sanchez, Rebecca V.; Mayeux, Lucie; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2003-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility overseen by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sandia Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, operates SNL/NM. This annual report summarizes data and the compliance status of Sandia Corporation's environmental protection and monitoring programs through December 31, 2002. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention (P2), environmental restoration (ER), oil and chemical spill prevention, and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990) and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 1996).

  8. Calendar year 2004 annual site environmental report:Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Amber L.; Goering, Teresa Lynn; Wagner, Katrina; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2005-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and managed by the Sandia Site Office (SSO), Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sandia Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, operates SNL/NM. This annual report summarizes data and the compliance status of Sandia Corporation's environmental protection and monitoring programs through December 31, 2004. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention (P2), environmental restoration (ER), oil and chemical spill prevention, and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2005) and DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2004a). (DOE 2004a).

  9. Analysis of the impact of the regulation of toxic substances on Sandia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Pigg, J.

    1980-10-01

    In recent years, Congress has passed two regulatory acts, namely the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) and the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) which seek to control the manufacture, use, and disposal of hazardous chemical substances. These acts can have a significant impact on Sandia's missions and will particularly affect those organizations involved in materials development and selection. The primary purpose of this report is to describe in some detail the impact of these acts on Sandia's corporate goals and make recommendations on what our response should be. Also described in this report is the present position of Sandia with respect to these regulatory acts and the policies and actions that Sandia has taken to date in an effort to minimize their impact.

  10. Sandia Engineering Analysis Code Access System v. 2.0.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-10-30

    The Sandia Engineering Analysis Code Access System (SEACAS) is a suite of preprocessing, post processing, translation, visualization, and utility applications supporting finite element analysis software using the Exodus database file format.

  11. Architect and engineering costs at Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this audit was to determine whether architect and engineering (A-E) costs at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories were reasonable in comparison with industry standards.

  12. Si-29 NMR spectroscopy of naturally-shocked quartz from Meteor Crater, Arizona: Correlation to Kieffer's classification scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslough, M. B.; Cygan, R. T.; Kirkpatrick, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    We have applied solid state Si-29 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to five naturally-shocked Coconino Sandstone samples from Meteor Crater, Arizona, with the goal of examining possible correlations between NMR spectral characteristics and shock level. This work follows our observation of a strong correlation between the width of a Si-29 resonance and peak shock pressure for experimentally shocked quartz powders. The peak width increase is due to the shock-induced formation of amorphous silica, which increases as a function of shock pressure over the range that we studied (7.5 to 22 GPa). The Coconino Sandstone spectra are in excellent agreement with the classification scheme of Kieffer in terms of presence and approximate abundances of quartz, coesite, stishovite, and glass. We also observe a new resonance in two moderately shocked samples that we have tentatively identified with silicon in tetrahedra with one hydroxyl group in a densified form of amorphous silica.

  13. Effect of a Non-Newtonian Load on Signature S2 for Quartz Crystal Microbalance Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyeok Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM is increasingly used for monitoring the interfacial interaction between surfaces and macromolecules such as biomaterials, polymers, and metals. Recent QCM applications deal with several types of liquids with various viscous macromolecule compounds, which behave differently from Newtonian liquids. To properly monitor such interactions, it is crucial to understand the influence of the non-Newtonian fluid on the QCM measurement response. As a quantitative indicator of non-Newtonian behavior, we used the quartz resonator signature, S2, of the QCM measurement response, which has a consistent value for Newtonian fluids. We then modified De Kee’s non-Newtonian three-parameter model to apply it to our prediction of S2 values for non-Newtonian liquids. As a model, we chose polyethylene glycol (PEG400 with the titration of its volume concentration in deionized water. As the volume concentration of PEG400 increased, the S2 value decreased, confirming that the modified De Kee’s three-parameter model can predict the change in S2 value. Collectively, the findings presented herein enable the application of the quartz resonator signature, S2, to verify QCM measurement analysis in relation to a wide range of experimental subjects that may exhibit non-Newtonian behavior, including polymers and biomaterials.

  14. Equivalent-Circuit Model for the Thickness-Shear Mode Resonator with a Viscoelastic Film Near Film Resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BANDEY, HELEN L.; BROWN, MARK J.; CERNOSEK, RICHARD W.; HILLMAN, A. ROBERT; MARTIN, STEPHEN J.

    1999-09-16

    We derive a lumped-element, equivalent-circuit model for the thickness shear mode (TSM) resonator with a viscoelastic film. This modified Butterworth-Van Dyke model includes in the motional branch a series LCR resonator, representing the quartz resonance, and a parallel LCR resonator, representing the film resonance. This model is valid in the vicinity of film resonance, which occurs when the acoustic phase shift across the film is an odd multiple of {pi}/2 radians. This model predicts accurately the frequency changes and damping that arise at resonance and is a reasonable approximation away from resonance. The elements of the model are explicitly related to film properties and can be interpreted in terms of elastic energy storage and viscous power dissipation. The model leads to a simple graphical interpretation of the coupling between the quartz and film resonances and facilitates understanding of the resulting responses. These responses are compared with predictions from the transmission-line and the Sauerbrey models.

  15. AEROSOL FILTRATION USING QUARTZ SAND FILTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas H. Sulaymon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry is the major source of cement dust which contains heavy metals like nickel, cobalt, lead, chromium, arsenic and hazardous substances like dioxins and furans. Exposure to these substances can cause health problems to human, animals and vegetation. A continuous pilot scale quartz sand filter was constructed and uses to study the effect of important design parameters (temperature, pre-loaded dust on the collector, diameter of the filter, bed depth, collector size and superficial velocity on its performance for cleaning of cement dust from air. Initial penetration and initial pressure drop (after 180s were measured and compared for different variables used in this study. The dirty bed was cleaned by means of reverse air flow when the pressure drop across the filter rises to 20 cmH2O. A macroscopic model describes the filter clogging was used to predict the effluent histories based on initial collection efficiency (η0exp which was determined from experimental data. A removal efficiency of more than 99% was obtained. The results show that 0.4% of cement dust still adheres on the quartz sand bed after 5 min of cleaning cycle. The presence of 0.4% of pre-load dust on the quartz sand filter enhanced the efficiency and low initial penetration, moderate initial pressure drop was obtained. At given Empty Bed Contact Time (EBCT, with different filter diameters 30 and 15 cm, a sharp decrease in initial penetration from 0.41-0.03 was obtained respectively. A nonlinear relationship between penetration and temperature was found. The initial penetration can be reduced by using smaller filter diameter, small collector size and collector with pre-load dust with 0.4%. The experiment that operates at a filter diameter of 15 cm and temperature of 25°C represent the minimum penetration among all the experiments.

  16. Kinetics of the coesite to quartz transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosenfelder, J.L.; Bohlen, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    The survival of coesite in ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) rocks has important implications for the exhumation of subducted crustal rocks. We have conducted experiments to study the mechanism and rate of the coesite ??? quartz transformation using polycrystalline coesite aggregates, fabricated by devitrifying silica glass cylinders containing 2850H/106 Si at 1000??C and 3.6 GPa for 24h. Conditions were adjusted following synthesis to transform the samples at 700-1000??C at pressures 190-410 MPa below the quartz-coesite equilibrium boundary. Reaction proceeds via grain-boundary nucleation and interface-controlled growth, with characteristic reaction textures remarkably similar to those seen in natural UHP rocks. We infer that the experimental reaction mechanism is identical to that in nature, a prerequisite for reliable extrapolation of the rate data. Growth rates obtained by direct measurement differ by up to two orders of magnitude from those estimated by fitting a rate equation to the transformation-time data. Fitting the rates to Turnbull's equation for growth therefore yields two distinct sets of parameters with similar activation energies (242 or 269 kJ/mol) but significantly different pre-exponential constants. Extrapolation based on either set of growth rates suggests that coesite should not be preserved on geologic time scales if it reaches the quartz stability field at temperatures above 375-400??C. The survival of coesite has previously been linked to its inclusion in strong phases, such as garnet, that can sustain a high internal pressure during decompression. Other factors that may play a crucial role in preservation are low fluid availability - possibly even less than that of our nominally "dry" experiments - and the development of transformation stress, which inhibits nucleation and growth. These issues are discussed in the context of our experiments as well as recent observations from natural rocks. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  17. Calorimetric thermobarometry of experimentally shocked quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocker, Katherine D.; Gooding, James L.; Hoerz, Friedrich

    1994-01-01

    Structural damage in experimentally shock-metamorphosed, granular quartz is quantitatively measurable by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Shock-induced loss of crystallinity is witnessed by disappearance of the alpha/beta phase transformation and evolution of a broad endoenthalpic strain peak at 650-900 K. The strain-energy peak grows rapidly at less than 10 GPa but declines with increasing shock pressure; it approaches zero at 32 GPa where vitrification is extensive. Effects of grain size and post-shock thermal history must be better understood before calorimetric thermobarometry of naturally shocked samples becomes possible.

  18. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the preliminary findings based on the first phase of an Environmental Survey at the Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories Livermore (SNLL), located at Livermore, California. The Survey is being conducted by DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health. The SNLL Survey is a portion of the larger, comprehensive DOE Environmental Survey encompassing all major operating facilities of DOE. The DOE Environmental Survey is one of a series of initiatives announced on September 18, 1985, by Secretary of Energy, John S. Herrington, to strengthen the environmental, safety, and health programs and activities within DOE. The purpose of the Environmental Survey is to identify, via a no fault'' baseline Survey of all the Department's major operating facilities, environmental problems and areas of environmental risk. The identified problem areas will be prioritized on a Department-wide basis in order of importance in 1989. The findings in this report are subject to modification based on the results from the Sampling and Analysis Phase of the Survey. The findings are also subject to modification based on comments from the Albuquerque Operations Office concerning the technical accuracy of the findings. The modified preliminary findings and any other appropriate changes will be incorporated into an Interim Report. The Interim Report will serve as the site-specific source for environmental information generated by the Survey, and ultimately as the primary source of information for the DOE-wide prioritization of environmental problems in the Survey Summary Report. 43 refs., 21 figs., 24 tabs.

  19. Advanced robotic technologies for transfer at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, P.C.

    1994-10-01

    Hazardous operations which have in the past been completed by technicians are under increased scrutiny due to high costs and low productivity associated with providing protective clothing and environments. As a result, remote systems are needed to accomplish many hazardous materials handling tasks such as the clean-up of waste sites in which the exposure of personnel to radiation, chemical, explosive and other hazardous constituents is unacceptable. Computer models augmented by sensing, and structured, modular computing environments are proving effective in automating many unstructured hazardous tasks. Work at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has focused on applying flexible automation (robotics) to meet the needs of the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE). Dismantling facilities, environmental remediation, and materials handling in changing, hazardous environments lead to many technical challenges. Computer planning, monitoring and operator assistance shorten training cycles, reduce errors, and speed execution of operations. Robotic systems that re-use well-understood generic technologies can be much better characterized than robotic systems developed for a particular application, leading to a more reliable and safer systems. Further safety in robotic operations results from use of environmental sensors and knowledge of the task and environment. Collision detection and avoidance is achieved from such sensor integration and model-based control. This paper discusses selected technologies developed at SNL for use within the USDOE complex that have been or are ready for transfer to government and industrial suppliers. These technologies include sensors, sub-systems, and the design philosophy applied to quickly integrate them into a working robotic system. This paper represents the work of many people at the Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center at SNL, to whom the credit belongs.

  20. Flip Chip Bonding of a Quartz MEMS-Based Vibrating Beam Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Liang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel method to assemble a micro-accelerometer by a flip chip bonding technique is proposed and demonstrated. Both the main two parts of the accelerometer, a double-ended tuning fork and a base-proof mass structure, are fabricated using a quartz wet etching process on Z cut quartz wafers with a thickness of 100 μm and 300 μm, respectively. The finite element method is used to simulate the vibration mode and optimize the sensing element structure. Taking advantage of self-alignment function of the flip chip bonding process, the two parts were precisely bonded at the desired joint position via AuSn solder. Experimental demonstrations were performed on a maximum scale of 4 × 8 mm2 chip, and high sensitivity up to 9.55 Hz/g with a DETF resonator and a Q value of 5000 in air was achieved.

  1. Flip Chip Bonding of a Quartz MEMS-Based Vibrating Beam Accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jinxing; Zhang, Liyuan; Wang, Ling; Dong, Yuan; Ueda, Toshitsugu

    2015-09-02

    In this study, a novel method to assemble a micro-accelerometer by a flip chip bonding technique is proposed and demonstrated. Both the main two parts of the accelerometer, a double-ended tuning fork and a base-proof mass structure, are fabricated using a quartz wet etching process on Z cut quartz wafers with a thickness of 100 μm and 300 μm, respectively. The finite element method is used to simulate the vibration mode and optimize the sensing element structure. Taking advantage of self-alignment function of the flip chip bonding process, the two parts were precisely bonded at the desired joint position via AuSn solder. Experimental demonstrations were performed on a maximum scale of 4 × 8 mm² chip, and high sensitivity up to 9.55 Hz/g with a DETF resonator and a Q value of 5000 in air was achieved.

  2. NMR spectroscopy of experimentally shocked single crystal quartz: A reexamination of the NMR shock barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, P. S.; Gratz, A. J.; Nellis, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Cygan and others report a broadening of the Si-29 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) peak for synthetic quartz powders with increasing shock pressure which they propose as a shock wave barometer for natural systems. These results are expanded by studying single crystal quartz shocked to 12 and 33 GPa using the 6.5 m two-stage light-gas gun at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Our NMR results differ substantially from those of Cygan and others and suggest that the proposed shock wave barometer may require refinement. The difference in results between this study and that of Cygan and others is most likely caused by different starting materials (single crystal vs. powder) and different shock loading histories. NMR results from single crystal studies may be more applicable to natural systems.

  3. NMR spectroscopy of experimentally shocked single crystal quartz: A reexamination of the NMR shock barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, P. S.; Gratz, A. J.; Nellis, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Cygan and others report a broadening of the Si-29 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) peak for synthetic quartz powders with increasing shock pressure which they propose as a shock wave barometer for natural systems. These results are expanded by studying single crystal quartz shocked to 12 and 33 GPa using the 6.5 m two-stage light-gas gun at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Our NMR results differ substantially from those of Cygan and others and suggest that the proposed shock wave barometer may require refinement. The difference in results between this study and that of Cygan and others is most likely caused by different starting materials (single crystal vs. powder) and different shock loading histories. NMR results from single crystal studies may be more applicable to natural systems.

  4. Applications of Natural Radiation-Induced Paramagnetic Defects in Quartz to Exploration in Sedimentary Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Y M; Botis S; Nokhrin S

    2006-01-01

    Quartz grains in contact with uranium-bearing minerals or fluids are characterized by natural radiation-induced paramagnetic defects (e. G. , oxygen vacancy centers, silicon vacancy centers, and peroxy radicals), which are amenable to study by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy.These natural radiation-induced paramagnetic defects, except for the oxygen vacancy centers, in quartz are concentrated in narrow bands penetrated by α particles: (1) in halos around U- and Th-bearing mineral inclusions and (2) in outer rims or along fractures. The second type of occurrence provides information about uranium mineralization or remobilization (I. E. , sources of uranium, timing of mineralization or remobilization, pathways of uranium-bearing fluids). It can also be used to evaluate sedimentary basins for potential of uranium mineralization. In particular, the peroxy radicals are stable up to 800℃and, therefore, are useful for evaluating metasedimentary rocks (e. G. , Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary sequences in the central zone of the North China craton). EPR study of the Changcheng Series can focus on quartz from the sediment-basement unconformity and faults to determine the presence and types of natural radiation-induced paramagnetic defects, with which to identify and prioritize uranium anomalies. Other potential applications of natural radiation-induced paramagnetic defects in quartz include uranium-bearing hydrocarbon deposits in sedimentary basins. For example, the Junggar, Ordos, and Tarim basins in northwestern China all contain important oil and natural gas fields and are well known for elevated uranium concentrations, including economic sandstone-hosted uranium deposits. Therefore,systematic studies on the distribution of natural radiation-induced paramagnetic defects in quartz from host sedimentary sequences are expected to provide information about the migration of oil and natural gas in those basins.

  5. Crystalline Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators: In Search of The Optimal Material

    CERN Document Server

    Ilchenko, V S; Matsko, A B; Maleki, L

    2014-01-01

    Different applications of crystalline whispering gallery mode resonators call for different properties of the resonator host material. We report on our recent study of resonators made out of sapphire, diamond, and quartz crystals and discuss possible applications of these resonators. In particular, we demonstrate Kerr frequency comb generation in sapphire microresonators.

  6. Measuring water adsorption on mineral surfaces in air, CO2, and supercritical CO2 with a quartz-crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, C. R.; Wells, R. K.; Burton, P. D.; Heath, J. E.; Dewers, T. A.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon sequestration via underground storage in geologic formations is a proposed approach for reducing industrial CO2 emissions. However, current models for carbon injection and long-term storage of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) do not consider the development and stability of adsorbed water films at the scCO2-hydrophilic mineral interface. The thickness and properties of the water films control the surface tension and wettability of the mineral surface, and on the core scale, affect rock permeability, saturation, and capillary properties. The film thickness is strongly dependent upon the activity of water in the supercritical fluid, which will change as initially anhydrous scCO2 absorbs water from formation brine. As described in a companion paper by the coauthors, the thickness of the adsorbed water layer is controlled by the disjoining pressure; structural and van der Waals components dominate at low water activity, while electrostatic forces become more important with increasing film thickness (higher water activities). As scCO2 water activity and water layer thickness increase, concomitant changes in mineral surface properties and reservoir/caprock hydrologic properties will affect the mobility of the aqueous phase and of scCO2. Moreover, the development of a water layer may be critical to mineral dissolution reactions in scCO2. Here, we describe the use of a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) to monitor adsorption of water by mineral surfaces. QCMs utilize a piezoelectrically-stimulated quartz wafer to measure adsorbed or deposited mass via changes in vibrational frequency. When used to measure the mass of adsorbed liquid films, the frequency response of the crystal must be corrected for the viscoelastic, rather than elastic, response of the adsorbed layer. Results are presented for adsorption to silica in N2 and CO2 at one bar, and in scCO2. Additional data are presented for water uptake by clays deposited on a QCM wafer. In this case, water uptake occurs by the

  7. Phase-referenced nonlinear spectroscopy of the α-quartz/water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Paul E.; Saslow, Sarah A.; Wang, Hong-fei; Geiger, Franz M.; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

    2016-12-13

    Probing the polarization of water molecules at charged interfaces by second harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy1 has been heretofore limited to isotropic solids. The signal intensity follows the interfacial potential, φo, according to I2ω ∝|χ(2)+ χ(3).φo|2, where I2ω is the SHG signal intensity oscillating at frequency 2ω, and χ(2) and χ(3) are the second- and third-order susceptibilities (χ(2) and χ(3)) of the interface probed. Here, we report the first phase-referenced SHG measurements under non-resonant conditions at the interface of z-cut α-quartz and water under conditions of dynamically changing ionic strength and bulk solution pH. Comparison to non-referenced SHG measurements obtained from the fused silica/water interface reveals that the χ(3).φo term takes the form of ( χ(3)±iχ(3)).φo, and that the interference between the χ(3).φo term and the bulk quartz χ(2) term depends on the rotation angle of α-quartz around the z-axis. This newly identified term, iχ(3).φo, which is out of phase from the surface terms, is of bulk origin. The experiment expands the scope of SHG spectroscopy to probe solid/liquid interfaces beyond amorphous and centrosymmetric materials towards crystal classes that lack centrosymmetry. The possibility of internally phase referencing the interfacial SHG response for the interfacial orientation analysis of species or materials in contact with α-quartz are discussed along with the implications for conditions of resonance enhancement.

  8. Aqueous Wetting Films on Fused Quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoco; Wayner

    1999-06-15

    Using an image analyzing interferometer, IAI, the interfacial characteristics of an isothermal constrained vapor bubble, CVB, in a quartz cuvette were studied as a precursor to heat transfer research. The effects of pH and electrolyte concentration on the meniscus properties (curvature and adsorbed film thickness) and the stability of the aqueous wetting films were evaluated. The surface potential in the electric double layer was a function of the cleaning and hydroxylation of the quartz surface. The disjoining pressure isotherm for pure water was very close to that predicted by the Langmuir equation. For aqueous solutions of moderate electrolyte concentration, the Gouy-Chapman theory provided a good representation of the electrostatic effects in the film. The effect of temperature on the film properties of aqueous solutions and pure water was also evaluated: The meniscus curvature decreased with increasing temperature, while Marangoni effects, intermolecular forces, and local evaporation and condensation enhanced waves on the adsorbed film layer. Pure water wetting films were mechanically metastable, breaking into droplets and very thin films (less than 10 nm) after a few hours. Aqueous wetting films with pH 12.4 proved to be stable during a test of several months, even when subjected to temperature and mechanical perturbations. The mechanical stability of wetting films can explain the reported differences between the critical heat fluxes of pure water and aqueous solutions. The IAI-CVB technique is a simple and versatile experimental technique for studying the characteristics of interfacial systems. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  9. Production of quartz plates for CMS-CASTOR Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Adiguzel, Aytul; Ayhan, Aydin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Basegmez, Suzan; Beaumont, Willem; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; De Paula Carvalho, W; Çerçi, Salim; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Dogangün, O; Dumanoglu, Isa; d'Enterria, David; Erchov, Y; Eskut, Eda; Figueiredo, D; Girgis, Semiray; Göttlicher, P; Gouskos, Loukas; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Khein, Lev; Knutsson, Albert; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Lebeau, Michel; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Muhl, Carsten; Musienko, Yuri; Ochesanu, Silvia; Onengüt, G; Onengut, G Jr; Ozdemir, Kadri; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Polatoz, A; Ripert, Marion; Shileev, K; Sogut, Kenan; Tiflov, B TaliV; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Uzun, Dilber

    2008-01-01

    Light transmission rate performance of $102$ irradiated quartz samples was measured to select the best quartz plates for CMS-CASTOR calorimeter. All the produced quartz plates were originally used in a previous CERN experiment, DELPHI. Three different doses of $^{60}$Co source were used with the collaboration of PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI, Switzerland.) to study the transmission rate performance of the quartz samples after irradiation for different incident light, ranging from $250$ to $700$ nm in $5$ nm increasing steps. All samples show different decrease in the rate with wavelength for different doses. Three different steps were followed before irradiation to find out the best way of cleaning the original DELPHI Cu/Cr tracks on the samples. Results of these measurements presented here correspond to the quartz plates that will be used in one hadronic sector of CASTOR calorimeter until end of 2008. For the full calorimeter new quartz plates will be installed. We also present the light transmi...

  10. Modeling by regression for laser cutting of quartz crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Presents the theoretical models built by analysis of the mechanism of laser cutting of quartz crystal and re gression of test results for the laser cutting of quartz crystal, and comparative analysis of calculation errors for these models, and concludes with test results that these models comprehensively reflect the physical features of laser cutting of quartz crystal and satisfy the industrial production requirements, and they can be used to select right parameters for improvement of productivity and quality and saving of energy.

  11. Mineral resource of the month: cultured quartz crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The article presents information on cultured quartz crystals, a mineral used in mobile phones, computers, clocks and other devices controlled by digital circuits. Cultured quartz, which is synthetically produced in large pressurized vessels known as autoclaves, is useful in electronic circuits for precise filtration, frequency control and timing for consumer and military use. Several ingredients are used in producing cultured quartz, including seed crystals, lascas, a solution of sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate, lithium salts and deionized water.

  12. Acoustic Tests of Lorentz Symmetry Using Quartz Oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Lo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose and demonstrate a test of Lorentz symmetry based on new, compact, and reliable quartz oscillator technology. Violations of Lorentz invariance in the matter and photon sector of the standard model extension generate anisotropies in particles’ inertial masses and the elastic constants of solids, giving rise to measurable anisotropies in the resonance frequencies of acoustic modes in solids. A first realization of such a “phonon-sector” test of Lorentz symmetry using room-temperature stress-compensated-cut crystals yields 120 h of data at a frequency resolution of 2.4×10^{−15} and a limit of c[over ˜]_{Q}^{n}=(−1.8±2.2×10^{−14}  GeV on the most weakly constrained neutron-sector c coefficient of the standard model extension. Future experiments with cryogenic oscillators promise significant improvements in accuracy, opening up the potential for improved limits on Lorentz violation in the neutron, proton, electron, and photon sector.

  13. Detection of NH{sub 3} by quartz crystal microbalance coated with TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgieva, V; Spassov, L; Gadjanova, V [Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Donkov, N; Petkov, P [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chausee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: nikolaidd@abv.bg

    2008-05-01

    A quartz resonator with a thin TiO{sub 2} film is investigated in view of possible applications as a sensor for detecting the presence of ammonia in the ambient. A study of the sorption properties of thin TiO{sub 2} films to NH{sub 3} vapors is also presented. The films are deposited using electron beam evaporation. In order to determine the sorption ability of TiO{sub 2} to NH{sub 3}, a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) with a thin TiO{sub 2} film is used, the latter serving as a receptor for the NH{sub 3} gas. The AT-cut 16-MHz quartz resonator allows conversion of the additional mass load that occurs as a result of sorption into a frequency shift. The experiments are carried out by measuring the QCM resonant frequency shift due to the absorption of vapors from an aqueous solution of NH{sub 3} with different concentration ranging from 100 to 1000 ppm. The experimental results obtained indicate that the variation of the resonant frequency is a function of the ammonia concentration. This demonstrates that a QCM covered with a thin TiO{sub 2} layer is sensitive to ammonia vapors at room temperature and is capable of detecting NH{sub 3} concentrations in the range investigated (100-1000 ppm)

  14. Trace elements in quartz shed light on sediment provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Michael R.; Tailby, Nicholas D.; Watson, E. Bruce

    2015-06-01

    Quartz is one of the most common minerals on the surface of the earth, and is a primary rock-forming mineral across the rock cycle. These two factors make quartz an obvious target for sediment provenance studies. Observations from experimental and natural samples demonstrate that the trace element content of quartz often reflects the conditions of quartz formation. When quartz is weathered from its primary crystallization setting (i.e., quartz from a granitoid) it can retain many chemical signatures of formation throughout the sedimentation processes. These geochemical signatures can be used to understand the primary source of individual quartz grains within a sediment. Here we present a case study from the Bega River catchment to demonstrate that quartz grains in sediments at the mouth of the Bega River are sourced from granitoids within the drainage basin. Data presented here also indicate that a portion of the beach sediment is also derived from either (i) sedimentary rocks within the basin or; (ii) mixing with sediments at the mouth of the river. The Bega River catchment was selected for this study because it is both small and has a well-constrained bedrock lithology, making it an ideal location to test the utility of this provenance technique. However, quartz trace element provenance has broad applications to modern and ancient sediments and can be used in lieu of, or in conjunction with, other provenance techniques to elucidate sediment transport through time.

  15. An erosion sensor based on a quartz crystal microbalance for quantitative determination of the cleaning efficiency in an ultrasonic vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüschke, M; Koch, C; Dreyer, T

    2014-09-01

    The efficiency of ultrasonic cleaning vessels cannot be measured directly in an easy way. In the presented work, a sensor is developed which quantitatively measures the ablation of a test layer. The sensor element is a quartz crystal which is coated with a sacrificial layer. Small changes in mass of this layer can be measured by a frequency shift of the crystal oscillation. For measurements, a 10 MHz AT-cut quartz crystal was used in a cleaning vessel working at 44.9 kHz. To determine the frequency shift by the ablation of the test layer, the quartz crystal was driven by a frequency generator sweeping the frequency in the range of the resonance frequency and a characteristic frequency was determined. The test layer which was applied to the quartz crystal consisted of silica microparticles suspended in varnish. In a preliminary experiment using a commercial cleaner it could be shown that significant changes in resonance frequency by cavitation effect could be detected. The initial frequency shift of the sacrificial layer is reproducible within 10%. The test layer can be adapted to the conditions of the cleaning vessel. By changing the electrical input power of the vessel, a threshold in the cavitation erosion was found.

  16. 2017 Annual Terrestrial Sampling Plan for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico on Kirtland Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Stacy R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The 2017 Annual Terrestrial Sampling Plan for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico on Kirtland Air Force Base has been prepared in accordance with the “Letter of Agreement Between Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Sandia Field Office (DOE/NNSA/SFO) and 377th Air Base Wing (ABW), Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) for Terrestrial Sampling” (signed January 2017), Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The Letter of Agreement requires submittal of an annual terrestrial sampling plan.

  17. Diagenetic Quartz Morphologies and Zeolite formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari; Hansen, Rikke Weibel; Friis, Henrik

    ; the core of the zeolite crystals appears to have been more unstable than the rim and dissolved first.  Later the entire crystal dissolved and left an impression of the euhedral zeolite crystal in the microquartz coating.  Such openings in the microquartz coating are nucleation points for macroquartz.  Thus......, the precipitation of zeolite may later facilitate further quartz cementation, which might otherwise be retarded by the presence of disordered microquartz. The silica activity of pore fluids can influence zeolite precipitation.  Although zeolite formation is clearly related to volcanic ash, zeolite has also formed...... are abundant in some of associated shales; and 2) volcanic ash. The dissolution of biogenic silica may result in a rapid release of silica thereby promoting the formation of diagenetic opal/microquartz, but there may be a limited release of Al. A limited release of Al may result in precipitation of Si...

  18. Quartz tuning fork based microwave impedance microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong-Tao; Ma, Eric Yue; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2016-06-01

    Microwave impedance microscopy (MIM), a near-field microwave scanning probe technique, has become a powerful tool to characterize local electrical responses in solid state samples. We present the design of a new type of MIM sensor based on quartz tuning fork and electrochemically etched thin metal wires. Due to a higher aspect ratio tip and integration with tuning fork, such design achieves comparable MIM performance and enables easy self-sensing topography feedback in situations where the conventional optical feedback mechanism is not available, thus is complementary to microfabricated shielded stripline-type probes. The new design also enables stable differential mode MIM detection and multiple-frequency MIM measurements with a single sensor.

  19. Photo-thermal quartz tuning fork excitation for dynamic mode atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bontempi, Alexia; Teyssieux, Damien; Thiery, Laurent; Hermelin, Damien; Vairac, Pascal [FEMTO-ST Institute UMR 6174, Université de Franche-Comté, CNRS, ENSMM, UTBM, 32 Avenue de l' Observatoire, F-25044 Besançon (France); Friedt, Jean-Michel [SENSeOR SAS, Besançon (France)

    2014-10-13

    A photo-thermal excitation of a Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF) for topographic studies is introduced. The non-invasive photo-thermal excitation presents practical advantages compared to QTF mechanical and electrical excitations, including the absence of the anti-resonance and its associated phase rotation. Comparison between our theoretical model and experiments validate that the optical transduction mechanism is a photo-thermal rather than photo-thermoacoustic phenomenon. Topographic maps in the context of near-field microscopy distance control have been achieved to demonstrate the performance of the system.

  20. Simultaneous Impedance Analysis of Three Parallel Piezoelectric Quartz Crystals for Electrochemical Depletion Layer Effect Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Yan liu; Qing Ji XIE

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous impedance analysis of three one-face sealed resonating piezoelectric quartz crystals (PQCs) in parallel is proposed through admittance measurements of the three PQCs on one impedance analyzer and then non-linear fitting according to the parallel combination of three Butterworth-Van Dyke circuits. Responses of each PQC obtained from the three-PQC mode agreed well with those measured separately in series sucrose aqueous solutions. This novel method has been used for the study of depletion-layer effect during ferri-/ferrocyanide electrochemical reactions.

  1. A new irradiated quartz for beta source calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vicki; Murray, Andrew Sean; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter;

    2015-01-01

    laboratories have used the various different batches of Risø calibration quartz for the calibration of beta and X-ray sources, but these have been largely undescribed. Here we describe in detail the preparation and luminescence characteristics of a new quartz standard, based on a North Sea beach sand collected...

  2. Quartz exposure in agriculture: literature review and South African survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanepoel, A.J.; Rees, D.; Renton, K.; Swanepoel, C.; Kromhout, H.; Gardiner, K.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To review the published literature on respirable quartz exposure and associated disease in agricultural related settings systematically and to describe personal respirable dust and quartz measurements collected on a sandy soil farm in the Free State province of South Africa. METHODS: The

  3. Thermal quenching of thermoluminescence in quartz samples of various origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subedi, B. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124-Thessaloniki (Greece); Oniya, E. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute (C.E.T.I.), R.C. ' Athena' , Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Physics and Electronics Department, Adekunle Ajasin University, PMB 01, Akungba Akoko (Nigeria); Polymeris, G.S. [ISIK University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Arts, 34980-Sile, Istanbul (Turkey); Afouxenidis, D.; Tsirliganis, N.C. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute (C.E.T.I.), R.C. ' Athena' , Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Kitis, G., E-mail: gkitis@auth.g [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124-Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-03-15

    The effect of thermal quenching stands among the most important properties in the thermoluminescence (TL) of quartz on which many applications of TL are based. Since the quartz samples used in various applications are all of different origin it is useful to investigate whether the values of the thermal quenching parameters, i.e. the activation energy for thermal quenching W and a parameter C which describes the ratio of non-radiative to radiative luminescence transitions, evaluated mainly in specific quartz samples can be extrapolated to quartz samples of unknown origin as well as to quartz samples which are annealed at high temperatures. In the present work the TL glow curve of a series of un-annealed and annealed natural and synthetic quartz samples were studied as a function of the heating rate between 0.25 K/s and 16 K/s. Using an indirect fitting method it was found that the thermal quenching parameters W and C in most of the quartz samples are very similar to the values accepted in the literature. Furthermore, in some cases the thermal quenching parameters W and C are not the same for all TL glow-peaks in the same glow-curve. Finally, the strong external treatment of annealing the quartz samples at very high temperature can also influence at least one of the thermal quenching parameters.

  4. Recent developments of OSL techniques for dating quartz and feldspars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Jungner, H.; Mejdahl, V.

    1993-01-01

    The construction of a unit for measuring optically stimulated luminescence from quartz and feldspar is described. The light sources used for stimulation are infrared diodes for feldspar and green light from a halogen lamp (obtained with a system of filters) for both quartz and feldspar. The unit ...

  5. Speciation and phase separation of water in quartz (A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Speciation and phase separation of water in quartz (A review) ... of quartz at temperatures in excess of 500 °C. leading to decomposition of the ... The nucleation is a first order phase transition of creating liquid nucleus within the vapour phase, ...

  6. Removal of Ozone by Carbon Nanotubes/Quartz Fiber Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shen; Nie, Jingqi; Wei, Fei; Yang, Xudong

    2016-09-01

    Ozone is recognized as a harmful gaseous pollutant, which can lead to severe human health problems. In this study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were tested as a new approach for ozone removal. The CNTs/quartz fiber film was fabricated through growth of CNTs upon pure quartz fiber using chemical vapor deposition method. Ozone conversion efficiency of the CNTs/quartz fiber film was tested for 10 h and compared with that of quartz film, activated carbon (AC), and a potassium iodide (KI) solution under the same conditions. The pressure resistance of these materials under different airflow rates was also measured. The results showed that the CNTs/quartz fiber film had better ozone conversion efficiency but also higher pressure resistance than AC and the KI solution of the same weight. The ozone removal performance of the CNTs/quartz fiber film was comparable with AC at 20 times more weight. The CNTs played a dominant role in ozone removal by the CNTs/quartz fiber film. Its high ozone conversion efficiency, lightweight and free-standing properties make the CNTs/quartz fiber film applicable to ozone removal. Further investigation should be focused on reducing pressure resistance and studying the CNT mechanism for removing ozone.

  7. Analysis of Rare Earth Elements (REE) in vein quartz and quartz-sandstone host rock in the Zhelannoe high purity quartz deposit, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemskova, Marina; Prokofiev, Vsevolod; Bychkov, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    The Zhelannoe high purity quartz deposit is located on the western slope of the Polar Urals. It is one of the largest deposits of vein quartz and rock crystal in Russia. Most of the mineralization is hosted within a single horizon of very firm quartz-sandstone, where plastic deformation did not occur almost entirely. All tectonic stress was released by the development of numerous thrust faults of different scales. Cavities formed during this process were later filled with quartz and rock crystal. In order to obtain more details on conditions under which mineralization took place, analysis of trace element contents in vein quartz and host rocks, and the micro-thermometric study of fluid inclusions in quartz have been carried out. The trace element composition of vein quartz and of the host rock has been determined by ICP-MS. The results have shown that concentrations of most of the 46 studied elements in quartz are two orders of magnitude lower than in chondrite, and more than three orders of magnitude lower than in the upper crust. Even though Pb and Li have the highest concentrations in quartz samples, levels are only nearly comparable in chondrite, and substantially lower in the upper crust. At the same time, negative anomalies of Pb and Li concentrations in the host rock may indicate the removal of these elements during vein quartz formation. Contents of most REEs are two orders of magnitude lower than in chondrite, and three orders of magnitude lower than in the host rock. Generally, the patterns of REE distribution in vein quartz and the host rock express a clear correlation; confirming the genetic link between vein quartz and quartz-sandstone host rock. However, the process of quartz recrystallization led to an intense decrease of REEs content, and of all other impurities, which consequently influenced industrial value of the Zhelannoe deposit. As a result of the micro-thermometric study of fluid inclusions in quartz, the following physical

  8. Photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence using a quartz substrate to reduce limits of detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhriyal, Anusha; Lu, Meng; Chaudhery, Vikram; Huang, Cheng-Sheng; Schulz, Stephen; Cunningham, Brian T

    2010-11-22

    A Photonic Crystal (PC) surface fabricated upon a quartz substrate using nanoimprint lithography has been demonstrated to enhance light emission from fluorescent molecules in close proximity to the PC surface. Quartz was selected for its low autofluorescence characteristics compared to polymer-based PCs, improving the detection sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of PC Enhanced Fluorescence (PCEF). Nanoimprint lithography enables economical fabrication of the subwavelength PCEF surface structure over entire 1x3 in2 quartz slides. The demonstrated PCEF surface supports a transverse magnetic (TM) resonant mode at a wavelength of λ = 632.8 nm and an incident angle of θ = 11°, which amplifies the electric field magnitude experienced by surface-bound fluorophores. Meanwhile, another TM mode at a wavelength of λ = 690 nm and incident angle of θ = 0° efficiently directs the fluorescent emission toward the detection optics. An enhancement factor as high as 7500 × was achieved for the detection of LD-700 dye spin-coated upon the PC, compared to detecting the same material on an unpatterned glass surface. The detection of spotted Alexa-647 labeled polypeptide on the PC exhibits a 330 × SNR improvement. Using dose-response characterization of deposited fluorophore-tagged protein spots, the PCEF surface demonstrated a 140 × lower limit of detection compared to a conventional glass substrate.

  9. Design and initial deployment of the wireless local area networking infrastructure at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, John P.; Hamill, Michael J.; Mitchell, M. G.; Miller, Marc M.; Witzke, Edward L.; Wiener, Dallas J

    2006-11-01

    A major portion of the Wireless Networking Project at Sandia National Laboratories over the last few years has been to examine IEEE 802.11 wireless networking for possible use at Sandia and if practical, introduce this technology. This project team deployed 802.11a, b, and g Wireless Local Area Networking at Sandia. This report examines the basics of wireless networking and captures key results from project tests and experiments. It also records project members thoughts and designs on wireless LAN architecture and security issues. It documents some of the actions and milestones of this project, including pilot and production deployment of wireless networking equipment, and captures the team's rationale behind some of the decisions made. Finally, the report examines lessons learned, future directions, and conclusions.

  10. Connecting the physical and psychosocial space to Sandia's mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel, Glory Ruth [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva, Austin Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Sandia Labs has corporate, lab-wide efforts to enhance the research environment as well as improve physical space. However, these two efforts are usually done in isolation. The integration of physical space design with the nurturing of what we call psychosocial space can foster more efficient and effective creativity, innovation, collaboration, and performance. This paper presents a brief literature review on how academia and industry are studying the integration of physical and psychosocial space and focuses on the efforts that we, the authors, have made to improve the research environment in the Cyber Engineering Research Lab (CERL), home to Group 1460. Interviews with subject matter experts from Silicon Valley and the University of New Mexico plus changes to actual spaces in CERL provided us with six lessons learned when integrating physical and psychosocial space. We describe these six key takeaways in hopes that Sandia will see this area as an evolving research capability that Sandia can both contribute to and benefit from.

  11. An overview of semiconductor bridge, SCB, applications at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.; Harris, S.M.; Merson, J.A.; Weinlein, J.H.

    1995-05-01

    The semiconductor bridge, SCB, developed by Sandia National Laboratories is a maturing technology now being used in several applications by Sandia customers. Most applications arose because of a need at the system level to provide explosive assemblies that were light weight, small volume, low cost and required small quantities of electrical energy to function -- for the purposes of this paper we define an explosive assembly to mean the combination of the firing set and an explosive component. As a result, and because conventional firing systems could not meet the stringent size, weight and energy requirements of our customers, we designed and are investigating SCB applications that range from devices for Sandia applications to igniters for fireworks. We present in this paper an overview of SCB technology with specific examples of the system designed for our customers to meet modern requirements that sophisticated explosive systems must satisfy in today`s market environments.

  12. Autonomy and Complexity at Sandia Executive Summary of Academic Alliance Workshop on Autonomy and Complex Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kleban, Stephen D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Sandia has identified autonomy as a strategic initiative and an important area for providing national leadership. A key question is, “How might autonomy change how we think about the national security challenges we address and the kinds of solutions we deliver?” Three workshops at Sandia early in 2017 brought together internal stakeholders and potential academic partners in autonomy to address this question. The first focused on programmatic applications and needs. The second explored existing internal capabilities and research and development needs. This report summarizes the outcome of the third workshop, held March 3, 2017 in Albuquerque, NM, which engaged Academic Alliance partners in autonomy efforts at Sandia by discussing research needs and synergistic areas of interest within the complex systems and system modeling domains, and identifying opportunities for partnering on laboratory directed and other joint research opportunities.

  13. Connecting the physical and psychosocial space to Sandia's mission.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel, Glory Ruth; Silva, Austin Ray

    2014-07-01

    Sandia Labs has corporate, lab-wide efforts to enhance the research environment as well as improve physical space. However, these two efforts are usually done in isolation. The integration of physical space design with the nurturing of what we call psychosocial space can foster more efficient and effective creativity, innovation, collaboration, and performance. This paper presents a brief literature review on how academia and industry are studying the integration of physical and psychosocial space and focuses on the efforts that we, the authors, have made to improve the research environment in the Cyber Engineering Research Lab (CERL), home to Group 1460. Interviews with subject matter experts from Silicon Valley and the University of New Mexico plus changes to actual spaces in CERL provided us with six lessons learned when integrating physical and psychosocial space. We describe these six key takeaways in hopes that Sandia will see this area as an evolving research capability that Sandia can both contribute to and benefit from.

  14. 2016 Annual Site Environmental Report Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, Angela Maria [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffith, Stacy R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology & Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The DOE/NNSA Sandia Field Office administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at SNL, New Mexico. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of sustainability, environmental protection, and monitoring programs at SNL/NM during calendar year 2016. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial and ecological surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention, environmental restoration, oil and chemical spill prevention, and implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act. This ASER is prepared in accordance with and required by DOE O 231.1B, Admin Change 1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.

  15. Dynamic context discrimination : psychological evidence for the Sandia Cognitive Framework.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth

    2004-09-01

    Human behavior is a function of an iterative interaction between the stimulus environment and past experience. It is not simply a matter of the current stimulus environment activating the appropriate experience or rule from memory (e.g., if it is dark and I hear a strange noise outside, then I turn on the outside lights and investigate). Rather, it is a dynamic process that takes into account not only things one would generally do in a given situation, but things that have recently become known (e.g., there have recently been coyotes seen in the area and one is known to be rabid), as well as other immediate environmental characteristics (e.g., it is snowing outside, I know my dog is outside, I know the police are already outside, etc.). All of these factors combine to inform me of the most appropriate behavior for the situation. If it were the case that humans had a rule for every possible contingency, the amount of storage that would be required to enable us to fluidly deal with most situations we encounter would rapidly become biologically untenable. We can all deal with contingencies like the one above with fairly little effort, but if it isn't based on rules, what is it based on? The assertion of the Cognitive Systems program at Sandia for the past 5 years is that at the heart of this ability to effectively navigate the world is an ability to discriminate between different contexts (i.e., Dynamic Context Discrimination, or DCD). While this assertion in and of itself might not seem earthshaking, it is compelling that this ability and its components show up in a wide variety of paradigms across different subdisciplines in psychology. We begin by outlining, at a high functional level, the basic ideas of DCD. We then provide evidence from several different literatures and paradigms that support our assertion that DCD is a core aspect of cognitive functioning. Finally, we discuss DCD and the computational model that we have developed as an instantiation of DCD

  16. Molybdenum-99 Isotope Production Preparation at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, S.D.; Longley, S.W.; McDonald, M.J.; Parma, E.J.; Vernon, M.E.

    1998-10-07

    `Q&c M. J. McDonald, S. D. Carson, S. W. Longley, E. J. Parma, M. E. Vern `~ I@ .,., Sandia National Laboratories*, P. .0. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM, 8 W? 1$ tl?;:q `f. (3 . 8 /'~ Abstract This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored byanagency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, make any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. loading on the Cintichem targets. These tests were designed to gain process knowledge prior to processing an irradiated target. The chemical separation tests were performed in a fime hood During cold testing, several tests were performed on individual components of the process to complete, a series of `hot' tests was designed to process irradiated targets. These were designed to optimize the process, identify problems prior to processing higher inventory targets, and to the shielded containment box (SCB). Table 1 is a summary of the tests performed prior to the Test Target Power Post irradiation Total inventory 99M0 inventory (kW)/ Irradiation decay (hrs) (TBq*) /decay (TBq)/decay Time (hrs) inventory (TBq) inventory(TBq) in the processing boxes as color comparisons. Product quality control testing was conducted for all the tests and the results were compared to The production process generates a high activity

  17. AFTI/SITAN (Advanced Fighter Technology Integration/Sandia Inertial Terrain-Aided Navigation) final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellerhoff, J.R.

    1988-11-01

    Sandia Inertial Terrain-Aided Navigation (SITAN) provides continuous position fixes to an inertial navigation system (INS) by real-time comparison of radar altimeter ground clearance measurements with stored digital terrain elevation data (DTED). This is accomplished by using an extended Kalman filter algorithm to estimate the errors in the reference trajectory provided by an INS. In this report, Sandia National Laboratories documents the results of a reimbursable effort funded by the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories (AFWAL) Avionics Laboratory to flight test SITAN as implemented onboard the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI)F-16. 5 refs., 101 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Development and Evaluation of a Sandia Cooler-based Refrigerator Condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kariya, Harumichi Arthur [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Leick, Michael T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zimmerman, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Li, Manjie [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Du, Yilin [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Lee, Hoseong [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Hwang, Yunho [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Radermacher, Reinhard [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report describes the first design of a refrigerator condenser using the Sandia Cooler, i.e. air - bearing supported rotating heat - sink impeller. The project included ba seline performance testing of a residential refrigerator, analysis and design development of a Sandia Cooler condenser assembly including a spiral channel baseplate, and performance measurement and validation of this condenser system as incorporated into the residential refrigerator. Comparable performance was achieved in a 60% smaller volume package. The improved modeling parameters can now be used to guide more optimized designs and more accurately predict performance.

  19. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, T.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Community Involvement and Issues Management Dept.; Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report on National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) chronicles past and current compliance activities and includes a recommended strategy that can be implemented for continued improvement. This report provides a list of important references. Attachment 1 contains the table of contents for SAND95-1648, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide Sandia National Laboratories (Hansen, 1995). Attachment 2 contains a list of published environmental assessments (EAs) and environmental impact statements (EISs) prepared by SNL/NM. Attachment 3 contains abstracts of NEPA compliance papers authored by SNL/NM and its contractors.

  20. Environmental assessment of the Environmental Restoration Project at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is managed and operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of the Lockheed Martin Company. SNL/NM is located on land controlled by DOE within the boundaries of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The major responsibilities of SNL/NM are the support of national security and energy projects. This report provides an environmental assessment of proposed remedial action activities at the solid waste management units at SNL/NM. A risk assessment of health hazards is also discussed.

  1. Metallization and packaging of compound semiconductor devices at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigal, P.K.; Armendariz, M.G.; Rieger, D.J.; Lear, K.L.; Sullivan, C.T.

    1996-11-01

    Recent advances in compound semiconductor technology utilize a variety of metal thin films fabricated by thermal and electron-beam evaporation, and electroplating. An overview of metal processes used by Sandia`s Compound Semiconductor Research Laboratory is presented. Descriptions of electrical n-type and p-type ohmic contact alloys, interconnect metal, and metal layers specifically included for packaging requirements are addressed. Several illustrations of devices incorporating gold plated air bridges are included. ``Back-end`` processes such as flip-chip under bump metallurgy with fluxless solder reflow and plated solder processes are mentioned as current research areas.

  2. A case for Sandia investment in complex adaptive systems science and technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbaugh, Richard; Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Backus, George A.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Jones, Katherine A.

    2012-05-01

    This white paper makes a case for Sandia National Laboratories investments in complex adaptive systems science and technology (S&T) -- investments that could enable higher-value-added and more-robustly-engineered solutions to challenges of importance to Sandia's national security mission and to the nation. Complex adaptive systems are ubiquitous in Sandia's national security mission areas. We often ignore the adaptive complexity of these systems by narrowing our 'aperture of concern' to systems or subsystems with a limited range of function exposed to a limited range of environments over limited periods of time. But by widening our aperture of concern we could increase our impact considerably. To do so, the science and technology of complex adaptive systems must mature considerably. Despite an explosion of interest outside of Sandia, however, that science and technology is still in its youth. What has been missing is contact with real (rather than model) systems and real domain-area detail. With its center-of-gravity as an engineering laboratory, Sandia's has made considerable progress applying existing science and technology to real complex adaptive systems. It has focused much less, however, on advancing the science and technology itself. But its close contact with real systems and real domain-area detail represents a powerful strength with which to help complex adaptive systems science and technology mature. Sandia is thus both a prime beneficiary of, as well as potentially a prime contributor to, complex adaptive systems science and technology. Building a productive program in complex adaptive systems science and technology at Sandia will not be trivial, but a credible path can be envisioned: in the short run, continue to apply existing science and technology to real domain-area complex adaptive systems; in the medium run, jump-start the creation of new science and technology capability through Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research

  3. 75 FR 22409 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Sandia National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... National Laboratory in Albuquerque, NM, To Be Included in the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY: National... designate a class of employees from the Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to be... warranted by the evaluation, is as follows: Facility: Sandia National Laboratory. Location: Albuquerque,...

  4. 76 FR 70456 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From Sandia National Laboratory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM, To Be Included in the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for... class of employees from Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico, to be included in the... evaluation, is as follows: Facility: Sandia National Laboratory. Location: Albuquerque, New Mexico....

  5. Sandia Wake Imaging System Field Test Report: 2015 Deployment at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) Facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naughton, Brian Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herges, Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report presents the objectives, configuration, procedures, reporting , roles , and responsibilities and subsequent results for the field demonstration of the Sandia Wake Imaging System (SWIS) at the Sandia Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility near Lubbock, Texas in June and July 2015.

  6. Decoupling mass adsorption from fluid viscosity and density in quartz crystal microbalance measurements using normalized conductance modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak, Z.; Biet, C.; Zauscher, S.

    2013-08-01

    We describe the physical understanding of a method which differentiates between the frequency shift caused by fluid viscosity and density from that caused by mass adsorption in the resonance of a quartz crystal resonator. This method uses the normalized conductance of the crystal to determine a critical frequency at which the fluid mass and fluid loss compensate each other. Tracking the shift in this critical frequency allows us to determine purely mass adsorption on the crystal. We extended this method to Maxwellian fluids for understanding the mass adsorption in non-Newtonian fluids. We validate our approach by real-time mass adsorption measurements using glycerol and albumin solutions.

  7. Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borri, S., E-mail: simone.borri@ino.it; Galli, I.; Mazzotti, D.; Giusfredi, G.; De Natale, P. [CNR-INO UOS Sesto Fiorentino and LENS, via Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino FI (Italy); Patimisco, P.; Scamarcio, G.; Spagnolo, V. [CNR-IFN UOS Bari and Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Bari e Politecnico di Bari, via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari BA (Italy); Akikusa, N. [Development Bureau Laser Device R and D Group, Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Shizuoka 434-8601 (Japan); Yamanishi, M. [Central Research Laboratories, Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Shizuoka 434-8601 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    We report on a spectroscopic technique named intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (I-QEPAS) employed for sensitive trace-gas detection in the mid-infrared spectral region. It is based on a combination of QEPAS with a buildup optical cavity. The sensor includes a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.33 μm. We achieved a laser optical power buildup factor of ∼500, which corresponds to an intracavity laser power of ∼0.75 W. CO{sub 2} has been selected as the target molecule for the I-QEPAS demonstration. We achieved a detection sensitivity of 300 parts per trillion for 4 s integration time, corresponding to a noise equivalent absorption coefficient of 1.4 × 10{sup −8} cm{sup −1} and a normalized noise-equivalent absorption of 3.2 × 10{sup −10} W cm{sup −1} Hz{sup −1/2}.

  8. Identification of color development potential of quartz by Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkmim, Danielle G.; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Almeida, Frederico O.T., E-mail: alkmia@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fsl@cdtn.br [Centro e Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horionte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Colorless quartz is usually exposed to ionizing radiation (gamma rays or high energy electron beams) to acquire different colors for jewelry. Color development is due to the presence of traces of some elements such as aluminum, iron, hydrogen, lithium, or sodium. Most quartz crystals are extracted colorless from nature and it is necessary to separate those that can develop colors from those that cannot. Irradiation tests can be used to accomplish this separation, but they take a long time. Infrared signature of colorless quartz can also be used. However, infrared spectroscopy is quite expensive, especially when using portable devices. Raman spectroscopy is now available as an inexpensive and portable technique that could provide identification of the samples of colorless quartz still in the field, facilitating the prediction for their economic exploitation. In addition, Raman spectroscopy usually requires a minimum or no sample preparation. This paper presents an investigation of the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy as a substitute for infrared spectroscopy to predict the potential for color development of quartz. A band at 3595 cm{sup -1} in the Raman shift spectrum was observed only along the c axis of a prasiolite excited by a high power 514 nm laser. This band was not observed in quartz samples that do not develop color after irradiation. Further studies are required to identify the potential for color development by Raman spectroscopy of other types of colorless quartz. (author)

  9. Acoustic tests of Lorentz symmetry using Bulk Acoustic Wave quartz oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Goryachev, M; Haslinger, Ph; Mizrachi, E; Anderegg, L; Müller, H; Hohensee, M; Tobar, M E

    2016-01-01

    A new method of probing Lorentz invariance in the neutron sector is described. The method is baed on stable quartz bulk acoustic wave oscillators compared on a rotating table. Due to Lorentz-invariance violation, the resonance frequencies of acoustic wave resonators depend on the direction in space via a corresponding dependence of masses of the constituent elements of solids. This dependence is measured via observation of oscillator phase noise built around such devices. The first such experiment now shows sensitivity to violation down to the limit $\\tilde{c}^n_Q=(-1.8\\pm2.2)\\times 10^{-14}$ GeV. Methods to improve the sensitivity are described together with some other applications of the technology in tests of fundamental physics.

  10. Dynamics of quartz tuning fork force sensors used in standoff photoacoustic detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhouqiang; Jia, Shuhai; Ma, Binshan; Chen, Hualing [Xi' an Jiao tong University, Xi' an (China); Wei, Yuan [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    In this paper, a two-degrees-of-freedom model with two coupled oscillators is established to study the dynamics of quartz tuning fork force sensors. Air squeeze-film damping is considered in this model. When the laser power is 40 mW and the distance between the tuning fork and detected objects is approximately 0.5 m, the resonance amplitude of the tuning fork under the electromagnetic radiation pressure of the laser can reach 0.22 pm. Electromagnetic radiation pressure and resonance amplitude have the tendency to exponentially decay along with the distance between the tuning fork and detected objects. The influence of laser power and distance between the tuning fork and detected objects on electromagnetic radiation pressure is also considered. Lastly, an experimental device is set up to verify the calculation result of the model. Analysis shows that the experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation results.

  11. Electroacoustic polymer microchip as an alternative to quartz crystal microbalance for biosensor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamby, Jean; Lazerges, Mathieu; Girault, Hubert H; Deslouis, Claude; Gabrielli, Claude; Perrot, Hubert; Tribollet, Bernard

    2008-12-01

    Laser photoablation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), a flexible dielectric organic polymer, was used to design an acoustic miniaturized DNA biosensor. The microchip device includes a 100-microm-thick PET layer, with two microband electrodes patterned in photoablated microchannels on one side and a depressed photoablated disk decorated by gold sputtered layer on the other side. Upon application of an electric signal between the two electrodes, an electroacoustic resonance phenomenon at approximately 30 MHz was established through the microelectrodes/PET/ gold layer interface. The electroacoustic resonance response was fitted with a series RLC motional arm in parallel with a static Co arm of a Buttlerworth-Van Dyke equivalent circuit: admittance spectra recorded after successive cycles of DNA hybridization on the gold surface showed reproducible changes on R, L, and C parameters. The same hybridizations runs were performed concomitantly on a 27-MHz (9 MHz, third overtone) quartz crystal microbalance in order to validate the PET device developed for bioanalysis applications. The electroacoustic PET device, approximately 100 times smaller than a microbalance quartz crystal, is interesting for the large-scale integration of acoustic sensors in biochips.

  12. Development and Testing of an Integrated Sandia Cooler Thermoelectric Device (SCTD).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry A.; Staats, Wayne Lawrence,; Leick, Michael Thomas; Zimmerman, Mark D.; Radermacher, Reinhard; Martin, Cara; Nasuta, Dennis; Kalinowski, Paul; Hoffman, William

    2014-12-01

    This report describes a FY14 effort to develop an integrated Sandia Cooler T hermoelectric D evice (SCTD) . The project included a review of feasible thermoelectric (TE) cooling applications, baseline performance testing of an existing TE device, analysis and design development of an integrated SCTD assembly, and performance measurement and validation of the integrated SCTD prototype.

  13. Sandia National Laboratories interactions with organizations in the Former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiting, G.H.; Nokes, K.D.

    1994-03-01

    This document describes Sandia National Laboratories involvement with scientists and engineers at various organizations within the states of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The purpose of these interactions is twofold: first, to acquire technical information to enhance United States technology and second, to assist FSU states in converting their defense-oriented industry to civilian, market- oriented business.

  14. Radiological NESHAP Annual Report CY 2015 Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report provides a summary of the radionuclide releases from the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration facilities at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) during Calendar Year (CY) 2015, including the data, calculations, and supporting documentation for demonstrating compliance with 40 Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) 61.

  15. Leadership development study :success profile competencies and high-performing leaders at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Katherine M.; Mulligan, Deborah Rae; Szenasi, Gail L.; Crowder, Stephen Vernon

    2005-04-01

    Sandia is undergoing tremendous change. Sandia's executive management recognized the need for leadership development. About ten years ago the Business, Leadership, and Management Development department in partnership with executive management developed and implemented the organizational leadership Success Profile Competencies to help address some of the changes on the horizon such as workforce losses and lack of a skill set in the area of interpersonal skills. This study addresses the need for the Business, Leadership, and Management Development department to provide statistically sound data in two areas. One is to demonstrate that the organizational 360-degree success profile assessment tool has made a difference for leaders. A second area is to demonstrate the presence of high performing leaders at the Labs. The study utilized two tools to address these two areas. Study participants were made up of individuals who have solid data on Sandia's 360-degree success profile assessment tool. The second assessment tool was comprised of those leaders who participated in the Lockheed Martin Corporation Employee Preferences Survey. Statistical data supports the connection between leader indicators and the 360-degree assessment tool. The study also indicates the presence of high performing leaders at Sandia.

  16. Results of external review Sandia microelectronics and microsystems program (September 2004).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peercy, Paul S. (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madision, WI); Myers, David R.

    2005-08-01

    The US Department of Energy requires a periodic assessment of the Microsystems Program at Sandia National Laboratories. An external review of this program is held approximately every 18 months to 24 months. The report from the External Review Panel serves as the basis for Sandia's ''self assessment'' and is a specific deliverable of the governance contract between Lockheed Martin and the Department of Energy. The External Review of Microelectronics and Microsystems for Fiscal Year 2004 was held September 27-29, 2004 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. The external review panel consisted of experts in the fields of microelectronics, photonics and microsystems from universities, industry and other Government agencies. A complete list of the panel members is included as Appendix A of the attached report. The review assessed four areas: relevance to national needs and agency mission; quality of science, technology and engineering; performance in the operation of a major facility; and program performance management and planning. Relevance to national needs and agency mission was rated as ''outstanding''. The quality of science, technology, and engineering was rated as ''outstanding''. Operation of a major facility was rated as ''outstanding'', and the category of program performance, management, and planning was rated as ''outstanding''. Sandia's Microsystems Program thus received an overall rating of ''outstanding'' [the highest possible rating].

  17. Improved PV system reliability results from surge evaluations at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell H. Bonn; Sigifredo Gonzalez

    2000-04-11

    Electrical surges on ac and dc inverter power wiring and diagnostic cables have the potential to shorten the lifetime of power electronics. These surges may be caused by either nearby lightning or capacitor switching transients. This paper contains a description of ongoing surge evaluations of PV power electronics and surge mitigation hardware at Sandia.

  18. Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Environmental Baseline update--Revision 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This report provides a baseline update to provide the background information necessary for personnel to prepare clear and consise NEPA documentation. The environment of the Sandia National Laboratories is described in this document, including the ecology, meteorology, climatology, seismology, emissions, cultural resources and land use, visual resources, noise pollution, transportation, and socioeconomics.

  19. Results of external review Sandia National Laboratories microelectronics and photonics program (October 2002).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peercy, Paul S. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Myers, David R.

    2003-10-01

    The US Department of Energy requires a periodic 'self assessment' of Sandia's Microsystems Program. An external panel review of this program is held approximately every 18 months, and the report from the external review panel serves as the basis for the DOE 'self assessment.' The review for this fiscal year was held on September 30-October 1, 2002 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. The panel was comprised of experts in the fields of microelectronics, photonics and microsystems from universities, industry and other Government agencies. A complete list of the panel members is shown as Appendix A to the attached report. The review assesses four areas: relevance to national needs and agency mission; quality of science technology and engineering; performance in the operation of a major facility; and program performance management and planning. Relevance to national needs and agency mission was rated as 'outstanding.' The quality of science, technology, and engineering was rated as 'outstanding.' Operation of a major facility was noted as 'outstanding,' while the category of program performance, management, and planning was rated as 'outstanding.' Sandia's Microsystems Program received an overall rating of 'outstanding' [the highest possible rating]. The attached report was prepared by the panel in a format requested by Sandia to conform with the performance criteria for the DOE self assessment.

  20. A spectroscopic method for determining thickness of quartz wave plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiwei Feng; Lihuang Lin; Ligang Chen; Huafeng Zhu; Ruxin Li; Zhizhan Xu

    2006-01-01

    A spectroscopic method to determine thickness of quartz wave plate is presented. The method is based on chromatic polarization interferometry. With the polarization-resolved transmission spectrum (PRTS)curve, the phase retardation of quartz wave plate can be determined at a wide spectral range from 200 to2000 nm obviously. Through accurate judgment of extreme points of PRTS curve at long-wave band, the physical thickness of quartz wave plates can be obtained exactly. We give a measuring example and the error analysis. It is found that the measuring precision of thickness is mainly determined by the spectral resolution of spectrometer.

  1. Towards vibrational spectroscopy on surface-attached colloids performed with a quartz crystal microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diethelm Johannsmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal spheres attached to a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM produce the so-called “coupled resonances”. They are resonators of their own, characterized by a particle resonance frequency, a resonance bandwidth, and a modal mass. When the frequency of the main resonator comes close to the frequency of the coupled resonance, the bandwidth goes through a maximum. A coupled resonance can be viewed as an absorption line in acoustic shear-wave spectroscopy. The known concepts from spectroscopy apply. This includes the mode assignment problem, selection rules, and the oscillator strength. In this work, the mode assignment problem was addressed with Finite Element calculations. These reveal that a rigid sphere in contact with a QCM displays two modes of vibration, termed “slipping” and “rocking”. In the slipping mode, the sphere rotates about its center; it exerts a tangential force onto the resonator surface at the point of contact. In the rocking mode, the sphere rotates about the point of contact; it exerts a torque onto the substrate. In liquids, both axes of rotation are slightly displaced from their ideal positions. Characteristic for spectroscopy, the two modes do not couple to the mechanical excitation equally well. The degree of coupling is quantified by an oscillator strength. Because the rocking mode mostly exerts a torque (rather than a tangential force, its coupling to the resonator's tangential motion is weak; the oscillator strength consequently is small. Recent experiments on surface-adsorbed colloidal spheres can be explained by the mode of vibration being of the rocking type.

  2. Using a titanium-in-quartz geothermometer for crystallization temperature estimation of the Palaeoproterozoic Suursaari quartz porphyry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairi Ehrlich

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Suursaari volcanic sequence represents volcanic activity related to Wiborg Batholith rapakivi intrusions in the southern part of the Fennoscandian Shield. The estimated pressure conditions for batholith granitic rocks are 1–5 kbar and crystallization temperatures range from 670 to 890 °C. To describe the temperature regime of the Suursaari volcanic system, a rock sample was taken from the Mäkiinpäällys Mountain outcrop and analysed with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Sample spots were selected from quartz phenocrysts and groundmass. Quartz crystallization temperatures were calculated by the Ti-in-quartz method that takes into account rutile equilibrium and Ti activity in each phase. The calculated crystallization temperatures of the Suursaari quartz porphyry are in the range of 647–738 °C. The results show that the Suursaari quartz porphyry contains two generations of quartz which can be distinguished on the basis of crystallization temperatures: phenocrysts crystallized at higher and groundmass quartz at lower temperature.

  3. Implementing the Corrective Action Management Unit at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MOORE,DARLENE R.; SCHRADER,SCOTT A.; KING,GABRIEL G.; CORMIER,JOHN

    2000-01-26

    In September 1997, following significant public and regulator interaction, Sandia Corporation (Sandia) was granted a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Hazardous Solid Waste Amendment (HSWA) permit modification allowing construction and operation of a Correction Action Management Unit (CAMU). The CAMU follows recent regulatory guidance that allows for cost-effective, expedient cleanup of contaminated sites and management of hazardous remediation wastes. The CAMU was designed to store, treat, and provide long-term management for Environmental Restoration (ER) derived wastes. The 154 square meter CAMU site at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM), includes facilities for storing bulk soils and containerized wastes, for treatment of bulk soils, and has a containment cell for long-term disposition of waste. Proposed treatment operations include soil washing and low temperature thermal desorption. The first waste was accepted into the CAMU for temporary storage in January 1999. Construction at the CAMU was completed in March 1999, and baseline monitoring of the containment cell has commenced. At completion of operations the facility will be closed, the waste containment cell will be covered, and long-term post-closure monitoring will begin. Sandia's CAMU is the only such facility within the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Implementing this innovative approach to ER waste management has required successful coordination with community representatives, state and federal regulators, the DOE, Sandia corporate management, and contractors. It is expected that cost savings to taxpayers will be significant. The life-cycle CAMU project cost is currently projected to be approximately $12 million.

  4. Non-resonant Nanoscale Extreme Light Confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramania, Ganapathi Subramanian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huber, Dale L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A wide spectrum of photonics activities Sandia is engaged in such as solid state lighting, photovoltaics, infrared imaging and sensing, quantum sources, rely on nanoscale or ultrasubwavelength light-matter interactions (LMI). The fundamental understanding in confining electromagnetic power and enhancing electric fields into ever smaller volumes is key to creating next generation devices for these programs. The prevailing view is that a resonant interaction (e.g. in microcavities or surface-plasmon polaritions) is necessary to achieve the necessary light confinement for absorption or emission enhancement. Here we propose new paradigm that is non-resonant and therefore broadband and can achieve light confinement and field enhancement in extremely small areas [~(λ/500)^2 ]. The proposal is based on a theoretical work[1] performed at Sandia. The paradigm structure consists of a periodic arrangement of connected small and large rectangular slits etched into a metal film named double-groove (DG) structure. The degree of electric field enhancement and power confinement can be controlled by the geometry of the structure. The key operational principle is attributed to quasistatic response of the metal electrons to the incoming electromagnetic field that enables non-resonant broadband behavior. For this exploratory LDRD we have fabricated some test double groove structures to enable verification of quasistatic electronic response in the mid IR through IR optical spectroscopy. We have addressed some processing challenges in DG structure fabrication to enable future design of complex sensor and detector geometries that can utilize its non-resonant field enhancement capabilities.].

  5. Structure optimization and simulation analysis of the quartz micromachined gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuezhong; Wang, Haoxu; Xie, Liqiang; Dong, Peitao

    2014-03-01

    Structure optimization and simulation analysis of the quartz micromachined gyroscope are reported in this paper. The relationships between the structure parameters and the frequencies of work mode were analysed by finite element analysis. The structure parameters of the quartz micromachined gyroscope were optimized to reduce the difference between the frequencies of the drive mode and the sense mode. The simulation results were proved by testing the prototype gyroscope, which was fabricated by micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Therefore, the frequencies of the drive mode and the sense mode can match each other by the structure optimization and simulation analysis of the quartz micromachined gyroscope, which is helpful in the design of the high sensitivity quartz micromachined gyroscope.

  6. Origin of organism-dependent biogenic silica quartz formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kiminori

    2011-12-15

    Organism-dependent biogenic quartz formation in the steady-state environment is a phenomenon that can address the global environmental issues such as diagenetic evolution, biogeochemical cycling, and reservoir formation, but detailed studies have not been performed so far. Here, steady-state quartz formation is studied for amorphous silica of different biogenic origin on the basis of the recently established mechanistic model [Sato et al., J. Phys. Chem. C 2011, 115, 18131]. Amorphous silica originated from rice husks possesses angstrom-scale pores larger by 1.3 Å than those originated from diatom algae. The slight difference of pore size dramatically reduces activation energies of water diffusion by 78% and reactions of water molecules at pore surfaces by 47%, resulting in the reduction of activation energy of biogenic quartz formation by 64%. The present findings evidence that angstrom-scale pores intrinsically residing in the amorphous matrix are the organism-dependent origin of steady-state biogenic quartz formation.

  7. Degradation of glycine and alanine on irradiated quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlikowski, Maciej; Benko, Aleksandra; Wróbel, Tomasz P

    2013-04-01

    Recent researches suggest participation of minerals in the formation of life under primordial conditions. Among all of the minerals, quartz seems to be one of the most probable to take part in such processes. However, an external source of energy is needed, e.g. electric discharge. A device simulating the proposed conditions was designed and was used to simulate prebiotic conditions. Investigation of processes occurring during the stimulation of quartz with electric discharge was studied by means of Ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, in order to monitor the generation kinetics of free radicals. Additionally, infrared spectroscopy was applied to identify chemical reaction products created in a solution of alanine or glycine, in the presence of quartz treated with electric discharge. Formation of increased amounts of free radicals, compared to experiments performed without quartz and/or amino acid, is reported, along with identification of possible degradation products of alanine. No synthetic reactions were observed.

  8. Quartz Fibers For Laser Therapy In Tissue Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, P.; Sabber, G.; Lambert, R.; Berger, F.

    1984-03-01

    Quartz fibers not protected by a gas stream and used in tissue contact can work virtually indefinitely due to "self cleaning" and "regeneration". Tissue lesions are similar to those obtained with conventional devices.

  9. Structure optimization and simulation analysis of the quartz micromachined gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhong Wu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Structure optimization and simulation analysis of the quartz micromachined gyroscope are reported in this paper. The relationships between the structure parameters and the frequencies of work mode were analysed by finite element analysis. The structure parameters of the quartz micromachined gyroscope were optimized to reduce the difference between the frequencies of the drive mode and the sense mode. The simulation results were proved by testing the prototype gyroscope, which was fabricated by micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS technology. Therefore, the frequencies of the drive mode and the sense mode can match each other by the structure optimization and simulation analysis of the quartz micromachined gyroscope, which is helpful in the design of the high sensitivity quartz micromachined gyroscope.

  10. Low-temperature intracrystalline deformation microstructures in quartz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derez, Tine; Pennock, Gill; Drury, Martyn; Sintubin, Manuel

    A review of numerous genetic interpretations of the individual low-temperature intracrystalline deformation microstructures in quartz shows that there is no consensus concerning their formation mechanisms. Therefore, we introduce a new, purely descriptive terminology for the three categories of

  11. Influence of quartz particles on wear in vertical roller mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lucas R.D.; Friis, Henrik; Fundal, Erling;

    2010-01-01

    statistical planning, a total of 10 tests were arried out with two different limestones and one type of quartz sand. The size distributions were kept constant and only the mixing ratios were varied. It appears from the investigation that mixtures consisting of minerals with different grindabilities result...... in an increased concentration of abrasive particles in the grinding bed ðR2 > 0:99Þ. The present study shows that the quartz concentration in the grinding bed is determining the wear rate....

  12. Interaction Between Graphene Oxide Nanoparticles and Quartz Sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotirelis, Nikolaos P; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V

    2015-11-17

    In this study, the influence of pH, ionic strength (IS), and temperature on graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles attachment onto quartz sand were investigated. Batch experiments were conducted at three controlled temperatures (4, 12, and 25 °C) in solutions with different pH values (pH 4, 7, and 10), and ionic strengths (IS = 1.4, 6.4, and 21.4 mM), under static and dynamic conditions. The surface properties of GO nanoparticles and quartz sand were evaluated by electrophoretic mobility measurements. Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) potential energy profiles were constructed for the experimental conditions, using measured zeta potentials. The experimental results showed that GO nanoparticles were very stable under the experimental conditions. Both temperature and pH did not play a significant role in the attachment of GO nanoparticles onto quartz sand. In contrast, IS was shown to influence attachment. The attachment of GO particles onto quartz sand increased significantly with increasing IS. The experimental data were fitted nicely with a Freundlich isotherm, and the attachment kinetics were satisfactorily described with a pseudo-second-order model, which implies that the quartz sand exhibited substantial surface heterogeneity and that GO retention was governed by chemisorption. Furthermore, thermodynamic analysis revealed that the attachment process was nonspontaneous and endothermic, which may be associated with structural changes of the sand surfaces due to chemisorption. Therefore, secondary minimum interaction may not be the dominant mechanism for GO attachment onto the quartz sand under the experimental conditions.

  13. 2013 Annual Site Environmental Report for Sandia National Laboratories Tonopah Test Range Nevada & Kauai Test Facility Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Stacy Rene [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Agogino, Karen [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Li, Jun [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); White, Nancy [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Minitrez, Alexandra [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Avery, Penny [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bailey-White, Brenda [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bonaguidi, Joseph [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catechis, Christopher [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); duMond, Michael [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eckstein, Joanna [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forston, William [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herring, III, Allen [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lantow, Tiffany [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martinez, Reuben [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mauser, Joseph [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Amy [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Mark [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Payne, Jennifer [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peek, Dennis [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reiser, Anita [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ricketson, Sherry [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roma, Charles [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Salinas, Stephanie [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ullrich, Rebecca [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities managed and operated by Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Field Office (SFO), in Albuquerque, New Mexico, administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at TTR and KTF. Sandia manages and conducts operations at TTR in support of the DOE/NNSA’s Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Navarro Research and Engineering subcontracts to Sandia in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report summarizes data and the compliance status of the sustainability, environmental protection, and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year 2013. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities, and the National Environmental Policy Act. Sandia is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA/Nevada Field Office retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of TTR ER sites. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2012).

  14. United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Sandia Field Office NESHAP Annual Report CY2014 for Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    evelo, stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Mark L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report provides a summary of the radionuclide releases from the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration facilities at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) during Calendar Year (CY) 2014, including the data, calculations, and supporting documentation for demonstrating compliance with 40 Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) 61, Subpart H--NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR EMISSIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES OTHER THAN RADON FROM DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY FACILITIES. A description is given of the sources and their contributions to the overall dose assessment. In addition, the maximally exposed individual (MEI) radiological dose calculation and the population dose to local and regional residents are discussed.

  15. Separate measurement of the density and viscosity of a liquid using a quartz crystal microbalance based on admittance analysis (QCM-A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Atsushi; Ichihashi, Motoko

    2011-01-01

    We previously used a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to identify a frequency f2 that allows measurement of the mass load without being affected by the viscous load of a liquid in the liquid phase. Here, we determined that frequency in order to separately measure the density and viscosity of a Newtonian liquid. Martin et al separately measured the density and viscosity of a liquid by immersing two quartz resonators, i.e. a smooth-surface resonator and a textured-surface resonator, in the liquid. We used a QCM based on admittance analysis (QCM-A) in the current study to separately measure the viscosity and density of a liquid using only a textured-surface resonator. In the current experiments, we measured the density and viscosity of 500 µl of 10%, 30%, and 50% aqueous glycerol solutions and compared the measured values to reference values. The density obtained had an error of ±1.5% of reference values and the viscosity had an error of about ±5% of reference values. Similar results were obtained with 500 µl of 10%, 30%, and 50% ethanol solutions. Measurement was possible with a quartz resonator, so measurements were made with even smaller samples. The density and viscosity of a liquid were successfully determined with an extremely small amount of liquid, i.e. 10 µl, with almost the same precision as when using 500 µl of the liquid.

  16. Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yufei; He, Ying; Zhang, Ligong; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Jingbo; Sun, Rui; Tittel, Frank K.

    2017-01-01

    An ultra-high sensitive acetylene (C2H2) Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor based on a high power laser and a quartz tuning fork with a resonance frequency f0 of 30.72 kHz was demonstrated. An erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) amplified distributed feedback diode laser with a center wavelength of 1.53 μm was used as the exciting source. A 33.2 ppb minimum detection limit (MDL) at 6534.37 cm-1 was achieved, and the calculated normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient was 3.54 × 10-8 cm-1 W/√Hz when the laser output power was 1500 mW. The ppb-level detection sensitivity of C2H2 validated the reported QEPAS method.

  17. Synkinematic quartz cementation in partially open fractures in sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukar, Estibalitz; Laubach, Stephen E.; Fall, Andras; Eichhubl, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Faults and networks of naturally open fractures can provide open conduits for fluid flow, and may play a significant role in hydrocarbon recovery, hydrogeology, and CO2 sequestration. However, sandstone fracture systems are commonly infilled, at least to some degree, by quartz cement, which can stiffen and occlude fractures. Such cement deposits can systematically reduce the overall permeability enhancement due to open fractures (by reducing open fracture length) and result in permeability anisotropies. Thus, it is important to identify the factors that control the precipitation of quartz in fractures in order to identify potential fluid conduits under the present-day stress field. In many sandstones, quartz nucleates syntaxially on quartz grain or cement substrate of the fracture wall, and extends between fracture walls only locally, forming pillars or bridges. Scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) images reveal that the core of these bridges are made up of bands of broken and resealed cement containing wall-parallel fluid inclusion planes. The fluid inclusion-rich core is usually surrounded by a layer of inclusion-poor clear quartz that comprises the lateral cement. Such crack-seal textures indicate that this phase was precipitating while the fractures were actively opening (synkinematic growth). Rapid quartz accumulation is generally believed to require temperatures of 80°C or more. Fluid inclusion thermometry and Raman spectroscopy of two-phase aqueous fluid-inclusions trapped in crack-seal bands may be used to track the P-T-X evolution of pore fluids during fracture opening and crack-seal cementation of quartz. Quartz cement bridges across opening mode fractures in the Cretaceous Travis Peak Formation of the tectonically quiescent East Texas Basin indicate individual fractures opened over a 48 m.y. time span at rates of 16-23 µm/m.y. Similarly, the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group in the Piceance Basin, Colorado contains fractures that

  18. Polycrystalline diamond MEMS resonator technology for sensor applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P.; Aslam, Dean (Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI); Sepulveda-Alancastro, Nelson (Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI)

    2005-07-01

    Due to material limitations of poly-Si resonators, polycrystalline diamond (poly-C) has been explored as a new MEMS resonator material. The poly-C resonators are designed, fabricated and tested using electrostatic (Michigan State University) and piezoelectric (Sandia National Laboratories) actuation methods, and the results are compared. For comparable resonator structures, although the resonance frequencies are similar, the measured Q values in the ranges of 1000-2000 and 10,000-15,000 are obtained for electrostatic and piezoelectric actuation methods, respectively. The difference in Q for the two methods is related to different pressures used during the measurement and not to the method of measurement. For the poly-C cantilever beam resonators, the highest value of their quality factor (Q) is reported for the first time (15,263).

  19. Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection of ethylene using a 10.5 μm quantum cascade laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Li, Zhili; Ren, Wei

    2016-02-22

    A quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor has been developed for the sensitive detection of ethylene (C2H4) at 10.5 µm using a continuous-wave distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser. At this long-wavelength infrared, the key acoustic elements of quartz tuning fork and micro-resonators were optimized to improve the detection signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of >4. The sensor calibration demonstrated an excellent linear response (R2>0.999) to C2H4 concentration at the selected operating pressure of 500 and 760 Torr. With a minimum detection limit of 50 parts per billion (ppb) achieved at an averaging time of 70 s, the sensor has been deployed for measuring the C2H4 efflux during the respiration of biological samples in an agronomic environment.

  20. Quartz concentration trends in metal and nonmetal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Winthrop F; Huynh, Tran B; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2012-01-01

    From 1974 through 2010, the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) collected nearly 147,000 respirable dust samples with a mass of at least 0.1 mg and a minimum of 1% quartz. These samples represent about 50% of all respirable dust compliance samples collected by MSHA. Analysis of these data shows that pockets of high concentrations and overexposure continue to exist. At underground mines, from 2005 to 2010, occupations with >20% of the samples exceeding the permissible exposure limit (PEL) and geometric mean quartz concentrations exceeding the ACGIH threshold limit value of 25 μg/m(3) included mucking, crusher operator, general laborer/utility, and front-end loader operator. During the same period, stone and rock saw operators and bagger and packers working at surface mines and mills also had >20% of the samples exceeding the PEL and geometric mean quartz concentrations >25 μg/m(3). Regardless of mine type or location, slow but steady improvement in exposure levels is seen in jobs involving crushing operations, which are widespread in the mining industry. Crusher operators are more likely to work in an enclosed area where it is easier to apply dust controls and air conditioning. A downward trend is also observed for vehicle equipment operators who drive load-haul-dumps, front-end loaders, trucks, and similar equipment. Crusher operators and vehicle equipment operators represent occupational categories that are widely sampled by MSHA inspectors. A small but statistically significant reduction in the overall mean respirable quartz dust and quartz concentrations from 1993 to 2010 was observed in most commodity groups. Variability from year to year and between commodities is high. Reduction in respirable quartz dust concentration does not necessarily correspond to a reduction in quartz concentration within the same commodity group. These trends are consistent with those reported in previous studies.

  1. Treated and untreated rock dust: Quartz content and physical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Lee, Taekhee; Chisholm, William P; Farcas, Daniel; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Harper, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Rock dusting is used to prevent secondary explosions in coal mines, but inhalation of rock dusts can be hazardous if the crystalline silica (e.g., quartz) content in the respirable fraction is high. The objective of this study is to assess the quartz content and physical characteristics of four selected rock dusts, consisting of limestone or marble in both treated (such as treatment with stearic acid or stearates) and untreated forms. Four selected rock dusts (an untreated and treated limestone and an untreated and treated marble) were aerosolized in an aerosol chamber. Respirable size-selective sampling was conducted along with particle size-segregated sampling using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analyses were used to determine quartz mass and particle morphology, respectively. Quartz percentage in the respirable dust fraction of untreated and treated forms of the limestone dust was significantly higher than in bulk samples, but since the bulk percentage was low the enrichment factor would not have resulted in any major change to conclusions regarding the contribution of respirable rock dust to the overall airborne quartz concentration. The quartz percentage in the marble dust (untreated and treated) was very low and the respirable fractions showed no enrichment. The spectra from SEM-EDX analysis for all materials were predominantly from calcium carbonate, clay, and gypsum particles. No free quartz particles were observed. The four rock dusts used in this study are representative of those presented for use in rock dusting, but the conclusions may not be applicable to all available materials.

  2. Environmental Testing Philosophy for a Sandia National Laboratories' Small Satellite Project - A Retrospective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAP,JEROME S.

    2000-08-24

    Sandia has recently completed the flight certification test series for the Multi-Spectral Thermal Imaging satellite (MTI), which is a small satellite for which Sandia was the system integrator. A paper was presented at the 16th Aerospace Testing Seminar discussing plans for performing the structural dynamics certification program for that satellite. The testing philosophy was originally based on a combination of system level vibroacoustic tests and component level shock and vibration tests. However, the plans evolved to include computational analyses using both Finite Element Analysis and Statistical Energy Analysis techniques. This paper outlines the final certification process and discuss lessons learned including both things that went well and things that should/could have been done differently.

  3. Simulation information regarding Sandia National Laboratories trinity capability improvement metric.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agelastos, Anthony Michael; Lin, Paul T.

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory each selected a representative simulation code to be used as a performance benchmark for the Trinity Capability Improvement Metric. Sandia selected SIERRA Low Mach Module: Nalu, which is a uid dynamics code that solves many variable-density, acoustically incompressible problems of interest spanning from laminar to turbulent ow regimes, since it is fairly representative of implicit codes that have been developed under ASC. The simulations for this metric were performed on the Cielo Cray XE6 platform during dedicated application time and the chosen case utilized 131,072 Cielo cores to perform a canonical turbulent open jet simulation within an approximately 9-billion-elementunstructured- hexahedral computational mesh. This report will document some of the results from these simulations as well as provide instructions to perform these simulations for comparison.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Environmental Information Document - Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAYLISS, LINDA S.; GUERRERO, JOSEPH V.; JOHNS, WILLIAM H.; KUZIO, KENNETH A.; BAILEY-WHITE, BRENDA E.

    1999-09-01

    This Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Environmental Information Document (EID) compiles information on the existing environment, or environmental baseline, for SNUNM. Much of the information is drawn from existing reports and databases supplemented by new research and data. The SNL/NM EID, together with the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Facilities and Safety Information Document, provide a basis for assessing the environment, safety, and health aspects of operating selected facilities at SNL/NM. The environmental baseline provides a record of the existing physical, biological, and socioeconomic environment at SNL/NLM prior to being altered (beneficially or adversely) by proposed programs or projects. More specifically, the EID provides information on the following topics: Geology; Land Use; Hydrology and Water Resources; Air Quality and Meteorology; Ecology; Noise and Vibration; Cultural Resources; Visual Resources; Socioeconomic and Community Services; Transportation; Material Management; Waste Management; and Regulatory Requirements.

  5. Joint Sandia/NIOSH exercise on aerosol contamination using the BROOM tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, James L., Jr. (.,; .); Melton, Brad; Finley, Patrick; Brockman, John; Peyton, Chad E.; Tucker, Mark David; Einfeld, Wayne; Brown, Gary Stephen; Griffith, Richard O.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Knowlton, Robert G.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Ho, Pauline

    2006-06-01

    In February of 2005, a joint exercise involving Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was conducted in Albuquerque, NM. The SNL participants included the team developing the Building Restoration Operations and Optimization Model (BROOM), a software product developed to expedite sampling and data management activities applicable to facility restoration following a biological contamination event. Integrated data-collection, data-management, and visualization software improve the efficiency of cleanup, minimize facility downtime, and provide a transparent basis for reopening. The exercise was held at an SNL facility, the Coronado Club, a now-closed social club for Sandia employees located on Kirtland Air Force Base. Both NIOSH and SNL had specific objectives for the exercise, and all objectives were met.

  6. IP address management : augmenting Sandia's capabilities through open source tools.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayar, R. Daniel

    2005-08-01

    Internet Protocol (IP) address management is an increasingly growing concern at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the networking community as a whole. The current state of the available IP addresses indicates that they are nearly exhausted. Currently SNL doesn't have the justification to obtain more IP address space from Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). There must exist a local entity to manage and allocate IP assignments efficiently. Ongoing efforts at Sandia have been in the form of a multifunctional database application notably known as Network Information System (NWIS). NWIS is a database responsible for a multitude of network administrative services including IP address management. This study will explore the feasibility of augmenting NWIS's IP management capabilities utilizing open source tools. Modifications of existing capabilities to better allocate available IP address space are studied.

  7. A report on FY06 IPv6 deployment activities and issues at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolendino, Lawrence F.; Eldridge, John M.; Hu, Tan Chang

    2006-06-01

    Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) has been a mainstay of the both the Internet and corporate networks for delivering network packets to the desired destination. However, rapid proliferation of network appliances, evolution of corporate networks, and the expanding Internet has begun to stress the limitations of the protocol. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the replacement protocol that overcomes the constraints of IPv4. IPv6 deployment in government network backbones has been mandated to occur by 2008. This paper explores the readiness of the Sandia National Laboratories' network backbone to support IPv6, the issues that must be addressed before a deployment begins, and recommends the next steps to take to comply with government mandates. The paper describes a joint, work effort of the Sandia National Laboratories ASC WAN project team and members of the System Analysis & Trouble Resolution and Network System Design & Implementation Departments.

  8. Shear dominated failure in the 'hat' specimen from the 2013 Sandia Fracture Challenge.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this memo is to present a brief report of the progress achieved during FY2016 on the investigation of ductile failure in the 2013 Sandia Fracture Challenge specimen. The experimental investigation was conducted with both the original steel A286 material used in the fracture challenge as well as with Al 7075-T651. The new results include further microscopy work for the steel A286 specimens, failure criterion verification for both materials and the implementation of a finite element model containing `material imperfections' to simulate the limit load in the response of the steel A286 specimens. Funding used to conduct the work presented here was provided by the ASC V&V program on validation of shear failure (Benjamin Reedlunn, PI) and from Sandia's LDRD program.

  9. Description of heat flux measurement methods used in hydrocarbon and propellant fuel fires at Sandia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the methods commonly used to measure heat flux in fire applications at Sandia National Laboratories in both hydrocarbon (JP-8 jet fuel, diesel fuel, etc.) and propellant fires. Because these environments are very severe, many commercially available heat flux gauges do not survive the test, so alternative methods had to be developed. Specially built sensors include 'calorimeters' that use a temperature measurement to infer heat flux by use of a model (heat balance on the sensing surface) or by using an inverse heat conduction method. These specialty-built sensors are made rugged so they will survive the environment, so are not optimally designed for ease of use or accuracy. Other methods include radiometers, co-axial thermocouples, directional flame thermometers (DFTs), Sandia 'heat flux gauges', transpiration radiometers, and transverse Seebeck coefficient heat flux gauges. Typical applications are described and pros and cons of each method are listed.

  10. Automatic assembly planning and its role in agile manufacturing: A Sandia perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.E.; Kaufman, S.G.

    1993-11-01

    Sandia has been studying automatic assembly planning of electromechanical devices for some years, based on an implemented system called Archimedes. Work done to date has focussed on automatic generation of high-level plans, and translation of these plans into robotic control code and workcell layout. More recently, the importance of an assembly planning capability as a design aid has been emphasized, as it could potentially provide early feedback to a designer on the manufacturability of the design. This paper describes the work done on assembly planning to date, plans for extending it, and its applications to agile manufacturing. In particular, we describe an agile manufacturing demonstration project underway at Sandia, and the role the Archimedes assembly planning system will play in it.

  11. Quality control circles: will they work at Sandia. Findings from a review of 66 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeys, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    Quality Control Circles (QCC's) meet regularly to solve limited, but important, problems related directly to their work. The QCC is organized so that the worker becomes involved in problem solving and quality awareness in meaningful and creative ways. Participation is voluntary. This concept has been successfully used in Japan for two decades. QCC's are now being implemented at an accelerating rate world-wide. There are questions as to QCC's applicability in the United States and in particular with respect to an R and D facility such as Sandia. This paper summarizes information about the QCC concept with respect to its implementation and applicability to Sandia. Information was extracted from 66 sources as noted in an Annotated Bibliography. Analysis techniques used by QCC's were utilized in the construction of this paper, especially with the Annotated Bibliography.

  12. ``Cats and Dogs'' disposition at Sandia: Last of the legacy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STRONG,WARREN R.; JACKSON,JOHN L.

    2000-05-03

    Over the past 12 months, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM), has successfully conducted an evaluation of its nuclear material holdings. As a result, approximately 46% of these holdings (36% by mass) have been reclassified as no defined use (NDU). Reclassification as NDU allows Sandia to determine the final disposition of a significant percentage of its legacy nuclear material. Disposition will begin some time in mid CY2000. This reclassification and the proposed disposition of the material has resulted in an extensive coordination effort lead by the Nuclear Materials Management Team (NMMT), which includes the nuclear material owners, the Radioactive Waste/Nuclear Material Disposition Department (7135), and DOE Albuquerque Operations Office. The process of identifying and reclassifying the cats and dogs or miscellaneous lots of nuclear material has also presented a number of important lessons learned for other sites in the DOE complex.

  13. Annual report: Purchasing and Materials Management Organization, Sandia National Laboratories, fiscal year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaeh, R.A.

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the purchasing and transportation activities of the Purchasing and Materials Management Organization for Fiscal Year 1992. Activities for both the New Mexico and California locations are included. Topics covered in this report include highlights for fiscal year 1992, personnel, procurements (small business procurements, disadvantaged business procurements, woman-owned business procurements, New Mexico commercial business procurements, Bay area commercial business procurements), commitments by states and foreign countries, and transportation activities. Also listed are the twenty-five commercial contractors receiving the largest dollar commitments, commercial contractors receiving commitments of $1,000 or more, integrated contractor and federal agency commitments of $1,000 or more from Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and California, and transportation commitments of $1,000 or more from Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and California.

  14. Coating Characterization with the Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdy, Lauren F.

    The quartz crystal microbalance is a sensitive tool that can be used to measure the mass, modulus and phase angle of films of appropriate thicknesses. It is can be applied to systems with very varied properties, from liquid to solid, and under many different conditions. In this thesis its capabilities have been used to study the properties of several different systems of relevance to the coatings, art conservation, and rubber communities, in the process of which new techniques and tools were developed to analyze data and improve QCM data collection and experimental design. Alkyd resins, which have been used in artists' paints since the twentieth century, are the subject of the first studies. Alkyds are oil-modified polyesters. These resins are of interest because of their relatively recent use in art and how little is known of the mechanical properties in the early stages of cure. The QCM was shown to be sensitive to the curing process, changes in temperature, and mass change due to exposure to water. Kinetic studies during the first days of curing showed that the curing process can be divided into three regions. The first is dominated by solvent evaporation. In the second, oxygen absorption dominates and the mechanical properties change rapidly. The final stage extends from when the film is touch dry after about a day to years and is characterized by mass loss and continued increases in the modulus. Studying the curing at different temperatures revealed that the reactions do proceed much more rapidly at higher temperatures and an overall energy of activation was calculated for the curing process. The mechanical properties of alkyd resins containing zinc oxide, a white pigment, were studied with the QCM, nanoindentation and dynamic mechanical analysis. These measurements showed increases in the modulus with the inclusion of zinc oxide, and the QCM data showed that the second region started at earlier times as the pigment concentration was increased. Linseed oil is

  15. Annual Site Environment Report Summary Pamphlet, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-01

    Sandia collects environmental data to determine and report the impact of existing SNL/NM operations on the environment. Sandia’s environmental programs include air and water quality, environmental monitoring and surveillance, and activities associated with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Sandia’s objective is to maintain compliance with federal, state, and local requirements, and to affect the corporate culture so that environmental compliance practices continue to be an integral part of operations.

  16. Sandia National Laboratories, California Waste Management Program annual report : February 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2009-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Waste Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System rogram Manual. This annual program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Waste Management (WM) Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  17. Sandia National Laboratories, California Hazardous Materials Management Program annual report : February 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2009-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Hazardous Materials Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental anagement ystem Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Hazardous Materials Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  18. Sandia National Laboratories California Waste Management Program Annual Report February 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2008-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Waste Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This annual program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Waste Management (WM) Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  19. Solar energy research at Sandia Laboratories and its effects on health and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, L.L. III

    1977-10-01

    Various solar energy research and development projects at Sandia Laboratories are discussed with emphasis on the primary health and safety hazard associated with solar concentration systems. This limiting hazard is chorioretinal damage. The unique safety and health hazards associated with solar energy collector and receiver systems cannot be measured yet, but progress is being made rapidly. Research is continuing, especially for eye hazards, with more extensive work planned.

  20. Sandia National Laboratories California Waste Management Program Annual Report April 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Waste Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This annual program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Waste Management (WM) Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  1. Annual Site Environment Report Summary Pamphlet, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-01

    Sandia collects environmental data to determine and report the impact of existing SNL/NM operations on the environment. Sandia’s environmental programs include air and water quality, environmental monitoring and surveillance, and activities associated with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Sandia’s objective is to maintain compliance with federal, state, and local requirements, and to affect the corporate culture so that environmental compliance practices continue to be an integral part of operations.

  2. 2003 Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 testing for functionality, model validation, and technology readiness.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Blecke, Jill; Baker, Michael Sean; Clemens, Rebecca C.; Mitchell, John Anthony; Brake, Matthew Robert; Epp, David S.; Wittwer, Jonathan W.

    2008-10-01

    This report summarizes the functional, model validation, and technology readiness testing of the Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor in FY08. Functional testing of a large number of revision 4 parts showed robust and consistent performance. Model validation testing helped tune the models to match data well and identified several areas for future investigation related to high frequency sensitivity and thermal effects. Finally, technology readiness testing demonstrated the integrated elements of the sensor under realistic environments.

  4. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality of Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.; Nottelman, H.

    1997-01-01

    The Biology Team of ESH-20 (the Ecology Group) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected samples from the stream within Sandia Canyon since the summer of 1990. These field studies measure water quality parameters and collect aquatic macroinvertebrates from sampling sites within the upper canyon stream. Reports by Bennett and Cross discuss previous aquatic studies in Sandia Canyon. This report updates and expands the previous findings. The Biology Team collected water quality data and aquatic macroinvertebrates monthly at three sampling stations within Sandia Canyon in 1995. The two upstream stations occur near a cattail (Typha latifolia) dominated marsh downstream from outfalls that discharge industrial and sanitary waste effluent into the stream, thereby maintaining year-round flow. The third station is approximately 1.5 miles downstream from the outfalls within a mixed conifer forest. All water chemistry parameters measured in Sandia Canyon during 1995 fell within acceptable State limits and scored in the {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}excellent{close_quotes} ranges when compared to an Environmental Quality Index. However, aquatic macroinvertebrates habitats have been degraded by widespread erosion, channelization, loss of wetlands due to deposition and stream lowering, scour, limited acceptable substrates, LANL releases and spills, and other stressors. Macroinvertebrate communities at all the stations had low diversities, low densities, and erratic numbers of individuals. These results indicate that although the stream possesses acceptable water chemistry, it has reduced biotic potential. The best developed aquatic community occurs at the sampling station with the best habitat and whose downstream location partially mitigates the effects of upstream impairments.

  5. Quantitative determination of hydrogen absorption by Pd cluster-assembled films using a quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Far, R.; Diaz-Droguett, D.E.; Rojas, S.; Avila, J.I. [Laboratorio de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Romero, C.P.; Lievens, P. [Laboratorium voor Vaste-Stoffysica en Magnetisme, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D-bus 2414 B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Cabrera, A.L., E-mail: acabrera@fis.puc.cl [Laboratorio de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-11-01

    We have measured hydrogen absorption capacity for a series of Pd films grown by two deposition techniques: a) flat films made with e-beam evaporation of Pd and b) films made of assembled Pd clusters. The films range in thickness from 9.5 to 45 nm. The technique implemented for measuring the amount of hydrogen absorbed by the films was a quartz crystal microbalance. The Pd films were grown on the quartz crystals and the change of mass due to the hydrogen absorption was determined from the shifting of the resonance frequency. Minute amounts of hydrogen absorbed of the order of nanograms per square centimeter can be detected by this technique. Plots of H/Pd atom ratio for each Pd film as a function of hydrogen pressure were obtained. The Pd e-beam grown films displayed a saturation H/Pd atomic ratio around 0.6 which is similar to bulk Pd. The Pd cluster film with a thickness of 14 nm displayed a remarkable absorption capacity with a ratio H/(Pd) Almost-Equal-To 0.84. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pd cluster assembled films with different thicknesses are made and characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quartz crystal microbalance is used to quantification the hydrogen amount absorbed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen absorption/adsorption by Pd film is explained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absorption expressed in H/Pd mass ratio is given for all Pd films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This complements H{sub 2} absorption on metal cluster films using optical techniques.

  6. Chemical Microsensor and Micro-Instrument Technology at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, M.A.; Frye-Mason, G.C.; Hughes, R.C.; Osbourn, G.C.

    1999-03-26

    Important factors in the application of chemical sensing technology to space applications are low mass, small size, and low power. All of these attributes are enabled by the application of MEMS and micro-fabrication technology to chemical sensing. Several Sandia projects that apply these technologies to the development of new chemical sensing capabilities with the potential for space applications will be described. The Polychromator project is a joint project with Honeywell and MIT to develop an electrically programmable diffraction grating that can be programmed to synthesize the spectra of molecules. This grating will be used as the reference cell in a gas correlation radiometer to enable remote chemical detection of most chemical species. Another area of research where micro-fabrication is having a large impact is the development of a lab on a chip. Sandia's efforts to develop the {mu}ChemLab{trademark} will be described including the development of microfabricated pre-concentrators, chromatographic columns, and detectors. Chemical sensors are evolving in the direction of sensor arrays with pattern recognition methods applied to interpret the pattern of response. Sandia's development of micro-fabricated chemiresistor arrays and the VERI pattern recognition technology to interpret the sensor response will be described.

  7. The high current, fast, 100ns, Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) developmental project at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Kevin S.; Long, Finis W.; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A. (High Current Electronic Institute (HCEI), Tomsk, Russia); Kim, Alexandre A. (High Current Electronic Institute (HCEI), Tomsk, RUSSIA); Wakeland, Peter Eric (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); McKee, G. Randall; Woodworth, Joseph Ray; McDaniel, Dillon Heirman; Fowler, William E.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos; Porter, John Larry, Jr.; Struve, Kenneth William; Stygar, William A.; LeChien, Keith R.; Matzen, Maurice Keith

    2010-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., USA, in collaboration with the High Current Electronic Institute (HCEI), Tomsk, Russia, is developing a new paradigm in pulsed power technology: the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology. This technological approach can provide very compact devices that can deliver very fast high current and high voltage pulses straight out of the cavity with out any complicated pulse forming and pulse compression network. Through multistage inductively insulated voltage adders, the output pulse, increased in voltage amplitude, can be applied directly to the load. The load may be a vacuum electron diode, a z-pinch wire array, a gas puff, a liner, an isentropic compression load (ICE) to study material behavior under very high magnetic fields, or a fusion energy (IFE) target. This is because the output pulse rise time and width can be easily tailored to the specific application needs. In this paper we briefly summarize the developmental work done in Sandia and HCEI during the last few years, and describe our new MYKONOS Sandia High Current LTD Laboratory.

  8. Audit of Sandia Corporation`s pension plans and other prefunded benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-06

    The audit disclosed that Sandia`s pension plans had $588.9 million in excess assets as of December 31, 1990, on a current value basis. If plan terminations and spin-offs occurred, at least $408.8 million of this amount could be returned to the Government without affecting the pension benefits that Sandia employees and retirees have earned. We recommended that Albuquerque take the necessary action to reduce the excess assets in the pension plans and recover the Government`s share. However, Albuquerque disagreed with the recommendation. Albuquerque justified leaving the excess assets in the pension plans to fund future plan amendments; to avoid future funding contributions; to avoid the costs and time-consuming administrative steps associated with taking action; and to prevent damaging effects on employee morale. We analyzed these points, and concluded that they should not prevent the Department from initiating action to return excess assets to the Government. Actuarial analysis of the pension plans showed that, even if certain plan adjustments were made, the plans were overfunded by $256 million as of December 31, 1991 (on an actuarial value basis).

  9. A preliminary benefit-cost study of a Sandia wind farm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Griffin, Taylor; Loose, Verne W.

    2011-03-01

    In response to federal mandates and incentives for renewable energy, Sandia National Laboratories conducted a feasibility study of installing an on-site wind farm on Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base property. This report describes this preliminary analysis of the costs and benefits of installing and operating a 15-turbine, 30-MW-capacity wind farm that delivers an estimated 16 percent of 2010 onsite demand. The report first describes market and non-market economic costs and benefits associated with operating a wind farm, and then uses a standard life-cycle costing and benefit-cost framework to estimate the costs and benefits of a wind farm. Based on these 'best-estimates' of costs and benefits and on factor, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, the analysis results suggest that the benefits of a Sandia wind farm are greater than its costs. The analysis techniques used herein are applicable to the economic assessment of most if not all forms of renewable energy.

  10. A preliminary benefit-cost study of a Sandia wind farm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Griffin, Taylor; Loose, Verne W.

    2011-03-01

    In response to federal mandates and incentives for renewable energy, Sandia National Laboratories conducted a feasibility study of installing an on-site wind farm on Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base property. This report describes this preliminary analysis of the costs and benefits of installing and operating a 15-turbine, 30-MW-capacity wind farm that delivers an estimated 16 percent of 2010 onsite demand. The report first describes market and non-market economic costs and benefits associated with operating a wind farm, and then uses a standard life-cycle costing and benefit-cost framework to estimate the costs and benefits of a wind farm. Based on these 'best-estimates' of costs and benefits and on factor, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, the analysis results suggest that the benefits of a Sandia wind farm are greater than its costs. The analysis techniques used herein are applicable to the economic assessment of most if not all forms of renewable energy.

  11. Transient Solid Dynamics Simulations on the Sandia/Intel Teraflop Computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attaway, S.; Brown, K.; Gardner, D.; Hendrickson, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barragy, T. [Itel Corporation, Beaverton, OR (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Transient solid dynamics simulations are among the most widely used engineering calculations. Industrial applications include vehicle crashworthiness studies, metal forging, and powder compaction prior to sintering. These calculations are also critical to defense applications including safety studies and weapons simulations. The practical importance of these calculations and their computational intensiveness make them natural candidates for parallelization. This has proved to be difficult, and existing implementations fail to scale to more than a few dozen processors. In this paper we describe our parallelization of PRONTO, Sandia`s transient solid dynamics code, via a novel algorithmic approach that utilizes multiple decompositions for different key segments of the computations, including the material contact calculation. This latter calculation is notoriously difficult to perform well in parallel, because it involves dynamically changing geometry, global searches for elements in contact, and unstructured communications among the compute nodes. Our approach scales to at least 3600 compute nodes of the Sandia/Intel Teraflop computer (the largest set of nodes to which we have had access to date) on problems involving millions of finite elements. On this machine we can simulate models using more than ten- million elements in a few tenths of a second per timestep, and solve problems more than 3000 times faster than a single processor Cray Jedi.

  12. Functional and operational requirements document : building 1012, Battery and Energy Storage Device Test Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, William H.

    2013-11-01

    This report provides an overview of information, prior studies, and analyses relevant to the development of functional and operational requirements for electrochemical testing of batteries and energy storage devices carried out by Sandia Organization 2546, Advanced Power Sources R&D. Electrochemical operations for this group are scheduled to transition from Sandia Building 894 to a new Building located in Sandia TA-II referred to as Building 1012. This report also provides background on select design considerations and identifies the Safety Goals, Stakeholder Objectives, and Design Objectives required by the Sandia Design Team to develop the Performance Criteria necessary to the design of Building 1012. This document recognizes the Architecture-Engineering (A-E) Team as the primary design entity. Where safety considerations are identified, suggestions are provided to provide context for the corresponding operational requirement(s).

  13. Chemical etching of deformation sub-structures in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, M. W.; Christie, J. M.

    1983-02-01

    Chemical etching of dislocations has been studied in natural and synthetic quartz single crystals, in deformed synthetic quartz and in naturally and experimentally deformed quartzites. The ability of different etchants to produce polished or preferentially etched surfaces on quartz is described. Dislocation etching was achieved on all crystal planes examined by using a saturated solution of ammonium bifluoride as the etchant. Appropriate etching times were determined for etching quartzites for grain size, subgrain boundaries, deformation lamellae, dislocations and twins. Growth and polished surfaces of synthetic single crystal quartz were similarly etched and dislocation etch pits, characteristic of various orientations were found. The use of ammonium bifluoride proved to be expecially advantageous for the basal plane, producing a polished surface with etch pits, suitable for dislocation etch pit counting. “Double” etch pits have been found on Dauphiné twin boundaries on the basal plane and the first order prism, using this etchant. Slip lines and deformation bands were suitably etched on deformed synthetic crystal surfaces for identification of the slip planes. Other acidic etchants have been explored and their application to the study of deformation structures in quartz crystals is discussed.

  14. Review of Sandia National Laboratories - Albuquerque, New Mexico DOE/DP critical skills development programs FY03.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Katherine Sue; Wilson, Dominique Foley; Chalamidas, Anna K.

    2004-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a portfolio of programs to address the critical skills needs of the DP labs, as identified by the 1999 Chiles Commission Report. The goals are to attract and retain the best and the brightest students and transition them into Sandia - and DP Complex - employees. The US Department of Energy/Defense Programs University Partnerships funded nine laboratory critical skills development programs in FY03. This report provides a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of these programs and their status.

  15. Lectin typing of Campylobacter jejuni using a novel quartz crystal microbalance technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovleva, Maria E., E-mail: maria.yakovleva@gmail.com [Department of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, Lund University, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Moran, Anthony P. [Department of Microbiology, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Safina, Gulnara R. [Department of Analytical and Marine Chemistry, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Wadstroem, Torkel [Department of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, Lund University, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Danielsson, Bengt [Acromed Invest AB, Magistratsvaegen 10, 226 43 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-05-23

    Seven Campylobacter jejuni strains were characterised by a lectin typing assay. The typing system was based on a quartz crystal microbalance technique (QCM) with four commercially available lectins (wheat germ agglutinin, Maackia amurensis lectin, Lens culinaris agglutinin, and Concanavalin A), which were chosen for their differing carbohydrate specificities. Initially, the gold surfaces of the quartz crystals were modified with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid followed by lectin immobilisation using a conventional amine-coupling technique. Bacterial cells were applied for lectin typing without preliminary treatment, and resonant frequency and dissipation responses were recorded. The adhesion of microorganisms on lectin surfaces was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Scanning was performed in the tapping mode and the presence of bacteria on lectin-coated surfaces was successfully demonstrated. A significant difference in the dissipation response was observed for different C. jejuni strains which made it possible to use this parameter for discriminating between bacterial strains. In summary, the QCM technique proved a powerful tool for the recognition and discrimination of C. jejuni strains. The approach may also prove applicable to strain discrimination of other bacterial species, particularly pathogens.

  16. Exploiting Solvate Ionic Liquids for Amine Gas Analysis on a Quartz Crystal Microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsin-Yi; Chu, Yen-Ho

    2017-05-16

    We demonstrated in this work the usefulness of solvate ionic liquids SIL 3 and SIL 4 for chemoselective detection of amine gases on a quartz crystal microbalance. This detection of gaseous amines was achieved by nucleophilic aromatic addition reactions with super electrophilic SIL 3 or SIL 4 thin-coated on quartz chips. Starting with inexpensive reagents, functional SIL 3 and SIL 4 could be readily synthesized in two short steps with high isolated yield (81 and 77%, respectively). The QCM platform developed in this work is readily applicable and highly sensitive to low molecular weight amine gases: for propylamine gas at 10 Hz decrease in resonance frequency, the sensitivity of detection using SIL 4 was 5.4 ppb. This simple and convenient assembly of neutral ligands (e.g., 1a and 1b) with Li(+) ion to afford room temperature ionic liquids should be of great importance for a myriad of applications. To the best of our knowledge, no example to date of reports based on nucleophilic aromatic addition reactions demonstrating sensitive amine gas detection in solvate ionic liquids on a QCM has been reported. Furthermore, because of the high color intensity of the Meisenheimer complexes formed, our preliminary result showed that SIL 4 loaded on copier paper can be used not only as a portable amine gas sensor but also as a potential invisible ink that is only revealed by amine vapor.

  17. Luminescence quartz dating of lime mortars. A first research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, N; Mauz, B; Michael, C T

    2002-01-01

    Lime mortars mixed with sand are well suited for connecting structural materials, like stones and bricks, due to the mechanical properties this material exhibits. Their extensive use in architectural and decorative works during the last 4000 years motivated the introduction of the 'Luminescence clock' for age determination of mortars. The same principles as for quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of sediments were applied for age estimation of a mortar fragment removed from a Byzantine church monument dated by archaeological means to 1050-1100 years ago (the first half of the 10th century). The OSL from the quartz was monitored under blue light stimulation and UV detection, using a single-aliquot-regenerative-dose protocol. The quartz-OSL dating of the mortar resulted in 870 +/- 230 a. TL polymineral fine grain dating was also performed on a brick fragment which was connected to the mortar, resulting in a TL age of 1095 +/- 190 a.

  18. Dosimetric properties of natural quartz grains extracted from fired materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bluszcz, A.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes an examination of the dosimetric properties of natural quartz grains extracted from ancient fired materials. Eleven samples of different origin were tested for their TL and GLSL (green light stimulated luminescence) sensitivities within the mGy dose range. Very promising results...... were obtained showing the possibility of measuring the doses of around 10 mGy with 1% precision using GLSL or TL and using the single aliquot technique for natural quartz as a dosimeter. The lowest detectable dose was estimated to be lower than 500 mu Gy. The results obtained indicate that natural...... quartz grains from selected materials could be used for the dosimetry of environmental gamma radiation for the purposes of paleodosimetric dating methods as well as for accident dosimetry....

  19. Water weakening in experimentally deformed milky quartz single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunitz, H.; Thust, A.; Kilian, R.; Heilbronner, R.; Behrens, H.; Tarantola, A.; Fitz Gerald, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Natural single crystals of quartz have been experimentally deformed in two orientations: (1) normal to one prism-plane, (2) In O+ orientation at temperatures of 900 and 1000°C, pressures of 1.0 and 1.5 GPa, and strain rates of ~1 x 10-6s-1. The starting material is milky quartz, consisting of dry quartz (H2O contents of recycling of H2O between FI´s, dislocation generation at very small fluid inclusions, incorporation of structurally bound H into dislocation cores, and release of H2O from dislocations back into FI´s during recovery. Cracking and crack healing play an important role in the recycling process and imply a close interrelationship between brittle and crystal plastic deformation. The H2O weakening by this process is of a disequilibrium nature and thus depends on the amount of H2O available.

  20. Ductile Regime Single Point Diamond Turning of Quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, Deepak; Patten, John

    2011-01-01

    Quartz (fused silica) is one of the advanced engineered ceramic materials designed to operate in extreme environments. The mechanics of material removal in glass (Quartz) can be classified in two categories; brittle fracture and ductile plastic deformation. Good optical quality surfaces can be achieved by removing the material in a ductile manner. The strength, hardness and fracture toughness of the work piece material are the governing factors that control the extent of brittle fracture. The main goal of the subject research is to improve the surface quality of Quartz to be used as an optic device (mirrors and windows) via single point diamond turning (SPDT). Surface roughness (Ra) values of less than 50 nm without sub surface damage were obtained.

  1. New multiphase equation of state for polycrystalline quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettger, J.C.; Lyon, S.P.

    1990-10-01

    We have generated separate equations of state (EOS's) for the alpha quartz, coesite, and stishovite phases of polycrystalline quartz (SiO{sub 2}) using the computer program GRIZZLY. We also modified the program GRIZZLY to combine two single-phase EOS's for a given material into a single two-phase EOS via minimization of the Gibbs free energy. This new version of GRIZZLY has been used to generate a three-phase SESAME type EOS for polycrystalline quartz using the three EOS's mentioned above. All four of the EOS's produced for SiO{sub 2} are now available on request. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Periodic Error Compensation for Quartz MEMS Gyroscope Drift of INS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jianmao; Zhang Haipeng; Sun Junzhong

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the navigation accuracy of an inertial navigation system (INS), composed of quartz gyroscopes, the existing real-time compensation methods for periodic errors in quartz gyroscope drift and the periodic error term relationship between sampled original data and smoothed data are reviewed. On the base of the results, a new compensation method called using former period characteristics to compensate latter smoothness data (UFCL for short) method is proposed considering the INS working characteristics. This new method uses the original data without smoothing to work out an error conversion formula at the INS initial alignment time and then compensate the smoothed data errors by way of the formula at the navigation time. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that this method is able to cut down on computational time and raise the accuracy which makes it a better real-time compensation approach for periodic error terms of quartz micro electronic mechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope's zero drift.

  3. Properties and behavior of quartz for the silicon process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aasly, Kurt

    2008-07-01

    This PhD-thesis is a result of the study on important properties of quartz as a raw material for the metallurgical production of ferrosilicon and silicon metal. This includes defining mechanical properties important for the size reduction experienced during transport and storage and thermo-mechanical properties of quartz that is important for how the quartz reacts to the high temperatures experienced as it is charged on the furnace. Additionally, softening properties of quartz have been briefly discussed in some of the papers. Another important goal has been to test analytical and experimental methods for investigating the various properties. The investigations of important factors for the mechanical properties of ores and industrial minerals have been carried out as a literature study. The mining operation and transport from mine to smelter has been discussed and several factors that are significant for achieving best possible mechanical properties of the quartz have been identified. The most important factors are related to production in the mine and processing plant, which should be carefully planned to minimize the amount of blast-induced damage in the rock and thus achieve the best possible mechanical strength of the raw material. The amount of fines can be minimized by controlling the handling of the raw materials during the transport and storage. It is especially important to avoid high drops, both high single drops and accumulated height of all the drops in total. Investigations of the thermo-mechanical properties of quartz have been carried out by using different experimental and characterization methods. The petrographic investigations of the raw materials by polarized light microscopy have been important. Thermo-mechanical investigations have been high-temperature microthermometry and shock heating of quartz samples in an induction furnace with subsequent investigations of the heated material. The subsequent investigation included polarized- and

  4. Radioluminescence of synthetic quartz related to alkali ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, M., E-mail: m.martini@unimib.it [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Fasoli, M. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Galli, A. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fotonica e Nanostrutture, IFN-CNR (Italy); Villa, I. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Guibert, P. [IRAMAT-CRP2A (Institut de recherche sur les Archeomateriaux), UMR no. 5060, CNRS-Universite Bordeaux III, F-33607 Pessac (France)

    2012-04-15

    The radioluminescence (RL) of synthetic quartzes (GEMMA Quartz and Crystal Company) has been measured at room temperature. Some samples were treated by electrodiffusion ('sweeping') in order to change the concentrations of alkali ions, mainly Li{sup +} and Na{sup +}, which in quartz are known to be linked to Al ions, substitutional for Si ions. The RL emission spectra show evidence of a role of alkali ions in affecting some specific emissions. All the spectra could be analysed as composed of four bands in the blue and UV region. Specifically, the well known blue emission at around 470 nm was seen to be composed by two bands at 430 nm (2.86 eV) and at 485 nm (2.53 eV). Effects of irradiation, during the RL measurements, were clearly seen only in the 'Li swept in' sample, namely an increase in the 485 nm band intensity and a decrease in the 430 nm band one. The previously reported UV emission was detected at 355 nm (3.44 eV) in all the samples, being the most intense band in the 'swept out' sample. A further UV emission was detected at 315 nm (3.94 eV), more intense in untreated samples. Possible assignments of the detected emission bands are discussed in relation to the defects of quartz, specifically focusing on the Al centres that are most affected by sweeping procedures. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contribution to the understanding of relationships between defects in quartz and luminescence emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of charge compensators at substitutional Al sites in the optical properties of quartz. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence of the double nature of the 'blue emission' (around 470 nm).

  5. Chiral habit selection on nanostructured epitaxial quartz films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero-Genevrier, Adrián; Gich, Martí; Picas, Laura; Sanchez, Clément; Rodriguez-Carvajal, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the crystallization of enantiomorphically pure systems can be relevant to diverse fields such as the study of the origins of life or the purification of racemates. Here we report on polycrystalline epitaxial thin films of quartz on Si substrates displaying two distinct types of chiral habits that never coexist in the same film. We combine Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis and computer-assisted crystallographic calculations to make a detailed study of these habits of quartz. By estimating the surface energies of the observed crystallites we argue that the films are enantiomorphically pure and we briefly outline a possible mechanism to explain the habit and chiral selection in this system.

  6. Bonding energy of Sylgard on fused quartz: an experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Yeager, J. D.; Ramos, K. J.

    2015-02-01

    The bonding energy between the polymer Sylgard and fused quartz is determined experimentally using a miniature bulge test combined with three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC). Based on the experimental observation, Mindlin plate theory is used to compute the bonding energy (adhesive energy or surface energy) between the Sylgard and the fused quartz. The experimental results demonstrate that the combination of the miniature bulge test and the 3D-DIC provides a viable tool to directly measure interfacial and bonding properties.

  7. Pressure effect on the sensitivity of quartz Bourdon tube gauges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaniszlo, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    The sensitivity change for a commercial fused quartz Bourdon tube precision pressure gauge, due to a change in absolute pressure level, has been analytically computed and experimentally confirmed. The computed differential pressure error is 2.5% of full scale at a 100 atm absolute pressure level. The experimental method compared the fused quartz Bourdon tube gauge digital output to the results obtained from a nitrogen gas pressure system which had a high pressure, well-type mercury manometer as the differential pressure reference.

  8. Carbothermal Reduction of Quartz in Different Gas Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Zhang, Guangqing; Tang, Kai; Ostrovski, Oleg; Tronstad, Ragnar

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the influence of gas atmosphere on the synthesis of silicon carbide by carbothermal reduction of quartz. The quartz was crushed to Synthesis of silicon carbide in hydrogen was close to completion in 270 minutes at 1673 K (1400 °C), 140 minutes at 1773 K (1500 °C), and 70 minutes at 1873 K (1600 °C). Faster carbothermal reduction rate in hydrogen was attributed to the involvement of hydrogen in the reduction reactions by directly reducing silica and/or indirectly, by reacting with graphite to form methane as an intermediate reductant.

  9. ST Quartz Acoustic Wave Sensors with Sectional Guiding Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen McHale

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the effect of removing a section of guiding layer from the propagation paths of ST-quartz Love wave sensors; this offers the ease of fabrication of a polymer guiding layer whilst retaining the native surface of the quartz which may then be used for the attachment of a sensitizing layer. Data is presented for the rigid and viscous loading, which indicates a small reduction in mass sensitivity compared to a Love wave device. Biosensing capabilities of these discontinuous ‘sectional’ guiding layer devices are demonstrated using protein adsorption from solution.

  10. Applications of the quartz tuning fork in classical and superfluid hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Mantia Marco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a short review of the multitude of applications of the commercially produced quartz tuning fork in cryogenic fluid dynamics, using cold gaseous, normal liquid and superfluid 4He as working fluids with extraordinary, but well-known and tunable physical properties. While the central focus of this work is the use of the tuning fork as a detector of classical and quantum turbulence, we also report other studies and applications, mainly on cavitation, pressure-, thermo- and viscosimetry. Finally, we mention briefly our recent studies of the acoustic emission due to these high-Q oscillators and its effect on the characteristics of their resonance.

  11. Multiple critical velocities in oscillatory flow of superfluid 4He due to quartz tuning forks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoranzer, D.; Jackson, M. J.; Tsepelin, V.; Poole, M.; Woods, A. J.; Človečko, M.; Skrbek, L.

    2016-12-01

    We report recent investigations into the transition to turbulence in superfluid 4He, realized experimentally by measuring the drag forces acting on two custom-made quartz tuning forks with fundamental resonances at 6.5 kHz and 55.5 kHz, in the temperature range 10 mK to 2.17 K. In pure superfluid in the zero temperature limit, three distinct critical velocities were observed with both tuning forks. We discuss the significance of all critical velocities and associate the third critical velocity reported here with the development of large vortical structures in the flow, which thus starts to mimic turbulence in classical fluids. The interpretation of our results is directly linked to previous experimental work with oscillators such as tuning forks, grids, and vibrating wires, focusing on the behavior of purely superfluid 4He at very low temperatures.

  12. Nanocharacterization of soft biological samples in shear mode with quartz tuning fork probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Jorge; Gonzalez, Laura; Puig-Vidal, Manel

    2012-01-01

    Quartz tuning forks are extremely good resonators and their use is growing in scanning probe microscopy. Nevertheless, only a few studies on soft biological samples have been reported using these probes. In this work, we present the methodology to develop and use these nanosensors to properly work with biological samples. The working principles, fabrication and experimental setup are presented. The results in the nanocharacterization of different samples in different ambients are presented by using different working modes: amplitude modulation with and without the use of a Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) and frequency modulation. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria are imaged in nitrogen using amplitude modulation. Microcontact printed antibodies are imaged in buffer using amplitude modulation with a PLL. Finally, metastatic cells are imaged in air using frequency modulation.

  13. Nanocharacterization of Soft Biological Samples in Shear Mode with Quartz Tuning Fork Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Puig-Vidal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Quartz tuning forks are extremely good resonators and their use is growing in scanning probe microscopy. Nevertheless, only a few studies on soft biological samples have been reported using these probes. In this work, we present the methodology to develop and use these nanosensors to properly work with biological samples. The working principles, fabrication and experimental setup are presented. The results in the nanocharacterization of different samples in different ambients are presented by using different working modes: amplitude modulation with and without the use of a Phase-Locked Loop (PLL and frequency modulation. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria are imaged in nitrogen using amplitude modulation. Microcontact printed antibodies are imaged in buffer using amplitude modulation with a PLL. Finally, metastatic cells are imaged in air using frequency modulation.

  14. ELECTRICALLY FORCED THICKNESS-SHEAR VIBRATIONS OF QUARTZ PLATE WITH NONLINEAR COUPLING TO EXTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongxing Wu; Jiashi Yang; Jianke Du; Ji Wang

    2008-01-01

    We study electrically forced nonlinear thickness-shear vibrations of a quartz plate resonator with relatively large amplitude. It is shown that thickness-shear is nonlinearly coupled to extension due to the well-known Poynting effect in nonlinear elasticity. This coupling is relatively strong when the resonant frequency of the extensional mode is about twice the resonant frequency of the thickness-shear mode. This happens when the plate length/thickness ratio assumes certain values. With this nonlinear coupling, the thickness-shear motion is no longer sinusoidal. Coupling to extension also affects energy trapping which is related to device mounting. When damping is 0.01, nonlinear coupling causes a frequency shift of the order of 10-e which is not insignificant,and an amplitude change of the order of 10-8. The effects are expected to be stronger under real damping of 10-5 or larger. To avoid nonlinear coupling to extension, certain values of the aspect ratio of the plate should be avoided.

  15. Development of a Flow Injection Based High Frequency Dual Channel Quartz Crystal Microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jinxing; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Wenxiang; Ueda, Toshitsugu

    2017-05-16

    When the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is used in liquid for adsorption or desorption monitoring based bio- or chemical sensing applications, the frequency shift is not only determined by the surface mass change, but also by the change of liquid characteristics, such as density and viscosity, which are greatly affected by the liquid environmental temperature. A monolithic dual-channel QCM is designed and fabricated by arranging two QCM resonators on one single chip for cancelling the fluctuation induced by environmental factors. In actual applications, one QCM works as a specific sensor by modifying with functional membranes and the other acts as a reference, only measuring the liquid property. The dual-channel QCM is designed with an inverted-mesa structure, aiming to realize a high frequency miniaturized chip and suppress the frequency interference between the neighbored QCM resonators. The key problem of dual-channel QCMs is the interference between two channels, which is influenced by the distance of adjacent resonators. The diameter of the reference electrode has been designed into several values in order to find the optimal parameter. Experimental results demonstrated that the two QCMs could vibrate individually and the output frequency stability and drift can be greatly improved with the aid of the reference QCM.

  16. Silicon on Nothing Mems Electromechanical Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Durand, C; Ancey, P; Judong, F; Talbot, A; Quenouillere, R; Renaud, D; Borel, S; Florin, B; Buchaillot, L

    2008-01-01

    The very significant growth of the wireless communication industry has spawned tremendous interest in the development of high performances radio frequencies (RF) components. Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are good candidates to allow reconfigurable RF functions such as filters, oscillators or antennas. This paper will focus on the MEMS electromechanical resonators which show interesting performances to replace SAW filters or quartz reference oscillators, allowing smaller integrated functions with lower power consumption. The resonant frequency depends on the material properties, such as Young's modulus and density, and on the movable mechanical structure dimensions (beam length defined by photolithography). Thus, it is possible to obtain multi frequencies resonators on a wafer. The resonator performance (frequency, quality factor) strongly depends on the environment, like moisture or pressure, which imply the need for a vacuum package. This paper will present first resonator mechanisms and mechanical...

  17. Micro-machined resonator oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Dale R.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Bivens, Hugh M.; Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    1994-01-01

    A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a "telemetered sensor beacon" that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20-100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available.

  18. Scanning thermal microscopy based on a quartz tuning fork and a micro-thermocouple in active mode (2ω method)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bontempi, Alexia; Nguyen, Tran Phong; Salut, Roland; Thiery, Laurent; Teyssieux, Damien; Vairac, Pascal [FEMTO-ST Institute UMR 6174, Université de Franche-Comté, CNRS, ENSMM, UTBM, 15B Avenue des Montboucons, F-25030 Besançon (France)

    2016-06-15

    A novel probe for scanning thermal microscope using a micro-thermocouple probe placed on a Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF) is presented. Instead of using an external deflection with a cantilever beam for contact detection, an original combination of piezoelectric resonator and thermal probe is employed. Due to a non-contact photothermal excitation principle, the high quality factor of the QTF allows the probe-to-surface contact detection. Topographic and thermal scanning images obtained on a specific sample points out the interest of our system as an alternative to cantilevered resistive probe systems which are the most spread.

  19. Scanning thermal microscopy based on a quartz tuning fork and a micro-thermocouple in active mode (2ω method).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempi, Alexia; Nguyen, Tran Phong; Salut, Roland; Thiery, Laurent; Teyssieux, Damien; Vairac, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    A novel probe for scanning thermal microscope using a micro-thermocouple probe placed on a Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF) is presented. Instead of using an external deflection with a cantilever beam for contact detection, an original combination of piezoelectric resonator and thermal probe is employed. Due to a non-contact photothermal excitation principle, the high quality factor of the QTF allows the probe-to-surface contact detection. Topographic and thermal scanning images obtained on a specific sample points out the interest of our system as an alternative to cantilevered resistive probe systems which are the most spread.

  20. Research on the influence of transparent vacuum encapsulation quartz tuning fork on the photo-thermoelastic spectroscopy of acetylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhouqiang; Jia, Shuhai; Wang, Yonglin; Tang, Zhenhua; Wang, Fei

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a transparent vacuum-encapsulated quartz tuning fork (QTF) is proposed for the first time to improve the quality factor and sensitivity of QTF sensors. Increasing the vacuum considerably improved the quality factor of QTF, and the resonance frequency was also shifted to higher values to 10 Hz. Subsequently, the spectroscopy detection of acetylene gas using an exposed QTF and a transparent vacuum-encapsulated QTF was investigated. The sensitivity of the detection system improved in the presence of the transparent vacuum-sealed QTF. The current findings represent a gateway to subsequent research in photo-thermoelastic spectroscopy.

  1. Evaluation of trapping parameters of annealed natural quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Rui [College of Resources, Environment & Tourism, Capital Normal University, 100048 Beijing (China); Shisanling Seismic Station, Institute of Earthquake Science, CEA, 102200 Beijing (China); Wei, Ming-Jian, E-mail: weimj@cnu.edu.cn [College of Resources, Environment & Tourism, Capital Normal University, 100048 Beijing (China); Song, Bo [College of Resources, Environment & Tourism, Capital Normal University, 100048 Beijing (China); Beijing Jing Yuan School, 100040 Beijing (China); Zhang, Yan [College of Resources, Environment & Tourism, Capital Normal University, 100048 Beijing (China); School of TaiPingqiao, Nan Lu of West Railway Station, 100073 Beijing (China); Zhao, Qiu-Yue [Key Laboratory of Tourism and Resources Environment in Universities of Shandong, Taishan University, 271000 Tai’an (China); Pan, Bao-Lin; Li, Teng-Fei [College of Resources, Environment & Tourism, Capital Normal University, 100048 Beijing (China)

    2016-05-15

    The thermoluminescence (TL) trapping parameters of annealed quartz have been investigated. The apparent TL peaks observed at temperatures of 133 °C, 211 °C, 266 °C and 405 °C, respectively, were named Peak I, Peak II, Peak III and Peak IV. The T{sub m} − T{sub stop} method is applied to investigate the number of peaks and their positions, and to obtain the trap distributions in the quartz. Peak shape (PS), Hoogenstraaten method (Various Heating Rates Method, VHR), and Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution (CGCD) are used to evaluate the trapping parameters of the annealed quartz. The glow curve can be considered as a superposition of at least nine overlapping peaks. These peaks show up at 133 °C, 211 °C, 266 °C, 308 °C, 333 °C, 384 °C, 441 °C, 466 °C and 484 °C. The PS method can be only used in evaluating the parameters for Peaks I. The VHR method can be used in evaluating the trapping parameters for the first three peaks. CGCD method is complementary to obtaining parameters for the sub-peaks, and the thermal quenching correction with the Urbach’s method is necessary. The Urbach’s coefficient for the quartz is 30.03 kT{sub m}.

  2. Quartz-like Crystals Found in Planetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has, for the first time, detected tiny quartz-like crystals sprinkled in young planetary systems. The crystals, which are types of silica minerals called cristobalite and tridymite, can be seen close-up in the black-and-white insets (cristobalite is on the left, and tridymite on the right). The main picture is an artist's concept of a young star and its swirling disk of planet-forming materials. Cristobalite and tridymite are thought to be two of many planet ingredients. On Earth, they are normally found as tiny crystals in volcanic lava flows and meteorites from space. These minerals are both related to quartz. For example, if you were to heat the familiar quartz crystals often sold as mystical tokens, the quartz would transform into cristobalite and tridymite. Because cristobalite and tridymite require rapid heating and cooling to form, astronomers say they were most likely generated by shock waves traveling through the planetary disks. The insets are Scanning Electron Microscope pictures courtesy of George Rossman of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif.

  3. Application of quartz crystal microbalance technology in tribological investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The last fifteen years have seen considerable growth in the application of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to explore the tribological characteristics of materials. This article reviews some of the advances made in characterizing frictional properties of materials using the QCM, especially with di...

  4. Oxygen isotope equilibration systematics between quartz and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, A. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem, Israel); Beckinsale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The /sup 18/O//sup 16/O fractionation accompanying the hydrothermal crystallization of quartz from silicic acid at 265/sup 0/ to 465/sup 0/C has been studied in order to assess the influences of (a) rate of quartz formation, (b) the nature of the reaction mechanism, and (c) temperature. At 360/sup 0/ and 465/sup 0/C, there are no indications of rate effects influencing isotope partitioning, but at 265/sup 0/C (where fractionation factors show an unusally large scatter) the evidence is inconclusive in this respect. All reaction appears to occur through solution-precipitation processes, with the intermediate phases, cristobalite and silica K, giving identical fractionation factors (within experimental errors) to quartz samples formed at the same temperature. The temperature-dependence of fractionation in the range 265/sup 0/ to 465/sup 0/C is given by the equation 10/sup 3/ ln ..cap alpha..(SiO/sub 2/--H/sub 2/O) = 3.05 x 10/sup 6/T/sup -2/ - 2.09. The data are in good agreement with other experimental calibrations of the quartz-water fractionation.

  5. Absorbed dose evaluations in retrospective dosimetry: Methodological developments using quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailiff, I.K.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Correcher, V.

    2000-01-01

    Dose evaluation procedures based on luminescence techniques were applied to 50 quartz samples extracted from bricks that had been obtained from populated or partly populated settlements in Russia and Ukraine downwind of the Chernobyl NPP. Determinations of accrued dose in the range similar to 30...

  6. Equivalent dose determination using a quartz isothermal TL signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenberghe, D.A.G.; Jain, Mayank; Murray, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    We report on further developments in the use of an isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) signal for determining the equivalent dose (De) in unheated sedimentary quartz. In order to minimise sensitivity change during the first measurement, the ITL signal is measured at 270 °C following a preheat...

  7. Characterization of silica quartz as raw material in photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussaa, S. Anas; Kheloufi, A.; Zaourar, N. Boutarek; Kefaifi, A.; Kerkar, F.

    2016-07-01

    Raw materials are essential for the functioning of modern societies, and access to these raw materials is vital to the world economy. Sustainable development, both globally level, raises important new challenges associated with access and efficient use of raw materials. High purity quartz, is consider as a critical raw material and it is a rare commodity that only forms under geological conditions where a narrow set of chemical and physical parameters is fulfilled. When identified and following special beneficiation techniques, high purity quartz obtains very attractive prices and is applied in high technology sectors that currently are under rapid expansion such as photovoltaic solar cells, silicon metal - oxide wafers in the semiconductor industry and long distance optical fibers that are used in communication networks. Crystalline silicon remains the principal material for photovoltaic technology. Metallurgical silicon is produced industrially by the reduction of silica with carbon in an electric arc furnace at temperatures higher than 2000 °C in the hottest parts, by a reaction that can be written ideally as: SiO2 + 2C = Si + 2CO. The aim of this study has been to test experimental methods for investigating the various physical and chemical proprieties of Hoggar quartz with different techniques: X Ray Fluorescence, infra-red spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Optic Microscopy, Carbon Analyzer and Vickers Hardness. The results show finally that the quartz has got good result in purity but need enrichment for the photovoltaic application.

  8. Characterization of silica quartz as raw material in photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussaa, S. Anas, E-mail: sabiha.anas@gmail.com; Kheloufi, A.; Kefaifi, A.; Kerkar, F. [Division croissance cristalline et procédés métallurgiques CCPM Centre de recherche en technologie des semi-conducteurs pour l’énergétique (C.R.T.S.E) 02 Bd Frantz Fanon BP. 140 Alger 7 merveilles, Alger 16200 (Algeria); Zaourar, N. Boutarek [Laboratoire des technologies des matériaux, USTHB, B.P. 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, Alger, Algérie 16111 (Algeria)

    2016-07-25

    Raw materials are essential for the functioning of modern societies, and access to these raw materials is vital to the world economy. Sustainable development, both globally level, raises important new challenges associated with access and efficient use of raw materials. High purity quartz, is consider as a critical raw material and it is a rare commodity that only forms under geological conditions where a narrow set of chemical and physical parameters is fulfilled. When identified and following special beneficiation techniques, high purity quartz obtains very attractive prices and is applied in high technology sectors that currently are under rapid expansion such as photovoltaic solar cells, silicon metal - oxide wafers in the semiconductor industry and long distance optical fibers that are used in communication networks. Crystalline silicon remains the principal material for photovoltaic technology. Metallurgical silicon is produced industrially by the reduction of silica with carbon in an electric arc furnace at temperatures higher than 2000 °C in the hottest parts, by a reaction that can be written ideally as: SiO{sub 2} + 2C = Si + 2CO. The aim of this study has been to test experimental methods for investigating the various physical and chemical proprieties of Hoggar quartz with different techniques: X Ray Fluorescence, infra-red spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Optic Microscopy, Carbon Analyzer and Vickers Hardness. The results show finally that the quartz has got good result in purity but need enrichment for the photovoltaic application.

  9. Atomistic Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Shock Compressed Quartz

    CERN Document Server

    Farrow, Matthew R

    2011-01-01

    Atomistic non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations of shock wave compression of quartz have been performed using the so-called BKS semi-empirical potential of van Beest, Kramer and van Santen to construct the Hugoniot of quartz. Our scheme mimics the real world experimental set up by using a flyer-plate impactor to initiate the shock wave and is the first shock wave simulation that uses a geom- etry optimised system of a polar slab in a 3-dimensional system employing periodic boundary conditions. Our scheme also includes the relaxation of the surface dipole in the polar quartz slab which is an essential pre-requisite to a stable simulation. The original BKS potential is unsuited to shock wave calculations and so we propose a simple modification. With this modification, we find that our calculated Hugoniot is in good agreement with experimental shock wave data up to 25 GPa, but significantly diverges beyond this point. We conclude that our modified BKS potential is suitable for quartz under repres...

  10. Humidity scanning quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring setup for determination of sorption-desorption isotherms and rheological changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Björklund, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastianbjorklund@gmail.com; Kocherbitov, Vitaly [Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden); Biofilms—Research Center for Biointerfaces, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    A new method to determine water sorption-desorption isotherms with high resolution in the complete range of water activities (relative humidities) is presented. The method is based on quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The QCM-D is equipped with a humidity module in which the sample film is kept in air with controlled humidity. The experimental setup allows for continuous scanning of the relative humidity from either dry to humid conditions or vice versa. The amount of water sorbed or desorbed from the sample is determined from the resonance frequencies of the coated quartz sensor, via analysis of the overtone dependence. In addition, the method allows for characterization of hydration induced changes of the rheological properties from the dissipation data, which is closely connected to the viscoelasticity of the film. The accuracy of the humidity scanning setup is confirmed in control experiments. Sorption-desorption isotherms of pig gastric mucin and lysozyme, obtained by the new method, show good agreement with previous results. Finally, we show that the deposition technique used to coat the quartz sensor influences the QCM-D data and how this issue can be used to obtain further information on the effect of hydration. In particular, we demonstrate that spin-coating represents an attractive alternative to obtain sorption-desorption isotherms, while drop-coating provides additional information on changes of the rheological properties during hydration.

  11. Mechanical and ultrastructural evaluation of quartz post-endodontic reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majori, M; Bedini, R; Altamura, C; Filippini, P; Caiazza, S

    2004-01-01

    Aesthetics is a very important element in dentistry, but requires the support of good mechanical performance. Quartz fiber used in post-endodontic reconstruction is an aesthetic material, although there is little research concerning its mechanical properties. This study evaluated the retentive property of post-endodontic reconstruction, composed of a quartz fiber post. Different thermal stresses were applied in vitro to post-endodontic reconstructions, in order to simulate oral thermal action on post-system dental structure linkage. We chose 30 human extracted teeth, endodontically treated and restored, and then divided them into three groups of 10 teeth. A different treatment was applied to each group before mechanical testing: in the 1st group no treatment was done (controls); in the 2nd group teeth were subjected, in a climatic chamber, to 10 thermo-cycles between 4 degrees C and 58 degrees C; in the 3rd group teeth were stored in a saline solution at 37 degrees C for 48 hr. The teeth then underwent tensile shear stress tests at break point using a computerized electronic dynamometer. After mechanical testing, two teeth from each group were longitudinally half-sectioned, sputter-coated in gold and observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The extracted quartz fiber post of each tooth also underwent SEM observation. Mechanical test results demonstrated that thermal cyclic variations could affect bond stability between dental structures and posts in quartz fiber reconstructions, whereas their bond strength seemed unaffected by humidity increases. Quartz fiber post SEM observation demonstrated a homogeneous structure and a regular fiber disposition. Dental root canal morphology SEM images always showed a different thickness in the cement layer. (Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Biomechanics 2004; 2: 156-61).

  12. Phototoxic maculopathy induced by quartz infrared heat lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinhua; Xie, Ping; Hu, Zizhong; Zhang, Weiwei; Liang, Kang; Wang, Xiuying; Liu, Qinghuai

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: A large proportion of the output of quartz infrared heat lamps is emitted as infrared radiation (IR). Retinal damage induced by IR-A and visible light on arc welders has been reported. However, case reports of retinal damage caused by quartz infrared heat lamps are rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of phototoxic maculopathy induced by quartz infrared heat lamps. Patient concerns: We report a female with a 1-month history of progressive blurred vision and dysmorphopsia in her right eye after improper staring at the tubes of a quartz infrared heater. Her best corrected visual acuity of the right eye was 20/32. Optical coherence tomography revealed a defect from the ellipsoid zone to retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/Bruch's complex layer with a diameter of 360mmat its widest. P1 amplitudes in the two central concentric rings were reduced as assessed by multifocal electroretinography. Diagnoses: The patient was diagnosed with phototoxic maculopathy. Interventions: The patient was advised to cease all exposure to the infrared heater and was treated with peribulbar injections of methylprednisolone, oral Pancreatic Kininogenase, and oral Mecobalamin. Outcomes: Ten months later, her BCVA improved to 20/20. All examination results returned to normal except for a small residual defect in the interdigitation zone and RPE/Bruch's complex layer in her optical coherence tomography. Lessons: Light emitted by quartz infrared heat lamps may cause damage to the retina through photothermal and photochemical means. The public is insufficiently aware of the hazard potential of infrared heat lamps and other IR-A sources on human retina. PMID:28099337

  13. On the integration of technology readiness levels at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Beatriz R.; Mitchell, John Anthony

    2006-09-01

    Integrating technology readiness levels (TRL) into the management of engineering projects is critical to the mitigation of risk and improved customer/supplier communications. TRLs provide a common framework and language with which consistent comparisons of different technologies and approaches can be made. At Sandia National Laboratories, where technologies are developed, integrated and deployed into high consequence systems, the use of TRLs may be transformational. They are technology independent and span the full range of technology development including scientific and applied research, identification of customer requirements, modeling and simulation, identification of environments, testing and integration. With this report, we provide a reference set of definitions for TRLs and a brief history of TRLs at Sandia National Laboratories. We then propose and describe two approaches that may be used to integrate TRLs into the NW SMU business practices. In the first approach, we analyze how TRLs can be integrated within concurrent qualification as documented in TBP-100 [1]. In the second approach we take a look at the product realization process (PRP) as documented in TBP-PRP [2]. Both concurrent qualification and product realization are fundamental to the way weapons engineering work is conducted at this laboratory and the NWC (nuclear weapons complex) as a whole. Given the current structure and definitions laid out in the TBP-100 and TBP-PRP, we believe that integrating TRLs into concurrent qualification (TBP-100) rather than TBP-PRP is optimal. Finally, we note that our charter was to explore and develop ways of integrating TRLs into the NW SMU and therefore we do not significantly cover the development and history of TRLs. This work was executed under the auspices and direction of Sandia's Weapon Engineering Program. Please contact Gerry Sleefe, Deputy Program Director, for further information.

  14. Megaamps, Megagauss, and Megabars: Using the Sandia Z Machine to perform extreme material dynamics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Marcus

    2011-06-01

    Pulsed power devices are quite efficient at producing very large pulsed current and magnetic field densities. The corresponding Lorentz forces enable these devices to be used very effectively in material dynamics experiments. For the past decade, a large, interdisciplinary team at Sandia National Laboratories has been refining the Z Machine (20+ MA and 10+ MGauss) into a mature, robust, and precise platform for such studies in the multi-Mbar pressure regime. In particular, significant effort has gone into effectively coupling condensed matter theory, magneto-hydrodynamic simulation, and electromagnetic modeling to produce a fully self-consistent simulation capability able to very accurately predict the performance of the Z machine and various experimental load configurations. This capability has been instrumental in the ability to develop experimental platforms to routinely perform magnetic ramp compression experiments to over 4 Mbar, and magnetically accelerate flyer plates to over 40 km/s, creating over 20 Mbar impact pressures. Furthermore, a strong tie has been developed between the condensed matter theory and the experimental program. This coupling has been proven time and again to be extremely fruitful, with the capability of both theory and experiment being challenged and advanced through this close interrelationship. This talk will provide an overview of the material dynamics platform and discuss several examples of the use of Z to perform extreme material dynamics studies with unprecedented accuracy in support of basic science, planetary astrophysics, inertial confinement fusion, and the emerging field of high energy density laboratory physics. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-ACO4-94AL85000.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories support of the Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John Russell; Danneels, Jeffrey John

    2009-03-01

    Because of past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting there are now enormous radioactive waste problems in Iraq. These waste problems include destroyed nuclear facilities, uncharacterized radioactive wastes, liquid radioactive waste in underground tanks, wastes related to the production of yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, activated metals and contaminated metals that must be constantly guarded. Iraq currently lacks the trained personnel, regulatory and physical infrastructure to safely and securely manage these facilities and wastes. In 2005 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) agreed to organize an international cooperative program to assist Iraq with these issues. Soon after, the Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) was initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to support the IAEA and assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials. The Iraq NDs Program is providing support for the IAEA plus training, consultation and limited equipment to the GOI. The GOI owns the problems and will be responsible for implementation of the Iraq NDs Program. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is a part of the DOS's team implementing the Iraq NDs Program. This report documents Sandia's support of the Iraq NDs Program, which has developed into three principal work streams: (1) training and technical consultation; (2) introducing Iraqis to modern decommissioning and waste management practices; and (3) supporting the IAEA, as they assist the GOI. Examples of each of these work streams include: (1) presentation of a three-day training workshop on 'Practical Concepts for Safe Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste in Arid Settings;' (2) leading GOI representatives on a tour of two operating low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the U.S.; and (3) supporting the IAEA's Technical Meeting with the GOI from April 21

  16. Encuesta de helmintos intestinales en la provincia de Sandia (Departamento de Puno)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    En 290 sujetos de la provincia de Sandia, departamento de Puno, el examen microscópico de una muestra de heces proveniente de cada uno de ellos, mostró: 1. La incidencia del parasitismo intestinal a helmintos es considerablemente alta (91. 03% ) 2. La incidencia por especie de parásito que se ha determinado es la siguiente: 3. La incidencia por localidades, en el caso de Ancylostoma o Necator y de S. stercoralis, aumenta a medida que se desciende hacia la Selva. 4. La asociación de helmintos...

  17. Encuesta de helmintos intestinales en la provincia de Sandia (Departamento de Puno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraín Santillana

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available En 290 sujetos de la provincia de Sandia, departamento de Puno, el examen microscópico de una muestra de heces proveniente de cada uno de ellos, mostró: 1. La incidencia del parasitismo intestinal a helmintos es considerablemente alta (91. 03% 2. La incidencia por especie de parásito que se ha determinado es la siguiente: 3. La incidencia por localidades, en el caso de Ancylostoma o Necator y de S. stercoralis, aumenta a medida que se desciende hacia la Selva. 4. La asociación de helmintos más frecuente ha sido Ascaris lumbricoides-Trichocephalus trichiurus.

  18. Aeromagnetic map of the Sandia Mountain Wilderness, Bernalillo and Sandoval counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, D.C.; Cordell, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    During 1981 and 1982 the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mimes conducted field investigations to evaluate the mineral resource potential of the Sandia Mountain Wilderness, Bernalillo and Sandoval Counties, New Mexico. This report and map represent only the results of the aeromagnetic compilation from previous publications (U.S. geological Survey, 1975a,b,c). The wilderness encompasses 61 mi2 (37,232 acres) within the Cibola National Forest, but the map area is about 145 mi2 and includes areas adjacent to the wilderness boundary.

  19. Procedure to Determine Coefficients for the Sandia Array Performance Model (SAPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Bruce Hardison; Hansen, Clifford; Riley, Daniel; Robinson, Charles David; Pratt, Larry

    2016-06-01

    The Sandia Array Performance Model (SAPM), a semi-empirical model for predicting PV system power, has been in use for more than a decade. While several studies have presented comparisons of measurements and analysis results among laboratories, detailed procedures for determining model coefficients have not yet been published. Independent test laboratories must develop in-house procedures to determine SAPM coefficients, which contributes to uncertainty in the resulting models. Here we present a standard procedure for calibrating the SAPM using outdoor electrical and meteorological measurements. Analysis procedures are illustrated with data measured outdoors for a 36-cell silicon photovoltaic module.

  20. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/California recycling programs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrons, Ralph Jordan; Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2007-07-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management Department between May 2006 and March 2007, to evaluate the current site-wide recycling program for potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the program. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The SNL/NM Pollution Prevention (P2) staff worked with the SNL/CA P2 Staff to arrive at these options.

  1. Towards enhancing Sandia's capabilities in multiscale materials modeling and simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aidun, John Bahram; Fang, Huei Eliot; Barbour, John Charles; Westrich, Henry Roger; Chen, Er-Ping

    2004-01-01

    We report our conclusions in support of the FY 2003 Science and Technology Milestone ST03-3.5. The goal of the milestone was to develop a research plan for expanding Sandia's capabilities in materials modeling and simulation. From inquiries and discussion with technical staff during FY 2003 we conclude that it is premature to formulate the envisioned coordinated research plan. The more appropriate goal is to develop a set of computational tools for making scale transitions and accumulate experience with applying these tools to real test cases so as to enable us to attack each new problem with higher confidence of success.

  2. Large-Scale Field Study of Landfill Covers at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1998-09-01

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle `D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle `C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side with four alternative cover test plots designed for dry environments. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper presents an overview of the ongoing demonstration.

  3. Management of citation verification requests for multiple projects at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.S.

    1995-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories` (SNL) Technical Library is now responsible for providing citation verification management support for all references cited in technical reports issued by the Nuclear Waste Management (NWM) Program. This paper dancing how this process is managed for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization (YWP), Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) projects. Since technical reports are the main product of these projects, emphasis is placed on meeting the constantly evolving needs of these customers in a timely and cost-effective manner.

  4. Update of the Z Refurbishment project (ZR) at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moncayo, Carla; Bloomquist, Douglas D.; Weed, John Woodruff; Tabor, Debra Ann; Donovan, Guy Louis; McKee, G. Randall; Weinbrecht, Edward A.; Faturos, Thomas V.; McDaniel, Dillon Heirman

    2007-08-01

    Sandia's Z Refurbishment (ZR) Project formally began in February 2002 to increase the Z Accelerator's utilization by providing the capability to perform more shots, improve precision and pulse shape variability, and increase delivered current. A project update was provided at the 15th International Pulsed Power Conference in 2005. The Z facility was shut down in July 2006 for structural/infrastructure modifications and installation of new pulsed power systems. The refurbishment will conclude in 2007. This paper provides a status update of the project covering the past 2 years of activities.

  5. Optically stimulated exoelectron emission processes in quartz: comparison of experiment and theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagonis, V.; Ankjærgaard, Christina; Murray, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that it is possible to measure optically stimulated exoelectron emission (OSE) signals simultaneously with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from quartz samples. These experiments provide valuable information on the charge movement in quartz grains. Two...

  6. Properties and behavior of quartz for the silicon process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aasly, Kurt

    2008-07-01

    This PhD-thesis is a result of the study on important properties of quartz as a raw material for the metallurgical production of ferrosilicon and silicon metal. This includes defining mechanical properties important for the size reduction experienced during transport and storage and thermo-mechanical properties of quartz that is important for how the quartz reacts to the high temperatures experienced as it is charged on the furnace. Additionally, softening properties of quartz have been briefly discussed in some of the papers. Another important goal has been to test analytical and experimental methods for investigating the various properties. The investigations of important factors for the mechanical properties of ores and industrial minerals have been carried out as a literature study. The mining operation and transport from mine to smelter has been discussed and several factors that are significant for achieving best possible mechanical properties of the quartz have been identified. The most important factors are related to production in the mine and processing plant, which should be carefully planned to minimize the amount of blast-induced damage in the rock and thus achieve the best possible mechanical strength of the raw material. The amount of fines can be minimized by controlling the handling of the raw materials during the transport and storage. It is especially important to avoid high drops, both high single drops and accumulated height of all the drops in total. Investigations of the thermo-mechanical properties of quartz have been carried out by using different experimental and characterization methods. The petrographic investigations of the raw materials by polarized light microscopy have been important. Thermo-mechanical investigations have been high-temperature microthermometry and shock heating of quartz samples in an induction furnace with subsequent investigations of the heated material. The subsequent investigation included polarized- and

  7. The role of quartz in the origin of optical activity on earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evgenii, K; Wolfram, T

    2000-10-01

    A thorough analysis of literature data on distribution of right and left quartz in many locations on the surface of Earth indicates that quartz enantiomorph crystals are distributed in equal amounts in all locations. Therefore optically active quartz crystals of one or the other enantiomorph could not serve as the source of homochirality in the evolution of biosphere. Hence the calculation of a PVED based on published 'small excess of left quartz crystals' on Earth lacks a sound physical basis.

  8. Orientation of Planar Deformation Features (PDFs) in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhorst, F.; Deutsch, A.

    1993-01-01

    Differently oriented single crystal quartz was shocked experimentally at pressures of 20 to 32 GPa and pre-shock temperatures up to 630 C. Based on this systematic investigation, we can demonstrate that the orientation of planar deformation features in quartz is not only dependent on shock pressure but also on pre-shock temperature and shock direction. Moreover, the orientation of Planar Deformation Features (PDF's) is strongly influenced by the set-up in recovery experiments. PDF's in quartz are defined as optically recognizable, planar microstructures diagnostically produced by shock compression. PDF's differ from all kinds of microstructures found in volcanic environment and therefore, their presence is a primary criterion for recognizing impact craters and ejecta layers such as the K/T boundary. Because experiments have shown a pressure dependence of the orientation of PDF's, this property is used extensively for shock wave barometry in natural impact sites. However, the unreflected application of experimental results neglects that parameters such as pre-shock temperature, shock direction, or the experimental arrangement may influence the spatial distribution of PDF's. In order to test this assumption, shock experiments on single crystal quartz at pre-shock temperatures of 20, 275, 540, and 630 C, and with shock directions (1010) and (0001) were performed. Most of the recovery experiments were carried out by using a reverberation technique, whereas in only one experiment a single shock was produced (impedance method). In the former case 0.5 mm thin discs of single crystal quartz were used, in the latter a 15 mm thick cylinder. The orientation of PDF's was measured by means of a conventional universal stage and the results are given. Effects of the experimentation technique can be derived showing the orientation of PDF's in quartz shocked at 27.5 GPa. In comparison to the well defined peaks at (1012) found in samples from reverberation experiments, the impedance

  9. Data compression techniques for use with the SITAN (Sandia Terrain-Aided Navigation) algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellerhoff, J.R.; Creel, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    Data compression algorithms are becoming an important part of systems that use digital terrain elevation data (DTED) such as moving map display systems, terrain-following and terrain-avoidance systems, and terrain-aided navigation systems. This paper describes and compares two DTED compression techniques for use with the Sandia Terrain-Aided Navigation (SITAN) algorithm designed specifically for operation in a land vehicle. One technique uses the two-dimensional discrete cosine transformation (2-D DCT) combined with linear scaling; the other uses data decimation in the spatial domain, followed by a differential pulse code modulation operation on the decimated spatial data. These techniques are designed to minimize the DTED reconstruction error for a given compression ratio and are targeted for implementation in the Motorola 68000-based Sandia Aerospace Computer. This paper presents a description of the DTED and its use by the SITAN algorithm. Also, background information concerning the 2-D DCT is presented, followed by a description of the two data compression algorithms. Experimental results are presented which show the magnitude of reconstruction errors for various sets of DTED and various compression ratios. Finally, the effect of reconstruction errors on SITAN performance is presented. 11 refs., 35 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Pulsed Power: Sandia's Plans for the New Millenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    QUINTENZ,JEFFREY P.

    2000-07-20

    Pulsed power science and engineering activities at Sandia National Laboratories grew out of a programmatic need for intense radiation sources to advance capabilities in radiographic imaging and to create environments for testing and certifying the hardness of components and systems to radiation in hostile environments. By the early 1970s, scientists in laboratories around the world began utilizing pulsed power drivers with very short (10s of nanoseconds) pulse lengths for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments. In the United States, Defense Programs within the Department of Energy has sponsored this research. Recent progress in pulsed power, specifically fast-pulsed-power-driven z pinches, in creating temperatures relevant to ICF has been remarkable. Worldwide developments in pulsed power technologies and increased applications in both defense and industry are contrasted with ever increasing stress on research and development tiding. The current environment has prompted us at Sandia to evaluate our role in the continued development of pulsed power science and to consider options for the future. This presentation will highlight our recent progress and provide an overview of our plans as we begin the new millennium.

  11. Description of the Sandia National Laboratories science, technology & engineering metrics process.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Gretchen B.; Watkins, Randall D.; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Burns, Alan Richard; Oelschlaeger, Peter

    2010-04-01

    There has been a concerted effort since 2007 to establish a dashboard of metrics for the Science, Technology, and Engineering (ST&E) work at Sandia National Laboratories. These metrics are to provide a self assessment mechanism for the ST&E Strategic Management Unit (SMU) to complement external expert review and advice and various internal self assessment processes. The data and analysis will help ST&E Managers plan, implement, and track strategies and work in order to support the critical success factors of nurturing core science and enabling laboratory missions. The purpose of this SAND report is to provide a guide for those who want to understand the ST&E SMU metrics process. This report provides an overview of why the ST&E SMU wants a dashboard of metrics, some background on metrics for ST&E programs from existing literature and past Sandia metrics efforts, a summary of work completed to date, specifics on the portfolio of metrics that have been chosen and the implementation process that has been followed, and plans for the coming year to improve the ST&E SMU metrics process.

  12. A report on IPv6 deployment activities and issues at Sandia National Laboratories:FY2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolendino, Lawrence F.; Eldridge, John M.; Hu, Tan Chang; Maestas, Joseph H.

    2007-06-01

    Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) has been a mainstay of the both the Internet and corporate networks for delivering network packets to the desired destination. However, rapid proliferation of network appliances, evolution of corporate networks, and the expanding Internet has begun to stress the limitations of the protocol. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the replacement protocol that overcomes the constraints of IPv4. As the emerging Internet network protocol, SNL needs to prepare for its eventual deployment in international, national, customer, and local networks. Additionally, the United States Office of Management and Budget has mandated that IPv6 deployment in government network backbones occurs by 2008. This paper explores the readiness of the Sandia National Laboratories network backbone to support IPv6, the issues that must be addressed before a deployment begins, and recommends the next steps to take to comply with government mandates. The paper describes a joint work effort of the Sandia National Laboratories ASC WAN project team and members of the System Analysis & Trouble Resolution, the Communication & Network Systems, and Network System Design & Implementation Departments.

  13. Shear dominated failure in the 'hat' specimen from the 2013 Sandia Fracture Challenge.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this memo is to present a brief report of the progress achieved during FY2016 on the investigation of ductile failure in the 2013 Sandia Fracture Challenge specimen. It is a follow-up to the results of an experimental investigation presented in [1]. The experi- mental investigation was conducted with both the original steel A286 material used in the fracture challenge as well as with Al 7075-T651. The new results include further microscopy work for the steel A286 specimens, failure criterion veri cation for both materials and the implementation of a nite element model containing `material imperfections' to simulate the limit load in the response of the steel A286 specimens. Funding used to conduct the work presented here was provided by the ASC V&V program on validation of shear failure (Benjamin Reedlunn, PI) and from Sandia's LDRD program. This memo assumes that the reader is familiar with the material in [1].

  14. Sandia National Laboratories site-wide hydrogeologic characterization project calendar year 1992 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowson, D.; Gibson, J.D.; Haase, C.S.; Holt, R.; Hyndman, D.; Krumhansl, J.; Lauffer, F.; McCord, J.P.; McCord, J.T.; Neel, D. [and others

    1993-10-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization (SWHC) project has been implemented as part of the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Program to develop the regional hydrogeologic framework and baseline for the approximately 100 mi of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) and adjacent withdrawn public lands upon which SNL/NM has performed research and development activities. Additionally, the SWHC project will investigate and characterize generic hydrogeologic issues associated with the 172 ER sites owned by SNL/NM across its facilities on KAFB. As called for in the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit agreement between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as the permitter and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and SNL/NM as the permittees, an annual report is to be prepared by the SWHC project team. This document serves two primary purposes: (1) to identify and describe the conceptual framework for the hydrogeologic system underlying SNL/NM and (2) to describe characterization activities undertaken in the preceding year that add to our understanding (reduce our uncertainties) regarding the conceptual and quantitative hydrogeologic framework. This SWHC project annual report focuses primarily on purpose 1, providing a summary description of the current {open_quotes}state of knowledge{close_quotes} of the Sandia National Laboratories/Kirtland Air Force Base (SNL/KAFB) hydrogeologic setting.

  15. Mixed waste landfill corrective measures study final report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peace, Gerald (Jerry) L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-03-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill occupies 2.6 acres in the north-central portion of Technical Area 3 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The landfill accepted low-level radioactive and mixed waste from March 1959 to December 1988. This report represents the Corrective Measures Study that has been conducted for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The purpose of the study was to identify, develop, and evaluate corrective measures alternatives and recommend the corrective measure(s) to be taken at the site. Based upon detailed evaluation and risk assessment using guidance provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the New Mexico Environment Department, the U.S. Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories recommend that a vegetative soil cover be deployed as the preferred corrective measure for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The cover would be of sufficient thickness to store precipitation, minimize infiltration and deep percolation, support a healthy vegetative community, and perform with minimal maintenance by emulating the natural analogue ecosystem. There would be no intrusive remedial activities at the site and therefore no potential for exposure to the waste. This alternative poses minimal risk to site workers implementing institutional controls associated with long-term environmental monitoring as well as routine maintenance and surveillance of the site.

  16. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality of Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, November 1993--October 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.

    1995-08-01

    The Ecological Studies Team (EST) of ESH-20 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected samples from the stream within Sandia Canyon since the summer of 1990. These field studies gather water quality measurements and collect aquatic macroinvertebrates from permanent sampling sites. Reports by Bennett (1994) and Cross (1994) discuss previous EST aquatic studies in Sandia Canyon. This report updates and expands those findings. EST collected water quality data and aquatic macroinvertebrates at five permanent stations within the canyon from November 1993 through October 1994. The two upstream stations are located below outfalls that discharge industrial and sanitary waste effluent into the stream, thereby maintaining year-round flow. Some water quality parameters are different at the first three stations from those expected of natural streams in the area, indicating degraded water quality due to effluent discharges. The aquatic habitat at the upper stations has also been degraded by sedimentation and channelization. The macroinvertebrate communities at these stations are characterized by low diversities and unstable communities. In contrast, the two downstream stations appear to be in a zone of recovery, where water quality parameters more closely resemble those found in natural streams of the area. The two lower stations have increased macroinvertebrate diversity and stable communities, further indications of downstream water quality improvement.

  17. Sandia National Laboratories environmental fluid dynamics code. Marine Hydrokinetic Module User's Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Scott Carlton; Roberts, Jesse D

    2014-03-01

    This document describes the marine hydrokinetic (MHK) input file and subroutines for the Sandia National Laboratories Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (SNL-EFDC), which is a combined hydrodynamic, sediment transport, and water quality model based on the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) developed by John Hamrick [1], formerly sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and now maintained by Tetra Tech, Inc. SNL-EFDC has been previously enhanced with the incorporation of the SEDZLJ sediment dynamics model developed by Ziegler, Lick, and Jones [2-4]. SNL-EFDC has also been upgraded to more accurately simulate algae growth with specific application to optimizing biomass in an open-channel raceway for biofuels production [5]. A detailed description of the input file containing data describing the MHK device/array is provided, along with a description of the MHK FORTRAN routine. Both a theoretical description of the MHK dynamics as incorporated into SNL-EFDC and an explanation of the source code are provided. This user manual is meant to be used in conjunction with the original EFDC [6] and sediment dynamics SNL-EFDC manuals [7]. Through this document, the authors provide information for users who wish to model the effects of an MHK device (or array of devices) on a flow system with EFDC and who also seek a clear understanding of the source code, which is available from staff in the Water Power Technologies Department at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  18. 30 CFR 90.101 - Respirable dust standard when quartz is present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respirable dust standard when quartz is present... quartz is present. When the respirable dust in the mine atmosphere of the active workings to which a Part 90 miner is exposed contains more than 5 percent quartz, the operator shall continuously maintain...

  19. 30 CFR 71.101 - Respirable dust standard when quartz is present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respirable dust standard when quartz is present... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Dust Standards § 71.101 Respirable dust standard when quartz is present. When the respirable dust in the mine atmosphere of the active workings contains more than 5 percent quartz,...

  20. 30 CFR 70.101 - Respirable dust standard when quartz is present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respirable dust standard when quartz is present... Respirable dust standard when quartz is present. When the respirable dust in the mine atmosphere of the active workings contains more than 5 percent quartz, the operator shall continuously maintain the...

  1. Measurement of the dose in quartz in the presence of feldspar contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallinga, J.; Murray, A.S.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2002-01-01

    , without seriously affecting the quartz OSL signal. A single-aliquot regenerative-dose protocol is proposed which, in our samples, allows accurate measurement of the dose in quartz in the presence of feldspar contamination. The protocol also has potential use for quartz dose determination in mixed...

  2. Improved electronic interfaces for AT-cut quartz crystal microbalance sensors under variable damping and parallel capacitance conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau, A; García, J V; Jimenez, Y; Ferrari, V; Ferrari, M

    2008-07-01

    A new configuration of automatic capacitance compensation (ACC) technique based on an oscillatorlike working interface, which permits the tracking of the series resonant frequency and the monitoring of the motional resistance and the parallel capacitance of a thickness-shear mode quartz crystal microbalance sensor, is introduced. The new configuration permits an easier calibration of the system which, in principle, improves the accuracy. Experimental results are reported with 9 and 10 MHz crystals in liquids with different parallel capacitances which demonstrate the effectiveness of the capacitance compensation. Some frequency deviations from the exact series resonant frequency, measured by an impedance analyzer, are explained by the specific nonideal behavior of the circuit components. A tentative approach is proposed to solve this problem that is also common to previous ACC systems.

  3. Force-gradient-induced mechanical dissipation of quartz tuning fork force sensors used in atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellanos-Gomez, A. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada (C-III), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Agrait, N. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada (C-III), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Ciencia de Materiales ' Nicolas Cabrera' , Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Madrileno de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia, IMDEA-Nanociencia, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Rubio-Bollinger, G., E-mail: gabino.rubio@uam.es [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada (C-III), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Ciencia de Materiales ' Nicolas Cabrera' , Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    We have studied the dynamics of quartz tuning fork resonators used in atomic force microscopy taking into account the mechanical energy dissipation through the attachment of the tuning fork base. We find that the tuning fork resonator quality factor changes even in the case of a purely elastic sensor-sample interaction. This is due to the effective mechanical imbalance of the tuning fork prongs induced by the sensor-sample force gradient, which in turn has an impact on dissipation through the attachment of the resonator base. This effect may yield a measured dissipation signal that can be different from the one exclusively related to the dissipation between the sensor and the sample. We also find that there is a second-order term in addition to the linear relationship between the sensor-sample force gradient and the resonance frequency shift of the tuning fork that is significant even for force gradients usually present in atomic force microscopy, which are in the range of tens of N/m. -- Research Highlights: {yields} Dynamics of miniature tuning fork force sensors: a mechanical model. {yields} Non-linear relationship between resonance frequency shift and applied force gradient. {yields} An apparent mechanical dissipation channel opens even for purely conservative tip-sample interactions. {yields} qPlus tuning forks configuration has lower Q factor but straightforward dynamics.

  4. Multiplexed cancer biomarker detection using quartz-based photonic crystal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Sheng; Chaudhery, Vikram; Pokhriyal, Anusha; George, Sherine; Polans, James; Lu, Meng; Tan, Ruimin; Zangar, Richard C; Cunningham, Brian T

    2012-01-17

    A photonic crystal (PC) surface is demonstrated as a high-sensitivity platform for detection of a panel of 21 cancer biomarker antigens using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarray format. A quartz-based PC structure fabricated by nanoimprint lithography, selected for its low autofluorescence, supports two independent optical resonances that simultaneously enable enhancement of fluorescence detection of biomarkers and label-free quantification of the density of antibody capture spots. A detection instrument is demonstrated that supports fluorescence and label-free imaging modalities, with the ability to optimize the fluorescence enhancement factor on a pixel-by-pixel basis throughout the microarray using an angle-scanning approach for the excitation laser that automatically compensates for variability in surface chemistry density and capture spot density. Measurements show that the angle-scanning illumination approach reduces the coefficient of variation of replicate assays by 20-99% compared to ordinary fluorescence microscopy, thus supporting reduction in limits of detectable biomarker concentration. Using the PC resonance, biomarkers in mixed samples were detectable at the lowest concentrations tested (2.1-41 pg/mL), resulting in a three-log range of quantitative detection.

  5. A Multi-Fork Z-Axis Quartz Micromachined Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiying Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel multi-fork z-axis gyroscope is presented in this paper. Different from traditional quartz gyroscopes, the lateral electrodes of the sense beam can be arranged in simple patterns; as a result, the fabrication is simplified. High sensitivity is achieved by the multi-fork design. The working principles are introduced, while the finite element method (FEM is used to simulate the modal and sensitivity. A quartz fork is fabricated, and a prototype is assembled. Impedance testing shows that the drive frequency and sense frequency are similar to the simulations, and the quality factor is approximately 10,000 in air. The scale factor is measured to be 18.134 mV/(°/s and the nonlinearity is 0.40% in a full-scale input range of ±250 °/s.

  6. Deposition and alignment of cells on laser-patterned quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Sajan D., E-mail: sajan.george@manipal.edu [Centre for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Ladiwala, Uma, E-mail: brainwave@cbs.ac.in [UM-DAE Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences, Kalina Campus, Mumbai 400 098 (India); Thomas, John; Bankapur, Aseefhali; Chidangil, Santhosh [Centre for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Mathur, Deepak [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

    2014-06-01

    Linear grooves have been laser-written on quartz surfaces using ultrashort (50 fs) pulses of 800 nm light. Measurements of water contact angle indicate that laser patterning makes the quartz surface more hydrophilic. Fibroblast cells were cultured on such laser-written surfaces; they were observed to align preferentially along the direction of the laser written grooves (width ∼2 μm. Raman spectroscopy results indicate that there are no chemical changes induced in the surface upon our laser writing. Most unexpectedly, there are also no chemical changes induced in the cells that are spatially aligned along the laser-written grooves. Atomic force microscopy measurements confirm that our laser-writing induces dramatic enhancement of surface roughness along the grooves, and the cells appear to respond to this. Thus, cell alignment seems to be in response to physical cues rather than chemical signals.

  7. A multi-fork z-axis quartz micromachined gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lihui; Zhao, Ke; Sun, Yunan; Cui, Jianmin; Cui, Fang; Yang, Aiying

    2013-01-01

    A novel multi-fork z-axis gyroscope is presented in this paper. Different from traditional quartz gyroscopes, the lateral electrodes of the sense beam can be arranged in simple patterns; as a result, the fabrication is simplified. High sensitivity is achieved by the multi-fork design. The working principles are introduced, while the finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the modal and sensitivity. A quartz fork is fabricated, and a prototype is assembled. Impedance testing shows that the drive frequency and sense frequency are similar to the simulations, and the quality factor is approximately 10,000 in air. The scale factor is measured to be 18.134 mV/(°/s) and the nonlinearity is 0.40% in a full-scale input range of ±250 °/s.

  8. Annealing Effect on Photovoltages of Quartz Single Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Lu; ZHAO Song-Qing; ZHAO Kun

    2010-01-01

    @@ We investigate the photovoltaic effects of quartz single crystals annealed at high temperatures in ambient atmosphere.The open-circuit photovoltages and surface morphologies strongly depend on the heating treatments.When the annealing temperature increases from room temperature to 900℃,the rms roughness of quartz single crystal wafers increases from 0.207 to 1.011 nm.In addition,the photovoltages decrease from 1.994#V at room temperature to 1.551 μ V after treated at 500℃,and then increase up to 9.8μV after annealed at 900℃.The inner mechanism of the present photovoltaic response and surface morphologies is discussed.

  9. Impurity-related point defects and gamma-radiation response of massive quartz from the Borborema pegmatite province, in Brazil; Estudo da suscetibilidade ao escurecimento por radiacao gama de quartzo roseo-leitoso da provincia pegmatitica da Borborema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Milena Ribas de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mineral; Gonzaga, Raysa Sthefany Gomes; Guzzo, Pedro Luiz [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Minas; Barreto, Sandra de Brito [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Melgarejo, Joan Carles, E-mail: milaribas@hotmail.com, E-mail: raysagonzaga@hotmail.com, E-mail: pguzzo@ufpe.br, E-mail: sandrabrito@smart.net.br, E-mail: joan.carles.melgarejo.draper@ub.edu [Universidade de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Cristalografia, Mineralogia e Depositos Minerais

    2012-06-15

    This work has investigated the changes induced by {gamma}-radiation on impurity-related point defects in massive rose quartz from one deposit located at The Borborema Pegmatite Province (Northeast Region, in Brazil). Samples extracted from rose and colorless (milky) quartz blocks were irradiated with doses of {sup 60}Co, from 0.5 to 96 kGy. Point defects related to Al, Ge, Li and OH were measured by optical, infrared, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, prior and after irradiation. The contents of Al, Li, Ge, Fe, Ti and other impurities were measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry in quartz fragments exhibiting rose, pale-rose, and milky colorations. It was found that [AlO{sub 4}]{sup 0}, [AlO{sub 4}/H]{sup 0} and [GeO{sub 4}/Li]{sup 0} were generated by the dissociation of [AlO{sub 4}/Li]{sup 0} and [Li-OH] centers with doses as lower as 0.5 kGy. Above 8 kGy, the electron paramagnetic resonance signal related to [GeO{sub 4}/Li]{sup 0} decreases due to the intense mobility of Li species throughout the quartz lattice, giving rise to E'{sub 1} centers perturbed by Ge. The increase in [AlO{sub 4}]{sup 0} content with {gamma} doses and the consequent rise in the intensity of smoky color were similar for both rose and colorless quartz. Scanning electron microscopy carried out in insoluble residues obtained after chemical dissolution of each type of quartz revealed the presence of nanometric fibers only in rose specimens. These results suggested that the cause of rose color in massive quartz from Borborema Pegmatite Province is probably related to the presence of dumortierite inclusions. (author)

  10. Plasma polymerized allylamine coated quartz particles for humic acid removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Karyn L; Majewski, Peter

    2012-08-15

    Allylamine plasma polymerization has been used to modify the surface of quartz particles for humic acid removal via an inductively coupled rotating barrel plasma reactor. Plasma polymerized allylamine (ppAA) films were deposited at a power of 25 W, allylamine flow rate of 4.4 sccm and polymerization times of 5-60 min. The influence of polymerization time on surface chemistry was investigated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and electrokinetic analysis. Acid orange 7 adsorption/desorption quantified the number of surface amine groups. Humic acid removal via ppAA quartz particles was examined by varying pH, removal time, humic acid concentration, and particle mass. Increasing the polymerization time increased the concentration of amine groups on the ppAA quartz surface, thus also increasing the isoelectric point. ToF-SIMS demonstrated uniform distribution of amine groups across the particle surface. Greatest humic acid removal was observed at pH 5 due to electrostatic attraction. At higher pH values, for longer polymerization times, humic acid removal was also observed due to hydrogen bonding. Increasing the initial humic acid concentration increased the mass of humic acid removed, with longer polymerization times exhibiting the greatest increases. Plasma polymerization using a rotating plasma reactor has shown to be a successful method for modifying quartz particles for the removal of humic acid. Further development of the plasma polymerization process and investigation of additional contaminants will aid in the development of a low cost water treatment system.

  11. Quartz red TL SAR equivalent dose overestimation for Chinese loess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Z.P.; Murray, A.S.; Bailey, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    For the red TL of quartz extracted from Chinese loess, the single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) procedure overestimates the known laboratory doses in dose recovery test. The overestimation is the result of the first heating during the measurement of natural TL signal causing a sensitivity...... of red TL, which is found to be more than 100 Gy. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Evaluation of the approach to respirable quartz exposure control in U.S. coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Gerald J

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposure to high levels of respirable quartz can result in respiratory and other diseases in humans. The Mine Safety and Health Adminstration (MSHA) regulates exposure to respirable quartz in coal mines indirectly through reductions in the respirable coal mine dust exposure limit based on the content of quartz in the airborne respirable dust. This reduction is implemented when the quartz content of airborne respirable dust exceeds 5% by weight. The intent of this dust standard reduction is to restrict miners' exposure to respirable quartz to a time-weighted average concentration of 100 μg/m(3). The effectiveness of this indirect approach to control quartz exposure was evaluated by analyzing respirable dust samples collected by MSHA inspectors from 1995 through 2008. The performance of the current regulatory approach was found to be lacking due to the use of a variable property-quartz content in airborne dust-to establish a standard for subsequent exposures. In one situation, 11.7% (4370/37,346) of samples that were below the applicable respirable coal mine dust exposure limit exceeded 100 μg/m(3) quartz. In a second situation, 4.4% (895/20,560) of samples with 5% or less quartz content in the airborne respirable dust exceeded 100 μg/m(3) quartz. In these two situations, the samples exceeding 100 μg/m(3) quartz were not subject to any potential compliance action. Therefore, the current respirable quartz exposure control approach does not reliably maintain miner exposure below 100 μg/m(3) quartz. A separate and specific respirable quartz exposure standard may improve control of coal miners' occupational exposure to respirable quartz.

  13. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for MicroFab and SiFab facilities at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, Morgan Evan

    2011-12-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the MicroFab and SiFab facilities at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico in Fiscal Year 2011. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to provide recommendations to assist organizations in reducing the generation of waste and improving the efficiency of their processes and procedures. This report contains a summary of the information collected, the analyses performed, and recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories Environmental Management System (EMS) and Pollution Prevention (P2) staff will continue to work with the organizations to implement the recommendations.

  14. A user`s guide to SABLE 2.0: The Sandia Automated Boolean Logic Evaluation software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, K.M.; Wyss, G.D.; Daniel, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Risk Assessment and Systems Modeling Dept.

    1996-04-01

    This document is a reference guide for the Sandia Automated Boolean Logic Evaluation software (SABLE) version 2.0 developed at Sandia National Laboratories. SABLE 2.0 is designed to solve and quantify fault trees on IBM-compatible personal computers using the Microsoft Windows operating environment. SABLE 2.0 consists of a Windows user interface combined with a fault tree solution engine that is derived from the well-known SETS fault tree analysis code. This manual explains the fundamentals of solving fault trees and shows how to use the Windows SABLE 2.0 interface to specify a problem, solve the problem, and view the output.

  15. Review of the Sandia National Laboratories -- Albuquerque, New Mexico DOE/DP Critical Skills Development Programs FY '02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CLARK, KATHERINE SUE

    2003-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a portfolio of programs to address the critical skills needs of the DP labs, as identified by the 1999 Chiles Commission Report. The goals are to attract and retain the best and the brightest students and transition them into Sandia--and DP Complex--employees. The US Department of Energy/Defense Programs University Partnerships funded seven laboratory critical skills development programs in FY02. This report provides a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of these programs and their status.

  16. Environmental assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico offsite transportation of low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company. SNL/NM is located on land owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) within the boundaries of the Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The major responsibilities of SNL/NM are the support of national security and energy projects. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is generated by some of the activities performed at SNL/NM in support of the DOE. This report describes potential environmental effects of the shipments of low-level radioactive wastes to other sites.

  17. Review of Sandia National Laboratories - Albuquerque New Mexico DOE/DP Critical Skills Development Progrmas FY04.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorman, Anna K; Wilson, Dominique; CLARK, KATHERINE

    2005-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a portfolio of programs to address the critical skills needs of the DP labs, as identified by the 1999 Chiles Commission Report. The goals are to attract and retain the best and the brightest students and transition them into Sandia - and DP Complex - employees. The US Department of Energy/Defense Programs University Partnerships funded ten laboratory critical skills development programs in FY04. This report provides a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of these programs and their status. 3

  18. Silicon compounds in solution during bacterial degradation of quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakyan, Z.A.; Belkanova, N.P.; Karavayko, G.I.; Piskunov, V.P.

    A study was made of the form of silicon compounds in solution in the following systems: distilled water-exopolysaccharides of Bacillus mucilaginosus-monomeric silica; distilled water-suspension of B. mucilaginosus cells-quartz; culture fluids-growing B. mucilaginosus or Thiobacillus thioparus cultures-quartz. In control variants, which contained no exopolysaccharides or bacteria, all of the silicon in solution is demonstrable with the reaction with molybdic acid in the form of monosilicic acid and, perhaps, its lower oligomers. The presence of exopolysaccharides or bacteria leads to the appearance of three forms of silicon compounds: monomeric, polymeric as demonstrable by reaction with molybdic acid after alkaline hydrolysis, and bound, which is demonstrable only by the sintering method. The pH, concentrations of exopolysaccharides and silicon are factors that control the proportion of these forms of silica in the systems studied with exopolysaccharides and resting cells. An increase in the concentration of polysaccharides in the system, as well as changes in medium reaction in the alkaline direction, shift equilibrium toward the formation of the bound form of silica. The mechanism of microbiological degradation of quartz and the formation of silicon compounds is discussed.

  19. Improved electron probe microanalysis of trace elements in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, John J.; Lowers, Heather; Rusk, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    Quartz occurs in a wide range of geologic environments throughout the Earth's crust. The concentration and distribution of trace elements in quartz provide information such as temperature and other physical conditions of formation. Trace element analyses with modern electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) instruments can achieve 99% confidence detection of ~100 ppm with fairly minimal effort for many elements in samples of low to moderate average atomic number such as many common oxides and silicates. However, trace element measurements below 100 ppm in many materials are limited, not only by the precision of the background measurement, but also by the accuracy with which background levels are determined. A new "blank" correction algorithm has been developed and tested on both Cameca and JEOL instruments, which applies a quantitative correction to the emitted X-ray intensities during the iteration of the sample matrix correction based on a zero level (or known trace) abundance calibration standard. This iterated blank correction, when combined with improved background fit models, and an "aggregate" intensity calculation utilizing multiple spectrometer intensities in software for greater geometric efficiency, yields a detection limit of 2 to 3 ppm for Ti and 6 to 7 ppm for Al in quartz at 99% t-test confidence with similar levels for absolute accuracy.

  20. Characterization of hydrothermal green quartz produced by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enokihara, Cyro T.; Rela, Paulo R., E-mail: cteiti@ipen.br, E-mail: prela06@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Schultz-Güttler, Rainer A., E-mail: rainersgut@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias

    2015-07-01

    A specific variety of quartz showing a green color in nature or induced artificially by radiation gamma ({sup 60}Co) is quite rare. Only two occurrences are known today, where this type of quartz can be found: Canada, at the Thunder Bay Amethyst Mine, Ontario and Brazil, at widely scattered geode occurrences along a 600 km stretch from Quarai at Brazils southern most tip to Uberlandia in Minas Gerais. These two occurrences have been formed by strong hydrothermal activities.That way much quartz crystals showed a very fast growth history facilitating the formation of growth defects (twinning, small angle tilting, mosaic growth, striations) and the uptake of water in form of micro inclusions, molecular water, silanol (Si-OH) and OH. In the present work the material analyzed is from hydrothermal regimes found in intrusions of basaltic rocks located in the Rio Grande do Sul state. To characterize these materials, colored green by gamma rays, analyses by ICP, electron microscopy, water loss techniques and UV-VIS or NIR-FTIR spectroscopic measurements have been made. Silanol complexes are formed, which by radiation due to gamma rays form the color center NBOHC (Non-bonding Oxygen Hole Center), showing absorption between 590 to 620 nm, responsible for the green color. The water content with up to 3200 ppm by weight exceeds the amount of charge balancing cations (Fe, Al, Li). There is no correlation between water content and cations as in other color varieties. (author)

  1. Thermally actuated resonant silicon crystal nanobalances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjam, Arash

    As the potential emerging technology for next generation integrated resonant sensors and frequency references as well as electronic filters, micro-electro-mechanical resonators have attracted a lot of attention over the past decade. As a result, a wide variety of high frequency micro/nanoscale electromechanical resonators have recently been presented. MEMS resonators, as low-cost highly integrated and ultra-sensitive mass sensors, can potentially provide new opportunities and unprecedented capabilities in the area of mass sensing. Such devices can provide orders of magnitude higher mass sensitivity and resolution compared to Film Bulk Acoustic resonators (FBAR) or the conventional quartz and Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) resonators due to their much smaller sizes and can be batch-fabricated and utilized in highly integrated large arrays at a very low cost. In this research, comprehensive experimental studies on the performance and durability of thermally actuated micromechanical resonant sensors with frequencies up to tens of MHz have been performed. The suitability and robustness of the devices have been demonstrated for mass sensing applications related to air-borne particles and organic gases. In addition, due to the internal thermo-electro-mechanical interactions, the active resonators can turn some of the consumed electronic power back into the mechanical structure and compensate for the mechanical losses. Therefore, such resonators can provide self-sustained-oscillation without the need for any electronic circuitry. This unique property has been deployed to demonstrate a prototype self-sustained sensor for air-borne particle monitoring. I have managed to overcome one of the obstacles for MEMS resonators, which is their relatively poor temperature stability. This is a major drawback when compared with the conventional quartz crystals. A significant decrease of the large negative TCF for the resonators has been attained by doping the devices with a high

  2. Experimental deformation in sandstone, carbonates and quartz aggregate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Cecilia See Nga [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The first part of my thesis is mainly focused on the effect of grain size distribution on compaction localization in porous sandstone. To identify the microstructural parameters that influence compaction band formation, I conducted a systematic study of mechanical deformation, failure mode and microstructural evolution in Bleurswiller and Boise sandstones, of similar porosity (~25%) and mineralogy but different sorting. Discrete compaction bands were observed to develop over a wide range of pressure in the Bleurswiller sandstone that has a relatively uniform grain size distribution. In contrast, compaction localization was not observed in the poorly sorted Boise sandstone. My results demonstrate that grain size distribution exerts important influence on compaction band development, in agreement with recently published data from Valley of Fire and Buckskin Gulch, as well as numerical studies. The second part aimed to improve current knowledge on inelastic behavior, failure mode and brittle-ductile transition in another sedimentary rock, porous carbonates. A micritic Tavel (porosity of ~13%) and an allochemical Indiana (~18%) limestones were deformed under compaction in wet and dry conditions. At lower confining pressures, shear localization occurred in brittle faulting regime. Through transitional regime, the deformation switched to cataclastic flow regime at higher confining pressure. Specifically in the cataclastic regime, the (dry and wet) Tavel and dry Indiana failed by distributed cataclastic flow, while in contrast, wet Indiana failed as compaction localization. My results demonstrate that different failure modes and mechanical behaviors under different deformation regimes and water saturation are fundamental prior to any geophysical application in porous carbonates. The third part aimed to focus on investigating compaction on quartz aggregate starting at low (MPa) using X-ray diffraction. We report the diffraction peak evolution of quartz with increasing

  3. Amplifier Module for 260-GHz Band Using Quartz Waveguide Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Fung, King Man; Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Peralta, Alejandro; Soria, Mary M.; Pukala, David M.; Sin, Seth; Samoska, Lorene A.; Sarkozy, Stephen; Lai, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Packaging of MMIC LNA (monolithic microwave integrated circuit low-noise amplifier) chips at frequencies over 200 GHz has always been problematic due to the high loss in the transition between the MMIC chip and the waveguide medium in which the chip will typically be used. In addition, above 200 GHz, wire-bond inductance between the LNA and the waveguide can severely limit the RF matching and bandwidth of the final waveguide amplifier module. This work resulted in the development of a low-loss quartz waveguide transition that includes a capacitive transmission line between the MMIC and the waveguide probe element. This capacitive transmission line tunes out the wirebond inductance (where the wire-bond is required to bond between the MMIC and the probe element). This inductance can severely limit the RF matching and bandwidth of the final waveguide amplifier module. The amplifier module consists of a quartz E-plane waveguide probe transition, a short capacitive tuning element, a short wire-bond to the MMIC, and the MMIC LNA. The output structure is similar, with a short wire-bond at the output of the MMIC, a quartz E-plane waveguide probe transition, and the output waveguide. The quartz probe element is made of 3-mil quartz, which is the thinnest commercially available material. The waveguide band used is WR4, from 170 to 260 GHz. This new transition and block design is an improvement over prior art because it provides for better RF matching, and will likely yield lower loss and better noise figure. The development of high-performance, low-noise amplifiers in the 180-to- 700-GHz range has applications for future earth science and planetary instruments with low power and volume, and astrophysics array instruments for molecular spectroscopy. This frequency band, while suitable for homeland security and commercial applications (such as millimeter-wave imaging, hidden weapons detection, crowd scanning, airport security, and communications), also has applications to

  4. Creep of quartz by dislocation and grain boundary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, J. I.; Holyoke, C. W., III; Kronenberg, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Wet polycrystalline quartz aggregates deformed at temperatures T of 600°-900°C and strain rates of 10-4-10-6 s-1 at a confining pressure Pc of 1.5 GPa exhibit plasticity at low T, governed by dislocation glide and limited recovery, and grain size-sensitive creep at high T, governed by diffusion and sliding at grain boundaries. Quartz aggregates were HIP-synthesized, subjecting natural milky quartz powder to T=900°C and Pc=1.5 GPa, and grain sizes (2 to 25 mm) were varied by annealing at these conditions for up to 10 days. Infrared absorption spectra exhibit a broad OH band at 3400 cm-1 due to molecular water inclusions with a calculated OH content (~4000 ppm, H/106Si) that is unchanged by deformation. Rate-stepping experiments reveal different stress-strain rate functions at different temperatures and grain sizes, which correspond to differing stress-temperature sensitivities. At 600-700°C and grain sizes of 5-10 mm, flow law parameters compare favorably with those for basal plasticity and dislocation creep of wet quartzites (effective stress exponents n of 3 to 6 and activation enthalpy H* ~150 kJ/mol). Deformed samples show undulatory extinction, limited recrystallization, and c-axis maxima parallel to the shortening direction. Similarly fine-grained samples deformed at 800°-900°C exhibit flow parameters n=1.3-2.0 and H*=135-200 kJ/mol corresponding to grain size-sensitive Newtonian creep. Deformed samples show some undulatory extinction and grain sizes change by recrystallization; however, grain boundary deformation processes are indicated by the low value of n. Our experimental results for grain size-sensitive creep can be compared with models of grain boundary diffusion and grain boundary sliding using measured rates of silicon grain boundary diffusion. While many quartz mylonites show microstructural and textural evidence for dislocation creep, results for grain size-sensitive creep may apply to very fine-grained (<10 mm) quartz mylonites.

  5. An Advanced Micromachined Package for the Quartz Disk Resonant Gyroscope Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of a fully packaged microelectromechanical (MEMS) gyroscope with a 7 milliarcsecond pointing...

  6. Mineralogy, morphology, and textural relationships in coatings on quartz grains in sediments in a quartz-sand aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shouliang; Kent, Douglas B; Elbert, David C; Shi, Zhi; Davis, James A; Veblen, David R

    2011-06-01

    Mineralogical studies of coatings on quartz grains and bulk sediments from an aquifer on Western Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA were carried out using a variety of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Previous studies demonstrated that coatings on quartz grains control the adsorption properties of these sediments. Samples for TEM characterization were made by a gentle mechanical grinding method and focused ion beam (FIB) milling. The former method can make abundant electron-transparent coating assemblages for comprehensive and quantitative X-ray analysis and the latter technique protects the coating texture from being destroyed. Characterization of the samples from both a pristine area and an area heavily impacted by wastewater discharge shows similar coating textures and chemical compositions. Major constituents of the coating include Al-substituted goethite and illite/chlorite clays. Goethite is aggregated into well-crystallized domains through oriented attachment resulting in increased porosity. Illite/chlorite clays with various chemical compositions were observed to be mixed with goethite aggregates and aligned sub-parallel to the associated quartz surface. The uniform spatial distribution of wastewater-derived phosphorus throughout the coating from the wastewater-contaminated site suggests that all of the coating constituents, including those adjacent to the quartz surface, are accessible to groundwater solutes. Both TEM characterization and chemical extraction results indicate there is a significantly greater amount of amorphous iron oxide in samples from wastewater discharge area compared to those from the pristine region, which might reflect the impact of redox cycling of iron under the wastewater-discharge area. Coating compositions are consistent with the moderate metal and oxy-metalloid adsorption capacities, low but significant cation exchange capacities, and control of iron(III) solubility by goethite observed in reactive transport

  7. Carbon in intimate contact with quartz reduces the biological activity of crystalline silica dusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiazza, Mara; Tomatis, Maura; Doublier, Sophie; Grendene, Francesca; Gazzano, Elena; Ghigo, Dario; Fubini, Bice

    2013-01-18

    To evaluate the effect of carbonaceous materials on the pathogenic activity of quartz dusts, mixtures of carbon soot (1 and 10%) and quartz (Min-U-Sil) were prepared and then milled so to attain an intimate association of carbon and the quartz surface. Both cellular and cell-free tests show that carbon associated to quartz completely inhibits the typical free radical generation of quartz dusts (through Fenton activity and homolytic cleavage of a C-H bond) and suppresses the oxidative stress and inflammation induced by quartz alone on MH-S murine macrophage cells (lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide release, and tumor necrosis factor-α synthesis). The cytotoxic response to quartz is also largely reduced. An extremely pure quartz milled with 10% of soot showed inactivating effects on the adverse reactions to quartz similar to Min-U-Sil quartz. None of these effects takes place when the same experiments are carried out with mechanically mixed samples, which suggests that carbon acts not just as a radical quencher but because of its association to the quartz surface.

  8. Visualization on supercomputing platform level II ASC milestone (3537-1B) results from Sandia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geveci, Berk (Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY); Fabian, Nathan; Marion, Patrick (Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY); Moreland, Kenneth D.

    2010-09-01

    This report provides documentation for the completion of the Sandia portion of the ASC Level II Visualization on the platform milestone. This ASC Level II milestone is a joint milestone between Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratories. This milestone contains functionality required for performing visualization directly on a supercomputing platform, which is necessary for peta-scale visualization. Sandia's contribution concerns in-situ visualization, running a visualization in tandem with a solver. Visualization and analysis of petascale data is limited by several factors which must be addressed as ACES delivers the Cielo platform. Two primary difficulties are: (1) Performance of interactive rendering, which is most computationally intensive portion of the visualization process. For terascale platforms, commodity clusters with graphics processors(GPUs) have been used for interactive rendering. For petascale platforms, visualization and rendering may be able to run efficiently on the supercomputer platform itself. (2) I/O bandwidth, which limits how much information can be written to disk. If we simply analyze the sparse information that is saved to disk we miss the opportunity to analyze the rich information produced every timestep by the simulation. For the first issue, we are pursuing in-situ analysis, in which simulations are coupled directly with analysis libraries at runtime. This milestone will evaluate the visualization and rendering performance of current and next generation supercomputers in contrast to GPU-based visualization clusters, and evaluate the performance of common analysis libraries coupled with the simulation that analyze and write data to disk during a running simulation. This milestone will explore, evaluate and advance the maturity level of these technologies and their applicability to problems of interest to the ASC program. Scientific simulation on parallel supercomputers is traditionally performed in four

  9. Plasmon resonance optical tuning based on photosensitive composite structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilardi, Giovanni; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a numerical investigation of a periodic metallic structure sandwiched between two quartz plates. The volume comprised between the quartz plates and the metallic structure is infiltrated by a mixture of azo-dye-doped liquid crystal. The exposure to a low power visible light beam...... modifies the azo dye molecular configuration, thus allowing the wavelength shift of the resonance of the system. The wavelength shift depends on the geometry of the periodic structure and it also depends on the intensity of the visible light beam....

  10. Synergetic Surface and Chemical Durability Study of the Aesthetically Enhanced Natural Quartz by Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Rakesh K.; Rout, Prajna P.; Singh, Saroj K.; Mishra, Barada K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.

    2017-03-01

    The change in surface behavior of natural quartz stone before and after heat treatment with metal oxides such as: cobalt oxide (Co3O4) and copper oxide (Cu2O) under vacuum and open atmosphere has been investigated. The surface feature, bulk density and hardness value of quartz changed after heat treatment, converting to a high value product. Difference in crystallinity of quartz, pre- and post-heat treatment was obtained through X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. The electron probe microanalysis results clearly explicated the diffusion of metal ion in quartz matrix exposed under vacuum atmosphere but as coating on the surface under open atmosphere. The structural transformation of quartz after heat treatment has been observed from the XRD data and well corroborated with the nanoindentation results. Durability of such quartz to chemical hazardous environment was observed. Thus, this communication demonstrates the change in physical and chemical characteristics of natural quartz stone after heat treatment under different atmosphere.

  11. Synergetic Surface and Chemical Durability Study of the Aesthetically Enhanced Natural Quartz by Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Rakesh K.; Rout, Prajna P.; Singh, Saroj K.; Mishra, Barada K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.

    2017-01-01

    The change in surface behavior of natural quartz stone before and after heat treatment with metal oxides such as: cobalt oxide (Co3O4) and copper oxide (Cu2O) under vacuum and open atmosphere has been investigated. The surface feature, bulk density and hardness value of quartz changed after heat treatment, converting to a high value product. Difference in crystallinity of quartz, pre- and post-heat treatment was obtained through X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. The electron probe microanalysis results clearly explicated the diffusion of metal ion in quartz matrix exposed under vacuum atmosphere but as coating on the surface under open atmosphere. The structural transformation of quartz after heat treatment has been observed from the XRD data and well corroborated with the nanoindentation results. Durability of such quartz to chemical hazardous environment was observed. Thus, this communication demonstrates the change in physical and chemical characteristics of natural quartz stone after heat treatment under different atmosphere.

  12. Raman Spectrum Study on Quartz Exsolution in Omphacite of Eclogite and Its Tectonic Significances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lu; Jin Zhenmin; He Mouchun

    2003-01-01

    The studies on ultra-microstructure characteristics of quartz exsolution in eclogite and coesite in UHP eclogite of several localities are done with the appliance of laser Raman spectroscopy and Ustage. Research results show that the phase transformation of coesite-quartz in garnet and/or omphacite is a continuous process. Topological relationship is present between quartz exsolution in omphacite and its host mineral which shows orientations of two long axes of quartz exsolution parallel to (100) and (-101) of omphacite. At present, some scholars suggest that the quartz exsolution in omphacite of eclogite is the evidence of UHP metamorphism. However, temperature and pressure condition and the exsolution mechanism of oriented needlelike quartz in omphacite still remain unclear. Therefore, further study should be enhanced on experimental research on exsolution mechanism of super-silicate clinopyroxene, which could provide experimental quantitative constraint on quartz exsolution as UHP indicator.

  13. The effect of quartz on the flotation of pyrite depressed by serpentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of quartz particles on the flotation of pyrite depressed by serpentine has been investigated through flotation tests, adsorption tests, zeta potential measurements and DLVO calculation. The results show that the presence of hydrophilic serpentine slimes on pyrite surface reduces collector adsorption and results in lower recovery of pyrite. The finer the serpentine slime is, the lower the pyrite recovery will be. Quartz particles do not interfere with pyrite flotation. However, the addition of quartz particles increases the adsorption of collector on pyrite surface and limits the detrimental effect of serpentine on pyrite flotation. The fine-grained quartz is more effective. Zeta potential measurements and DLVO calculation illustrate that the zeta potential of quartz is more negative than that of pyrite and the attraction force between serpentine and quartz is stronger than force between serpentine and pyrite, thus some serpentine slimes were transferred from pyrite surface to quartz in the process of attrition.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories environmental fluid dynamics code : pH effects user manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janardhanam, Vijay (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); James, Scott Carlton

    2012-02-01

    This document describes the implementation level changes in the source code and input files of Sandia National Laboratories Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (SNL-EFDC) that are necessary for including pH effects into algae-growth dynamics. The document also gives a brief introduction to how pH effects are modeled into the algae-growth model. The document assumes that the reader is aware of the existing algae-growth model in SNL-EFDC. The existing model is described by James, Jarardhanam and more theoretical considerations behind modeling pH effects are presented therein. This document should be used in conjunction with the original EFDC manual and the original water-quality manual.

  15. Multi-robots to micro-surgery: Selected robotic applications at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, P.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center

    1996-11-01

    The Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center (ISRC) at Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program organization, pursuing research, development and applications in a wide range of field. Activities range from large-scale applications such as nuclear facility dismantlement for the US Department of Energy (DOE), to aircraft inspection and refurbishment, to automated script and program generation for robotic manufacturing and assembly, to miniature robotic devices and sensors for remote sensing and micro-surgery. This paper describes six activities in the large and small scale that are underway and either nearing technology transfer stage or seeking industrial partners to continue application development. The topics of the applications include multiple arm coordination for intuitively maneuvering large, ungainly work pieces; simulation, analysis and graphical training capability for CP-5 research reactor dismantlement; miniature robots with volumes of 16 cubic centimeters and less developed for inspection and sensor deployment; and biomedical sensors to enhance automated prosthetic device production and fill laparoscopic surgery information gap.

  16. Research on the Use of Robotics in Hazardous Environments at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Kwan S.

    1999-05-04

    Many hazardous material handling needs exist in remote unstructured environments. Currently these operations are accomplished using personnel in direct contact with the hazards. A safe and cost effective alternative to this approach is the use of intelligent robotic systems for safe handling, packaging, transport, and even excavation of hazardous materials. The Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center of Sandia National Laboratories has developed and deployed robotic technologies for use in hazardous environments, three of which have been deployed in DOE production facilities for handling of special nuclear materials. Other systems are currently under development for packaging special nuclear materials. This paper presents an overview of the research activities, including five delivered systems, at %ndia National Laboratories on the use of robotics in hazardous environments.

  17. Unified parallel C and the computing needs of Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jonathan Leighton; Wen, Zhaofang

    2004-09-01

    As Sandia looks toward petaflops computing and other advanced architectures, it is necessary to provide a programming environment that can exploit this additional computing power while supporting reasonable development time for applications. Thus, they evaluate the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model as implemented in Unified Parallel C (UPC) for its applicability. They report on their experiences in implementing sorting and minimum spanning tree algorithms on a test system, a Cray T3e, with UPC support. They describe several macros that could serve as language extensions and several building-block operations that could serve as a foundation for a PGAS programming library. They analyze the limitations of the UPC implementation available on the test system, and suggest improvements necessary before UPC can be used in a production environment.

  18. Survey of subsurface treatment technologies for environmental restoration sites at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wright, Jerome L.

    2003-08-01

    This report provides a survey of remediation and treatment technologies for contaminants of concern at environmental restoration (ER) sites at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The sites that were evaluated include the Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater, Technical Area V, and Canyons sites. The primary contaminants of concern at these sites include trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and nitrate in groundwater. Due to the low contaminant concentrations (close to regulatory limits) and significant depths to groundwater ({approx}500 feet) at these sites, few in-situ remediation technologies are applicable. The most applicable treatment technologies include monitored natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation/denitrification to reduce the concentrations of TCE, PCE, and nitrate in the groundwater. Stripping technologies to remove chlorinated solvents and other volatile organic compounds from the vadose zone can also be implemented, if needed.

  19. Test and evaluation procedures for Sandia's Teraflops Operating System (TOS) on Janus.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnette, Daniel Wayne

    2005-10-01

    This report describes the test and evaluation methods by which the Teraflops Operating System, or TOS, that resides on Sandia's massively-parallel computer Janus is verified for production release. Also discussed are methods used to build TOS before testing and evaluating, miscellaneous utility scripts, a sample test plan, and a proposed post-test method for quickly examining the large number of test results. The purpose of the report is threefold: (1) to provide a guide to T&E procedures, (2) to aid and guide others who will run T&E procedures on the new ASCI Red Storm machine, and (3) to document some of the history of evaluation and testing of TOS. This report is not intended to serve as an exhaustive manual for testers to conduct T&E procedures.

  20. LES of the Sandia Flame D Using an FPV Combustion Model

    CERN Document Server

    Di Renzo, Mario; de Tullio, Marco Donato; De Palma, Pietro; Pascazio, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The simulation of turbulent combustion phenomena is still an open problem in modern fluid dynamics. Considering the economical importance of hydrocarbon combustion in energy production processes, it is evident the need of an accurate tool with a relatively low computational cost for the prediction of this kind of reacting flows. In the present work, a comparative study is carried out among large eddy simulations, performed with various grid resolutions, a Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes simulation, and experimental data concerning the well-known Sandia D flame test case. In all the simulations, a flamelet progress variable model has been employed using various hypotheses for the joint probability density function closure. The filtered approach proved to be more accurate than the averaged one, even for the coarser grid used in this work. In fact both approaches have shown poorly accurate predictions in the first part of the combustion chamber, but only by the large eddy simulation one is capable to recover the...