WorldWideScience

Sample records for sand triangle southeastern

  1. The search for a source rock for the giant Tar Sand triangle accumulation, southeastern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntoon, J.E.; Hansley, P.L.; Naeser, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    A large proportion (about 36%) of the world's oil resource is contained in accumulations of heavy oil or tar. In these large deposits of degraded oil, the oil in place represents only a fraction of what was present at the time of accumulation. In many of these deposits, the source of the oil is unknown, and the oil is thought to have migrated over long distances to the reservoirs. The Tar Sand triangle in southeastern Utah contains the largest tar sand accumulation in the United States, with 6.3 billion bbl of heavy oil estimated to be in place. The deposit is thought to have originally contained 13-16 billion bbl prior to the biodegradation, water washing, and erosion that have taken place since the middle - late Tertiary. The source of the oil is unknown. The tar is primarily contained within the Lower Permian White Rim Sandstone, but extends into permeable parts of overlying and underlying beds. Oil is interpreted to have migrated into the White Rim sometime during the Tertiary when the formation was at a depth of approximately 3500 m. This conclusion is based on integration of fluid inclusion analysis, time-temperature reconstruction, and apatite fission-track modeling for the White Rim Sandstone. Homogenization temperatures cluster around 85-90??C for primary fluid inclusions in authigenic, nonferroan dolomite in the White Rim. The fluid inclusions are associated with fluorescent oil-bearing inclusions, indicating that dolomite precipitation was coeval with oil migration. Burial reconstruction suggests that the White Rim Sandstone reached its maximum burial depth from 60 to 24 Ma, and that maximum burial was followed by unroofing from 24 to 0 Ma. Time-temperature modeling indicates that the formation experienced temperatures of 85-90??C from about 35 to 40 Ma during maximum burial. Maximum formation temperatures of about 105-110??C were reached at about 24 Ma, just prior to unroofing. Thermal modeling is used to examine the history of potential source rocks

  2. The stable stiffness triangle - drained sand during deformation cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic, drained sand stiffness was observed using the Danish triaxial appa- ratus. New, deformation dependant soil property (the stable stiffness triangle) was detected. Using the the stable stiffness triangle, secant stiffness of drained sand was plausible to predict (and control) even during ir...

  3. Structural variations of sand-bearing airflow over dune at southeastern fringe of Tengger Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hasi Eerdum

    2004-01-01

    From the analytical results of observed data on sand transport rates at different positions of dune surface at southeastern fringe of Tengger Desert, it has been found that the vertical distribution of blown sand flux exhibits a noticeable variation when sand grains move upslope and downslope of dune surface under the action of wind force. Within the height of 20 cm above the sand surface, the vertical distribution of mass flux at different positions from toe to dune crest of stoss slope of sand dunes coincides with a single exponentially decaying law; while the vertical distribution of mass flux over the lee slope occurs as two variable zones, with the height of 8—12 cm as the dividing line, the sand transport rate below this height exponentially decreases with increasing height, but above this height decreases in a power function law. On the stoss slope, the relative sand transport rate in the upper layer of sand flow tends to decrease with the increasing wind velocity and the total sand transport rate towards the dune crest due to the shortened trajectory length of saltation sand grains moving upslope. On the lee slope, the increase in lift-off height and trajectory length of saltation sand grains moving downslope leads to the increase in relative sand transport rate in the upper layer of sand flow.

  4. Sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Goytacazes National Forest and surrounding areas of southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Virgens, Thieres Marassati; Rezende, Helder Ricas; de Souza Pinto, Israel; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2015-06-01

    Most studies of the sand fly fauna in southeastern Brazil are conducted in the peridomiciliary environment of leishmaniasis endemic regions. Therefore, to increase the knowledge about diversity and richness of sand fly conservation areas, we describe here the sand fly fauna from the National Forest of Goytacazes (NFG), state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and its surroundings areas. We also used sand fly fauna records from eight conservations units within the state of Espírito Santo to understand the similarity and relationships among them. The sand flies were simultaneously collected from June, 2008 to May, 2009 in two different environments: a preserved environment represented by the NFG and a modified environment represented by a peridomicile. To establish the similarity among the conservation units, we used a method very similar to parsimony analysis of endemism. We collected 2,466 sand fly specimens belonging to 13 species. Pressatia choti and Nyssomyia intermedia were the most abundant sand fly species. Ny. intermedia is a known vector of Leishmania braziliensis and epidemiological surveillance must be conducted in the area. We discuss aspects regarding the diversity of sand flies as well as the risk of transmission of Leishmania parasites in the area. We also provide for the first time a hypothesis of similarity relationships among conservation units within the state of Espírito Santo. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  5. A Stream Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) for the Sand Hills Ecoregion of the Southeastern Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosnicki, Ely; Sefick, Stephen A.; Paller, Michael H.; Jerrell, Miller S.; Prusha, Blair A.; Sterrett, Sean C.; Tuberville, Tracey D.; Feminella, Jack W.

    2016-10-01

    A macroinvertebrate multimetric index is an effective tool for assessing the biological integrity of streams. However, data collected under a single protocol may not be available for an entire region. We sampled macroinvertebrates from the full extent of the Sand Hills ecoregion Level IV of the Southeastern Plains with a standard protocol during the summers of 2010-2012. We evaluated the performance of 94 metrics through a series of screening criteria and built 48 macroinvertebrate multimetric indexs with combinations of the best performing metrics, representing richness, habit, functional feeding guild, sensitivity, and community composition. A series of narrative-response tests for each macroinvertebrate multimetric index was used to find the best performing macroinvertebrate multimetric index which we called the Sand Hills macroinvertebrate multimetric index. The Sand Hills macroinvertebrate multimetric index consisted of the measures Biotic Index, % Shredder taxa, Clinger taxa2/total taxa, Plecoptera and Trichoptera richness, and Tanytarsini taxa2/Chironomidae taxa. Comparison of the Sand Hills macroinvertebrate multimetric index with existing assessment tools calculated with our data indicated that the Sand Hills macroinvertebrate multimetric index performs at a high level with regard to identifying degraded sites and in its response to stress gradients.

  6. Richness and diversity of sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in an Atlantic rainforest reserve in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Israel Souza; Dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2010-12-01

    Our objective was to study and evaluate the richness and diversity of Phlebotominae fauna in the Duas Bocas Biological Reserve (DBBR) in the state of Espírito Santo, in southeastern Brazil. Sand fly collections were carried out during four consecutive nights each month between August 2007 and July 2008 at DBBR by using CDC automatic light traps and an illuminated Shannon trap. Specific richness (S) and Shannon diversity index (H) was calculated for each trap. We collected 18,868 sand flies belonging to 29 species and 13 genera. Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli was the most abundant species followed by Psychodopygus ayrozai, Ps. hirsutus, Psathyromyia pascalei, and Ps. matosi. We recorded Brumptomyia cardosoi, Br. troglodytes, and Ps. geniculatus for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo. We discuss the differences in diversity and richness of the sand flies in both traps and in relation to other Brazilian localities and biomes. We also discuss the possibility of wild transmission of Leishmania in the DBBR and the influence of the sand fly species in leishmaniasis transmission to the adjacent areas of the reserve.

  7. Pythagorean triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpinski, Waclaw

    2011-01-01

    The Pythagorean Theorem is one of the fundamental theorems of elementary geometry, and Pythagorean triangles - right triangles whose sides are natural numbers - have been studied by mathematicians since antiquity. In this classic text, a brilliant Polish mathematician explores the intriguing mathematical relationships in such triangles.Starting with ""primitive"" Pythagorean triangles, the text examines triangles with sides less than 100, triangles with two sides that are successive numbers, divisibility of one of the sides by 3 or by 5, the values of the sides of triangles, triangles with th

  8. Faulhaber's Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi-Dashti, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Like Pascal's triangle, Faulhaber's triangle is easy to draw: all you need is a little recursion. The rows are the coefficients of polynomials representing sums of integer powers. Such polynomials are often called Faulhaber formulae, after Johann Faulhaber (1580-1635); hence we dub the triangle Faulhaber's triangle.

  9. The Carolina Sandhills: Quaternary eolian sand sheets and dunes along the updip margin of the Atlantic Coastal Plain province, southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher; Fitzwater, Bradley A.; Whittecar, G. Richard; Mahan, Shannon; Garrity, Christopher P.; Aleman Gonzalez, Wilma B.; Dobbs, Kerby M.

    2016-01-01

    The Carolina Sandhills is a physiographic region of the Atlantic Coastal Plain province in the southeastern United States. In Chesterfield County (South Carolina), the surficial sand of this region is the Pinehurst Formation, which is interpreted as eolian sand derived from the underlying Cretaceous Middendorf Formation. This sand has yielded three clusters of optically stimulated luminescence ages: (1) 75 to 37 thousand years ago (ka), coincident with growth of the Laurentide Ice Sheet; (2) 28 to 18 ka, coincident with the last glacial maximum (LGM); and (3) 12 to 6 ka, mostly coincident with the Younger Dryas through final collapse of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Relict dune morphologies are consistent with winds from the west or northwest, coincident with modern and inferred LGM January wind directions. Sand sheets are more common than dunes because of effects of coarse grain size (mean range: 0.35–0.59 mm) and vegetation. The coarse grain size would have required LGM wind velocities of at least 4–6 m/sec, accounting for effects of colder air temperatures on eolian sand transport. The eolian interpretation of the Carolina Sandhills is consistent with other evidence for eolian activity in the southeastern United States during the last glaciation.

  10. Sand fly vectors (Diptera, Psychodidae) of American visceral leishmaniasis areas in the Atlantic Forest, State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Israel de Souza; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Valim, Valéria; Carvalho, Felipe dos Santos; da Silva, Giovana Marques; Falcão, Alda Lima; Dietze, Reynaldo; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sand fly fauna of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) endemic areas within the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. The sand fly captures were performed between January, 1989 and December, 2003 in localities where autochthonous cases of AVL were recorded, as well as in their boundary areas. Sand flies were collected from surrounding houses and domestic animal shelters using two to five CDC automatic light traps, and manual captures were also performed using mouth aspirators in one illuminated Shannon trap during the first four hours of the night. We used cladistic analysis to determine the geographic relationships among the collected sand fly species as well as the index species for the occurrence of other sand flies. A total of 62,469 sand flies belonging to 17 species and eight genera was collected in 164 localities from nine municipalities with AVL records. The richness (S=17) and diversity (H=0.971) of sand flies were lower than in conservation areas and similar to modified environments in the Atlantic Forest of Espírito Santo. Lutzomyia longipalpis was identified in 79 localities. The cladistic analysis identified Evandromyia lenti as the index species for Lutzomyia longipalpis. The latter seems to be the main vector of AVL in the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor due to its high abundance and distribution matching the disease occurrence. Therefore, Evandromyia lenti may be used as an index species for the occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis.

  11. Dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Casanova

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai was studied through mark-release-recapture experiments in an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil. Over 6500 specimens were marked with fluorescent powder and released in forest edge and peridomicile habitats from August to November 1999, February and April 2000. Recapture attempts were made using Shannon and CDC traps up to eight successive nights after releases. A total of 493 (7.58% specimens were recaptured. The number of recaptured males and females of L. neivai in CDC traps was not affected by the distance between the trap and the release points. Approximately 90% of males and females recaptured in CDC traps were caught up to 70 m from the release points. The maximum female flight range recorded was 128 m. The average flight range per day was less than 60 m for males and females. Of the flies released in forest edge, approximately 16% of the recaptured females were caught in Shannon traps in the peridomicile habitat. The results indicate that the movements of L. neivai are spatially focal and the possibility of dispersion from forest to peridomicile habitat may be an important way of contracting leishmaniasis in dwellings.

  12. Pythagorean triangles within Pythagorean triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Zelator, Konstantine

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the following question. Given a Pythagorean triangle BCA, with the right angle at C, let P be a point on the hupotenuse BA; and let D and E be the perpendicular projections of the point P onto the sides BC and CA respectively.When is either of the right triangles BDP and PEA Pythagorean? As it turns out, according to Theorem1, they are either both Pythagorean, or neither of them is.When they are both Pythagorean,a complete parametric description of these two triangles is given; in terms of the parameters that describe the Pythagorean triangle BCA. Later in the paper, we offer a complete analysis of three special cases:the case wherein the point P is the midpoint M of the hypotenuse BA; the case when P is the foot I of the 90 degree angle bisector;and the case in ehich the point P is the foot F of the perpendicular drawn from the vertex C to the hypotenuse. After that, some other cases are investigated as well.Specifically, we consider the case in which not only the triangles BDP a...

  13. Vertical distribution of soil moisture and surface sandy soil wind erosion for different types of sand dune on the southeastern margin of the Mu Us Sandy Land, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChaoFeng Fu; JingBo Zhao; FanMin Mei; TianJie Shao; Jun Zuo

    2015-01-01

    Soil moisture is a critical state affecting a variety of land surface and subsurface processes. We report investigation results of the factors controlling vertical variation of soil moisture and sand transport rate of three types of dunes on the south-eastern margin of the Mu Us Sandy Land. Samples were taken from holes drilled to a depth of 4 m at different topographic sites on the dunes, and were analyzed for soil moisture, grain-size distribution and surface sediment discharge. The results show that: (1) The average soil moisture varies in different types of dunes, with the following sequences ordered from highest to lowest: in the shrubs-covered dunes and the trees-covered dunes the sequence is from inter-dunes lowland to windward slope to leeward slope. The average moisture in the bare-migratory sand dunes is sequenced from inter-dunes lowland to leeward slope to windward slope. (2) Vegetation form and surface coverage affect the range of soil moisture of different types of dunes in the same topographic position. The coefficient of variation of soil moisture for shrubs-covered dunes is higher than that of other types of dune. (3) The effect of shrubs on dune soil moisture is explained in terms of the greater ability of shrubs to trap fine-grained atmospheric dust and hold moisture. (4) The estimated sand transport rates over sand dunes with sparse shrubs are less than those over bare-migratory dunes or sand dunes with sparse trees, indi-cating that shrubs are more effective in inhibiting wind erosion in the sandy land area.

  14. Forgotten triangles of neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpreet; Vashistha, Arpit; Chaudhary, Manoj; Kaur, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to add some more information in the present scientific literature on these nearly forgotten triangles of surgical importance. The neck is an area that lends itself to anatomical geometry, such as triangles. Many triangles of the neck have been described, and some are well-known, yet, some have been nearly forgotten, i.e., Lesser's triangle, Farabeuf triangle, Pirogoff's triangle, and Beclard's triangle. From the anatomic and surgical point of view, the neck is an amazingly interesting place. It is like a connection where crucial functional units meet and pass. Added surgical landmarks are always helpful to the surgeon while dealing with the neck. Described triangles of neck in this article are always reliable and constant landmarks for head and neck surgeons.

  15. Areas of Triangles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>We know that the area of any right triangle is half the area of the rectangle which has the same height and the same base with the triangle.The area of rectangle DFEG below is bh.So the area of triangle DFG is 1/2bh. Now we can give a proof of the conclusion that every triangle has half the area of a related rectangle.

  16. A late Holocene winter monsoon record inferred from the palaeo-aeolian sand dune in the southeastern Mu Us Desert, northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Liu; HeLing Jin; Fan Yang

    2016-01-01

    The variation of the Asian winter monsoonal strength has seriously affected the climate and environmental conditions in the Asian monsoonal region, and even in marginal islands and the ocean in the East Asian region. However, relevant under-standing remains unclear due to the lack of suitable geological materials and effective proxies in the key study areas. Here, we present a grain-size record derived from the palaeo-aeolian sand dune in the southeastern Mu Us Desert, together with other proxies and OSL dating, which reflect a relatively detailed history of the winter monsoon and abrupt environmental events during the past 4.2 ka. Our grain-size standard deviation model indicated that>224μm content can be considered as an indicator of the intensity of Asian winter monsoon, and it shows declined around 4.2–2.1 ka, enhanced but unstable in 2.1–0.9 ka, and obviously stronger since then. In addition, several typical climate events were also documented, forced by the periodic variation of winter monsoonal intensity. These include the cold intervals of 4.2, 2.8, 1.4 ka, and the Little Ice Age (LIA), and relatively warm sub-phases around 3.0, 2.1, 1.8 ka, and the Medieval Warm Period (MWP), which were roughly accordant with the records of the aeolian materials, peat, stalagmites, ice cores, and sea sediments in various lat-itudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Combined with the previous progresses of the Asian summer monsoon, we prelimi-narily confirmed a millennial-scale anti-correlation of Asian winter and summer monsoons in the Late Holocene epoch. This study suggests that the evolution of the palaeo-aeolian sand dune has the potential for comprehending the history of Asian monsoon across the desert regions of the modern Asian monsoonal margin in northern China.

  17. The Fibonacci partition triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Fahr, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    In two previous papers we have presented partition formulae for the Fibonacci numbers motivated by the appearance of the Fibonacci numbers in the representation theory of the 3-Kronecker quiver and its universal cover, the 3-regular tree. Here we show that the basic information can be rearranged in two triangles. They are quite similar to the Pascal triangle of the binomial coefficients, but in contrast to the additivity rule for the Pascal triangle, we now deal with additivity along hooks, or, equivalently, with additive functions for valued translation quivers. As for the Pascal triangle, we see that the numbers in these Fibonacci partition triangles are given by evaluating polynomials. We show that the two triangles can be obtained from each other by looking at differences of numbers, it is sufficient to take differences along arrows and knight's moves.

  18. Dynamic Right Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyunkaya, Melike Yigit; Kastberg, Signe; Quinlan, James; Edwards, Michael Todd; Keiser, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Right triangles play a significant role in mathematics. In this favorite lesson, the authors help students understand variant and invariant properties by considering relationships among angle measures and side lengths in right triangles. Students explore these relationships using interactive mathematics software, changing one angle and observing…

  19. Triangles in a Lattice Parabola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, K. R. S.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are properties possessed by polygons inscribed in the lattice parabola y=x, including the area of a triangle, triangles of minimum area, conditions for right triangles, triangles whose area is the cube of an integer, and implications of Pick's Theorem. Further directions to pursue are suggested. (MDH)

  20. Triangles in a Lattice Parabola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, K. R. S.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are properties possessed by polygons inscribed in the lattice parabola y=x, including the area of a triangle, triangles of minimum area, conditions for right triangles, triangles whose area is the cube of an integer, and implications of Pick's Theorem. Further directions to pursue are suggested. (MDH)

  1. The Copenhagen Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irwin, Alan

    2014-01-01

    I denne måneds klumme fra Direktionen skriver forskningsdekan Alan Irwin om den omvendte Bermuda-Trekant, The Copenhagen Triangle, et sted hvor mennesker, idéer og innovation opstår, og ansporer og nærer hinanden.......I denne måneds klumme fra Direktionen skriver forskningsdekan Alan Irwin om den omvendte Bermuda-Trekant, The Copenhagen Triangle, et sted hvor mennesker, idéer og innovation opstår, og ansporer og nærer hinanden....

  2. Mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅骧

    2004-01-01

    The Bernmda Triangle is also called Devil's Triangle. It is an imaginary area in the Atlantic Ocean. It extends more than one-million square kilometers between the island of Bermuda, the coast of southern Florida

  3. Gamma-ray triangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Lopez-Gehler, Sergio; Molinaro, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new type of gamma-ray spectral feature, which we denominate gamma-ray triangle. This spectral feature arises in scenarios where dark matter self-annihilates via a chiral interaction into two Dirac fermions, which subsequently decay in flight into another fermion and a photon. The r...

  4. A triangle that matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Gershon, Tim

    2007-01-01

    "Physicists at "B-factories" in the US and Japan are closing in on an abstract diagram called the unitarity triangle in the quest to explain the difference between matter and antimatter. But such measurements could also point the way to the discovery of new fundamental particles." (5 pages)

  5. systemic chemistry triangle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temechegn

    This paper describes uses of the systemic chemistry triangle [SCT] in which we get the benefits of both ..... The teachers follows up the following scenario for teaching [Fig.12]:. 1. ... [SATL]: A 10- year's review, AJCE, 1(1) 29-47. 3. Fahmy ...

  6. Femoralni trikotnik: The femoral triangle:

    OpenAIRE

    Mlakar, Boštjan; Ravnik, Dean

    1999-01-01

    The topography and structures of the femoral triangle are presented. The femorai triangle lies between the inguinal ligament at the base, the sartoriusmuscle at the lateral border and the long adductor muscle at the medial border. The apex of the femoral triangle is situated at the meeting point of the medial borders of the sartorius and long adductor muscles. The subinguinal space, which is divided into the lacuna musculorum and lacuna vasorum, provides a passageway for the lateral cutaneous...

  7. Environmental Niche Modelling of Phlebotomine Sand Flies and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Identifies Lutzomyia intermedia as the Main Vector Species in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneguzzi, Viviane Coutinho; dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Fux, Blima; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by sand flies. The state of Espírito Santo (ES), an endemic area in southeast Brazil, has shown a considerably high prevalence in recent decades. Environmental niche modelling (ENM) is a useful tool for predicting potential disease risk. In this study, ENM was applied to sand fly species and CL cases in ES to identify the principal vector and risk areas of the disease. Sand flies were collected in 466 rural localities between 1997 and 2013 using active and passive capture. Insects were identified to the species level, and the localities were georeferenced. Twenty-one bioclimatic variables were selected from WorldClim. Maxent was used to construct models projecting the potential distribution for five Lutzomyia species and CL cases. ENMTools was used to overlap the species and the CL case models. The Kruskal–Wallis test was performed, adopting a 5% significance level. Approximately 250,000 specimens were captured, belonging to 43 species. The area under the curve (AUC) was considered acceptable for all models. The slope was considered relevant to the construction of the models for all the species identified. The overlay test identified Lutzomyia intermedia as the main vector of CL in southeast Brazil. ENM tools enable an analysis of the association among environmental variables, vector distributions and CL cases, which can be used to support epidemiologic and entomological vigilance actions to control the expansion of CL in vulnerable areas. PMID:27783641

  8. A Bermuda Triangle of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelsas, John

    2006-01-01

    The Bermuda Triangle is famous for the unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft, and for strange meteorological phenomena that allegedly have occurred within its boundaries. This article presents an activity wherein students are asked to create their own geographical triangles to research, but instead of focusing on the unexplainable,…

  9. The Bermuda Triangle of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Yves

    The pedagogical triangle of teacher, learner, and subject matter has in its center a fourth element: the communication system. Each feature of the pedagogical triangle, and the communication system as well, relies on a very important cultural component. Problems occur when communication processes in a classroom are fragmented and related to…

  10. Is it a triangle?

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In the theory of the Standard Model, the masses, interactions and physical states of quarks – the basic constituents of matter – are described mathematically by a matrix known as the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. Three angles enter into the definition of the elements of the matrix. If their sum is not 180°, new physics might be the reason.   A typical LHCb event during the recent proton-lead ion run. The LHCb experiment at CERN has measured precisely for the first time at a hadron collider one of the three angles - the “gamma” angle – so far known with the largest uncertainty.  It’s a matter of angles: if their sum is not exactly 180°, the geometric shape is not a triangle. And if the angles are those related to the CKM matrix, we enter the realm of physics beyond the Standard Model. Experiments at B-factories have measured the three angles – α, β and γ &...

  11. The Euphrates Triangle: Security Implications of the Southeastern Anatolia Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    future inter- national disputes in similar cases. The Gabcikovo- Nagymaros dam project on the Danube River was the subject of a 1977 t rea ty be...water flows through turbines at Gabcichovo. The Nagymaros dam was to have been the Hungarian por- tion of the project, downstream in Hungary. As a

  12. Synchronization in Triangled Complex Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xin-Biao; LI Xiang; WANG Xiao-Fan

    2006-01-01

    Using a tunable clustering coefficient model withoutchanging the degree distribution, we investigate the effect of clustering coefficient on synchronization of networks with both unweighted and weighted couplings. For several typical categories of complex networks, the more triangles are in the networks, the worse the synchronizability of the networks is.

  13. Fontainebleau Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    2006-01-01

    The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand.......The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand....

  14. Nasal Soft-Tissue Triangle Deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2016-08-01

    The soft-tissue triangle is one of the least areas attended to in rhinoplasty. Any postoperative retraction, notching, or asymmetries of soft triangles can seriously affect the rhinoplasty outcome. A good understanding of the risk factors predisposing to soft triangle deformities is necessary to prevent such problems. The commonest risk factors in our study were the wide vertical domal angle between the lateral and intermediate crura, and the increased length of intermediate crus. Two types of soft triangle grafts were described to prevent and treat soft triangle deformities. The used soft triangle grafts resulted in an excellent long-term aesthetic and functional improvement. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Reverse Triangle Inequalities for Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Pritsker, I. E.; Saff, E. B.

    2013-01-01

    We study the reverse triangle inequalities for suprema of logarithmic potentials on compact sets of the plane. This research is motivated by the inequalities for products of supremum norms of polynomials. We find sharp additive constants in the inequalities for potentials, and give applications of our results to the generalized polynomials. We also obtain sharp inequalities for products of norms of the weighted polynomials $w^nP_n, deg(P_n)\\le n,$ and for sums of suprema of potentials with ex...

  16. Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Hugh

    1979-01-01

    A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)

  17. Cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durocher, Stephane; Gunderson, David S.; Li, Pak Ching;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We conjecture that the balanced complete bipartite graph K ⌊ n / 2 ⌋ , ⌈ n / 2 ⌉ contains more cycles than any other n -vertex triangle-free graph, and we make some progress toward proving this. We give equivalent conditions for cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs; show bounds...

  18. Representations of Subgroups of Universal Triangle Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo Xia

    2007-01-01

    Let G be a universal triangle group, and H a subgroup of G such that the chamber system △H is a tight triangle geometryThen H, which is canonically isomorphic to the topological fundamental group π1(△H) of △ H, is a finitely presented group.For some H we give their representations.

  19. Circumcenter, Circumcircle and Centroid of a Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce, using the Mizar system [1], some basic concepts of Euclidean geometry: the half length and the midpoint of a segment, the perpendicular bisector of a segment, the medians (the cevians that join the vertices of a triangle to the midpoints of the opposite sides of a triangle.

  20. Partitioning Pythagorean Triangles Using Pythagorean Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Carl E.; Yandl, Andre L.

    2012-01-01

    Inside any Pythagorean right triangle, it is possible to find a point M so that drawing segments from M to each vertex of the triangle yields angles whose sines and cosines are all rational. This article describes an algorithm that generates an infinite number of such points.

  1. The Weimar Triangle and The Ukrainian Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Romer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the activity of Weimar Triangle (Germany, France, Poland during Ukrainian crisis (2013-2014 as an efficient, but still largely underestimated negotiation force of the European Union. The evolution of role of Weimar Triangle in post-bipolar era is indicated, as well as the role of this specific structure during Ukrainian crisis.

  2. Altitude, Orthocenter of a Triangle and Triangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the altitudes of a triangle (the cevians perpendicular to the opposite sides. Using the generalized Ceva’s Theorem, we prove the existence and uniqueness of the orthocenter of a triangle [7]. Finally, we formalize in Mizar [1] some formulas [2] to calculate distance using triangulation.

  3. Triangle and GA Methods for UAVs Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on how to jam UAVs network efficiently. The system model is described and the problem is formulated. Based on two properties and a theorem which helps to decide good location for a jammer, we present the Triangle method to find good locations for jammers. The Triangle method is easy to understand and has overall computational complexity of ON2. We also present a genetic algorithm- (GA- based jamming method, which has computational complex of OLMN2. New chromosome, mutation, and crossover operations are redefined for the GA method. The simulation shows that Triangle and GA methods perform better than Random method. If the ratio of jammers’ number to UAVs’ number is low (lower than 1/5 in this paper, GA method does better than Triangle method. Otherwise, Triangle method performs better.

  4. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng

    2011-12-01

    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pythagorean triangles of equal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvina Baica

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The main intent in this paper is to find triples of Rational Pythagorean Triangles (abbr. RPT having equal areas. A new method of solving a2+ab+b2=c2 is to set a=y−1, b=y+1, y∈N−{0,1} and get Pell's equation c2−3y2=1. To solve a2−ab−b2=c2, we set a=12(y+1, b=y−1, y≥2, y∈N and get a corresponding Pell's equation. The infinite number of solutions in Pell's equation gives rise to an infinity of solutions to a2±ab+b2=c2. From this fact the following theorems are proved.

  6. Chiral Redox-Active Isosceles Triangles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalluri, Siva Krishna Mohan; Liu, Zhichang; Wu, Yilei; Hermann, Keith R; Samanta, Avik; Kim, Dong Jun; Krzyaniak, Matthew D; Wasielewski, Michael R; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2016-05-11

    Designing small-molecule organic redox-active materials, with potential applications in energy storage, has received considerable interest of late. Herein, we report on the synthesis, characterization, and application of two rigid chiral triangles, each of which consist of non-identical pyromellitic diimide (PMDI) and naphthalene diimide (NDI)-based redox-active units. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic investigations in solution confirm the lower symmetry (C2 point group) associated with these two isosceles triangles. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal their rigid triangular prism-like geometries. Unlike previously investigated equilateral triangle containing three identical NDI subunits, both isosceles triangles do not choose to form one-dimensional supramolecular nanotubes by dint of [C-H···O] interaction-driven columnar stacking. The rigid isosceles triangle, composed of one NDI and two PMDI subunits, forms-in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide-two different types of intermolecular NDI-NDI and NDI-PMDI π-π stacked dimers with opposite helicities in the solid state. Cyclic voltammetry reveals that both isosceles triangles can accept reversibly up to six electrons. Continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance and electron-nuclear double-resonance spectroscopic investigations, supported by density functional theory calculations, on the single-electron reduced radical anions of the isosceles triangles confirm the selective sharing of unpaired electrons among adjacent redox-active NDI subunit(s) within both molecules. The isosceles triangles have been employed as electrode-active materials in organic rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. The evaluation of the structure-performance relationships of this series of diimide-based triangles reveals that the increase in the number of NDI subunits, replacing PMDI ones, within the molecules improves the electrochemical cell performance of the batteries.

  7. Are bilinear quadrilaterals better than linear triangles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Azevedo, E.F.

    1993-08-01

    This paper compares the theoretical effectiveness of bilinear approximation over quadrilaterals with linear approximation over triangles. Anisotropic mesh transformation is used to generate asymptotically optimally efficient meshes for piecewise linear interpolation over triangles and bilinear interpolation over quadrilaterals. The theory and numerical results suggest triangles may have a slight advantage over quadrilaterals for interpolating convex data function but bilinear approximation may offer a higher order approximation for saddle-shaped functions on a well-designed mesh. This work is a basic study on optimal meshes with the intention of gaining insight into the more complex meshing problems in finite element analysis.

  8. Are Bilinear Quadrilaterals Better Than Linear Triangles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Azevedo, E.F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper compares the theoretical effectiveness of bilinear approximation over quadrilaterals with linear approximation over triangles. Anisotropic mesh transformation is used to generate asymptotically optimally efficient meshes for piecewise linear interpolation over triangles and bilinear interpolation over quadrilaterals. For approximating a convex function, although bilinear quadrilaterals are more efficient, linear triangles are more accurate and may be preferred in finite element computations; whereas for saddle-shaped functions, quadrilaterals may offer a higher order approximation on a well-designed mesh. A surprising finding is different grid orientations may yield an order of magnitude improvement in approximation accuracy.

  9. Bilateral Petit’s Triangle Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Bhasin, Arshad Bashir Khan, Sanjay Sharma

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar traingle hernia that occurs through lumbar triangles is very rare type of hernia. Only about 300 cases havebeen reported till date. Bilateral Petit’s triangle hernia find further rarity and the case under reference is probably thefirst ever reported case of Primary bilateral Petit’s triangle hernia. The present case is of a 46 years old married,multigravida female who presented with 1 year duration of LBA and subsequently notice of swelling both sides oflow back. FNAC revealed lipoma and on exploration it turned out to be rarest extra peritoneal bilateral Petit’s trianglehernia, fat as contents.

  10. Triangle Lattice Green Functions for Vector Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Brian; Schwalm, William

    2000-03-01

    The triangle lattice is convenient for modeling fields and fluid flows in two dimensions. Discrete vector field equations are defined through the analogy between differential forms and simplicial homology theory. The basic vector difference operators on the lattice correspond to the graph adjacency matricies of the triangle, honeycomb, and Kagomé lattices. The scalar Green functions for nearest neighbor interactions on the triangle lattice are known in closed form in terms of the complete elliptic integrals. Green functions for vector field operators are obtained explicitly in terms of the known scalar Green functions. The scalar Green functions for the Kagomé lattice are thus written in terms of the Green functions for the triangle lattice and ultimately in closed form. Thus, Green functions for a wide range of vector difference models are reduced to closed form in terms of the complete elliptic integrals.

  11. Density conditions for triangles in multipartite graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Adrian; Shen, Jin; Thomassé, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    subgraphs in G. We investigate in particular the case where G is a complete multipartite graph. We prove that a finite tripartite graph with all edge densities greater than the golden ratio has a triangle and that this bound is best possible. Also we show that an infinite-partite graph with finite parts has...... a triangle, provided that the edge density between any two parts is greater than 1/2....

  12. Triangle-hinge models for unoriented membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sugishita, Sotaro; Umeda, Naoya

    2016-07-01

    Triangle-hinge models [M. Fukuma, S. Sugishita, and N. Umeda, J. High Energy Phys. 1507, 088 (2015)] are introduced to describe worldvolume dynamics of membranes. The Feynman diagrams consist of triangles glued together along hinges and can be restricted to tetrahedral decompositions in a large-N limit. In this paper, after clarifying that all the tetrahedra resulting in the original models are orientable, we define a version of triangle-hinge models that can describe the dynamics of unoriented membranes. By regarding each triangle as representing a propagation of an open membrane of disk topology, we introduce a local worldvolume parity transformation which inverts the orientation of a triangle, and define unoriented triangle-hinge models by gauging the transformation. Unlike two-dimensional cases, this local transformation generally relates a manifold to a nonmanifold, but still is a well-defined manipulation among tetrahedral decompositions. We further show that matter fields can be introduced in the same way as in the original oriented models. In particular, the models will describe unoriented membranes in a target spacetime by taking matter fields to be the target space coordinates.

  13. LR: Compact connectivity representation for triangle meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurung, T; Luffel, M; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J

    2011-01-28

    We propose LR (Laced Ring) - a simple data structure for representing the connectivity of manifold triangle meshes. LR provides the option to store on average either 1.08 references per triangle or 26.2 bits per triangle. Its construction, from an input mesh that supports constant-time adjacency queries, has linear space and time complexity, and involves ordering most vertices along a nearly-Hamiltonian cycle. LR is best suited for applications that process meshes with fixed connectivity, as any changes to the connectivity require the data structure to be rebuilt. We provide an implementation of the set of standard random-access, constant-time operators for traversing a mesh, and show that LR often saves both space and traversal time over competing representations.

  14. Triangle Counting in Dynamic Graph Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulteau, Laurent; Froese, Vincent; Pagh, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    , with a few exceptions, the algorithms have considered insert-only streams. We present a new algorithm estimating the number of triangles in dynamic graph streams where edges can be both inserted and deleted. We show that our algorithm achieves better time and space complexity than previous solutions......Estimating the number of triangles in graph streams using a limited amount of memory has become a popular topic in the last decade. Different variations of the problem have been studied, depending on whether the graph edges are provided in an arbitrary order or as incidence lists. However...... for various graph classes, for example sparse graphs with a relatively small number of triangles. Also, for graphs with constant transitivity coefficient, a common situation in real graphs, this is the first algorithm achieving constant processing time per edge. The result is achieved by a novel approach...

  15. Cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durocher, Stephane; Gunderson, David S.; Li, Pak Ching

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We conjecture that the balanced complete bipartite graph K ⌊ n / 2 ⌋ , ⌈ n / 2 ⌉ contains more cycles than any other n -vertex triangle-free graph, and we make some progress toward proving this. We give equivalent conditions for cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs; show bounds...... on the numbers of cycles in graphs depending on numbers of vertices and edges, girth, and homomorphisms to small fixed graphs; and use the bounds to show that among regular graphs, the conjecture holds. We also consider graphs that are close to being regular, with the minimum and maximum degrees differing...

  16. Neurovascular variations in the carotid triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak SB

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations in the carotid triangle of the neck may present importance especially during surgical and radiological interventions of the region. We found two variations in the left carotid triangle of an adult female during routine dissection classes. There were two superior laryngeal arteries, one originated from the superior thyroid artery and another abnormal superior laryngeal artery originated directly from the external carotid artery. There was a hole in the internal jugular vein and the accessory nerve passed out through the hole.

  17. The Asia-Pacific Strategic Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2014-01-01

    applicability discussed; third, details about China and India’s relations and responses to the new US policy are being analyzed; the perspective turns to the implications for conflict and security in South Asia with a focus on Afghanistan and Iran where oil and energy security are the main denominators......The objective of this paper is to give insight into the debate over the strategic triangle and how it impacts conflict and security in South Asia. First the new geopolitical motives of the United States in the Asia-Pacific are outlined. Then the concept of strategic triangle is elaborated and its...

  18. Application of Sivasubramanian Kalimuthu Hypothesis to Triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sivasubramanian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The interior angles sum of a number of Euclidean triangles was transformed into quadratic equations. The analysis of those quadratic equations yielded the following proposition: There exists Euclidean triangle whose interior angle sum is a straight angle. Approach: In this study, the researchers introduced a new hypothesis for quadratic equations and derived an entirely new result. Results: The result of the study was controversial, but mathematically consistent. Conclusion/Recommendations: The researchers politely requested the research community to establish the quadratic equation’s hypothesis.

  19. Fibonacci-like sequences and generalized Pascal's triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenzi, G.; Siani, S.

    2014-05-01

    The properties pertaining to diagonals of generalized Pascal's triangles are studied. Combinatorial relationships between Fibonacci-like sequences and Fibonacci sequence itself are determined, using the sequence of diagonals of generalized Pascal's triangle.

  20. Scaling Ratios and Triangles in Siegel Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buff, Xavier; Henriksen, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Let f(z)=e^{2i\\pi \\theta} + z^2, where \\theta is a quadratic irrational. McMullen proved that the Siegel disk for f is self-similar about the critical point, and we show that if \\theta = (\\sqrt{5}-1)/2 is the golden mean, then there exists a triangle contained in the Siegel disk, and with one...

  1. Pascal's Triangle. Popular Lectures in Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenskii, V. A.

    Pascal's Triangle is an important numerical table; with its help, a number of computation problems may be solved. Some of these problems are examined and the question of what"solving a problem" can mean is generally considered. (Author/MK)

  2. Lattice QCD and the unitarity triangle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas S Kronfeld

    2001-12-03

    Theoretical and computational advances in lattice calculations are reviewed, with focus on examples relevant to the unitarity triangle of the CKM matrix. Recent progress in semi-leptonic form factors for B {yields} {pi}/v and B {yields} D*lv, as well as the parameter {zeta} in B{sup 0}-{bar B}{sup 0} mixing, are highlighted.

  3. Triangle-intersecting families on eight vertices

    CERN Document Server

    Filmus, Yuval

    2011-01-01

    Simonovits and S\\'{o}s conjectured that the maximal size of a triangle-intersecting family of graphs on $n$ vertices is $2^{\\binom{n}{2}-3}$. Their conjecture has recently been proved using spectral methods. We provide an elementary proof of the special case of $8$ vertices using a partition argument.

  4. Cactus: The Centres of a Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Hartley

    2009-01-01

    This is the first of two articles which describe how to use "JavaSketchPad" to explore the centres of a triangle. This introductory exercise is suggested in the GSP "Workshop Guide". Students can use "JavaSketchPad Interactive Geometry" (JSP) at home at no cost. They are likely to impress their parents with their enthusiasm for geometry and all…

  5. Sands styrke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H. Moust; Jørgensen, Mogens B.; Poulsen, H. Serup

    1975-01-01

    På grundlag af triaxialforsøg med D=7 og 20 cm og varierende højde på løse og faste lejringer af Blokhussand kan effekten af varierende højde-breddeforhold og spændingsniveau samt skalaeffekten bestemmes. Ved sammenligning med pladeforsøg med overfladelast op til 8 t/m2 kan den almindelige fremga...... fremgangsmåde ved bæreevneberegninger på sand undersøges....

  6. Distribution of Soil Moisture Content in Different Types of Sand Dunes in the Southeastern Marginal Zone of the Mu Us Sandy Land%毛乌素沙地东南缘不同类型沙丘土壤水分分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符超峰; 赵景波

    2011-01-01

    The study area is located in the southeastern marginal zone of the Mu Us Sandy Land, and it is a semi-arid climate area with annual precipitation of 394. 7 mm. Based on the investigation in the study area in late-April 2009, the sand dunes were divided into bare migratory dunes, shrub-covered dunes and tree-covered dunes according to the vegetation types and vegetation coverage on the sand dune surface, and the samples of drilling holes of 4 m in depth at different topographic sites of the dunes were taken for analyzing the change of soil moisture content and soil granular properties of the sand dunes. The results are as follows; (1) Average soil moisture content at depth of 4 m was different from different dune types, that of the shrub-covered dunes and tree-covered dunes was in an order of dune intervale > windward slope > leeward slope, but that of the bare migratory sand dunes was in an order of dune intervale > leeward slope > windward slope. Furthermore, the variation of soil moisture content at different depth of each dune type was different, and that of shrub-covered dunes at different depth was more significant than that of the tree-covered dunes and bare migratory dunes; (2) Vegetation types and surface vegetation coverage affected the variation of soil moisture content of dunes at the same topographic positions of different dune types. Results of the test show that the soil moisture content on windward slope was in an order of shrub-covered dunes > tree-covered dunes > bare migratory dunes, it on leeward slope was in an order of shrub-covered dunes > bare migratory sand dunes > tree-covered dunes, and it at dune intervale was in an order of shrub-covered dunes > tree-covered dunes > bare migratory dunes;the variation coefficient of soil moisture content of shrub-covered dunes was higher than that of other dune types, the soil moisture content of shrub-covered dunes at different depth fluctuated more obviously compared with that of other dune types, and

  7. Tar sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

  8. A survey of numerical cubature over triangles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyness, J.N.; Cools, R.

    1993-12-31

    This survey collects together theoretical results in the area of numerical cubature over triangles and is a vehicle for a current bibliography. We treat first the theory relating to regular integrands and then the corresponding theory for singular integrands with emphasis on the ``full comer singularity.`` Within these two sections we treat successively approaches based on transforming the triangle into a square, formulas based on polynomial moment fitting, and extrapolation techniques. Within each category we quote key theoretical results without proof, and relate other results and references to these. Nearly all the references we have found may be readily placed in one of these categories. This survey is theoretical in character and does not include recent work in adaptive and automatic integration.

  9. State of the Coral Triangle: Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia has made a firm commitment to sustainable management and conservation of its coastal and marine resources, helping formulate and implement the Sulu–Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion Initiative and the Coral Triangle Initiative. Rapid economic growth, uncontrolled tourism development, unregulated fishing, and unsustainable use of marine resources have depleted the country’s fish stocks, lost nearly 36% of its mangrove forests, and increased the number of endangered species. Despite impressive...

  10. Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The CKM Unitarity Triangle Workshop is meant to provide an opportunity for an intense and fruitful exchange of ideas between experimentalists and theorists to assess the present knowledge on fundamental parameters from the data of LEP and other colliders, to define an agenda of future measurements to further probe the model assumptions employed in the interpretation of the data and to indicate paths for the B physics programme at LHC.

  11. Factorisation fits and the unitarity triangle

    CERN Document Server

    De Groot, N; Whittingham, I B

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present fits to charmless hadronic B decay data from the BaBar, Belle and Cleo experiments using models by Beneke et. al. and Ciuchini et al. When we include the data from pseudo-scalar vector decays (PV) the current experimental results favour the inclusions of a so-called "charming penguin" term. We also present fit results for the Unitary Triangle parameters and the CP violating asymmetries

  12. Vector field processing on triangle meshes

    OpenAIRE

    De Goes, Fernando; Desbrun, Mathieu; Tong, Yiying

    2015-01-01

    While scalar fields on surfaces have been staples of geometry processing, the use of tangent vector fields has steadily grown in geometry processing over the last two decades: they are crucial to encoding directions and sizing on surfaces as commonly required in tasks such as texture synthesis, non-photorealistic rendering, digital grooming, and meshing. There are, however, a variety of discrete representations of tangent vector fields on triangle meshes, and each approach offers different tr...

  13. It's in the sand

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Sand is sand isn’t it? Sand gets everywhere but rather than a nuisance it is a valuable, high-purity raw material. Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist at the British Geological Survey (BGS), talks us through what sand is, what it can be used for and how to find it. His exploration of sand takes us from the deserts of Arabia to the damp sand pits of Mansfield!

  14. Optimal Design of Round Bottomed Triangle Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman T. Hameed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available     In optimal design concept, the geometric dimensions of a channel cross-section are determined in a manner to minimize the total construction costs. The Direct search optimization method by using MATALAB is used to solve the resulting channel optimization models for a specified flow rate, roughness coefficient and longitudinal slope. The developed optimization models are applied to design the round bottomed triangle channel and trapezoidal channels to convey a given design flow considering various design scenarios However, it also can be extended to other shapes of channels. This method optimizes the total construction cost by minimizing the cross-sectional area and wetted perimeter per unit length of the channel. In the present study, it is shown that for all values of side slope, the total construction cost in the round bottomed triangle cross-section are less than those of trapezoidal cross-section for the same values of discharge. This indicates that less excavation and a lining are involved and therefore implies that the round bottomed triangle cross-section is more economical than trapezoidal cross-section.

  15. The Triangle Closure is a Polyhedron

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Amitabh; Köppe, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Recently, cutting planes derived from maximal lattice-free convex sets have been studied intensively by the integer programming community. An important question in this research area has been to decide whether the closures associated with certain families of lattice-free sets are polyhedra. For a long time, the only result known was the celebrated theorem of Cook, Kannan and Schrijver who showed that the split closure is a polyhedron. Although some fairly general results were obtained by Andersen, Louveaux and Weismantel [An analysis of mixed integer linear sets based on lattice point free convex sets, Math. Oper. Res. 35, (2010) pp. 233--256], some basic questions have remained unresolved. For example, maximal lattice-free triangles are the natural family to study beyond the family of splits and it has been a standing open problem to decide whether the triangle closure is a polyhedron. In this paper, we resolve this by showing that the triangle closure is indeed a polyhedron, and its number of facets can be ...

  16. Production of oil from Intermountain West tar sands deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassett, J.M.; Glassett, J.A.

    1976-03-01

    Six tar sand deposits in the Intermountain West, each containing more than one billion barrels of oil in place, are identified. All of these deposits are in eastern Utah and contain a total of twenty-eight billion barrels of oil. The names of the six deposits arranged in descending order of desirability for large-scale surface-mining oil recovery operations are as follows: Sunnyside, Tar Sand Triangle, Asphalt Ridge, P.R. Spring, Circle Cliffs, and Hill Creek. An overview of each deposit is presented including geology, surface-mining variables, chemical processing variables, environmental aspects, and economics. A comparison of Utah tar sands and Athabasca, Alberta, Canada tar sands is also presented.

  17. Leptonic Unitarity Triangles and Effective Mass Triangles of the Majorana Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Zhi-zhong

    2015-01-01

    Given the best-fit results of six neutrino oscillation parameters, we plot the Dirac and Majorana unitarity triangles (UTs) of the $3\\times 3$ lepton flavor mixing matrix to show their real shapes for the first time. The connections of the Majorana UTs with neutrino-antineutrino oscillations and neutrino decays are explored, and the possibilities of right or isosceles UTs are discussed. In the neutrino mass limit of $m^{}_1 \\to 0$ or $m^{}_3 \\to 0$, which is allowed by current experimental data, we show how the six triangles formed by the effective Majorana neutrino masses $\\langle m\\rangle^{}_{\\alpha\\beta}$ (for $\\alpha, \\beta = e, \\mu, \\tau$) and their corresponding component vectors look like in the complex plane. The relations of such triangles to the Majorana phases and to the lepton-number-violating decays $H^{++} \\to \\alpha^+ \\beta^+$ in the type-II seesaw mechanism are also illustrated.

  18. Industrial sand and gravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolley, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2012 was about 49.5 Mt (55 million st), increasing 13 percent compared with that of 2011. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

  19. Triangle Counting in Dynamic Graph Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulteau, Laurent; Froese, Vincent; Pagh, Rasmus;

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the number of triangles in graph streams using a limited amount of memory has become a popular topic in the last decade. Different variations of the problem have been studied, depending on whether the graph edges are provided in an arbitrary order or as incidence lists. However...... combining sampling of vertex triples and sparsification of the input graph. In the course of the analysis of the algorithm we present a lower bound on the number of pairwise independent 2-paths in general graphs which might be of independent interest. At the end of the paper we discuss lower bounds...

  20. Dynamic Investigation of Triangles Inscribed in a Circle, Which Tend to an Equilateral Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupel, Moshe; Oxman, Victor; Sigler, Avi

    2017-01-01

    We present a geometrical investigation of the process of creating an infinite sequence of triangles inscribed in a circle, whose areas, perimeters and lengths of radii of the inscribed circles tend to a limit in a monotonous manner. First, using geometrical software, we investigate four theorems that represent interesting geometrical properties,…

  1. A Note on Tropical Triangles in the Plane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.ANSOLA; M.J.de la PUENTE

    2009-01-01

    We define transversal tropical triangles (affine and projective) and characterize them via six inequalities to be satisfied by the coordinates of the vertices. We prove that the vertices of a transversal tropical triangle are tropically independent and they tropically span a classical hexagon whose sides have slopes ∞, 0, 1. Using this classical hexagon, we determine a parameter space for transversal tropical triangles. The coordinates of the vertices of a transversal tropical triangle determine a tropically regular matrix. Triangulations of the tropical plane are obtained.

  2. Geomorphic systems of the Palliser Triangle, southern Canadian prairies : description and response to changing climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmen, D.S. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Vance, R.E.; Wolfe, S.A. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Campbell, I.A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; David, P.P. [Montreal Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Pennock, D.J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science; Sauchyn, D.J. [Regina Univ., Regina, SK (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    1998-12-31

    Four geomorphic systems in the Palliser Triangle of southeastern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan are reviewed. The region is characterized by a variable climate, strong annual moisture deficit, and recurrent drought. An assessment of the potential impacts of climate change of the geomorphic systems has shown that eolian landscapes are the most sensitive to climate change. Fluvial systems are the least predictable in terms of response to climate change. The climate influences the frequency of mass wasting processes by changing the regional groundwater table. Wind, water and tillage are the principal agents of soil redistribution, and wind and water erosion are closely related to extreme climatic events. By identifying possible responses to climate change, proactive land management is facilitated. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Eastern Scheldt Sand, Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. T; Madsen, E. B.; Schaarup-Jensen, A. L.

    The present data report contains data from 13 drained triaxial tests, performed on two different sand types in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Aalborg University in March, 1997. Two tests have been performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15, which has already ken extensively tested in the Soil Mechanics...... Laboratory. The remaining 11 triaxial tests have ben performed on Eastern Scheldt Sand, which is a material not yet investigated at the Soil Mechanics Laboratory. In the first pari of this data report, the characteristics of the two sand types in question will be presented. Next, a description...

  4. Teaching Pascal's Triangle from a Computer Science Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurnick, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Pascal's Triangle is named for the seventeenth-century French philosopher and mathematician Blaise Pascal (the same person for whom the computer programming language is named). Students are generally introduced to Pascal's Triangle in an algebra or precalculus class in which the Binomial Theorem is presented. This article, presents a new method…

  5. Reverse Triangle Inequalities for Riesz Potentials and Connections with Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Pritsker, I. E.; Saff, E. B.; Wise, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study reverse triangle inequalities for Riesz potentials and their connection with polarization. This work generalizes inequalities for sup norms of products of polynomials, and reverse triangle inequalities for logarithmic potentials. The main tool used in the proofs is the representation for a power of the farthest distance function as a Riesz potential of a unit Borel measure.

  6. Some Unusual Expressions for the Inradius of a Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Thomas J.; Chandrupatla, Tirupathi R.

    2005-01-01

    Several formulae for the inradius of various types of triangles are derived. Properties of the inradius and trigonometric functions of the angles of Pythagorean and Heronian triangles are also presented. The entire presentation is elementary and suitable for classes in geometry, precalculus mathematics and number theory.

  7. Coloring triangle-free graphs with fixed size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten; Gimbel, John

    2000-01-01

    Combining recent results on colorings and Ramsey theory, we show that if G is a triangle-free graph with e edges then the chromatic number of G is at most cel(1/3)(log e)(-2/3) for some constant c. In a previous paper, we found an upper bound on the chromatic number of a triangle-free graph...

  8. What Do You Find? Students Investigating Patterns in Pascal's Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, students used problem-solving skills to investigate what patterns exist in the Pascal triangle and incorporated technology using Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) in the process. Students came up with patterns such as natural numbers, triangular numbers, and Fibonacci numbers. Although the patterns inherent in Pascal's triangle may seem…

  9. From Concept to Reality in Implementing the Knowledge Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoer, Ellen; Nørgaard, Bente; Goossens, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The concept of Knowledge Triangle (KT) links together research, education and innovation and replaces the traditional "one way" flow of knowledge, essentially from research to education, by a "both ways" circular motion between all the corners of a triangle that, besides research and education, also includes innovation, the…

  10. Triangle zone beer and bull May 11, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newson, A. C.; Kubli, T. E.; Dechesne, R. G.; MacKay, P. E.; Reid, J. P.; Varsek, J. L.

    1996-06-01

    A review and a summing up of the papers contributed to this special issue of the Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology on triangle zones was prepared in an informal `beer and bull` session by an ad hoc panel of contributors. There was no consensus as to the precise meaning, or the accuracy of the term `triangle zone`, although there was some agreement that if one wants to define structures with a roughly triangular shape, based on seismic expression alone, the term `wedge` might be more appropriate, since the focus of triangle zone development is tectonic activity creating a wedge that delaminates crust as it propagates towards the foreland. It was generally agreed (for now at least) that triangle zones are just one type of thrust front structure when viewed in the larger context of mountain belts around the world. In the classical sense, triangle zones appear to be restricted to the Alberta and Montana segment of the Cordilleran thrust belt. 1 ref.

  11. The Top of the Biomimetic Triangle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrei P. Sommer; Dan Zhu; Matthias Wiora; Hans-Joerg Fecht

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing observational evidence indicating that crystalline interfacial water layers play a central role in evolution and biology. For instance in cellular recognition processes, in particular during first contact events, where cells decide upon survival or entering apoptosis. Understanding water layers is thus crucial in biomedical engineering, specifically in the design of biomaterials inspired by biomimetic principles. Whereas there is ample experimental evidence for crystalline interfacial water layers on surfaces in air, their subaquatic presence could not be verified directly, so far. Analysing a polarity dependent asym- metry in the surface conductivity on hydrogenated nanocrystalline diamond, we show that crystalline interfacial water layers persist subaquatically. Nanoscopic interfacial water layers with an order different from that of bulk water have been identified at room temperature on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic model surfaces - in air and subaquatically. Their generalization and systematic inclusion into the catalogue of physical and chemical determinants of biocompatibility complete the biomimetic triangle.

  12. Cuts and coproducts of massive triangle diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Samuel [Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy,The University of Edinburgh,Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS,Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Britto, Ruth [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS,Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); School of Mathematics, Trinity College,College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Hamilton Mathematical Institute, Trinity College,College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Grönqvist, Hanna [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS,Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-07-21

    Relations between multiple unitarity cuts and coproducts of Feynman integrals are extended to allow for internal masses. These masses introduce new branch cuts, whose discontinuities can be derived by placing single propagators on shell and identified as particular entries of the coproduct. First entries of the coproduct are then seen to include mass invariants alone, as well as threshold corrections for external momentum channels. As in the massless case, the original integral can possibly be recovered from its cuts by starting with the known part of the coproduct and imposing integrability contraints. We formulate precise rules for cuts of diagrams, and we gather evidence for the relations to coproducts through a detailed study of one-loop triangle integrals with various combinations of external and internal masses.

  13. "The mother of all black triangles" case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David

    2012-02-01

    Before the Bioclear matrix and a disciplined approach to composite treatment of black triangles, many treatments ended with significant compromise in periodontal health. Many cases debonded soon after placement. Others suffered problems with stain. Nonetheless, our patients are hopeful for a better solution. The interdental papilla serves as both a functional and aesthetic asset. Anatomically ideal interproximal composite shapes that are mirror smooth can serve as a predictable scaffold to regain this valuable gingival architecture. Clean enamel surfaces can be leveraged to permanently retain the restorations. However, the reader is cautioned that to attempt this elective procedure using no magnification, without a strict adherence to dentin detoxification with a blasting appliance, and using a flat matrix, nontreatment or referral is recommended. Our profession can change its thought processes, retrain its hands and expand its armamentarium to perform techniques that were previously impossible.

  14. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    OpenAIRE

    N. Špirutová; J. Beňo; V. Bednářová; J. Kříž; M. Kandrnál

    2012-01-01

    Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron) are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this co...

  15. Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Marianne; Hedegaard, Jette

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar...... and biotit. Mainly the sand will be used for tests concerning the development og the theory of building up pore pressure in sand, L. B. Ibsen 1993....

  16. Lund Sand No 0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Finn Rosendal

    During the last 15 years the Geotechnical Engineering Group (GEG) at Aalborg University has performed triaxial tests with a sand called Lund No 0. Lund No 0 is a graded sand from a gravel pit near Horsens in Denmark. For the classification of the sand the following tests have been performed: Sieve...

  17. Grouper: A Compact, Streamable Triangle Mesh Data Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luffel, Mark [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU); Gurung, Topraj [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU); Lindstrom, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rossignac, Jarek [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU)

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present Grouper: an all-in-one compact file format, random-access data structure, and streamable representation for large triangle meshes. Similarly to the recently published SQuad representation, Grouper represents the geometry and connectivity of a mesh by grouping vertices and triangles into fixed-size records, most of which store two adjacent triangles and a shared vertex. Unlike SQuad, however, Grouper interleaves geometry with connectivity and uses a new connectivity representation to ensure that vertices and triangles can be stored in a coherent order that enables memory-efficient sequential stream processing. We also present a linear-time construction algorithm that allows streaming out Grouper meshes using a small memory footprint while preserving the initial ordering of vertices. In this construction, we show how the problem of assigning vertices and triangles to groups reduces to a well-known NP-hard optimization problem, and present a simple yet effective heuristic solution that performs well in practice. Our array-based Grouper representation also doubles as a triangle mesh data structure that allows direct access to vertices and triangles. Storing only about two integer references per triangle-i.e., less than the three vertex references stored with each triangle in a conventional indexed mesh format-Grouper answers both incidence and adjacency queries in amortized constant time. Our compact representation enables data-parallel processing on multicore computers, instant partitioning and fast transmission for distributed processing, as well as efficient out-of-core access. We demonstrate the versatility and performance benefits of Grouper using a suite of example meshes and processing kernels.

  18. Complex hyperbolic (3,3,n)-triangle groups.

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, John R.; Wang, Jieyan; Xie, Baohua

    2016-01-01

    Let p,q,rp,q,r be positive integers. Complex hyperbolic (p,q,r)(p,q,r) triangle groups are representations of the hyperbolic (p,q,r)(p,q,r) reflection triangle group to the holomorphic isometry group of complex hyperbolic space H2CHℂ2, where the generators fix complex lines. In this paper, we obtain all the discrete and faithful complex hyperbolic (3,3,n)(3,3,n) triangle groups for n≥4n≥4. Our result solves a conjecture of Schwartz in the case when p=q=3p=q=3.

  19. Dalitz plot distributions in presence of triangle singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczepaniak, Adam P., E-mail: aszczepa@indiana.edu [Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Theory Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47403 (United States)

    2016-06-10

    We discuss properties of three-particle Dalitz distributions in coupled channel systems in presence of triangle singularities. The single channel case was discussed long ago [1] where it was found that as a consequence of unitarity, effects of a triangle singularity seen in the Dalitz plot are not seen in Dalitz plot projections. In the coupled channel case we find the same is true for the sum of intensities of all interacting channels. Unlike the single channel case, however, triangle singularities do remain visible in Dalitz plot projections of individual channels.

  20. Southeastern Science Policy Colloquium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, F.

    1995-06-22

    This conference covers four main topics: (1) Southeastern Labor Market and its Impact on Corporate/Industry Development; (2) New Issues for Science and Technology in the Year 2000 and Beyond; (3) The Role of Academia in Developing the Labor Force of the Southeast; and (4) K-12 Education: Challenges for the 21st Century.

  1. L curve for spherical triangle region quadtrees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN; Wen; CHENG; Chengqi; MA; Ainai; GUAN; Xiaojing

    2004-01-01

    The sequence of facets and nodes has a direct influence on the efficiency of access to spherical triangle region quadtree. Based on the labeling schema by Lee,spatial curves both for facets and nodes are proposed and the main algorithms for coordinate translation, node L sequence generation and visiting nodes are presented. In particular, constant time algorithms for generating node L sequence are advanced by using bit manipulation operations, which can be easily implemented with hardware. In L curve the distance between three nodes of a facet is mostly limited in a range of small value, thus making fast access possible. Though codes of sibling facets are continuous,the difference between codes of some cousins may occasionally be very large and makes the distance of a few facets also very large, thus greatly increasing the mean node distance and the total traversing distance. Therefore an m cluster of nodes is proposed as a basic storage unit for n cluster, which should store every shared node in each, and the distance between three nodes of a facet is limited to a controllable scope.

  2. Love triangles, quantum fluctuations and spin jam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hun

    When magnetic moments are interacting with each other in a situation resembling that of complex love triangles, called frustration, a large set of states that are energetically equivalent emerge. This leads to exotic spin states such as spin liquid and spin ice. Recently, we presented evidence for the existence of a topological glassy state, that we call spin jam, induced by quantum fluctuations. The case in point is SrCr9pGa12-9pO19 (SCGO(p)), a highly frustrated magnet, in which the magnetic Cr ions form a quasi-two-dimensional triangular system of bi-pyramids. This system has been an archetype in search for exotic spin states. Understanding the nature of the state has been a great intellectual challenge. Our new experimental data and theoretical spin jam model provide for the first time a coherent understanding of the phenomenon. Furthermore, the findings strongly support the possible existence of purely topological glassy states. Reference:

  3. On exact triangles consisting of stable vector bundles on tori

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Kazushi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the exact triangles consisting of stable holomorphic vector bundles on one-dimensional complex tori, and discuss their relations with the corresponding Fukaya category via the homological mirror symmetry.

  4. The comfort triangles: a new tool for bioclimatic design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents a new graphic tool to identify and select bioclimatic strategies according to climate conditions and comfort requirements. The Comfort Triangle relates outdoor daily temperature variations with the modification of thermal performance achieved indoors, using two key variables,

  5. A Heuristic Algorithm for Solving Triangle Packing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on the triangle packing problem has important theoretic significance, which has broad application prospects in material processing, network resource optimization, and so forth. Generally speaking, the orientation of the triangle should be limited in advance, since the triangle packing problem is NP-hard and has continuous properties. For example, the polygon is not allowed to rotate; then, the approximate solution can be obtained by optimization method. This paper studies the triangle packing problem by a new kind of method. Such concepts as angle region, corner-occupying action, corner-occupying strategy, and edge-conjoining strategy are presented in this paper. In addition, an edge-conjoining and corner-occupying algorithm is designed, which is to obtain an approximate solution. It is demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is highly efficient, and by the time complexity analysis and the analogue experiment result is found.

  6. Band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Ying, E-mail: yliu5@bjtu.edu.cn; Liang, Tianshu

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals (FPPCs) are studied with the aim to clarify the effect of fractal hierarchy on the band structures. Firstly, one kind of FPPCs based on Sierpinski triangle routine is proposed. Then the influence of the porosity on the elastic wave dispersion in Sierpinski triangle FPPCs is investigated. The sensitivity of the band structures to the fractal hierarchy is discussed in detail. The results show that the increase of the hierarchy increases the sensitivity of ABG (Absolute band gap) central frequency to the porosity. But further increase of the fractal hierarchy weakens this sensitivity. On the same hierarchy, wider ABGs could be opened in Sierpinski equilateral triangle FPPC; whilst, a lower ABG could be opened at lower porosity in Sierpinski right-angled isosceles FPPCs. These results will provide a meaningful guidance in tuning band structures in porous phononic crystals by fractal design.

  7. When Can One Expect a Stronger Triangle Inequality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiziev, Valerii; Powers, Robert; Sahoo, Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    In 1997, Bailey and Bannister showed that a + b greater than c + h holds for all triangles with [gamma] less than arctan (22/7)where a, b, and c are the sides of the triangle, "h" is the altitude to side "c", and [gamma] is the angle opposite c. In this paper, we show that a + b greater than c + h holds approximately 92% of the time for all…

  8. Perilaku Kecurangan Akademik Mahasiswa Akuntansi: Dimensi Fraud Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Fitriana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examine the dimensions of Fraud Triangle to explain this effect on the student’s cheating. This study uses a model of research The Academic Dishonesty Scale modifi cation. Sample in this study were 217 accounting students in Brawijaya University Malang. Data was collected through survey methods. This study have obtained empirical evidence that student’s cheating behaviorwas determined by the dimensions of the Fraud Triangle consists of incentive, opportunity and rationalization.

  9. Kidney herniation through lumbar triangle following open pyeloplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qais Al Hooti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney herniation through the lumbar triangle is an uncommon type of hernia which is classically managed surgically. Contrast enhanced computerised tomography revealed lower pole of the right kidney herniating through the lumbar triangle in a 60-year-old woman, 10 years after an open right pyeloplasty. Surgical intervention was advised, however, patient opted for non-surgical management. Patient was successfully treated conservatively in clinic requiring regular analgesics for relief of mild pain.

  10. The exact solution of an octagonal rectangle triangle random tiling

    CERN Document Server

    De Gier, J; Gier, Jan de; Nienhuis, Bernard

    1996-01-01

    We present a detailed calculation of the recently published exact solution of a random tiling model possessing an eight-fold symmetric phase. The solution is obtained using Bethe Ansatz and provides closed expressions for the entropy and phason elastic constants. Qualitatively, this model has the same features as the square-triangle random tiling model. We use the method of P. Kalugin, who solved the Bethe Ansatz equations for the square-triangle tiling, which were found by M. Widom.

  11. Coastal sediments of the southeastern shores of the Ría de Arosa (Galicia, NW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de J.D.; Poortman, H.H.

    1966-01-01

    The beaches of the southeastern shore of the Ría de Arosa are in general small and enclosed between rocky capes; especially those along the inner ria are not subjected to strong wave action. Nonetheless, the beach sands are often coarse-grained, being partially derived from the coarse-grained intrus

  12. Coastal sediments of the southeastern shores of the Ría de Arosa (Galicia, NW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de J.D.; Poortman, H.H.

    1966-01-01

    The beaches of the southeastern shore of the Ría de Arosa are in general small and enclosed between rocky capes; especially those along the inner ria are not subjected to strong wave action. Nonetheless, the beach sands are often coarse-grained, being partially derived from the coarse-grained intrus

  13. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Špirutová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this contribution is: “How the green sand systems are influenced by core sands?”This effect is considered by determination of selected technological properties and degree of green sand system re-bonding. From the studies, which have been published yet, there is not consistent opinion on influence of core sand dilution on green sand system properties. In order to simulation of the effect of core sands on the technological properties of green sands, there were applied the most common used technologies of cores production, which are based on bonding with phenolic resin. Core sand concentration added to green sand system, was up to 50 %. Influence of core sand dilution on basic properties of green sand systems was determined by evaluation of basic industrial properties: moisture, green compression strength and splitting strength, wet tensile strength, mixture stability against staling and physical-chemistry properties (pH, conductivity, and loss of ignition. Ratio of active betonite by Methylene blue test was also determined.

  14. Sands cykliske styrke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1992-01-01

    Sands cykliske styrke kan beskrives ved Cyclic Liquefaction, Mobilisering, Stabilization og Instant Stabilization. I artiklen beskrives hvorfor Stabilization og Instant Stabilization ikke observeres, når sands udrænede styrke undersøges i triaxial celler, der anvender prøver med dobbelt prøvehøjde....

  15. Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Bødker, Lars Bødker

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar...

  16. Depositional environments of the subsurface Cretaceous deposits of southeastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, E. S., Jr.

    1981-02-01

    The subsurface Cretaceous deposits of southeastern North Carolina were analyzed. Six lithologic units were recognized. These are, in ascending stratigraphic order: an unnamed Lower Cretaceous unit, Cape Fear Formation, unnamed Upper Cretaceous unit, Middendorf Formation, Black Creek Formation, and Peedee Formation. The unnamed Lower Cretaceous unit contains interbedded fine to medium grained sands, calcareous sandstones, sandy limestones and clays which were deposited in environments ranging from nearshore to fluvial. The Cape Fear Formation consists of very fine to coarse tan sands interbedded with brown and reddish clays. The Upper Cretaceous unnamed unit is composed of tan and yellow medium to coarse sands interbedded with tan and red clays deposited in braided fluvial environments. The Black Creek Formation consists of lignitic dark clays and coarse to very fine sands. Formation is composed of dark green to greenish-gray, micaceous, glauconitic clays and sands interbedded with calcareous sandstones or sandy limestones.

  17. Implementing the Law of Sines to solve SAS triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Zelator, Konstantine

    2010-01-01

    By "solving a triangle", one refers to determining the three sidelengths and the three angles, based on given information.Depending on the specific information, one or more triangles may satisfy the requirements of the given information.In the SAS case, two of sidelengths are given, as well as the angle contained by the two sides.According to Euclidean Geometry, such a triangle must be unique. In reference [1], and pretty much in standard trigonometry and precalculus texts,the Law of Cosines is employed in solving a SAS triangle. In this work we use an alternative approach by using the Law of Cosines.In Section 2, we list some basic trigonometric identities and in Section 3 we prove a lemma which is used in Section4. In Section4, we demonstrate the use of the Law of Sines in solving an SAS triangle. In Section 5 we offer three examples in detail; the last one being more general in nature.

  18. An alternate dissection approach to the female urogenital triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Margaret I; Walters, Linda M

    2013-09-01

    Traditional dissections of the female urogenital (UG) triangle can lead to early destruction of the erectile tissues, associated musculature, and neurovascular structures. Here, we present an alternate dissection of the female UG triangle. Rather than begin the female UG triangle dissection with the fatty tissue of the labia majora, we utilize an early identification of the suspensory ligament of the clitoris to organize the dissection. The suspensory ligament leads to the body of the clitoris, which can be palpated from distal to proximal to find the crura of the clitoris with overlying ischiocavernosus muscles. Once the crura have been defined, the bulbs of the vestibule with overlying bulbospongiosus muscles can be palpated medially and posteriorly. This dissection approach results in a clean dissection that well demonstrates homologies between male and female external genitalia. Through the use of this method, most student dissection attempts are able to demonstrate the erectile tissues and associated musculature that comprise the female UG triangle. This technique can also be used for male UG triangle dissections, encouraging identification of male and female homologies. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Value Triangles in the Management of Building Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate value triangles and their implementation in the management of building projects. The paper is based on results from a research project on space strategies and building values, which included a major case study of the development of facilities for Danish...... Broadcasting Corporation (DR) over time. The conventional iron triangle of quality, cost and schedule for project management is the theoretical starting point, but this is seen as mainly being related to process integrity in the construction stage. It is supplemented by a similar value triangle of cultural...... value, use value and quality of realization for product integrity, mainly for the design stage. Based on this framework an evaluation is made of the value management in six of DR’s building projects from the first around 1930 to the most recent – the new headquarters DR Byen finalised in 2009...

  20. Value Triangles in the Management of Building Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2013-01-01

    value, use value and quality of realization for product integrity, mainly for the design stage. Based on this framework an evaluation is made of the value management in six of DR’s building projects from the first around 1930 to the most recent – the new headquarters DR Byen finalised in 2009......The purpose of this paper is to investigate value triangles and their implementation in the management of building projects. The paper is based on results from a research project on space strategies and building values, which included a major case study of the development of facilities for Danish...... Broadcasting Corporation (DR) over time. The conventional iron triangle of quality, cost and schedule for project management is the theoretical starting point, but this is seen as mainly being related to process integrity in the construction stage. It is supplemented by a similar value triangle of cultural...

  1. Some constructions on total labelling of m triangles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voon, Chen Huey, E-mail: chenhv@utar.edu.my; Hui, Liew How, E-mail: liewhh@utar.edu.my; How, Yim Kheng, E-mail: tidusyimhome@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematical and Actuarial Sciences, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Sungai Long, Bandar Sungai Long, Cheras 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-06-02

    Let mK{sub 3} = (V{sub m}, E{sub m}) be a finite disconnected graph consisting of m disjoint triangles K{sub 3}, where V{sub m} is the set of vertices, E{sub m} is the set of edges and both V{sub m} and E{sub m} are of the same size 3m. A total labelling of mK{sub 3} is a function f which maps the elements in V{sub m} and E{sub m} to positive integer values, i.e. f : V{sub m} ∪ E{sub m} → {1, 2, 3,···}. Let c be a positive integer. A triangle is said have a c-Erdősian triangle labelling if it is a total labelling f : V{sub m} ∪ E{sub m} → {c, c + 1, ···, c + 6m − 1} such that f (x) + f (y) = f (xy) for any x, y ∈ V{sub m} and an edge xy ∈ E{sub m} joining them. In order to find all the c-Erdősian triangle labelling, a straightforward is to use the exhaustive search. However, the exhaustive search is only able to find c-Erdősian triangle labelling for m ≤ 5 due to combinatorial explosion. By studying the constant sum of vertex labels, we propose a strong permutation approach, which allows us to generate a certain classes of c-Erdősian triangle labelling up until m = 8.

  2. Robust Generation of Signed Distance Fields from Triangle Meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2005-01-01

    is then used to convert the binary volume into a distance field. The method is robust and handles holes, spurious triangles and ambiguities. Moreover, the method lends itself to Boolean operations between solids. Since a point cloud as well as a signed distance is generated, it is possible to extract an iso......-surface of the distance field and fit it to the point set. Using this method, one may recover sharp edge information. Examples are given where the method for generating distance fields coupled with mesh fitting is used to perform Boolean and morphological operations on triangle meshes....

  3. Vertex Normals and Face Curvatures of Triangle Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiang

    2016-08-12

    This study contributes to the discrete differential geometry of triangle meshes, in combination with discrete line congruences associated with such meshes. In particular we discuss when a congruence defined by linear interpolation of vertex normals deserves to be called a ʼnormal’ congruence. Our main results are a discussion of various definitions of normality, a detailed study of the geometry of such congruences, and a concept of curvatures and shape operators associated with the faces of a triangle mesh. These curvatures are compatible with both normal congruences and the Steiner formula.

  4. The Average-Case Area of Heilbronn-Type Triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, T.; Li, Ming; Vitányi, Paul

    1999-01-01

    From among $ {n \\choose 3}$ triangles with vertices chosen from $n$ points in the unit square, let $T$ be the one with the smallest area, and let $A$ be the area of $T$. Heilbronn's triangle problem asks for the maximum value assumed by $A$ over all choices of $n$ points. We consider the average-case: If the $n$ points are chosen independently and at random (with a uniform distribution), then there exist positive constants $c$ and $C$ such that $c/n^3 < \\mu_n < C/n^3$ for all large enough val...

  5. Sand and Gravel Deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a statewide polygon coverage of sand, gravel, and stone resources. This database includes the best data available from the VT Agency of Natural...

  6. Sand and Gravel Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes sand and gravel operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  7. Vestled - Hvide Sande

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel-Christiansen, Carsten; Hesselbjerg, Marianne; Schønherr, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Værket Vestled i Hvide Sande præsenteret i sammenhæng af 1000 nutidige landskabsarkitektoniske arbejder fra hele verden, hvor hvert værk vises på én side......Værket Vestled i Hvide Sande præsenteret i sammenhæng af 1000 nutidige landskabsarkitektoniske arbejder fra hele verden, hvor hvert værk vises på én side...

  8. MECHANICAL REGENERATION OF SAND WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Gnir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental activation of the sand regenerator of the firm SINTO is carried out at ОАО “MZOO". It is shown that sand grains are cleared from films of binding agents, that allows to use the treated sand for preparation of agglutinant and core sands.

  9. Cohabitation promotes high diversity of clownfishes in the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Emma F; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; De Brauwer, Maarten; Dumbrell, Alex J; Smith, David J

    2016-03-30

    Global marine biodiversity peaks within the Coral Triangle, and understanding how such high diversity is maintained is a central question in marine ecology. We investigated broad-scale patterns in the diversity of clownfishes and their host sea anemones by conducting 981 belt-transects at 20 locations throughout the Indo-Pacific. Of the 1508 clownfishes encountered, 377 fish occurred in interspecific cohabiting groups and cohabitation was almost entirely restricted to the Coral Triangle. Neither the diversity nor density of host anemone or clownfish species alone influenced rates of interspecific cohabitation. Rather cohabitation occurred in areas where the number of clownfish species exceeds the number of host anemone species. In the Coral Triangle, cohabiting individuals were observed to finely partition their host anemone, with the subordinate species inhabiting the periphery. Furthermore, aggression did not increase in interspecific cohabiting groups, instead dominant species were accepting of subordinate species. Various combinations of clownfish species were observed cohabiting (independent of body size, phylogenetic relatedness, evolutionary age, dentition, level of specialization) in a range of anemone species, thereby ensuring that each clownfish species had dominant reproductive individuals in some cohabiting groups. Clownfishes are obligate commensals, thus cohabitation is an important process in maintaining biodiversity in high diversity systems because it supports the persistence of many species when host availability is limiting. Cohabitation is a likely explanation for high species richness in other obligate commensals within the Coral Triangle, and highlights the importance of protecting these habitats in order to conserve unique marine biodiversity.

  10. The Roots of Adjoint Polynomial of the Graphs Contain Triangles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YECheng-fu

    2004-01-01

    We denote h(G,x) as the adjoint polynomial of graph G. In [5], Ma obtained the interpolation properties of the roots of adjoint polynomial of graphs containing triangles. By the properties, we prove the non-zero root of adjoint polynomial of Dn and Fn are single multiple.

  11. On Feynman's Triangle Problem and the Routh Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yiu-Kwong

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we give a brief history of the Feynman's Triangle problem and describe a simple method to solve a general version of this problem, which is called the Routh Theorem. This method could be found useful to school teachers, instructors or lecturers who are involved in teaching geometry.

  12. Characteristic mixing triangles in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.

    Temperature-salinity structures in the inner part of Bay of Bengal showed complete mixing processes in the upper bay, less than about 600 m can be characterisEd. by a mixing triangle constitutEd. by three characteristic water properties. In outer...

  13. Simplified triangle method for estimating evaporative fraction over soybean crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Fuzzo, Daniela Fernanda; Rocha, Jansle Vieira

    2016-10-01

    Accurate estimates are emerging with technological advances in remote sensing, and the triangle method has demonstrated to be a useful tool for the estimation of evaporative fraction (EF). The purpose of this study was to estimate the EF using the triangle method at the regional level. We used data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer orbital sensor, referring to indices of surface temperature and vegetation index for a 10-year period (2002/2003 to 2011/2012) of cropping seasons in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The triangle method has shown considerable results for the EF, and the validation of the estimates, as compared to observed data of climatological water balance, showed values >0.8 for modified "d" of Wilmott and R2 values between 0.6 and 0.7 for some counties. The errors were low for all years analyzed, and the test showed that the estimated data are very close to the observed data. Based on statistical validation, we can say that the triangle method is a consistent tool, is useful as it uses only images of remote sensing as variables, and can provide support for monitoring large-scale agroclimatic, specially for countries of great territorial dimensions, such as Brazil, which lacks a more dense network of meteorological ground stations, i.e., the country does not appear to cover a large field for data.

  14. The incenter of a triangle as a cone isoperimetric center

    CERN Document Server

    O'Hara, Jun

    2010-01-01

    We show that the the image of the regular projection of a vertex of a cone over a triangle that minimizes the ratio of the cube of the area of the boundary of the cone and the square of the volume of the cone coincides with the incenter.

  15. Some Geometric Inequalities Relating to an Interior Point in Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Dong; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Liang, Chun-Lei

    2010-01-01

    In this short note, by using one of Li and Liu's theorems [K.-H. Li, "The solution of CIQ. 39," "Commun. Stud. Inequal." 11(1) (2004), p. 162 (in Chinese)], "s-R-r" method, Cauchy's inequality and the theory of convex function, we solve some geometric inequalities conjectures relating to an interior point in triangle. (Contains 1 figure.)

  16. Eigenstructure of the equilateral triangle, Part II: The Neumann problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. McCartin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Lame's formulas for the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Laplacian with Neumann boundary conditions on an equilateral triangle are derived using direct elementary mathematical techniques. They are shown to form a complete orthonormal system. Various properties of the spectrum and nodal lines are explored. Implications for related geometries are considered.

  17. Triangle of Safety Technique: A New Approach to Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman F. M. S. Almutairi

    2009-01-01

    dissection of the Calot's triangle can lead to such injuries. The aim of the authors in this study is to present a new safe triangle of dissection. Patients and Method. 501 patients under went LC in the following approach; The cystic artery is identified and mobilized from the gall bladder (GB medial wall down towards the cystic duct which would simultaneously divide the medial GB peritoneal attachment. This is then followed by dividing the lateral peritoneal attachment. The GB will be unfolded and the borders of the triangle of safety (TST are achieved: cystic artery medially, cystic duct laterally and the gallbladder wall superiorly. The floor of the triangle is then divided to delineate both cystic duct and artery in an area relatively far from CBD. Results. There were little significant immediate or delayed complications. The mean operating time was 68 minutes, nearly equivalent to the conventional method. Conclusions. Dissection at TST appears to be a safe procedure which clearly demonstrates the cystic duct and may help to reduce the CBD injuries.

  18. On Elliptic Curves Via Heron Triangles and Diophantine Triples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Izadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we construct families of elliptic curves arising from the Heron triangles and Diophantine triples with the Mordell-Weil torsion subgroup of Z/2Z × Z/2Z. These families have ranks at least 2 and 3, respectively, and contain particular examples with rank equal to 7

  19. Determination of the CKM unitarity triangle parameters by end 1999

    CERN Document Server

    Caravaglios, F; Roudeau, Patrick; Stocchi, A

    2000-01-01

    Within the Standard Model, a review of the current determination of the CKMunitarity triangle parameters is presented, using experimental constraints fromthe measurements of |epsilon_K|, V_ub/V_cb, Delta m_d and from the limit onDelta m_s, available by end 1999.

  20. The triangle anomaly in the tripple-regge limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, A. R.

    1999-11-22

    The U(l) triangle anomaly is present, as an infra-red divergence, in the six-reggeon triple-regge interaction vertex obtained from a maximally non-planar Feynman diagram in the full triple-regge limit of three-to-three quark scattering.

  1. Exploring Dissections of Rectangles into Right-Angled Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In this article we highlight how a simple classroom activity associated with the dissection of rectangles into right-angled triangles can lead on to a number of interesting explorations for students following a post-16 mathematics course. Several results connected with this construction are obtained, and some of the educational benefits of…

  2. A Classroom Note on Generating Examples for the Laws of Sines and Cosines from Pythagorean Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Lawrence; Sher, David

    2007-01-01

    By selecting certain special triangles, students can learn about the laws of sines and cosines without wrestling with long decimal representations or irrational numbers. Since the law of cosines requires only one of the three angles of a triangle, there are many examples of triangles with integral sides and a cosine that can be represented exactly…

  3. Bituminous sands : tax issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, B. [PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper examined some of the tax issues associated with the production of bitumen or synthetic crude oil from oil sands. The oil sands deposits in Alberta are gaining more attention as the supplies of conventional oil in Canada decline. The oil sands reserves located in the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River areas contain about 2.5 trillion barrels of highly viscous hydrocarbons called bitumen, of which nearly 315 billion barrels are recoverable with current technology. The extraction method varies for each geographic area, and even within zones and reservoirs. The two most common extraction methods are surface mining and in-situ extraction such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS); low pressure steam flood; pressure cycle steam drive; steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD); hot water flooding; and, fire flood. This paper also discussed the following general tax issues: bituminous sands definition; bituminous sands leases and Canadian development expense versus Canadian oil and gas property expense (COGPE); Canadian exploration expense (CEE) for surface mining versus in-situ methods; additional capital cost allowance; and, scientific research and experimental development (SR and ED). 15 refs.

  4. Lund Sand No 0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Finn Rosendal

    During the last 15 years the Geotechnical Engineering Group (GEG) at Aalborg University has performed triaxial tests with a sand called Lund No 0. Lund No 0 is a graded sand from a gravel pit near Horsens in Denmark. For the classification of the sand the following tests have been performed: Sieve...... test, Grain density, ds, Maximum, emax, and minimum, emin, void ratio. The strength parameters of Lund No 0 are detennined by some drained and undrained triaxial tests in the Danish Triaxial Cell. The Danish Triaxial Cell prescribes smooth pressure heads and specimens with equal height and diameter....... Four series with Id equal to 0.92, 0.87 0.76 and 0.55 have been performed....

  5. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and N fertilization on bahiagrass pastures in the Southeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on pasture systems remain understudied in the Southeastern US. A 10-year study of bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flüggé) response to elevated CO2 was established in 2005 using open top field chambers on a Blanton loamy sand (loamy siliceous, thermic, Grossarenic...

  6. UK Frac Sand Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, C J

    2015-01-01

    Although still just a glimmer in the gas man’s eye, the prospect of shale hydrocarbon (oil and gas) development in the UK has many companies thinking about the industrial minerals it will require. Chief amongst these is silica sand which is used as a ‘proppant’ in the hydraulic fracturing, or ‘fracking’, of shales to help release the gas. The UK has large resources of sand and sandstone, of which only a small proportion have the necessary technical properties that classify them as ‘silica san...

  7. Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system in Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina.

  8. List Total Colorings of Planar Graphs without Triangles at Small Distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin LIU; Jian Feng HOU; Gui Zhen LIU

    2011-01-01

    Suppose that G is a planar graph with maximum degree △.In this paper it is proved that G is total-( △+ 2)-choosable if (1) △ ≥7 and G has no adjacent triangles (i.e.,no two triangles are incident with a common edge); or (2) △ ≥ 6 and G has no intersecting triangles (i.e.,no two triangles are incident with a common vertex); or (3) △ ≥ 5,G has no adjacent triangles and G has no k-cycles for some integer k ∈ {5,6}.

  9. Detection on Straight Line Problem in Triangle Geometry Features for Digit Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Arbain

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Geometric object especially triangle geometry has been widely used in digit recognition area. The triangle geometry properties have been implemented as the triangle features which are used to construct the triangle shape. Triangle is formed based on three points of triangle corner A, B and C. However, a problem occurs when three points of triangle corner were in parallel line. Thus, an algorithm has been proposed in order to solve the straight line problem. The Support Vector Machine (SVM and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP were used to measure based on the classification accuracy. Four datasets were used: HODA, IFCHDB, MNIST and BANGLA. The comparison results classification demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  10. Building with Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of…

  11. Faraday, Jets, and Sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandtke, M.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Versluis, Andreas Michel; Lohse, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    When a 6-mm layer of fine sand with an average grain size of 40 µm is poured into a cylindrical container and shaken vertically, thin jets are seen to emerge from an airy cloud of grains, almost like protuberances from the corona of the sun. A quasi two-dimensional setup reveals the jet-formation

  12. Building with Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of…

  13. Speleothems and Sand Castles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hance, Trevor; Befus, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The idea of building sand castles evokes images of lazy summer days at the beach, listening to waves crash, enjoying salty breezes, and just unplugging for a while to let our inner child explore the wonderful natural toys beneath our feet. The idea of exploring caves might evoke feelings and images of claustrophobia or pioneers and Native…

  14. Virksomhedens sande ansigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundholt, Marianne Wolff

    2017-01-01

    Er modhistorier en byrde eller en styrke i forandringsprocesser? Hvad stiller vi op, når adgangen til organisationens sande identitet går gennem medarbejdernes modhistorier? Når vi sammenholder denne erkendelse med vores viden om, at medarbejdere helt naturligt afholder sig fra at videregive disse...

  15. Sand (CSW4)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Estuarine and Coastal Research Unit

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available This report is one of a series on Cape Estuaries being published under the general title "The Estuaries of the Cape, Part 2". The report provides information on sand estuary: historical background, abiotic and biotic characteristics. It is pointed...

  16. Sand supply to beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2017-04-01

    In most cases, beaches and dunes are built by sand that has been transported onshore from the shoreface. While this has been known for a long time, we are still not able to quantitatively predict onshore sediment transport and sand supply to beaches. Sediment transport processes operating during brief, high-energy stormy conditions - when beaches erode and sand moves offshore - are fairly well known and they can be modelled with a reasonable degree of confidence. However, the slower onshore sand transport leading to beach recovery under low-to-moderate energy conditions - and the reason why beaches and dunes exist in the first place - is not yet well understood. This severely limits our capability to understand and predict coastal behaviour on long time scales, for example in response to changing sea level or wave conditions. This paper will discuss issues and recent developments in sediment transport measurement and prediction on the lower and upper shoreface and into the swash zone. The focus will be on the integration and upscaling of small-scale deterministic process measurements into parametric models that may increase modelling capabilities of coastal behaviour on larger temporal and spatial scales.

  17. On degree sums of a triangle-free graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Harant, J.; Naumann, S.

    2014-01-01

    For a simple triangle-free k-chromatic graph G with k >= 2 the upper bound m(n-f (k-2)) on the sum Sigma(2)(G) = Sigma(x is an element of V(G))d(2)(x) of the squares of the degrees of G is proved, where n, m, and f(1) are the order of G, the size of G, and the minimum order of a triangle-free l-c......-chromatic graph, respectively. Consequences of this bound are discussed. Moreover, we generalize the upper bound on Ep (G) = Sigma(p)(G) = Sigma(x is an element of V(G))d(x)) for p = 2 to P >= 3. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. Applied psychometrics in clinical psychiatry: the pharmacopsychometric triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety, antidepress......OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety......, antidepressive, antimanic, and antipsychotic), of clinically unwanted effects of these drugs, and the patients' own subjective perception of the balance between wanted and unwanted effects are analysed using rating scales assessed by modern psychometric tests (item response theory models) RESULTS: Symptom rating...... scales fulfilling the item response theory models have been shown to be psychometrically valid outcome scales as their total scores are sufficient statistics for demonstrating dose-response relationship within the various classes of antianxiety, antidepressive, antimanic or antipsychotic drugs. The total...

  19. The Software Industry in the Coffee Triangle of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Albeiro; Joyanes, Luis; López, Marcelo

    The so-called "Coffee Triangle" region is located in the Andean Region, in central Colombia, South America. This Andean Region is composed of the Departments of Caldas, Quindío and Risaralda. The Andean Region has been characterized by the production of coffee as a worldwide industry supported by high Quality and Research standards. These components have become the key bastions to compete in international markets. After the decline of the Coffee industry it is necessary to consider alternatives, supplemented by the success of the Software Industry at the global level. The strengthening of the Software Industry in the Coffee Triangle seeks to establish a productive alternative for regional growth in a visionary way, where knowledge, a fundamental input of the Software Industry, is emerging as one of the greatest assets present in this geographical area - Andean Region - of Colombia.

  20. Absence of Posterior Triangle: Clinical and Embryological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shikha; Loh, Hitendra Kumar; Mehta, Vandana; Suri, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and Trapezius (TM) muscle present in the cervical region serves as an important landmark in forming boundaries of posterior triangle of neck. This case reports a continuous muscle sheet obscuring the left posterior triangle in the neck of a 60-year-old Indian male cadaver. An unfamiliar oval gap was observed in its posterosuperior portion. Description of such a variant in anatomical literature is rare and is scarcely reported. An attempt has been made to portray its embryological and phylogenetic basis. In addition authors have endeavoured to discuss its clinical implications. Awareness of such anatomical variations is relevant for the operating surgeons in their endeavour to perform various reconstruction surgeries of head and neck, radiologists while concluding various levels in Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of the region and to the anaesthetists in their search for nerves and vessels while attempting various anaesthetic procedures. PMID:28384846

  1. Self-assembly of self-assembled molecular triangles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mili C Naranthatta; V Ramkumar; Dillip Kumar Chand

    2014-09-01

    A rare variety of self-assembledmolecular triangle [Pd3(bpy)3(imidazolate)3](NO3)3, 1 is prepared by the combination of Pd(bpy)(NO3)2 with imidazole, at 1:1 ratio, in acetonitrile-water. Deprotonation of imidazole happened during the course of the complexation reaction where upon the metallomacrocycle is formed. The bowl-shaped trinuclear architecture of 1 is crafted with three peripheral bpy units capable of - stacking interactions. While the solution state structure of 1 can be best described as a trinuclear complex, in the solidstate well-fashioned intermolecular - and CH- interactions are observed. Thus, in the solid-state further self-assembly of already self-assembled molecular triangle is witnessed. The triangular panels are arranged in a linear manner utilizing intermolecular - interactions where upon two out of three bpy units of each molecule participated in the chain formation.

  2. Emerging lattice approach to the K-Unitarity Triangle

    CERN Document Server

    Lehner, Christoph; Soni, Amarjit

    2015-01-01

    It has been clear for past many years that in low energy observables new physics can only appear as a perturbation. Therefore precise theoretical predictions and precise experimental measurements have become mandatory. Here we draw attention to the significant advances that have been made on the lattice in recent years in $K\\to \\pi \\pi$, $\\Delta M_K$, the long-distance part of $\\varepsilon$ and rare K-decays. Thus, in conjunction with experiments, the construction of a unitarity triangle purely from Kaon physics should soon become feasible. Along with the B-unitarity triangle, this should allow for more stringent tests of the Standard Model and tighter constraints on new physics.

  3. Algebraic proof and application of Lumley's realizability triangle

    CERN Document Server

    Gerolymos, G A

    2016-01-01

    Lumley [Lumley J.L.: Adv. Appl. Mech. 18 (1978) 123--176] provided a geometrical proof that any Reynolds-stress tensor $\\overline{u_i'u_j'}$ (indeed any tensor whose eigenvalues are invariably nonnegative) should remain inside the so-called Lumley's realizability triangle. An alternative formal algebraic proof is given that the anisotropy invariants of any positive-definite symmetric Cartesian rank-2 tensor in the 3-D Euclidian space $\\mathbb{E}^3$ define a point which lies within the realizability triangle. This general result applies therefore not only to $\\overline{u_i'u_j'}$ but also to many other tensors that appear in the analysis and modeling of turbulent flows. Typical examples are presented based on DNS data for plane channel flow.

  4. Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruy, H.J.

    1998-03-01

    Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

  5. Triangle Interception Scenario: A Finite-Time Guidance Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering an aircraft threatened by an interceptor, one of the effective penetration strategies is to release a Defender from the aircraft to confront the interceptor. In this case, the aircraft, the Defender, and the interceptor constitute the three-body guidance relationship, and the cooperation of the aircraft and its Defender to achieve the best tactical effects turns into a concerned problem. This paper studies the triangle interception guidance problem via the finite-time theory. The paper presents linear system Input-Output Finite-Time Stabilization (IO-FTS method. The sufficient conditions of the linear system, being IO-FTS, under Finite-Time Boundedness (FTB constraint are proposed, by which the state feedback controllers design method is obtained, via Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs. The triangle interception guidance problems are studied in three different cases, where the proposed methods are applied to the guidance design. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  6. Fibroma of tendon sheath located within Kager's triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Eva; Witlox, Marianne A; Hermus, Joris P S

    2014-01-01

    The formation of a fibroma of the tendon sheath, a rare, slow-growing, benign tumor, usually occurs in the upper extremities of young adult males. We present an extremely rare case of a fibroma of the tendon sheath arising adjacent to the Achilles tendon within Kager's triangle in a 41-year-old female. The patient presented with progressive pain localized to the posterior aspect of the left ankle. Complete excision and histopathologic analysis of the fibroma were performed. The patient experienced an uneventful recovery after the intervention and had no evidence of recurrence after 3 months of follow-up. Fibroma of the tendon sheath should be included in the differential diagnosis when a patient presents with a painful soft tissue mass in Kager's triangle.

  7. Triangle-based key management scheme for wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hangyang DAI; Hongbing XU

    2009-01-01

    For security services in wireless sensor net-works, key management is a fundamental building block.In this article, we propose a triangle-based key predis-tribution approach and show that it can improve the effectiveness of key management in wireless sensor networks. This is achieved by using the bivariate polynomial in a triangle deployment system based on deployment information about expected locations of the sensor nodes. The analysis indicates that this scheme can achieve higher probability of both direct key establishment and indirect key establishment. On the other hand, the security analysis shows that its security against node capture would increase with a decrease of the sensor node deployment density and size of the deployment model and an increase of the polynomial degree.

  8. Erosion phenomena in sand moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chojecki

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Authors studicd the erosion phcnorncna in sand moulds pured with cast iron. Thc study comprises an evaluation of erosionresistance of thc three sands: grccn sand. sand bondcd with inorganic or organic bindcr. It was concluded that thc most resistant is [heclassic green sand with thc addition of 5 B coal dust. Resistance of the sand with organic binder is generally weak and dcvnds onkind of used raisin. Spccinl nztcntion was paid to the sands with no organic bindcr watcr glass and phospha~c. It was Sound that thcirrcsistance depends on dehydratation conditions. When the mould is stored in law humidity of atmosphcrc the very strong crosion canbe expected. It rcsul ts hrn thc micro fractures in the bridges of binders, joining the grains of the sable. This phcnomcna facilitates thetearing away of fragments of sand [tom the surface

  9. Acyclic Edge Coloring of Planar Graphs without Adjacent Triangles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dezheng XIE; Yanqing WU

    2012-01-01

    An acyclic edge coloring of a graph G is a proper edge coloring such that there are no bichromatic cycles.The acyclic edge chromatic number of a graph G is the minimum number k such that there exists an acyclic edge coloring using k colors and is denoted by x'a(G).In this paper we prove that x'a(G)≤ Δ(G)+ 5 for planar graphs G without adjacent triangles.

  10. Factors of binomial sums from the Catalan triangle

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Victor J W

    2009-01-01

    By using the Newton interpolation formula, we generalize the recent identities on the Catalan triangle obtained by Miana and Romero as well as those of Chen and Chu. We further study divisibility properties of sums of products of binomial coefficients and an odd power of a natural number. For example, we prove that for all positive integers $n_1, ..., n_m$, $n_{m+1}=n_1$, and any nonnegative integer $r$, the expression

  11. Navigating the void : international contemporary art and the triangle network

    OpenAIRE

    Crane, Emily

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores the artist-led initiatives associated with the Triangle Network in the United States, United Kingdom, Southern Africa and South Asia, between 1982 and 2015. It considers how artists have set up artist-led initiatives as a response to different circumstances in these regions, and how the idea of a network has influence this development. It is specifically concerned with how artist-led initiatives have contributed to shifts in art-world infrastructures and...

  12. Quantum Algorithms for Finding Claws, Collisions and Triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, H; Hoyer, P; Magniez, F; Santha, M; De Wolf, R; Buhrman, Harry; Durr, Christoph; Hoyer, Peter; Magniez, Frederic; Santha, Miklos; Wolf, Ronald de

    2000-01-01

    We present several applications of quantum amplitude amplification to finding claws and collisions in ordered or unordered functions. Our algorithms generalize those of Brassard, Hoyer, and Tapp, and imply an N^{3/4} log(N) quantum upper bound for the element distinctness problem (contrasting with N\\log(N) classical complexity). We also give an algorithm to finding a triangle in a graph more efficiently than classically.

  13. Pythagorean Triangles with Repeated Digits-Repeated Bases

    CERN Document Server

    Muzaffar, Habib

    2009-01-01

    In 1998, in the winter issue of the journal Mathematics and Computer education (see [1]), Monte Zerger posed the following problem. He had noticed the Pythagorean triple (216,630,666);(216)^2+(630)^2=(666)^2. Note that 216=6^3 and 666 is the hypotenuse length. The question was then, whether there existed a digit d and a positive integer k(other than the above); such that d^k is the leglength of a Pythagorean triangle whose hypotenuse length has exactly k digits, each being equal to d. In 1999, F.Luca and P.Bruckman, answered the above question in the negative. In 2001, K.Zelator(see [2]), took this question further and showed that no Pythagorean triangle exists such that one leg has length d^k, while the other leglegth has exactly k digits in its decimal expansion, with each digit bein equal to d. In this work, we explore the above phenomenon from the point of view of number bases other than 10. We prove five Theorems. As an example, in Theorem 1, we prove that there exists no Pythagorean triangle with one of...

  14. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  15. [Traumatic lumbar hernia of the Petit's triangle. A clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, L; Paino, O; Ginardi, A

    1996-12-01

    Lumbar hernias are very rare and no more than 300 are reported in literature. They can be classified as congenital and acquired. The latter are in turn subdivided into primary and secondary. Secondary traumatic lumbar hernias account for 25% of all cases. The site of the formation of this hernia is mainly Grynfelt's triangle and, to a lesser extent, Petit's triangle. Traumatic lumbar hernia have very moderate symptoms and may be corrected surgically relatively easily, in particular with the use of Marlex nets. Recidivations can be easily identified owing to the lack of aponeurotic support structures in this anatomic site. Owing to their traumatic etiopathogenesis these hernias are of particular medicolegal importance for the purposes of indemnity. The case reported refers to a 46-years-old man involved in a road accident who sustained an injury caused by the explosion of hollow viscera in the abdomen and the subsequent onset of a hernia swelling through Petit's triangle in the right lumbar region. Owing to the width of the breach, plastic surgery was carried out using a Marlex graft. A large recidivation was observed around one year later.

  16. The disease triangle: pathogens, the environment and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholthof, Karen-Beth G

    2007-02-01

    The primary means to define any disease is by naming a pathogen or agent that negatively affects the health of the host organism. Another assumed, but often overlooked, determinant of disease is the environment, which includes deleterious physical and social effects on mankind. The disease triangle is a conceptual model that shows the interactions between the environment, the host and an infectious (or abiotic) agent. This model can be used to predict epidemiological outcomes in plant health and public health, both in local and global communities. Here, the Irish potato famine of the mid-nineteenth century is used as an example to show how the disease triangle, originally devised to interpret plant disease outcomes, can be applied to public health. In parallel, malaria is used to discuss the role of the environment in disease transmission and control. In both examples, the disease triangle is used as a tool to discuss parameters that influence socioeconomic outcomes as a result of host-pathogen interactions involving plants and humans.

  17. Emerging lattice approach to the K-unitarity triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Christoph; Lunghi, Enrico; Soni, Amarjit

    2016-08-01

    It has been clear for the past several years that new physics in the quark sector can only appear, in low energy observables, as a perturbation. Therefore precise theoretical predictions and precise experimental measurements have become mandatory. Here we draw attention to the significant advances that have been made in lattice QCD simulations in recent years in K → ππ, in the long-distance contribution to indirect CP violation in the Kaon system (ε) and in rare K-decays. Thus, in conjunction with experiments, the construction of a unitarity triangle purely from Kaon physics should soon become feasible. We want to emphasize that in our approach to the K-unitarity triangle, the ability of lattice QCD methods to systematically improve the calculation of the direct CP-violation parameter (ε‧) plays a pivotal role. Along with the B-unitarity triangle, this could allow, depending on the pattern of new physics, for more stringent tests of the Standard Model and tighter constraints on new physics.

  18. Surface roughness stabilizes the clustering of self-propelled triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilse, Sven Erik; Holm, Christian; de Graaf, Joost

    2016-10-01

    Self-propelled particles can spontaneously form dense phases from a dilute suspension in a process referred to as motility-induced phase separation. The properties of the out-of-equilibrium structures that are formed are governed by the specifics of the particle interactions and the strength of the activity. Thus far, most studies into the formation of these structures have focused on spherical colloids, dumbbells, and rod-like particles endowed with various interaction potentials. Only a few studies have examined the collective behavior of more complex particle shapes. Here, we increase the geometric complexity and use molecular dynamics simulations to consider the structures formed by triangular self-propelled particles with surface roughness. These triangles either move towards their apex or towards their base, i.e., they possess a polarity. We find that apex-directed triangles cluster more readily, more stably, and have a smoother cluster interface than their base-directed counterparts. A difference between the two polarities is in line with the results of Wensink et al. [Phys. Rev. E 89, 010302 (2014)]; however, we obtain the reversed result when it comes to clustering, namely, that apex-directed triangles cluster more successfully. We further show that reducing the surface roughness negatively impacts the stability of the base-directed structures, suggesting that their formation is in large part due to surface roughness. Our results lay a solid foundation for future experimental and computational studies into the effect of roughness on the collective dynamics of swimmers.

  19. In vitro study of the aortic interleaflet triangle reshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vismara, R; Leopaldi, A M; Mangini, A; Romagnoni, C; Contino, M; Antona, C; Fiore, G B

    2014-01-22

    Aortic interleaflet triangle reshaping (AITR) is a surgical approach to aortic valve incontinence that involves placing three stitches at half of the interleaflet triangles height. In this work, the relationship between the actual stitch height and valve functioning, and the safety margin that the surgeon can rely on in applying the stitches were systematically investigated in vitro. AITR surgery was applied to six swine aortic roots placing the stitches empirically at 50%, 60% and 75% of the triangle heights. Then the actual stitch heights were measured and the hydrodynamic performances were evaluated with a pulsatile hydrodynamic mock loop. Actual stitch heights were 45±2%, 61±4% and 79±6%. As compared to untreated conditions, the 50% configuration induced a significant variation in the effective orifice area. With stitches placed at 60%, the mean systolic pressure drop increased significantly with respect to the untreated case, but no significant changes were recorded with respect to the 50% configuration. At 75%, all the hydrodynamic parameters of systolic valve functioning worsened significantly. Summarizing, the AITR technique, when performed in a conservative manner did not induce significant alterations in the hydrodynamics of the aortic root in vitro, while more aggressive configurations did. The absence of a statistically significant difference between the 50% and 60% configurations suggests that there is a reasonably limited risk of inducing valve stenosis in the post-op scenario due to stitch misplacement.

  20. Algorithmic self-assembly of DNA Sierpinski triangles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W K Rothemund

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms and information, fundamental to technological and biological organization, are also an essential aspect of many elementary physical phenomena, such as molecular self-assembly. Here we report the molecular realization, using two-dimensional self-assembly of DNA tiles, of a cellular automaton whose update rule computes the binary function XOR and thus fabricates a fractal pattern--a Sierpinski triangle--as it grows. To achieve this, abstract tiles were translated into DNA tiles based on double-crossover motifs. Serving as input for the computation, long single-stranded DNA molecules were used to nucleate growth of tiles into algorithmic crystals. For both of two independent molecular realizations, atomic force microscopy revealed recognizable Sierpinski triangles containing 100-200 correct tiles. Error rates during assembly appear to range from 1% to 10%. Although imperfect, the growth of Sierpinski triangles demonstrates all the necessary mechanisms for the molecular implementation of arbitrary cellular automata. This shows that engineered DNA self-assembly can be treated as a Turing-universal biomolecular system, capable of implementing any desired algorithm for computation or construction tasks.

  1. Putting matters on the triangle-hinge models

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Umeda, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper [arXiv:1503.08812] a new class of models generating three-dimensional random volumes are introduced, where the Boltzmann weight of each configuration is given by the product of values assigned to the triangles and the hinges. These triangle-hinge models are characterized by semisimple associative algebras, and the set of possible diagrams can be reduced such that only and all of the three-dimensional manifolds with tetrahedral decompositions are generated. In this letter, we give a general prescription to put matters on the models. We show that the degrees of freedom representing matter fields can be assigned to simplices of any dimensions (tetrahedra, triangles, edges and vertices) in such a way that they have local interactions. Simple examples include the Ising model, the q-state Potts models and the RSOS models coupled to three-dimensional quantum gravity. We also show that the three-dimensional colored tensor models can be obtained by putting specific matters on both tetrahedra and tria...

  2. On Pluvial Compaction of Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Moust

    At the Institute of Civil Engineering in Aalborg model tests on dry sand specimens have been carried out during the last five years. To reduce deviations in test results, the sand laying technique has been carefully studied, and the sand mass spreader constructed. Preliminary results have been...

  3. Sand hazards on tourist beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W

    2013-01-01

    Visiting the beach is a popular tourist activity worldwide. Unfortunately, the beach environment is abundant with hazards and potential danger to the unsuspecting tourist. While the traditional focus of beach safety has been water safety oriented, there is growing concern about the risks posed by the sand environment on beaches. This study reports on the death and near death experience of eight tourists in the collapse of sand holes, sand dunes, and sand tunnels. Each incident occurred suddenly and the complete burial in sand directly contributed to the victims injury or death in each case report.

  4. PROCESSING OF MONAZITE SAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, G.D.; Bohlmann, E.G.

    1957-12-01

    A process for the recovery of thorium, uranium, and rare earths from monazite sands is presented. The sands are first digested and dissolved in concentrated NaOH, and the solution is then diluted causing precipitation of uranium, thorium and rare earth hydroxides. The precipitate is collected and dissolved in HCl, and the pH of this solution is adjusted to about 6, precipitating the hydroxides of thorium and uranium but leaving the rare earths in solution. The rare earths are then separated from the solution by precipitation at a still higher pH. The thorium and uranium containing precipitate is redissolved in HNO/sub 3/ and the two elements are separated by extraction into tributyl phosphate and back extraction with a weakly acidic solution to remove the thorium.

  5. Moving sand dunes

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    In several desert areas, the slow motion of sand dunes can be a challenge for modern human activities and a threat for the survival of ancient places or archaeological sites. However, several methods exist for surveying the dune fields and estimate their migration rate. Among these methods, the use of satellite images, in particular of those freely available on the World Wide Web, is a convenient resource for the planning of future human settlements and activities.

  6. Booming Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Nathalie

    "Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local

  7. Coastal geology and recent origins for Sand Point, Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Timothy G.; Krantz, David E.; Castaneda, Mario R.; Loope, Walter L.; Jol, Harry M.; Goble, Ronald J.; Higley, Melinda C.; DeWald, Samantha; Hansen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Sand Point is a small cuspate foreland located along the southeastern shore of Lake Superior within Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore near Munising, Michigan. Park managers’ concerns for the integrity of historic buildings at the northern periphery of the point during the rising lake levels in the mid-1980s greatly elevated the priority of research into the geomorphic history and age of Sand Point. To pursue this priority, we recovered sediment cores from four ponds on Sand Point, assessed subsurface stratigraphy onshore and offshore using geophysical techniques, and interpreted the chronology of events using radiocarbon and luminescence dating. Sand Point formed at the southwest edge of a subaqueous platform whose base is probably constructed of glacial diamicton and outwash. During the post-glacial Nipissing Transgression, the base was mantled with sand derived from erosion of adjacent sandstone cliffs. An aerial photograph time sequence, 1939–present, shows that the periphery of the platform has evolved considerably during historical time, infl uenced by transport of sediment into adjacent South Bay. Shallow seismic refl ections suggest slump blocks along the leading edge of the platform. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and shallow seismic refl ections to the northwest of the platform reveal large sand waves within a deep (12 m) channel produced by currents fl owing episodically to the northeast into Lake Superior. Ground-penetrating radar profi les show transport and deposition of sand across the upper surface of the platform. Basal radiocarbon dates from ponds between subaerial beach ridges range in age from 540 to 910 cal yr B.P., suggesting that Sand Point became emergent during the last ~1000 years, upon the separation of Lake Superior from Lakes Huron and Michigan. However, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from the beach ridges were two to three times as old as the radiocarbon ages, implying that emergence of Sand Point may have begun

  8. Sediment mathematical model for sand ridges and sand waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Daming; WANG Xiao; WANG Xin; LI Yangyang

    2016-01-01

    A new theoretical model is formulated to describe internal movement mechanisms of the sand ridges and sand waves based on the momentum equation of a solid-liquid two-phase flow under a shear flow. Coupling this equation with two-dimensional shallow water equations and wave reflection-diffraction equation of mild slope, a two-dimensional coupling model is established and a validation is carried out by observed hydrogeology, tides, waves and sediment. The numerical results are compared with available observations. Satisfactory agreements are achieved. This coupling model is then applied to the Dongfang 1-1 Gas Field area to quantitatively predict the movement and evolution of submarine sand ridges and sand waves. As a result, it is found that the sand ridges and sand waves movement distance increases year by year, but the development trend is stable.

  9. Teaching and learning apheresis medicine: The Bermuda Triangle in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookston, Kendall P; Richter, Deana M

    2010-01-01

    Apheresis Medicine has evolved markedly due to an explosion of knowledge and technology, whereas the time available for training has shrunk as curricula have become increasingly overloaded. Apheresis teaching has inherited a strong clinical context where real patient problems are used in a hands-on environment. To optimize instruction, those involved in the education of apheresis professionals need to have (1) knowledge of how clinical laboratory medicine education has developed as a field, (2) an understanding of what is known from theory and research about how people learn, and (3) the skills to design teaching/learning activities in ways consistent with literature-based principles of adult education. These developments in education provide a context for curriculum projects currently underway by the American Society for Apheresis. Teachers must determine which competencies are central to the essence of a trained professional. Specific, robust, learning objectives targeted toward the development of higher levels of thinking, professional attitudes, and requisite skills are formulated to guide the learner toward mastering those competencies. Curriculum is developed for each objective, consisting of content and the best teaching/learning methods to help learners attain the objective. Appropriate assessment strategies are identified to determine whether the objective is being achieved. The integration of objectives, curriculum, and assessment creates The Bermuda Triangle of Education (Richter, The Circle of Learning and Bermuda Triangle in Education, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, 2004). When educators do not effectively navigate The Bermuda Triangle of Education, learning may disappear into the murky depths of confusion and apathy. When successfully navigated, the result will be a significant learning experience that leads to transformation through education. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Variability in reef connectivity in the Coral Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. M.; Kleypas, J. A.; Castruccio, F. S.; Watson, J. R.; Curchitser, E. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Coral Triangle (CT) is not only the global center of marine biodiversity, it also supports the livelihoods of millions of people. Unfortunately, it is also considered the most threatened of all reef regions, with rising temperature and coral bleaching already taking a toll. Reproductive connectivity between reefs plays a critical role in the reef's capacity to recover after such disturbances. Thus, oceanographic modeling efforts to understand patterns of reef connectivity are essential to the effective design of a network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to conserve marine ecosystems in the Coral Triangle. Here, we combine a Regional Ocean Modeling System developed for the Coral Triangle (CT-ROMS) with a Lagrangian particle tracking tool (TRACMASS) to investigate the probability of coral larval transport between reefs. A 47-year hindcast simulation (1960-2006) was used to investigate the variability in larval transport of a broadcasting coral following mass spawning events in April and September. Potential connectivity between reefs was highly variable and stochastic from year to year, emphasizing the importance of decadal or longer simulations in identifying connectivity patterns, key source and sink regions, and thus marine management targets for MPAs. The influence of temperature on realized connectivity (future work) may add further uncertainty to year-to-year patterns of connectivity between reefs. Nonetheless, the potential connectivity results we present here suggest that although reefs in this region are primarily self-seeded, rare long-distance dispersal may promote recovery and genetic exchange between reefs in the region. The spatial pattern of "subpopulations" based solely on the physical drivers of connectivity between reefs closely match regional patterns of biodiversity, suggesting that physical barriers to larval dispersal may be a key driver of reef biodiversity. Finally, 21st Century simulations driven by the Community Earth System Model (CESM

  11. Pose Self-Measurement of Noncooperative Spacecraft Based on Solar Panel Triangle Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Jingzhou Song; Caixiu Cao

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the recognition and location of noncooperative spacecraft, this paper presents a monocular vision pose measurement method based on solar triangle structure. First of all, an autonomous recognition algorithm of feature structure based on sliding window Hough transformation (SWHT) and inscribed circle of a triangle is proposed, and the image coordinates of feature points on the triangle can be obtained relying on this algorithm, combined with the P4P algorithm and the structure of spa...

  12. The Verification and Validation of the Ray-tracing of Bag of Triangles (BoTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Verification and Validation of the Ray-tracing of Bag of Triangles ( BoTs ) by Charith Ranawake ARL-CR-0761 February 2015...Ground, MD 22105 ARL-CR-0761 February 2015 The Verification and Validation of the Ray-tracing of Bag of Triangles ( BoTs ) Charith...and Validation of the Ray-tracing of Bag of Triangles ( BoTs ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  13. Valuation of Non-Life Liabilities from Claims Triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Lindholm

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a complete program for the valuation of aggregate non-life insurance liability cash flows based on claims triangle data. The valuation is fully consistent with the principle of valuation by considering the costs associated with a transfer of the liability to a so-called reference undertaking subject to capital requirements throughout the runoff of the liability cash flow. The valuation program includes complete details on parameter estimation, bias correction and conservative estimation of the value of the liability under partial information. The latter is based on a new approach to the estimation of mean squared error of claims reserve prediction.

  14. The $f_2(1810)$ as a triangle singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Ju-Jun; Oset, Eulogio

    2016-01-01

    We perform calculations showing that a source producing $K^* \\bar{K}^*$ in $J = 2$ and $L=0$ gives rise to a triangle singularity at $1810$ MeV with a width of about $200$ MeV from the mechanism $K^* \\to \\pi K$ and then $K\\bar{K}^*$ merging into the $a_1(1260)$ resonance. We suggest that this is the origin of the present $f_2(1810)$ resonance and propose to look at the $\\pi a_1(1260)$ mode in several reactions to clarify the issue.

  15. The star-triangle relation and 3d superconformal indices

    CERN Document Server

    Gahramanov, I

    2015-01-01

    Superconformal indices of 3d N=2 supersymmetric field theories are investigated from the Yang-Baxter equation point of view. Solutions of the star-triangle relation, vertex and IRF Yang-Baxter equations are expressed in terms of the q-special functions associated with these 3d indices. For a two-dimensional monopole-spin system on the square lattice a free energy per spin is explicitly determined. Similar to the partition functions, superconformal indices of 3d theories with the chiral symmetry breaking reduce to Dirac delta functions with the support on chemical potentials of the preserved flavor groups.

  16. Membrane triangles with corner drilling freedoms. I - The EFF element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin, Ken; De La Fuente, Horacio M.; Haugen, Bjorn; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1992-01-01

    The formulation of 3-node 9-DOF membrane elements with normal-to-element-plane rotations (drilling freedoms) is examined in the context of parametrized variational principles. In particular, attention is given to the application of the extended free formulation (EFF) to the construction of a triangular membrane element with drilling freedoms that initially has complete quadratic polynomial expansions in each displacement component. The main advantage of the EFF over the free formulation triangle is that an explicit form is obtained for the higher-order stiffness.

  17. Numerical approximation of weakly singular integrals on a triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Giada

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose product cubature rules based on the polynomial approximation in order to evaluate the following integrals I (F ;y )= ∫TK (x ,y ) F (x )ω (x )d x , where x = (x1, x2), y = (y1, y2), K is a "weakly"singular or a "nearly"singular kernel, T the domain T is the triangle of vertices (0, 0), (0, 1), (1, 0), f is a given bivariate function defined on T and ω is a proper weight function.

  18. Colouring the triangles determined by a point set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Fabila-Monroy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Let P be a set of n points in general position in the plane. We study the chromatic number of the intersection graph of the open triangles determined by P. It is known that this chromatic number is at least n3/27+O(n2 and, if P is in convex position, the answer is n3/24+O(n2. We prove that for arbitrary P, the chromatic number is at most n3/19.259+O(n2.

  19. Unitarity Triangle analysis beyond the Standard Model from UTfit

    CERN Document Server

    Bona, Marcella

    2016-01-01

    The Unitarity Triangle (UT) analysis can be used to constrain the parameter space in possible new physics (NP) scenarios. We present here an update of the UT analysis beyond the Standard Model (SM) by the UTfit collaboration. Assuming NP, all of the available experimental and theoretical information on ∆F = 2 processes is combined using a model-independent parametrisation. We determine the allowed NP contributions in the kaon, D, Bd, and Bs sectors and, in various NP scenarios, we translate them into bounds for the NP scale as a function of NP couplings.

  20. Pion-nucleon scattering inside the Mandelstam triangle

    CERN Document Server

    Büttiker, P; Büttiker, Paul; Meissner, Ulf-G.

    2000-01-01

    We study the third order pion-nucleon scattering amplitude obtained from heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory inside the Mandelstam triangle. We reconstruct the pion-nucleon amplitude in the unphysical region by use of dispersion relations and determine the pertinent low-energy constants by a fit to this amplitude. A detailed comparison with values obtained from phase shift analysis is given. Our analysis leads to a pion-nucleon sigma-term of sigma(0)=40 MeV based on the Karlsruhe partial wave analysis. We have repeated the same procedure using the latest solution of the VPI group and find a much larger value for sigma(0).

  1. Laparoscopic management of inferior lumbar hernia (Petit triangle hernia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, T; Eyuboglu, E; Aydingoz, O

    2005-05-01

    Lumbar hernias are rare defects in the posterolateral abdominal wall that may be congenital or acquired. We present a case of laparoscopic approach to repair an acquired inferior triangle (Petit) lumbar hernia in a woman by using polytetrafluoroethylene mesh. The size of the hernia was 8 x 10 cm. The length of her hospital stay was 2 days. The patient resumed normal activities in less than 2 weeks. The main advantage of this approach is excellent operative visualization, thus avoiding injury to structures near the hernia during repair. Patients benefit from a minimally invasive approach with less pain, shortened hospital course, less analgesic requirements, better cosmetic result, and minimal life-style interference.

  2. Clause Types in Southeastern Tepehuan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Thomas L.

    The clause in Southeastern Tepehuan consists of a predicate, its associated arguments, and other modifying elements. This paper seeks to show the various types of semantic and surface clauses and the relation between them. The semantic clause consists of various semantic components, both nuclear and peripheral, semantic prosodies, and certain…

  3. Sentence Components in Southeastern Tepehuan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Thomas L.

    This paper explores the intra-clausal relations of minimal locutionary and illocutionary force in Southeastern Tepehuan. It surveys the semantic and syntactic sentence types with primary reference to grammatical relations. The semantic propositional structures, along with their modal parameters and other semantic prosodies are discussed in Section…

  4. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  5. Decision for Southeastern: An Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarter, W. Ronald; Harper, William A.

    1979-01-01

    William Harper interviews W. Ronald McCarter, President of Southeastern Community College, North Carolina, about a suit brought against the college by a hearing-impaired woman who was refused admission to the nursing program resulting in a Supreme Court decision permitting colleges to require reasonable physical qualifications. (AYC)

  6. Pyemotes ventricosus Dermatitis, Southeastern France

    OpenAIRE

    Del Giudice, Pascal; Blanc-Amrane, V?ronique; Bahadoran, Philippe; Caumes, Eric; Marty, Pierre; Lazar, Maril?na; Boissy, Christian; Desruelles, Fran?ois; Izri, Arezki; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Counillon, Evelyne; Chosidow, Olivier; Delaunay, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    We investigated 42 patients who had unusual pruritic dermatitis associated with a specific clinical sign (comet sign) in 23 houses in southeastern France from May through September 2007. Pyemotes ventricosus, a parasite of the furniture beetle Anobium punctatum, was the cause of this condition.

  7. Pyemotes ventricosus dermatitis, southeastern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Pascal; Blanc-Amrane, Véronique; Bahadoran, Philippe; Caumes, Eric; Marty, Pierre; Lazar, Mariléna; Boissy, Christian; Desruelles, François; Izri, Arezki; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Counillon, Evelyne; Chosidow, Olivier; Delaunay, Pascal

    2008-11-01

    We investigated 42 patients who had unusual pruritic dermatitis associated with a specific clinical sign (comet sign) in 23 houses in southeastern France from May through September 2007. Pyemotes ventricosus, a parasite of the furniture beetle Anobium punctatum, was the cause of this condition.

  8. Southeastern plants toxic to ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Steven S

    2011-07-01

    Selected toxic plants affecting cattle, sheep, and goats in the southeastern United States are presented. The author's intention is to provide veterinary practitioners and students with an overview of plant poisoning in the region. Plants are grouped by body system affected, based on clinical signs and/or lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  10. Sand dollar sites orogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Dee

    2013-04-01

    The determinology of the humble sand dollars habitat changing from inception to the drastic evolution of the zone to that of present day. Into the cauldron along the southern Californian 'ring of fire' lithosphere are evidence of geosynclinals areas, metasedimentary rock formations and hydrothermal activity. The explanation begins with 'Theia' and the Moon's formation, battles with cometary impacts, glacial ages, epochs with evolutionary bottlenecks and plate tectonics. Fully illustrated the lecture includes localised diagrams and figures with actual subject photographic examples of plutonic, granitic, jade and peridodite. Finally, the origins of the materials used in the lecture are revealed for prosecution by future students and the enjoyment of interested parties in general.

  11. Sand Storms Trigger Alarm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ After an unusually humid winter with at least 10 snowfalls in Beijing, a severe andstorm blown by strong winds bringing with it thousands of tons of desert sand took many residents of the city by surprise.On the morning of March 20, Beijingers woke up to see clouds of yellow dust in the air and a sky that was an ominous orange in color.The loose soil and dust that had traveled htmdreds of miles from deserts in Mongolia and China's northwest blanketed Beijing's streets, covering parked vehicles, bikes, roofs and even plant life,as well as making its way into people's homes.

  12. Fortune Cookie Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-432, 25 July 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a field of small barchan sand dunes in the north polar region near 71.7oN, 51.3oW. Some of them are shaped like fortune cookies. The message these dunes provide: winds blow through this region from the lower right toward the upper left. The steep slip face slopes of these dunes, which point toward the upper left, indicate the wind direction. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper right. The image is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  13. A family of sand automata

    CERN Document Server

    Faulkner, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    We study some dynamical properties of a family of two-dimensional cellular automata: those that arise from an underlying one dimensional sand automaton whose local rule is obtained using a latin square. We identify a simple sand automaton G whose local rule is algebraic, and classify this automaton as having equicontinuity points, but not being equicontinuous. We also show it is not surjective. We generalise some of these results to a wider class of sand automata.

  14. Dilatometric Characterization of Foundry Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Břuska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this contribution is summary of physical – chemistry properties of usually used foundry silica and no – silica sands in Czech foundries. With the help of dilatometry analysis theoretical assumptions of influence of grain shape and size on dilatation value of sands were confirmed. Determined was the possibility of dilatometry analysis employment for preparing special (hybrid sands with lower and/or more linear character of dilatation.

  15. Triaxial tests in Fontainebleau sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, Chiara; Zania, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this internal report is to examine the influence of relative density on the strength and deformation characteristics of Fontainebleau sand. Compression triaxial tests were performed on saturated sand samples with different densities and initial confining pressure. Note that the tes......The purpose of this internal report is to examine the influence of relative density on the strength and deformation characteristics of Fontainebleau sand. Compression triaxial tests were performed on saturated sand samples with different densities and initial confining pressure. Note...... that the testing procedure and the data processing were carried out according to the specifications of ETCS-F1.97....

  16. Constructing "Reference" Triangle through Unitarity of CKM Matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Randhawa, M; Randhawa, Monika; Gupta, Manmohan

    2001-01-01

    Motivated by the possibility of the low value of sin2\\beta in the measurements of BABAR and BELLE collaborations, a reference unitarity triangle is constructed using the unitarity of the CKM matrix and the experimental values of the well known CKM elements, without involving any inputs from the processes which might include the new physics effects. The angles of the triangle are evaluated by finding the CP violating phase \\delta through the Jarlskog's rephasing invariant parameter J. The present data and the unitarity of the CKM matrix gives for \\delta the range 28^o to 152^o, which for sin2\\beta translates to the range 0.21 to 0.88. This range is broadly in agreement with the recent BABAR and BELLE results. However, a value of sin2\\beta \\leq 0.2, advocated by Silva and Wolfenstein as a benchmark for new physics, would imply a violation in the three generation unitarity and would hint towards the existence of a fourth generation Further, the future refinements in the CKM elements will push the lower limit on ...

  17. Triangle bipolar pulse shaping and pileup correction based on DSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili-sani, Vahid, E-mail: vaheed_esmaeely80@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 4155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moussavi-zarandi, Ali; Akbar-ashrafi, Nafiseh; Boghrati, Behzad [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 4155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-11

    Programmable Digital Signal Processing (DSP) microprocessors are capable of doing complex discrete signal processing algorithms with clock rates above 50 MHz. This combined with their low expense, ease of use and selected dedicated hardware make them an ideal option for spectrometer data acquisition systems. For this generation of spectrometers, functions that are typically performed in dedicated circuits, or offline, are being migrated to the field programmable gate array (FPGA). This will not only reduce the electronics, but the features of modern FPGAs can be utilized to add considerable signal processing power to produce higher resolution spectra. In this paper we report on an all-digital triangle bipolar pulse shaping and pileup correction algorithm that is being developed for the DSP. The pileup mitigation algorithm will allow the spectrometers to run at higher count rates or with multiple sources without imposing large data losses due to the overlapping of scintillation signals. This correction technique utilizes a very narrow bipolar triangle digital pulse shaping algorithm to extract energy information for most pileup events.

  18. Is chronic groin pain a Bermuda triangle of sports medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šebečić, Božidar; Japjec, Mladen; Janković, Saša; Vencel Čuljak; Dojčinović, Bojan; Starešinić, Mario

    2014-12-01

    Chronic groin pain is one the most complex conditions encountered in the field of sports medicine. Conservative treatment is long lasting and the result of treatment is often uncer- tain and symptom recurrences are common, which can be very frustrating for both the patient and the physician. The complex etiology and uncertainties during treatment of chronic groin pain is the reason why some authors call it the Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine. In our prospective, 7-year study, 114 athletes with chronic groin pain resistant to conservative therapy were treated surgically. In 109 athletes with sports hernia, we performed nerve neurolysis along with resection of the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve and we also reinforced the posterior wall of inguinal canal using a modified Shouldice technique. In 26 athletes that had concomitant adductor tendinosis and in 5 athletes with isolated tendinosis we performed tenotomy. Eighty-one of 83 patients with isolated sports hernia returned to sports within a mean of 4.4 (range, 3-16) weeks. Thirty-one athletes with adductor tenotomy returned to sports activity within a mean of 11.8 (range, 10-15) weeks. If carefully diagnosed using detailed history taking, physical examination and correct imaging techniques, chronic groin pain can be treated very successfully and quickly, so it need not be a Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine.

  19. The first ANDES elements: 9-DOF plate bending triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Carmelo; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1991-01-01

    New elements are derived to validate and assess the assumed natural deviatoric strain (ANDES) formulation. This is a brand new variant of the assumed natural strain (ANS) formulation of finite elements, which has recently attracted attention as an effective method for constructing high-performance elements for linear and nonlinear analysis. The ANDES formulation is based on an extended parametrized variational principle developed in recent publications. The key concept is that only the deviatoric part of the strains is assumed over the element whereas the mean strain part is discarded in favor of a constant stress assumption. Unlike conventional ANS elements, ANDES elements satisfy the individual element test (a stringent form of the patch test) a priori while retaining the favorable distortion-insensitivity properties of ANS elements. The first application of this formulation is the development of several Kirchhoff plate bending triangular elements with the standard nine degrees of freedom. Linear curvature variations are sampled along the three sides with the corners as gage reading points. These sample values are interpolated over the triangle using three schemes. Two schemes merge back to conventional ANS elements, one being identical to the Discrete Kirchhoff Triangle (DKT), whereas the third one produces two new ANDES elements. Numerical experiments indicate that one of the ANDES element is relatively insensitive to distortion compared to previously derived high-performance plate-bending elements, while retaining accuracy for nondistorted elements.

  20. Secure Minutiae-Based Fingerprint Templates Using Random Triangle Hashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhe; Jin Teoh, Andrew Beng; Ong, Thian Song; Tee, Connie

    Due to privacy concern on the widespread use of biometric authentication systems, biometric template protection has gained great attention in the biometric research recently. It is a challenging task to design a biometric template protection scheme which is anonymous, revocable and noninvertible while maintaining acceptable performance. Many methods have been proposed to resolve this problem, and cancelable biometrics is one of them. In this paper, we propose a scheme coined as Random Triangle Hashing which follows the concept of cancelable biometrics in the fingerprint domain. In this method, re-alignment of fingerprints is not required as all the minutiae are translated into a pre-defined 2 dimensional space based on a reference minutia. After that, the proposed Random Triangle hashing method is used to enforce the one-way property (non-invertibility) of the biometric template. The proposed method is resistant to minor translation error and rotation distortion. Finally, the hash vectors are converted into bit-strings to be stored in the database. The proposed method is evaluated using the public database FVC2004 DB1. An EER of less than 1% is achieved by using the proposed method.

  1. Conservation Narratives and Their Implications in the Coral Triangle Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Berdej

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conserving coral reefs, sustaining fisheries, and ensuring food security are multi-faceted challenges. Six nations in the Southeast Asia Coral Triangle have agreed to a region-wide framework to address these challenges through the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security (CTI. Based on a review of documentation, selected discussions and ongoing work in the region, we offer an initial assessment of narratives influencing conservation practice in the CTI. Current efforts in the CTI are framed by a crisis narrative that emphasises the importance of maintaining critical ecosystems and baseline conditions. This narrative has a strong empirical basis but it can also exacerbate a dualistic view of people and nature. However, CTI documentation and programming also reflect a recognition of linked social-ecological change and the historical co-evolution of communities and coastal-marine systems. This emerging narrative places an emphasis on building resilience to change, rather than resisting change. We do not advocate here for a single narrative with which to frame policy responses in the CTI, but rather draw attention to the ways that mainstreaming of certain narratives will have material effects on initiatives and programmes promoted in this region of globally significant marine biodiversity.

  2. Revisiting the Pink Triangle Exercise: An Exploration of Experiential Learning in Graduate Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Greg L.

    2014-01-01

    The pink triangle exercise is an example of an experiential learning exercise that creates cognitive dissonance and deep learning of unrealized internalized biases among social work students. Students wear a button with a pink triangle on it for 1 day and write a reflection paper. The exercise increases self-awareness, cultural competence, and the…

  3. Miocene reef-coral diversity of Indonesia: unlocking the murky origins of the Coral Triangle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santodomingo Aguilar, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Reefs in the Coral Triangle host the richest marine diversity today. While the biodiversity gradients associated with the Coral Triangle are progressively better documented, the mechanisms responsible for the origins and maintenance of this pattern still remain obscure. Until recently, palaeontologi

  4. A templating guest sorts out a molecular triangle from a dimer-trimer constitutional dynamic library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancan, Marzio; Dolmella, Alessandro; Seraglia, Roberta; Orlandi, Simonetta; Quici, Silvio; Armelao, Lidia

    2012-03-25

    Cu(II) and a bis-β-diketone ligand generate a small constitutional dynamic library (CDL). The designed introduction of a well suited guest drives the self-sorting of the system toward a supramolecular triangle. Alternatively, the triangle self-assembly is templated by the same guest in a one-pot synthesis.

  5. Revisiting the Pink Triangle Exercise: An Exploration of Experiential Learning in Graduate Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Greg L.

    2014-01-01

    The pink triangle exercise is an example of an experiential learning exercise that creates cognitive dissonance and deep learning of unrealized internalized biases among social work students. Students wear a button with a pink triangle on it for 1 day and write a reflection paper. The exercise increases self-awareness, cultural competence, and the…

  6. Revisiting the Didactic Triangle in the Case of an Adaptive Learning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Zaoui Seghroucheni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the classical approach of the didactic triangle designed for the classical learning situation (face to face and adapt it to the situation of an adaptive learning system, we discuss also the different components involved in this didactic triangle and how they interact and influence the learning process in an adaptive learning system.

  7. 76 FR 17327 - 100th Anniversary of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation On March 25, 1911, a fire spread through the cramped floors of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in... fire escapes, and were trapped by long tables and bulky machines. As bystanders watched in horror...

  8. A sand wave simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemeth, A.A.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Damme, van R.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Sand waves form a prominent regular pattern in the offshore seabeds of sandy shallow seas. A two dimensional vertical (2DV) flow and morphological numerical model describing the behaviour of these sand waves has been developed. The model contains the 2DV shallow water equations, with a free water su

  9. Regeneration of dredged sand waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Knaapen, Michiel; Scholl, Olaf; Scholl, O.; Trenteseaux., A.; Garlan, T.

    2000-01-01

    Sand waves form a wavy pattern in the offshore sandy seabed. Since their crests reduce the navigability, it is important to know their evolution. A simple model is presented to estimate the recovery of sand wave amplitudes. This model is partially based on the similarity with sea ripples and

  10. Namibia : triaxial test on sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfelt, Jørgen S.; Jacobsen, Kim P.

    In connection with a harbour project the friction angle of a fine sand is required. On Friday 13 March 1998 the Danish Geotechnical Institute (DGI) delivered app. 2.5 kg sand for testing at the Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University. The present Data Report summarises the results...

  11. Sand swimming lizard: sandfish

    CERN Document Server

    Maladen, Ryan D; Kamor, Adam; Goldman, Daniel I

    2009-01-01

    We use high-speed x-ray imaging to reveal how a small (~10cm) desert dwelling lizard, the sandfish (Scincus scincus), swims within a granular medium [1]. On the surface, the lizard uses a standard diagonal gait, but once below the surface, the organism no longer uses limbs for propulsion. Instead it propagates a large amplitude single period sinusoidal traveling wave down its body and tail to propel itself at speeds up to ~1.5 body-length/sec. Motivated by these experiments we study a numerical model of the sandfish as it swims within a validated soft sphere Molecular Dynamics granular media simulation. We use this model as a tool to understand dynamics like flow fields and forces generated as the animal swims within the granular media. [1] Maladen, R.D. and Ding, Y. and Li, C. and Goldman, D.I., Undulatory Swimming in Sand: Subsurface Locomotion of the Sandfish Lizard, Science, 325, 314, 2009

  12. 2010 oil sands performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, oil sands have become an important energy resource for meeting energy needs. Oil sands are a mixture of water, sand, clay and bitumen which is recovered either through open pit mining or in situ drilling techniques. The bitumen is then converted into syncrude or sold to refineries for the production of gasoline, diesel or other products. Shell has oil sands operations in Alberta and the aim of this report is to present its 2010 performance in terms of CO2, water, tailings, land, and reclamation and engagement. This document covers several of Shell's operations in the Muskeg River and Jackpine mines, Scotford upgrader, Peace River, Orion, Seal, Cliffdale and Chipmunk. It provides useful information on Shell's oil sands performance to governments, environmental groups, First Nations, local communities and the public.

  13. Sand harm in taklimakan Desert highway and sand control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANZhiwen; WANGTao; SUNQingwei; DONGZhibao; WANGXunming

    2003-01-01

    Reputed as a wonderful achievement of the world’s highway construction history,the Taklimakan Desert highway is nor facing serious sand drift encroachment problems due to its 447-km-long passage of sand sea consisting of crescent dunes,barchan chains,compound transverse dune ridges and complex megadunes.To solve some technical problems in the protection of the highway from sang drift encroachment,desert experts have been conducting the theoretical and applied studies on sand movement laws;causes,severities and time-space differentiation of sand drift damages;and control ways including mechanical,chemical and biological measures.In this paper the authors give an overall summry on the research contents and recent progress in the control of sand drift damages in China and hold that the theoretical researc results and practices in the prevention of sand drift encroachment on the cross-desert highway represnt a breakthrough and has an cpoch-making significance.Since the construction of protective forest along the cross-desert highway requires large amount of ground water,what will be its environmental consequence and whether it can effectively halt sand drift encroachment on the highway forever are the questions to be studied urgently.

  14. Linear stability of the Lagrangian triangle solutions for quasihomogeneous potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Santoprete, Manuele

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study the linear stability of the relative equilibria for homogeneous and quasihomogeneous potentials. Firstly, in the case the potential is a homogeneous function of degree $-a$, we find that any relative equilibrium of the $n$-body problem with $a>2$ is spectrally unstable. We also find a similar condition in the quasihomogeneous case. Then we consider the case of three bodies and we study the stability of the equilateral triangle relative equilibria. In the case of homogeneous potentials we recover the classical result obtained by Routh in a simpler way. In the case of quasihomogeneous potentials we find a generalization of Routh inequality and we show that, for certain values of the masses, the stability of the relative equilibria depends on the size of the configuration.

  15. [Patient - doctor relationship from perspective of the Karpman drama triangle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samborska-Sablik, Anna; Sablik, Zbigniew

    2016-11-25

    Patients' confidence in doctors has been decreased for last years despite successes of Polish medicine. It seems to be related to particular conditions of patient - doctor relationship and patient's negative emotions may frequently burden it from the beginning. They may allow an interpersonal game, the Drama Triangle, to appear in the relationship. 3 persons are typically involved in the game: a victim, a persecutor and a rescuer. All of them neither feel guilty about the situation nor their activities are aimed at solving the crucial problem. It maintains continuation of the game. Both patient and doctor are capable to attend the game as any of the person mentioned above. Authors of the article think frameworks of organization of the health care system should permit doctors not only to tackle main disease but also to devote time individually tailored to patient's emotional problems.

  16. The Triangle of the Space Launch System Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayolle, Eric

    2010-09-01

    Firemen know it as “fire triangle”, mathematicians know it as “golden triangle”, sailormen know it as “Bermuda triangle”, politicians know it as “Weimar triangle”… This article aims to present a new aspect of that shape geometry in the space launch system world: “the triangle of the space launch system operations”. This triangle is composed of these three following topics, which have to be taken into account for any space launch system operation processing: design, safety and operational use. Design performance is of course taking into account since the early preliminary phase of a system development. This design performance is matured all along the development phases, thanks to consecutives iterations in order to respect the financial and timing constraints imposed to the development of the system. This process leads to a detailed and precise design to assess the required performance. Then, the operational use phase brings its batch of constraints during the use of the system. This phase is conducted by specific procedures for each operation. Each procedure has sequences for each sub-system, which have to be conducted in a very precise chronological way. These procedures can be processed by automatic way or manual way, with the necessity or not of the implication of operators, and in a determined environment. Safeguard aims to verify the respect of the specific constraints imposed to guarantee the safety of persons and property, the protection of public health and the environment. Safeguard has to be taken into account above the operational constraints of any space operation, without forgetting the highest safety level for the operators of the space operation, and of course without damaging the facilities or without disturbing the external environment. All space operations are the result of a “win-win” compromise between these three topics. Contrary to the fire triangle where one of the topics has to be suppressed in order to avoid the

  17. Climate, bleaching and connectivity in the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curchitser, E. N.; Kleypas, J. A.; Castruccio, F. S.; Drenkard, E.; Thompson, D. M.; Pinsky, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Coral Triangle (CT) is the apex of marine biodiversity and supports the livelihoods of millions of people. It is also one of the most threatened of all reef regions in the world. We present results from a series of high-resolution, numerical ocean models designed to address physical and ecological questions relevant to the region's coral communities. The hierarchy of models was designed to optimize the model performance in addressing questions ranging from the role of internal tides in larval connectivity to distinguishing the role of interannual variability from decadal trends in thermal stress leading to mass bleaching events. In this presentation we will show how combining ocean circulation with models of larval dispersal leads to new insights into the interplay of physics and ecology in this complex oceanographic region, which can ultimately be used to inform conservation efforts.

  18. Cystic lymphangioma in the submandibular triangle in the adult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Sang Joon [Dankook Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-09-15

    Cystic lymphangioma is an uncommon benign developmental tumor of the lymphatic system, seen rarely in adults. A 23-year-old man visited DKUDH complaining of the painless swelling in the right submandibular triangle area. It was reported that swelling had increased since 5 months ago. Clinically, fluctuant and mobile mass was palpated at the right submancivular area. CT scan showed a large, well-defined, homogenous low density mass, measuring 5.0X2.5X4.0 cm. T1W MRI scan demonstrated a large, multiseptated homogenous low signal mass with septum and rim enhancement. Proton-density and T2W MRI scan showed mass of high signal intensity. MRI scan was able to delineate better the enhanced multiseptation and extent of the lesion. Histopathologically, a lobulated cystic mass lined by a layer of flattened endothelium was observed.

  19. Triangle/Square Waveform Generator Using Area Efficient Hysteresis Comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drinovsky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A function generator generating both square and triangle waveforms is proposed. The generator employs only one low area comparator with accurate hysteresis set by a bias current and a resistor. Oscillation frequency and its non-idealities are analyzed. The function of the proposed circuit is demonstrated on a design of 1 MHz oscillator in STMicroelectronics 180 nm BCD technology. The designed circuit is thoroughly simulated including trimming evaluation. It consumes 4.1 μA at 1.8 V and takes 0.0126 mm2 of silicon area. The temperature variation from -40°C to 125°C is ±1.5 % and the temperature coefficient is 127 ppm/°C.

  20. Transanal total mesorectal excision: dissection tips using 'O's and 'triangles'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, M-P; Bloemendaal, A L A; Albert, M; Whiteford, M; Stevenson, A R L; Hompes, R

    2016-11-01

    Transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) requires specific technical expertise, as it is often difficult to ascertain the correct dissection plane. Consequently, one can easily enter an incorrect plane, potentially resulting in bleeding (sidewall or presacral vessels), autonomic nerve injury and urethral injury. We aim to demonstrate specific visual features, which may be encountered during surgery and can guide the surgeon to perform the dissection in the correct plane. Specific features of dissection in the correct and incorrect planes are demonstrated in the accompanying video. The 'triangles' created using appropriate traction can aid in performing a precise dissection in the correct plane. Recognition of features described as 'O's can alert surgeons that they are entering a new fascial plane and can avoid incursion into an incorrect plane. Understanding and recognizing the described features which can be encountered in taTME surgery, a safe and accurate TME dissection can be facilitated.

  1. REGIONAL TOURISM COOPERATION IN TRIANGLE ZONE OF LIAONING PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Jiang-zhi

    2005-01-01

    Strengthening the regional tourism cooperation is the requirement of both tourism development and tourist competition drive. On the one hand, resources, products, market and infrastructure in tourism are characteristics of half-public goods, which are the externalities. On the other hand, tourism competition has evolved from individual scenic spot, or firm competition to regional competition, which also requires urgent regional tourism cooperation. In recent years, the regional economic cooperation has been becoming popular in the world. The triangle tourism zone of Liaoning Province, constituted by Shenyang, Dalian and Dandong, is the core region of Liaoning tourism system. This regional tourism cooperation has been raised for a long time, but has not made substantial progress as yet. In recent years, the strategic cooperation among them has been becoming urgent, along with the change of tourism competition models, as well as the desire for building a Northeast Asia tourist economy circle. Based on literature, this paper establishes a conceptual frame of regional tourism cooperation and applies it in the analysis of the strategic tourism cooperation of Liaoning Province's golden triangle zone. This paper firstly examines both qualifications and motives concerning with cooperation among the three cities, and believes that the biggest difficulties involve traditional ideas, administrative institutions, communications, economic performances, time constraints, and more overlap among their tourist markets. Then this paper continues to construct a cooperating mechanism, including participant arrangements, construction of operating mechanism and construction of assisting mechanism. At last, this paper proposes approaches to the strategic cooperation such as introducing Xiuyan County, strategic integration and developing differentiated and complemented tourism products.

  2. Comparing MapReduce and Pipeline Implementations for Counting Triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelmira Pasarella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A common method to define a parallel solution for a computational problem consists in finding a way to use the Divide and Conquer paradigm in order to have processors acting on its own data and scheduled in a parallel fashion. MapReduce is a programming model that follows this paradigm, and allows for the definition of efficient solutions by both decomposing a problem into steps on subsets of the input data and combining the results of each step to produce final results. Albeit used for the implementation of a wide variety of computational problems, MapReduce performance can be negatively affected whenever the replication factor grows or the size of the input is larger than the resources available at each processor. In this paper we show an alternative approach to implement the Divide and Conquer paradigm, named dynamic pipeline. The main features of dynamic pipelines are illustrated on a parallel implementation of the well-known problem of counting triangles in a graph. This problem is especially interesting either when the input graph does not fit in memory or is dynamically generated. To evaluate the properties of pipeline, a dynamic pipeline of processes and an ad-hoc version of MapReduce are implemented in the language Go, exploiting its ability to deal with channels and spawned processes. An empirical evaluation is conducted on graphs of different topologies, sizes, and densities. Observed results suggest that dynamic pipelines allows for an efficient implementation of the problem of counting triangles in a graph, particularly, in dense and large graphs, drastically reducing the execution time with respect to the MapReduce implementation.

  3. Food supply depends on seagrass meadows in the coral triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Richard K. F.; Hinder, Stephanie L.; Bodger, Owen G.; Cullen-Unsworth, Leanne C.

    2014-09-01

    The tropical seascape provides food and livelihoods to hundreds of millions of people, but the support of key habitats to this supply remains ill appreciated. For fisheries and conservation management actions to help promote resilient ecosystems, sustainable livelihoods, and food supply, knowledge is required about the habitats that help support fisheries productivity and the consequences of this for food security. This paper provides an interdisciplinary case study from the coral triangle of how seagrass meadows provide support for fisheries and local food security. We apply a triangulated approach that utilizes ecological, fisheries and market data combined with over 250 household interviews. Our research demonstrates that seagrass associated fauna in a coral triangle marine protected area support local food supply contributing at least 50% of the fish based food. This formed between 54% and 99% of daily protein intake in the area. Fishery catch was found to significantly vary with respect to village (p type significantly influenced this proportion (<0.05). Limited sustainability of fishery practices (high juvenile catch and a 51% decline in CPUE for the biggest fishery) and poor habitat management mean the security of this food supply has the potential to be undermined in the long-term. Findings of this study have implications for the management and assessment of fisheries throughout the tropical seascape. Our study provides an exemplar for why natural resource management should move beyond biodiversity and consider how conservation and local food security are interlinked processes that are not mutually exclusive. Seagrass meadows are under sustained threat worldwide, this study provides evidence of the need to conserve these not just to protect biodiversity but to protect food security.

  4. Hubungan tweed triangle dan posisi bibir terhadap garis estetik (Relationship between tweed triangle and the lips position to esthetic line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Oktaviona

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aimed of almost all of patient came for orthodontics treatment, were to recover face esthetic or their profile. The facial profile not only determined by the hard tissue, but will also be influenced by the soft tissue such as nose, lip, and chin. Tweed has done face analysis with cephalometric by using three angles which are FMA, FMIA, and IMPA. There are many facial profile analysis that usually use in lateral cephalometric one of them is Ricketts analysis that draw the line from pogonion to the tip of nose. The biggest tribe in Indonesia is Javanese, the Javanese have a specific characteristic. Javanese people do not have a long nose and the chin not really uppermost, thick lip, convex profile and female’s profile more convex than male. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the relation between Tweed triangle, upper lip and lower lip to esthetic line according to Ricketts. Methods: The facial profile pictures of subjects which were taken base on sample criteria changed into silhouette black and white. The photo selected by orthodontist and lay persons. Then the lateral cephalometric radiograph was taken and measured the angle of Tweed triangle and the lip position to esthetic line. Results: The FMA were 28.830, FMIA were 56.740 and IMPA were 94.430. The upper lip distance among males were closer to the esthetic line than female. The lower lip of males located in front of esthetic line and female lower lip located rare of esthetic line. Conclusion: There was corelation between FMA and FMIA with lower lip. There was no corelation between IMPA towards upper lip and also lower lip.Latar belakang: Tujuan dari hampir seluruh pasien yang datang untuk perawatan ortodonti adalah untuk memperbaiki estetis wajah atau profilnya. Profil fasial tidak hanya ditentukan oleh jaringan keras, akan tetapi juga akan sangat dipengaruhi oleh jaringan lunak hidung, bibir, dan dagu. Tweed melakukan analisis wajah pada sefalometri menggunakan 3

  5. Sand engine quells the coast's hunger for sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, T.

    2012-01-01

    An artificial peninsula at Ter Heijde is designed to feed the coast with sediment. Scientists are investigating whether this kind of sand engine could be the Netherlands’ answer to rising sea levels.

  6. Sand engine quells the coast's hunger for sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, T.

    2012-01-01

    An artificial peninsula at Ter Heijde is designed to feed the coast with sediment. Scientists are investigating whether this kind of sand engine could be the Netherlands’ answer to rising sea levels.

  7. Morphologic characteristics and migration rate assessment of barchan dunes in the Southeastern Western Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, M. A.; Refaat, A. A.; Abdel Wahed, M.

    2016-03-01

    This work explores the morphologic characteristics of aeolian dune sand in the southeastern part of Western Desert of Egypt. It aims to assess the movement of barchan dunes and evaluate their environmental influence on the Toshka Project. Morphometric investigation of barchan dunes in the Toshka area revealed that most barchans have high length/width (a/c) ratios (fat to pudgy), while one-fifth of the studied barchans have lower a/c ratios and so appear normal in their morphologic forms. Statistical analysis of the main parameters of barchan dunes in Toshka and other desert regions in the Kharga (Egypt), Kuwait, Southern Morocco, California and Southern Peru demonstrates that barchans of the Toshka area are distinctive in their appearance. They are characterized by distinct aspect with higher values of length and width and greater growth in height. The high-energy wind environment in addition to the large amount of drifting sand are principal factors responsible for the unique shape of Toshka barchans. The migration rate of barchan dunes in four chosen test locations, within the central and western Toshka area, ranges from about 3 to 10.82 m/year. The calculated average migration rate of these dunes is about 6 m/year in a SSW direction. Sand encroachment is more extensive in the central and western parts of the investigated Toshka area. Risk evaluation of sand dune movements in the southeastern part of the Western Desert points to medium to high sand encroachment risk values. These may represent serious hazards to the newly-established Toshka Project, threatening roads, as well as cultivated lands in the area.

  8. Spectroscopic characterization of a Nigerian standard sand: Igbokoda sand

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojuri, OO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available the Middle Ordovician St. Peter Sandstone near Ottawa, Illinois, had been picked by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as the reference sand to employ in testing cement and strength of concrete [9]. To the best of our knowledge... and magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques due to its importance in cement, geotechnical/geo-environmental research in Nigeria. This should halt importation of standard silica sand for mortar and concrete testing...

  9. Saltation of Non-Spherical Sand Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengshi; Ren, Shan; Huang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Saltation is an important geological process and the primary source of atmospheric mineral dust aerosols. Unfortunately, no studies to date have been able to precisely reproduce the saltation process because of the simplified theoretical models used. For example, sand particles in most of the existing wind sand movement models are considered to be spherical, the effects of the sand shape on the structure of the wind sand flow are rarely studied, and the effect of mid-air collision is usually neglected. In fact, sand grains are rarely round in natural environments. In this paper, we first analyzed the drag coefficients, drag forces, and starting friction wind speeds of sand grains with different shapes in the saltation process, then established a sand saltation model that considers the coupling effect between wind and the sand grains, the effect of the mid-air collision of sand grains, and the effect of the sand grain shape. Based on this model, the saltation process and sand transport rate of non-spherical sand particles were simulated. The results show that the sand shape has a significant impact on the saltation process; for the same wind speed, the sand transport rates varied for different shapes of sand grains by as much as several-fold. Therefore, sand shape is one of the important factors affecting wind-sand movement. PMID:25170614

  10. Reclaimability of the spent sand mixture – sand with bentonite – sand with furfuryl resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dańko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of new binding materials and new technologies of their hardening in casting moulds and cores production requires theapplication of reclamation methods adequate to their properties as well as special devices realizing tasks. The spent sands circulationsystem containing the same kind of moulding and core sands is optimal from the point of view of the expected reclamation results.However, in the face of a significant variability of applied technologies and related to them various reclamation methods, the need - of theobtained reclamation products assessment on the grounds of systematic criteria and uniform bases – arises, with a tendency of indicatingwhich criteria are the most important for the given sand system. The reclaimability results of the mixture of the spent moulding sand withGeko S bentonite and the spent core sand with the Kaltharz 404U resin hardened by acidic hardener 100 T3, are presented in the paper.Investigations were performed with regard to the estimation of an influence of core sands additions (10 –25% on the reclaimed materialquality. Dusts and clay content in the reclaim, its chemical reaction (pH and ignition loss were estimated. The verification of the reclaiminstrumental assessment was performed on the basis of the technological properties estimation of moulding sand with bentonite, where the reclaimed material was used as a matrix.

  11. Management recommendations: Sand Lake Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and...

  12. The Southeastern Sicily GPS network

    OpenAIRE

    Broccio, F.; Baldi, P.; M. Anzidei; V. Achilli; R. Velardita

    1995-01-01

    The area located between Catania and Syracuse (Southeastern Sicily), characterised by the presence of the Simeto-Scordia-Lentini graben, was affected in the past by a strong seismicity as proved by the occurrence of seismic events strong enough to reach the XI degree of the MCS scale. In particular the January 11 th, 1693 (l = XI MCS) earthquake with a magnitude over 7.5 (estimated), caused huge damage and a great loss of human lives. Following the last seismic event which occurred on Decembe...

  13. Water availability for development of major tar sands areas in Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefer, T.N.; McQuivey, R.S.

    1979-05-01

    The Sutron Corporation, under contract with Colorado State University, has conducted a study for the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) to determine the availability of water for future extraction of viscous petroleum (bitumen) from the six major tar sands deposits in Utah. Specifically, the areas are: Asphalt Ridge and Whiterocks, which lie immediately west of Vernal, Utah; P.R. Spring, a large area extending from the Colorado River to the White River along Utah's eastern border; Hill Creek, adjacent to P.R. Spring to the west; Sunnyside, immediately across the Green River from Hill Creek between the Price and Green Rivers; and Tar Sand Triangle, near the confluence of the Colorado and Dirty Devil Rivers. The study, conducted between September and December of 1978, was a fact-finding effort involving the compilation of information from publications of the US Geological Survey (USGS), Utah State Engineer, Utah Department of Natural Resources, and other federal and state agencies. The information covers the general physiographic and geologic features of the total area, the estimated water requirements for tar sands development, the availability of water in each of the six areas, and the legal and sociological restraints and impacts. The conclusions regarding water availability for tar sands development in each of the six areas and specific recommendations related to the development of each area are presented also.

  14. Skull Triangles: Flinders Petrie, Race Theory and Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Challis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1902 the Egyptian archaeologist William Matthew Flinders Petrie published a graph of triangles indicating skull size, shape and ‘racial ability’. In the same year a paper on Naqada crania that had been excavated by Petrie’s team in 1894–5 was published in the anthropometric journal Biometrika, which played an important part in the methodology of cranial measuring in biometrics and helped establish Karl Pearson’s biometric laboratory at University College London. Cicely D. Fawcett’s and Alice Lee’s paper on the variation and correlation of the human skull used the Naqada crania to argue for a controlled system of measurement of skull size and shape to establish homogeneous racial groups, patterns of migration and evolutionary development. Their work was more cautious in tone and judgement than Petrie’s pronouncements on the racial origins of the early Egyptians but both the graph and the paper illustrated shared ideas about skull size, shape, statistical analysis and the ability and need to define ‘race’. This paper explores how Petrie shared his archaeological work with a broad number of people and disciplines, including statistics and biometrics, and the context for measuring and analysing skulls at the turn of the twentieth century.

  15. Bermuda Triangle for the liver: alcohol, obesity, and viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhari, Samir

    2013-08-01

    Despite major progress in understanding and managing liver disease in the past 30 years, it is now among the top 10 most common causes of death globally. Several risk factors, such as genetics, diabetes, obesity, excessive alcohol consumption, viral infection, gender, immune dysfunction, and medications, acting individually or in concert, are known to precipitate liver damage. Viral hepatitis, excessive alcohol consumption, and obesity are the major factors causing liver injury. Estimated numbers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected subjects worldwide are staggering (370 and 175 million, respectively), and of the 40 million known human immunodeficiency virus positive subjects, 4 and 5 million are coinfected with HBV and HCV, respectively. Alcohol and HCV are the leading causes of end-stage liver disease worldwide and the most common indication for liver transplantation in the United States and Europe. In addition, the global obesity epidemic that affects up to 40 million Americans, and 396 million worldwide, is accompanied by an alarming incidence of end-stage liver disease, a condition exacerbated by alcohol. This article focuses on the interactions between alcohol, viral hepatitis, and obesity (euphemistically described here as the Bermuda Triangle of liver disease), and discusses common mechanisms and synergy.

  16. Triangle singularities, ADE-chains, and weighted projective lines

    CERN Document Server

    Kussin, Dirk; Meltzer, Hagen

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the triangle singularity $f=x^a+y^b+z^c$, or $S=k[x,y,z]/(f)$, attached to a weighted projective line $X$ given by the weight triple $(a,b,c)$. We investigate the stable category of vector bundles on $X$ obtained from the vector bundles by factoring out all line bundles. This category is triangulated and has Serre duality. It is, moreover, naturally equivalent to the stable category of graded maximal Cohen-Macaulay modules over $S$ (or matrix factorizations of $f$), and then by results of Buchweitz and Orlov to the graded singularity category of $f$. We show that this category is fractional Calabi-Yau with a CY-dimension that is a function of the Euler characteristic of $X$. We show the existence of a tilting object which has the shape of an $(a-1)(b-1)(c-1)$-cuboid. Particular attention is given to the weight types $(2,a,b)$, yielding an explanation of Happel-Seidel symmetry for a class of important Nakayama algebras. In particular, the weight sequence $(2,3,p)$ corresponds to an ADE-chain, th...

  17. Minimum Weight Cycles and Triangles: Equivalences and Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Roditty, Liam

    2011-01-01

    We consider the fundamental algorithmic problem of finding a cycle of minimum weight in a weighted graph. In particular, we show that the minimum weight cycle problem in an undirected n-node graph with edge weights in {1,...,M} or in a directed n-node graph with edge weights in {-M,..., M} and no negative cycles can be efficiently reduced to finding a minimum weight triangle in an Theta(n)-node undirected graph with weights in {1,...,O(M)}. Roughly speaking, our reductions imply the following surprising phenomenon: a minimum cycle with an arbitrary number of weighted edges can be "encoded" using only three edges within roughly the same weight interval! This resolves a longstanding open problem posed by Itai and Rodeh [SIAM J. Computing 1978 and STOC'77]. A direct consequence of our efficient reductions are O (Mn^{omega})-time algorithms using fast matrix multiplication (FMM) for finding a minimum weight cycle in both undirected graphs with integral weights from the interval [1,M] and directed graphs with inte...

  18. Sistem Prevensi School Violence di Madura Berbasis Galtung Conflict Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auliya Ridwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available School violence may be understood as the threat or use of physical force with the intention to cause physical injury, damage of property or intimidation of another person at school. School violence is also violence that happens outside school as a result of a social interaction among the students. With regards to their prevention, many theories and propositions have been introduced including that of Conflict Triangle theory by Johan Galtung. This paper is aimed at analyzing school violence in Madura by using this theory as a general framework of analysis. The paper will begin by providing a general overview of both the theory and the so-called carok tradition of Madura; a tradition of self-defense using traditional blade which often involves killing. Upon highlighting school violence in this island, the paper will then move on by suggesting that in order to delegitimize this violence, one must speak of preventive programs at practical level, and of deconstructing the cultural strength of carok tradition at the discursive one. We assume that once the carok tradition is being deconstructed, one would loose the cultural legitimacy of committing violence. In Madura violence is often legitimated by the culture and tradition of carok. To eradicate violence is therefore to get rid of carok tradition in the first place.

  19. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: Revelation of the gastrinoma triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Hsin Yang, MD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a complex condition in which one or more tumors form in the patient's pancreas or upper duodenum. These tumors, called gastrinomas, secrete excessive amounts of gastrin, and almost all develop ulcers. The vast majority of gastrinomas are present within the “gastrinoma triangle,” which is composed of the porta hepatis, duodenal sweep, and pancreatic head. As surgery remains the treatment of choice, localization of the primary lesion is often challenging but essential. We present a 50-year-old man with a tentative diagnosis of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. His In-111 pentetreotide scan, fused onto a Tc-99m abdomen image, revealed an avid lesion adjacent to the duodenal loop. Operative resection was performed, and a primary pancreatic gastrinoma was diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining. The neuroendocrine tumors have somatostatin receptors upon them. Therefore, a penteteotide scan, using In-111 radiolabelled somatostatin analogues, is the current technique of choice. This dual-isotope display permits a visual perception of anatomic landmarks around the lesion.

  20. The Triangle Anomaly in Triple-Regge Limits

    CERN Document Server

    White, Alan R

    2001-01-01

    Reggeized gluon interactions due to a single quark loop are studied in the full triple-regge limit and in closely related helicity-flip helicity-pole limits. Triangle diagram reggeon interactions are generated that include local axial-vector effective vertices. It is shown that the massless quark U(1) anomaly is present as an infra-red divergence in the interactions generated by maximally non-planar Feynman diagrams. A multi-regge asymptotic dispersion relation formalism is developed which provides a systematic counting of anomaly contributions. The 48 triple discontinuities in the dispersion relation are of two kinds. The first kind are to one-particle inclusive cross-sections. The second kind contains the anomaly and the multi-regge theory has some special features, including a signature conservation rule. It is shown that the anomaly is present only in multiple discontinuities obtained from the maximally non-planar diagrams and that in the scattering of elementary quarks or gluons the signature and color p...

  1. Airspora concentrations in the Vaal-triangle-monitoring and potential health-effects.2, fungal spores

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vismer, HF

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric fungal spores were monitored in Vanderbijlpark for the period 1991-92 as part of the Vaal triangle air pollution health study of the medical research council and the CSIR. Cladosporium, Aspergillus/ Penicillium, Alternaria and Epicoccum...

  2. College geometry an introduction to the modern geometry of the triangle and the circle

    CERN Document Server

    Altshiller-Court, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    The standard university-level text for decades, this volume offers exercises in construction problems, harmonic division, circle and triangle geometry, and other areas. 1952 edition, revised and enlarged by the author.

  3. Approximate Bregman near neighbors in sublinear time: Beyond the triangle inequality

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, Amirali; Venkatasubramanian, Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Bregman divergences are important distance measures that are used extensively in data-driven applications such as computer vision, text mining, and speech processing, and are a key focus of interest in machine learning. Answering nearest neighbor (NN) queries under these measures very important in these applications and has been the subject of extensive study, but is problematic because these distance measures lack metric properties like symmetry and the triangle inequality. In this paper, we present the first approximate nearest-neighbor (ANN) algorithms, which run in polylog(n) time for Bregman divergences of fixed dimension. To do so, we explore two properties of Bregman divergences that are vital to the analysis: a reverse triangle inequality (RTI) and a relaxed triangle inequality called mu-defectiveness. We show that even though Bregman divergences do not satisfy the triangle inequality, the above properties can be utilized to design an efficient search data structure that follows the general two-stage ...

  4. Dose-response relationship of sertindole and haloperidol using the pharmacopsychometric triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Tanghøj, P; Andreasson, K;

    2011-01-01

    Renewed insight into dose-related effects of sertindole and haloperidol was sought by re-analysing published data for antipsychotic effect, extrapyramidal effect, and patient wellbeing - i.e., the important pharmacopsychometric triangle domains.......Renewed insight into dose-related effects of sertindole and haloperidol was sought by re-analysing published data for antipsychotic effect, extrapyramidal effect, and patient wellbeing - i.e., the important pharmacopsychometric triangle domains....

  5. CHROMATICITY COORDINATES EVALUATION OF TRIANGLE VERTICES GAMUT FOR DISPLAYS WITH MAXIMUM AREA OF COLOR REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zharinov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of calculating chromaticity coordinates estimates of triangle vertices gamut for displays with maximum area of color reproduction. Initial data for the evaluation are tabulated data on the shape of the spectral locus interpolated by Bezier splines. Research results are chromaticity coordinates of the triangle vertices gamut maximum area specified on the color chart according to the standards of the International Commission on Illumination.

  6. Dihedral f-tilings of the sphere by rhombi and triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Breda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We classify, up to an isomorphism, the class of all dihedral f-tilings of S 2, whose prototiles are a spherical triangle and a spherical rhombus. The equiangular case was considered and classified in Ana M. Breda and Altino F. Santos, Dihedral f-tilings of the sphere by spherical triangles and equiangular well-centered quadrangles. Here we complete the classification considering the case of non-equiangular rhombi.

  7. Functioning of the knowledge triangle in the example of IT education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHIVITSKAYA H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the interactions between knowledge triangle components in IT-education in the Republic of Belarus is described. This paper describes the results of research in the framework of the program of the European Union Tempus IV «Fostering the Knowledge Triangle in Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova» - «FKTBUM». The analysis of the obstacles to the effective integration of higher education, research and innovation is performed.

  8. A zero-one law for the existence of triangles in random key graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Yagan, Osman

    2009-01-01

    Random key graphs are random graphs induced by the random key predistribution scheme of Eschenauer and Gligor under the assumption of full visibility. For this class of random graphs we show the existence of a zero-one law for the appearance of triangles, and identify the corresponding critical scaling. This is done by applying the method of first and second moments to the number of triangles in the graph.

  9. Disturbance of the inclined inserting-type sand fence to wind-sand flow fields and its sand control characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jian-jun; Lei, Jia-qiang; Li, Sheng-yu; Wang, Hai-feng

    2016-06-01

    The inclined inserting-type sand fence is a novel sand retaining wall adopted along the Lanxin High-Speed Railway II in Xinjiang for controlling and blocking sand movement. To verify the effectiveness of the new fence structure for sand prevention, a wind tunnel test was used for flow field test simulation of the sand fence. The results indicate that the inclined inserting-type sand fence was able to deflect the flow of the sand and was able to easily form an upward slant acceleration zone on the leeward side of the sand fence. As shown by the percentage change in sand collection rates on the windward side and the leeward side of the sand fence, the sand flux per unit area at 4 m height in the slant upward direction increased on the leeward side of the inclined inserting-type sand fence. By comparing the flow fields, this site is an acceleration zone, which also reaffirms the correspondence of wind-sand flow fields with the spatial distribution characteristic of the wind-carried sand motion. The field sand collection data indicates that under the effects of the inclined inserting-type sand fence, the sandy air currents passing in front and behind the sand fence not only changed in quality, but the grain composition and particle size also significantly changed, suggesting that the inclined inserting-type sand fence has a sorting and filtering effect on the sandy air currents that passed through. The fence retained coarse particulates on the windward side and fine particulates within the shade of the wind on the leeward side.

  10. An arbitrary boundary triangle mesh generation method for multi-modality imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuanxuan; Deng, Yong; Gong, Hui; Meng, Yuanzheng; Yang, Xiaoquan; Luo, Qingming

    2012-03-01

    Low-resolution and ill-posedness are the major challenges in diffuse optical tomography(DOT)/fluorescence molecular tomography(FMT). Recently, the multi-modality imaging technology that combines micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) with DOT/FMT is developed to improve resolution and ill-posedness. To take advantage of the fine priori anatomical maps obtained from micro-CT, we present an arbitrary boundary triangle mesh generation method for FMT/DOT/micro-CT multi-modality imaging. A planar straight line graph (PSLG) based on the image of micro-CT is obtained by an adaptive boundary sampling algorithm. The subregions of mesh are accurately matched with anatomical structures by a two-step solution, firstly, the triangles and nodes during mesh refinement are labeled respectively, and then a revising algorithm is used to modifying meshes of each subregion. The triangle meshes based on a regular model and a micro-CT image are generated respectively. The results show that the subregions of triangle meshes can match with anatomical structures accurately and triangle meshes have good quality. This provides an arbitrary boundaries triangle mesh generation method with the ability to incorporate the fine priori anatomical information into DOT/FMT reconstructions.

  11. The coral triangle initiative: What are we missing? A case study from Aceh

    KAUST Repository

    Rudi, Edi

    2012-10-01

    Abstract The Coral Triangle Initiative is an ambitious attempt to conserve the marine biodiversity hotspot known as the Coral Triangle. However, the reef fauna in many nearby regions remains poorly explored and, consequently, the focus on the Coral Triangle risks overlooking other areas of high conservation significance. One region of potential significance, Aceh, Indonesia, has not been visited by coral taxonomists since the Dutch colonial period. Here we document the species richness of scleractinian corals of Pulau Weh, Aceh. We also compare the species richness of the genus Acropora at 3-5 sites in each of nine regions in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Although dominated by widespread Indo-Pacific species, the coral fauna of Pulau Weh is also the eastern and western boundary for many Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean species, respectively. We identified a total of 133 scleractinian species, of which three have been previously recorded only in the western Indian Ocean and five are presently undescribed. The mean species richness of the Acropora at Pulau Weh is similar to regions within the Coral Triangle. This high species richness plus the high proportion of endemics suggests that the Andaman Sea is of similarly high conservation value to the Coral Triangle. We suggest that an international initiative similar to the Coral Triangle Initiative is required to conserve this region, which includes the territorial waters of six countries. © 2012 Fauna & Flora International.

  12. Lost-in-Space Star Identification Using Planar Triangle Principal Component Analysis Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a challenging task for a star sensor to implement star identification and determine the attitude of a spacecraft in the lost-in-space mode. Several algorithms based on triangle method are proposed for star identification in this mode. However, these methods hold great time consumption and large guide star catalog memory size. The star identification performance of these methods requires improvements. To address these problems, a star identification algorithm using planar triangle principal component analysis is presented here. A star pattern is generated based on the planar triangle created by stars within the field of view of a star sensor and the projection of the triangle. Since a projection can determine an index for a unique triangle in the catalog, the adoption of the k-vector range search technique makes this algorithm very fast. In addition, a sharing star validation method is constructed to verify the identification results. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is more robust than the planar triangle and P-vector algorithms under the same conditions.

  13. Optimal array of sand fences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Izael A; Araújo, Ascânio D; Parteli, Eric J R; Andrade, José S; Herrmann, Hans J

    2017-03-24

    Sand fences are widely applied to prevent soil erosion by wind in areas affected by desertification. Sand fences also provide a way to reduce the emission rate of dust particles, which is triggered mainly by the impacts of wind-blown sand grains onto the soil and affects the Earth's climate. Many different types of fence have been designed and their effects on the sediment transport dynamics studied since many years. However, the search for the optimal array of fences has remained largely an empirical task. In order to achieve maximal soil protection using the minimal amount of fence material, a quantitative understanding of the flow profile over the relief encompassing the area to be protected including all employed fences is required. Here we use Computational Fluid Dynamics to calculate the average turbulent airflow through an array of fences as a function of the porosity, spacing and height of the fences. Specifically, we investigate the factors controlling the fraction of soil area over which the basal average wind shear velocity drops below the threshold for sand transport when the fences are applied. We introduce a cost function, given by the amount of material necessary to construct the fences. We find that, for typical sand-moving wind velocities, the optimal fence height (which minimizes this cost function) is around 50 cm, while using fences of height around 1.25 m leads to maximal cost.

  14. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack D.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Grin, E.A.; Li, Ron; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, B.; Bell, J.F.; Yingst, R. Aileen

    2014-01-01

    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  15. DPTM simulation of aeolian sand ripple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Aeolian sand ripple and its time evolution are simulated by the discrete particle tracing method (DPTM) presented in this paper. The difference between this method and the current methods is that the former can consider the three main factors relevant to the formation of natural aeolian sand ripples,which are the wind-blown sand flux above the sand bed formed by lots of sand particles with different di-ameters,the particle-bed collision and after it the rebound and ejection of sand particles in the sand bed,the saltation of high-speed sand particles and the creep of low-speed sand particles,respectively. The simulated aeolian sand ripple is close to the natural sand ripple not only in basic shape and characteristic,particle size segregation and stratigraphy,but also in formation stages. In addition,three important speeds can be obtained by this method,which are the propagation speed of the saturated aeolian sand ripple and the critical frictional wind speeds of emergence and disappearance of sand ripple.

  16. DPTM simulation of aeolian sand ripple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG XiaoJing; BO TianLi; XIE Li

    2008-01-01

    Aeolian sand ripple and its time evolution are simulated by the discrete particle tracing method (DPTM) presented in this paper.The difference between this method and the current methods is that the former can consider the three main factors relevant to the formation of natural aeolian sand ripples, which are the wind-blown sand flux above the sand bed formed by lots of sand particles with different di-ameters, the particle-bed collision and after it the rebound and ejection of sand particles in the sand bed, the saltation of high-speed sand particles and the creep of low-speed sand particles, respectively.The simulated aeolian sand ripple is close to the natural sand ripple not only in basic shape and characteristic, particle size segregation and stratigraphy, but also in formation stages.In addition, three important speeds can be obtained by this method, which are the propagation speed of the saturated aeolian sand ripple and the critical frictional wind speeds of emergence and disappearance of sand ripple.

  17. Dry reusing and wet reclaiming of used sodium silicate sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of used sodium silicate sand and the different use requirements for recycled sand, "dry reusing and wet reclaiming of used sodium silicate sand" is considered as the most suitable technique for the used sand. When the recycled sand is used as support sand, the used sand is only reused by dry process including breaking, screening, dust-removal, etc., and it is not necessary that the used sand is reclaimed with strongly rubbing and scraping method, but when the recycled sand is used as facing sand (or single sand), the used sand must be reclaimed by wet method for higher removal rate of the residual binders. The characteristics and the properties of the dry reused sand are compared with the wet reclaimed sand after combining the different use requirements of support sand and facing sand (or single sand), and above the most adaptive scheme has also been validated.

  18. Triangle network motifs predict complexes by complementing high-error interactomes with structural information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labudde Dirk

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A lot of high-throughput studies produce protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs with many errors and missing information. Even for genome-wide approaches, there is often a low overlap between PPINs produced by different studies. Second-level neighbors separated by two protein-protein interactions (PPIs were previously used for predicting protein function and finding complexes in high-error PPINs. We retrieve second level neighbors in PPINs, and complement these with structural domain-domain interactions (SDDIs representing binding evidence on proteins, forming PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles. Results We find low overlap between PPINs, SDDIs and known complexes, all well below 10%. We evaluate the overlap of PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles with known complexes from Munich Information center for Protein Sequences (MIPS. PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles have ~20 times higher overlap with MIPS complexes than using second-level neighbors in PPINs without SDDIs. The biological interpretation for triangles is that a SDDI causes two proteins to be observed with common interaction partners in high-throughput experiments. The relatively few SDDIs overlapping with PPINs are part of highly connected SDDI components, and are more likely to be detected in experimental studies. We demonstrate the utility of PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles by reconstructing myosin-actin processes in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cytoskeleton, which were not obvious in the original PPIN. Using other complementary datatypes in place of SDDIs to form triangles, such as PubMed co-occurrences or threading information, results in a similar ability to find protein complexes. Conclusion Given high-error PPINs with missing information, triangles of mixed datatypes are a promising direction for finding protein complexes. Integrating PPINs with SDDIs improves finding complexes. Structural SDDIs partially explain the high functional similarity of second-level neighbors in PPINs. We estimate that

  19. Pure Electric and Pure Magnetic Resonances in Near-Infrared Metal Double-Triangle Metamaterial Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zhi-Shen; PAN Jian; CHEN Zhuo; ZHAN Peng; MIN Nai-Ben; WANG Zhen-Lin

    2011-01-01

    @@ We experimentally and numerically investigate the optical properties of metamaterial arrays composed of double partially-overlapped metallic nanotriangles fabricated by an angle-resolved nanosphere lithography.We demonstrate that each double-triangle can be viewed as an artificial magnetic element analogous to the conventional metal split-ring-resonator.It is shown that under normal-incidence conditions,individual double-triangle can exhibit a strong local magnetic resonance,but the collective response of the metamaterial arrays is purely electric because magnetic resonances of the two double-triangles in a unit cell having opposite openings are out of phase.For oblique incidences the metamaterial arrays are shown to support a pure magnetic response at the same frequency band.Therefore,switchable electric and magnetic resonances are achieved in double-triangle arrays.Moreover,both the electric and magnetic resonances axe shown to allow for a tunability over a large spectral range down to near-infrared.%We experimentally and numerically investigate the optical properties of metamaterial arrays composed of double partially-overlapped metallic nanotriangles fabricated by an angle-resolved nanosphere lithography. We demonstrate that each double-triable can be viewed as an artificial magnetic element analogous to the conventional metal split-ring-resonator. It is shown that under normal-incidence conditions, individual double-triangle can exhibit a strong local magnetic resonance, but the collective response of the metamaterial arrays is purely electric because magnetic resonances of the two double-triangles in a unit cell having opposite openings are out of phase.For oblique incidences the metamaterial arrays are shown to support a pure magnetic response at the same frequency band. Therefore, switchable electric and magnetic resonances are achieved in double-triangle arrays.Moreover, both the electric and magnetic resonances are shown to allow for a tunability over

  20. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  1. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  2. Sand and Water Table Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

  3. Sand and Water Table Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

  4. Impact on sand and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann, R.P.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the impact of a body on sand and water. When a body impacts a free surface in the inertial regime the series of events is the following: On impact material is blown away in all directions and an impact cavity forms. Due to the hydrostatic pressure from the sides the cav

  5. Silo model tests with sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Jørgen

    Tests have been carried out in a large silo model with Leighton Buzzard Sand. Normal pressures and shear stresses have been measured during tests carried out with inlet and outlet geometry. The filling method is a very important parameter for the strength of the mass and thereby the pressures...

  6. experimental studies of sand production from unconsolidated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    Production of sand during oil and gas exploration causes severe operational prob- ... duction such as risk of well failure, erosion of pipelines and surface facilities, sand separa- tion and disposal ... ment, theoretical and numerical analysis have.

  7. UK silica sand resources for fracking

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2013-01-01

    UK silica sand resources for fracking Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG Email: Silica sand is high purity quartz sand that is mainly used for glass production, as foundry sand, in horticulture, leisure and other industrial uses. One specialist use is as a ‘proppant’ to enhance oil and gas recovery. This presentation will focus on this application, particularly for shale gas recovery where it is mo...

  8. Perceptual grouping without awareness: superiority of Kanizsa triangle in breaking interocular suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Wang

    Full Text Available Much information could be processed unconsciously. However, there is no direct evidence on whether perceptual grouping could occur without awareness. To answer this question, we investigated whether a Kanizsa triangle (an example of perceptual grouping is processed differently from stimuli with the same local components but are ungrouped or weakly grouped. Specifically, using a suppression time paradigm we tested whether a Kanizsa triangle would emerge from interocular continuous flash suppression sooner than control stimuli. Results show a significant advantage of the Kanizsa triangle: the Kanizsa triangle emerged from suppression noise significantly faster than the control stimulus with the local Pacmen randomly rotated (t(9 = -2.78, p = 0.02; and also faster than the control stimulus with all Pacmen rotated 180° (t(11 = -3.20, p<0.01. Additional results demonstrated that the advantage of the grouped Kanizsa triangle could not be accounted for by the faster detection speed at the conscious level for the Kanizsa figures on a dynamic noise background. Our results indicate that certain properties supporting perceptual grouping could be processed in the absence of awareness.

  9. Holliday Triangle Hunter (HolT Hunter): Efficient Software for Identifying Low Strain DNA Triangular Configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, W.B.

    2012-04-16

    Synthetic DNA nanostructures are typically held together primarily by Holliday junctions. One of the most basic types of structures possible to assemble with only DNA and Holliday junctions is the triangle. To date, however, only equilateral triangles have been assembled in this manner - primarily because it is difficult to figure out what configurations of Holliday triangles have low strain. Early attempts at identifying such configurations relied upon calculations that followed the strained helical paths of DNA. Those methods, however, were computationally expensive, and failed to find many of the possible solutions. I have developed a new approach to identifying Holliday triangles that is computationally faster, and finds well over 95% of the possible solutions. The new approach is based on splitting the problem into two parts. The first part involves figuring out all the different ways that three featureless rods of the appropriate length and diameter can weave over and under one another to form a triangle. The second part of the computation entails seeing whether double helical DNA backbones can fit into the shape dictated by the rods in such a manner that the strands can cross over from one domain to the other at the appropriate spots. Structures with low strain (that is, good fit between the rods and the helices) on all three edges are recorded as promising for assembly.

  10. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  11. The Southeastern Sicily GPS network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Broccio

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The area located between Catania and Syracuse (Southeastern Sicily, characterised by the presence of the Simeto-Scordia-Lentini graben, was affected in the past by a strong seismicity as proved by the occurrence of seismic events strong enough to reach the XI degree of the MCS scale. In particular the January 11 th, 1693 (l = XI MCS earthquake with a magnitude over 7.5 (estimated, caused huge damage and a great loss of human lives. Following the last seismic event which occurred on December 13th, 1990 (Ml = 5.4 which caused heavy damage and many victims in the Catania-Syracuse area, a geodetic Global Positioning System network (GPS was set up with the aim of monitoring ground movements in one of the Italian areas subjected to high seismic risk, This "pace geodesy technique supplies high precision measurements and represent, a powerful new tool for investigating both regional stress fields and the evolution of local tectonic areas. The GPS network will allow the detection of ground movements with a centimetric accuracy through repeated surveys in time. The results obtained in two surveys carried out il1 1991 al1d 1993, are described in this paper.

  12. Sand Waves. Report 1. Sand Wave Shoaling in Navigation Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    heights range from 0.8 m in the Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy (Dalrymple 1984) to 6.0 m in the Bahia Blanca Estuary, Argentina (Aliotta and Perillo 1987...26 PART IV: SITE-SPECIFIC SAND WAVE SHOALING PROBLEMS .. ........ 30 Columbia River Navigation Channel ........ ............... .. 30 Panama ...problem location discussed in this report is at St. Andrew Bay near Panama City, Florida. A relatively short section of the jettied inlet channel requires

  13. Characterization of the structure, clean-sand percentage, dissolved-solids concentrations, and estimated quantity of groundwater in the Upper Cretaceous Nacatoch Sand and Tokio Formation, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillip, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    The West Gulf Coastal Plain, Mississippi embayment, and underlying Cretaceous aquifers are rich in water resources; however, large parts of the aquifers are largely unusable because of large concentrations of dissolved solids. Cretaceous aquifers are known to have large concentrations of salinity in some parts of Arkansas. The Nacatoch Sand and the Tokio Formation of Upper Cretaceous age were chosen for investigation because these aquifers produce groundwater to wells near their outcrops and have large salinity concentrations away from their outcrop areas. Previous investigations have indicated that dissolved-solids concentrations of groundwater within the Nacatoch Sand, 2–20 miles downdip from the outcrop, render the groundwater as unusable for purposes requiring freshwater. Groundwater within the Tokio Formation also exhibits large concentrations of dissolved solids downdip. Water-quality data showing elevated dissolved-solids concentrations are limited for these Cretaceous aquifers because other shallower aquifers are used for water supply. Although not suitable for many uses, large, unused amounts of saline groundwater are present in these aquifers. Historical borehole geophysical logs were used to determine the geologic and hydrogeologic properties of these Cretaceous aquifers, as well as the quality of the groundwater within the aquifers. Based on the interpretation of borehole geophysical logs, in Arkansas, the altitude of the top of the Nacatoch Sand ranges from more than 200 to less than -4,000 feet; the structural high occurs in the outcrop area and the structural low occurs in southeastern Arkansas near the Desha Basin structural feature. The thickness of the Nacatoch Sand ranges from 0 to over 550 feet. The minimum thickness occurs where the formation pinches out in the outcrop area, and the maximum thickness occurs in the southwestern corner of Arkansas. Other areas of large thickness include the area of the Desha Basin structural feature in

  14. Comparative Phylogeography of the Coral Triangle and Implications for Marine Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent E. Carpenter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme concentration of marine biodiversity and exploitation of marine resources in the Coral Triangle pose challenges to biogeographers and resource managers. Comparative phylogeography provides a powerful tool to test biogeographic hypotheses evoked to explain species richness in the Coral Triangle. It can also be used to delineate management units for marine resources. After about a decade of phylogeographical studies, patterns for the Coral Triangle are emerging. Broad connectivity in some species support the notion that larvae have maintained gene flow among distant populations for long periods. Other phylogeographic patterns suggest vicariant events resulting from Pleistocene sea level fluctuations, which have, at least occasionally, resulted in speciation. Divergence dates ranging back to the Miocene suggest that changing land configurations may have precipitated an explosion of species diversification. A synthesis of the marine phylogeographic studies reveals repeated patterns that corroborate hypothesized biogeographic processes and suggest improved management schemes for marine resources.

  15. Electron counting capacitance standard and quantum metrology triangle experiments at PTB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, H.; Schurr, J.; Ahlers, F. J.

    2017-06-01

    This paper summarizes the final results of the electron counting capacitance standard experiment at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) achieved since the publication of a preliminary result in 2012. All systematic uncertainty contributions were experimentally quantified and are discussed. Frequency-dependent measurements on the 1 pF cryogenic capacitor were performed using a high-precision transformer-based capacitance bridge with a relative uncertainty of 0.03 µF F-1. The results revealed a crucial problem related to the capacitor, which hampered realizing the quantum metrology triangle with an accuracy corresponding to a combined total uncertainty of better than a few parts per million and eventually caused the discontinuation of the experiment at PTB. This paper provides a conclusion on the implications for future quantum metrology triangle experiments from the latest CODATA adjustment of fundamental constants, and summarizes perspectives and outlooks on future quantum metrology triangle experiments based on topical developments in small-current metrology.

  16. The Didactical Relevance of the Pauli Pascal Triangle (Die didaktische Relevanz des Pauli-Pascal-Dreiecks)

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, M E

    2006-01-01

    In high school physics and physics at university level anti-commutative and non-commutative quantities play an outstanding role at the theoretical description of physical relations. But while using commutative quantities, the basic formal relations of mathematical physics are introduced clearly and step-by-step, a similar clear presentation of non-commuatative relations with didactical sensible examples is lacking. On the basis of a q-analog of the Pascal triangle (sometimes called quantum Pascal triangle) this paper discusses whether a less abstract introduction into non-commutative relations is possible. The didactical relevance of this approach is analysed. In an attachment all three triangles of the Pauli Pascal plane are presented.

  17. The Pascal Triangle of a Discrete Image: Definition, Properties and Application to Shape Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Boutin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We define the Pascal triangle of a discrete (gray scale image as a pyramidal arrangement of complex-valued moments and we explore its geometric significance. In particular, we show that the entries of row k of this triangle correspond to the Fourier series coefficients of the moment of order k of the Radon transform of the image. Group actions on the plane can be naturally prolonged onto the entries of the Pascal triangle. We study the prolongation of some common group actions, such as rotations and reflections, and we propose simple tests for detecting equivalences and self-equivalences under these group actions. The motivating application of this work is the problem of characterizing the geometry of objects on images, for example by detecting approximate symmetries.

  18. Transmission probability method based on triangle meshes for solving the unstructured geometry neutron transport problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hongchun; LIU Pingping; ZHOU Yongqiang; CAO Liangzhi

    2007-01-01

    The fuel assembly or core with unstructured geometry is frequently used in the advanced reactor. To calculate the fuel assembly, the transmission probability method (TPM) is widely used. However, the rectangular or hexagonal meshes are mainly used in the TPM codes for the normal core structure. The triangle meshes are most useful for expressing the complicated unstructured geometry. Even though the finite element method and Monte-Carlo methodare well suited for solving the unstructured geometry problem, they are very time-consuming. Therefore, a TPM code based on the triangle meshes is developed here. This code was applied to the hybrid fuel geometry, and compared with the results of the MCNP code and other codes. The results of the comparison were consistent with each other. The TPM with triangle meshes can thus be applied to the two-dimensional arbitrary fuel assembly.

  19. Hybridized plasmon resonant modes in molecular metallodielectric quad-triangles nanoantenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadivand, Arash; Sinha, Raju; Pala, Nezih

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we examined the plasmon response for both metallic and metallodielectric nanoantennas composed of four gold (Au) triangles in a quadrumer orientation. Tailoring an artificial metallic quad-triangles nanoantenna, it is shown that the structure is able to support pronounced plasmon and Fano resonances in the visible spectrum. Using plasmon transmutation effect, we showed that the plasmonic response of the proposed cluster can be enhanced with the placement of carbon nanoparticles in the offset gaps between the proximal triangles. It is verified that this structural modification gives rise to formation of new collective magnetic antibonding (dark) plasmon modes. Excitation of these subradiant dark modes leads to formation of narrower and deeper Fano resonances in the spectral response of the metallodielectric nanoantenna. To investigate the practical applications of the metallodielectric structure, we immersed the nano-assembly in various liquids with different refractive indices to define its sensitivity to the environmental perturbation as a plasmonic biological sensor.

  20. Long-term background denudation rates of southern and southeastern Brazilian watersheds estimated with cosmogenic 10Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa Gonzalez, Veronica; Bierman, Paul R.; Fernandes, Nelson F.; Rood, Dylan H.

    2016-09-01

    In comparison to humid temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, less is known about the long-term (millennial scale) background rates of erosion in Southern Hemisphere tropical watersheds. In order to better understand the rate at which watersheds in southern and southeastern Brazil erode, and the relationship of that erosion to climate and landscape characteristics, we made new measurements of in situ produced 10Be in river sediments and we compiled all extant measurements from this part of the country. New data from 14 watersheds in the states of Santa Catarina (n = 7) and Rio de Janeiro (n = 7) show that erosion rates vary there from 13 to 90 m/My (mean = 32 m/My; median = 23 m/My) and that the difference between erosion rates of basins we sampled in the two states is not significant. Sampled basin area ranges between 3 and 14,987 km2, mean basin elevation between 235 and 1606 m, and mean basin slope between 11 and 29°. Basins sampled in Rio de Janeiro, including three that drain the Serra do Mar escarpment, have an average basin slope of 19°, whereas the average slope for the Santa Catarina basins is 14°. Mean basin slope (R2 = 0.73) and annual precipitation (R2 = 0.57) are most strongly correlated with erosion in the basins we studied. At three sites where we sampled river sand and cobbles, the 10Be concentration in river sand was greater than in the cobbles, suggesting that these grain sizes are sourced from different parts of the landscape. Compiling all cosmogenic 10Be-derived erosion rates previously published for southern and southeastern Brazil watersheds to date (n = 76) with our 14 sampled basins, we find that regional erosion rates (though low) are higher than those of watersheds also located on other passive margins including Namibia and the southeastern North America. Brazilian basins erode at a pace similar to escarpments in southeastern North America. Erosion rates in southern and southeastern Brazil are directly and positively related to

  1. METHOD OF PROCESSING MONAZITE SAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welt, M.A.; Smutz, M.

    1958-08-26

    A process is described for recovering thorium, uranium, and rare earth values from monazite sand. The monazite sand is first digested with sulfuric acid and the resulting "monazite sulfate" solution is adjusted to a pH of between 0.4 and 3.0, and oxalate anions are added causing precipitation of the thorium and the rare earths as the oxalates. The oxalate precipitate is separated from the uranium containing supernatant solution, and is dried and calcined to the oxides. The thorium and rare earth oxides are then dissolved in nitric acid and the solution is contacted with tribntyl phosphate whereby an organic extract phase containing the cerium and thorium values is obtained, together with an aqueous raffinate containing the other rare earth values. The organic phase is then separated from the aqueous raffinate and the cerium and thorium are back extracted with an aqueous medium.

  2. Geohydrology of the Antlers aquifer (Cretaceous), southeastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Donald L.; Davis, Robert E.

    1981-01-01

    The Antlers aquifer, which consists of as much as 900 feet of friable sandstone, silt, clay, and shale, crops out in an area of 1,860 square miles and underlies about 4,400 square miles in southeastern Oklahoma. Precipitation ranges from 35 to 50 inches per year across the outcrop area, which is well suited to allow high rates of infiltration. The aquifer contains an estimated 31,600,000 acre-feet of water having less than 1,000 milligrams per liter dissolved solids. The average saturated sand thickness is 250 feet. Aquifer tests in the confined part of the aquifer give an average storage coefficient of 0.0005 and an average transmissivity of 1,480 feet squared per day. The estimated specific yield of the unconfined part of the aquifer is 0.15; the transmissivity has not been determined. Large-capacity wells tapping the aquifer commonly yield 100 to 500 gallons per minute; the maximum measured yield is 1,700 gallons per minute. Water usage from the aquifer is very small owing to the availability of an abundance of surface water. Water quality throughout the central and northern part of the aquifer is generally acceptable for municipal use. A few wells, however, yield water containing concentrations of iron and manganese exceeding the limit recommended for municipal use by the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering (1972).

  3. Characterization of sand lenses embedded in tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Klint, K.E.S.; Nilsson, B.

    2012-01-01

    of the various types of sand lenses is discussed, primarily in relation to the depositional and glaciotectonic processes they underwent. Detailed characterization of sand lenses facilitates such interpretations. Finally, the observations are linked to a more general overview of the distribution of sand lenses......Tills dominate large parts of the superficial sediments on the Northern hemisphere. These glacial diamictons are extremely heterogeneous and riddled with fractures and lenses of sand or gravel. The frequency and geometry of sand lenses within tills are strongly linked to glaciodynamic processes...... occurring in various glacial environments. This study specifically focuses on the appearance and spatial distribution of sand lenses in tills. It introduces a methodology on how to measure and characterize sand lenses in the field with regard to size, shape and degree of deformation. A set of geometric...

  4. A compact topology for sand automata

    CERN Document Server

    Dennunzio, Alberto; Masson, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we exhibit a strong relation between the sand automata configuration space and the cellular automata configuration space. This relation induces a compact topology for sand automata, and a new context in which sand automata are homeomorphic to cellular automata acting on a specific subshift. We show that the existing topological results for sand automata, including the Hedlund-like representation theorem, still hold. In this context, we give a characterization of the cellular automata which are sand automata, and study some dynamical behaviors such as equicontinuity. Furthermore, we deal with the nilpotency. We show that the classical definition is not meaningful for sand automata. Then, we introduce a suitable new notion of nilpotency for sand automata. Finally, we prove that this simple dynamical behavior is undecidable.

  5. Rheological Characterization of Green Sand Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Spangenberg, Jon; Hovad, Emil

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to characterize experimentally the flow behaviour of the green sand that is used for casting of sand moulds. After the sand casting process is performed, the sand moulds are used for metal castings. The rheological properties of the green sand is important to quantify...... module for characterizing granular materials. The new module enables viscosity measurements of the green sand as function of the shear rate at different flow rates, i.e. 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 15 L/min. The results show generally that the viscosity decreases with both the shear- and flow rate....... In addition, the measurements show that the green sand flow follows a shear-thinning behaviour even after the full fluidization point....

  6. Silo model tests with sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Jørgen

    Tests have been carried out in a large silo model with Leighton Buzzard Sand. Normal pressures and shear stresses have been measured during tests carried out with inlet and outlet geometry. The filling method is a very important parameter for the strength of the mass and thereby the pressures...... as well as the flow pattern during discharge of the silo. During discharge a mixed flow pattern has been identified...

  7. Formation of Craters in Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanissra Boonyaleepun

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The diameter of craters formed by spheres of varying mass dropped into sand at low speed was studied. The relationship between the diameter of the crater formed and the kinetic energy of the projectile at impact was found to be of the same general form as that for planetary meteor craters. The relationship is shown to be a power law with exponent 0.17.

  8. Formation of Craters in Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanissra Boonyaleepun

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The diameter of craters formed by spheres of varying mass dropped into sand at low speed was studied. The relationship between the diameter of the crater formed and the kinetic energy of the projectile at impact was found to be of the same general form as that for planetary meteor craters. The relationship is shown to be a power law with exponent 0.17

  9. Thermal Properties of oil sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEE, Y.; Lee, H.; Kwon, Y.; Kim, J.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal recovery methods such as Cyclic Steam Injection or Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are the effective methods for producing heavy oil or bitumen. In any thermal recovery methods, thermal properties (e.g., thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity) are closely related to the formation and expansion of steam chamber within a reservoir, which is key factors to control efficiency of thermal recovery. However, thermal properties of heavy oil or bitumen have not been well-studied despite their importance in thermal recovery methods. We measured thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of 43 oil sand samples from Athabasca, Canada, using a transient thermal property measurement instrument. Thermal conductivity of 43 oil sand samples varies from 0.74 W/mK to 1.57 W/mK with the mean thermal conductivity of 1.09 W/mK. The mean thermal diffusivity is 5.7×10-7 m2/s with the minimum value of 4.2×10-7 m2/s and the maximum value of 8.0×10-7 m2/s. Volumetric heat capacity varies from 1.5×106 J/m3K to 2.11×106 J/m3K with the mean volumetric heat capacity of 1.91×106 J/m3K. In addition, physical and chemical properties (e.g., bitumen content, electric resistivity, porosity, gamma ray and so on) of oil sand samples have been measured by geophysical logging and in the laboratory. We are now proceeding to investigate the relationship between thermal properties and physical/chemical properties of oil sand.

  10. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area's water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2007 through September 2008. Major findings for this period include:

  11. Faulting and block rotation in the Afar triangle, East Africa: The Danakil "crank-arm" model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souriot, T.; Brun, J.-P.

    1992-10-01

    Several domains of contrasted extensional deformation have been identified in the southern Afar triangle (East Africa) from fault patterns analyzed with panchromatic stereoscopic SPOT (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre) images. Stretching directions and statistical orientation and offset variations of faults fit with the Danakii "crank-arm" model of Sichler: A 10° sinistral rotation of the Danakil block explains the fault geometry and dextral block rotation in the southern part of the Afar triangle, as well as the oblique extension in the Tadjoura Gulf. Analogue modeling supports this interpretation.

  12. The description of triangle love in nicholas sparks’ novel “the notebook”

    OpenAIRE

    Fajar, Nurul

    2016-01-01

    he title of this paper is The Description of Triangle Love in Nicholas Sparks’ “The Notebook”, it is a kind of triangle love among Allie Nelson, Noah Calhoun, and Lon Hammond Jr.Allie and Noah loved each other, but their love had to be ended because of Allie’s parents did not agree with their relationship because of different status. Allie came from a rich family and Noah came from a poor family. Allie had no choice except leaving Noah and had to return to Winston-Salem with his parents. Aft...

  13. A note on a one-parameter family of non-symmetric number triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irene Falcão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent growing interest in special Clifford algebra valued polynomial solutions of generalized Cauchy-Riemann systems in \\((n + 1\\-dimensional Euclidean spaces suggested a detailed study of the arithmetical properties of their coefficients, due to their combinatoric relevance. This concerns, in particular, a generalized Appell sequence of homogeneous polynomials whose coefficient set can be treated as a one-parameter family of non-symmetric triangles of fractions. The discussion of its properties, similar to those of the ordinary Pascal triangle (which itself does not belong to the family, is carried out in this paper.

  14. The Previous Occurrence of Indian Ocean Tsunami- Geological Evidence from the Southeastern Coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, C.; Srinivasalu, S.; Rajendran, K.; Kumar, S.

    2008-12-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami is generally considered to be an event without any historical precedence. No known historical record exists on similar sized prior event of 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami magnitude. However, a closer look at the "Manimekhalai" an ancient Tamil literature from South India reveal references to a sea surge event around A.D. 1000 that may have affected the town of Pumbuhar (a ~2000 year old historical port town also known as Kaveripattinam), located at southeastern coast of India. The literary references, however, cannot be taken as historical facts unless geological evidence supports them. With this in mind, we had trenched some selected sites in the southeast Indian coastal village of Vanagiri located near Pumbuhar (Kaveripattinam). Our shallow trench sites placed roughly 1 km from present coastal margin exposed parallel laminated paleobeach facies at base of the trench overlain by relatively thick low-angle cross-bedded sand sheets sandwiched between clayey beds followed by thick soil horizon that forms the present day surface. The cross-bedded sand sheet units are bounded by fining upward transitional contact on top and an erosional contact at the bottom and is characterized by presence of heavy mineral lamination, rip-up clay clasts, contortions, occasional mud drapes and rare pottery shards. The sand sheet units are typically thick towards sea and pinches out landward forming a wedge-shaped body. The grain size and micro faunal analyses of sand sheets indicate bimodal grain size distribution and presence of foraminifera, respectively. Preliminary thermal luminescence ages obtained from the pottery shards preserved in units from below and above the sand sheets bracket age of the event between 1836+/-172 and 1017+/-168 ybp, which roughly corresponds to the age of sea surge referenced in "Manimekhalai". Further work is underway to understand geometry, fauna, lithology, age, sedimentary and chemistry of this candidate paleo tsunami deposits.

  15. Evaluation of Durability Parameters of Concrete with Manufacture Sand and River Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangoju, Bhaskar; Ramesh, G.; Bharatkumar, B. H.; Ramanjaneyulu, K.

    2017-06-01

    Most of the states in our country have banned sand quarrying from the river beds, causing a scarcity of natural river sand for the construction sector. Manufacture sand (M-sand) is one of the alternate solutions to replace the river sand (R-sand) in concrete. The main aim of the present study is to evaluate the durability parameters of concrete with M-sand when compared to that of concrete with R-sand. Corrosion of reinforcement is one of the main deteriorating mechanisms of reinforced concrete due to the ingress of chloride ions or carbon-di-oxide. For comparative evaluation of durability parameters, accelerated tests such as Rapid Chloride Permeability Test, Rapid Chloride Migration Test and accelerated carbonation test were carried out on specimens of R-sand and M-sand. All tests were carried out after 90 days of casting. Test results reveal that the durability parameters of the concrete with M-sand in chloride induced environment is relatively better than that of concrete with R-sand and hence is recommended to use M-sand as a replacement to R-sand.

  16. Sand deposit-detecting method and its application in model test of sand flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎伟; 房营光; 莫海鸿; 谷任国; 陈俊生

    2013-01-01

    Against the background of the sand-flow foundation treatment engineering of Guangzhou Zhoutouzui variable cross-section immersed tunnel, a kind of sand deposit-detecting method was devised on the basis of full-scale model test of sand-flow method. The real-time data of sand-deposit height and radius were obtained by the self-developed sand-deposit detectors. The test results show that the detecting method is simple and has high precision. In the use of sand-flow method, the sand-carrying capability of fluid is limited, and sand particles are all transported to the sand-deposit periphery through crater, gap and chutes after the sand deposit formed. The diffusion range of the particles outside the sand-deposit does not exceed 2.0 m. Severe sorting of sand particles is not observed because of the unique oblique-layered depositing process. The temporal and spatial distributions of gap and chutes directly affect the sand-deposit expansion, and the expansion trend of the average sand-deposit radius accords with quadratic time-history curve.

  17. Southeastern Power Administration 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Dear Secretary Moniz: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2012 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2011, and ending September 30, 2012. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 5.4 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 487 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled about $263 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2012. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in funding infrastructure renewal efforts of powerplants feeding the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems. This funding, which totaled more than $71 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rainfall strained our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2012 in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System totaled approximately $29 million. About $8 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We

  18. Southeastern Power Administration 2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-31

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2011 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2010, and ending September 31, 2011. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 6.2 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 489 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled more than $264 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2011. This funding, which totaled more than $45 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in the funding efforts in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems of projects. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rain placed strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2011 totaled approximately $38 million. About $9 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We are committed to providing reliable hydroelectric power to

  19. On the Helly Number for Line Transversals to Parallel Triangles%关于平行三角形集簇直线横截的Helly数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏战军; 丁仁

    2004-01-01

    We prove two results about the problem of finding the Helly number for line transversals to a family of parallel triangles in the plane: (1) If each three triangles of a family of parallel right triangles are intersected by an ascending (or a descending) line, then there is an ascending (or a descending) line that intersects all the triangles of the family; (2) If each three triangles of a family of parallel obtuse triangles are intersected by an ascending (or a descending) line, then there is an as cending (or a descending) line that intersects all the triangles of the family. We also obtain that the Helly number of a family of parallel right or obtuse triangles is 3.

  20. SAND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Grete

    Der er udført et konsolideringsforsøg med bakkesand fra Lunds grusgrav, Lund no. O. forsøget er udført i samme konsolideringsapparat, som er anvendt til måling af deformationsegenskaberne af mange forskellige danske jordarter. Forsøgsresultaterne er søgt tolket som ved forsøg med andre jordarter....

  1. The V-Flex, Triangle Orientation, and Catalan Numbers in Hexaflexagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, Ionut E.; McLean, T. Bruce; Wang, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Regular hexaflexagons mysteriously change faces as you pinch flex them. This paper describes a different flex, the V-flex, which allows the hexahexaflexagon (with only 9 faces under the pinch flex) to have 3420 faces. The article goes on to explain the classification of triangle orientations in a hexaflexagon and gives an example of the…

  2. The India-Pakistan-China strategic triangle and the role of nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellaney, B

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the Asian landscape with its regional balances and imbalances and its changes after September 11 and subsequent events. The nuclear posture and the role of nuclear weapons inside the China-India-Pakistan triangle is analyzed with respect to the US non-proliferation policy and its expanding military presence over the Asian continent. (J.S.)

  3. Early-Years Teachers' Concept Images and Concept Definitions: Triangles, Circles, and Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina; Levenson, Esther; Barkai, Ruthi; Tabach, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates practicing early-years teachers' concept images and concept definitions for triangles, circles, and cylinders. Teachers were requested to define each figure and then to identify various examples and non-examples of the figure. Teachers' use of correct and precise mathematical language and reference to critical and…

  4. Validation and scale dependencies of the triangle method for the evaporative fraction estimation over heterogeneous areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Tomás, Alberto; Nieto, Héctor; Guzinski, Radoslaw;

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing has proved to be a consistent tool for monitoring water fluxes at regional scales. The triangle method, in particular, estimates the evaporative fraction (EF), defined as the ratio of latent heat flux (LE) to available energy, based on the relationship between satellite observation...

  5. P 6- and triangle-free graphs revisited: structure and bounded clique-width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Brandstädt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Maximum Weight Stable Set (MWS Problem is one of the fundamental problems on graphs. It is well-known to be NP-complete for triangle-free graphs, and Mosca has shown that it is solvable in polynomial time when restricted to P 6- and triangle-free graphs. We give a complete structure analysis of (nonbipartite P 6- and triangle-free graphs which are prime in the sense of modular decomposition. It turns out that the structure of these graphs is extremely simple implying bounded clique-width and thus, efficient algorithms exist for all problems expressible in terms of Monadic Second Order Logic with quantification only over vertex predicates. The problems Vertex Cover, MWS, Maximum Clique, Minimum Dominating Set, Steiner Tree, and Maximum Induced Matching are among them. Our results improve the previous one on the MWS problem by Mosca with respect to structure and time bound but also extends a previous result by Fouquet, Giakoumakis and Vanherpe which have shown that bipartite P 6-free graphs have bounded clique-width. Moreover, it covers a result by Randerath, Schiermeyer and Tewes on polynomial time 3-colorability of P 6- and triangle-free graphs.

  6. When Two Circles Determine a Triangle. Discovering and Proving a Geometrical Condition in a Computer Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxas, Nikolaos; Karagiannidou, Andromachi

    2010-01-01

    Visualization of mathematical relationships enables students to formulate conjectures as well as to search for mathematical arguments to support these conjectures. In this project students are asked to discover the sufficient and necessary condition so that two circles form the circumscribed and inscribed circle of a triangle and investigate how…

  7. A new approach of QRS complex detection based on matched filtering and triangle character analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjun; Yan, Hong; Hong, Feng; Song, Jinzhong

    2012-09-01

    QRS complex detection usually provides the fundamentals to automated electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis. In this paper, a new approach of QRS complex detection without the stage of noise suppression was developed and evaluated, which was based on the combination of two techniques: matched filtering and triangle character analysis. Firstly, a template of QRS complex was selected automatically by the triangle character in ECG, and then it was time-reversed after removing its direct current component. Secondly, matched filtering was implemented at low computational cost by finite impulse response, which further enhanced QRS complex and attenuated non-QRS regions containing P-wave, T-wave and various noise components. Subsequently, triangle structure-based threshold decision was processed to detect QRS complexes. And RR intervals and triangle structures were further analyzed for the reduction of false-positive and false-negative detections. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithm was tested on all 48 records of the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database. The results demonstrated that the detection rate reached 99.62 %, the sensitivity got 99.78 %, and the positive prediction was 99.85 %. In addition, the proposed method was able to identify QRS complexes reliably even under the condition of poor signal quality.

  8. Decomposing series-parallel graphs into paths of length 3 and triangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merker, Martin

    2015-01-01

    An old conjecture by Jünger, Reinelt and Pulleyblank states that every 2-edge-connected planar graph can be decomposed into paths of length 3 and triangles, provided its size is divisible by 3. We prove the conjecture for a class of planar graphs including all 2-edge-connected series-parallel gra...

  9. Local-field enhancement of optical nonlinearities in the AGZO nano-triangle array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hua; Bao, Lijiao; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shuhui; Wang, Bing

    2016-10-01

    Enhancement of the third order optical nonlinearities in Ga and Al co-doped ZnO (AGZO) nano-triangle array was investigated by performing a Z-scan method with a femtosecond laser (800 nm, 40 fs). The AGZO nano-triangle array was fabricated on silica substrates by nanosphere lithography (NSL) method, showing a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak around 3 μm. The two photon absorption (TPA) coefficient and nonlinear refractive index of the AGZO nano-triangle array were determined to be 340 cm/GW and 3.22 × 10-2 cm2/GW under an excitation intensity of 26 GW/cm2. It shows a 3.4-fold enhancement of the nonlinear refraction in the AGZO array with respect to that in the AGZO film, which attributes to the local field enhancement effect. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation was in agreement with the experimental results. It indicates that the AGZO nano-triangle arrays have potential applications for nonlinear optical devices like all-optical switching, optical limiting and other types of signal processing.

  10. Tributes beyond Words: Art Educators' Use of Textiles to Memorialize the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Mia Lynn; Randall, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Through the study of The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, pre-service art teachers learn the about interdisciplinary design and the importance of using discipline-specific literacy strategies alongside the materials and methods of their craft. The creativity and enthusiasm with which these preservice teachers approached the work convinced us that…

  11. From Commodity Production to Sign Production: A Triple Triangle Model for Marx's Semiotics and Peirce's Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joohoan

    Using the viewpoint of semiotics, this paper "re-reads" Karl Marx's labor theory of value and suggests a "triple triangle" model for commodity production and shows how this model could be a model for semiosis in general. The paper argues that there are three advantages to considering homogeneity of the sign production and the…

  12. Some Nice Relations between Right-Angled Triangles and the Golden Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimone, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    The international debate about experimental approaches to the teaching and learning mathematics is very current. While number theory lends itself naturally to such approaches, elementary geometry can also provide interesting starting points for creative work in class. This article shows how simple considerations about right triangles and the…

  13. Triangles, tricks and tics: Hyper-mentalizing in response to animated shapes in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Clare M; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2015-10-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) can feature complex tics involving socially inappropriate behaviours. Adults with TS can also demonstrate differences to healthy controls when reasoning about mental states. This study investigated spontaneous mentalizing in TS. Twenty adults with TS and twenty healthy controls completed the animations task. Participants were asked to watch short ambiguous animations involving two triangles and describe what was happening. Some animations featured random movement of the triangles, while others depicted social interactions that were simple (e.g., dancing) or more complex (e.g., one triangle tricking the other). Measures were taken of executive functions, alexithymia and clinical symptoms. Individuals with TS responded similarly to controls when viewing animations featuring simple and complex interactions, demonstrating intact mentalizing ability. However, significant group differences were apparent for the random movement animations. TS was associated with a greater tendency to attribute mental states during this condition, and to describe random movements as motivated actions guided by the intentions of the triangles. There were no group differences for the alexithymia scale, but TS was associated with mild executive deficits. No relationships were apparent between animation responses and other measures. Our findings suggest that TS is associated with a propensity to adopt the intentional stance. Hyper-mentalizing in TS could be linked to both dopamine dysfunction and altered social behaviour, whereby amplified salience of social cues could contribute to the complex interplay between environmental context and tic expression. These observations may offer further insight into the potential effects of dopamine dysfunction on social cognition.

  14. Efficient Triangle Counting in Large Graphs via Degree-based Vertex Partitioning

    CERN Document Server

    Kolountzakis, Mihail N; Peng, Richard; Tsourakakis, Charalampos E

    2010-01-01

    The number of triangles is a computationally expensive graph statistic which is frequently used in complex network analysis (e.g., transitivity ratio), in various random graph models (e.g., exponential random graph model) and in important real world applications such as spam detection, uncovering of the hidden thematic structure of the Web and link recommendation. Counting triangles in graphs with millions and billions of edges requires algorithms which run fast, use small amount of space, provide accurate estimates of the number of triangles and preferably are parallelizable. In this paper we present an efficient triangle counting algorithm which can be adapted to the semistreaming model. The key idea of our algorithm is to combine the sampling algorithm of Tsourakakis et al. and the partitioning of the set of vertices into a high degree and a low degree subset respectively as in the Alon, Yuster and Zwick work treating each set appropriately. We obtain a running time $O \\left(m + \\frac{m^{3/2} \\Delta \\log{n...

  15. Random greedy triangle-packing beyond the 7/4 barrier

    CERN Document Server

    Bohman, Tom; Lubetzky, Eyal

    2011-01-01

    The random greedy algorithm for constructing a large partial Steiner-Triple-System is defined as follows. Begin with a complete graph on $n$ vertices and proceed to remove the edges of triangles one at a time, where each triangle removed is chosen uniformly at random out of all remaining triangles. This stochastic process terminates once it arrives at a triangle-free graph, and a longstanding open problem is to estimate the final number of edges, or equivalently the time it takes the process to conclude. The intuition that the edge distribution is roughly uniform at all times led to a folklore conjecture that the final number of edges is $n^{3/2+o(1)}$ with high probability, whereas the best known upper bound is $n^{7/4+o(1)}$. It is no coincidence that various methods break precisely at the exponent 7/4 as it corresponds to the inherent barrier where co-degrees become comparable to the variations in their values that arose earlier in the process. In this work we significantly improve upon the previous bounds...

  16. 75 FR 61788 - Triangle Capital Corporation, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... the Act.\\2\\ Triangle operates as a specialty finance company that provides customized financing...'s investment objective is to seek attractive returns by generating current income from debt... the public interest and consistent with the protection of investors and the purposes fairly...

  17. Semiotic Triangle Revisited for the Purposes of Ontology-based Terminology Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kudashev, Igor; Kudasheva, Irina

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the limitations of the traditional semiotic triangle from the point of view of ontology-based, multipurpose terminology management and suggest an alternative model based on the concept of terminological lexeme. The new model is being tested in the TermFactory project aimed at creating a platform and a workflow for distributed collaborative ontology-based terminology work.

  18. Constructing Geometric Properties of Rectangle, Square, and Triangle in the Third Grade of Indonesian Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilham Rizkianto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have provided that when learning shapes for the first time, young children tend to use the prototype as the reference point for comparisons, but often fail when doing so since they do not yet think about the defining attributes or the geometric properties of the shapes. Most of the time, elementary students learn geometric properties of shapes only as empty verbal statements to be memorized, without any chance to experience the contepts meaningfully. In the light of it, a sequence of instructional activities along with computer manipulative was designed to support Indonesian third graders in constructing geometric properties of square, rectangle, and triangle. The aim of the present study is to develop a loval instructional theory to support third graders in constructing geometric properties of rectangle, square, and triangle. Thirty seven students of one third grade classes in SD Pupuk Sriwijaya Palembang, along with their class teacher, were involved in the study. Our findings suggest that the combination of computer and non-computer activities suppots third graders in constructing geometric properties of square, rectangle, and triangle in that it provides opportunities to the students to experience and to develop the concepts meaningfully while using their real experiences as the bases to attain a higher geometric thinking level.Key concepts: Geometric properties, rectangle, square, triangle, design research, realistic mathematics education DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.4.2.414.160-171

  19. Southeastern Scarp of Olympus Mons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 4 June 2002) The Science The movement pathways of molten rock, or lava, is demonstrated in this image of a portion of Olympus Mons, the largest volcano in our solar system. These now-solid lava flows all show nearly the same orientation, having flowed from northeast to southwest, down the slope of the volcano's southeastern flank. Throughout the image, narrow pairs of lineaments can be observed ? these are called levees, and are essentially channel walls formed by the solidification and buildup of the edges of the lava flows. We can determine that the high-standing mountains must be older than the flows because they blocked their passage, causing the flows to change direction and go around the taller mountains. As in other THEMIS images, the lack of bright-dark contrast in this image indicates that a layer of dust covers these surfaces. The surfaces of the lava flows are virtually uncratered, attesting to the relatively recent formation of the flows, where ?recent? is within the last 500 million years or so. Several meteorites found on Earth appear to have come from volcanic regions on Mars ? their ages are as young as 180 million years, leading many scientists to suggest that volcanoes of the Tharsis region, including Olympus Mons, may be the source regions of these meteorites. A prominent pear-shaped bowl is apparent on a hill in the lower right third of the image ? the collapse and mass movement of material down slope, which also formed a debris pile below and southeast of the bowl, likely formed this feature. The Story Millions and millions of years ago, a huge impact blasted a crater into the surface of Mars, sending particles of the Martian surface scattering into space at great speeds, where they spent millions and millions of years calmly in space before encountering a nearby orbiting planet: our own planet Earth. Hurtling down through Earth's atmosphere, these pieces of Mars landed in various regions of our world and were discovered by modern

  20. Liquefaction of Sand under Low Confining Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shaoli; Rolf Sandven; Lars Grande

    2003-01-01

    Undrained behaviour of sand under low cell pressure was studied in static and cyclic triaxial tests. It was found that very loose sand liquefies under static loading with the relative density being a key parameter for the undrained behaviour of sand. In cyclic triaxial tests, pore water pressures built up during the cyclic loading and exceeded the confining cell pressure. This process was accompanied by a large sudden increase in axial deformation. The necessary number of cycles to obtain liquefaction was related to the confining cell pressure, the amplitude of cyclic loading and the relative density of sand.In addition, the patterns of pore water pressure response are different from those of sand samples with different relative densities. The test results are very useful for expounding scour mechanism around coastal structures since they relate to the low stress behaviour of the sand.

  1. Creep Behavior of Frozen Sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    temperature and stress range. There was a 2strong stress dependance to S (r =0.95) for saturated Manchester Fine Sand which does not agree with RPT. The...Curves at High Stress 161 Ratio D/Du = 0.505 for Frozen HF’S at w=10% IV-20 Minimum Strain Rate Dependance on Stress 162 Ratio for Frozen MFS IV-21 Minimum...Strain Rate Dependance on Relative 163 Density for Frozen MFS IV-22 Temperature Stage Test on Frozen Saturated 164 MFS under a Load of D=9.24MPa Fig

  2. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Szekely

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes--phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass.

  3. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Pablo; Korem, Yael; Moran, Uri; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2015-10-01

    When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes--phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass.

  4. Recent advances in waterglass sand technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Chun-xi

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports some new understandings and advances in waterglass sand technologies. The multiple chemical modification process can increase the binding strength of the waterglass sand by up to 50%-70%.Therefore, the additions of the modified waterglass can be decreased to 3.0%-4.0% for CO2 process and to 2.0%-2.5% for organic ester hardening process, and greatly improve the collapsibility and reclaimability of the sand. Based on the new understandings and experimental results reported in this paper, several original ideas, such as nano modification, have been proposed to promote advances of waterglass sand technologies,

  5. PROSPECTS FIXATION DRIFT SANDS PHYSICOCHEMICAL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maujuda MUZAFFAROVA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the theoretical foundations of secure mobile sand being considered for reducing the negative impact of one of the manifestations of exogenous plains on such an important natural-technical system as a railroad. It suggests practical measures to build a system of design protection against sand drifts. The article also suggests ways to conserve resources and rational use of machinery and performers as well as the consolidation of mobile sand wet with water soluble waste of local production of waste dextrin. Consolidation is exposed on dry and wet sand.

  6. Innovative developments in sand reclamation technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dañko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Proper sand management and efficient sand reclamation system are two main factors influencing economical and ecological side of modern foundry plant. It is well known fact that the production of 1 metric ton of casting from ferrous alloys generates circa 1 metric ton of waste [1], which due to containing certain amounts of harmful and dangerous compounds should undergo a reclamation – at least of the main component, which means a silica sand grains. The paper present problems of scientific and development research concerning the innovative reclamation technologies of used foundry sands such as: mechanical-cryogenic reclamation and innovative thermal reclamation.

  7. Sand Failure Mechanism and Sanding Parameters in Niger Delta Oil Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Sunday Isehunwa,; Andrew Farotade

    2010-01-01

    Sand production is a major issue during oil and gas production from unconsolidated reservoirs. In predicting the onset of sand production, it is important to accurately determine the failure mechanism and the contributing parameters. The aim of this study was to determine sand failure mechanism in the Niger-Delta, identify themajor contributing parameters and evaluate their effects on sanding.Completion and production data from 78 strings completed on 22 reservoirs in a Niger Delta oil Field ...

  8. Southeastern Power Administration 2008 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-12-29

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2008 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this document reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2007 and ending September 30, 2008. Southeastern marketed more than 4.5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 491 wholesale customers in ten southeastern states this past year. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $263 million. Drought conditions persisted in the southeastern region of the United States during FY 2008 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2008 totaled $91 million. Approximately $44 million of this amount was for replacement power which is paid only during adverse water conditions in order to meet our customers’ contract requirements. With the continued financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for these aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security programs continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) standards and requirements. In the coming year, Southeastern will continue open communication and cooperation with DOE, the Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Although competing uses of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency, Southeastern’s employees will meet these challenges and continue to provide reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E.Legg Administrator

  9. Study of Black Sand Particles from Sand Dunes in Badr, Saudi Arabia Using Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Abbas Khwaja

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Particulate air pollution is a health concern. This study determines the microscopic make-up of different varieties of sand particles collected at a sand dune site in Badr, Saudi Arabia in 2012. Three categories of sand were studied: black sand, white sand, and volcanic sand. The study used multiple high resolution electron microscopies to study the morphologies, emission source types, size, and elemental composition of the particles, and to evaluate the presence of surface “coatings or contaminants” deposited or transported by the black sand particles. White sand was comprised of natural coarse particles linked to wind-blown releases from crustal surfaces, weathering of igneous/metamorphic rock sources, and volcanic activities. Black sand particles exhibited different morphologies and microstructures (surface roughness compared with the white sand and volcanic sand. Morphological Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM analyses revealed that the black sand contained fine and ultrafine particles (50 to 500 nm ranges and was strongly magnetic, indicating the mineral magnetite or elemental iron. Aqueous extracts of black sands were acidic (pH = 5.0. Fe, C, O, Ti, Si, V, and S dominated the composition of black sand. Results suggest that carbon and other contaminant fine particles were produced by fossil-fuel combustion and industrial emissions in heavily industrialized areas of Haifa and Yanbu, and transported as cloud condensation nuclei to Douf Mountain. The suite of techniques used in this study has yielded an in-depth characterization of sand particles. Such information will be needed in future environmental, toxicological, epidemiological, and source apportionment studies.

  10. Pattern formation - Instabilities in sand ripples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. L.; v. Hecke, M.; Haaning, A.

    2001-01-01

    Sand ripples are seen below shallow wavy water and are formed whenever water oscillates over a bed of sand. Here we analyse the instabilities that can upset this perfect patterning when the ripples are subjected to large changes in driving amplitude or frequency, causing them to deform both...

  11. Pilot Project Sand Groynes Delfland Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Walstra, D.J.R.; Swinkels, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    In October and November 2009 a pilot project has been executed at the Delfland Coast in the Netherlands, constructing three small sandy headlands called Sand Groynes. Sand Groynes are nourished from the shore in seaward direction and anticipated to redistribute in the alongshore due to the impact of

  12. Silica sand resources in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Westerhoff, W.E.; Menkovic, A.; Gruijters, S.H.L.L.; Dubelaar, C.W.; Maljers, D.

    2009-01-01

    Silica sand, (almost) pure quartz sand, is a valuable and scarce mineral resource within the shallow Dutch subsurface. High-grade deposits are exploited in the southeastemmost part of the country, as raw material for the glass, ceramic, chemical and other process industries. Dutch land-use policy re

  13. Pilot Project Sand Groynes Delfland Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Walstra, D.J.R.; Swinkels, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    In October and November 2009 a pilot project has been executed at the Delfland Coast in the Netherlands, constructing three small sandy headlands called Sand Groynes. Sand Groynes are nourished from the shore in seaward direction and anticipated to redistribute in the alongshore due to the impact of

  14. Understanding Colombian Amazonian white sand forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peñuela-Mora, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Although progress has been made in studies on white sand forests in the Amazon, there is still a considerable gap in our knowledge of the unique species composition of white sand forests and their structure and dynamics, especially in Western Amazon. This thesis aims to fill this gap by addressing t

  15. Sand transportation and reverse patterns over leeward face of sand dune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Dun, Hongchao; Tong, Ding; Huang, Ning

    2017-04-01

    Sand saltation has complex interactions with turbulent flow and dune form. Most models of wind-blown sand consider ideal circumstances such as steady wind velocity and a flat surface, and the bulk of data on wind flow and sand transport over an individual dune has focused mostly on the influence of dune shape or inter-dune space on the wind flow, neglecting the effect of morphology on sand saltation, particularly airflow and sand transportation over the leeward slope. Wind flow structures over the leeward slope of sand dunes have a fundamental influence on the organization of sand dunes. In order to understand sand dune dynamics, lee face airflow and sediment transportation should be paid more attention. Previous field observations could not measure turbulent flow structure well because of the limited observation points and the influence of experiment structure on wind field. In addition, the reverse sand particles over leeward face could not be collected by sand trap in field. Numerous field observations could not measure turbulent flow structure because of the limited observation points and the influence of experimental structures on the wind field. In addition, the reverse transport of sand particles over leeward face could not be collected by sand traps in field. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the turbulent flow structure and sand transport pattern over the leeward slope. A numerical model of sand saltation over slope terrain is constructed, which also considers the coupling effects between air flow and sand particles. The large eddy simulation method is used to model turbulent flow. Sand transport is simulated by tracking the trajectory of each sand particle. The results show that terrain significantly alters the turbulent air flow structure and wind-blown sand movement, especially over the leeward slope. Here, mass flux increases initially and then decreases with height in the reversed flow region in the direction of wind flow, and the mass flux

  16. Choosing an optimum sand control method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Khamehchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Formation sand control is always one of the main concerns of production engineers. There are some different methods to prevent sand production. Choosing a method for preventing formation sand production depends on different reservoir parameters and politic and economic conditions. Sometimes, economic and politic conditions are more effective to choose an optimum than reservoir parameters. Often, simultaneous investigation of politic and economic conditions with reservoir parameters has different results with what is expected. So, choosing the best sand control method is the result of thorough study. Global oil price, duration of sand control project and costs of necessary equipment for each method as economic and politic conditions and well productivity index as reservoir parameter are the main parameters studied in this paper.

  17. Altitude of the top of the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand in three areas of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Aaron L.; Westerfield, Paul W.; Gonthier, Gerard; Poynter, David T.

    1998-01-01

    The Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand form the second most productive aquifer in Arkansas. The Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand range in thick- ness from 0 to 900 feet, consisting of fine- to medium-grained sands interbedded with layers of silt, clay, shale, and minor amounts of lignite. Within the three areas of interest, the top surface of the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand dips regionally east and southeast towards the axis of the Mississippi Embayment syncline and Desha Basin. Local variations in the top surface may be attributed to a combination of continued development of structural features, differential compaction, localized faulting, and erosion of the surface prior to subsequent inundation and deposition of younger sediments.

  18. Sand Failure Mechanism and Sanding Parameters in Niger Delta Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Isehunwa,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sand production is a major issue during oil and gas production from unconsolidated reservoirs. In predicting the onset of sand production, it is important to accurately determine the failure mechanism and the contributing parameters. The aim of this study was to determine sand failure mechanism in the Niger-Delta, identify themajor contributing parameters and evaluate their effects on sanding.Completion and production data from 78 strings completed on 22 reservoirs in a Niger Delta oil Field were evaluated. Sand failure mechanisms and contributing parameters were identified and compared with published profiles. The results showed that cohesive stress is the predominant sand failure mechanism. Water cut, bean size and gas oil ratio (GOR impact sand production in the Niger Delta.

  19. Shallow sequence stratigraphy of the inner shelf deposits off the southeastern coast of Korea (Korea Strait)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Dong-Geun; Sunwoo, Don [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Taejeon(Korea)

    2001-09-01

    High-resolution seismic profiles on the inner shelf off the southeastern coast of Korea reveal that late Quaternary deposits consist of three sedimentary units (A upper, B middle and C lower) accumulated after the last glacial period. The upper unit (A) above the maximum flooding surface is the highstand systems tract formed during the recent highstand of sea level. The middle and lower units (B and C) represent the transgressive systems tract related to shoreface retreat during the post-glacial transgression. The middle unit (B) above the ravinement surface forms a thin veneer of transgressive sands, while lower unit (C) overlying the sequence boundary represents the transgressive estuarine deposits accumulated in the late stage of Holocene transgression. (author). 19 refs., 6 figs.

  20. The Cumacea community of the southeastern Brazilian Continental Shelf: structure and dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda L. Dos Santos

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Specific composition, abundance, diversity and dynamics of the Cumacea community from the southeastern Brazilian continental shelf were studied. The area is characterized by the intrusion of a cold and highly saline water mass in summer, the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW, from the slope towards the coast, changing the hydrographic structure of the shelf and the species distribution. During the other seasons the inner shelf, area shallower than 50 m, is filled with warm and low saline water, the Coastal Water (CW. The presence of the SACW seems to favor the abundance and diversity of Cumacea due to its higher primary production and stability. Three groups of species were related to the water masses. Depth and fine sand fraction were shown to be the main factors structuring the Cumacea community. The role of the SACW in maintaining the Cumacea populations in the area through the passive transport of pre-ovigerous and ovigerous females is discussed.

  1. Mineralogy of Selected Paddy Soils in Southeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.L.WANG; P.M.HUANG

    1997-01-01

    Limited information is available concerning the mineralogy of paddy soils in the southeastern China, Using chemical methods in conjunction with X-ray diffractometry,we studied the mineral composition of three paddy soils:Jinghua (paddy soil on Quaternary red clay),Fuyang (Hapl-percogenic loamy paddy soil),and Shaoxing(gleyic clayey paddy soil).All the soils contained quartz,mica,vermiculite,chlorite and kaolinite ,and the distribution of these minerals varied with soil prticle size fractions.The clay fraction of the Fuyang and Shaoxing soils aso contained smectite.Although X-ray data did not show the presence of smectite in the Jinghua soil,this mineral was identified by the chemical method.suggesting a transitional property of the mineral in the soil.Hydroxy-Al interlayered minerals were also present in the clay fraction.The amount of smectite in the soils was 31.6(Shaoxing),16.5(Fuyang),and 21.4(Jinghua)g kg-1;for vermiculite it was 33.3(Shaoxing),16.5(Fuyang),and 8.5(Jinghua) g kg-1,Smectite was only Found in the clay fraction,In contrast,amounts of vermiculite in soil particle size fractions were 3.0-11.4(sand), 2.1-6.0(coarse silt),4.6-18.9(medium silt),0.9-40.0(fine silt),and 17.0-108(clay)g kg-1,The amount of noncrystalline aluminosilicates in the soils in g kg-1 decreased in the order:Shaoxing(2.4)>Jinghua (1.9)>Fuyang(1.7).This study has provided useful mineralogical information that is fundamental in future development of management strategies of soils.

  2. Determination of arsenic(III), sulphite and sulphur dioxide using the triangle programmed coulometric titration principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, F.; Buschmann, N. (Muenster Univ. (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-11-01

    In 1975, Pungor et al. established a new method called Triangle Programmed Coulometric Titration, which allows to titrate flowing sample solutions. The following paper presents a new analytical procedure for the determination of sulphur dioxide based on this technique. To obtain this, sulphur dioxide was transferred across a semipermeable membrane from a gaseous phase into an aqueous acceptor phase. Then the SO{sub 2}-concentration of the streaming aqueous phase was analysed bromometrically using the Triangle Programmed Coulometric Titration principle. The titration curves were followed continuously by an AC-bivoltammetric flow-through detector. Using this procedure a determination of SO{sub 2} concentrations between 400 and 2500 mg/m{sup 3} was possible.(orig.).

  3. Remarks on the P{sub c} structures and triangle singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng-Kun [Chinese Academy of Science, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Meissner, Ulf G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Nieves, Juan [Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), Valencia (Spain); Yang, Zhi [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    It was proposed that the narrow P{sub c}(4450) structure observed by the LHCb Collaboration in the reaction Λ{sub b} → J/ψpK might be due to a triangle singularity around the χ{sub c1}-proton threshold at 4.45 GeV. We discuss the occurrence of a similar triangle singularity in the J/ψp invariant mass distribution for the decay Λ{sub b} → J/ψpπ, which could explain the bump around 4.45 GeV in the data. More precise measurements of this process would provide valuable information towards an understanding of the P{sub c} structures. (orig.)

  4. The transition from fracton to phonon states in a Sierpinski triangle lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, E.L. da, E-mail: edroaldo@gmail.co [Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis-SC 88040-900 (Brazil); Cunha, C.R. da, E-mail: creq@eel.ufsc.b [Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis-SC 88040-900 (Brazil)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: A Sierpinski triangle was studied with different self-similarity levels and disorder. A transition from fracton to phonon states was observed for low disorder. A second transition was observed from extended to localized phonon states. The transitions correspond to a change in topology in the average density of states. - Abstract: Lattice dynamics of a Sierpinski triangle submitted to different levels of disorder was studied via atomistic Green's functions. It was found that there is a critical level of disorder that separates two regions of thermal transport. The first is characterized by a fast destruction of fracton states and the formation of spatially extended phonon states. The second region is characterized by a transition from extended to localized phonon states as predicted by the Anderson model.

  5. Natural Convection Inside Square Enclosure Containing Equilateral Triangle with Different Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hamza Altaee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural convection heat transfer phenomenon in a square enclosure containing equilateral triangle cylinder on its centroid is numerically investigated. Two dimensional for air (Pr=0.71 with outer cold walls of square enclosure and hot inner walls of the triangle cylinder by using CFD techniques is implemented. (Ansys Fluent 16 is used to simulate this problem. TheRayleigh number varied from 104 to 106 and orientation angles from 00 to 1050 step 150 for each case. The laminar boussinesq approximation is used with the convergence criteria less than 10-5 for continuity, momentum and for energy equation 10-8. Fluid and temperature are exhibited by stream and isothermal lines while heat transfer presented by the average Nusselt number. According to orientation angle, results can be divided into two groups; (0o-45o and (60o-105o. Maximum heat transfer obtained at orientation angle of 300 and Ra=106.

  6. Golden Root Geometry Structuring the Polyhedra and Other Forms Via Plato’s Triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Chr. Stefanides

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Under Golden Root Geometry Structuring the Polyhedra and other Forms Via Plato’s Triangles, we refer to the basic geometric configurations which, as this theory contemplates, are necessary for the progressive mode of formation of the five polyhedral and the geometries involved in their sections and related circles and further to logarithms, via lines, areas and volumes. Basis of all these structures is a very special Scalene Orthogonal Triangle “Plato’s Most Beautiful” [F25], together with his Orthogonal Isosceles one. Structural Forms are identified bearing in common these triangular identities. The particular angle of the Scalene Orthogonal is that whose ArcTan[Θ]=Τ and T = SQR ((SQR. (5 + 1/2.

  7. The use of triangle diagram in the detection of explosive and illicit drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudac, Davorin; Baricevic, Martina; Obhodas, Jasmina; Franulovic, Andrej; Valkovic, Vladivoj

    2010-04-01

    A tagged neutron inspection system has been used for the detection of explosive and illicite drugs. Simulant of the RDX explosive was measured in different environments and its gamma ray spectra were compared with the gamma ray spectra of benign materials like paper, sugar and rise. "Fingerprint" of the RDX simulant was found by detecting the nitrogen as well as by making the triangle plot which coordinates show the carbon and oxygen content and density. Density was obtained by measuring the intensity of the transmited tagged neutrons. Hence, the presence of the simulant can be confirmed by using two different methods. The possibility of using the triangle plot for detection of illicit drugs like heroin, cocain and marihuana is also discused.

  8. Beliefs, Practices, and Reflection: Exploring a Science Teacher's Classroom Assessment Through the Assessment Triangle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Edward G.

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes the Assessment Practices Framework and how I used it to study a high school Chemistry teacher as she designed, implemented, and learned from a chemistry lab report. The framework consists of exploring three teacher-centered components of classroom assessment (assessment beliefs, practices, and reflection) and analyzing components with the assessment triangle model (Pellegrino et al. in, Knowing what students know: The science and design of educational assessment. National Academy Press, Washington DC, 2001). Employing the framework, I report the teacher's assessment practices, report the alignment in her assessment practices through the three vertices of the assessment triangle (cognition, observation, and interpretation), and suggest relations between her beliefs and practices. I conclude by discussing the contribution and limitations of the Assessment Practices Framework while conducting future research and supporting science teachers in assessing student learning.

  9. Graphene circular polarization analyzer based on spiral metal triangle antennas arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bofeng; Ren, Guobin; Gao, Yixiao; Wu, Beilei; Wan, Chenglong; Jian, Shuisheng

    2015-09-21

    In this paper we propose a circular polarization analyzer based on spiral metal triangle antenna arrays deposited on graphene. Via the dipole antenna resonances, plasmons are excited on graphene surface and the wavefront can be tailed by arranging metal antennas into linetype, circular or spiral arrays. Especially, for spiral antenna arrays, the geometric phase effect can be cancelled by or superposed on the chirality carried within circular polarization incidence, producing spatially separated solid dot or donut shape fields at the center. Such a phenomenon enables the graphene based spiral metal triangle antennas arrays to achieve functionality as a circular polarization analyzer. Extinction ratio over 550 can be achieved and the working wavelength can be tuned by adjusting graphene Fermi level dynamically. The proposed analyzer may find applications in analyzing chiral molecules using different circularly polarized waves.

  10. Electric potential and field calculation of charged BEM triangles and rectangles by Gaussian cubature

    CERN Document Server

    Glück, Ferenc

    2016-01-01

    It is a widely held view that analytical integration is more accurate than the numerical one. In some special cases, however, numerical integration can be more advantageous than analytical integration. In our paper we show this benefit for the case of electric potential and field computation of charged triangles and rectangles applied in the boundary element method (BEM). Analytical potential and field formulas are rather complicated (even in the simplest case of constant charge densities), they have usually large computation times, and at field points far from the elements they suffer from large rounding errors. On the other hand, Gaussian cubature, which is an efficient numerical integration method, yields simple and fast potential and field formulas that are very accurate far from the elements. The simplicity of the method is demonstrated by the physical picture: the triangles and rectangles with their continuous charge distributions are replaced by discrete point charges, whose simple potential and field ...

  11. Nanostructuring of Fused Silica Assisted by Laser-shaped Metal Triangles Using a Nanosecond Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Pierre; Grüner, Christoph; Ehrhardt, Martin; Bayer, Lukas; Zimmer, Klaus

    Self-organized processes are of special interest for the laser-induced nanostructuring of surfaces. In this study we combined two self-organized processes: the microsphere lithography and the molten phase transformation for the nanostructuring of dielectrics. A fused silica substrate was covered with periodically ordered polystyrene (PS) spheres and the system was subsequently covered with 30 nm chromium. Afterwards the PS spheres were removed and the bare and resultant periodic Cr triangles were irradiated in two steps using a KrF excimer laser. First step: A low laser fluence treatment results in a melting and shape transformation of the triangles. Second step: A high laser fluence treatment of the pre-treated surface results in a nanostructuring of the dielectric surface (and removal of the metal). The surface topography was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, the different steps were simulated and compared with the experimental results.

  12. Geochemical and Geophysical Analysis of Holocene-aged Sediments from Southeastern Tulare Lake, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, L.; Jackson, B.; Roza, J.

    2015-12-01

    Tulare Lake is located in the San Joaquin Valley of California west of the Sierra Nevada mountains (Preston, 1981). The Poso Canal trench locality is located in the southeastern portion of Tulare Lake in the Ton Tachi lake plane south of the Atwell Island sand spit. This area was chosen because these sediments lie beneath a road bed that predates agricultural tilling, preserving late-Holocene lake sediments. Sediments from trench TL13-7C were sampled for geophysical and geochemical analyses in order to create a higher resolution lake-level history during the late-Holocene than had been possible using only lithologic descriptions. The new record is comprised of grain size, clay percentage, carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios, total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC), and nitrogen (N) analyses taken at 2-cm intervals over 181-cm of section comprising four lithologic units. From oldest to youngest, Unit 1A consists of relatively equal and steady percentages of clay, silt, and sand, and relatively low C/N ratios, TIC, TOC, and N, suggesting an unproductive lake and relatively deep lake levels at this high elevation site. Fluctuating C/N ratios, a steady decrease in clay percentage, and a steady increase in sand percentage in Unit 1B suggests periods of flooding and fluctuating lake levels and eventually shallow evaporative lake conditions, as evidenced by a considerable and sudden increase in TIC (to 4.51%) in Unit 2. In addition to the drastic change in TIC, Unit 2 shows evidence of a large influx of terrestrial organic matter perhaps transported by floods by an increase in sand percentage and two pronounced spikes in C/N ratios to 38 and 65 (Meyers and Lallier-Verges, 1999). Unit 3 shows low but steady levels of clay and sand percentages, and higher but steady levels of silt. Levels of TIC, TOC, C/N, and N are all steady, with relatively higher levels of TOC and N, which are indicators of high lake level and productivity (Cohen, 2003). Unit 4 is very similar

  13. Global sand trade is paving the way for a tragedy of the sand commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A.; Brandt, J.; Lear, K.; Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    In the first 40 years of the 21st century, planet Earth is highly likely to experience more urban land expansion than in all of history, an increase in transportation infrastructure by more than a third, and a great variety of land reclamation projects. While scientists are beginning to quantify the deep imprint of human infrastructure on biodiversity at large scales, its off-site impacts and linkages to sand mining and trade have been largely ignored. Sand is the most widely used building material in the world. With an ever-increasing demand for this resource, sand is being extracted at rates that far exceed its replenishment, and is becoming increasingly scarce. This has already led to conflicts around the world and will likely lead to a "tragedy of the sand commons" if sustainable sand mining and trade cannot be achieved. We investigate the environmental and socioeconomic interactions over large distances (telecouplings) of infrastructure development and sand mining and trade across diverse systems through transdisciplinary research and the recently proposed telecoupling framework. Our research is generating a thorough understanding of the telecouplings driven by an increasing demand for sand. In particular, we address three main research questions: 1) Where are the conflicts related to sand mining occurring?; 2) What are the major "sending" and "receiving" systems of sand?; and 3) What are the main components (e.g. causes, effects, agents, etc.) of telecoupled systems involving sand mining and trade? Our results highlight the role of global sand trade as a driver of environmental degradation that threatens the integrity of natural systems and their capacity to deliver key ecosystem services. In addition, infrastructure development and sand mining and trade have important implications for other sustainability challenges such as over-fishing and global warming. This knowledge will help to identify opportunities and tools to better promote a more sustainable use

  14. On the Weight of Minor Faces in Triangle-Free 3-Polytopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borodin Oleg V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The weight w(f of a face f in a 3-polytope is the degree-sum of vertices incident with f. It follows from Lebesgue’s results of 1940 that every triangle-free 3-polytope without 4-faces incident with at least three 3-vertices has a 4-face with w ≤ 21 or a 5-face with w ≤ 17. Here, the bound 17 is sharp, but it was still unknown whether 21 is sharp.

  15. Applying convex layers, nearest neighbor and triangle inequality to the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP)

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Sing

    2012-01-01

    The author would like to propose a simple but yet effective method, convex layers, nearest neighbor and triangle inequality, to approach the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). No computer is needed in this method. This method is designed for plain folks who faced the TSP everyday but do not have the sophisticated knowledge of computer science, programming language or applied mathematics. The author also hopes that it would give some insights to researchers who are interested in the TSP.

  16. Modification of Duval Triangle for Diagnostic Transformer Fault through a Procedure of Dissolved Gases Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhy Serry Dessouky

    2016-08-01

        The evaluation is carried out on DGA data obtained from three different groups of transformers. A Matlab program was developed to automate the evaluation of  Duval Triangle graph to numerical modification, Also the fault gases can be generated due to oil decomposing effected by transformer over excitation which increasing thetransformer exciting current lead to rising the temperature inside transformer core beside the other causes.

  17. Exact many-electron ground states on diamond and triangle Hubbard chains

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    We construct exact ground states of interacting electrons on triangle and diamond Hubbard chains. The construction requires (i) a rewriting of the Hamiltonian into positive semidefinite form, (ii) the construction of a many-electron ground state of this Hamiltonian, and (iii) the proof of the uniqueness of the ground state. This approach works in any dimension, requires no integrability of the model, and only demands sufficiently many microscopic parameters in the Hamiltonian which have to fu...

  18. Proofs to two inequality conjectures for a point on the plane of a triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjian Huang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We prove two conjectures for a point on the plane of a triangle presented in (Liu in J. Math. Inequal. 8(3:597-611, 2014, doi: 10.1007/s11590-013-0708-4 by using the successive difference substitution algorithm NEWTSDS. Compared with the original proof, the new one is simpler and more easily understood. Similar problems can be treated with the same procedure.

  19. Berry curvature, triangle anomalies, and the chiral magnetic effect in Fermi liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dam Thanh; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2012-11-02

    In a three-dimensional Fermi liquid, quasiparticles near the Fermi surface may possess a Berry curvature. We show that if the Berry curvature has a nonvanishing flux through the Fermi surface, the particle number associated with this Fermi surface has a triangle anomaly in external electromagnetic fields. We show how Landau's Fermi liquid theory should be modified to take into account the Berry curvature. We show that the "chiral magnetic effect" also emerges from the Berry curvature flux.

  20. The Uneven City: Planning Insurgencies in Ramlet Bulaq and Maspero Triangle

    OpenAIRE

    Shakran, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Cairo, Egypt holds 4 of the 30 largest “mega-slums” in the world with nearly 60 percent of Cairo’s population inhabiting informal settlements (Davis, 2007; Khalifa, 2013). Two of these settlements, Ramlet Bulaq and the Maspero Triangle in West Cairo, consistently experience evictions inflicted by state and private developers since the mid-2000s. The central question orienting this research is: How do Ramlet Bulaq and Maspero inhabitants develop insurgent planning practices to resist state and...

  1. New perspectives on the dynamics of the adoption triangle using biographical, literary and psychoanalytic sources

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Robert William Kyle

    2013-01-01

    The difficulty of qualitative research in the area of adoption process is the starting point for this work. Forms of data gathering and analysis that will capture the emotionality of adoption participants are outlined. The aim was to extend our psychoanalytic understanding of the dynamics of the ‘searching’ phenomenon in the adoption triangle.\\ud A review of the psychoanalytic literature pertinent to adoption was compiled and the applicability of the core concepts explored. There was a clear ...

  2. Smallholder Farmers’ Perceptions on Climate Change and the Use of Sustainable Agricultural Practices in the Chinyanja Triangle, Southern Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clifton Makate; Marshall Makate; Nelson Mango

    2017-01-01

    ... importance over the years. This study assesses the impact of farmer perceptions regarding climate change on the use of sustainable agricultural practices as an adaptation strategy in the Chinyanja Triangle, Southern Africa...

  3. Assessing the plasmonics of gold nano-triangles with higher order laser modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Hennemann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Regular arrays of metallic nano-triangles – so called Fischer patterns – are fabricated by nano-sphere lithography. We studied such gold nano-triangle arrays on silicon or glass substrates. A series of different samples was investigated with a parabolic mirror based confocal microscope where the sample is scanned through the laser focus. By employing higher order laser modes (azimuthally and radially polarised laser beams, we can excite the Fischer patterns using either a pure in-plane (x,y electric field or a strongly z-directional (optical axis of the optical microscope electric field. We collected and evaluated the emitted luminescence and thereby investigated the respectively excited plasmonic modes. These varied considerably: firstly with the light polarisation in the focus, secondly with the aspect ratio of the triangles and thirdly with the employed substrate. Moreover, we obtained strongly enhanced Raman spectra of an adenine (sub-monolayer on gold Fischer patterns on glass. We thus showed that gold Fischer patterns are promising surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS substrates.

  4. Ten things to get right for marine conservation planning in the Coral Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Rebecca; Pressey, Robert L.; Wilson, Joanne R.; Knight, Maurice; Horigue, Vera; Abesamis, Rene A.; Acosta, Renerio; Jompa, Jamaluddin

    2015-01-01

    Systematic conservation planning increasingly underpins the conservation and management of marine and coastal ecosystems worldwide. Amongst other benefits, conservation planning provides transparency in decision-making, efficiency in the use of limited resources, the ability to minimise conflict between diverse objectives, and to guide strategic expansion of local actions to maximise their cumulative impact. The Coral Triangle has long been recognised as a global marine conservation priority, and has been the subject of huge investment in conservation during the last five years through the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security. Yet conservation planning has had relatively little influence in this region. To explore why this is the case, we identify and discuss 10 challenges that must be resolved if conservation planning is to effectively inform management actions in the Coral Triangle. These are: making conservation planning accessible; integrating with other planning processes; building local capacity for conservation planning; institutionalising conservation planning within governments; integrating plans across governance levels; planning across governance boundaries; planning for multiple tools and objectives; understanding limitations of data; developing better measures of progress and effectiveness; and making a long term commitment. Most important is a conceptual shift from conservation planning undertaken as a project, to planning undertaken as a process, with dedicated financial and human resources committed to long-term engagement. PMID:25110579

  5. New orientations in the stereographic triangle for self-assembled faceting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Camacho, R.; Méndez-García, V. H.; López-López, M.; Cruz-Hernández, E.

    2016-06-01

    Energetically unstable crystalline surfaces, among their uses, can be templates for the growth of periodic arrays of one-dimensional (1D) nanoscale structures. However, few studies have explored self-assembled faceting on high-index (HI) planes inside the stereographic triangle, and extant studies have not produced any criteria for encouraging the formation of one-dimensional periodic arrays. In this Letter, by analyzing the MBE growth of homoepitaxial facets on (631)A GaAs, a HI plane inside the triangle, we present a criteria to produce highly uniform 1D periodic arrays on unexplored surfaces. These families of planes are those belonging to the lines connecting the energetically stable HI GaAs (11 5 2) plane with any of the (100), (110), and (111) planes at the corners of the stereographic triangle. This novel strategy can lead to new possibilities in self-assembling 1D structures and manipulating physical properties, which in turn may result in new HI- and 1D-based experiments and devices.

  6. Role of peripheral phenanthroline groups in the self-assembly of self-assembled molecular triangles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mili C Naranthatta; V Ramkumar; Dillip Kumar Chand

    2015-02-01

    Self-assembled molecular triangles [Pd3(phen)3(imidazolate)3](NO3)3, 1a and [Pd3(phen)3 (imidazolate)3](PF6)3, 1b are prepared by the combination of imidazole with Pd(phen)(NO3)2 and Pd(phen) (PF6)2, respectively. Imidazole was deprotonated during the complexation reactions and the imidazolate so formed acted as a bis-monodentate bridging ligand to form the bowl-shaped trinuclear architectures of 1a/b. Relative orientation of the imidazolate moieties can be best described as syn,anti,anti as observed in the crystal structure of 1b. However, in solution state, slow conformational changes are assumed on the basis of 1HNMR spectral data. The molecular triangles are crafted with three peripheral phen units capable of − stacking interactions. Well-fashioned intermolecular − interactions are observed in the solid-state, wherein further self-assembly of already self-assembled triangle is observed.

  7. Cutter-workpiece engagement determination for general milling using triangle mesh modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Gong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutter-workpiece engagement (CWE is the instantaneous contact geometry between the cutter and the in-process workpiece during machining. It plays an important role in machining process simulation and directly affects the calculation of the predicted cutting forces and torques. The difficulty and challenge of CWE determination come from the complexity due to the changing geometry of in-process workpiece and the curved tool path of cutter movement, especially for multi-axis milling. This paper presents a new method to determine the CWE for general milling processes. To fulfill the requirement of generality, which means for any cutter type, any in-process workpiece shape, and any tool path even with self-intersections, all the associated geometries are to be modeled as triangle meshes. The involved triangle-to-triangle intersection calculations are carried out by an effective method in order to realize the multiple subtraction Boolean operations between the tool and the workpiece mesh models and to determine the CWE. The presented method has been validated by a series of case studies of increasing machining complexity to demonstrate its applicability to general milling processes.

  8. The Caucasian Triangle (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia – Tourism Development and Threats to General and Distinctive Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Roistomashvili

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caucasus triangle is one of the most interesting regions in the world firstly, with its geo-political location and also being a part of post-social space. These involve a number of factors determining existence and development of these three states. The world order today from economic and political point of view require readiness from certain states for establishing themselves in this big space. It especially concerns developing and semi-developed countries and the countries having less experience of being a state, which in fact are in the process of creating the institutes which will determine their independence and co-existence with the democratic world having more experience in this respect.Study on the Caucasus triangle arises great interest. The actuality of this issue is also determined by the political and economic dynamic changes taking place inside these states (evolution of Soviet space. Their political choice is determined by the less-stable environment and weakness of state, political partners and political and economic interests generally and towards one another. Unpredictable situation within the triangle is more important as it is a live process with new and changeable threats. For this reason it is very interesting for the scientists to study the development of this kind of countries. Ambition of these countries to establish themselves in the field of tourism is very important for us and that is why it is necessary to follow the process in dynamics, analyze and evaluate their development in this respect.

  9. Trautmann's triangle anatomy with application to posterior transpetrosal and other related skull base procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Griessenauer, Christoph; Loukas, Marios; Ansari, Shaheryar F; Fritsch, Michael H; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2014-10-01

    Trautmann's triangle (TT) faces the cerebellopontine angle and is exposed during posterior transpetrosal approaches. However, reports on the morphometric analysis of this structure are lacking in the literature. The goal was to better understand this important operative corridor. TT was exposed from an external approach (transmastoid) in ten cadavers (20 sides) and from an internal approach on 20 dry adult temporal bones. Measurements included calculation of the area of TT and the distance of the endolymphatic sac from the anterior border of the sigmoid sinus. The area range of TT was 45-210 mm(2) (mean 151 mm(2); SD 37 mm(2)). Three types of triangles were identified based on area. Type I triangles had areas less than 75 mm(2), Type II areas were 75-149 mm(2), and Type III areas were 150 mm(2) and greater. These types were observed in 37.5%, 35%, and 27.5% of sides, respectively. The distance from the jugular bulb's anterior border to the posterior border of the posterior semicircular canal ranged from 6 to 11 mm (mean 8.5 mm). The endolymphatic sac was located in the inferior portion of TT and traveled anterior to the sigmoid sinus. The horizontal distance from the anterior edge of the sigmoid sinus to the posterior edge of the endolymphatic sac ranged from 0 to 13.5 mm (mean 9 mm). Additional anatomic knowledge regarding TT may improve neurosurgical procedures in this region by avoiding intrusion into the endolymphatic sac and sigmoid sinus.

  10. New orientations in the stereographic triangle for self-assembled faceting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Méndez-Camacho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Energetically unstable crystalline surfaces, among their uses, can be templates for the growth of periodic arrays of one-dimensional (1D nanoscale structures. However, few studies have explored self-assembled faceting on high-index (HI planes inside the stereographic triangle, and extant studies have not produced any criteria for encouraging the formation of one-dimensional periodic arrays. In this Letter, by analyzing the MBE growth of homoepitaxial facets on (631A GaAs, a HI plane inside the triangle, we present a criteria to produce highly uniform 1D periodic arrays on unexplored surfaces. These families of planes are those belonging to the lines connecting the energetically stable HI GaAs (11 5 2 plane with any of the (100, (110, and (111 planes at the corners of the stereographic triangle. This novel strategy can lead to new possibilities in self-assembling 1D structures and manipulating physical properties, which in turn may result in new HI- and 1D-based experiments and devices.

  11. Ten things to get right for marine conservation planning in the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Rebecca; Pressey, Robert L; Wilson, Joanne R; Knight, Maurice; Horigue, Vera; Abesamis, Rene A; Acosta, Renerio; Jompa, Jamaluddin

    2014-01-01

    Systematic conservation planning increasingly underpins the conservation and management of marine and coastal ecosystems worldwide. Amongst other benefits, conservation planning provides transparency in decision-making, efficiency in the use of limited resources, the ability to minimise conflict between diverse objectives, and to guide strategic expansion of local actions to maximise their cumulative impact. The Coral Triangle has long been recognised as a global marine conservation priority, and has been the subject of huge investment in conservation during the last five years through the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security. Yet conservation planning has had relatively little influence in this region. To explore why this is the case, we identify and discuss 10 challenges that must be resolved if conservation planning is to effectively inform management actions in the Coral Triangle. These are: making conservation planning accessible; integrating with other planning processes; building local capacity for conservation planning; institutionalising conservation planning within governments; integrating plans across governance levels; planning across governance boundaries; planning for multiple tools and objectives; understanding limitations of data; developing better measures of progress and effectiveness; and making a long term commitment. Most important is a conceptual shift from conservation planning undertaken as a project, to planning undertaken as a process, with dedicated financial and human resources committed to long-term engagement.

  12. Environmental pollution from illegal waste disposal and health effects: a review on the "triangle of death".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triassi, Maria; Alfano, Rossella; Illario, Maddalena; Nardone, Antonio; Caporale, Oreste; Montuori, Paolo

    2015-01-22

    The term "triangle of death" was used for the first time by Senior and Mazza in the journal The Lancet Oncology referring to the eastern area of the Campania Region (Southern Italy) which has one of the worst records of illegal waste dumping practices. In the past decades, many studies have focused on the potential of illegal waste disposal to cause adverse effects on human health in this area. The great heterogeneity in the findings, and the bias in media communication has generated great healthcare doubts, anxieties and alarm. This paper addresses a review of the up-to-date literature on the "triangle of death", bringing together the available information on the occurrence and severity of health effects related to illegal waste disposal. The Scopus database was searched using the search terms "waste", "Campania", "Naples", "triangle of death" and "human biomonitoring". Despite the methodological and sampling heterogeneity between the studies, this review examines the evidence from published data concerning cancer incidence, childhood mortality and birth defects, so that the current situation, knowledge gaps and research priorities can be established. The review aims to provide a contribution to the scientific community, and to respond to the concerns of the general population.

  13. Evaluation of the cephalometric changes of Tweed triangle in patients with cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shirazi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cleft lip and palate patients require orthodontic treatments during their childhood and adolescence. Tweed diagnostic triangle as well as cephalometric assessments provides important data regarding the skeletal patterns for the treatment and diagnostic purposes. The present study determined the cephalometric changes of Tweed triangle in the cleft lip and palate patients compared to normal patients. Materials and Methods: In total, 101 cleft and palate patients as well as 95 normal individuals with the balanced age, gender and race were evaluated. All the cleft and palate patients had similar treatment histories. Radiographic clichés were obtained from both groups and the images were traced after identifying the anatomic landmarks. The studied landmarks included points, lines, and plans as well as dental and skeletal angles and distance ratios measured in radiographic images. The landmarks were statistically analyzed using Student t test. Results: Significant differences were found between the cleft lip and palate patients and normal individuals regarding craniofacial complex morphology (P0.05. Conclusion: In total, significant differences were observed between normal and cleft lip and palate individuals regarding Tweed diagnostic triangle area. These differences were decreased IMPA and increased FMA and FMIA angles. No significant differences were found in terms of other indices.

  14. Combined Visibility and Surrounding Triangles Method for Simulation of Crack Discontinuities in Meshless Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pirali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a combined node searching algorithm for simulation of crack discontinuities in meshless methods called combined visibility and surrounding triangles (CVT is proposed. The element free Galerkin (EFG method is employed for stress analysis of cracked bodies. The proposed node searching algorithm is based on the combination of surrounding triangles and visibility methods; the surrounding triangles method is used for support domains of nodes and quadrature points generated at the vicinity of crack faces and the visibility method is used for points located on the crack faces. In comparison with the conventional methods, such as the visibility, the transparency, and the diffraction method, this method is simpler with reasonable efficiency. To show the performance of this method, linear elastic fracture mechanics analyses are performed on number of standard test specimens and stress intensity factors are calculated. It is shown that the results are in good agreement with the exact solution and with those generated by the finite element method (FEM.

  15. [Selection of back-ground electrolyte in capillary zone electrophoresis by triangle and tetrahedron optimization methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guoxiang; Song, Wenjing; Lin, Ting

    2008-03-01

    The triangle and tetrahedron optimization methods were developed for the selection of back-ground electrolyte (BGE) in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Chromatographic fingerprint index F and chromatographic fingerprint relative index F(r) were used as the objective functions for the evaluation, and the extract of Saussurea involucrate by water was used as the sample. The BGE was composed of borax, boric acid, dibasic sodium phosphate and sodium dihydrogen phosphate solution with different concentrations using triangle and tetrahedron optimization methods. Re-optimization was carried out by adding organic modifier to the BGE and adjusting the pH value. In triangle method, when 50 mmol/L borax-150 mmol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate (containing 3% acetonitrile) (1 : 1, v/v) was used as BGE, the isolation was considered to be satisfactory. In tetrahedron method, the best BGE was 50 mmol/L borax-150 mmol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate-200 mmol/L boric acid (1 : 1 : 2, v/v/v; adjusting the pH value to 8.55 by 0.1 mol/L sodium hydroxide). There were 28 peaks and 25 peaks under the different conditions respectively. The results showed that the methods could be applied to the selection of BGE in CZE of the extract of traditional Chinese medicine by water or ethanol.

  16. Pose Self-Measurement of Noncooperative Spacecraft Based on Solar Panel Triangle Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhou Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the recognition and location of noncooperative spacecraft, this paper presents a monocular vision pose measurement method based on solar triangle structure. First of all, an autonomous recognition algorithm of feature structure based on sliding window Hough transformation (SWHT and inscribed circle of a triangle is proposed, and the image coordinates of feature points on the triangle can be obtained relying on this algorithm, combined with the P4P algorithm and the structure of spacecraft, calculating the relative pose of target expressed by rotation and translation matrix. The whole algorithm can be loaded into the prewritten onboard program, which will get the autocomplete feature structure extraction and relative pose measurement without human intervention, and this method does not need to mount any markers on the target. Then compare the measured values with the accurate value of the laser tracker, so that a conclusion can be drawn that the maximum position error is lower than 5% and the rotation error is lower than 4%, which meets the requirements of noncooperative spacecraft’s pose measurement for observations, tracking, and docking in the final rendezvous phase.

  17. Triangles in ROC space: History and theory of "nonparametric" measures of sensitivity and response bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, N A; Creelman, C D

    1996-06-01

    Can accuracy and response bias in two-stimulus, two-response recognition or detection experiments be measured nonparametrically? Pollack and Norman (1964) answered this question affirmatively for sensitivity, Hodos (1970) for bias: Both proposed measures based on triangular areas in receiver-operating characteristic space. Their papers, and especially a paper by Grier (1971) that provided computing formulas for the measures, continue to be heavily cited in a wide range of content areas. In our sample of articles, most authors described triangle-based measures as making fewer assumptions than measures associated with detection theory. However, we show that statistics based on products or ratios of right triangle areas, including a recently proposed bias index and a not-yetproposed but apparently plausible sensitivity index, are consistent with a decision process based on logistic distributions. Even the Pollack and Norman measure, which is based on non-right triangles, is approximately logistic for low values of sensitivity. Simple geometric models for sensitivity and bias are not nonparametric, even if their implications are not acknowledged in the defining publications.

  18. Southeastern Power Administration 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-28

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am proud to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2007 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this report reflects Southeastern’s programs, accomplishments, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2006 and ending September 30, 2007. Southeastern marketed more than 5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 492 wholesale Federal power customers in an 11-state marketing area in FY 2007. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $219 million. Drought conditions continued to plague the southeast region of the United States during 2007 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Southeastern purchased more than $40 million in replacement power to meet customer contract requirements to ensure the continued reliability of our nation’s power grid. With the financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, continued funding for capitalized equipment replacements at various Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security program continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and requirements. Plans for the upcoming year include communication and cooperation with DOE, Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our nation’s water resources. Competition for the use of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency. The employees at Southeastern will be proactive in meeting these challenges and providing reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E. Legg Administrator

  19. Ecological assessment of a southeastern Brazil reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Martins,Isabela; Sanches,Barbara; Kaufmann,Philip Robert; Hughes,Robert M.; Santos,Gilmar Bastos; Molozzi,Joseline; Callisto, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Reservoirs are artificial ecosystems with multiple functions having direct and indirect benefits to humans; however, they also cause ecological changes and influence the composition and structure of aquatic biota. Our objectives were to: (1) assess the environmental condition of Nova Ponte Reservoir, Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil; and (2) determine how the aquatic biota respond to disturbances. A total of 40 sites in the littoral zone of the reservoir were sampled to characterize ph...

  20. Evaluation of the impact of asbestos wastes on soils in Emene-Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwe, O; Omonona, O V; Onwuka, O S; Nnebedum, O D

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the impacts of asbestos wastes on soils in Emene-Enugu, southeastern Nigeria, generated by the activities of a major asbestos products manufacturing company in southeastern Nigeria. The methods of investigation included vertical electrical sounding (VES), 2-D horizontal resistivity profiling (HRP), induced polarization (IP) survey, chemical analysis of plant tissues and standard penetration tests of soil samples. The 2-D HRP and IP identified six closed waste pits alongside the two active pits. The VES revealed four geoelectrical layers in the area: from bottom to top; the inferred lithologies included dark shale, clay, gravel and recent sands. The geochemical data results revealed that Cd concentration of the soils of the waste pits is above the contaminated land exposure assessment soil guideline value for residential and allotment land uses. The geochemical pollution indices classified the soils as "unpolluted" to "extremely polluted". Bioconcentration factor of Pb in plant tissues was found to be above recommended limits of 0.045. The geotechnical parameters indices revealed that the soils varied from "very soft" to "stiff" and "very loose" to "medium". Soils of the active pits have very low strength and bearing capacity while closed pits have high strength and bearing capacity. It may be safe, therefore, to conclude that as the wastes are completely turned into soils, they will assume geotechnical properties similar to those of natural soils.

  1. Investigation of hydrogeochemical properties of the Hüdai (Afyon-Sandıklı) geothermal systems, SW Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Selma (Altinkale) Demer; Ümit Memiş; Nevzat Özgür

    2013-08-01

    Sandıklı-Hüdai geothermal field is one of the geothermal systems in Afyon and environ, located approximately 40 km southwest of Afyon. The study area consists of volcanic, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Kestel greenschist formation of Paleozoic age forms the basement rock in the area while quartzite which is a member of the Kestel greenschist formation serves as the reservoir rock of Sandıklı-Hüdai geothermal system. Geothermal waters from the study area are classified as Na–SO4–HCO3 type waters. The waters plot along SO4–HCO3 end of the Cl–SO4–HCO3 triangle diagram suggesting same origin for the geothermal waters. 18O and D isotope ratios of the Sandıklı waters plot along the continental meteoric water line, indicating meteoric waters that were unaffected by evaporation. The tritium values imply that the fluids were deep circulating and recharged from older waters. Furthermore, oversaturation of the geothermal fluids with quartz confirms these findings showing long time residence of these groundwaters.

  2. Adsorption of dyes on Sahara desert sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlikli, Canan; Bekiari, Vlasoula; Kus, Mahmut; Boduroglu, Numan; Oner, Ilker; Lianos, Panagiotis; Lyberatos, Gerasimos; Icli, Siddik

    2009-10-15

    Sahara desert sand (SaDeS) was employed as a mineral sorbent for retaining organic dyes from aqueous solutions. Natural sand has demonstrated a strong affinity for organic dyes but significantly lost its adsorption capacity when it was washed with water. Therefore, characterization of both natural and water washed sand was performed by XRD, BET, SEM and FTIR techniques. It was found that water-soluble kyanite, which is detected in natural sand, is the dominant factor affecting adsorbance of cationic dyes. The sand adsorbs over 75% of cationic dyes but less than 21% for anionic ones. Among the dyes studied, Methylene Blue (MB) demonstrated the strongest affinity for Sahara desert sand (Q(e)=11.98 mg/g, for initial dye solution concentration 3.5 x 10(-5)mol/L). The effects of initial dye concentration, the amount of the adsorbent, the temperature and the pH of the solution on adsorption capacity were tested by using Methylene Blue as model dye. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were applied. It was concluded that adsorption of Methylene Blue on Sahara desert sand followed pseudo-second order kinetics. Gibbs free energy, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated and found -6411 J/mol, -30360 J/mol and -76.58 J/mol K, respectively. These values indicate that the adsorption is an exothermic process and has a spontaneous nature at low temperatures.

  3. Critical state of sand matrix soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marto, Aminaton; Tan, Choy Soon; Makhtar, Ahmad Mahir; Kung Leong, Tiong

    2014-01-01

    The Critical State Soil Mechanic (CSSM) is a globally recognised framework while the critical states for sand and clay are both well established. Nevertheless, the development of the critical state of sand matrix soils is lacking. This paper discusses the development of critical state lines and corresponding critical state parameters for the investigated material, sand matrix soils using sand-kaolin mixtures. The output of this paper can be used as an interpretation framework for the research on liquefaction susceptibility of sand matrix soils in the future. The strain controlled triaxial test apparatus was used to provide the monotonic loading onto the reconstituted soil specimens. All tested soils were subjected to isotropic consolidation and sheared under undrained condition until critical state was ascertain. Based on the results of 32 test specimens, the critical state lines for eight different sand matrix soils were developed together with the corresponding values of critical state parameters, M, λ, and Γ. The range of the value of M, λ, and Γ is 0.803-0.998, 0.144-0.248, and 1.727-2.279, respectively. These values are comparable to the critical state parameters of river sand and kaolin clay. However, the relationship between fines percentages and these critical state parameters is too scattered to be correlated.

  4. Sand Flies and Their Control Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Hüseyin; Özbel, Yusuf

    2017-06-01

    The main aim of managing arthropod vectors that carry the disease agents is interrupting the infection cycle. Therefore, the management of the disease implies that all precautions related to all elements (i.e., human, arthropod vector, and reservoir) in the infection cycle need to be taken. There are important points that need to be considered while dealing with sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), which in many regions worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas, are vectors of diseases such as leishmaniasis and sand fly fever and are the arthropods of the infection cycle. Because the larval control of the sand flies is very difficult and almost impossible, the management is mainly conducted for the adults. The most effective strategy for reducing both sand fly fever and leishmaniasis is managing sand flies, particularly in areas where humans are located. In this review, the morphology, biology, and taxonomy of sand flies; the integrated fighting and management methods such as insecticide-impregnated bed nets and use of curtains, zooprophylaxis, indoor and outdoor residual applications, larvicides, repellents, and insecticide-impregnated dog collars; and data regarding many issues such as insecticide resistance in sand flies have been emphasized on in the review.

  5. Critical State of Sand Matrix Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminaton Marto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Critical State Soil Mechanic (CSSM is a globally recognised framework while the critical states for sand and clay are both well established. Nevertheless, the development of the critical state of sand matrix soils is lacking. This paper discusses the development of critical state lines and corresponding critical state parameters for the investigated material, sand matrix soils using sand-kaolin mixtures. The output of this paper can be used as an interpretation framework for the research on liquefaction susceptibility of sand matrix soils in the future. The strain controlled triaxial test apparatus was used to provide the monotonic loading onto the reconstituted soil specimens. All tested soils were subjected to isotropic consolidation and sheared under undrained condition until critical state was ascertain. Based on the results of 32 test specimens, the critical state lines for eight different sand matrix soils were developed together with the corresponding values of critical state parameters, M, λ, and Γ. The range of the value of M, λ, and Γ is 0.803–0.998, 0.144–0.248, and 1.727–2.279, respectively. These values are comparable to the critical state parameters of river sand and kaolin clay. However, the relationship between fines percentages and these critical state parameters is too scattered to be correlated.

  6. [Spatio-temporal change of sand-fixing function and its driving forces in desertification control ecological function area of Hunshandake, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lu; Tian, Mei-rong; Gao, Ji-xi; Qian, Jin-ping

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is an important ecological and environmental problem in Hunshandake Desert, and the sand-fixing function determines the degree of ecological security in the entire region. In order to clarify the situation of windbreak and sand fixation in Hunshandake area, and to guide the prevention and treatment of desertification on regional scale, based on the meteorological and remote sensing data, this paper quantitatively analyzed the temporal and spatial pattern of windbreak and sand fixation ability between 2000-2010 by the revised wind erosion equation (RWEQ) model, meanwhile, the driving forces for each county ( or banner) in the functional zone were analyzed with the method of principal component analysis. The results showed that there was a fluctuation of the sand fixing capacity in Hunshandake over time, generally rendering a decline trend. The coniferous forest and grassland had strong windbreak and sand fixation capacity in unit area among the various land categories. In terms of spatial distribution, the windbreak and sand fixation function in western and southeastern region was weak and needed to be strengthened with ecological restoration efforts. Through the study of the social driving forces of each administrative region in the function zone, there were 3 main social driving forces of soil erosion in the administrative functions: the intensity of input-output, the level of economic development and the level of agriculture-husbandry development.

  7. Invasive plants on disturbed Korean sand dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee Dae

    2005-01-01

    The sand dunes in coastal regions of South Korea are important ecosystems because of their small size, the rare species found in this habitat, and the beautiful landscapes they create. This study investigated the current vegetative status of sand dunes on three representative coasts of the Korean peninsula, and on the coasts of Cheju Island, and assessed the conditions caused by invasive plants. The relationships between the degree of invasion and 14 environmental variables were studied. Plots of sand dunes along line transects perpendicular to the coastal lines were established to estimate vegetative species coverage. TWINSPAN (Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis), CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and DCCA (Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis) were performed to classify communities on sand dunes and assess species composition variation. Carex kobomugi, Elymus mollis, and Vitex rotundifolia were found to be the dominant species plotted on the east, the west, and the peripheral coasts of Cheju Island, respectively. Vegetation on the south coast was totally extinct. The 19 communities, including representative C. kobomugi, C. kobomugi- Ixeris repens, C. kobomugi- Oenothera biennis, E. mollis, Lolium multiflorum- Calystegia soldanella, and V. rotundifolia- C. kobomugi, were all classified according to TWINSPAN. Oenothera biennis and L. multiflorum were exotics observed within these native communities. CCA showed that invasive native and exotic species distribution was segregated significantly, according to disturbance level, exotic species number, gravel, sand and silt contents, as well as vegetation size. It further revealed that human disturbance can strongly favor the settlement of invasive and exotic species. Restoration options to reduce exotic plants in the South Korean sand dune areas were found to be the introduction of native plant species from one sand dune into other sand dune areas, prohibition of building and the introduction of exotic

  8. Formation mechanism of cracks in saturated sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaobing Lu; Zhemin Zheng; Yongren Wu

    2006-01-01

    The formation mechanism of "water film" (or crack) in saturated sand is analyzed theoretically and numerically.The theoretical analysis shows that there will be no stable "water film" in the saturated sand if the strength of the skeleton is zero and no positions are choked.It is shown by numerical simulation that stable water films initiate and grow if the choking state keeps unchanged once the fluid velocities decrease to zero in the liquefied sand column.The developments of "water film" based on the model presented in this paper are compared with experimental results.

  9. Lund Sand No 0:part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Finn Rosendal

    1996-01-01

    During the last 15 years the Geotechnical Engineering Group (GEG) at Aalborg University has performed triaxial tests with a sand called Lund No 0. Lund No 0 is a graded sand from a gravel pit near Horsens in Denmark. For the classification of the sand the following tests have been performed: Sieve test, Grain density, ds, Maximum, emax, and minimum, emin, void ratio. The strength parameters of Lund No 0 are detennined by some drained and undrained triaxial tests in the Danish Triaxial Cell. T...

  10. Lund Sand No 0:part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Finn Rosendal

    1996-01-01

    During the last 15 years the Geotechnical Engineering Group (GEG) at Aalborg University has performed triaxial tests with a sand called Lund No 0. Lund No 0 is a graded sand from a gravel pit near Horsens in Denmark. For the classification of the sand the following tests have been performed: Sieve test, Grain density, ds, Maximum, emax, and minimum, emin, void ratio. The strength parameters of Lund No 0 are detennined by some drained and undrained triaxial tests in the Danish Triaxial Cell. T...

  11. Biodegradable materials as foundry moulding sands binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Major - Gabryś

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show the possibility of using biodegradable materials as part of the composition of foundry moulding and core sand binders. Research shows that moulding sands with biodegradable materials selected as binders are not only less toxic but are also better suited to mechanical reclamation than moulding sands with phenol-furfuryl resin. The use of biodegradable materials as additives to typical synthetic resins can result in their decreased toxicity and improved ability to reclamation as well as in accelerated biodegradation of binding material leftovers of mechanical reclamation.

  12. Watching Faults Grow in Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Accretionary sandbox experiments provide a rich environment for investigating the processes of fault development. These experiments engage students because 1) they enable direct observation of fault growth, which is impossible in the crust (type 1 physical model), 2) they are not only representational but can also be manipulated (type 2 physical model), 3) they can be used to test hypotheses (type 3 physical model) and 4) they resemble experiments performed by structural geology researchers around the world. The structural geology courses at UMass Amherst utilize a series of accretionary sandboxes experiments where students first watch a video of an experiment and then perform a group experiment. The experiments motivate discussions of what conditions they would change and what outcomes they would expect from these changes; hypothesis development. These discussions inevitably lead to calculations of the scaling relationships between model and crustal fault growth and provide insight into the crustal processes represented within the dry sand. Sketching of the experiments has been shown to be a very effective assessment method as the students reveal which features they are analyzing. Another approach used at UMass is to set up a forensic experiment. The experiment is set up with spatially varying basal friction before the meeting and students must figure out what the basal conditions are through the experiment. This experiment leads to discussions of equilibrium and force balance within the accretionary wedge. Displacement fields can be captured throughout the experiment using inexpensive digital image correlation techniques to foster quantitative analysis of the experiments.

  13. Effect of Chromite-Silica Sands Characteristics on Performance of Ladle Filler Sands for Continuous Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Free opening rate is mainly determined by the performance of the ladle filler sand. High free opening rates of ladles are required in steel making to improve steel quality. Chromite ladle filler sands are one of the most widely used ladle filler sand. Several operative variables and materials characteristics affect the performance of the sands. Three sets of chromite ladle filler sands were selected and researches were focused on the sintering hehaviour and per- formance of the sands under operative conditions. The effect of particle size distribution on sintering, microstruc- ture, flowability, and permeability were presented. In all cases, the particle size varies from 0.1 to 1.5 mm corre- sponding to free flowing powders. One of the samples has higher permeability factor in comparison with others due to low particle size distribution. The other sample presents very good free opening due to its very good flowability and permeability factor.

  14. The opposition effect and its relationship to sediment density in BRDF measurements from the Algodones Sand Dunes System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambeau, Brittany; Bachmann, Charles M.; Griffo, Carrie; Harms, Justin; Myers, Emily; Badura, Gregory

    2016-09-01

    Density, particle size distribution, surface moisture, and mineral content are some important geophysical properties that affect the bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) of particulate media such as sand. According to radiative transfer theory, several of these geophysical properties are known to directly affect the overall level of reflectance, as well as the functional form of the opposition effect, for homogeneous, particulate media.1 Most sands are composite, i.e. non-homogeneous, and do not follow the standard distributions (with approximate analytical solutions) for particle size. Therefore, conventional radiative transfer models need to be modified to account for the complex nature of sand. In this work, we examine the impact of density on the functional form of the opposition effect, and we show that differences in density are expressed in a characteristic way. The measurements are collected using the laboratory and field-deployable Goniometer of the Rochester Institute of Technology-Two (GRIT-T). And, the results are based on sediment samples collected from the Algodones Sand Dunes System in southeastern California during the NASA Algodones Dunes Field Experiment conducted in March 2015.

  15. Sand Lake WMD vegetation mapping project update

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report on the vegetation mapping project at Sand Lake Wetland Management District. This project is being completed by the use of SPRING software and ground...

  16. Bioaugmentation of flow-through sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Elin Djurhuus

    Global applications of pesticides in agricultural production have led to the detection of trace amounts of pesticides in groundwater resources in levels exceeding the EU threshold limit for drinking water of 0.1 µg L-1. Pesticide-polluted groundwater may be remediated by inoculating waterworks sand...... for degradation performances in flow-through sand columns, with the aim of identifying a suitable inoculant strain for future environmental applications. Another aim was to identify a suitable genetic marker to monitor phenoxy acid degradation in strain Sphingobium sp. PM2. We were not able to link motility...... and biofilm formation to the strains´ ability to adhere to sand. Nevertheless, a correlation was found between cell surface hydrophobicity and adhesion and overall degradation performances in flow-through sand columns. We identified S phingobium sp. PM2 as a promising inoculant strain, displaying efficient...

  17. Petrophysical Analysis of Oil Sand in Athabasca

    Science.gov (United States)

    cheong, S.; Lee, H.

    2013-12-01

    Oil sands are the major unconventional energy sources which have great reserves in Alberta, Canada. Recovery techniques such as CSS (Cyclic Steam Stimulation) and SAGD (Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage) enabled to develop deeper bitumen about several hundred meter depth. Before applying CSS and SAGD, reservoir heterogeneity of mud barriers or shale breccias should be clarified to establish injection and production wells successfully. We conducted the integrated petro-physical analysis for oil sands deposits in Athabasca by correlating well logs with seismic data. From 33 well logs and 3D seismic, we have made P-wave impedance by recursive inversion. Target formations of our analysis were the top of Wabiskaw member. Using inverted impedance and multi-attributes, porosity volume was derived at a target depth. Porosity of time slice 375 ms ranged 20 ~ 40 % stretching porous sand body from NE to SW direction. Characteristics of porosity distribution may be useful to design optimum oil sands recovery in Athabasca.

  18. Carbon cycle: New pathways in the sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Organic carbon decomposition in anoxic marine sediments was thought to be dominated by bacteria, but experimental data and microbial culture studies now show that microalgae buried in coastal sands may also play an important role in carbon turnover.

  19. CRADE OF SAND AND DUST STORM WEATHER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Ruoyun; Tian Cuiying; Bi Baogui; Yang Keming; Wang Youheng; Tuo Ya; Ding Haifang; Zhang Tairen

    2011-01-01

    Background Sand and dust storm,as one of the main disastrous weathers that affect northern China,not only affect the people health and normal life,but cause the short-term climatic changes due to the direct and indirect radiation of the earth-atmosphere system through the dust floating in the sky.The sand end dust weather and its potential harm on the national economy,ecological environment,social activities and other aspects have aroused worldwide concern.

  20. Laboratory evaluation of selected tar sand asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, J.W.; Epps, J.A.; Gallaway, B.M.

    1980-12-01

    Three tar sand asphalts of similar grades prepared from one syncrude by three different refining methods were characterized by tests commonly used to specify paving asphalts together with certain special tests. Asphalt-aggregate mixtures were prepared using these asphalts and tested in the laboratory to determine strength stiffness stability, tensile properties, temperature effects and water susceptibility. Comparison of the tar sand asphalt properties to conventional petroleum asphalt properties reveal no striking differences.

  1. Response to Oil Sands Products Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Tailings ponds are an operating facility common to all types of surface mining. For oil sands, tailings consisting of water , sand, clay, and residual ...oil, are pumped to these basins—or ponds— where settling occurs and water is recycled for reuse in the process. When the ponds are no longer required...of crude oil transported by tank vessel in Washington waters . In a 2013 Bloomburg Business news article , Dan Murtaugh states, “The dock probably

  2. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  3. Pragmatics of reclaimed sand quality assessment recovered nowadays from various used sand systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dańko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the reclamation degree of used sands is not a simple, clearly defined issue. The great variety of technologies ofmoulding and core sands, based on the organic and inorganic binders does not allow the use of a single, universal index assessing thedegree of reclamation. The article presents the problems of research relating to selection of proper criteria for assessing the degree ofreclamation process of used moulding and core sands deriving from different technologies. The most often applied in practice types ofused sands and the most adequate in practice methods of assessing the degrees of their reclamation were characterized.

  4. Sand Dune Encroachment and Desertification Processes of the Rigboland Sand Sea, Central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmady-Birgani, Hesam; McQueen, Kenneth G; Moeinaddini, Mazaher; Naseri, Hamidreza

    2017-05-08

    Early studies on sand dune movement and desertification in Iran have not always been convincingly demonstrated because of problems with the field-based measurements. In some areas where various land uses have been engulfed by aeolian sand dunes, desertification is clear, but in other less settled areas, it may not be so obvious. The objective of this study is to demonstrate encroachments of the Rigboland sand sea, central Iran, in its different directions and variable magnitude rates. Determining the rate and direction of the sand sea movements is critical for specifying which lands should be prioritized and quickly protected. The study has trialed a change detection technique which uses a Cross-Tabulation module to compare two available LandsatTM images over the Rigboland sand sea. This indicates that within a ten-year span (from 1988 to 1998) more than 200 ha/yr were added to the Rigboland sand sea, from the alluvial fan landforms in the eastern upstream, outer margins of the Rigboland sand sea. Coupled with GIS techniques, this type of analysis of the remote sensing (RS) images provides an effective tool for the monitoring and prognostication of sand dune movement and sand sea change.

  5. Analysis of sand particles' lift-off and incident velocities in wind-blown sand flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Li Bo; Xiao-Jing Zheng; Shao-Zhen Duan; Yi-Rui Liang

    2013-01-01

    In the research of windblown sand movement,the lift-off and incident velocities of saltating sand particles play a significant role in bridging the spatial and temporal scales from single sand particle's motion to windblown sand flux.In this paper,we achieved wind tunnel measurements of the movement of sand particles near sand bed through improving the wind tunnel experimental scheme of paticle image velocimetry (PIV) and data processing method.And then the influence of observation height on the probability distributions of lift-off and incident velocities of sand particles was analyzed.The results demonstrate that the observation height has no obvious influence on the distribution pattern of the lift-off and incident velocities of sand particles,i.e.,the probability distribution of horizontal and vertical velocities of lift-off and incident sand particles follow a Gaussian distribution and a negative exponential distribution,respectively.However,it influences the center of the Gaussian distribution,the decay constant and the amplitude of the negative exponential distribution.

  6. Flow pattern and related chemical quality of ground water in the "500-foot" sand in the Memphis area, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edwin Allen; Nyman, Dale J.

    1968-01-01

    The '500-foot' sand is the major source of water supply for the Memphis area. Thick layers of impervious clay above and below the sand confine the water in the aquifer under artesian pressure and also protect the aquifer from contamination. Recharge from rainfall enters the '500-foot' sand in the outcrop, or intake area south and east of Memphis. Recharge from other aquifers enters the sand wherever the confining beds are breached or absent. Some of the recharge that enters the '500-foot' sand in eastern Arkansas moves down the gradients created by pumping in the Memphis area. All discharge from the '500-foot' sand in the Memphis area results from well pumping. Since 1886 continuous withdrawals at gradually increasing rates of pumping have lowered water levels and altered hydraulic gradients in the area. These withdrawals have resulted in changes in direction and velocity of movement of water through the '500-foot' sand. Water in the sand in the southeaster n part of the Memphis area normally moves from the (outcrop area east and south of Memphis northwestward toward points of withdrawal. In the northwestern part of the area, water moves southeastward toward points of withdrawal. A flow-net analysis of the aquifer shows that the rate of water movement through the '500-foot' sand in 1964, toward the major cones of depression in the Memphis area, was about 350 feet per year, or 1 mile in 15 years. A flow-net analysis projected for the year 1975 indicates the rate will increase by about 20 percent in the 12-year period 1964-75. Water in the '500-foot' sand in the Memphis area is generally a calcium magnesium sodium bicarbonate type. It is soft, low in dissolved solids, high in concentrations of iron and carbon dioxide, and slightly to moderately corrosive. The softest and least mineralized water occurs in the southeastern part of the area, and the water becomes slightly harder and more mineralized as it moves downdip toward Memphis. The hardest and most mineralized

  7. Recent Sand Avalanching on Rabe Crater Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Dark streaks on the steep, down-wind slopes of sand dunes in Rabe Crater are seen at several locations in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. These streaks indicate relatively recent (i.e., in the past few years or less) movement of sand down these slopes.Sand dunes move forward by the combined action of wind that drives sand up the shallow slope on the windward side of the dune (in this case, the slopes that face toward the lower right) and the avalanching of this sand down the steeper, lee-side slope. The steep slope is also known as the slip face. The dark streaks indicated by arrows are evidence for sand avalanches that occurred within a few months or years of the time when the picture was taken in March 1999. Other streaks which are seen criss-crossing the dunes may be the result of passing dust devils. This image is illuminated from the upper left and located in Rabe Crater of the Hellespontus-Noachis region near 44.2oS, 325.6oW.

  8. Discrete particle simulation of mixed sand transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengjun Xiao; Liejin Guo; Debiao Li; Yueshe Wang

    2012-01-01

    An Eulerian/Lagrangian numerical simulation is performed on mixed sand transport.Volume averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved to calculate gas motion,and particle motion is calculated using Newton's equation,involving a hard sphere model to describe particle-to-particle and particle-to-wall collisions.The influence of wall characteristics,size distribution of sand particles and boundary layer depth on vertical distribution of sand mass flux and particle mean horizontal velocity is analyzed,suggesting that all these three factors affect sand transport at different levels.In all cases,for small size groups,sand mass flux first increases with height and then decreases while for large size groups,it decreases exponentially with height and for middle size groups the behavior is in-between.The mean horizontal velocity for all size groups well fits experimental data,that is,increasing logarithmically with height in the middle height region.Wall characteristics greatly affects particle to wall collision and makes the flat bed similar to a Gobi surface and the rough bed similar to a sandy surface.Particle size distribution largely affects the sand mass flux and the highest heights they can reach especially for larger particles.

  9. Predicting the occurrence of sand banks in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der Henriët H.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Sand banks have a wavelength between 1 and 10 km, and they are up to several tens of meters high. Also, sand banks may have an impact on large-scale human activities that take place in the North Sea like sand mining, shipping, offshore wind farms, etc. Therefore, it is important to know where sand b

  10. Layers, Landslides, and Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 27 October 2003This image shows the northern rim of one of the Valles Marineris canyons. Careful inspection shows many interesting features here. Note that the spurs and gullies in the canyon wall disappear some distance below the top of the canyon wall, indicating the presence of some smooth material here that weathers differently from the underlying rocks. On the floor of the canyon, there are remains from a landslide that came hurtling down the canyon wall between two spurs. Riding over the topography of the canyon floor are many large sand dunes, migrating generally from the lower right to upper left.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -14.1, Longitude 306.7 East (53.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Geochronologic evidence for a possible MIS-11 emergent barrier/beach-ridge in southeastern Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markewich, H.W.; Pavich, M.J.; Schultz, A.P.; Mahan, S.A.; Aleman-Gonzalez, W. B.; Bierman, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    Predominantly clastic, off-lapping, transgressive, near-shore marine sediment packages that are morphologically expressed as subparallel NE-trending barriers, beach ridges, and associated back-barrier areas, characterize the near-surface stratigraphic section between the Savannah and the Ogeechee Rivers in Effingham County, southeastern Georgia. Each barrier/back-barrier (shoreline) complex is lower than and cut into a higher/older complex. Each barrier or shoreline complex overlies Miocene strata. No direct age data are available for these deposits. Previous researchers have disagreed on their age and provenance. Using luminescence and meteoric beryllium-10 (10Be) inventory analyses, we estimated a minimum age for the largest, westernmost, morphologically identifiable, and topographically-highest, barrier/beach-ridge (the Wicomico shoreline barrier) and constrained the age of a suite of younger barrier/beach-ridges that lie adjacent and seaward of the Wicomico shoreline barrier. At the study site, the near-shore marine/estuarine deposits underlying the Wicomico shoreline barrier are overlain by eolian sand and an intervening zone-of-mixing. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) data indicate ages of ≤43 ka for the eolian sand and 116 ka for the zone-of-mixing. Meteoric 10Be and pedostratigraphic data indicate minimum residence times of 33.4 ka for the eolian sand, 80.6 ka for the zone-of-mixing, and 247 ka for the paleosol. The combined OSL and 10Be age data indicate that, at this locality, the barrier/beach ridge has a minimum age of about 360 ka. This age for the Wicomico shoreline-barrier deposit is the first for any Pleistocene near-shore marine/estuarine deposit in southeast Georgia that is conclusively older than 80 ka. The 360-ka minimum age is in agreement with other geochronologic data for near-coastline deposits in Georgia and South Carolina. The geomorphic position of this barrier/beach-ridge is similar to deposits in South Carolina considered to be

  12. Geochronologic evidence for a possible MIS-11 emergent barrier/beach-ridge in southeastern Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markewich, H. W.; Pavich, M. J.; Schultz, A. P.; Mahan, S. A.; Aleman-Gonzalez, W. B.; Bierman, P. R.

    2013-01-01

    Predominantly clastic, off-lapping, transgressive, near-shore marine sediment packages that are morphologically expressed as subparallel NE-trending barriers, beach ridges, and associated back-barrier areas, characterize the near-surface stratigraphic section between the Savannah and the Ogeechee Rivers in Effingham County, southeastern Georgia. Each barrier/back-barrier (shoreline) complex is lower than and cut into a higher/older complex. Each barrier or shoreline complex overlies Miocene strata. No direct age data are available for these deposits. Previous researchers have disagreed on their age and provenance. Using luminescence and meteoric beryllium-10 (10Be) inventory analyses, we estimated a minimum age for the largest, westernmost, morphologically identifiable, and topographically-highest, barrier/beach-ridge (the Wicomico shoreline barrier) and constrained the age of a suite of younger barrier/beach-ridges that lie adjacent and seaward of the Wicomico shoreline barrier. At the study site, the near-shore marine/estuarine deposits underlying the Wicomico shoreline barrier are overlain by eolian sand and an intervening zone-of-mixing. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) data indicate ages of ≤43 ka for the eolian sand and 116 ka for the zone-of-mixing. Meteoric 10Be and pedostratigraphic data indicate minimum residence times of 33.4 ka for the eolian sand, 80.6 ka for the zone-of-mixing, and 247 ka for the paleosol. The combined OSL and 10Be age data indicate that, at this locality, the barrier/beach ridge has a minimum age of about 360 ka. This age for the Wicomico shoreline-barrier deposit is the first for any Pleistocene near-shore marine/estuarine deposit in southeast Georgia that is conclusively older than 80 ka. The 360-ka minimum age is in agreement with other geochronologic data for near-coastline deposits in Georgia and South Carolina. The geomorphic position of this barrier/beach-ridge is similar to deposits in South Carolina considered to be

  13. Development of the Gran Desierto sand sea, northwestern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Grady; Lancaster, Nicholas

    1990-08-01

    Three major eolian sand populations can be recognized in the Gran Desierto sand sea of northwestern Mexico by using spectral data from the Landsat thematic mapper in conjunction with textural and mineralogical studies of surface sands. Each sand population has distinct textural, mineralogic, and spectral properties that can be related to sand-dune morphology and position with reference to source areas and transport paths of the sands. The oldest eolian sediment in the sand sea was derived from the early to middle Pleistocene Colorado River that flowed through the area of the western Gran Desierto. Subsequent inputs of eolian sands came from the area of the present Colorado River valley and the coast south of the sand sea. The spatial and temporal pattern of eolian deposition in the region has been controlled by Quaternary tectonic and climatic changes, resulting in the episodic input and deposition of sand.

  14. Velocity structure and seismicity of southeastern Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Ronald Douglas; Long, Leland Timothy

    1996-04-01

    The seismic zone in southeastern Tennessee is at the confluence of major crustal features, which have been interpreted largely from potential data, and their relation to seismicity could help us understand why major earthquakes sometimes occur in the eastern United States. In this paper we solve for the previously unknown velocity structure of the upper crust by an inversion of travel time residuals from relocated earthquakes. The gravity anomalies are included by using a linear relation between average anomalous density and average anomalous velocity. The velocity model demonstrates that the seismicity is concentrated in areas of average to below average velocity and does not appear to be associated with one of the previously identified major crustal features. The high-velocity zones mark areas that are generally lacking in seismicity. The association of earthquake hypocenters with regions of low-velocity crustal rocks is consistent with other intraplate seismic zones, and this association supports the conjecture that intraplate earthquakes occur in crust that may have been weakened. The velocity anomalies at midcrustal depths do not support the New York-Alabama (NY-AL) lineament as a linear feature extending through southeastern Tennessee and parallel to contours in gravity anomalies as originally proposed. A continuation of the (NY-AL) lineament to the southwest requires either a 15 degree southwestward change in direction or a displacement to be consistent with the velocity anomalies. The seismically active areas in southeastern Tennessee do not appear to be constrained by the major crustal features, but instead, the seismicity is characterized by the distribution of hypocenters and their association with low-velocity regions at midcrustal depths.

  15. View of southeastern New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of southeastern New York State is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This picture covers the northern part of New Jersey, a part of northeastern Pennsylvania, and the western tip of Connecticut. The body of water is Long Island Sound. The wide Hudson River flows southward across a corner of the photograph. The New York City metropolitan area occupies part of the picture.

  16. Effects of advanced oxidation on green sand properties via iron casting into green sand molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujue; Cannon, Fred S; Voigt, Robert C; Komarneni, Sridhar; Furness, J C

    2006-05-01

    The effects of advanced oxidation (AO) processing on the properties of green sand were studied via pouring cast iron into green sand molds. Upon cooling, the green sand molds were autopsied at various distances from the metal-sand interface. Autopsy green sand samples collected from a mold that incorporated AO water were characterized and compared to controlled samples collected from a similar autopsied mold made with conventional tap water (TAP). It was found that the AO processing removed a coating of coal pyrolysis products from the clay surface that typically accumulated on the clay surface. As a result, the AO-conditioned green sand retained 10-15% more active clay as measured bythe standard ultrasonic methylene blue titration than did the TAP-conditioned green sand. The AO processing also nearly doubled the generation of activated carbon from the normalized amount of coal composition of the green sand during the casting process. The AO-enhanced activated carbon generation and the AO-incurred clay surface cleaning provided the AO-conditioned green sand with higher normalized pore volume, and thus higher normalized m-xylene adsorption capacity, i.e., relative to before-metal-pouring conditions. Furthermore, mathematical analysis indicated that the AO-conditioned green sand better retained its important properties after pouring than did the TAP-conditioned green sand. Effectively, this meant after metal pouring, the AO-conditioned sample offered about the same net properties as the TAP-conditioned sample, even though the AO-conditioned sample contained less clay and coal before metal pouring. These results conformed to the full-scale foundry empirical finding that when AO is used, foundries need less makeup clay and coal addition through each casting cycle, and they release less air emissions.

  17. Phylogeography and limited genetic connectivity in the endangered boring giant clam across the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, Timery S; Subia, Matthew D; Erdmann, Mark V; Kovitvongsa, Katie; Barber, Paul H

    2008-10-01

    The Coral Triangle is the global center of marine biodiversity; however, its coral reefs are critically threatened. Because of the bipartite life history of many marine species with sedentary adults and dispersive pelagic larvae, designing effective marine protected areas requires an understanding of patterns of larval dispersal and connectivity among geographically discrete populations. We used mtDNA sequence data to examine patterns of genetic connectivity in the boring giant clam (Tridacna crocea) in an effort to guide conservation efforts within the Coral Triangle. We collected an approximately 485 base pair fragment of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) from 414 individuals at 26 sites across Indonesia. Genetic structure was strong between regions (phi(ST)=0.549, p < 0.00001) with 3 strongly supported clades: one restricted to western Sumatra, another distributed across central Indonesia, and a third limited to eastern Indonesia and Papua. Even within the single largest clade, small but significant genetic structure was documented (phi(ST)=0.069, p < 0.00001), which indicates limited gene flow within and among phylogeographic regions. Significant patterns of isolation by distance indicated an average dispersal distance of only 25-50 km, which is far below dispersal predictions of 406-708 km derived from estimates of passive dispersal over 10 days via surface currents. The strong regional genetic structure we found indicates potent limits to genetic and demographic connectivity for this species throughout the Coral Triangle and provides a regional context for conservation planning. The recovery of 3 distinct evolutionarily significant units within a well-studied taxonomic group suggests that biodiversity in this region may be significantly underestimated and that Tridacna taxa may be more endangered than currently recognized.

  18. Contribution of laser altimetry images to the geomorphology of the Late Holocene inland drift sands of the European Sand Belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungerius, P.D.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores the possibilities of applying the analysis of laser altimetry images to Dutch drift sands. All along the European Sand Belt, which stretches from Great Britain to the Ural Mountains, Late Glacial cover sands, river dunes and other ice-age deposits were reactivated as drift sand du

  19. Contribution of laser altimetry images to the geomorphology of the Late Holocene inland drift sands of the European Sand Belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungerius, P.D.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores the possibilities of applying the analysis of laser altimetry images to Dutch drift sands. All along the European Sand Belt, which stretches from Great Britain to the Ural Mountains, Late Glacial cover sands, river dunes and other ice–age deposits were reactivated as drift sand du

  20. Contribution of laser altimetry images to the geomorphology of the Late Holocene inland drift sands of the European Sand Belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungerius, P.D.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores the possibilities of applying the analysis of laser altimetry images to Dutch drift sands. All along the European Sand Belt, which stretches from Great Britain to the Ural Mountains, Late Glacial cover sands, river dunes and other ice–age deposits were reactivated as drift sand

  1. The Information Quality Triangle: a methodology to assess clinical information quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquet, Rémy; Qouiyd, Samiha; Ouagne, David; Pasche, Emilie; Daniel, Christel; Boussaïd, Omar; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2010-01-01

    Building qualitative clinical decision support or monitoring based on information stored in clinical information (or EHR) systems cannot be done without assessing and controlling information quality. Numerous works have introduced methods and measures to qualify and enhance data, information models and terminologies quality. This paper introduces an approach based on an Information Quality Triangle that aims at providing a generic framework to help in characterizing quality measures and methods in the context of the integration of EHR data in a clinical datawarehouse. We have successfully experimented the proposed approach at the HEGP hospital in France, as part of the DebugIT EU FP7 project.

  2. A spectral Finite Difference Analysis of Natural Convection in a Rectangular Equilateral Triangle Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshihiromochimaru

    2000-01-01

    A steady-state two-dimensional natural convection in a rectangular equlateral triangle cavity is analyzed numercally,using a spectral finite difference scheme,where a conformal mapping coordinate system is adopted with a unit circle for the boundary.Vorticity-stream function formulation is used in conjunction with an energy equation.Time marching algorithm in a diagonal dominant form under a Fourier series decomposition is used to give a steady-state field for a mixed(Neumann and Dirichlet) thermal boundary condition even at a Grashof number of 106.

  3. Top-Higgs and top-pion phenomenology in the top triangle moose model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Simmons, Elizabeth H.; Coleppa, Baradhwaj; Logan, Heather E.; Martin, Adam

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the deconstructed version of a topcolor-assisted technicolor model wherein the mechanism of top quark mass generation is separated from the rest of electroweak symmetry breaking. The minimal deconstructed version of this scenario is a “triangle moose” model, where the top quark gets its mass from coupling to a top-Higgs field, while the gauge boson masses are generated from a Higgsless sector. The spectrum of the model includes scalar (top-Higgs) and pseudoscalar (top-pion) states. In this paper, we study the properties of these particles, discuss their production mechanisms and decay modes, and suggest how best to search for them at the LHC.

  4. Top-Higgs and Top-pion phenomenology in the Top Triangle Moose model

    CERN Document Server

    Chivukula, R Sekhar; Logan, Heather E; Martin, Adam; Simmons, Elizabeth H

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the deconstructed version of a topcolor-assisted technicolor model wherein the mechanism of top quark mass generation is separated from the rest of electroweak symmetry breaking. The minimal deconstructed version of this scenario is a "triangle moose" model, where the top quark gets its mass from coupling to a top-Higgs field, while the gauge boson masses are generated from a Higgsless sector. The spectrum of the model includes scalar (top-Higgs) and pseudoscalar (top-pion) states. In this paper, we study the properties of these particles, discuss their production mechanisms and decay modes, and suggest how best to search for them at the LHC.

  5. Connecting Leptonic Unitarity Triangle to Neutrino Oscillation with CP Violation in Vacuum and in Matter

    CERN Document Server

    He, Hong-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Leptonic unitarity triangle (LUT) provides fundamental means to geometrically describe CP violation in neutrino oscillation. In this work, we use LUT to present a new geometrical interpretation of the vacuum oscillation probability, and derive a compact new oscillation formula in terms of only 3 independent parameters of the corresponding LUT. Then, we systematically study matter effects for the geometrical formulation of neutrino oscillation with CP violation. Including matter effects, we derive a very compact new oscillation formula by using the LUT formulation. We further demonstrate that this geometrical formula holds well for practical applications to neutrino oscillations in matter, including T2K, MINOS, and NOvA experiments.

  6. Control of beam halo-chaos by Gauss function in the triangle periodic-focusing channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Hai-Jun; Bai Long; Weng Jia-Qiang; Luo Xiao-Shu; Fang Jin-Qing

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the Kapchinsky-Vladimirsky (K-V) beam through a triangle periodic-focusing magnetic field by using the particle-core model. The beam halo-chaos is found, and an idea of Gauss function controller is proposed based on the strategy of controlling the halo-chaos. It performs multiparticle simulation to control the halo by using the Gauss function control method. The numerical results show that the halo-chaos and its regeneration can be eliminated effectively, and that the radial particle density is uniform at the centre of the beam as long as the control method and appropriate parameter are chosen.

  7. Visualisation of uncertainty for the trade-off triangle used in sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul; Takahashi, Taro; Lee, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture at the global-scale is at a critical juncture where competing requirements for maximal production and minimal pollution have led to the concept of sustainable intensification. All farming systems (arable, grasslands, etc.) are part of this debate, where each have particular associated environmental risks such as water and air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and soil degradation, as well as issues affecting production efficiency, product quality and consumer acceptability, reflected in the development of agricultural sustainability policies. These challenges necessitate multidisciplinary solutions that can only be properly researched, implemented and tested in real-world production systems which are suited to their geographical and climatic production practice. In this respect, various high-profile agricultural data collection experiments have been set up, such as the North Wyke Farm Platform (http://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/farmplatform) to research agricultural productivity and ecosystem responses to different management practices. In this farm-scale grasslands experiment, data on hydrology, emissions, nutrient cycling, biodiversity, productivity and livestock welfare/health are collected, that in turn, are converted to trade-off metrics with respect to: (i) economic profits, (ii) societal benefits and (iii) environmental concerns, under the umbrella of sustainable intensification. Similar agriculture research platforms have similar objectives, where data collections are ultimately synthesised into trade-off metrics. Trade-offs metrics can then be usefully visualized via the usual sustainable triangle, with a new triangle for each key time period (e.g. baseline versus post-baseline). This enables a visual assessment of change in sustainability harmony or discord, according to the remit of the given research experiment. In this paper, we discuss different approaches to calculation of the sustainability trade-off metrics that are required from the farm

  8. Solving the strong CP problem with discrete symmetries and the right unitarity triangle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.antusch@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Holthausen, Martin, E-mail: martin.holthausen@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schmidt, Michael A., E-mail: michael.schmidt@unimelb.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Spinrath, Martin, E-mail: spinrath@sissa.it [SISSA/ISAS and INFN, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2013-12-21

    We present a solution to the strong CP problem based on spontaneous CP violation and discrete family symmetries. The model predicts in a natural way the almost right-angled quark unitarity triangle angle (α≃90°) by making the entries of the quark mass matrices either real or imaginary. By this choice the determinants of the mass matrices are rendered real and hence the strong CP phase vanishes. We present a toy model for the quark sector that demonstrates the viability of our approach.

  9. Combining the triangle method with thermal inertia to estimate regional evapotranspiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stisen, Simon; Sandholt, Inge; Nørgaard, Anette

    2008-01-01

    Spatially distributed estimates of evaporative fraction and actual evapotranspiration are pursued using a simple remote sensing technique based on a remotely sensed vegetation index (NDVI) and diurnal changes in land surface temperature. The technique, known as the triangle method, is improved...... in surface temperature, dTs with an interpretation of the triangular shaped dTs-NDVI space allows for a direct estimation of evaporative fraction. The mean daytime energy available for evapotranspiration (Rn-G) is estimated using several remote sensors and limited ancillary data. Finally regional estimates...

  10. Sobolev regularity of the $\\bar{\\partial}$-equation on the Hartogs triangle

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Debraj

    2011-01-01

    The regularity of the $\\bar{\\partial}$-problem on the domain $\\{|{z_1}|<|{z_2}|<1\\}$ in $\\mathbb{C}^2$ is studied using $L^2$ methods. Estimates are obtained for the canonical solution in weighted $L^2$-Sobolev spaces with a weight that is singular at the point $(0,0)$. The canonical solution for $\\dbar$ with weights is exact regular in the weighted Sobolev spaces away from the singularity $(0,0)$. In particular, the singularity of the Bergman projection for the Hartogs triangle is contained at the singular point and it does not propagate.

  11. Morphological and electrophysiological properties of single myocardial cells from Koch triangle of rabbit heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Fu-xian; NIU Xiao-lin; OU Yan; HAN Zhen-hua; LING Feng-dong; ZHOU Shi-sheng; LI Ya-jie

    2006-01-01

    Background The morphological and electrophysiological characteristics of cardiac cells in Koch triangle are still disputed. We studied the appearance and electrical properties of these diverse myocytes to elucidate their complex electrophysiological phenomena.Methods Experiments were conducted using cooled charge coupling device (CCD) system and whole cell,patch clamp technique to determine the morphology, action potential and sodium current density of single viable myocytes enzymatically isolated from the Koch triangle of rabbit hearts.Results Morphologically, cardiac cells in shape of spider, tiny spindle, slender spindle, rod and strip were observed in percentage of 3.0±0.3, 35.0±5.0, 15.0±2.0, 40.0±5.0 and 6.0±0.7 respectively. The cellular dimensions and capacitance gradually increased in the above order (all P<0.05). Electrophysiologically, action potential configurations recorded from them were similar respectively to nodal (N), atrial nodal (AN), nodal Hisian (NH), atrial (A) and Hisian like potentials obtained from the intact atrioventricular nodal preparations.Diastolic depolarization appeared in all myocytes except for rod cells. Sodium current density increased in the order of tiny spindle, strip, rod, slender spindle cell (all P<0.05), but could not be detected in spider-shaped cells.Linear regression analysis revealed that membrane capacitance was correlated negatively to the rate of diastolic depolarization r=-0.70, P<0.001, but positively to maximum depolarization potential, amplitude of action potential, upstroke velocity and maximum peak value of sodium current density r=-0.84, 0.80, 0.87 and 0.75,respectively; all P<0.001.Conclusions The results demonstrated that spider-shaped, spindle, rod and strip cells in Koch triangle might correspond to pacemaking, transitional, atrial and Purkinje like cells, respectively. Furthermore, tiny spindle and slender spindle cells were referred to transitional cell α (TCα) and β (TCβ) accordingly

  12. Synthesis of Vertically Standing MoS2 Triangles on SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Feifei; Lai, Zhanping; Xu, Yongkuan; Cheng, Hongjuan; Wang, Zaien; Qi, Chengjun; Chen, Jianli; Zhang, Song

    2016-08-01

    Layered material MoS2 has been attracting much attention due to its excellent electronical properties and catalytic property. Here we report the synthesis of vertically standing MoS2 triangles on silicon carbon(SiC), through a rapid sulfidation process. Such edge-terminated films are metastable structures of MoS2, which may find applications in FinFETs and catalytic reactions. We have confirmed the catalytic property in a hydrogen evolution reaction(HER). The Tafel slope is about 54mV/decade.

  13. Cross-sensitivity of Fiber Grating Solved by FFP Triangle Notch Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Xian-feng; WANG Chang-song; CHEN Sheng-ping; LI Jia-fang

    2004-01-01

    Employing a fiber Fabry-Perot (FFP) interferometer has been considered as a triangle notch filter to demodulate the wavelength of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor.The single parameter of strain has been demodulated,and the cross-sensitivity influence of temperature has been eliminated.The principle of this method is simple and easy to be implemented,and has been used to design a 30 t fiber grating weightbridge successfully.The maximal temperature drift error of the weightbridge is 4 με,which means that the full scale error is 8‰. The result reveals that the accuracy is high enough to be used in measurement.

  14. An efficient rotation-free triangle and its application in cloth simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yexin.; 周晔欣.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, an efficient rotation-free (RF) triangle is proposed and applied to drape/cloth simulations in which the cloth often under large displacements and rotations. The RF model is a class of thin plate/shell computational models possessing only 3 translational degrees of freedom per director whilst their domains of influence are larger than their domains of integration. An important advantage of RF models is that they do not use rotational degrees of freedom and, thus, are not plag...

  15. Bright sand/dark dust: The identification of active sand surfaces on the Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, H. G., II; Greeley, R.; Christensen, P. R.; Arvidson, R.

    1987-05-01

    Field studies and analysis of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data in the Gran Desierto, Mexico may shed light on a technique to distinguish active from inactive (relict) sand surfaces. Active sand bodies in the study area are consistently brighter (by an average of 20%) at visual and near infrared wavelengths and darker at thermal infrared wavelengths than compositionally similar inactive sands. The reasons for the albedo difference between active and inactive sands are reviewed and the mixing model of Johnson et al. is examined for tracing the provenance of sands based on albedo and spectral variations. Portions of the wavelengths covered by the Mars Orbiter correspond to the Thematic Mapper data. The identification of active sands on Earth, with a priori knowledge of bulk composition and grain size distribution, may allow the remote mapping of active sand surfaces on Mars. In conjuction with thermal infrared remote sensing for composition, it may also provide a method for the remote determination of grain size distributions within sand/silt mixtures.

  16. Simulating and understanding sand wave variation: A case study of the Golden Gate sand waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterlini, F.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Hanes, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a detailed comparison between measured features of the Golden Gate sand wave field and the results of a nonlinear sand wave model. Because the Golden Gate sand waves exhibit large variation in their characteristics and in their environmental physics, this area gives us the opportunity to study sand wave variation between locations, within one well-measured, large area. The nonlinear model used in this paper is presently the only tool that provides information on the nonlinear evolution of large-amplitude sand waves. The model is used to increase our understanding of the coupling between the variability in environmental conditions and the sand wave characteristics. Results show that the model is able to describe the variation in the Golden Gate sand waves well when both the local oscillating tidal current and the residual current are taken into account. Current and water depth seem to be the most important factors influencing sand wave characteristics. The simulation results give further confidence in the underlying model hypothesis and assumptions. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SAND FRACTION IN A SAND GRAIN IMAGE CAPTURE SYSTEM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Arruda Viana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Morphology studies assume significant importance in analysis of phenomena of granular systems packaging, in particular with a view to the use of the technique of soil stabilization named particle size correction in forest roads. In this context, this study aimed to develop and operationalize a Sand Grain Image Capture System and, hereby, determine the morphological indices of the sand fractions of two sandy soils called João Pinheiro (JP and Cachoeira da Prata (CP. Soil samples, air-dried, were sieved (2.0 mm nominal mesh size for removal of gravels. The materials that passed through the sieve were subjected to dispersion, washing in 0.053 mm nominal mesh size sieve, removal of organic matter and iron oxides to obtain the clean sand fractions. Subsequently, each soil sample was sieved for separation into twelve classes, between the diameters of 0.149 mm and 1.190 mm, using a Rotap shaker. Next, tests were carried out to characterize the morphometric attributes of the twelve classes of sand fractions of the soils studied. For validation of the performance of the Sand Grain Image Capture System, the results were compared to those obtained using a standard procedure for image analysis. The analysis of the results led to the following conclusions: (i the sand fraction of the JP soil presented higher values for the morphometric indices roundness, elongation and compactness compared to sand fraction of the CP soil; and (ii the Sand Grain Image Capture System worked properly, with practicality.

  18. Probability of rebound and eject of sand particles in wind-blown sand movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xie; Xiaojing Zheng

    2007-01-01

    When incident particles impact into a sand bed in wind-blown sand movement, rebound of the incident particles and eject of the sand particles by the incident particles affect directly the development of wind sand flux. In order to obtain rebound and eject lift-off probability of the sand particles, we apply the particle-bed stochastic collision model presented in our pervious works to derive analytic solutions of velocities of the incident and impacted particles in the postcollision bed. In order to describe randomness inherent in the real particle-bed collision, we take the incident angle, theimpact position and the direction of resultant action of sand particles in sand bed on the impacted sand particle as random variables, and calculate the rebound and eject velocities,angles and coefficients (ratio of rebound and eject velocity to incident velocity). Numerical results are found in accordance with current experimental results. The rebound and eject lift-off probabilities versus the incident and creeping velocities are predicted.

  19. Pretreatment of turkey fat-containing wastewater in coarse sand and gravel/coarse sand bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Rashmi Singh; Cai, Ling; Tuovinen, Olli H; Mancl, Karen M

    2010-02-01

    Fat, oil and grease in wastewater can be difficult to treat because of their slow decomposition. Traditional pretreatment facilities to remove fat, oil and grease from wastewater are increasingly costly. The hypothesis in this study was that pretreatment of animal fat-containing wastewater in sand and sand/gravel filters facilitates the conversion of slowly degradable organic matter measured as the difference between chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) for subsequent biological treatment. The pretreatment was evaluated using simulated turkey-processing wastewater and coarse sand and sand/gravel filters at a constant hydraulic loading rate of 132L/m(2)/day. Two types of fixed media reactors were employed: (i) one set with a varying depth of coarse sand, and (ii) the second was similar but with an additional pea gravel cap. The results indicated that the relative removal of COD was slightly improved in the sand bioreactors with a pea gravel cap irrespective of the depth of coarse sand, but partial conversion to BOD(5) was not consistently demonstrated. Pea gravel may act as a sieve to entrap organic matter including fat globules from the wastewater. Multiple dosing at the same daily loading rate slightly improved the treatment efficiency of the sand bioreactors. The ratios of influent-COD/effluent-COD were always greater than 1.0 following a change in the dosing frequency after a rest period, suggesting that organic matter, specifically fat globules in this case, was retained by the column matrix.

  20. Capturing phosphates with iron enhanced sand filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Andrew J; Gulliver, John S; Weiss, Peter T

    2012-06-01

    Most treatment practices for urban runoff capture pollutants such as phosphorus by either settling or filtration while dissolved phosphorus, typically as phosphates, is untreated. Dissolved phosphorus, however, represents an average 45% of total phosphorus in stormwater runoff and can be more than 95%. In this study, a new stormwater treatment technology to capture phosphate, called the Minnesota Filter, is introduced. The filter comprises iron filings mixed with sand and is tested for phosphate removal from synthetic stormwater. Results indicate that sand mixed with 5% iron filings captures an average of 88% phosphate for at least 200 m of treated depth, which is significantly greater than a sand filter without iron filings. Neither incorporation of iron filings into a sand filter nor capture of phosphates onto iron filings in column experiments had a significant effect on the hydraulic conductivity of the filter at mixtures of 5% or less iron by weight. Field applications with up to 10.7% iron were operated over 1 year without detrimental effects upon hydraulic conductivity. A model is applied and fit to column studies to predict the field performance of iron-enhanced sand filters. The model predictions are verified through the predicted performance of the filters in removing phosphates in field applications. Practical applications of the technology, both existing and proposed, are presented so stormwater managers can begin implementation.

  1. Cleaning oil sands drilling waste in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikic, N.; Nilsen, C.; Markabi, M. [Mi SWACO, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The waste generated from steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells is brought to the surface and separated by shale shakers. The waste can include drilling fluids and sand contaminated with bitumen. This paper described a new technology developed to treat waste using the addition of hot water and various mixing and separation technologies to reduce the viscosity of the bitumen and separate it from the sand. The bitumen-contaminated drill cuttings were mixed with hot water to form a slurry that was then separated through the G-force created by a hydrocyclone. A secondary separation was then conducted in an elutriation column to remove residual contaminants from the sand. The flow rate of the process was controlled by the fine solids composition of the cuttings, the temperature of the cleaning process, and the performance of the individual components. Laboratory tests conducted to tests the method showed that the sand particles produced using the method were clean enough to be safely disposed in the environment. A pilot study will be conducted to test the sand cleaning technology at a commercial scale. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Mitigating in situ oil sands carbon costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theriault, D.J.; Peterson, J. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Heinrichs, H. [Canadian Chemical Technology Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Carbon capture and sequestration is a complex problem with a variety of dimensions that need to be considered. The political, social, and regulatory pressures are forcing carbon costs on the oil sands industry in an effort to reduce the carbon footprint of oil sands operations. This paper reviewed the political, social, and regulatory pressures and obligations for the in-situ oil sands industry. It presented the views and insights of Laricina Energy on the carbon challenge. It also described the initiatives that Laricina Energy is taking to manage these imperatives and outlined the challenges the industry is facing. The purpose of the paper was to encourage dialogue and collaboration by the oil sands industry. The paper also described the dimensions of the carbon problem and how the industry can contribute to a solution. Last, the paper reviewed the parameters of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gas containment and storage issues. It was concluded that the regulatory and policy requirements need to be clarified so that industry understands the new business landscape as well as the requirements that influence the economics of in-situ oil sands development. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Post-Gondwanan continental sedimentaiton, Limpopo region, southeastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, G. A.; De Wit, M. C. J.

    1996-08-01

    The post-Karoo age sedimentary succession known formerly as the Malvernia Formation, is currently termed the Malonga Formation, 'Formaçao de Sena', 'Formaçao de Singuédeze/Elefantes' and Gona-re-Zhou Plateau Beds in the Limpopo Basin region where South Africa, Mozambique and Zimbabwe have common borders. These rocks represent continental, taphrogenic sedimentation on the eastern margin of the emergent African continent after the breakup of Gondwana. The wide occurrence of this system along the northern Lebombo mountains and within the tectonically active Limpopo and Zambezi valleys, suggests the existence of a peidmont landsurface comprising coalesced alluvial fans and major fluvial channel/floodplain systems close to the continental margin during the Late Mesozoic to Early Cainozoic era. Sedimentation followed the long period of eustatic uplift associated with Karoo vulcanicity and the extensional tectonics and rifting along the continental margin and within the proto-Limpopo and Zambezi valleys. The Malonga Formation exposed near Pafuri in the extreme NW of South Africa shows an eastward lithological change from homogeneous, poorly-sorted, thinly-bedded sandstones and conglomerates, deposited by sheetflood action, to a sequence of fining-upward units comprising clast-supported pebble to boulder grade conglomerate and overlying planar bedded silt and sand, deposited in fluvial channel and floodplain environments. The homogeneous, silty succession exposed in the Olifants River valley, east of the Lebombo mountains in Mozambique, possibly represents the distal reaches of this system. Calcareous palaeosols developed within the sedimentary units suggest periodic geomorphic stability on the broad alluvial plain. Further north in southeastern Zimbabwe, laterally continuous depositional units comprising thinly-bedded, poorly-sorted, matrix-supported conglomerate, interbedded with very coarse-grained sandstone, is consistent with deposition on an alluvial fan complex

  4. Fuchsian triangle groups and Grothendieck dessins. Variations on a theme of Belyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paula Beazley; Itzykson, Claude; Wolfart, Jürgen

    1994-07-01

    According to a theorem of Belyi, a smooth projective algebraic curve is defined over a number field if and only if there exists a non-constant element of its function field ramified only over 0, 1 and . The existence of such a Belyi function is equivalent to that of a representation of the curve as a possibly compactified quotient space of the Poincaré upper half plane by a subgroup of finite index in a Fuchsian triangle group. On the other hand, Fuchsian triangle groups arise in many contexts, such as in the theory of hypergeometric functions and certain triangular billiard problems, which would appear at first sight to have no relation to the Galois problems that motivated the above discovery of Belyi. In this note we review several results related to Belyi's theorem and we develop certain aspects giving examples. For preliminary accounts, see the preprint [Wo1], the conference proceedings article [BauItz] and the Comptes Rendus note [CoWo2].

  5. Right unitarity triangles and tri-bimaximal mixing from discrete symmetries and unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, S., E-mail: antusch@mppmu.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); King, Stephen F., E-mail: king@soton.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Luhn, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.luhn@soton.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Spinrath, M., E-mail: spinrath@sissa.it [SISSA/ISAS and INFN, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2011-09-21

    We propose new classes of models which predict both tri-bimaximal lepton mixing and a right-angled Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) unitarity triangle, {alpha}{approx}90{sup o}. The ingredients of the models include a supersymmetric (SUSY) unified gauge group such as SU(5), a discrete family symmetry such as A{sub 4} or S{sub 4}, a shaping symmetry including products of Z{sub 2} and Z{sub 4} groups as well as spontaneous CP violation. We show how the vacuum alignment in such models allows a simple explanation of {alpha}{approx}90{sup o} by a combination of purely real or purely imaginary vacuum expectation values (vevs) of the flavons responsible for family symmetry breaking. This leads to quark mass matrices with 1-3 texture zeros that satisfy the 'phase sum rule' and lepton mass matrices that satisfy the 'lepton mixing sum rule' together with a new prediction that the leptonic CP violating oscillation phase is close to either 0{sup o}, 90{sup o}, 180{sup o}, or 270{sup o} depending on the model, with neutrino masses being purely real (no complex Majorana phases). This leads to the possibility of having right-angled unitarity triangles in both the quark and lepton sectors.

  6. S-duality, triangle groups and modular anomalies in N=2 SQCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ashok, S K; Lerda, A; Raman, M

    2016-01-01

    We study N = 2 superconformal theories with gauge group SU(N) and 2N fundamental flavours in a locus of the Coulomb branch with a Z_N symmetry. In this special vacuum, we calculate the prepotential, the dual periods and the period matrix using equivariant localization. In the conformal limit, we find that the period matrix is completely specified by [N/2] effective couplings. On each of these, we show that the S-duality group acts as a generalized triangle group and that its hauptmodul can be used to write a non-perturbatively exact relation between each effective coupling and the bare one. For N = 2, 3, 4 and 6, the generalized triangle group is an arithmetic Hecke group which contains a subgroup that is also a congruence subgroup of the modular group PSL(2,Z). For these cases, we introduce mass deformations that respect the symmetries of the special vacuum and show that the constraints arising from S-duality make it possible to resum the instanton contributions to the period matrix in terms of meromorphic m...

  7. Disruption of the 'disease triangle' by chemical and physical environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelka, A H; Grulke, N E

    2016-01-01

    The physical and chemical environment of the Earth has changed rapidly over the last 100 years and is predicted to continue to change into the foreseeable future. One of the main concerns with potential alterations in climate is the propensity for increases in the magnitude and frequency of extremes to occur. Even though precipitation is predicted to increase in some locations, in others precipitation is expected to decrease and evapotranspiration increase with air temperature, resulting in exacerbated drought in the future. Chemical [ozone (O3 ) and other air contaminants] and subsequent physical alterations in the environment will have a profound effect on the 'disease triangle' (a favourable environment, a susceptible host and a virulent pathogen) and should be included in any analysis of biological response to climate change. The chemical and physical environment affects plant health and alters plant susceptibility to insect and pathogen attack through increased frequency, duration and severity of drought and reduction in host vigour. The potential effects of climate change and O3 on tree diseases with emphasis on the western United States are discussed. We describe a generalised modelling approach to incorporate the complexities of the 'disease triangle' into dynamic vegetation models.

  8. Estimating actual evapotranspiration from remote sensing imagery using R: the package 'TriangleMethod'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampe, David; Huber García, Verena; Marzahn, Philip; Ludwig, Ralf

    2017-04-01

    Actual evaporation (Eta) is an essential variable to assess water availability, drought risk and food security, among others. Measurements of Eta are however limited to a small footprint, hampering a spatially explicit analysis and application and are very often not available at all. To overcome the problem of data scarcity, Eta can be assessed by various remote sensing approaches such as the Triangle Method (Jiang & Islam, 1999). Here, Eta is estimated by using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (LST). In this study, the R-package 'TriangleMethod' was compiled to efficiently perform the calculations of NDVI and processing LST to finally derive Eta from the applied data set. The package contains all necessary calculation steps and allows easy processing of a large data base of remote sensing images. By default, the parameterization for the Landsat TM and ETM+ sensors are implemented, however, the algorithms can be easily extended to additional sensors. The auxiliary variables required to estimate Eta with this method, such as elevation, solar radiation and air temperature at the overpassing time, can be processed as gridded information to allow for a better representation of the study area. The package was successfully applied in various studies in Spain, Palestine, Costa Rica and Canada.

  9. The semiosis of the Anthropocene geological era. Reflections between geoethics and semiotics starting from Peirce's triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Francesco; Dattilo, Valeria

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the first formulation of a theoretical proposal which aims to reconcile, or better, to work together, two different approaches: geoethics and the semiotic tradition of Peirce, on the basis of some important affinities. We will refer to geoethics, discipline that deals with the ethical, social and cultural implications of geological and geographical practice, at the intersection of Geoscience, Geography, Philosophy, Sociology and Economy. The proposal of this work is to try to explain the new processes of the Anthropocene era through geoethics and semiotics, using as a "translator mechanism" one of the key notions of Peirce semiotics: the semiotic triangle. On the one hand, we employ the geoethical paradigm as a possible interpretative framework for such processes (in other words, we identify in the geoethical paradigm a significant exemplification of hippocratic type, according to some scientists); on the other hand, we use the triangle "geology / geography - planet illness - society", as a metaphor of the principles and the processes inherent Anthropocene era, able to return them in a particularly random way through the semiotic triangulation of Peirce.

  10. Comparison of effects of different screw materials in the triangle fixation of femoral neck fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Kadir; Inal, Sermet; Gok, Arif; Gulbandilar, Eyyup

    2017-05-01

    In this study, biomechanical behaviors of three different screw materials (stainless steel, titanium and cobalt-chromium) have analyzed to fix with triangle fixation under axial loading in femoral neck fracture and which material is best has been investigated. Point cloud obtained after scanning the human femoral model with the three dimensional (3D) scanner and this point cloud has been converted to 3D femoral model by Geomagic Studio software. Femoral neck fracture was modeled by SolidWorks software for only triangle configuration and computer-aided numerical analyses of three different materials have been carried out by AnsysWorkbench finite element analysis (FEA) software. The loading, boundary conditions and material properties have prepared for FEA and Von-Misses stress values on upper and lower proximity of the femur and screws have been calculated. At the end of numerical analyses, the best advantageous screw material has calculated as titanium because it creates minimum stress at the upper and lower proximity of the fracture line.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON PREMIX COMBUSTION AT ISOSCELES TRIANGLE TYPE RATE OF HEAT RELEASE FOR SQUISH TYPE COMBUSTION CHAMBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a theory on premix fuel combustion at nearisosceles triangle type rate of heat release,describes the measures taken for the combustion system,points out its many theoretical advantages,and that it can solve effectively the problems of rough running,fuel consumption and exhaust emission.Two squish lip type combustion chambers are designed to match separately with multiple holes injector and conical spray type injector in order to achieve premix combustion at near isosceles triangle type rate of heat release.Experimental studies on two single cylinder diesel engines showed that premix combustion at isosceles triangle type rate of heat release resulted in longer ignition delay period,larger amount of fuel injected into cylinder during the ignition delay period,lower maximum pressure,better fuel economy,and better exhaust emission.

  12. Outcomes on the pharmacopsychometric triangle in bupropion-SR vs. buspirone augmentation of citalopram in the STAR*D trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Fava, Maurizio; Trivedi, M H

    2012-01-01

    Scale (HAM-D(17) ) and of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C(30) ), referred to as HAM-D(6) and IDS-C(6) , were focussed on pure antidepressive effect. Side-effects (tolerable vs. intolerable) and quality of life were measured using patient-administered questionnaires. A modified...... of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (QLES-Q) showed a trend (P = 0.10) from baseline to endpoint of a superiority for bupropion-SR compared with buspirone. Conclusion: In all domains of the pharmacopsychometric triangle, bupropion-SR was superior to buspirone as augmentation therapy...... vs. buspirone in the acute therapy of major depression in the STAR*D study. The triangle provides a composite view in three domains of antidepressive activity, side effects, and quality of life. Method: Within the pharmacopsychometric triangle, the short six-item subscales of the Hamilton Depression...

  13. Role of a triangle singularity in the π N (1535 ) contribution to γ p →p π0η

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debastiani, V. R.; Sakai, S.; Oset, E.

    2017-08-01

    We have studied the γ p →p π0η reaction paying attention to the two main mechanisms at low energies, the γ p →Δ (1700 )→η Δ (1232 ) and the γ p →Δ (1700 )→π N (1535 ) . Both are driven by the photoexcitation of the Δ (1700 ) and the second one involves a mechanism that leads to a triangle singularity. We are able to evaluate quantitatively the cross section for this process and show that it agrees with the experimental determination. Yet there are some differences with the standard partial wave analysis which does not include explicitly the triangle singularity. The exercise also shows the convenience of exploring possible triangle singularities in other reactions and how a standard partial wave analysis can be extended to accommodate them.

  14. Permeability Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends on the charact......The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends...... on the characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. Finally the test results are briefly summarised and a relationship between...... void ratio and permeability is established....

  15. Sand Dunes Fixation in Baiji District, Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out at Sand Dunes Stabilization Researches Station in Baiji district (230 ln north of Baghdad, Iraq) to evaluate the effects of local soil conditioners manufactured from oil derivatives and plant residuals on sand dunes fixation as the first step for sand dunes stabilization. The results indicate that the fuel oil has the first place in improving wind erosion parameters in the study area, such as increasing mean weight diameter, dry aggregates percentage, the needed time for complete disaggregation by dry sieving, and decreasing the disaggregation rates. Bitumen emulsion occupies the second place, while the plant residuals occupies the third place and has slight effects on the studied parameters. Effects of conditioners on natural vegetation cover are negative in oil derivatives treatments,while positive in plants residuals treatments.

  16. Thermoluminescent dosimetric properties of Descalvado sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, M.I.; Caldas, L.V.E

    2006-07-01

    Sand samples proceeding from Descalvado, Sao Paulo, were studied with regard to their dosimetric properties using the thermoluminescence technique (TL) for high doses. These sand samples present steady physical and chemical characteristics to the end items, and they are used in the glass industry and for casting. The TL curves of the samples were obtained after an irradiation at the Gamma-Cell system ({sup 60} Co), of IPEN. The glow curves present two peaks at 80 C and 220 C approximately. Calibration curves were obtained for doses between 50 Gy and 5 kGy. The results indicate that the sand samples can be used for high-doses dosimetry in several areas of applications of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  17. Development tendencies of moulding and core sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw M. Dobosz1

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Further development of the technology for making moulding and core sands will be strictly limited by tough requirements due to protection of the natural environment. These tendencies are becoming more and more tense, so that we will reach a point when even processes, that from technological point of view fulfill high requirements of the foundry industry, must be replaced by more ecologically-friendly solutions. Hence, technologies using synthetic resins as binding materials will be limited. This paper presents some predictable development tendencies of moulding and core sands. The increasing role of inorganic substances will be noticed, including silicate binders with significantly improved properties, such as improved knock-out property or higher reclamation strength. Other interesting solutions might also be moulding sands bonded by geo-polymers and phosphate binders or salts and also binders based on degradable biopolymers. These tendencies and the usefulness of these binders are put forward in this paper.

  18. Planet-wide sand motion on mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, N.T.; Bourke, M.C.; Geissler, P.E.; Banks, M.E.; Colon, C.; Diniega, S.; Golombek, M.P.; Hansen, C.J.; Mattson, S.; McEwen, A.S.; Mellon, M.T.; Stantzos, N.; Thomson, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter data, images of Mars showed no direct evidence for dune and ripple motion. This was consistent with climate models and lander measurements indicating that winds of sufficient intensity to mobilize sand were rare in the low-density atmosphere. We show that many sand ripples and dunes across Mars exhibit movement of as much as a few meters per year, demonstrating that Martian sand migrates under current conditions in diverse areas of the planet. Most motion is probably driven by wind gusts that are not resolved in global circulation models. A past climate with a thicker atmosphere is only required to move large ripples that contain coarse grains. ?? 2012 Geological Society of America.

  19. Morphological records of storm floods exemplified by the impact of the 1872 Baltic storm on a sandy spit system in south-eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Bendixen, Mette; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt

    2014-01-01

    Beach-ridge systems are important geo-archives providing evidence for past wave climate including catastrophic storm flood events. This study investigates the morphological impacts of the 1872 Baltic storm flood on a beach-ridge system (sandy spit) in south-eastern Denmark and evaluates...... the dune ridge at several sites and wash-over fans were generated until a level where the mean water level had dropped too much. Phase 4: the non-vegetated wash-over fans functioned as pathways for aeolian sand transport and relatively high dunes were formed in particular along the margins of the fan where...... aeolian sand was trapped by existing vegetation. The studied beach-ridge system records about 4500 years of accumulation; the storm flood sediments described are unique suggesting that the 1872 Baltic storm flood event was an extreme event. Thus studies of beach-ridge systems form a new source...

  20. Sedimentological and paleontological features of sea floor sediments of Penta Palummo and Miseno volcanic highs, Gulf od Naples (South-eastern Tyrrhenian Sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, L.; Molisso, F. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Naples (Italy). Ist. di Ricerca Geomare Sud

    2000-07-01

    A sedimentological and paleontological study has been carried out on surficial sediments of Penta Palummo and Miseno volcanic banks, in the Gulf of Naples (South-eastern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). The deposits consist of bioclastic sand (coralline algae, bryozoans, gastropods, bivalvs and echinoderms). The benthic foraminiferal assemblage is mainly characterized by epiphytic species. Bioclastics sand is autochtonous and derived from breakdown of algal buildups. [Italian] Uno studio sedimentologico e paleontologico e' stato condotto sui sedimenti superficiali dei banchi vulcanici di Penta Palummo e di Miseno (Golfo di Napoli, Mar Tirreno sudorientale). I depositi sono costituiti da sabbie bioclastiche (alghe coralline, briozoi, gasteropodi, bivalvi ed echonodermi). L'associazione a foraminiferi bentonici e' caratterizzata principalmente da specie epifite. Le sabbie bioclastiche sono autoctone e derivano dal disfacimento di biocostruzioni algali.

  1. Identification of Radar Facies and Linked Process-Based Palaeo-environmental Interpretations, Cooloola Sand Mass, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontz, A. M.; McCallum, A. B.; Moss, P. T.; Shulmeister, J.

    2015-12-01

    During 2015 and 2014, nearly 60 km of high-resolution ground penetrating radar data were acquired on the Cooloola Sand Mass (CSM) in southeastern coastal Queensland. The CSM is part of the world's largest downdrift sand system. It contains three of the world's largest sand islands, several National Parks, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and covers 500 km of the eastern Australian coastline in northern New South Wales and southern Queensland. The large (>200 m) composite dunes of the CSM exhibit multiple activation phases, coastally eroding bluffs and dune development is not obvious from surficial exposures. This provides an ideal environment for ground penetrating radar. The dune sequences have been provisionally dated to the mid Quaternary through present and represent the potential for a large palaeo-environmental proxy dataset. GPR imagery was collected using a MALA GeoSciences Ground Explorer (GX) system with 160 and 450 MHz antennae from the numerous physiographic and ecological provinces as well as mapped surficial soil units at the CSM. These data were used to determine the subsurface architecture, identify radar facies and develop environmental interpretations. In the clean, aeolian quartz-rich sands, radar wave penetration exceeded 30 m (radar velocity = 0.07 m/ns) with the 160 MHz antenna. From the interpreted environmental units including palaeosol, dune slip face, dune stoss face, sand blow, beach, estuarine and fluvial, we are developing maps to relate the units and focus a detailed sampling regime that includes OSL, sediment geochemistry and sedimentology, The interpreted units, stratigraphic correlation and spatial distribution of the facies is the first step in a broader project to unravel the Quaternary environmental and climate records that are archived within the sediments of the CSM.

  2. Undrained Cyclic Behaviour of Dense Frederikshavn Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Kjær; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Sørensen, Kris Wessel

    2013-01-01

    A modified contour diagram is created for the Frederikshavn Sand in the undrained case for a relative density of ID = 80 %. It can be used to estimate the number of cycles to failure for a given combination of pore pressure, average and cyclic load ratio. The diagram is based on a series of undra......A modified contour diagram is created for the Frederikshavn Sand in the undrained case for a relative density of ID = 80 %. It can be used to estimate the number of cycles to failure for a given combination of pore pressure, average and cyclic load ratio. The diagram is based on a series...

  3. Sand control systems used in completing wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Wittenberger

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Expandable Tubular Technology is transforming the face of well completion and construction. This technology provides: a substantially higher hydrocarbon production rates from the reservoir, a reduced well drilling and construction costs, new possibilities for previously unreachable or uneconomic reservoirs, and step a change towards the single diameter well. ESS (Expandable Sand Screen has an unrivalled performance worldwide for delivering a reliable sand control in a wide range of applications. Well costs typically cut by over 20 %, and the productivity increases up to 70 %.

  4. On the Size Distribution of Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    -distribution, by taking into account that individual grains do not have the same travel time from the source to the deposit. The travel time is assumed to be random so that the wear on the individual grains vary randomly. The model provides an interpretation of the parameters of the NIG-distribution, and relates the mean......A model is presented of the development of the size distribution of sand while it is transported from a source to a deposit. The model provides a possible explanation of the log-hyperbolic shape that is frequently found in unimodal grain size distributions in natural sand deposits, as pointed out...

  5. George Sand [Reseña

    OpenAIRE

    Jack, Belinda; Thomas, Florence

    2002-01-01

    Belinda Jack nos cuenta en ese libro la vida de George Sand (de su verdadero nombre Aurora Dupin), esa mujer libertaria del siglo XIX, lo años de su nacimiento, su infancia, su adolescencia y su vida adulta. Una vida tan llena tanto por sus luchas interiores -Sand es una mujer que desde su adolescencia tratará de romper los fatalismos ligados a la condición de mujer del siglo XIX, un siglo profundamente familista y maternalista- como por su inmensa obra literaria que cuenta más de cincuenta n...

  6. Investigation of Sand-Cement Grouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-09-01

    the sianAS. Ho-4, VVers thia 𔃽pacification ,Jlowi -inI r.ver,4 e ofl 3 :*- cen~t to be retain(v,- on1 the NO,. 1E6 sieve. 3y * :.Oviiq- (1),, sc...325 material as does the traprock or silica sand. This j J: i3 -robably the reason for the difference in the quantity of sand founud pmrnable. The three...deficient in material assing th.e ±,e h DOsieve, Ath the addition of percentages of fŕ. ash was test-ilwped. in the other to-ts in this phase, tne

  7. Gamma radiation measurement in select sand samples from Camburi beach - Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Livia F.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.; Aquino, Reginaldo R., E-mail: lfbarros@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b, E-mail: raquino@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The variation of natural radioactivity along the surface of the beach sands of Camburi, located in Vitoria, capital of Espirito Santo, southeastern Brazil, was determined from the contents of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. Eleven collecting points was selected along all the 6 km extension of the Camburi beach. Sand samples collected from all established points on January 2011 were dried and sealed in standard 100 mL polyethylene flasks and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry after a 4 weeks ingrowth period, in order to allow the secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series. The {sup 226}Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi. The {sup 232}Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 228}Ac, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 212}Bi and the {sup 40}K from its single gamma transition. Preliminary results show activity concentrations varying from 5 Bq.kg{sup -1} to {sup 222} Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra and from 14 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 1074 Bq.kg{sup -'}1 for {sup 232}Th, both with the highest values for Camburi South and Central. For {sup 40}K, the activity concentrations ranged from 14 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 179 Bq.kg{sup -1} and the highest values were obtained for Camburi South. (author)

  8. TURBULENT COHERENT STRUCTURES IN CHANNELS WITH SAND WAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Sand wave bed is one of the typical shape of complicated boundaries in hydraulics and river dynamics, and sand wave motion is the main form of the bed load motion in-rivers, thence the study of turbulent structures over sand waves is of importance both in theory and practice. In this paper turbulent coherent structures over single-and multi-sand waves were studied experimentally, the formulae for the separation length and vortex shedding period of the turbulent flow over single-sand wave were suggested, and the characteristics of turbulent coherent structures over multi-sand waves were also given.

  9. Threshold for sand mobility on Mars calibrated from seasonal variations of sand flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, F.; Avouac, J.-P.; Newman, C. E.; Richardson, M. I.; Lucas, A.; Leprince, S.; Bridges, N. T.

    2014-09-01

    Coupling between surface winds and saltation is a fundamental factor governing geological activity and climate on Mars. Saltation of sand is crucial for both erosion of the surface and dust lifting into the atmosphere. Wind tunnel experiments along with measurements from surface meteorology stations and modelling of wind speeds suggest that winds should only rarely move sand on Mars. However, evidence for currently active dune migration has recently accumulated. Crucially, the frequency of sand-moving events and the implied threshold wind stresses for saltation have remained unknown. Here we present detailed measurements of Nili Patera dune field based on High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images, demonstrating that sand motion occurs daily throughout much of the year and that the resulting sand flux is strongly seasonal. Analysis of the seasonal sand flux variation suggests an effective threshold for sand motion for application to large-scale model wind fields (1-100 km scale) of τs=0.01±0.0015 N m-2.

  10. 76 FR 33967 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 953 Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order.... SUMMARY: This rule suspends the marketing order for Irish potatoes grown in Southeastern states (order... handling of Irish potatoes grown in Southeastern states and is administered locally by the Southeastern...

  11. Endoparasites of Wild Rodents in Southeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nateghpour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was aimed to collect wild rodents for endoparasites determination in some parts of Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran nearby Pakistan and Afghanistan countries.Methods: A total of 100 wild rodents were captured alive with cage traps. Various samples were collected from blood and feces, also impression smear prepared from different organs. The samples were prepared by formalin-ether or stained with Giemsa, after that were examined under microscope.Results: All the caught rodents (47 Tatera indica, 44 Meriones hurriana, 5 Gerbilus nanus and 4 Meriones libycus were studied for endoparasites emphasizing to their zoonotic aspects. Endoparasites including Spirurida,Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana feraterna, Trichuris trichiura, Skerjabino taenia, Trichostrongylus spp, Entamoeba muris, Chilomastix mesnili and Leishmania spp were parasitologically identified.Conclusion: Among 9 genera or species of the identified parasites at least 5 of them have zoonotic and public health importance.

  12. MouldingSandDB – a modern database storing moulding sands properties research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakubski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of foundry processes requires the use of modern, advanced IT tools for optimization, storage and analysis of t echnicaldata. Properties of moulding and core sands that are collected in research laboratories, manufacturers, and finally in the foundries, are not in use later on. It seems important to create a database that will allow to use the results stored, along with the possibility of searching according to set criteria, adjusted to casting practice. This paper presents part of the database named „MouldingSandDB”, which allows to collect and search data for synthetic moulding sands.

  13. Real-Time Simulation of Aeolian Sand Movement and Sand Ripple Evolution: A Method Based on the Physics of Blown Sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Wang; Bao-Gang Hu

    2012-01-01

    Simulation and visualization of aeolian sand movement and sand ripple evolution are a challenging subject.In this paper,we propose a physically based modeling and simulating method that can be used to synthesize sandy terrain in various patterns.Our method is based on the mechanical behavior of individual sand grains,which are widely studied in the physics of blown sand.We accounted significant mechanisms of sand transportation into the sand model,such as saltation,successive saltation and collapsing,while simplified the vegetation model and wind field model to make the simulation feasible and affordable.We implemented the proposed method on the programming graphics processing unit (GPU) to get real-time simulation and rendering.Finally,we proved that our method can reflect many characteristics of sand ripple evolution through several demonstrations.We also gave several synthesized desert scenes made from the simulated height field to display its significance on application.

  14. Simulation of aeolian sand saltation with rotational motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ning; Wang, Cong; Pan, Xiying

    2010-11-01

    In this work, we propose a theoretical model based on the distribution functions of initial liftoff velocity and angular velocity of sand grains to describe a sand saltation process in which both wind field-sand grain coupling and the Magnus force experienced by saltating sand grains have been incorporated. The computation results showed that the Magnus force had significant effects on sand grain saltation. In particular, when the Magnus force was incorporated, the calculated sand transport fluxes and sand transport rate per unit width were closer to the experimental value than when this force was excluded. The sand transport flux is enhanced because the Magnus force owing to particle rotation causes the particles to have higher and longer trajectories, so the particles can get more speed and energy from the wind, which leads to a larger sand transport flux. In addition, it was found that when taking the Magnus force into account, the probability density of the impact velocity and angular velocity of saltating sand grains followed an exponential distribution and a unimodal asymmetric distribution, respectively. Moreover, the sand energy flux increased with the height above the sand surface until the energy flux reached its maximum and then decreased. Furthermore, the energy flux near the ground surface decreased as the grain diameter increased, but beyond a specific height the energy flux increased with the grain diameter. Finally, for the same sand grain diameter, the energy flux increased with the friction velocity.

  15. Miocene reef-coral diversity of Indonesia: unlocking the murky origins of the Coral Triangle (Utrecht Studies in Earth Sciences 063)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santodomingo Aguilar, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Reefs in the Coral Triangle host the richest marine diversity today. While the biodiversity gradients associated with the Coral Triangle are progressively better documented, the mechanisms responsible for the origins and maintenance of this pattern still remain obscure. Until recently, palaeontologi

  16. The CKM matrix and the unitarity triangle. Proceedings, workshop, Geneva, Switzerland, February 13-16, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Battaglia et al.

    2004-04-02

    This report contains the results of the Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle that was held at CERN on 13-16 February 2002. There had been several Workshops on B physics that concentrated on studies at e{sup +}e{sup -} machines, at the Tevatron, or at LHC separately. Here we brought together experts of different fields, both theorists and experimentalists, to study the determination of the CKM matrix from all the available data of K, D, and B physics. The analysis of LEP data for B physics is reaching its end, and one of the goals of the Workshop was to underline the results that have been achieved at LEP, SLC, and CESR. Another goal was to prepare for the transfer of responsibility for averaging B physics properties, that has developed within the LEP community, to the present main actors of these studies, from the B factory and the Tevatron experiments. The optimal way to combine the various experimental and theoretical inputs and to fit for the apex of the Unitarity Triangle has been a contentious issue. A further goal of the Workshop was to bring together the proponents of different fitting strategies, and to compare their approaches when applied to the same inputs. Since lattice QCD plays a very important role in the determination of the non-perturbative parameters needed to constrain the CKM unitarity triangle, the first Workshop was seen as an excellent opportunity to bring together lattice theorists with the aim of establishing a working group to compile averages for phenomenologically relevant quantities. Representatives from lattice collaborations around the world were invited to attend a meeting during the Workshop. A consensus was reached to set up three test working groups, collectively known as the ''CKM Lattice Working Group'', to review a number of well-studied quantities: quark masses, the kaon B-parameter, and the matrix elements relevant for neutral B-meson mixing. This report is organized as a coherent document with chapters

  17. Impact of freshwater on a subarctic coastal ecosystem under seasonal sea ice (southeastern Hudson Bay, Canada). III. Feeding success of marine fish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, L.; Gilbert, M.; Ponton, D.; Ingram, R. G.; Robineau, B.; Legendre, L.

    1996-02-01

    We monitored the feeding success (percent feeding incidence at length and mean feeding ratio at length) of Arctic cod ( Boreogadus saida) and sand lance ( Ammodytes sp.) larvae in relation to prey density, light, temperature and potential predator density under the ice cover of southeastern Hudson Bay in the spring of 1988, 1989 and 1990. Both prey density and light limited larval fish feeding. The relationship between feeding success and actual food availability (nauplii density X irradiance) was adequately described by an Ivlev function which explained 64 and 76% of the variance in Arctic cod and sand lance feeding success respectively. By affecting both prey density and irradiance, the thickness of the Great Whale River plume (as defined by the depth of the 25 isohaline) was the main determinant of prey availability. Arctic cod and sand lance larvae stopped feeding when the depth of the 25 isohaline exceeded 9 m. Limitation of feeding success attributable to freshwater inputs occurred exclusively in 1988, the only time when the depth of the 25 isohaline exceeded the 9 m threshold. The close dependence of larval fish feeding success on the timing of the freshet and plume dynamics suggests a direct link between climate and survival of Arctic cod and sand lance larvae. The actual impact of climate fluctuations and/or hydro-electric developments on recruitment will depend on the fraction of the larval dispersal area of the two species that is affected by river plumes.

  18. The impact of raindrops on sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Rianne

    2017-01-01

    When a raindrop hits a sand bed, it leaves behind a small crater with a mixture of liquid and grains located at the center. This event is frequently observed in nature, but when absent, sprinklers may artificially produce these impacting drops to facilitate irrigation. Also in industry, the interact

  19. Cumulative environmental management and the oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    In response to concerns regarding the cumulative environmental impacts of oil sands development within the Athabasca oil sands deposit, the government of Alberta established a Regional Sustainable Development Strategy (RSDS) to balance development with environmental protection. The environmental issues identified through the RSDS were addressed by the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA). CEMA's boundary is the Wood Buffalo region of northeastern Alberta. It identifies existing and future environmental effects in the region and proposes recommendations to regulatory bodies for reducing environmental impacts associated with oil sands development. This presentation outlined some of the 55 stakeholder representatives of CEMA, including Alberta government departments associated with resource development, oil sand developers within the region, and Aboriginal communities and First Nations. These stakeholders provide input on sector priorities and agree on environmental thresholds. Established working groups also address technical and scientific research issues identified in the RSDS such as sustainable ecosystems; surface waters; trace metals and air contaminants; nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxides; and land reclamation. To date, CEMA has submitted more than 50 reports and has made 4 major environmental recommendations for trace metal management, ecosystem management tools, a framework for acid deposition management, and a landscape design checklist. tabs., figs.

  20. LEARNING ABOUT THE OCEANS FROM SAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As a young geophysicist in the 1980s, Rob Holman attended a conference in San Francisco that included a field trip to a beach. Dr Holman, who grew up inland, stared at the ocean, assessing the strengths of the waves. But when he looked around, everyone else was studying the sand.