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Sample records for sand silt clay

  1. Mechanical properties of sand, silt, and clay containing tetrahydrofuran hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, T.S.; Santamarina, C.J.; Ruppel, C.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of hydrate-bearing sediments subjected to large strains has relevance for the stability of the seafloor and submarine slopes, drilling and coring operations, and the analysis of certain small-strain properties of these sediments (for example, seismic velocities). This study reports on the results of comprehensive axial compression triaxial tests conducted at up to 1 MPa confining pressure on sand, crushed silt, precipitated silt, and clay specimens with closely controlled concentrations of synthetic hydrate. The results show that the stress-strain behavior of hydrate-bearing sediments is a complex function of particle size, confining pressure, and hydrate concentration. The mechanical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments at low hydrate concentration (probably 50% of pore space), the behavior becomes more independent of stress because the hydrates control both stiffness and strength and possibly the dilative tendency of sediments by effectively increasing interparticle coordination, cementing particles together, and filling the pore space. The cementation contribution to the shear strength of hydrate-bearing sediments decreases with increasing specific surface of soil minerals. The lower the effective confining stress, the greater the impact of hydrate formation on normalized strength.

  2. Modified centroid for estimating sand, silt and clay from soil texture class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Models that require inputs of soil particle size commonly use soil texture class for input; however, texture classes do not represent the continuum of soil size fractions. Soil texture class and clay percentage are collected as a standard practice for many land management agencies (e.g., NRCS, BLM, ...

  3. Parametric study of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sand, silt, and clay sediments: 1. Electromagnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.Y.; Santamarina, J.C.; Ruppel, C.

    2010-01-01

    The marked decrease in bulk electrical conductivity of sediments in the presence of gas hydrates has been used to interpret borehole electrical resistivity logs and, to a lesser extent, the results of controlled source electromagnetic surveys to constrain the spatial distribution and predicted concentration of gas hydrate in natural settings. Until now, an exhaustive laboratory data set that could be used to assess the impact of gas hydrate on the electromagnetic properties of different soils (sand, silt, and clay) at different effective stress and with different saturations of hydrate has been lacking. The laboratory results reported here are obtained using a standard geotechnical cell and the hydrate-formed tetrahydrofuran (THF), a liquid that is fully miscible in water and able to produce closely controlled saturations of hydrate from dissolved phase. Both permittivity and electrical conductivity are good indicators of the volume fraction of free water in the sediment, which is in turn dependent on hydrate saturation. Permittivity in the microwave frequency range is particularly predictive of free water content since it is barely affected by ionic concentration, pore structure, and surface conduction. Electrical conductivity (or resistivity) is less reliable for constraining water content or hydrate saturation: In addition to fluid-filled porosity, other factors, such as the ionic concentration of the pore fluid and possibly other conduction effects (e.g., surface conduction in high specific surface soils having low conductivity pore fluid), also influence electrical conductivity.

  4. The impact of hydrate saturation on the mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties of hydrate-bearing sand, silts, and clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamarina, J.C. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Ruppel, C. [United States Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    A study was conducted to provide an internally-consistent, systematically-acquired database that could help in evaluating gas hydrate reservoirs. Other objectives were to assist in geomechanical analyses, hazards evaluation and the development of methane hydrate production techniques in sandy lithologies and fine-grained sediments that exist in the northern Gulf of Mexico. An understanding of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments facilitates the interpretation of geophysical field data, borehole and slope stability analyses, and reservoir simulation and production models. This paper reported on the key findings derived from 5 years of laboratory experiments conducted on synthetic samples of sand, silts, or clays subjected to various confining pressures. The samples contained controlled saturations of tetrahydrofuran hydrate formed from the dissolved phase. This internally-consistent data set was used to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the trends in geophysical and geotechnical properties as a function of hydrate saturation, soil characteristics, and other parameters. The experiments emphasized measurements of seismic velocities, electrical conductivity and permittivity, large strain deformation and strength, and thermal conductivity. The impact of hydrate formation technique on the resulting physical properties measurements were discussed. The data set was used to identify systematic effects of sediment characteristics, hydrate concentration, and state of stress. The study showed that the electrical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments are less sensitive to the method used to form hydrate in the laboratory than to hydrate saturation. It was concluded that mechanical properties are strongly influenced by both soil properties and the hydrate loci. Since the thermal conductivity depends on the interaction of several factors, it cannot be readily predicted by volume average formulations. 23 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  5. Discriminating silt-and-clay from suspended-sand in rivers using side-looking acoustic profilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Scott A.; Topping, David J.; Williams, Cory A.

    2010-01-01

    techniques rely on measurements of ancillary properties that correlate with suspended-sediment concentration and particle size and thus require the collection of traditional samples for calibration. Through in situ deployments, these methods can provide the high temporal resolution that cannot be achieved through traditional sampling. Here we focus on the evaluation of acoustic profiling techniques (e.g. acoustic-Doppler sideways-looking profilers, or ADPs). One major advantage of acoustic profiling is the ability to concurrently measure water velocity (using Doppler-shift methods) and suspended-sediment concentration such that suspended-sediment flux can be directly computed using data from a single instrument. Acoustic-Doppler profilers have become popular for measuring water velocity and discharge in rivers, through both moving-boat operations and from fixed deployments such as bank-mounted sideways-looking instruments (Hirsch and Costa, 2004, Muste et al., 2007). The method presented herein is most suited to sideways-looking applications as a complement to the "index velocity" technique, whereby an index velocity from a sideways-looking instrument is related to the cross-section average velocity (determined from moving-boat discharge measurements) as a means for developing a continuous water-discharge record (Ruhl and Simpson, 2005). Topping et al. (2007) presented a method for discriminating silt-and-clay from suspended sand, using single frequency ADPs. This method takes advantage of the relations among acoustic backscatter, sediment-induced acoustic attenuation, suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), and particle size distribution (PSD). Backscatter is the amount of sound scattered back and received at the transducer while sediment-induced attenuation is the amount of sound scattered in other directions and absorbed by the sediment particles. Both of these parameters can be measured with an ADP, and their different dependencies on SSC and PSD allow for the

  6. Parametric study of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sand, silt, and clay sediments: 2. Small-strain mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. Y.; Francisca, F. M.; Santamarina, J. C.; Ruppel, C.

    2010-11-01

    The small-strain mechanical properties (e.g., seismic velocities) of hydrate-bearing sediments measured under laboratory conditions provide reference values for calibration of logging and seismic exploration results acquired in hydrate-bearing formations. Instrumented cells were designed for measuring the compressional (P) and shear (S) velocities of sand, silts, and clay with and without hydrate and subject to vertical effective stresses of 0.01 to 2 MPa. Tetrahydrofuran (THF), which is fully miscible in water, was used as the hydrate former to permit close control over the hydrate saturation Shyd and to produce hydrate from dissolved phase, as methane hydrate forms in most natural marine settings. The results demonstrate that laboratory hydrate formation technique controls the pattern of P and S velocity changes with increasing Shyd and that the small-strain properties of hydrate-bearing sediments are governed by effective stress, σ'v and sediment specific surface. The S velocity increases with hydrate saturation owing to an increase in skeletal shear stiffness, particularly when hydrate saturation exceeds Shyd≈ 0.4. At very high hydrate saturations, the small strain shear stiffness is determined by the presence of hydrates and becomes insensitive to changes in effective stress. The P velocity increases with hydrate saturation due to the increases in both the shear modulus of the skeleton and the bulk modulus of pore-filling phases during fluid-to-hydrate conversion. Small-strain Poisson's ratio varies from 0.5 in soft sediments lacking hydrates to 0.25 in stiff sediments (i.e., subject to high vertical effective stress or having high Shyd). At Shyd ≥ 0.5, hydrate hinders expansion and the loss of sediment stiffness during reduction of vertical effective stress, meaning that hydrate-rich natural sediments obtained through pressure coring should retain their in situ fabric for some time after core retrieval if the cores are maintained within the hydrate

  7. Major soil classes of the metropolitan region of Curitiba (PR, Brazil: I - mineralogical characterization of the sand, silt and clay fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Duarte Pires

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the mineralogical and chemical characteristics of most representative soils of the Region of Curitiba, Paraná State. Samples were collected at different depths. The results showed: (a the quartz was the only identified mineral at the silt and sand fractions. The dominant clay mineral was Kaolinite, with contents ranging from 676.7 to 820.8 g kg-1. The gibbsite was also an important constituent of the most weathered horizons and the hematite and goethite contents were low, mainly in the Histosol; (b at the C horizon of the Inceptisol, high intensity of vermiculite/smectite reflections were detected (X-ray diffraction, justifying the high capacity of expansion and contraction, normally showed for this soil horizon; (c was observed a good relation between pedogenetic degree and crystallographic mineral characteristics.Devido a grande importância dos minerais, notadamente aqueles da fração argila, sobre o planejamento de uso e sobre os impactos das atividades antrópicas, estudos detalhados da composição dos solos das regiões metropolitanas são imprescindíveis. Para avaliar as características mineralógicas e químicas de solos mais representativos da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba, estado do Paraná, foram coletadas amostras das classes Organossolo, Latossolo e Cambissolo, em diferentes profundidades. As frações areia, silte e argila foram estudadas por difratometria de Raios-X (DRX e a fração mais fina foi submetida a análise térmica e extrações químicas com oxalato de amônio (OA, ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato (DCB e solução de NaOH 5 mol L-1 fervente. As características cristalográficas da hematita (Hm, goethita (Gt, gibbsita (Gb e caulinita (Ct foram determinadas por DRX. Os resultados permitiram concluir que: (a o quartzo foi o único mineral identificado nas frações areia e silte. Na fração argila, verificou-se o predomínio de Ct, com teores variando de 661,7 a 820,8 g kg-1

  8. Characterizing the variation of small strain shear modulus for silt and sand during hydraulic hysteresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravi Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have indicated that the small strain shear modulus, Gmax, of unsaturated silt and clay has a greater amount during imbibition than during drainage, when presented as a function of matric suction. However, due to material properties and inter-particle forces, different behavior is expected in the case of sand. Although considerable research has been devoted in recent years to characterize the behaviour of Gmax of sand during drainage, rather less attention has been paid to the effect of hydraulic hysteresis on Gmax and its variations during imbibition. In the study presented herein, an effort has been made to compare the Gmax behavior of specimens of silt and sand during hydraulic hysteresis. In this regard, a series of bender element tests were carried out in a modified triaxial test device with suction-saturation control to evaluate the impact of hydraulic hysteresis on Gmax for specimens of silt and sand. Trends between the Gmax and matric suction for unsaturated sand were found to be different from those for silty specimens. The variations in Gmax showed an up and down trend in both drainage and imbibition paths for sandy specimens, where plotted as a function of matric suction. Results also indicated smaller magnitudes of Gmax upon imbibition than those during drainage; a behavior which is believed to be attributed to variations in suction stress with matric suction. In silty specimens, a stiffer response was measured during imbibition which was hypothesized to be due to drainage-induced hardening experienced by the specimens that was not fully recovered during imbibition.

  9. Suspended clays and silts: Are they independent or dependent fractions when it comes to settling in a turbulent suspension*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Duc; Strom, Kyle

    2017-04-01

    This research examines whether or not mixes of clay and silt in a turbulent suspension act and settle independent of each other. More specifically, we examine the following three questions: (1) does the presence of silt in suspension alter the size of mud flocs relative to those from a pure clay suspension of equivalent concentration* (2) can silt particles become bound inside clay flocs*; and (3) if silt is bound within flocs, how does this change the settling properties of the clay and silt mixture* These questions are explored through a series of laboratory experiments in which: (a) images of flocs and silt particles within the turbulent suspension are used to measure their size distribution as a function of time; and (b) the settling velocity of the individual aggregates from each of the suspensions are measured in a settling column. The experiments use pure clay, pure silt, and two different mixture ratios of silt and clay. The results show three primary conclusions. First, the presence of silt has no significant impact on floc size. Second, most of the silt in suspension became bound up within the floc aggregates. And third, the bound silt within the flocs increased the floc settling velocity by at least 50%. These results have potential implications for the modeling of suspended mud mixtures in rivers, estuaries, and turbidity currents.

  10. Carbon saturation in the silt and clay particles in soils with contrasting mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Matus

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The silt and clay particles play a key role as stabilizing agents of soil organic carbon (SOC. Several lines of evidence indicate a theoretical maximum or C saturation in individual particles. In the present study, we hypothesized that a C fraction displaying linear accumulation relative to the SOC is not influenced by C saturation, while a fraction displaying an asymptotic relationship is regarded as saturated (Stewart et al., 2008. The aim of the present study was to compare the amount of C in the silt and clay sized fractions in temperate and subtropical cropping soils across a range of textures with different mineralogy. Twenty-one and 18 soil samples containing 1:1 and 2:1 clay of temperate soil from Chile under monoculture of maize (Zea maiz L. for at least 30 years and 9 subtropical soils from Mexico under maize and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cropping for 9 years having mixed clay were collected at 0-0.1 m. The SOC of 2:1 soils was significantly higher (14±0.5 g kg-1 dry soil than 1:1 soils (10±0.7 g kg-1. However, subtropical soils showed the highest values (59±0.5 g kg-1. A positive (P < 0.01 relationship was observed between the SOC and the C in the silt fraction (R2 0.80-0.97, P < 0.01. In contrast, the clay fraction remained constant or showed asymptotic behavior. We conclude that the silt fraction, unlike clay, showed no evidence of C saturation, while clay accumulates C to a maximum. On average, the 2:1 clay was saturated at 1-2 g C kg-1 and 1:1 at 1 g C kg-1, and subtropical soils at 14 g C kg-1.

  11. National Map Data Base On Landslide Prerequisites In Clay and Silt Areas - Development of Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viberg, Leif

    Swedish geotechnical institute, SGI, has in co-operation with Swedish geologic survey, Lantmateriet (land surveying) and Swedish Rescue Service developed a theme database on landslide prerequisites in clay and silt areas. The work is carried out on commission of the Swedish government. A report with suggestions for production of the database has been delivered to the government. The database is a prototype, which has been tested in an area in northern Sweden. Recommended presentation map scale is about 1:50 000. Distribution of the database via Internet is discussed. The aim of the database is to use it as a modern planning tool in combination with other databases, e g databases on flooding prognoses. The main use is supposed to be in early planning stages, e g for new building and infrastructure development and for risk analyses. The database can also be used in more acute cases, e g for risk analyses and rescue operations in connection with flooding over large areas. Users are supposed to be municipal and county planners and rescue services, infrastructure planners, consultants and assurance companies. The database is constructed by combination of two existing databases: Elevation data and soil map data. The investigation area is divided into three zones with different stability criteria: 1. Clay and silt in sloping ground or adjoining water. 2. Clay and silt in flat ground. 3. Rock and other soils than clay and silt. The geometrical and soil criteria for the zones are specified in an algoritm, that will do the job to sort out the different zones. The algoritm is thereby using data from the elevation and soil databases. The investigation area is divided into cells (raster format) with 5 x 5 m side length. Different algoritms had to be developed before reasonable calculation time was reached. The theme may be presented on screen or as a map plot. A prototype map has been produced for the test area. A description is accompanying the map. The database is suggested

  12. PERMEABILITY AND CONSOLIDATION OF SEDIMENT MIXTURES AS FUNCTION OF SAND CONTENT AND CLAY MINERALOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The current study is the first step in a systematic experimental research on the erosion behaviour of sand-mud mixtures. It concerns the effect of a varying sand content and clay mineralogy on the porosity, structure, strength and permeability of artificially generated sediment mixtures. The permeability of a sediment mixture is an especially significant parameter concerning the type of erosion that occurs. It determines ifthe erosion of the bed is either a drained or an undrained process,respectively indicating surface erosion or mass erosion. Measurements on various mixtures concerning the consolidation coefficient and the permeability have been executed. Results show a distinct transition of behaviour between a sand-silt dominated network structure and a clay-water matrix. The occurrence of these two types of structures appears to depend on the porosity of the volume fraction of sand related to silt, which is, therefore, an important parameter concerning the type of erosion. Finally, the study provides a valuable data set that can be used as a reference for following stages of this research on the erosion behaviour of natural cohesive sediments.

  13. Compressive Strength of Compacted Clay-Sand Mixes

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    Faseel Suleman Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of sand to improve the strength of natural clays provides a viable alternative for civil infrastructure construction involving earthwork. The main objective of this note was to investigate the compressive strength of compacted clay-sand mixes. A natural clay of high plasticity was mixed with 20% and 40% sand (SP and their compaction and strength properties were determined. Results indicated that the investigated materials exhibited a brittle behaviour on the dry side of optimum and a ductile behaviour on the wet side of optimum. For each material, the compressive strength increased with an increase in density following a power law function. Conversely, the compressive strength increased with decreasing water content of the material following a similar function. Finally, the compressive strength decreased with an increase in sand content because of increased material heterogeneity and loss of sand grains from the sides during shearing.

  14. Evaluating sand and clay models: do rheological differences matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstadt, Gloria; Sims, Darrell

    2005-08-01

    Dry sand and wet clay are the most frequently used materials for physical modeling of brittle deformation. We present a series of experiments that shows when the two materials can be used interchangeably, document the differences in deformation patterns and discuss how best to evaluate and apply results of physical models. Extension and shortening produce similar large-scale deformation patterns in dry sand and wet clay models, indicating that the two materials can be used interchangeably for analysis of gross deformation geometries. There are subtle deformation features that are significantly different: (1) fault propagation and fault linkage; (2) fault width, spacing and displacement; (3) extent of deformation zone; and (4) amount of folding vs. faulting. These differences are primarily due to the lower cohesion of sand and its larger grain size. If these features are of interest, the best practice would be to repeat the experiments with more than one material to ensure that rheological differences are not biasing results. Dry sand and wet clay produce very different results in inversion models; almost all faults are reactivated in wet clay, and few, if any, are significantly reactivated in sand models. Fault reactivation is attributed to high fluid pressure along the fault zone in the wet clay, a situation that may be analogous to many rocks. Sand inversion models may be best applied to areas where most faults experience little to no reactivation, while clay models best fit areas where most pre-existing normal faults are reactivated.

  15. Water and solute transport in agricultural soils predicted by volumetric clay and silt contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karup, Dan; Moldrup, Per; Paradelo, Marcos; Katuwal, Sheela; Norgaard, Trine; Greve, Mogens H.; de Jonge, Lis W.

    2016-09-01

    Solute transport through the soil matrix is non-uniform and greatly affected by soil texture, soil structure, and macropore networks. Attempts have been made in previous studies to use infiltration experiments to identify the degree of preferential flow, but these attempts have often been based on small datasets or data collected from literature with differing initial and boundary conditions. This study examined the relationship between tracer breakthrough characteristics, soil hydraulic properties, and basic soil properties. From six agricultural fields in Denmark, 193 intact surface soil columns 20 cm in height and 20 cm in diameter were collected. The soils exhibited a wide range in texture, with clay and organic carbon (OC) contents ranging from 0.03 to 0.41 and 0.01 to 0.08 kg kg- 1, respectively. All experiments were carried out under the same initial and boundary conditions using tritium as a conservative tracer. The breakthrough characteristics ranged from being near normally distributed to gradually skewed to the right along with an increase in the content of the mineral fines (particles ≤ 50 μm). The results showed that the mineral fines content was strongly correlated to functional soil structure and the derived tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs), whereas the OC content appeared less important for the shape of the BTC. Organic carbon was believed to support the stability of the soil structure rather than the actual formation of macropores causing preferential flow. The arrival times of 5% and up to 50% of the tracer mass were found to be strongly correlated with volumetric fines content. Predicted tracer concentration breakthrough points as a function of time up to 50% of applied tracer mass could be well fitted to an analytical solution to the classical advection-dispersion equation. Both cumulative tracer mass and concentration as a function of time were well predicted from the simple inputs of bulk density, clay and silt contents, and applied tracer

  16. Wave liquefaction in soils with clay content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, Özgür; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the influence of clay content (in silt-clay and sand-clay mixtures) on liquefaction beneath progressive waves. The experiments showed that the influence of clay content is very significant. Susceptibility of silt to liquefaction...... is increased with increasing clay content, up to 30%, beyond which the mixture of silt and clay is not liquefied. Sand may become prone to liquefaction with the introduction of clay, contrary to the general perception that this type of sediment is normally liquefaction resistant under waves....

  17. Induced polarization of clay-sand mixtures. Experiments and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay, G.; Leroy, P.

    2012-04-01

    The complex conductivity of saturated unconsolidated sand-clay mixtures was experimentally investigated using two types of clay minerals, kaolinite and smectite (mainly Na-Montmorillonite) in the frequency range 1.4 mHz - 12 kHz. The experiments were performed with various clay contents (1, 5, 20, and 100 % in volume of the sand-clay mixture) and salinities (distilled water, 0.1 g/L, 1 g/L, and 10 g/L NaCl solution). Induced polarization measurements were performed with a cylindrical four-electrode sample-holder associated with a SIP-Fuchs II impedance meter and non-polarizing Cu/CuSO4 electrodes. The results illustrate the strong impact of the CEC of the clay minerals upon the complex conductivity. The quadrature conductivity increases steadily with the clay content. We observe that the dependence on frequency of the quadrature conductivity of sand-kaolinite mixtures is more important than for sand-bentonite mixtures. For both types of clay, the quadrature conductivity seems to be fairly independent on the pore fluid salinity except at very low clay contents. The experimental data show good agreement with predicted values given by our SIP model. This complex conductivity model considers the electrochemical polarization of the Stern layer coating the clay particles and the Maxwell-Wagner polarization. We use the differential effective medium theory to calculate the complex conductivity of the porous medium constituted of the grains and the electrolyte. The SIP model includes also the effect of the grain size distribution upon the complex conductivity spectra.

  18. Numerical evaluation of seismic response of shallow foundation on loose silt and silty sand

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali Asgari; Aliakbar Golshani; Mohsen Bagheri

    2014-03-01

    This study includes the results of a set of numerical simulations carried out for sands containing plastic/non-plastic fines, and silts with relative densities of approximately 30−40% under different surchargeson the shallow foundation using FLAC 2D. Each model was subjected to three ground motion events, obtained by scaling the amplitude of the El Centro (1940), Kobe (1995) and Kocaeli (1999) earthquakes. Dynamic behaviour of loose deposits underlying shallow foundations is evaluated through fully coupled nonlinear effective stress dynamic analyses. Effects of nonlinear soil structure interaction (SSI) were also considered by using interface elements. This parametric study evaluates the effects of soil type, structure weight, liquefiable soil layer thickness, event parameters (e.g., moment magnitude of earthquake (), peak ground acceleration PGA, PGV/PGA ratio and the duration of strong motion (5−95)and their interactions on the seismic responses. Investigation on the effects of these parameters and their complex interactions can be a valuable tool to gain new insights for improved seismic design and construction.

  19. Carbon sequestration in clay and silt fractions of Brazilian soils under conventional and no-tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Estima Sacramento dos Reis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of soils to sequestrate carbon (C is mainly related to the formation of organo-mineral complexes. In this study, we investigated the influence of soil management systems on the C retention capacity of soil with an emphasis on the silt and clay fractions of two subtropical soils with different mineralogy and climate. Samples from a Humic Hapludox and a Rhodic Hapludox, clayey soils cultivated for approximately 30 years under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT were collected from six layers distributed within 100-cm soil depth from each site and from an adjacent native forest. After the removal of particulate organic matter (POM, the suspension (<53 µm was sonicated, the silt and clay fractions were separated in accordance with Stokes' law and the carbon content of whole soil and physical fractions was determined. In the Humic Hapludox, the clay and silt fractions under NT showed a higher maximum C retention (72 and 52 g kg-1, respectively in comparison to those under CT (54 and 38 g kg-1, respectively. Moreover, the C concentration increase in both fractions under NT occurred mainly in the topsoil (up to 5 cm. The C retention in physical fractions of Rhodic Hapludox varied from 25 to 32 g kg-1, and no difference was observed whether under an NT or a CT management system. The predominance of goethite and gibbsite in the Humic Hapludox, as well as its exposure to a colder climate, may have contributed to its greater C retention capacity. In addition to the organo-mineral interaction, a mechanism of organic matter self-assemblage, enhanced by longer periods of soil non-disturbance, seems to have contributed to the carbon stabilization in both soils.

  20. The Delft Sand, Clay and Rock Cutting Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Sand, clay and rock have to be excavated for a variety of purposes, such as dredging, trenching, mining (including deep sea mining), drilling, tunnel boring and many other applications. Many excavations take place on dry land, but they are also frequently required in completely saturated conditions,

  1. Can mud (silt and clay) concentration be used to predict soil organic carbon content within seagrass ecosystems?

    KAUST Repository

    Serrano, O.

    2016-01-18

    The emerging field of blue carbon science is seeking cost-effective ways to estimate the organic carbon content of soils that are bound by coastal vegetated ecosystems. Organic carbon (Corg) content in terrestrial soils and marine sediments has been correlated with mud content (i.e. silt and clay), however, empirical tests of this theory are lacking for coastal vegetated ecosystems. Here, we compiled data (n = 1345) on the relationship between Corg and mud (i.e. silt and clay, particle sizes <63 μm) contents in seagrass ecosystems (79 cores) and adjacent bare sediments (21 cores) to address whether mud can be used to predict soil Corg content. We also combined these data with the δ13C signatures of the soil Corg to understand the sources of Corg stores. The results showed that mud is positively correlated with soil Corg content only when the contribution of seagrass-derived Corg to the sedimentary Corg pool is relatively low, such as in small and fast growing meadows of the genera Zostera, Halodule and Halophila, and in bare sediments adjacent to seagrass ecosystems. In large and long-living seagrass meadows of the genera Posidonia and Amphibolis there was a lack of, or poor relationship between mud and soil Corg content, related to a higher contribution of seagrass-derived Corg to the sedimentary Corg pool in these meadows. The relative high soil Corg contents with relatively low mud contents (i.e. mud-Corg saturation) together with significant allochthonous inputs of terrestrial organic matter could overall disrupt the correlation expected between soil Corg and mud contents. This study shows that mud (i.e. silt and clay content) is not a universal proxy for blue carbon content in seagrass ecosystems, and therefore should not be applied generally across all seagrass

  2. Scour at Vertical Piles in Sand-Clay Mixtures under Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dey, Subhasish; Helkjær, Anders; Sumer, B. Mutlu;

    2011-01-01

    Marine sediments often contain sand-clay mixtures in widely varying proportions. This study presents the results of equilibrium scour and time variation of scour depths at circular piles embedded vertically in clay alone and sand-clay mixed beds under waves. Experiments were conducted in a wave f...

  3. Water repellency of clay, sand and organic soils in Finland

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    K. RASA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Water repellency (WR delays soil wetting process, increases preferential flow and may give rise to surface runoff and consequent erosion. WR is commonly recognized in the soils of warm and temperate climates. To explore the occurrence of WR in soils in Finland, soil R index was studied on 12 sites of different soil types. The effects of soil management practice, vegetation age, soil moisture and drying temperature on WR were studied by a mini-infiltrometer with samples from depths of 0-5 and 5-10 cm. All studied sites exhibited WR (R index >1.95 at the time of sampling. WR increased as follows: sand (R = 1.8-5.0 < clay (R = 2.4-10.3 < organic (R = 7.9-undefined. At clay and sand, WR was generally higher at the soil surface and at the older sites (14 yr., where organic matter is accumulated. Below 41 vol. % water content these mineral soils were water repellent whereas organic soil exhibited WR even at saturation. These results show that soil WR also reduces water infiltration at the prevalent field moisture regime in the soils of boreal climate. The ageing of vegetation increases WR and on the other hand, cultivation reduces or hinders the development of WR.;

  4. Small Strain Behaviour and Viscous Effects on Sands and Sand-Clay Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Benedetto, H.

    This lecture paper focuses on sands and sand-clay mixtures behaviour in the small strain domain. Non viscous and viscous components are measured, identified and modelled within the framework of a 3 component model. Two precision prototype devices (triaxial and hollow cylinder) both equipped with piezoelectric sensors are used. Non viscous measured behaviour considering small quasi-static cycles and wave properties are compared with simulations obtained from 2 recently formulated anisotropic hypoelastic models (DBGS and DBGSP). Then, viscous experimental part is compared with the proposed model prediction. This model is an asymptotic expression, for the small strain domain, of a viscous evanescent formalism proposed by the author. It takes into account very peculiar behaviour observed on sands. Simulation for loadings with and without rotation of axes and for different rate histories, are quite satisfactory.

  5. Can mud (silt and clay) concentration be used to predict soil organic carbon content within seagrass ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Oscar; Lavery, Paul S.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Kendrick, Gary A.; Calafat, Antoni; York, Paul H.; Steven, Andy; Macreadie, Peter I.

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of blue carbon science is seeking cost-effective ways to estimate the organic carbon content of soils that are bound by coastal vegetated ecosystems. Organic carbon (Corg) content in terrestrial soils and marine sediments has been correlated with mud content (i.e., silt and clay, particle sizes soil Corg content. We also combined these data with the δ13C signatures of the soil Corg to understand the sources of Corg stores. The results showed that mud is positively correlated with soil Corg content only when the contribution of seagrass-derived Corg to the sedimentary Corg pool is relatively low, such as in small and fast-growing meadows of the genera Zostera, Halodule and Halophila, and in bare sediments adjacent to seagrass ecosystems. In large and long-living seagrass meadows of the genera Posidonia and Amphibolis there was a lack of, or poor relationship between mud and soil Corg content, related to a higher contribution of seagrass-derived Corg to the sedimentary Corg pool in these meadows. The relatively high soil Corg contents with relatively low mud contents (e.g., mud-Corg saturation) in bare sediments and Zostera, Halodule and Halophila meadows was related to significant allochthonous inputs of terrestrial organic matter, while higher contribution of seagrass detritus in Amphibolis and Posidonia meadows disrupted the correlation expected between soil Corg and mud contents. This study shows that mud is not a universal proxy for blue carbon content in seagrass ecosystems, and therefore should not be applied generally across all seagrass habitats. Mud content can only be used as a proxy to estimate soil Corg content for scaling up purposes when opportunistic and/or low biomass seagrass species (i.e., Zostera, Halodule and Halophila) are present (explaining 34 to 91 % of variability), and in bare sediments (explaining 78 % of the variability). The results obtained could enable robust scaling up exercises at a low cost as part of blue carbon

  6. Seasonal variations in heavy mineral placer sand from Kalbadevi Bay, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    Heavy mineral sand from Kalbadevi Bay, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra is well known for ilmenite placer deposits. Study along the central profile of the Bay shows that the sand is major constituent followed by silt, and clay content is present in negligible...

  7. Characterization of Clay Minerals and Kerogen in Alberta Oil Sands Geological End Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Limin

    The high degree of variability of oil sands ores can be attributed to a mixture of different geological end members, i.e., estuarine sand, estuarine clay, marine sand and marine clay. This study focused on the mineralogy, especially of clay minerals, and toluene insoluble organic matter, referred to as kerogen, in different oil sands end members. Clays and kerogens will likely have a significant impact on solvent recovery from the gangue following non-aqueous bitumen extraction. The bitumen-free solids were subjected to mineralogical and geochemical analysis. Kerogens were isolated and analyzed by various characterization methods. The types of clays were identified in oriented samples by X-ray diffraction analysis. The nitrogen to carbon ratio in the isolated kerogens is found to be higher than in bitumen. There are more type III kerogens in estuarine samples and more type II kerogens in marine samples.

  8. Can mud (silt and clay) concentration be used to predict soil organic carbon content within seagrass ecosystems?

    KAUST Repository

    Serrano, Oscar

    2016-09-07

    The emerging field of blue carbon science is seeking cost-effective ways to estimate the organic carbon content of soils that are bound by coastal vegetated ecosystems. Organic carbon (C-org) content in terrestrial soils and marine sediments has been correlated with mud content (i.e., silt and clay, particle sizes <63 mu m), however, empirical tests of this theory are lacking for coastal vegetated ecosystems. Here, we compiled data (n = 1345) on the relationship between C-org and mud contents in seagrass ecosystems (79 cores) and adjacent bare sediments (21 cores) to address whether mud can be used to predict soil C-org content. We also combined these data with the delta C-13 signatures of the soil C-org to understand the sources of Corg stores. The results showed that mud is positively correlated with soil C-org content only when the contribution of seagrass-derived C-org to the sedimentary C-org pool is relatively low, such as in small and fast-growing meadows of the genera Zostera, Halodule and Halophila, and in bare sediments adjacent to seagrass ecosystems. In large and long-living seagrass meadows of the genera Posidonia and Amphibolis there was a lack of, or poor relationship between mud and soil C-org content, related to a higher contribution of seagrass-derived C-org to the sedimentary C-org pool in these meadows. The relatively high soil C-org contents with relatively low mud contents (e.g., mud-C-org saturation) in bare sediments and Zostera, Halodule and Halophila meadows was related to significant allochthonous inputs of terrestrial organic matter, while higher contribution of seagrass detritus in Amphibolis and Posidonia meadows disrupted the correlation expected between soil C-org and mud contents. This study shows that mud is not a universal proxy for blue carbon content in seagrass ecosystems, and therefore should not be applied generally across all seagrass habitats. Mud content can only be used as a proxy to estimate soil C-org content for

  9. Pore space analysis of NAPL distribution in sand-clay media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matmon, D.; Hayden, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a conceptual model of clays and non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) at the pore scale that has been developed from a mathematical unit cell model, and direct micromodel observation and measurement of clay-containing porous media. The mathematical model uses a unit cell concept with uniform spherical grains for simulating the sand in the sand-clay matrix (???10% clay). Micromodels made with glass slides and including different clay-containing porous media were used to investigate the two clays (kaolinite and montmorillonite) and NAPL distribution within the pore space. The results were used to understand the distribution of NAPL advancing into initially saturated sand and sand-clay media, and provided a detailed analysis of the pore-scale geometry, pore size distribution, NAPL entry pressures, and the effect of clay on this geometry. Interesting NAPL saturation profiles were observed as a result of the complexity of the pore space geometry with the different packing angles and the presence of clays. The unit cell approach has applications for enhancing the mechanistic understanding and conceptualization, both visually and mathematically, of pore-scale processes such as NAPL and clay distribution. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbial assimilation of 14C of ground and unground plant materials decomposing in a loamy sand and a clay soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.; Ladd, J.N.; Amato, M.

    1996-01-01

    . More C-14 and N were mineralized and less microbial biomass C-14 accumulated in soils amended with unground than with ground subclover leaves. Differences in the amounts of (CO2)-C-14 and biomass C-14 were established during the initial 7 days of decomposition. At this time, biomass C-14 in the two...... of particle sizes >50 mu m accounted fro 5-6% input C-14 in the loamy sand; the proportions were little affected by grinding of the clover leaf amendment. In contrast, the amounts of biomass C-14 in the fraction of particle sizes soils. Thus......, the increased amounts of biomass C-14 in soils amended with ground leaves were mainly associated with clay plus silt size particles and microaggregates. After 7 d of decomposition, non-biomass C-14 in the two soil fractions accounted for about 40% of input C-14, irrespective of soil type and particle size...

  11. Methane Hydrate Formation and Dissociation in the Presence of Silica Sand and Bentonite Clay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar Saw, V; Udayabhanu, G; Mandal, A; Laik, S

    2015-01-01

      The formation and dissociation of methane hydrates in a porous media containing silica sand of different sizes and bentonite clay were studied in the presence of synthetic seawater with 3.55 wt% salinity...

  12. Solos sob vegetação de restinga na Ilha do Cardoso (SP: II - Mineralogia das frações silte e argila Soils under restinga vegetation on the Cardoso Island (SP: II - Mineralogy of silt and clay fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Haenel Gomes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A vegetação de restinga é uma formação típica que ocorre na costa brasileira em materiais de origem quartzosa e pobres em nutrientes. Os solos que ocorrem nesses ambientes são principalmente Espodossolos e Neossolos Quartzarênicos, com incipiente processo de podzolização. A podzolização é freqüentemente estudada em regiões de clima frio, sendo escassos os estudos mineralógicos de Espodossolos em clima tropical e material de origem quartzoso. Neste trabalho foram estudados solos sob vegetação de restinga na Ilha do Cardoso-SP, com o objetivo de identificar a assembléia mineralógica da fração silte e argila deles, no intuito de dar subsídios para melhor entendimento de sua gênese. Os principais minerais encontrados na fração argila foram quartzo e caulinita e, na fração silte, feldspato e quartzo. Isso indica que nesses solos a assembléia mineralógica é relativamente mais intemperizada do que os Espodossolos encontrados sob clima mais frio, e mesmo em relação a outros solos estudados no litoral brasileiro, devido ao próprio material de origem, pobre em minerais primários intemperizáveis, e à migração de complexos organometálicos insaturados, o que aumenta seu poder de dissolução. Em alguns horizontes (2Cgj foram identificadas esmectitas, as quais podem ser herdadas ou neoformadas, e sua gênese é dissociada da podzolização.Restinga is a typical vegetation on quartzitic, sandy, nutrient-poor parent materials along the Brazilian coast.. Podzolization is the main pedogenic process in restinga soils and Spodosols and Quartzipsamments with incipient podzolization are the most common soils. Podzolization is frequently studied in cold climate regions, while mineralogical studies of Spodosols in tropical climate on quartzitic parent material are scant. In this work, soils under restinga vegetation on the Ilha do Cardoso-SP, Brazil were studied to identify the mineralogical assembly of silt and clay fractions

  13. Microwave processing of oil sands and contribution of clay minerals

    OpenAIRE

    John P. Robinson; Binner, Eleanor; Saeid, Abdul; Al-Harahsheh, Mohammad; Kingman, S. W.

    2014-01-01

    This study establishes the feasibility of microwave heating for extracting oil from Oil Sands in ex-situ processes. Previous studies in this area have shown some potential, but have not characterised the dielectric properties of the Oil Sands used, nor related them to the mineral composition, both of which are vital if successful scale up is to be achieved. In this work the fundamental interactions of microwave energy with Oil Sands are investigated and understood for the first time, and the ...

  14. Study of Dronino Iron Meteorite Weathering in Clay Sand Using Mössbauer Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoriy A. Yakovlev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weathering products of two fragments of Dronino iron ungrouped meteorite found in the wet and drier clay sand were studied using X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. The products of metal oxidation in the internal and external surface layers were different for both fragments. The weathering products in fragment found in the wet clay sand contain magnetite (Fe3O4, maghemite (γ-Fe2O3, goethite (α-FeOOH and probably ferrihydrite (5Fe2O3∙9H2O while those in fragment found in drier clay sand contained ferric hydrous oxides (FeOOH and siderite (FeCO3 mainly. Concretions found near the first fragment contain ferric hydrous oxides (FeOOH mainly. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  15. Characterization of sands and mineral clays in channel and floodplain deposits of Portuguesa river, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando José González Clemente

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the main channel and floodplain of Portuguesa River were studied the mineralogical characteristics of sand and clay minerals respectively. The methodology consisted of X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, for both mineral fractions. The results indicated the presence of mainly of quartz sands with minor amounts of chlorite, muscovite, calcite and feldspar which are considered quartz sand mature. Its origin is related to the source area and rework of soils and sediments of the floodplain. The clay fraction is characterized by the presence of 13 mineral crystalline phases consisting mainly of quartz, muscovite and chlorite, and clay minerals such as kaolinite, vermiculite, montmorillonite and nontronita. Its detrital origin may be due to mineral neoformation and inheritance. Therefore both mineral fractions consist mainly of quartz and kaolinite, which are essential components of the source area as well as the Quaternary alluvial deposits and the soils that make up the region.

  16. Investigation of Some Moulding Properties of a Nigerian Clay-Bonded Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oke A.O.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Moulding properties of Isasa River Sand bonded with Ipetumodu clay (Ife-North Local Government Area, Osun State, Nigeria were investigated. American Foundry men Society (AFS standard cylindrical specimens 50mm diameter and 50mm in height were prepared from various sand and clay ratios (between 18% and 32% with 15% water content. The stress-strain curves were generated from a universal strength testing machine. A flow factor was calculated from the inclination of the falling slope beyond the maximum compressive strength. The result shows that the flowability of the samples increases from 18% to 26% clay content, its maximum value was attained at 26% and then it decreases from 30% to 32% clay content. The green compressive strength, dry compressive strength and air permeability values obtained from the mould samples were in accordance with standard values used in foundry practice. The x-ray diffraction test shows that the sand contains silicon oxide (SiO2, Aluminium oxide (Al2O3, and Aluminium silicate (Al6Si2O13. The mould samples were heated to a temperature of 1200 °C to determine the sintering temperature; fussion did not take place at this temperature. The results showed that the sand and clay mixture can be used to cast ferrous and non-ferrous alloys.

  17. Complex resistivity signatures of ethanol in sand-clay mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personna, Yves Robert; Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Werkema, Dale; Szabo, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    We performed complex resistivity (CR) measurements on laboratory columns to investigate changes in electrical properties as a result of varying ethanol (EtOH) concentration (0% to 30% v/v) in a sand–clay (bentonite) matrix. We applied Debye decomposition, a phenomenological model commonly used to fit CR data, to determine model parameters (time constant: τ, chargeability: m, and normalized chargeability: mn). The CR data showed a significant (P ≤ 0.001) time-dependent variation in the clay driven polarization response (~ 12 mrad) for 0% EtOH concentration. This temporal variation probably results from the clay–water reaction kinetics trending towards equilibrium in the sand–clay–water system. The clay polarization is significantly suppressed (P ≤ 0.001) for both measured phase (ϕ) and imaginary conductivity (σ″) with increasing EtOH concentration. Normalized chargeability consistently decreases (by up to a factor of ~ 2) as EtOH concentration increases from 0% to 10% and 10 to 20%, respectively. We propose that such suppression effects are associated with alterations in the electrical double layer (EDL) at the clay–fluid interface due to (a) strong EtOH adsorption on clay, and (b) complex intermolecular EtOH–water interactions and subsequent changes in ionic mobility on the surface in the EDL. Changes in the CR data following a change of the saturating fluid from EtOH 20% to plain water indicate strong hysteresis effects in the electrical response, which we attribute to persistent EtOH adsorption on clay. Our results demonstrate high sensitivity of CR measurements to clay–EtOH interactions in porous media, indicating the potential application of this technique for characterization and monitoring of ethanol contamination in sediments containing clays.

  18. Wave-induced ripple development in mixed clay-sand substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuxu; Parsons, Daniel; Baas, Jaco H.; Mouazé, Dominique; McLelland, Stuart; Amoudry, Laurent; Eggenhuisen, Jorris; Cartigny, Matthieu; Ruessink, Gerben

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports on a series of experiments that aim to provide a fuller understanding of ripple development within clay-sand mixture substrates under oscillatory flow conditions. The work was conducted in the Total Environment Simulator at the University of Hull and constituted 6 separate runs, in which 5 runs were conducted under identical sets of regular waves (an additional run was conducted under irregular waves, but is not discussed in present paper). The bed content was systematically varied in its composition ranging from a pure sand bed through to a bed comprising 7.4% clay. A series of state-of-the-art measurements were employed to quantify interactions of near-bed hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and turbulence over rippled beds formed by wave action, during and after, each run. The experimental results demonstrate the significant influence of the amount of cohesive clay materials in the substrate on ripple evolution under waves. Most importantly, addition of clay in the bed dramatically slowed down the rate of ripple development and evolution. The equilibrium time of each run increased exponentially from 30 minutes under the control conditions of a pure sand bed, rising to ~350 minutes for the bed with the highest fraction of clay. The paper discusses the slower ripple growth rates with higher cohesive fractions, via an influence on critical shear, but highlights that the end equilibrium size of ripples is found to be independent of increasing substrate clay fraction. The suspended particles mass (SPM) concentration indicates that clay particles were suspended and winnowed by wave action. Additionally, laser granulometry of the final substrates verified that ripple crests were composed of pure sand layers that were absent at ripple troughs, reflecting a relatively higher winnowing efficiency at wave ripples crest. The winnowing process and its efficiency is inexorably linked to wave ripple development and evolution. The implications of the results

  19. Heavy oil components sorbed onto clay minerals in Canadian oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendel, A.; Schwochau, K. (Institute for Petroleum and Organic Geochemistry, Nuclear Research Centre (KFA), Julich (DE))

    1988-06-01

    In siliciclastic reservoir rocks the surface-active clay minerals are presumed to be predominantly responsible for the sorption of polar oil components. In order to achieve a better insight into the nature of the oil components sorbed onto clay minerals, unconsolidated Canadian Oil Sands (Cold Lake, Athabasca) were exhaustively extracted with dichloromethane to remove the free oil. The clay minerals (grain fraction less than or equal to2 ..mu..m) were then separated by gravitational sedimentation. After the extraction up to 3 wt of organic carbon still remained on the clays. The amount of aliphatic carbon adhering to the clays was assessed by means of IR-spectroscopy. The clay minerals were successively extracted with solvent mixtures of increasing polarity in order to release the bound oil components. The extracts were fractionated into chemically defined compound classes by semi-preparative liquid chromatography and MPLC. The fractions were characterized by GC, GC-MS and IR-spectroscopy. Components containing oxygen functions (carboxylic acids, esters, alcohols, ketones) appear to be preferentially bound by clays. Moreover, a small amount of hydrocarbons, in particular saturates, are sorbed by clays.

  20. Methane Hydrate Formation and Dissociation in the Presence of Silica Sand and Bentonite Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Saw V.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation and dissociation of methane hydrates in a porous media containing silica sand of different sizes and bentonite clay were studied in the presence of synthetic seawater with 3.55 wt% salinity. The phase equilibrium of methane hydrate under different experimental conditions was investigated. The effects of the particle size of silica sand as well as a mixture of bentonite clay and silica sand on methane hydrate formation and its dissociation were studied. The kinetics of hydrate formation was studied under different subcooling conditions to observe its effects on the induction time of hydrate formation. The amount of methane gas encapsulated in hydrate was computed using a real gas equation. The Clausius-Clapeyron equation is used to estimate the enthalpy of hydrate dissociation with measured phase equilibrium data.

  1. Improvement of Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundation on Geogrid Reinforced Silty Clay and Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Kolay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the improvement in the bearing capacity of silty clay soil with thin sand layer on top and placing geogrids at different depths. Model tests were performed for a rectangular footing resting on top of the soil to establish the load versus settlement curves of unreinforced and reinforced soil system. The test results focus on the improvement in bearing capacity of silty clay and sand on unreinforced and reinforced soil system in non-dimensional form, that is, BCR. The results show that bearing capacity increases significantly with the increased number of geogrid layers. The bearing capacity for the soil increases with an average of 16.67% using one geogrid layer at interface of soils with equal to 0.667 and the bearing capacity increases with an average of 33.33% while using one geogrid in middle of sand layer with equal to 0.33. The improvement in bearing capacity for sand underlain silty clay maintaining and equal to 0.33; for two, three and four number geogrid layer were 44.44%, 61.11%, 72.22%, respectively. The finding of this research work may be useful to improve the bearing capacity of soil for shallow foundation and pavement design for similar type of soil available elsewhere.

  2. Influence of clay particles on the transport and retention of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in quartz sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li; Tong, Meiping; Wang, Xueting; Kim, Hyunjung

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the influence of two representative suspended clay particles, bentonite and kaolinite, on the transport of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) in saturated quartz sand in both NaCl (1 and 10 mM ionic strength) and CaCl2 solutions (0.1 and 1 mM ionic strength) at pH 7. The breakthrough curves of nTiO2 with bentonite or kaolinite were higher than those without the presence of clay particles in NaCl solutions, indicating that both types of clay particles increased nTiO2 transport in NaCl solutions. Moreover, the enhancement of nTiO2 transport was more significant when bentonite was present in nTiO2 suspensions relative to kaolinite. Similar to NaCl solutions, in CaCl2 solutions, the breakthrough curves of nTiO2 with bentonite were also higher than those without clay particles, while the breakthrough curves of nTiO2 with kaolinite were lower than those without clay particles. Clearly, in CaCl2 solutions, the presence of bentonite in suspensions increased nTiO2 transport, whereas, kaolinite decreased nTiO2 transport in quartz sand. The attachment of nTiO2 onto clay particles (both bentonite and kaolinite) were observed under all experimental conditions. The increased transport of nTiO2 in most experimental conditions (except for kaolinite in CaCl2 solutions) was attributed mainly to the clay-facilitated nTiO2 transport. The straining of larger nTiO2-kaolinite clusters yet contributed to the decreased transport (enhanced retention) of nTiO2 in divalent CaCl2 solutions when kaolinite particles were copresent in suspensions.

  3. Accumulation of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) at different depths clay and loamy sand textural soils due to tobacco waste application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülser, Coşkun; Yilmaz, Nazli Kutluk; Candemir, Feride

    2008-11-01

    The effects of tobacco waste (TW) application to the soil surface on the accumulation of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in clay and loamy sand textural soils at various depths were investigated in two different fields. The tobacco waste had been found to be infected with TMV. Eighteen months after TW application to the soil surface, soils were sampled at 20 cm intervals through to 80 cm depth. The DAS-ELISA method was performed to determine infection of soil with TMV. The viruses persisted in clay soil for a long period compared with loamy sand soil. There was no accumulation of TMV at any depth of loamy sand soil in Experimental Field 2. TMV adsorption to soil particles in 0-60 cm depth of clay soil was determined in all TW treatments in Experimental Field 1. The highest ELISA Absorbance (A405) values in all treatments were determined in the 20-40 cm soil depth that had the highest clay content. ELISA A405 values of TMV at different depths of clay soil gave significant correlations with clay content (r = 0.793**), EC values (r = 0.421**) and soil pH (r = -0.405**). Adsorption of TMV to net negatively charged clay particle surfaces increased with increasing EC values of soil solution. Decreasing soil pH and infiltration rate increased adsorption of TMV to clay particles. Higher infiltration rate and lower clay content in loamy sand soil caused leaching of TMV from the soil profile.

  4. The effect of very low water content on the complex dielectric permittivity of clays, sand-clay and sand rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaeva, T. A.; Bobrov, P. P.; Kroshka, E. S.; Lapina, A. S.; Rodionova, O. V.

    2017-01-01

    The results of measurements of complex relative permittivity of bentonite and clayey sandstone with different degrees of salinity with low moisture are given in the range of temperatures -20° to  +105 °C at frequencies from 25 Hz to 1 GHz. It is shown, that even a small amount of water in sandy and sandy-argillaceous rocks causes an increase of the real part of complex relative permittivity at frequencies below 100 Hz. The explanation by linearly-broken dependence of refractive index on moisture is given at its small values. By a dielectric method it is shown that in the process of water film formation on the surface of a mineral, the water molecules binding energy changes. Big distinctions in low-frequency dielectric relaxation times testify to the change of binding energy of molecules of water on the surface of a mineral. Also dependences of relaxation times on temperature are various. The results of dielectric measurements showed a strong influence of the salt on the dielectric permittivity of the clay and clayey sandstone even at a low moisture level.

  5. Solidification and stabilization of cadmium ions in sand-cement-clay mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawabkeh, Reyad A

    2005-10-17

    This study was carried out to test the ability of a mixture of sand, cement and clay for immobilizing cadmium ions from leaching out into water resources. Various samples with different mass ratios for this mixture were tested to determine their efficiency for adsorbing cadmium. The compressive test, cation exchange capacity (CEC), adsorption equilibrium and leaching test were applied to each sample. The sample that showed the highest cation exchange capacity with 53.1 meq/100 g and compressive strength with 11.05 N/mm2 consists of 25% sand, 50% cement and 25% clay. The equilibrium data for Cd2+ removal using this sample showed a multilayer adsorption, which could be fitted using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller adsorption isotherm model with a regression coefficient of 0.999. The maximum cadmium uptake obtained from this model was 82.618 mg/g solid. The mobility of Cd2+ in acidic solution drawn-off after 18 h of initial mixing was 66.06 mg when the solid sample initially contains 6.0 g Cd2+. This value decreased to 14.33 mg when only 1.0 g Cd2+ was initially spiked in the sample. Introducing clay into this sample enhanced its sorption capacity while the presence of sand and cement enhanced its compressive strength.

  6. Sand and clay mineralogy of sal forest soils of the Doon Siwalik Himalayas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mukesh; R K Manhas; A K Tripathi; A K Raina; M K Gupta; S K Kamboj

    2011-02-01

    The peteromineralogical characterization of the soil was carried out for the 12 soil profiles exposed in the Shorea robusta dominated forests of the Siwalik forest division, Dehradun. The quartz was observed as the dominating light mineral fraction (64–80%) in all the profiles studied. Biotite, hornblende, zircon, tourmaline, rutile and opaques comprising of iron minerals constituted the heavy mineral fraction (20%). The mineralogy of both the sand and clay fractions revealed a mixed mineralogy. The clay minerals in the order of their dominance were vermiculite, illite, kaolinite and mixed layer minerals. The presence of vermiculite and illite in appreciable quantities indicates that these were synthesized from the K-rich soil solution, as orthoclase and micas were present in significant quantities in the sand minerals. The mineral suites identified in the study shows that the geological, climatological and topographical factors of the region collectively played a dominant role in their formation and transformation. After critical appraisal of the results, it may be deduced that the mineralogical composition, physicochemical properties and total elemental analysis of the soils do not show any deficiency of the bases and other plant nutrients in general. The inherent fertility of the soil is good as indicated by the sand and clay mineralogy of the soil and the biotite and feldspar together with the mica is an important source of nutrients for the vegetation in the soils of the Doon valley.

  7. Weathering of Dronino Iron Meteorite and Ferric Hydrous Oxides Transfer in Clay Sand Studied Using Mössbauer Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, G. A.; Oshtrakh, M. I.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The Dronino meteorite fragments found in clay sand demonstrated heavily weathering. Several concretions formed in this place were also found. These weathering products were subject for the study using Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  8. Adsorption of a dye on clay and sand. Use of cyclodextrins as solubility-enhancement agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisi, Rosario; Lazzara, Giuseppe; Milioto, Stefania; Muratore, Nicola

    2007-11-01

    Laboratory-scale studies were aimed at elucidating the physico-chemical aspects on the removal process of crystal violet (CV) from waters and solid substrates. The laponite clay (RD) and sand were chosen for the double aim at investigating them as CV adsorbents for water treatment and as substrates which mime the soil components. Sand is very effective in removing CV from waters. The cyclodextrins (CDs) were exploited as solubility-enhancement agents to remove CV from the solid substrates. They are powerful solvent media because they extract the CV from sand forming water-soluble CV/CD inclusion complexes and do not show affinity for sand. Optimum performance was shown by the modified CDs (i.e. hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin). A linear correlation between the logarithm of the equilibrium constant for the CV/CD inclusion complexes formation (K(cpx)) and the maximum amount of CV extracted from sand in the columns experiments at a flow rate of 1.5 ml min(-1) was drawn. This relationship predicts that CDs with K(cpx)<180 M(-1) are not suitable for CV removal from sand. CDs failed to displace CV from RD because they generate the formation of RD clusters where CV remains entrapped.

  9. Physical Modelling of Silt in Relation to Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmsgaard, Rikke

    drained conditions. Normally, CPTs are carried out at a penetration rate of 20 mm/s. This rate yields undrained conditions in clays and drained conditions in sands. In silt, a penetration rate of 20 mm/s yields partially drained conditions, giving rise to interpretation difficulties since existing......, it is important that the optimization of the technology continues. The foundation of an offshore wind turbine constitutes about 20-30 % of the total cost, so there is great interest in minimizing the costs associated with the foundations of offshore wind turbines. The designs of offshore wind turbines are often...... empirical correlations are either developed for fully drained conditions (sands) or fully undrained conditions (clays). In connection with Part II, 15 CPTs with penetration rates of approximately 60, 20, 5, 1 and 0.5 mm/s (3 of each) have been carried out. The results show that when the penetration rate...

  10. Acidity-Facilitated Mobilization of Surface Clay Colloid from Natural Sand Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Wang, C.; Mohanty, B. P.

    2010-12-01

    Colloid mobilization and migration in a soil system has attracted increasing scrutiny for its role in facilitating colloid-borne transport of contaminants in the environments. In many previous studies, pH was evoked as a major factor in mobilizing surface colloids through inducing favorable surface charge and electrostatic conditions. The possible direct role of acidity with H+ as a chemical agent has remained largely obscured behind the indirect role of pH. In this study, we demonstrated through column flow-through tests that cyclical elution of natural sand media with weak acid and base solutions can greatly facilitate detachment and transport of surface clay colloids. We found that while elevating pH to an alkaline condition helped release the loosely-attached surface clays, a pretreatment with H+ could facilitate the mobilization of chemically-bonded clay colloids through lysing of labile Ca and Mg ions. A quantitative relation was observed that 1 mmol H+ could lyse about 0.5 mmol Ca2+ and Mg2+ and subsequently resulted in a release of about 1,200 mg clay during base elution when repulsive force between particles dominated. Natural organic acids such as citric acid and acetic acid in environment-relevant low concentrations (5.0) were as effective as HCl with a stronger acidic condition. The small mass ratio of Ca and Mg over colloid released and the nature of weak acid used suggest that the mobilization was less likely due to dissolution of cement casing than lysing of labile interstitial Ca and Mg by H+, which severed Ca and Mg bridging bonds between particles. Natural acidity is generated in abundance from various bio- and geochemical processes; e.g., many plants produce citric acid through citric acid cycle metabolism; biodegradation of dead organic matter forms humic acids. We postulate that natural proton dynamics in tendon with pH oscillation accompanied with various soil biogeochemical processes could play a major role in subsurface clay transport

  11. Numerical Evaluation on the Different Shapes of Gravelly Sand Columns to Increase the Loading Capacity of Soft Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghzili Sif Allah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement on soft clay by the installation of stone column is one of the most popular methods followed worldwide. Different analytical and numerical solutions have already been developed for understanding the load transfer mechanism of soft soil reinforced with stone column. This study investigated a bearing capacity of the gravelly sand column, installed in soft clay bed at 15kpa of undrained shear strength. The column variable of length and diameter ratio at 7, 8 and 9 were evaluated. On top of that, the combination of two diameters in single column was tested and the uniform diameter was used as a control. In the numerical analysis, Mohrcoulomb model was adopted in the idealization of the behaviour of the gravelly sand column and soft clay materials. The results revealed that the optimum design that gave the highest loading capacity of the combination 11=12 of column diameter was the length and diameter ratio of 8.

  12. Induced liquefaction experiment in relatively dense, clay-rich sand deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzor, Yossef H.; Gvirtzman, Haim; Wainshtein, Ilia; Orian, Itay

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we report results from a controlled blast-induced liquefaction experiment at the field scale. The physical and mechanical properties of the materials at the subsurface are characterized by a suite of in situ and laboratory tests, including the Standard Penetration Test (SPT); downhole and cross-hole seismic velocity tests; density, porosity, and gradation tests; and direct shear tests. Since the blast experiment was performed above groundwater table, the subsurface was saturated by a sequence of controlled infiltration tests. A 50-kg TNT charge was detonated at a depth of 10 m, and seismic ground motions were recorded in a vertical geophone array positioned at a horizontal distance of 30 m from the blast borehole. Obtained liquefaction features include a water fountain that erupted from the blast borehole, prolonged bubbling of the water surface inside the infiltration trench (a process equivalent to "sand boils" typically observed at sites which have experienced liquefaction), lateral spreading, and surface settlement. We argue that in contrast to conventional predictions, liquefaction may be induced in relatively dense silty and clayey sands (shear wave velocity >300 m s-1; relative density = 63-89%) relatively rich in clays (fines content >30%) and that the driving mechanism should not necessarily be restricted to cyclic shear stress loading.

  13. Characterization of saturation and copper concentration in sand and clay with SIP measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruzzo, L.; Schmutz, M.; Franceschi, M.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    Adsorption by clay minerals, oxides and organic matter is commonly the most effective mechanism controlling the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in soil. As contamination processes of natural systems commonly present an important variability with time and space, we aim to show if non-invasive and imaging geophysical methods, specifically Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP), are sensitive to mobility and/or bioavailability of copper. Promising works have recently shown that SIP is sensitive to the different ions dissolved in soil water thanks to their different adsorption behavior. To the best of our knowledge, these works have used clean sand as medium; that is why we need to reach a more generic comprehension of natural soil by including the relevant adsorbents. In this paper, we focus on the copper SIP signature accounting for the presence of two types of clay (montmorillonite and kaolinite), different saturation levels and representative copper concentrations which have been chosen on the base of Cu chemical extractions from soil samples taken in a Cu polluted test site. During the set of SIP measurements one single variable at time is changed: soil components, saturation and solution Cu concentration. At the same time pH and temperature are monitored. A successive modeling will consist of two parts. 1) In order to correctly interpret the SIP measurements and make sure that the signals are only influenced by matrix and fluid composition, thanks to very recent publications, we will model the EM inductive coupling, the effect of the electrodes used and the Maxwell-Wagner effect. 2) Geochemical modeling characterizing the electrical double layer (EDL) state at the different experimental conditions; then we will try to theoretically link the EDL state to the SIP results. This last step could provide an important insight about the polarization mechanisms under the investigated conditions.

  14. Modeling spatial variability of sand-lenses in clay till settings using transition probability and multiple-point geostatistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Nilsson, Bertel; Klint, Knud Erik;

    2010-01-01

    the geology of e.g. a contaminated site, it is not always possible to gather enough information to build a representative geological model. Mapping in analogue geological settings and applying geostatistical tools to simulate spatial variability of heterogeneities can improve ordinary geological models...... that are predicated only on vertical borehole information. This study documents methods to map geological heterogeneity in clay till and ways to calibrate geostatistical models with field observations. A well-exposed cross-section in an excavation pit was used to measure and illustrate the occurrence and distribution...... of sand-lenses in clay till. Sand-lenses mainly account for horizontal transport and are prioritised in this study. Based on field observations, the distribution has been modeled using two different geostatistical approaches. One method uses a Markov chain model calculating the transition probabilities...

  15. Altitude of the top of the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand in three areas of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Aaron L.; Westerfield, Paul W.; Gonthier, Gerard; Poynter, David T.

    1998-01-01

    The Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand form the second most productive aquifer in Arkansas. The Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand range in thick- ness from 0 to 900 feet, consisting of fine- to medium-grained sands interbedded with layers of silt, clay, shale, and minor amounts of lignite. Within the three areas of interest, the top surface of the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand dips regionally east and southeast towards the axis of the Mississippi Embayment syncline and Desha Basin. Local variations in the top surface may be attributed to a combination of continued development of structural features, differential compaction, localized faulting, and erosion of the surface prior to subsequent inundation and deposition of younger sediments.

  16. Discussion on the Rapid Excavation Method in Silt Sand Strata%粉砂土层快速掘进方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张山金

    2015-01-01

    In order to accelerate the speed of powder sand layer section of the mine shaft driving ,Xin‐jiang zhailiangzi coal mine project as an example to discuss silty sand soil using composite lining of fast construction scheme. Construction process adopts advanced small pipe and steel bracket plus net spray as the primary support ,grid arch shotcrete as secondary lining ,and puts forward the corresponding methods of construction and management. T he practice has proved that the composite lining can be used safely and quickly in the coal mine construction ,w hich provides the experience for similar engi‐neering construction.%为了加快粉砂土层段井筒的掘进速度,以新疆窄梁子煤矿项目为例,讨论粉砂土层采用复合式衬砌的快速施工方案。施工过程中采用超前小导管加钢支架加网喷作为初期支护,格栅拱架喷射混凝土作为二次衬砌,提出了相应的施工与管理方法。实践证明,在煤矿施工中采用复合式衬砌可以安全、快速地通过粉砂土层,为类似工程的施工提供了经验。

  17. Spectral Induced Polarization Signatures of Ethanol in Sand-Clay Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) method has previously been investigated as a tool for detecting physicochemical changes occurring as result of clay-organic interactions in porous media. We performed SIP measurements with a dynamic signal analyzer (NI-4551) on laboratory ...

  18. Influence of clay content on wave-induced liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    of measurements were carried out: (1) pore-water pressure measurements across the soil depth and (2) water-surface elevation measurements. These measurements were synchronized with video recordings of the liquefaction process from the side. The ranges of the various quantities in the experiments were wave height......:17 mmwas partially liquefied with CC as small as 2.9%. Remarks are made as to how to check for liquefaction of clayey soils exposed to waves in real-life situations......This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the influence of clay content (CC) on liquefaction of seabed beneath progressive waves. Experiments were, for the most part, conducted with silt and silt-clay mixtures; in supplementary tests, sand-clay mixtures were used. Two types...

  19. Combined heavy mineral and biomarker analysis in silt: a novel approach for provenance studies (Indus Fan, IODP Expedition 355)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andò, Sergio; Bratenkov, Sophia; Hahn, Annette; George, Simon; Clift, Peter D.; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    A high-resolution mineralogical study of Indus Fan turbiditic sediments cored during IODP Expedition 355 (Arabian Sea Monsoon) in the Laxmi Basin was carried out to investigate and quantify the different compositional signatures encoded in the sand, silt, and clay fractions. The turbidite deposits recovered at IODP Sites U1456 and U1457 in sedimentological Unit II were chosen as the best candidate for such a study. The integrated dataset presented here was obtained by coupling traditional and innovative bulk-sediment to single-grain analytical techniques, including bulk petrography, heavy-mineral and biomarker analyses on the same samples. Reliable quantitative results even in the medium to fine silt classes, which represent the dominant sediment sizes encountered in the recovered cores, were obtained by point-counting under the microscope, assisted by Micro-Raman spectroscopy (Andò et al., 2011; 2014). Preliminary data from the studied turbidites document rich and diverse heavy mineral assemblages in both the sand and silty-sand fractions. Heavy-mineral concentrations, as well as the number of mineral species, reach a maximum in sand and tend to decrease with grain size, becoming minimal in the clay fraction. Conversely, the biomarker analysis is generally focused on the finer sediment fractions and clay, where better preservation of biomarker compounds are obtained. The two approaches are thus complementary. Because biomarkers tend to be depleted in sand and heavy minerals in clay, the medium silt fraction represents the most suitable size window for the joint application of these two techniques. Comparing heavy-mineral assemblages with biomarkers allows us to evaluate both continental and marine inputs in turbidites and the hemipelagic deposits of the Indus Fan. This new methodological approach plays a key role in the identification of the effects of climate change on marine depositional environments and helps us to differentiate among the diverse Himalayan

  20. Experimental Research on Lithium Bentonite Clay Sand%锂膨润土粘土砂的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘嘉祺; 孙亚琴; 陈麒忠

    2011-01-01

    对钙-钠膨润土的锂化改性进行了研究,温度、碳酸锂加入量和溶液的pH值是锂化过程的三个重要参数,实验得出了这3个参数合适的取值范围.经XRD和红外光谱的微观分析,当锂离子置换钙离子后,膨润土的晶格间距减小,结构中的水分子减少.实验将两种膨润土作为粘结剂的型砂性能进行了测定,表明锂化改性的膨润土的各项技术指标优于钙-钠膨润土;相应粘土砂的综合性能,前者比后者有较大的提高.%The calcium sodium bentonite of lithium modification was studied, the temperature, dosage of lithium carbonate and lithium solution pH value are three important parameters, their appropriate value was obtained by experiment. Through microscopic analysis of XRD and infrared spectra, when calcium ion is replaced by lithium ion, the lattice spacing of bentonite and the water molecule number in the structure decrease. The performances of molding sands with two kinds of bentonites as sand binders are determined, the all technical indicators of lithium modified bentonite are superior to that of calcium-sodium bentonite; the overall performance of clay sands with the former has a greater improvement than that of with the latter.

  1. Mineralogy and geotechnical characteristics of some pottery clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujib Olamide ADEAGBO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical properties of soils, which are tremendously influenced by the active clay minerals in soil, are of great importance in geotechnical engineering. This paper investigates the clay-sized particles of the Igbara-Odo pottery clay, and compares results obtained with available data on the bulk sample, to determine their correlation and underline the dependence of the geotechnical properties of the bulk clay material on the clay-sized particles. The bulk clay sample consists of 52% sand-size particles, 21% silt and 27% clay. Analysis of the clay-sized particles and the bulk materials shows: specific gravity of 2.07 and 2.66, liquid limit of 91.0% and 33.0%, plastic limit of 27.5% and 14.3%, plasticity index of 63.5% and 18.7% and a linear shrinkage of 7.9% and 5.4%, for both clay-sized particles and bulk clay respectively. The activity value of the clay material (0.64 suggests the presence of Kaolinite and Ilite; and these were confirmed with X-Ray diffraction on the bulk sample and clay-sized particles. X-Ray diffraction patterns shows distinctive peaks which highlight the dominance of Kaolinite (with 8 peaks in the pottery clay sample for both clay-sized particles and bulk material; while traces of other clay minerals like Illite and Halloysite and rock minerals like Mica, Feldspar and Chrysotile were also found. These results suggest that the clay possesses high viability in the manufacturing of ceramics, refractory bricks, paper, fertilizer and paint. The clay material can be used as a subgrade in road construction, since it possesses low swelling characteristics.

  2. 粉砂中筒型基础沉贯过程筒-土作用机理试验研究%Model tests on bucket-soil interaction during installation of bucket foundation in silt sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞; 练继建; 马煜祥; 张杰; 卜同胜

    2015-01-01

    The installation of bucket foundation is a vital construction procedure. The existing relative studies have mainly focused on the methods for calculating the penetration resistance and required suction. However, the understanding of the soil-skirt interaction during the installation is not clear yet due to inadequate test data. Model tests on the installation of bucket foundation are carried out in silt sand. The inner and outer soil pressures on the skirt are measured under both jacking installation and suction installation conditions. The jacking test results show that the inner soil pressures on the skirt are much larger than the outer ones. The compaction extent of the inner sand grows with the increase of the penetration depth, which is contrary to that of the outer sand. The suction test results show that the inner soil pressures decrease dramatically when the suction is applied. The outer soil pressures, however, increase firstly and then fall down to stable values rapidly. The inner friction and tip resistance are greatly reduced due to the seepage effects. The test results also indicate that the existing critical suction is too conservative. Based on the test results, the existing prediction method for the required suction is modified and evaluated, and a more accurate method is obtained.%筒型基础沉贯安装是一项关键施工过程,目前相关研究多集中在沉贯阻力与吸力的计算方法上,而缺乏对沉贯过程筒–土作用机理研究。针对这一问题,开展了粉砂中筒型基础沉贯试验,得到了静压和吸力沉贯工况下筒壁内、外侧所受土压力发展变化规律。静压试验结果表明,筒壁内侧所受土压力远大于外侧,内侧土体挤压程度随下沉深度增加而增大,外侧相反。吸力试验结果表明,施加吸力时内侧土压力减小,外侧土压力先增大后迅速减小至稳定值,吸力产生的渗流可以大大减小端阻力与内侧摩阻力。试验

  3. Effect of substitution of sand stone dust for quartz and clay in triaxial porcelain composition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Haldar; S K Das

    2012-10-01

    Quartz and kaolin were partially substituted by sand stone dust (a siliceous byproduct of Indian stone cutting and polishing industries) in a traditional triaxial porcelain composition consisting of kaolin, quartz and feldsper. The effect of substitution upon heating at different temperatures (1050–1150°C) were studied by measuring the linear shrinkage, bulk density, porosity and flexural strength. Qualititative phase and microstructural analysis on selected samples were carried out using XRD and SEM/EDX technique. The results show that the samples of all the batches achieved higher density (2.50 g/cc) and almost full vitrification (<0.1% apparent porosity) at around 1115°C compared to around 1300°C for traditional triaxial porcelain composition. As high as 70 MPa flexural strength was obtained in most of the vitrified samples. No significant variation in physico-mechanical properties was observed in between the composition. XRD studies on selected samples show presence of mainly quartz phase both at low and high temperatures. SEM photomicrographs of the 1115°C heated specimen show presence of quartz grain and glassy matrix. Few quartz grains (20–40m) are associated with circumferential cracks around them.

  4. Catalysis of gas hydrates by biosurfactants in seawater-saturated sand/clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R. E.; Kothapalli, C.; Lee, M.S. [Mississippi State University, Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, MS (United States); Woolsey, J. R. [University of Mississippi, Centre of Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, MS (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Large gas hydrate mounds have been photographed in the seabed of the Gulf of Mexico and elsewhere. According to industry experts, the carbon trapped within gas hydrates is two or three times greater than all known crude oil, natural gas and coal reserves in the world. Gas hydrates, which are ice-like solids formed from the hydrogen bonding of water as water temperature is lowered under pressure to entrap a suitable molecular-size gas in cavities of the developing crystal structure, are found below the ocean floor to depths exhibiting temperature and pressure combinations within the appropriate limits. The experiments described in this study attempt to ascertain whether biosurfactant byproducts of microbial activity in seabeds could catalyze gas hydrate formation. Samples of five possible biosurfactants classifications were used in the experiments. Results showed that biosurfactants enhanced hydrate formation rate between 96 per cent and 288 percent, and reduced hydrate induction time 20 per cent to 71 per cent relative to the control. The critical micellar concentration of rhamnolipid/seawater solution was found to be 13 ppm at hydrate-forming conditions. On the basis of these results it was concluded that minimal microbial activity in sea floor sands could achieve the threshold concentration of biosurfactant that would greatly promote hydrate formation. 28 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  5. ANALYSIS OF DEFORMED STATE STRUCTURES OF THE KYIV METRO RUNNING TUNNELS ON A TRANSITION ZONE FROM SPONDYLOV’S CLAY TO BUCHATSKIY SANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the section of changes geotechnical conditions of spondylov’s clay to buchatskiy sands may have significant structural deformation of running tunnels. It is necessary to identify the cause of deformities develop ways to minimize and based modeling and calculations to prove the effectiveness of measures to reduce deformation.Methodology. To solve the analysis problem of the stress-strain state (SSS of the system «structure array» it was conducted the numerical simulation using the finite element method (FEM. On the basis of the obtained results the graphs were constructed and the dependencies were determined. Findings. The presence of weak water-saturated soils in tray of the tunnel on an area of transition from spondylov’s clay to buchatskiy sand causes significant increasing in strain construction of tunnels and general vibration liquefaction in soil basis. Also change the physical and mechanical characteristics of soils within the frames of tunnels influences on the level of strain state of most frames. Improved strain state settings of tunnels in areas of change soil characteristics of the array (especially at the bottom of casing can be achieved by chemical consolidation of weak soils. Composition of solutions for fixing the weak soils should be determined based on the study of grain size, porosity, and other parameters of physical and mechanical and physical and chemical characteristics of soils.Originality.The basic cause significant strain on transition zone from spondylov’s clay to buchatskiy sands is found, that is explained by saturated phenomenon vibration liquefaction basis under the tunnel.Practical value.The approaches to reduce the strain in the construction of running tunnels in the transition zone from spondylov’s clay to buchatskiy sands are developed, as well as in the area ofthe station «Glybochytska»the Kyiv Metro.

  6. Silting mutation in triangulated categories

    CERN Document Server

    Aihara, Takuma

    2010-01-01

    In representation theory of algebras the notion of `mutation' often plays important roles, and two cases are well known, i.e. `cluster tilting mutation' and `exceptional mutation'. In this paper we focus on `tilting mutation', which has a disadvantage that it is often impossible, i.e. some of summands of a tilting object can not be replaced to get a new tilting object. The aim of this paper is to take away this disadvantage by introducing `silting mutation' for silting objects as a generalization of `tilting mutation'. We shall develope a basic theory of silting mutation. In particular, we introduce a partial order on the set of silting objects and establish the relationship with `silting mutation' by generalizing the theory of Riedmann-Schofield and Happel-Unger. We show that iterated silting mutation act transitively on the set of silting objects for local, hereditary or canonical algebras. Finally we give a bijection between silting subcategories and certain t-structures.

  7. Evaluation of Sand Dunes Stabilization Techniques in Baiji District, Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This research was conducted at the sand dunes stabilization research station in Baiji district, Iraq. Three techniques for sand dunes stabilization are selected: the first method is stabilization by clayey block barriers; the second method is stabilization by dry planting of tamarix (tamarix articulata)cuttings and the third is stabilization by using cane branch barriers. Randomized samples were taken from the surface and subsurface layers of the stabilized and shifting sand dunes to evaluate the effect of the three techniques on wind erosion parameters. The results indicate high significant differences between the wind erosion parameters in the surface and subsurface layers in the stabilized sand dunes, while there are insignificant differences between the subsurface layer of the stabilized dunes and the surface and subsurface layers in the active sand dunes. The results clarify the fact that there is an increase in the percentage of clay, silt, organic matter, mean weight diameter and the percentage of the dry aggregates (>0. 84 mm). A decrease is found in the rate of disaggregation for the dry aggregates in the samples of the surface layer of stabilized dunes when compared with the subsurface layer of stabilized dunes and the surface layer of the shifting sand dunes. There is a positive high significant correlation among the aggregate stability parameters and the percentage of clay and silt, and the content of organic matter in the studied layers.

  8. Zeolite and clay-mineral induced resistivity in simulated reservoir. [Artificial cores prepared by mixing and compacting clinoptilolite, smectite and illite, with medium-grained quartz sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, W.R.; Williford, C.W. (Mississippi Univ., University, MS (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Clay-minerals dispersed in reservoir sands affect electric log response and register reduced resistivity values. Natural zeolites however, with large microporosities and water content could have a greater affect on resistivity measurements. Resistivity values were measured on a series of artificial cores prepared by mixing and compacting various percentages each of clinoptilolite, smectite and illite, with a medium-grained, moderately sorted quartz sand. Various concentrations of NaCl solution mixed with 39 API crude oil were circulated through each core. Impedance measurements were taken, resistance values segregated, and resistivities determined for each core. Water saturation values were calculated from the empirical resistivity values and porosities using a modified Simandoux equation. These values appeared to be much higher for those cores which contained the zeolite clinoptilolite. Clinoptilolite, when dispersed in a simulated reservoir sand and treated as a dispersed smectite or illite, produced inflated saturation values. This inflation effect is thought to be due to the more extensive microporosity and larger micropore water content of the zeolite. Therefore, from the empirical aspect, resistivity measurements of reservoir sands containing a dispersed zeolite, rather than a clay-mineral, would probably yield misleading water saturation values. 3 figs., 26 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Silt: 2 62 μm, 9 4φ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assallay, A. M.; Rogers, C. D. F.; Smalley, I. J.; Jefferson, I. F.

    1998-11-01

    The particles in finer-grained detrital sediments are usually composed of quartz. They fall into two size grades: sand (2 mm-62 μm) and silt (62 μm-2 μm). These size gradings conceal important geological processes since there are geological controls on both the quartz sand and silt populations. Sand nature is largely controlled by geochemical reactions, for example in cooling granite from which it is eventually released by weathering action. The quartz is among the last part of the rock system to solidify and the eutectic-like reaction which occurs ensures that the quartz exists as small crystalline units, each suffering considerable cooling and recrystallisation stresses. Silt is broken quartz, and has traditionally been considered to lack a specific geological control. The situation is confused by the large range of materials that fall into the size category, but there do seem to be distinguishable modes and possibly comminution limits within the 60 μm span. The controls operating in this size range are probably the critical concentration of `Moss' defects in the quartz particles. Moss postulated the formation of specific crystal defects in the quartz formed in granites. These affect sand formation and it is possible that they also control the mode size of silt particles. Within the silt range there may be several usefully definable populations, as Moss proposed for sand. The Quaternary appears to be a silt-rich period due to tectonic and glacial activity, but silt production is apparent throughout the sedimentary record. Very long-term silt producing processes are required. To produce silt in nature, on a large scale, very energetic processes are required. Many processes that are believed to generate silt particles have been listed. However, large-scale production is essentially due to glacial grinding, or to intense weathering processes in high, cold, tectonically active mountain regions. The region of High Asia (of crustal overlap) is a major generator of

  10. Evaluation of Turf-Grass and Prairie-Vegetated Rain Gardens in a Clay and Sand Soil, Madison, Wisconsin, Water Years 2004-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbig, William R.; Balster, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with a consortium of 19 cities, towns, and villages in Dane County, Wis., undertook a study to compare the capability of rain gardens with different vegetative species and soil types to infiltrate stormwater runoff from the roof of an adjacent structure. Two rain gardens, one planted with turf grass and the other with native prairie species, were constructed side-by-side in 2003 at two locations with different dominant soil types, either sand or clay. Each rain garden was sized to a ratio of approximately 5:1 contributing area to receiving area and to a depth of 0.5 foot. Each rain garden, regardless of vegetation or soil type, was capable of storing and infiltrating most of the runoff over the 5-year study period. Both rain gardens in sand, as well as the prairie rain garden in clay, retained and infiltrated 100 percent of all precipitation and snowmelt events during water years 2004-07. The turf rain garden in clay occasionally had runoff exceed its confining boundaries, but was still able to retain 96 percent of all precipitation and snowmelt events during the same time period. Precipitation intensity and number of antecedent dry days were important variables that influenced when the storage capacity of underlying soils would become saturated, which resulted in pooled water in the rain gardens. Because the rooftop area that drained runoff to each rain garden was approximately five times larger than the area of the rain garden itself, evapotranspiration was a small percentage of the annual water budget. For example, during water year 2005, the maximum evapotranspiration of total influent volume ranged from 21 percent for the turf rain garden in clay to 25 percent for the turf rain garden in sand, and the minimum ranged from 12 percent for the prairie rain garden in clay to 19 percent for the prairie rain garden in sand. Little to no runoff left each rain garden as effluent and a small percentage of runoff returned to the

  11. Geotechnical variability of permafrozen glaciomarine clays in Sdr. Strømfjord in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Belmonte, Louise Josefine

    2014-01-01

    This contribution presents the geotechnical properties of some permafrozen glaciomarine clays near to the Kangerlussuaq Airport at Sdr. Strømfjord in West Greenland.This fjord system was established by glacial erosion into the bedrock consisting of Nagssugtoqidian banded gneisses with amphibolitic...... y BC) 5 km east of the Airport. Subformations found are; glaciomarine clay deposited in a coastal environment as very fine flocculated suspended matter ("rock flour"), deltaic sediments of silt and finesand and meltwater gravel and sand carried by the meltwater rivers. This sedimentation is still on...

  12. Distinction between sortable silts and aggregated particles in muddy intertidal sediments of the East Frisian Wadden Sea, southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tae Soo; Flemming, Burghard W.; Bartholomä, Alexander

    2007-12-01

    In muddy sediments, the distinction between sortable silt and aggregated silty clay is important for the understanding of fine particle dynamics because both have different hydraulic properties. The Wadden Sea of the southern North Sea is severely depleted in fine-grained sediments mainly due to high energy levels along the diked coastline. As a result, muddy sediments are restricted to a narrow belt along the diked mainland shore. In the present study, the mechanism by which this mud is deposited and how floc deposition and break-up are reflected in the size distribution, has been investigated. For this purpose, surficial sediments from four intertidal nearshore transects were monitored and repeatedly sampled in the course of two years. High-resolution grain-size analyses were performed by an automated settling tube and a Sedigraph particle analyser for the sand and mud fractions, respectively. The grain size frequency distributions of the fine fractions demonstrate that the Wadden Sea muds are composed of two subpopulations, a well-sorted coarse silt and an unsorted silty clay population. A depletion of grain size around 8 μm (7 phi) demarcates the grain-size boundary between the two populations, suggesting that the finer mud population (changing energy regimes lead to apparent seasonal sedimentation patterns in the back-barrier tidal basins. Furthermore, in the course of sample preparation, the flocs and aggregates are broken down into their constituent particles. This mechanical artefact in the size distributions produces an artificial seasonal fining/coarsening pattern. It was found that the comparison of clay/silt and effect of climate change further promotes depletion of fine-grained sediments in the basin.

  13. Predicting soil particle density from clay and soil organic matter contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; McBride, R.A.; Keller, T.

    2017-01-01

    Soil particle density (Dp) is an important soil property for calculating soil porosity expressions. However, many studies assume a constant value, typically 2.65Mgm−3 for arable, mineral soils. Fewmodels exist for the prediction of Dp from soil organic matter (SOM) content. We hypothesized...... of clay particles was approximately 2.86 Mg m−3, while that of sand+silt particles could be estimated to ~2.65 Mgm−3. Multiple linear regression showed that a combination of clay and SOMcontents could explain nearly 92% of the variation in measured Dp. The clay and SOMprediction equation was validated...... against a combined data set with 227 soil samples representing A, B, and C horizons from temperate North America and Europe. The new prediction equation performed better than two SOM-based models from the literature. Validation of the new clay and SOM model using the 227 soil samples gave a root mean...

  14. A size control for quartz silt (making particulates at planetary surfaces)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Ian; Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2011-03-01

    Quartz silt is widespread in terrestrial sediments [1]. Its ubiquity has led to its neglect as a geomaterial, and studies of silt as such are relatively rare, but it presents an interesting and continuing petrological problem. Is silt a specific geological material, is it defined by a formation process, and a set of size parameters? In the world of clastic quartz sedimentology there are obvious mode sizes; there is a sand mode at around 300-500 μm and a silt mode, an order of magnitude smaller, at 30-50 μm. Are these both defined by specific geological processes?

  15. Field model tests on effective dewateringtechnology of geotextile tube filled by soil with high clay (silt) particle content%高含黏(粉)粒土料充填管袋高效脱水工艺现场模型试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海民; 束一鸣; 常广品; 刘云锋; 刘欣欣; 顾克

    2016-01-01

    针对高含黏(粉)粒土料充填管袋脱水固结速率慢,无法满足一天一层管袋施工要求的问题,通过现场大型充填管袋脱水模型试验来验证前期室内试验研究提出的放水排泥、充排结合的快速脱水施工方法。通过现场实时监测管袋充填施工及脱水过程中不同部位土体的孔隙水压力、固结度、含水率、级配和干密度等指标的变化情况,对比分析了不同施工方法的优劣,验证了室内试验提出的高含黏(粉)粒土料充填管袋坝高效脱水施工工艺的可行性和实际效果。%The dewatering velocity of geotextile tubes filled by soil with high clay (silt) particle content is very slow. That cannot meet the requirements of construction speed that a layer of geotextile tubes must be completely filled and preliminary solidified within one day. Several large-scale field model tests are conducted to verify the previously proposed construction methods, which combines actively discharging muddy water with the alternately filling and discharging methods. The indexes including pore water pressure, consolidation degree, water content, particle gradation and dry density of the filled soil in different positions within the geotextile tubes are real-time monitored during the whole filling and discharging process. Through the monitoring data, the comprehensive dewatering velocities of different construction methods are comparatively analyzed. The results have verified the feasibility and actual effect of the proposed dewatering method for high clay (silt) particle-content soil-filled geotextile tubes.

  16. Silting mutation for self-injective algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Aihara, Takuma

    2010-01-01

    We study `silting mutaion' for self-injective algebras. In particular we focus on `tilting mutation' and show that iterated irreducible `silting mutation' transitively act on the set of silting objects for representation-finite symmetric algebras. Moreover we give some sufficient conditions for `Bongartz-type Lemma' on silting objects.

  17. The influence of clay type on reduction of water repellency by applied clays: a review of some West Australian work

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKissock, I.; Walker, E. L.; Gilkes, R. J.; Carter, D. J.

    2000-05-01

    In Western Australia water repellency mostly occurs in soils with sandy texture; the severity of water repellency is influenced by very small changes in clay content. Additions of 1-2% clay can prevent water repellency and for some time clay amendments have been used by farmers to overcome water repellency. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of clays in ameliorating water repellency. Clays were assessed for effectiveness in reducing water repellency by mixing with water repellent sands and measuring water drop penetration time (WDPT) on the resultant mixtures. WDPT was measured on the initial mixtures, a wetting and drying cycle was imposed and WDPT measured again. Two sets of clays were assessed: four simple clays containing kaolinite (2) or smectite (2) group minerals and a group of clayey subsoil materials which had been collected by farmers. For the simple clays, clay mineral type was the most significant factor in determining response. Kaolin was much more effective than smectite. Imposition of a wetting and drying cycle greatly reduced water repellency. The dominant exchangeable cation of the clays (sodium or calcium) had little effect on the ability of the clays to reduce water repellency. The factor that was most predictive of the effectiveness of clayey subsoils materials in reducing water repellency was texture: clay content ( r2=0.18) or clay+silt content ( r2=0.23). These properties were more predictive of water repellency values after the wetting and drying cycle treatment ( r2=0.36, r2=0.44). The proportion of the clay fraction that consisted of kaolinite was next most predictive in determining effectiveness which is again indicative of kaolin group minerals being more effective than smectite group minerals. The exchangeable sodium percentage and clay dispersibility had no systematic effect on the ability of these clays to reduce water repellency. These results provide a basis for developing a practical field procedure to enable

  18. Anatomy of a shoreface sand ridge revisited using foraminifera: False Cape Shoals, Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M.M.; McBride, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Certain details regarding the origin and evolution of shelf sand ridges remain elusive. Knowledge of their internal stratigraphy and microfossil distribution is necessary to define the origin and to determine the processes that modify sand ridges. Fourteen vibracores from False Cape Shoal A, a well-developed shoreface-attached sand ridge on the Virginia/North Carolina inner continental shelf, were examined to document the internal stratigraphy and benthic foraminiferal assemblages, as well as to reconstruct the depositional environments recorded in down-core sediments. Seven sedimentary and foraminiferal facies correspond to the following stratigraphic units: fossiliferous silt, barren sand, clay to sandy clay, laminated and bioturbated sand, poorly sorted massive sand, fine clean sand, and poorly sorted clay to gravel. The units represent a Pleistocene estuary and shoreface, a Holocene estuary, ebb tidal delta, modern shelf, modern shoreface, and swale fill, respectively. The succession of depositional environments reflects a Pleistocene sea-level highstand and subsequent regression followed by the Holocene transgression in which barrier island/spit systems formed along the Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf ???5.2 ka and migrated landward and an ebb tidal delta that was deposited, reworked, and covered by shelf sand.

  19. Anatomy of a shoreface sand ridge revisted using foraminifera: False Cape Shoals, Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Marci M.; McBride, Randolph A.

    2008-01-01

    Certain details regarding the origin and evolution of shelf sand ridges remain elusive. Knowledge of their internal stratigraphy and microfossil distribution is necessary to define the origin and to determine the processes that modify sand ridges. Fourteen vibracores from False Cape Shoal A, a well-developed shoreface-attached sand ridge on the Virginia/North Carolina inner continental shelf, were examined to document the internal stratigraphy and benthic foraminiferal assemblages, as well as to reconstruct the depositional environments recorded in down-core sediments. Seven sedimentary and foraminiferal facies correspond to the following stratigraphic units: fossiliferous silt, barren sand, clay to sandy clay, laminated and bioturbated sand, poorly sorted massive sand, fine clean sand, and poorly sorted clay to gravel. The units represent a Pleistocene estuary and shoreface, a Holocene estuary, ebb tidal delta, modern shelf, modern shoreface, and swale fill, respectively. The succession of depositional environments reflects a Pleistocene sea-level highstand and subsequent regression followed by the Holocene transgression in which barrier island/spit systems formed along the Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf not, vert, ~5.2 ka and migrated landward and an ebb tidal delta that was deposited, reworked, and covered by shelf sand.

  20. Small proportions of silt linked to distinct and predictable differences in marine macrofaunal assemblages on the continental shelf of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, S. K.; Politano, K. K.

    2017-07-01

    Increasing interest in offshore development has motivated intensified efforts to map the seafloor for marine spatial planning. However, surficial geologic maps do not accurately represent habitats for various species groups of concern. This study used a bottom-up approach to integrate macrofaunal densities and benthic conditions on the Pacific Northwest shelf to identify macrofaunal assemblages and associated habitat features. Benthic cores and water-column profiles were collected from 137 stations from 50 to 110 m depth. Analyses grouping stations based on both similar species abundances and benthic conditions resulted in six broad habitats. Within the sampled depth and latitudinal range, sediment characteristics were the primary structuring variable. A major break in assemblages was detected between sediment that had less than 1% silt/clay and those containing more than 1% silt/clay. Assemblages differed primarily in the bivalve species present and secondarily in polychaete species. Within the greater than and less than 1% silt/clay habitats, further discretization of assemblages was based mostly on differing abundances of characteristic bivalves and polychaetes associated with differing median grain sizes, which did not correspond to traditional definitions of fine or medium sand. These data show that a bottom-up methodology is necessary to discern habitats for macrofauna and that site-specific physical sampling is necessary to predict macrofaunal assemblage composition. However, if detailed sediment characteristics are known, macrofaunal assemblages may be predicted without time-intensive biological sampling and processing. These results also indicate that seemingly small sedimentary changes due to offshore installations may have measureable effects on the relative abundances and even the species composition of macrofauna.

  1. 基于BP算法的利用高含沙洪水淤地后土壤养分含量研究%RESEARCH ON CONTENT OF SOIL COMPONENT USING FLOOD WITH HIGH SAND AFTER SILTING ON BASE OF BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于庆峰; 姬宝霖; 敖永贵

    2011-01-01

    利用线性回归、逐步多元回归两种方法建立的淤地后土壤养分含量与颗粒组成之间的数学模型,可以根据土壤颗粒组成快速估计土壤中各养分的含量,但误差比较大,在21.80%~11.38%之间.为了能进一步提高预测精度,利用人工智能技术建立淤地后土壤养分含量与颗粒组成之间的人工神经网络模型.结果表明,建立的BP、BPX、LMBP网络模型能够通过土壤颗粒快速预测土壤养分含量,且有很好精度,可以判定土壤养分丰缺程度,为施肥提出指导意见,从而促进利用高含沙洪水治沙淤地的应用发展.%Through leading the flood with high sand into the basin of the desert for silting up many times, when alluvium thickness exceed plow, the desert can becomes the high quantity farmland. It sample the 0 ~ 100cm section of wind - blown soil and new silt land and silted tilt in the flood irrigation area of Gongwusu, Erdos,Inner Mongolia, and menstruated the soil nutrient content and grain size constitute, in order to Analysis of the establishment of the artificial neural network model. The results show that BP,BPX,LMBP model to predict soil nutrient content, Forecast for up to a certain precision. Using this model can determine the soil nutrient rich and the lack of degree and provide guidance for fertilization. So as to promote the development of engineering application.

  2. Glowing clay: Real time tracing using a suite of novel clay based fluorescent tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Robert; Quinton, John; Pates, Jackie; Coogan, Mike

    2015-04-01

    Clay is one of the most mobile fractions of soil due to its small particle size. It is also known to sorb many chemicals, such as nutrients (notably phosphorus), agrochemicals and heavy metals. The movement of clay is therefore linked with the transport and fate of these substances. A novel fluorescent clay tracing suite has been produced, together with an imaging technique. This suite consists of qualitative clay tracers, using rhodamine based fluorophores, and quantitative clay tracers, using metal based fluorophores. Efforts have also been made to allow integration of commercially available tracers, which are silt and sand sized. The clay tracers exploit the high affinity that montmorillonite has for Rhodamine B and Ru(bpy)3. This allows for an extremely thin layer of the fluorophore to be sorbed onto the clay's surface, in much that same way as materials in the natural environment will bind to clay. The tracer that is produced retains key chemical and physical properties of clay, such as size, shape and density. The retention of these micro-properties results in the retention of macro-properties, such as tendency to aggregate and cracking on drying. Imaging techniques have been developed to analyse these tracers. The imaging system uses diffused laser light to excite the tracer and a modified DSLR camera to image the soil surface. The images have been compiled into a time lapse video showing the movement of clay over the course of a rainfall event. This is the first time that the quantitative movement of clay has been recorded over a soil surface in real time. 4D data can be extracted from the images allowing the spatial location and intensity of tracer to be monitored over time, with mm precision and on the timescale of seconds. As the system can also work with a commercial tracer it is possible to investigate the movement of particles of almost any size and over a range of scales from soil box to hillside. This allows users to access this technique without

  3. Effects of Clay Content of Sand on Workability and Compressive Strength of Concrete%砂石含泥量对混凝土工作性及抗压强度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红霞; 韩晓虎

    2015-01-01

    砂石是现代建筑中不可缺少的材料之一,含泥量是混凝土用砂石骨料质量标准中一项重要的指标,含泥量高可能引起需水量的增加,使混凝土拌合物的工作性及混凝土强度受到影响。但目前关于骨料含泥量在混凝土中的影响,尚无系统的试验和足够的数据证明。本文通过不同含泥量的砂、石配制混凝土进行试验研究,总结其对混凝土性能的影响规律,为配制合理等级的混凝土提供试验数据和理论依据。%The sand is one of the materials indispensable to modern architecture, and the clay content is an important indicator of the concrete mixing sand gravel aggregate. High clay content may cause the increase in water demand, which affects the workability of concrete mixture and the strength of concrete. But the impact of clay content of aggregate on the concrete can not yet be proved by systematic test and enough data. This paper conducted test and study of different clay content of sand and stone concrete, summarized their impact law on concrete performance, to provide experimental data and theoretical basis for the preparation of concrete with reasonable level.

  4. Mineralogia, química e estabilidade de agregados do tamanho de silte de solos da Região Sudeste do Brasil Mineralogy, chemistry and stability of silt-size aggregates of soils from the Southeast Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Tadeu Vitorino

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a relação da composição mineralógica e química do solo com a estabilidade de agregados do tamanho de silte, foram realizados estudos utilizando-se amostras de horizontes A e B de diversos solos da Região Sudeste do Brasil. Amostras de TFSA foram dispersas a 12.000 rpm por 20 minutos e a fração silte foi separada por esgotamento da fração argila, constituindo-se na fração denominada pseudo-silte, a qual foi sonificada, separando-se a fração argila desagregada (por sifonamento da fração silte propriamente dita. Estudos de correlação mostraram que as composições mineralógica e química dos solos têm efeito marcante na dispersão de argila, com reflexos na fração silte. Maiores teores de gibbsita refletem em maior estabilidade dos agregados do tamanho de silte ao passo que a caulinita proporciona efeito inverso. As formas de Al determinadas na fração pseudo-silte estão associadas à maior dificuldade de dispersão da fração argila dos solos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship of soil mineralogical and chemical composition with stability of silt-size aggregates. The studies were carried out using samples of A and B horizons of some soils from the Southeast Region of Brazil. Fine-earth samples were dispersed at 12,000 rpm during 20 minutes and the silt fraction was separated through clay fraction drain, constituting the fraction named pseudo-silt, which was sonificated, separating the desegregated clay fraction (by sonication from the properly named silt fraction. Correlation analyses showed that the soil mineralogical and chemical compositions have marked influence upon clay dispersion, with reflections on the silt fraction. Higher amounts of gibbsite reflect in higher stability of silt-size aggregates, while the kaolinite promotes inverse effect. The Al forms determined on the pseudo-silt fraction are associated with higher difficult of dispersion of clay fraction of

  5. Experimental study of subaqueous, clay-rich, gravity flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, J.; Pratson, L.

    2003-04-01

    Recent laboratory experiments suggest a broad spectrum of flow and depositional behavior for compositionally varied subaqueous gravity flows. Dilute turbidity currents and cohesive debris flows are the end members of the spectrum. In this study we used geometrically scaled laboratory experiments to examine the flow dynamics and deposits associated with slurries of varying sediment composition. Slurries were composed of a mixture of tap water, kaolinite clay, 45 micron silt and 120 micron sand and were introduced into a 0.2m wide submerged channel. Slurry sediment concentrations ranged from 1-30% by volume. In all slurries, sediment was added in a ratio of 8:1:1 by volume of clay, silt, sand. A total volume of one cubic meter of slurry was used for each experiment and was introduced through a constant head tank allowing examination of sustained and steady gravity flow events lasting up to 5 minutes in duration. The dynamics of the flows (turbulence, hydroplaning, laminar shearing, etc.) were examined through the use of digital video cameras, dye injection tracking, high frequency sonar and visual observation. Vertical suspended sediment concentration and vertical grain size distributions were measured for each run from samples collected from siphon rakes. Deposit thicknesses and grain size distributions were measured from sediment samples taken from flow deposits. Rheological measurements and Atterberg limits of the slurries were made in an effort to link flow and depositional characteristics to bulk properties of the slurry mixture. The experiments show a clear linkage between the initial compositions of the slurries, their rheological properties, flow dynamics and deposits. Slurries with clay concentrations below 10% by volume appeared to be very turbulent. The silt and sand deposited during these events were transported along the bed as ripples. Flows between 10-20% sediment by volume appeared to be hybrid flows having both turbulent and non-turbulent elements

  6. Laboratory studies of dune sand for the use of construction industry in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva Jayawardena, Upali; Wijesuriya, Roshan; Abayaweera, Gayan; Viduranga, Tharaka

    2015-04-01

    With the increase of the annual sand demand for the construction industry the excessive excavation of river sand is becoming a serious environmental problem in Sri Lanka. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the possibility for an alternative to stop or at least to minimize river sand mining activities. Dune sand is one of the available alternative materials to be considered instead of river sand in the country. Large quantities of sand dunes occur mainly along the NW and SE coastal belt which belong to very low rainfall Dry Zone coasts. The height of dune deposits, vary from 1m to about 30 meters above sea level. The objective of this paper is to indicate some studies and facts on the dune sand deposits of Sri Lanka. Laboratory studies were carried out for visual observations and physical properties at the initial stage and then a number of tests were carried out according to ASTM standards to obtain the compressive strength of concrete cylinders and mortar cubes mixing dune sand and river sand in different percentages keeping a constant water cement ratio. Next the water cement ratio was changed for constant dune sand and river sand proportion. Microscopic analysis shows that the dune sand consist of 95 % of quartz and 5 % of garnet, feldspar, illmenite and other heavy minerals with clay, fine dust, fine shell fragments and organic matters. Grains are sub-rounded to angular and tabular shapes. The grain sizes vary from fine to medium size of sand with silt. The degree of sorting and particle size observed with dune sands are more suited with the requirement of fine aggregates in the construction industry. The test result indicates that dune sand could be effectively used in construction work without sieving and it is ideal for wall plastering due to its'-uniformity. It could also be effectively used in concrete and in mortars mixing with river sand. The best mixing ratio is 75% dune sand and 25% river sand as the fine aggregate of concrete. For mortar the mixing

  7. Soil Water Repellency of Sands and Clay as Affected by Particle Size%砂土和黏土的颗粒差异对土壤斥水性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨松; 吴珺华; 董红艳; 张燕明

    2016-01-01

    斥水性土壤广泛存在于自然界中,并且对土壤环境和作物生长等有重要影响。建立理想化的土壤颗粒模型对砂土和黏土的斥水特性进行计算分析。结果表明:当接触角很小时,砂土中不存在斥水现象。随着接触角的增大,砂土斥水性与含水率密切相关,砂土的密实度对其斥水性也有重要影响,当砂土比较密实时,土壤的“亲水”与“斥水”特性对含水率特别敏感,随着含水率的变化,砂土可能由亲水性较好的土壤转变为斥水性土壤;当砂土比较松散时,土壤颗粒的斥水性对含水率并不敏感。当黏土接触角略小于90°且湿润半径b也较小时,黏土也存在斥水现象。如果黏土颗粒的接触角较小或接触角小于90°且湿润半径b较大,黏土总是亲水的。黏土含水率较大时,斥水特性由土壤颗粒的接触角决定。%Water-repellent soils,existing widely in nature,have some important effects on soil environment and crop growth. In order to analyze water repellency of sand and clay,models of sand and clay different in particle size were built. Results showed that no phenomenon of water repellency was found in sand soil when the contact angle of water with sand was small. Water repellency of sand soil was closely related to soil water content when the sand-water contact angle was big. Compactness of the soil was another important factor affecting soil water repellency. When the sand soil was highly compacted,whether the soil was hydrophilic or hydrophobic was very sensitive to water content,and it might switch from one state to another with changing soil water content. When the sand soil was quite loose,it was no longer sensitive to soil water content. In clay soil with soil-water contact angle being slightly less than 90°and wetting radius b being small,the phenomenon of water repellency was observed. But when the clay soil was much smaller than 90°in soil-water and

  8. Characterization of groundwater dynamics in landslides in varved clays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Spek, J.E.; Bogaard, T.A.; Bakker, M.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater dynamics may play a significant role in landslides. A detailed model is developed of the groundwater dynamics in landslides in varved clays in the Trièves area in the French Alps. The varved clays consist of a sequence of alternating silt and clay layers, covered by a colluvium layer and

  9. Characterization of groundwater dynamics in landslides in varved clays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Spek, J.E.; Bogaard, T.A.; Bakker, M.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater dynamics may play a significant role in landslides. A detailed model is developed of the groundwater dynamics in landslides in varved clays in the Trieves area in the French Alps. The varved clays consist of a sequence of alternating silt and clay layers, covered by a colluvium layer and

  10. Distribution of clay minerals in marine sediments off Chennai, Bay of Bengal, India:Indicators of sediment sources and transport processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramanian VEERASINGAM; Ramdoss VENKATACHALAPATHY; Thirunavukkarasu RAMKUMAR

    2014-01-01

    Clay mineralogy, texture size and statistical analyses were carried out on surface sediments from the continental shelf of Chennai, Bay of Bengal, India. The purpose of this study is to characterize the clay mineral distribution and its relation to the hydrodynamics off Chennai to identify the sources and transport pathways of the marine sediments. Characterization of clay minerals in coastal sediments by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has provided the association of quartz, feldspar, kaolinite, chlorite, illite and iron oxides (magnetite and hematite) derived from river catchments and coastal erosion. Kaolinite, chlorite, illite, iron oxides, and organic matter are the dominant minerals in Cooum, and Adayar region. High quartz and feldspar zones were identified in Marina, which are being confined the sand zone and paralleling the coast. The strong relationships among the wave energy density, sand, quartz and carbonate revealed that wave induced littoral drift system play a dominant role in transportation and deposition of sediments in the Chennai coast. The sediment texture and minerals data are in agreement well with the previous results of hydrodynamics and littoral drift models in this region. Multivariate statistical analyses (correlation, cluster and factor analyses) were carried out and obtained results suggested that clay minerals and organic matter are trapped in silt and clay particles, whereas quartz, feldspar and carbonate are associated with sand particles. Results of sediment sources and transport processes from this study will be useful to predict the fate of the pollutants released from land or the potential change in sediment delivery to coastal areas.

  11. Sand resources, regional geology, and coastal processes for shoreline restoration: case study of Barataria shoreline, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindinger, Jack G.; Flocks, James G.; Kulp, Mark; Penland, Shea; Britsch, Louis D.

    2002-01-01

    The Louisiana barrier shoreline of Barataria Basin, which lies within the western Mississippi River delta, has undergone significant retreat during the past 100 years. The most practical restoration method to rebuild these shorelines is sand nourishment. Seismic and sonar interpretations verified with geologic samples (vibracores and borings) indicate that there are nine sand targets within the Barataria study area that meet or exceed the minimum criteria for potential resource sites. However, the near surface lithology in the basin is typically silts and clays. Locating suitable sand resources for shoreline restoration is challenging. The sand units are associated with geologic depositional systems such as ebb-tidal deltas, distributary mouth bars, and channel fill (undifferentiated fluvial or tidal inlet channels). The nine potential sand targets consist primarily of fine sand and can be delineated into three surficial and six buried features. The surficial features contain approximately 10% of the total sand resources identified. At least 90% of the sand resources need overburden sediment removed prior to use; almost 570 million yd3 (438.5 mil m3) of overburden will need to be removed if the entire resource is mined. In this study, we identified 396 to 532 mil yd3 (305.8 to 410.8 mil m3) of potential sand deposits for shoreline restoration. Previous studies using less dense survey methods greatly over-estimated sand resources available in this area. Many fluvial channels reported previously as sand-filled are mud-filled. Contrary to these previous studies, few fluvial subsystems in this region have abundant sand resources.

  12. Deposit model for heavy-mineral sands in coastal environments: Chapter L in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Fey, David L.; Shah, Anjana K.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Hoefen, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive model of heavy-mineral sands, which are sedimentary deposits of dense minerals that accumulate with sand, silt, and clay in coastal environments, locally forming economic concentrations of the heavy minerals. This deposit type is the main source of titanium feedstock for the titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments industry, through recovery of the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2), and leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). Heavy-mineral sands are also the principal source of zircon (ZrSiO4) and its zirconium oxide; zircon is often recovered as a coproduct. Other heavy minerals produced as coproducts from some deposits are sillimanite/kyanite, staurolite, monazite, and garnet. Monazite [(Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4] is a source of rare earth elements as well as thorium, which is used in thorium-based nuclear power under development in India and elsewhere.

  13. Soil restoration research advances of artificial sand-binding vegetation ecosystem in the Tengger Desert, Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Soil plays an important role in desert ecosystem, and is vital in constructing a steady desert ecosystem. The management and restoration of desertified land have been the focus of much discussion. The soil in Shapotou desert region has developed remarkably since artificial sand-binding vegetation established in 1946. The longer the period of dune stabilization, the greater the thickness of microbiotic crusts and subsoil. Meanwhile, proportion of silt and clay increased significantly, and soil bulk density declinced. The content of soil organic matter, N, P, and K similarly increased. Therefore, soil has developed from aeolian sand soil to Calcic-Orthic aridisols. This paper discusses the effects brought about by dust, microbiotic soil crust and soil microbes on soil-forming process. Then, we analyzed the relation between soil formation and sand-binding vegetation evolution, in order to provide a baseline for both research on desert ecosystem recovery and ecological environment governance in arid and semi-arid areas.

  14. Analysis of the Importance of Oxides and Clays in Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn Adsorption and Retention with Regression Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Costa, Juan José; Reigosa, Manuel Joaquín; Matías, José María; Fernández-Covelo, Emma

    2017-01-01

    This study determines the influence of the different soil components and of the cation-exchange capacity on the adsorption and retention of different heavy metals: cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc. In order to do so, regression models were created through decision trees and the importance of soil components was assessed. Used variables were: humified organic matter, specific cation-exchange capacity, percentages of sand and silt, proportions of Mn, Fe and Al oxides and hematite, and the proportion of quartz, plagioclase and mica, and the proportions of the different clays: kaolinite, vermiculite, gibbsite and chlorite. The most important components in the obtained models were vermiculite and gibbsite, especially for the adsorption of cadmium and zinc, while clays were less relevant. Oxides are less important than clays, especially for the adsorption of chromium and lead and the retention of chromium, copper and lead. PMID:28072849

  15. Analysis of the Importance of Oxides and Clays in Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn Adsorption and Retention with Regression Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Costa, Juan José; Reigosa, Manuel Joaquín; Matías, José María; Fernández-Covelo, Emma

    2017-01-01

    This study determines the influence of the different soil components and of the cation-exchange capacity on the adsorption and retention of different heavy metals: cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc. In order to do so, regression models were created through decision trees and the importance of soil components was assessed. Used variables were: humified organic matter, specific cation-exchange capacity, percentages of sand and silt, proportions of Mn, Fe and Al oxides and hematite, and the proportion of quartz, plagioclase and mica, and the proportions of the different clays: kaolinite, vermiculite, gibbsite and chlorite. The most important components in the obtained models were vermiculite and gibbsite, especially for the adsorption of cadmium and zinc, while clays were less relevant. Oxides are less important than clays, especially for the adsorption of chromium and lead and the retention of chromium, copper and lead.

  16. Comparaison de diverses méthodes de dosage des argiles d'un sable de gisement. Dosage des argiles Comparison of Different Methods of Determining Clays in a Reservoir Sand. Quantitative Analysis of Clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvon J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les argiles d'un sable de gisement, concentrées dans la fraction de diamètre Phi Oil, gas and geothermal reservoirs all contain clayey fractions no matter how small they may be. This has been blamed whenever operating or producing problems arise. It may be revealed by phenomena of mechanical resistance, permeability or interfacial properties (ion exchange, adsorption, etc. . Tests to understand such phenomena then go via the quantitative mineralogical analysis of the clays present. This analysis must also be looked at in terms of methods. It is subjected to constraints of cost, instrumentation, competence or deadlines. This article proposes:(a A so-called conventional route (Dejou et al, 1977 based on chemical and weighted analyses. (b An overall assessment method of the clay phase by difference (determination of two nonclay species. (c A method based on the statistical processing of microanalytic data obtained by an electronic microprobe. The material examined was a quartzose arenite made up mainly of quartz, jarosite, orthoclase, plagioclases, calcite, dolomite, muscovite, kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, interstratified illite-montmorillionite, iron oxyhydroxides and accessory minerals such as rutile, zircon, garnet, tourmaline and hydroxylapatite. The arenite was subjected to an ultrasonic treatment (Letelier, 1986 to recover pellicular or weakly cemented clays. After this treatment, all the free clays were found in the < 40 m fraction which were used for the measurements. The so-called conventionalmethod is based on the associating of multiple techniques that are normally used for analyzing clays. They include X-ray diffraction, TDA, TGA, selective dissolution, CEC, adsorption of various reagents and gravimetric separations. They have been reviewed by Dejou et al (1977. The results they give depend on the grain size, chrystallochemistry, presence of amorphous elements and especially the typical chemical compositions assigned to the

  17. Ball clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article reports on the global market performance of ball clay in 2009 and presents an outlook for its 2010 performance. Several companies mined ball call in the country including Old Hickey Clay Co., Kentucky-Tennessee Clay Co., and H.C. Spinks Clay Co. Information on the decline in ball clay imports and exports is also presented.

  18. Ball clay and bentonite deposits of the central and western Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosterman, John W.

    1984-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain produces approximately 85 percent of the ball clay used in the United States. The best commercial-grade clay deposits are composed of poorly crystalline kaolinite and small amounts of Md illite and (or) smectite. Sand and silt and iron oxide minerals are virtually absent, but quartz is present in the clay-size fraction. The best grade ball clays are found as lenses limited to the Wilcox Group (Paleocene and lower Eocene) and Claiborne Group (middle Eocene). Reserves of ball clay are sufficient for the present, but because of the lenticular nature of the clay bodies, close-spaced drilling, detailed sampling, mineralogic analyses, and ceramic testing are needed to prove future reserves.Approximately 11 percent of the total bentonite produced in the United States comes from the Gulf Coast region. The commercial-grade bentonites are composed primarily of smectite with little or no Md illite and kaolinite. The nonclay impurities are quartz, feldspar, muscovite, biotite, calcite, dolomite, gypsum, and heulandite. Commercial bentonites occur in the Upper Cretaceous formations in Alabama and Mississippi, in Paleocene formations in Mississippi and Tennessee, and in Eocene and Miocene formations in Texas. The demand for low-swelling bentonite of the Gulf Coastal Plain has not increased along with the demand for swelling bentonite; therefore the reserves are adequate.

  19. [Analysis of XRD spectral characteristics of soil clay mineral in two typical cultivated soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Luo, Xiang-Li; Jiang, Hai-Chao; Li, Qiao; Shen, Cong-Ying; Liu, Hang; Zhou, Ya-Juan; Zhao, Lan-Po; Wang, Ji-Hong

    2014-07-01

    The present paper took black soil and chernozem, the typical cultivated soil in major grain producing area of Northeast, as the study object, and determinated the soil particle composition characteristics of two cultivated soils under the same climate and location. Then XRD was used to study the composition and difference of clay mineral in two kinds of soil and the evolutionary mechanism was explored. The results showed that the two kinds of soil particles were composed mainly of the sand, followed by clay and silt. When the particle accumulation rate reached 50%, the central particle size was in the 15-130 microm interval. Except for black soil profile of Shengli Xiang, the content of clay showed converse sequence to the central particle in two soils. Clay accumulated under upper layer (18.82%) in black soil profile while under caliche layer (17.41%) in chernozem profile. Clay content was the least in parent material horizon except in black profile of Quanyanling. Analysis of clay XRD atlas showed that the difference lied in not only the strength of diffraction peak, but also in the mineral composition. The main contents of black soil and chernozem were both 2 : 1 clay, the composition of black soil was smectite/illite mixed layer-illite-vermiculite and that of chernozem was S/I mixture-illite-montmorillonite, and both of them contained little kaolinite, chlorite, quartz and other primary mineral. This paper used XRD to determine the characteristics of clay minerals comprehensively, and analyzed two kinds of typical cultivated soil comparatively, and it was a new perspective of soil minerals study.

  20. Potential Liquefaction of Loose Sand Lenses: Case Study In Surabaya East Coastal Plain, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putera Agung M. Agung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The zone of east coastal Surabaya becomes the object of development for the city, especially to the east coastal plain. Although in the recent years, that area does not have a structure or heavy construction and or a high rise building yet, but in the future the zone will turn into a business area with a variety of activities.. The zone of east coastal Surabaya is an alluvium deposit area. This layer is considered as clay deposited from some rivers and sea. From general information, the typical soil stratigraphy consists of soft clay and silt layers with many sand lenses with or without coarse grained soil with a depth varying from 0.00 to 10.00 meters (m. The saturated sand lenses with a water table depth varies from 0.40 to 1.20 m is susceptible earthquake and it has a relatively large seismic amplification from base-rock due to geological and soil condition nature of the site. Liquefaction hazard of the sand lenses has to be anticipated and evaluated. For development of Surabaya city area toward the east coastal plain, all developer are recommended to give some criteria of sand lenses density and some consideration for anticipating the liquefaction hazard.

  1. Features of Sand-dust Deposits in Harbin City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yuanyun; ZHANG Yan; HE Kui; ZHOU Jia; KANG Chunguo

    2006-01-01

    From the sedimentologic view, this paper analyses the grain-size distribution and the chemical composition of the deposits from sand-dust storm, occurring in Harbin on March 20, 2002. The result indicates that there exist plentiful coarse matters in the sand-dust deposits in Harbin, and the sand-dust composition presents obvious three peak distribution characteristics, indicating that the sand-dust in Harbin is composed of multi-origin components. The grain-size composition consists of silt (4-8Φ), accounting for 71.18% of the total, sand (>4Φ), 21.70%, and clay (<8Φ), only 7.13%. The average grain size (Mz) is 5.14Φ. The chemical elements of the deposits are mainly SiO2 and Al2O3 and Fe2O3, totally occupying 77.8%. The enrichment factors (EF) of Mg, K, Si, Fe, Mn, P, Ti, Co, Ni and V elements are all about 1, which mainly come from lithosphere source, while parts ofCu, Pb, Zn, Cr and Se elements are from pollution sources out of lithosphere source, and As, Cd and Sb elements are mainly from pollution sources. Based on the comprehensive analysis of grain-size, chemical composition, enrichment factor (EF), discriminant function (DF) and matter source index (PI), this paper points out that the grain-size distribution and element composition of the sand-dust deposits in Harbin are evidently different from the loess and sand-dust in Lanzhou, and that matter source of the sand-dust in Harbin is different from the loess in Northwest China and the sand-dust in Lanzhou. The sand-dust deposits in Harbin are an admixture of coarse grains transmitted in short distance and fine grains transported in long distance. The plentiful coarse grains of the sand-dust deposits in Harbin origin from sand of local spot, and are the near-source deposits transported by low altitude airflow.

  2. Use of coal ash for enhancing biocrust development in stabilizing sand dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaady, Eli; Katra, Itzhak; Sarig, Shlomo

    2015-04-01

    In dryland environments, biocrusts are considered ecosystem engineers since they play significant roles in ecosystem processes. In the successional pathway of crust communities, the new areas are colonized after disturbance by pioneers such as filamentous cyanobacteria - Microcoleus spp. This stage is followed by colonization of green algae, mosses, and lichens. Aggregation of soil granules is caused by metabolic polysaccharides secreted by cyanobacteria and green algae, gluing the soil particles to form the crust layer. It was suggested that incorporating dust into the biocrusts encourages the growth of cyanobacteria, leading to a strengthening of the biocrusts' cohesion. Moreover, biocrusts cover a larger portion of the surface when the soil contains finer particles, and it was observed that at least 4-5% of clay and silt is required to support a measurable biocrust. While natural and undisturbed sand dunes are generally stabilized by biocrusts in the north-western Negev desert, stabilization of disturbed and movable sand dunes is one of the main problems in this desertified land, as in vast areas in the world. Daily breezes and seasonal wind storms transport sand particles to populated and agricultural areas causing damages to field crops and livelihood. Moving sand dunes consist of relatively coarse grains (250-2000 μm) with a low percent of clay and silt. This phenomenon negatively affects cyanobacterial colonization rate, even in relatively wet desert areas (100-250 mm rainfalls). In order to face the problem it was suggested to enrich the dune surface by using coal fly-ash. The research was conducted in two stages: first, examining the feasibility in Petri-dishes in laboratory conditions and in Experimental Aeolian Greenhouse conditions. The results showed that adding coal fly-ash and biocrust inoculum increased aggregate stability, penetration resistance and shear strength, as opposed to the control-sand plot. Using mobile wind-tunnel simulations, sand

  3. To the question on the factors of formation of the sands density and their potential accounting by cone penetration test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashperyuk Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Undisturbed sampling of sands from boreholes is difficult. It is important to find methods for determining the sands density in-situ, in particular, by cone penetration test. According to the results of cone penetration test can be determined only the categories of relative density of sands depending on their size distribution and probing depth. Based on an extensive literary material and long-term studies of the authors were considered a number of factors, which form the natural density of sands with different particle size distribution and genesis. For improving the accuracy, it is necessary to consider not only the particle size distribution, but also morphological features of grains, primarily depending on the genesis. The most versatile and effective indicator of the morphological features of grains is generalized morphological index λ (by A.D. Potapov. Taking into account that the empirical formula for quantitative assessment of the sands density by cone resistance (by L.G. Mariupolskiy, in our opinion, applicable only for average-size sands without considering of their uniformity, genesis and generalized morphological index, content of silt and clay fraction, water saturation and presence of cohesion-hardening, we offer new correlations between dry soils density and cone resistance for different genetic types of sand.

  4. Mineralogy and geotechnical characteristics of some pottery clay

    OpenAIRE

    Mujib Olamide ADEAGBO; Samuel Akinlabi OLA; Olumide Oluwapelumi OJURI

    2016-01-01

    The physical properties of soils, which are tremendously influenced by the active clay minerals in soil, are of great importance in geotechnical engineering. This paper investigates the clay-sized particles of the Igbara-Odo pottery clay, and compares results obtained with available data on the bulk sample, to determine their correlation and underline the dependence of the geotechnical properties of the bulk clay material on the clay-sized particles. The bulk clay sample consists of 52% sand-...

  5. Clay Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  6. Ball clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global ball clay mining industry, particularly in the U.S., as of June 2011. It cites several firms that are involved in ball clay mining in the U.S., including HC Spins Clay Co. Inc., the Imerys Group and Old Hickory Clay Co. Among the products made from ball clay are ceramic tiles, sanitaryware, as well as fillers, extenders and binders.

  7. Characterization of groundwater dynamics in landslides in varved clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. van der Spek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater dynamics may play a significant role in landslides. A detailed model is developed of the groundwater dynamics in landslides in varved clays in the Trièves area in the French Alps. The varved clays consist of a sequence of alternating silt and clay layers, covered by a colluvium layer and cut through by fissures. The hydraulic conductivity of the clay layers is negligible compared to the silt layers. It is conceptualized that fissures form a hydraulic connection between the colluvium and the varved clays. Groundwater recharge flows through the colluvium into the fissures where water is exchanged horizontally between the fissure and the silt layers of the varved clays. Groundwater flow in the colluvium is simulated with the Boussinesq equation while flow in the silt layers of the varved clays is simulated with the Richards' equation. Longitudinal outflow from the fissure is simulated with a linear-reservoir model. Scattered data of relatively short monitoring periods is available for several landslides in the region. A good similarity between observed and simulated heads is obtained, especially when considering the lack of important physical parameters such as the fissure width and the distance between the monitoring point and the fissure. A simulation for the period 1959–2004 showed some correlation between peaks in the simulated heads and the recorded occurrence of landslides while the bottom of the varved clays remained saturated during the entire simulation period.

  8. Self-sealing barriers of sand/bentonite-mixtures in a clay repository. SB-experiment in the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothfuchs, Tilmann; Czaikowski, Oliver; Hartwig, Lothar; Hellwald, Karsten; Komischke, Michael; Miehe, Ruediger; Zhang, Chun-Liang

    2012-10-15

    Several years ago, GRS performed laboratory investigations on the suitability of clay/mineral mixtures as optimized sealing materials in underground repositories for radioactive wastes /JOC 00/ /MIE 03/. The investigations yielded promising results so that plans were developed for testing the sealing properties of those materials under representative in-situ conditions in the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory (MTRL). The project was proposed to the ''Projekttraeger Wassertechnologie und Entsorgung (PtWT+E)'', and finally launched in January 2003 under the name SB-project (''Self-sealing Barriers of Clay/Mineral Mixtures in a Clay Repository''). The project was divided in two parts, a pre-project running from January 2003 until June 2004 under contract No. 02E9713 /ROT 04/ and the main project running from January 2004 until June 2012 under contract No. 02E9894 with originally PtWT+E, later renamed as PTKA-WTE. In the course of the pre-project it was decided to incorporate the SB main project as a cost shared action of PtWT+E and the European Commission (contract No. FI6W-CT-2004-508851) into the EC Integrated Project ESDRED (Engineering Studies and Demonstrations of Repository Designs) performed by 11 European project partners within the 6th European framework programme. The ESDRED project was terminated prior to the termination of the SB project. Interim results were reported by mid 2009 in two ESDRED reports /DEB09/ /SEI 09/. This report presents the results achieved in the whole SB-project comprising preceding laboratory investigations for the final selection of suited material mixtures, the conduction of mock-up tests in the geotechnical laboratory of GRS in Braunschweig and the execution of in-situ experiments at the MTRL.

  9. Evolution of radiative sand ridge field of the South Yellow Sea and its sedimentary characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 朱大奎; 尤坤元; 潘少明; 朱晓东; 邹欣庆; 张永战

    1999-01-01

    A sand ridge field of 22 470 km~2 consists of fine sands and silts originally from the old Changjiang River sediment during the late Pleistocene period. Late Holocene sand stratum with its well-preserved laminary bedding of more clay particles reflects the influence from the Yellow River. There are three genetic types of morphology of sand ridge field as follows: (ⅰ) reformed alluvial sandy bodies and old river valleys, located in the central and southern parts, formed from the end of Pleistocene to the present. (ⅱ) Radiative current ridges and patrimonal valley type, located in the northeastern part, formed during the early or middle Holocene time. (ⅲ) Eroded-depositional sandy bodies in the north and outer parts, and erosional trough in the north formed since the middle Holocene transgression. The sand ridge field has a periodic nature of developing processes: the period of sediment accumulation by rivers during cold epoch with low sea level and the period of erosional formation by tidal currents d

  10. Effect of variations in concentration of algae and silt on filtration and growth of the razor clam (Ensis directus, Conrad)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamermans, P.; Dedert, M.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a collaboration between the research programme Knowledge for Primary Processes Silt of Rijkswaterstaat Waterdienst NWOB (department of Infrastructure and Environment, MinIenM, RWS) and the Monitoring programme Sand extraction RWS and the LaMER Foundation, RWS-WD NWOB requested further res

  11. Changes in soil and vegetation on moving sand dunes after exclosure in Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In the semiarid Horqin Sandy Land of northern China, land desertification is the main causation in vegetation degradation and formation of moving dunes. A study was conducted from 1996 to 2005 to monitor the changes of vegetation characteristics and soil properties after moving dunes were fenced. The changes were compared between moving sand dunes with exclosure and without exclosure to evaluate the effectiveness of vegetation and soil restoration after exclosure establishment. The results show that exlosure establishment facilitated the colonization and development of plant species by ameliorating stressful environmental conditions. Species diversity, average coverage, and plant density significantly increased after exclosure of moving sand dunes along sequence compared with sand dunes without exclosure. Vegetation recovery on moving sand dunes accelerated by exclosure resulted in significant changes in soil properties including increased silt and clay contents, organic C and total N and decreased sand content, especially at the 0-5 cm depth. The results implied that moving sand dunes can be rapidly fixed by construction of exclosure.

  12. Clay Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

  13. Effects of sedimentation on soil physical and chemical properties and vegetation characteristics in sand dunes at the Southern Dongting Lake region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Zhang, Hao; Li, Xu; Xie, Yonghong

    2016-11-01

    Sedimentation is recognized as a major factor determining the ecosystem processes of lake beaches; however, the underlying mechanisms, especially in freshwater sand dunes, have been insufficiently studied. To this end, nine belt transects from nine freshwater sand dunes, classified into low (28.1 m) based on their elevations in 1972, were sampled to investigate differences in sedimentation rate and soil and vegetation characteristics in Southern Dongting Lake, China. Sedimentation rate, soil sand content, and soil pH increased, whereas soil clay, fine silt, moisture (MC), organic matter (OM), total N, and total K content, in addition to the growth and biodiversity of sand dune plants generally decreased with decreasing belt transect elevation. Regression analyses revealed that the negative effects of sedimentation on the ecosystem functions of sand dunes could be attributed to higher fine sand content in deposited sediments and stronger inhibition of plant growth. These results are consistent with previous studies performed in coastal sand dunes, which highlights the importance of sedimentation in determining ecological processes.

  14. Experimental Study on Silt Incipient Motion Under Wave Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Experiments on silt incipient motion under wave action were carried out. Under wave action, for different wave periods, water depths and bulk densities of silt, the shear stress or height of waves for incipient motion was determined, and a relation between the shear stress and bulk density of silt was established. Results indicate that the critical shear stress depends on the structure of the silt itself, related to the tightness between the grains (or bulk density). Exterior condition is only an external cause of silt incipient motion, and the critical shear stress for the incipient motion is the token of exterior condition.

  15. Hydrometric characterization of the clays used in the manufacture of ceramic products in Ocaña, Norte de Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andrés García León

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Currently in Ocaña, Norte de Santander exists a great variety of natural deposits that can be used to manufacture products of masonry as they are blocks, tiles, bricks, tiles, among others; But the manufacturing companies obtain a lot of waste due to the lack of technological analysis of the raw material to forecast the behavior of the ceramic pastes and to improve the quality of the final product. Objective: In the present work the physical characterization by hydrometry of the clays used in one of the companies dedicated to the manufacture of H-10 blocks in Ocaña, Norte de Santander, was carried out. Methodology: The development of the research was carried out by performing physical tests on samples of clays with which the percentages of sands, silts, and clays were determined; Which were located in the Winkler diagram to identify the types of existing clays according to their texture and the type of product that can be made to be able to formulate a paste of ceramic material. Results: The results obtained show that the clays currently used by the company are in the minimum indexes for the elaboration of blocks, reason why the addition of other clays with which the adequate level of quality with which they comply the requirements established by current standards. Conclusions: It is indispensable to characterize the clays to optimize the production pulp and to avoid imperfections in the final product (Block H-10, thus evidently improving the environmental and economic resources of the company.

  16. Shining a light on oil sands production : spectroscopy could bring flash of insight to ore processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlotnikov, D.

    2010-09-15

    Oil sands are a mixture of silts, sands and clay, and the variability poses challenges to surface mine operators. A professor of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Alberta has been working on a spectroscopy project to provide the oil sand industry with real-time ore composition and particle size readings from the mine face. These can then be used to adjust processing conditions at the extraction plant or froth treatment facility, ensuring optimal recovery levels and smooth operation. Developing a spectrographic fingerprint of an ore sample involves shining a very narrow wavelength of light at the sample, recording the intensity of reflected light and repeating the process across a range of wavelengths. The challenges of putting the spectroscopic equipment at the mine site were described. The project is 1 of the more than 20 projects currently at the Centre for Oil Sands Innovation (COSI), a partnership between Imperial Oil and the University of Alberta. Imperial contributed $10 million in funding over the following 5 years, with the governments of Alberta and Canada contributing additional funds. Imperial Oil is not the only beneficiary of COSI research, as all work that comes out of COSI is ultimately published. 1 fig.

  17. Geological Investigations on Boulder-Clay of E. Groningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzel, van P.; Overweel, C.J.; Veenstra, H.J.

    1959-01-01

    In this article the results of a study on boulder-clay in the neighbourhood of Winschoten (N.E. Netherlands) are communicated (Chapter I). The underlying sediments of the boulder-clay in this area consist of fine preglacial sands and black clay. In the nuclei of the many drumlins a strongly ice-push

  18. Geological Investigations on Boulder-Clay of E. Groningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzel, van P.; Overweel, C.J.; Veenstra, H.J.

    1959-01-01

    In this article the results of a study on boulder-clay in the neighbourhood of Winschoten (N.E. Netherlands) are communicated (Chapter I). The underlying sediments of the boulder-clay in this area consist of fine preglacial sands and black clay. In the nuclei of the many drumlins a strongly ice-push

  19. Provenance of sands from the confluence of the Amazon and Madeira rivers based on detrital heavy minerals and luminescence of quartz and feldspar

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Daniel R.; Sawakuchi, André O.; Guedes, Carlos C. F.; Giannini, Paulo C. F.; Grohmann, Carlos H.; Ferreira, Manuela P.

    2015-03-01

    Source-to-sink systems are poorly known in tropical rivers. For the Amazonian rivers, the majority of the provenance studies remain focused on the suspended load, implying a poor understanding of the processes governing production and distribution of sands. In this study, we perform heavy mineral and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) analysis to cover the entire spectrum (heavy and light minerals fraction) of 29 sand samples of the Lower Madeira river region (Amazon and Madeira rivers), of which the main goal was to find provenance indicators specific to these rivers. Despite the tropical humid climate, the sands of the Amazon and Lower Madeira rivers are rich in unstable heavy minerals as augite, hypersthene, green hornblende and andalusite. The Madeira river is highlighted by its higher content of andalusite, with source attributed to the Amazon Craton (medium-to-high grade metamorphic rocks), while the Amazon river, upstream of the Madeira river mouth, has a signature of augite and hypersthene, that suggests an Andean provenance (volcanic rocks). Sands from the Madeira river can be tracked in the Amazon river by the increasing concentration in andalusite. OSL analysis of the light minerals fraction was used as an index of feldspar concentration and sedimentary history of quartz grains. Lower feldspar concentration and quartz grains with longer sedimentary history (higher OSL sensitivity) also point to a major contribution of cratonic sources for the sands in the Madeira river. While the sands from the Lower Madeira would be mainly supplied by cratonic rocks, previous work recognised that suspended sediments (silt and clay) are derived from Andean rocks. Therefore, we interpret a decoupling between the sources of sand and mud (silt and clay) under transport in the Madeira river. Andean sands (rich in augite and hypersthene) would be trapped in the foreland zones of the Beni and Mamoré tributaries. In the Amazon river sands, the low OSL sensitivity of the

  20. Undrained Behaviour of Silt under Static and Cyclic Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shaoli; ROLF Sandven; LARS Grande

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the undrained behaviour of silt under low stress level is studied. An effective preparation methodfor built in silt samples in the triaxial test was firstly developed. By triaxial testing of samples at low confining pressures itwas found that silt easily loses stability and liquefies. Loose silt may show temporary liquefaction under static loading, anddevelop full liquefaction under cyclic loading. The most important factors influencing the silt behaviour are porosity, confin-ing pressure, consolidation state, cyclic loading level and number of cycles. The maximum obtainable shear stress is primarilya function of the confining pressure and the internal frictional angle. The actual structure of the silt material is the key factorin controlling its behaviour.

  1. Flow dynamics at the origin of thin clayey sand lacustrine turbidites: Examples from Lake Hazar, Turkey

    KAUST Repository

    Hage, Sophie

    2017-04-18

    Turbidity currents and their deposits can be investigated using several methods, i.e. direct monitoring, physical and numerical modelling, sediment cores and outcrops. The present study focuses on thin clayey sand turbidites found in Lake Hazar (Turkey) occurring in eleven clusters of closely spaced thin beds. Depositional processes and sources for three of those eleven clusters are studied at three coring sites. Bathymetrical data and seismic reflection profiles are used to understand the specific geomorphology of each site. X-ray, thin sections and CT-scans imagery combined with grain-size, geochemical and mineralogical measurements on the cores allow characterisation of the turbidites. Turbidites included in each cluster were produced by remobilization of surficial slope sediment, a process identified in very few studies worldwide. Three types of turbidites are distinguished and compared with deposits obtained in flume studies published in the literature. Type 1 is made of an ungraded clayey silt layer issued from a cohesive flow. Type 2 is composed of a partially graded clayey sand layer overlain by a mud cap, attributed to a transitional flow. Type 3 corresponds to a graded clayey sand layer overlain by a mud cap issued from a turbulence-dominated flow. While the published experimental studies show that turbulence is damped by cohesion for low clay content, type 3 deposits of this study show evidence for a turbulence dominated mechanism despite their high clay content. This divergence may in part relate to input variables such as water chemistry and clay mineralogy that are not routinely considered in experimental studies. Furthermore, the large sedimentological variety observed in the turbidites from one coring site to another is related to the evolution of a sediment flow within a field scale basin made of a complex physiography that cannot be tackled by flume experiments.

  2. Date noi privind compozitia mineralogica a siltului lutitic de la Dumbrava, judetul Cluj (New Mineralogical Data on the Clayey Silt from Dumbrava (Cluj County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucret̡ia Ghergari

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available New Mineralogical Data on the Clayey Silt from Dumbrava (Cluj County. New mineralogical data on the lutitic silt occurrence from the Dumbrava (Cluj County, Romania, based on TEM and X-ray diffraction studies, are presented in the paper. Mainly kaolinite, and subordinately illite and illite/montmorillonite represent the mineralogical compounds of the clayey fraction of the rock. The lutitic silt represents a local facies, sedimented in subaquatic environments (a small lake or pool after a short-distance transport from the sources. The source for the brown clays was probably a paleosoil formed nearby magmatic rocks. The source for the light coloured clays (creamy gray was the alterated zone of metamorphic rocks.

  3. Holocene Provenance Identification and Climate Control of Indus Basin By Using Radiogenic Techniques and Clay Mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANWAR ALIZAI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two commonly used isotopic methods (Zircon U-Pb dating and K-feldspar Pb dating were employed for the Holocene provenance identification within the Indus basin. Zircon grains from the upper Indus are generally younger than 200 Ma in contrast with the eastern tributaries, which show varying inputs from Greater and Lesser Himalayan sources. The Sutlej river is very rich in Lesser Himalayan-sourced sediments, while the Chenab is mostly eroded from the Greater Himalaya. Grains younger than 200 Ma in the sands of the Thar desert indicate preferential aeolian transport from the Indus lower reaches. K-feldspar Pb dating of silt and sand-sized grains from the modern Sutlej and Chenab rivers show a clear Himalayan provenance, contrasting with grains from the Indus Suture Zone, but are overlapping with Karakoram compositions. The desert dunes commonly show 207Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/204Pb values that are much higher than those seen in the rivers, most consistent with erosion from Nanga Parbat. This implies at least some origin from the trunk Indus, probably reworked by summer monsoon winds from the SW, a hypothesis supported by U-Pb zircon dating. Further, data collected from Holocene and Pleistocene buried sands on the western edge of the Thar desert were sourced from Himalayan rivers before and at 6–8 ka, but after that time the proportion of high isotopic ratio grains rose, indicating increased contribution from the Thar Desert dunes prior to ~4.5 ka when flow ceased entirely. Clay mineral assemblages are dominated by smectite and illite, with minor chlorite and kaolinite. Deltaic sediments integrate clay minerals across the basin with increased smectite input between 13 and 7.5 ka, indicating stronger chemical weathering when the summer monsoon intensified and correlating with similar trends in peninsular India.

  4. The Influence of Clay on the Rate of Decay of Amino Acid Metabolites Synthesized in Soils during Decomposition of Cellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst

    1975-01-01

    14C-labelled cellulose was added to seven different soils containing silt + clay (particles .... The amounts of labelled amino acid C in the soils were proportional to their content of silt + clay. After 30 days of incubation labelled amino acid C remaining in the soil with the lowest content of silt + clay constituted 6 per cent of the carbon added in cellulose, as compared with 18 per cent in the soil...... with the highest content of silt + clay. These values had decreased to 5 and 13 per cent respectively after 2 years of incubation. The order between the soils in the content of labelled amino acid C established during the first month of incubation, was thus roughly maintained throughout the period of incubation...

  5. Effects of advanced oxidation on green sand properties via iron casting into green sand molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujue; Cannon, Fred S; Voigt, Robert C; Komarneni, Sridhar; Furness, J C

    2006-05-01

    The effects of advanced oxidation (AO) processing on the properties of green sand were studied via pouring cast iron into green sand molds. Upon cooling, the green sand molds were autopsied at various distances from the metal-sand interface. Autopsy green sand samples collected from a mold that incorporated AO water were characterized and compared to controlled samples collected from a similar autopsied mold made with conventional tap water (TAP). It was found that the AO processing removed a coating of coal pyrolysis products from the clay surface that typically accumulated on the clay surface. As a result, the AO-conditioned green sand retained 10-15% more active clay as measured bythe standard ultrasonic methylene blue titration than did the TAP-conditioned green sand. The AO processing also nearly doubled the generation of activated carbon from the normalized amount of coal composition of the green sand during the casting process. The AO-enhanced activated carbon generation and the AO-incurred clay surface cleaning provided the AO-conditioned green sand with higher normalized pore volume, and thus higher normalized m-xylene adsorption capacity, i.e., relative to before-metal-pouring conditions. Furthermore, mathematical analysis indicated that the AO-conditioned green sand better retained its important properties after pouring than did the TAP-conditioned green sand. Effectively, this meant after metal pouring, the AO-conditioned sample offered about the same net properties as the TAP-conditioned sample, even though the AO-conditioned sample contained less clay and coal before metal pouring. These results conformed to the full-scale foundry empirical finding that when AO is used, foundries need less makeup clay and coal addition through each casting cycle, and they release less air emissions.

  6. Clay particle retention in small constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braskerud, B C

    2003-09-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) can be used to mitigate non-point source pollution from arable fields. Previous investigations have shown that the relative soil particle retention in small CWs increases when hydraulic load increases. This paper investigates why this phenomenon occurs, even though common retention models predict the opposite, by studying clay and silt particle retention in two Norwegian CWs. Retention was measured with water flow proportional sampling systems in the inlet and outlet of the wetlands, and the texture of the suspended solids was analyzed. The surface area of the CWs was small compared to the watershed area (approximately 0.07%), giving high average hydraulic loads (1.1 and 2.0 md(-1)). One of the watersheds included only old arable land, whereas the other included areas with disturbed topsoil after artificial land leveling. Clay particle retention was 57% for the CW in the first watershed, and 22% for the CW in the disturbed watershed. The different behavior of the wetlands could be due to differences in aggregate size and stability of the particles entering the wetlands. Results showed that increased hydraulic loads did affect CW retention negatively. However, as runoff increased, soil particles/aggregates with higher sedimentation velocities entered the CWs (e.g., the clay particles behaved as silt particles). Hence, clay particle settling velocity is not constant as assumed in many prediction models. The net result was increased retention.

  7. 2010 oil sands performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, oil sands have become an important energy resource for meeting energy needs. Oil sands are a mixture of water, sand, clay and bitumen which is recovered either through open pit mining or in situ drilling techniques. The bitumen is then converted into syncrude or sold to refineries for the production of gasoline, diesel or other products. Shell has oil sands operations in Alberta and the aim of this report is to present its 2010 performance in terms of CO2, water, tailings, land, and reclamation and engagement. This document covers several of Shell's operations in the Muskeg River and Jackpine mines, Scotford upgrader, Peace River, Orion, Seal, Cliffdale and Chipmunk. It provides useful information on Shell's oil sands performance to governments, environmental groups, First Nations, local communities and the public.

  8. Fontainebleau Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    2006-01-01

    The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand.......The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand....

  9. Characterization of Dabagi clay deposit for its ceramics potential

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GASKIYA OMPUTERS

    2014-08-15

    Aug 15, 2014 ... African Journal of Environmental Science and. Technology .... application in various industrial sectors such as foundry sand bond in iron and steel ... for clays in the rubber industry where its reinforcing potential has been ...

  10. Influence of Different Additives at Various Contents on the Properties of Pottery Clay Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongdej LIMPAIBOON

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of clay body is a highly important step during the production of local decorative pottery, especially the local unglazed low-fired terracotta. In this study, sand (size < 178 mm and Bulrush pulp were employed as an additive blended with clay (size < 125 mm in the preparation of clay body. Various sand contents (2 - 18 wt% and pulp contents (1 - 14 wt% were tested. The properties of each clay body were evaluated in terms of shrinkage, water absorption and modulus of rupture. The results obtained showed that higher sand or pulp content gave higher water absorption and lower shrinkage of clay body. The dried MOR value of pulp-clay body was much higher than that of sand-clay body at the same content. The maximum fired MOR value of sand-clay body (84.51 kgf/cm2 at sand content of 2 wt% was a little higher than that of pulp-clay body (80.44 kgf/cm2 at pulp content of 4 wt%. However, at a sand content ranging between 2 and 14 % or a pulp content ranging between 1 and 5 %, the fired MOR values of clay bodies were enhanced above that of local pottery clay body (60.14 kgf/cm2. From these results the pulp could adequately be used as an additive as well. Finally, a suitable sand or pulp content for producing smooth clay bodies was between 2 and 14 wt% or between 1 and 4 wt%, respectively, due to clay bodies obtained having more smooth texture and higher strength than local pottery clay body.

  11. Comparison Of Direct Simple Shear Confinement Methods On Clay And Silt Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    methods performed in the Marine Geomechanics Laboratory at the University of Rhode Island. In this chapter sample preparation, storage, equipment, and... Geomechanics Laboratory at the University of Rhode Island. Direct simple shear tests allow for the measurement of maximum horizontal shear stress of

  12. Water and solute transport in agricultural soils predicted by volumetric clay and silt contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup, Dan; Møldrup, Per; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos;

    2016-01-01

    . All experiments were carried out under the same initial and boundary conditions using tritium as a conservative tracer. The breakthrough characteristics ranged from being normally distributed to having more preferential characteristics along with an increase in the content of the mineral fines...... (particles ≤ 50 μm). The results showed that the mineral fines content was strongly correlated to functional soil structure and the derived tracer breakthrough curve (BTC), whereas the OC content appeared less important for the shape of the BTC. Organic carbon was believed to support the stability...

  13. Effect of blade vibration on mulch tillage performance under silt clay loam soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Goudarzi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mulch tillage system is an intermediate system which covers some of disadvantages of no tillage and conventional tillage systems. In farms in which tillage is done with a chisel plow, runoff and soil erosion have a less important relation to moldboard and disk plow and naturally absorption of rainfall will be developed. Thus, the mulch tillage system is an appropriate alternative to conventional tillage and no tillage (Backingham and Pauli, 1993. The unwanted vibration in machinery and industry mainly processes most harmful factors, for example: bearing wear, cracking and loosening joints. And noise is produced in electrical systems by creating a short circuit (Wok, 2011. Self-induced and induced vibration are used in tillage systems. Induced vibration is created by energy consumption and self-induced vibration is created by collision among the blades and soil at the shank (Soeharsono and Setiawan, 2010. A study by Mohammadi-gol et al. (2005 was conducted. It was found that on the disk plow, plant residues maintained on the soil are more than that of moldboard plow. 99% frequency and amplitude, speed and rack angle of blade directly affect soil inversion and indirectly affect preservation of crop residue on the soil. The effect of vibration frequency and rack angle of blade to reduce the tensile strength is also clear. Moreover, in contrast to previous studies when speed progressing is less than (λ, not only the relative speed (λ, but also frequency can reduce the tensile strength (Beiranvand and Shahgoli, 2010; Awad-Allah et al., 2009. Therefore, aim of this study was to determine the effect of vibration and the speed of tillage on soil parameters and drawbar power in using electric power. Materials and Methods: To perform this test, three different modes of vibration (fixed, variable and induced vibration and two levels of speed in real terms at a depth of 20 cm were used for farming. The test was performed with a split plot and randomized complete block design and three replications, and the fixed factors were: the depth of tillage: 20 cm, soil moisture: 16 to 17 percent and rack angle: 15 degrees; and the variable factors were the rate of progress in both 4.5 and 7.5 kilometers per hour and six levels of frequency, 1 fixed (zero 2 variables (self-induced, 3 (positive19 and 4 (negative19, 5 (positive37 and 6 (negative37 Hz were performed. An electric generator was used to create vibration power. The equation (1 was used to calculate the vibration power: (1 Where P: Electric power (W, V: voltage (V, I: current (amps and Ǿ: phase angle (degrees between the voltage and current. After the calculation, the required power of 19 Hz was calculated to be 0.6, and the required power of 37Hz, was calculated to be 0.75 kilowatts, respectively. The sample of mean weighted diameter, after tillage in each plot, was about 10 kg soil (0 to 20 cm depth with 3 replicates and through the equation (2, mean weight diameter was calculated as follows: (2 Where MWD: Mean weight diameter (cm, Xi: Two Elk consecutive mean diameters (cm and Wi: weight ratio of the soil remaining on the sieve to the total weight of the sample. In order to calculate the specific energy tension due to the width of tillage (28 Cm, equation (3 was used. (3 Where E: tensile special energy in kilojoules per square meter, P1: drawbar pulling power required in kW, P2: the vibration according to equation (1 based on kilowatt, T: tillage time in one square meter per second. Results and discussion: According to analysis of variance (Table 2 interaction effects of frequency and speed to keep the residue are significant at 1%, and this situation was shown well in Fig.2 Therefore, in practice, with increasing frequency in both induction and self-induction vibration, the tillage blades created a groove at the soil surface with less turmoil, and this would maintain the maximum residue on the surface of the soil. As is clear from Fig.3, treatment of the frequency of 37+ (code 5 in both the first and second average forward speed is highest in remaining residue with 85% and 74%, respectively (Liu and Chen, 2010 and (Awad-Allah et al., 2009. By applying induced vibrations, a significant reduction in tensile strength occurs, because it reduces the time to deal with the blade of soil tillage and soil fractures with blows of the blade. It is clear that vibration reduces slip and real wheel speed is progressing, and following it, the increase in tensile strength occurs and it should not be considered due to the in efficiency of vibration tillage, since vibration may increase the depth of tillage, with the same vertical force component (Sahaya et al., 2009. Specific energy (plus drawbar and vibration are shown in Figure.5 and the lowest energy consumption in both the first and the second speeds was on treatment of frequency +19, being 18.9 kJ m and 23.2 kJ m to first and second speeds, respectively. Conclusions: In general, both factors (vibration and speed affected tillage parameters and energy consumption and induced vibration caused by the system of unequal mass and electrical power properties was very easy to change phase vibration and transfer of power. This study was designed because of the significant effects on the important parameters of quality by vibration frequency of tillage and different frequencies to control the way in which tillage parameters are controlled. We can take it as a precision tillage that introduced variable control rate of percent residue on the soil, clod mean weight diameter that is suitable for the cultivation combined with reduced energy consumption.

  14. Clay at Nili Fossae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    , the small mesa -- a flat-topped hill -- at the center of the image is a remnant of an overlying rock layer that was eroded away. The greenish clay areas at the base of the hill were exposed by erosion of the overlying rock. The images at the upper right and lower left both show that the reddish-toned olivine occurs as sand dunes on top of the greenish clay deposits. The image at the lower right shows details of the clay-rich rock, including that they are extensively fractured into small, polygonal blocks just a few meters in size. Taken together, the CRISM and HiRISE data show that the clay-rich rocks are the oldest at the site, that they are exposed where overlying rock has been eroded away, and that the olivine is not part of the clay-rich rock. Rather it occurs in sand dunes blowing across the clay. Many more images of Nili Fossae and other clay-rich areas will be taken over the next two years. They will be used to try to understand the earliest climate of Mars that is recorded in the planet's rocks. The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. CRISM's mission: Find the spectral fingerprints of aqueous and hydrothermal deposits and map the geology, composition and stratigraphy of surface features. The instrument will also watch the seasonal variations in Martian dust and ice aerosols, and water content in surface materials o leading to new understanding of the climate. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the Califonia Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor and built the spacecraft.

  15. Characterization of sorbed oil components on clays and quartz grains in oil sand. A contribution to the wettability of reservoir rocks in petroleum deposits. Charakterisierung sorbierter Oelkomponenten auf Tonmineralien und Quarzkoernern in Oelsanden. Ein Beitrag zur Benetzbarkeit von Reservoirgesteinen in Oellagerstaetten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendel, A.

    1989-02-01

    The wettability of an oil reservoir strongly influences the recovery rate during primary production and the feasibility of Enhanced Oil Recovery. In order to achieve an insight into the chemical nature of the oil components sorbed onto mineral surfaces, unconsolidated Canadian (Athabasca, Cold Lake) and U.S. oilsands (Tar Sand Triangle) were exhaustively extracted with dichloromethane by Soxhlet to remove the non-sorbed, so called free oil. The sorbed oil on the clays were investigated in situ by spectroscopy and pyrolysis. Clays and quartz were extensively extracted with polar solvent mixtures to release the sorbed oil. The extractable sorbed oil and the corresponding free oil were fractionated in chemically defined compound classes by adsorption chromatography. The fractions were characterized by means of GC, GC//MS and IR-spectroscopy. The sorbed oil is highly enriched in oxygen functions bearing components, which partly show a polyfunctional character. The surprising existence of n-alkanes in the sorbed oil, which are not detected in the free oil, is explained by occlusion in the sorbed organic layer. The existence of sterols could be shown in the free and the sorbed oil though not being reported in literature to date. Clays and quartz show a different behavior of sorption. Opposite to the general accepted idea, of smectites showing the highest capacity to sorb organics, the highest amount of sorbed oil was found in the kaolinite-/illite-rich samples. Different mechanisms of oil sorption onto the mineral surfaces, possibly driven by entropy, are discussed. (orig./RB).

  16. Monitoring and characterisation of sand-mud sedimentation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbertson, Alan J. S.; Ibikunle, Olugbenga; McCarter, W. John; Starrs, Gerard

    2016-07-01

    Estuaries and tidal inlets are often characterised by the presence of both cohesive and non-cohesive sediments. Knowledge of the sedimentation behaviour of sand-mud mixtures is therefore crucial to the understanding and prediction of the time-dependent structure (i.e. mixed or segregated), composition and erodibility of sediment bed deposits developing within these environments. In the current study, a series of settling column tests are conducted to investigate the hindered settling and initial bed consolidation phases of a range of sand-clay mixtures to determine the parametric conditions under which bed segregation occurs. A new, non-invasive, electrical resistivity measurement technique is employed to capture both temporal and spatial changes in the density, porosity and composition of the evolving sand-clay bed deposits, complimented by time-lapsed images of the sedimentation process within the column. The results show that the formation of segregated (sand-clay) bed layers with bed deposits is largely controlled by the initial fractional composition (i.e. relative sand and clay concentrations). Specifically, mixtures with low clay contents are shown to form well-defined (sand-clay) layer segregation within the resulting deposits, while higher clay contents result in more transitional segregation patterns or no layer segregation (for very high clay concentrations). The physical mechanisms under which these different segregation types can be generated are illustrated through predictions from an existing polydisperse hindered settling model. This model indicates that the degree of bed segregation, and time scale over which this occurs, correlates well with the difference in predicted hindered settling characteristics and upward displacements associated with the sand and clay fractions, respectively. In this regard, the new experimental dataset provides validation for the polydisperse model (for the first time), with the combined data and model predictions

  17. Mature fine tailings from oil sands processing harbour diverse methanogenic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Tara J; Foght, Julia M

    2010-06-01

    Processing oil sands to extract bitumen produces large volumes of a tailings slurry comprising water, silt, clays, unrecovered bitumen, and residual solvent used in the extraction process. Tailings are deposited into large settling basins, where the solids settle by gravity to become denser mature fine tailings (MFT). A substantial flux of methane, currently estimated at ~40 million L/day, is being emitted from the Mildred Lake Settling Basin. To better understand the biogenesis of this greenhouse gas, the methanogenic consortia in MFT samples from depth profiles in 2 tailings deposits (Mildred Lake Settling Basin and West In-Pit) were analyzed by constructing clone libraries of amplified archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The archaeal sequences, whose closest matches were almost exclusively cultivated methanogens, were comparable within and between basins and were predominantly (87% of clones) affiliated with acetoclastic Methanosaeta spp. In contrast, bacterial clone libraries were unexpectedly diverse, with the majority (~55%) of sequences related to Proteobacteria, including some presumptive nitrate-, iron-, or sulfate-reducing, hydrocarbon-degrading genera (e.g., Thauera, Rhodoferax, and Desulfatibacillum). Thus, MFT harbour a diverse community of prokaryotes presumptively responsible for producing methane from substrates indigenous to the MFT. These findings contribute to our understanding of biogenic methane production and densification of MFT in oil sands tailings deposits.

  18. Exploration of clays suitable for the manufactoring of porous brick products in the area of Bomčev Breg, Goričko (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Strgar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, exploration of clays suitable for the manufactoring of porous brick products was conducted in two phases in the area of Bomčev Breg, Goričko. In the course of the first phase, at the beginning of the year 1992, geological prospecting of sediments (mostly clays and clayey sands of the Upper Triassic to Pliocene age was conducted in Goričko, precisely in the area between Grad and Kuzma. The objective of this phase was to identify narrow areas with the deposits of clays suitable for the manufacturing of porous brick products. The area of Bomčev Breg was singled out as a perspective ground for further exploration and drilling (Figure 1.On the basis of the results obtained during the first phase of the exploration detailed geological exploration, which included drilling and partial laboratory investigations of clay, was conducted in May and June 1992. During this phase nine boreholes of a total length of 150 m were drilled (Figure 3.Samples of clay were taken from each core, and laboratory tests, mostly swelling, were carried out in controlled environment by LECA, Ges.m.b.H from Fehring, Austria.On the basis of data obtained from borehole drilling and interpretations of geological sections it can be summarized that the following three lithological types can be identified in the area of Bomčev Breg:-dark brown, brown, light brown, grey brown and greyish, in places speckled, silty fine sand and mica clay-olive greyish, fine silty and mica, partly plastic, clay-brown (limonitized, light brown and greyish clayey sand, containing silt and mica, in places with rare quartz pebbles, not more than 12 mm in diameterThe transition from one lithological type to another is not sharp but rather gradual with the exception of sandy beds where the transition is more distinct.During the prospecting phase in the area of Bomčev Breg 10 samples, marked B-1 to B-10, were taken from the boreholes drilled in the form of a mesh, 100 x 100 m, and 1 sample

  19. The survey and mapping of sand-boil landforms related to the Emilia 2012 earthquakes: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ninfo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sand boils, which are also known as sand blows or sand volcanoes, are among the most common superficial effects induced by high-magnitude earthquakes. These generally occur in or close to alluvial plains when a strong earthquake (M >5 strikes on a lens of saturated and unconsolidated sand deposits that are constrained between silt-clay layers [Ambraseys 1988, Carter and Seed 1988, Galli 2000, Tuttle 2001, Obermeier et al. 2005], where the sediments are converted into a fluid suspension. The liquefaction phenomena requires the presence of saturated and uncompacted sand, and a groundwater table near the ground surface. This geological–geomorphological setting is common and widespread for the Po Plain (Italy [Castiglioni et al. 1997]. The Po Plain (ca. 46,000 km2 represents 15% of the Italian territory. It hosts a population of about 20 million people (mean density of 450 people/km2 and many infrastructures. Thus, the Po Plain is an area of high vulnerability when considering the liquefaction potential in the case of a strong earthquake. Despite the potential, such phenomena are rarely observed in northern Italy [Cavallin et al. 1977, Galli 2000], because strong earthquakes are not frequent in this region; e.g., historical data report soil liquefaction near Ferrara in 1570 (M 5.3 and in Argenta 1624 (M 5.5 [Prestininzi and Romeo 2000, Galli 2000]. In the Emilia quakes of May 20 and 29, 2012, the most widespread coseismic effects were soil liquefaction and ground cracks, which occurred over wide areas in the Provinces of Modena, Ferrara, Bologna, Reggio Emilia and Mantova (Figure 1. […

  20. Measurement of elastic modulus and evaluation of viscoelasticity of foundry green sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingchun XIANG

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Elastic modulus is an important physical parameter of molding sand; it is closely connected with molding sand's properties. Based on theories of rheology and molding sand microdeformation, elastic modulus of molding sand was measured and investigated using the intelligent molding sand multi-property tester developed by ourselves. The measuring principle was introduced. Effects of bentonite percentage and compactibility of the molding sand were experimentally studied. Furthermore, the essential viscoelastic nature of green sand was analyzed. It is considered that viscoelastic deformation of molding sand consists mainly of that of Kelvin Body of clay membrane, and elastic modulus of molding sand depends mainly on that of Kelvin Body which is the elastic component of clay membrane between sands. Elastic modulus can be adopted as one of the property parameters, and can be employed to evaluate viscoelastic properties of molding sand.

  1. Measurement of elastic modulus and evaluation of viscoelasticity of foundry green sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Elastic modulus is an important physical parameter of molding sand; it is closely connected with molding sand's properties. Based on theories of rheology and molding sand microdeformation, elastic modulus of molding sand was measured and investigated using the intelligent molding sand multi-property tester developed by ourselves. The measuring principle was introduced. Effects of bentonite percentage and compactibility of the molding sand were experimentally studied. Furthermore, the essential viscoelastic nature of green sand was analyzed. It is considered that viscoelastic deformation of molding sand consists mainly of that of Kelvin Body of clay membrane, and elastic modulus of molding sand depends mainly on that of Kelvin Body which is the elastic component of clay membrane between sands. Elastic modulus can be adopted as one of the property parameters, and can be employed to evaluate the viscoelastic properties of molding sand.

  2. Limitations, improvements and alternatives of the silt density index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Hadidi, A.M.M.; Kemperman, A.J.B.; Schurer, H.; Schippers, J.C.; Wessling, M.; Meer, van der W.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems are widely used in the desalination of water. However, flux decline due to fouling phenomena in RO remains a challenge. To minimize fouling, a reliable index is necessary to predict the fouling potential of the RO feed water. The ASTM introduced the silt density

  3. Efficiency of hanging silt curtains in cross-flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radermacher, M.; De Wit, L.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.; Winterwerp, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    When dredging in sensitive environments, efforts have to be made to limit the free dispersal of suspended fine sediment from the dredging spill. Especially the use of hanging silt curtains as an environmental mitigation measure is widespread. Despite frequent application, their ability to reduce tur

  4. The art of screening: effectiveness of silt screens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radermacher, M.; Van der Goot, F.; Rijks, D.C.; De Wit, L.

    2013-01-01

    One of the potential environmental issues associated with dredging in the marine environment is the increase of suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) by generation and dispersion of sediment plumes. This can be mitigated by source control or by the installation of containment barriers like silt

  5. Reclaimability of the spent sand mixture – sand with bentonite – sand with furfuryl resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dańko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of new binding materials and new technologies of their hardening in casting moulds and cores production requires theapplication of reclamation methods adequate to their properties as well as special devices realizing tasks. The spent sands circulationsystem containing the same kind of moulding and core sands is optimal from the point of view of the expected reclamation results.However, in the face of a significant variability of applied technologies and related to them various reclamation methods, the need - of theobtained reclamation products assessment on the grounds of systematic criteria and uniform bases – arises, with a tendency of indicatingwhich criteria are the most important for the given sand system. The reclaimability results of the mixture of the spent moulding sand withGeko S bentonite and the spent core sand with the Kaltharz 404U resin hardened by acidic hardener 100 T3, are presented in the paper.Investigations were performed with regard to the estimation of an influence of core sands additions (10 –25% on the reclaimed materialquality. Dusts and clay content in the reclaim, its chemical reaction (pH and ignition loss were estimated. The verification of the reclaiminstrumental assessment was performed on the basis of the technological properties estimation of moulding sand with bentonite, where the reclaimed material was used as a matrix.

  6. CLAY AND CLAY-SUPPORTED REAGENTS IN ORGANIC SYNTHESES

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLAY AND CLAY-SUPPORTED REAGENTS HAVE BEEN USED EXTENSIVELY FOR SYNTHETIC ORGANIC TRANSFORMATIONS. THIS OVERVIEW DESCRIBES THE SALIENT STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS CLAY MATERIALS AND EXTENDS THE DISCUSSION TO PILLARED CLAYS AND REAGENTS SUPPORTED ON CLAY MATERIALS. A VARIET...

  7. Mechanisms of clay smear formation in 3D - a field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettermann, Michael; Tronberens, Sebastian; Urai, Janos; Asmus, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Clay smears in sedimentary basins are important factors defining the sealing properties of faults. However, as clay smears are highly complex 3D structures, processes involved in the formation and deformation of clay smears are not well identified and understood. To enhance the prediction of sealing properties of clay smears extensive studies of these structures are necessary including the 3D information. We present extraordinary outcrop data from an open cast lignite mine (Hambach) in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany. The faults formed at a depth of 150 m, and have Shale Gouge Ratios between 0.1 and 0.3. Material in the fault zones is layered, with sheared sand, sheared clay and tectonically mixed sand-clay gouge. We studied the 3D thickness distribution of clay smear from a series of thin-spaced incremental cross-sections and several cross-sections in larger distances along the fault. Additionally, we excavated two large clay smear surfaces. Our observations show that clay smears are strongly affected by R- and R'-shears, mostly at the footwall side of our outcrops. These shears can locally cross and offset clay smears, forming holes. Thinnest parts of the clay smears are often located close to source layer cutoffs. Investigating the 3D thickness of the clay smears shows a heterogeneous distribution, rather than a continuous thinning of the smear with increasing distance to the source layers. We found two types of layered clay smears: one with continuous sheared sand between two clay smears providing vertical pathways for fluid flow, and one which consists of overlapping clay patches separated by sheared sand that provide a tortuous pathway across the clay smear. On smaller scale we identified grain-scale mixing as an important process for the formation of clay smears. Sand can be entrained into the clay smear by mixing from the surrounding host rock as well as due to intense shearing of sand lenses that were incorporated into the smear. This causes clay smears

  8. A new low-cost method of reclaiming mixed foundry waste sand based on wet-thermal composite reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Zitian; Liu Fuchu; Long Wei; Li Guona

    2014-01-01

    A lot of mixed clay-resin waste sand from large-scale iron foundries is discharged every day; so mixed waste sand reclamation in low cost and high quality has a great realistic significance. In the study to investigate the possibility of reusing two types of waste foundry sands, resin bonded sand and clay bonded sand which came from a Chinese casting factory, a new low-cost reclamation method of the mixed foundry waste sand based on the wet-thermal composite reclamation was proposed. The waste resin bonded sand was first reclaimed by a thermal method and the waste clay bonded sand was reclaimed by a wet method. Then, hot thermal reclaimed sand and the dehydrated wet reclaimed sand were mixed in certain proportions so that the hot thermal reclaimed sand dried the wet reclaimed sand leaving some water. The thermal reclamation efficiency of the waste resin bonded sand was researched at different heat levels. The optimized wet reclamation process of the waste clay bonded sand was achieved by investigating the effects of wet reclamation times, sand-water ratio and pH value on the reclaimed sand characteristics. The composite reclamation cost also was calculated. The research results showed that the properties of the mixed reclaimed sand can satisfy the application requirements of foundries; in which the temperature of the thermal reclamation waste resin bonded sand needs to be about 800 ºC, the number of cycles of wet reclamation waste clay bonded sand should reach four to five, the optimal sand-water ratio of wet reclamation is around 1:1.5, and the pH value should be adjusted by adding acid. The mass ratio of hot thermal reclaimed sand to dehydrated wet reclaimed sand is about 1:2.5, and the composite reclaimed sand cost is around 100 yuan RMB per ton.

  9. A new low-cost method of reclaiming mixed foundry waste sand based on wet-thermal composite reclamation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zitian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A lot of mixed clay-resin waste sand from large-scale iron foundries is discharged every day; so mixed waste sand reclamation in low cost and high quality has a great realistic significance. In the study to investigate the possibility of reusing two types of waste foundry sands, resin bonded sand and clay bonded sand which came from a Chinese casting factory, a new low-cost reclamation method of the mixed foundry waste sand based on the wet-thermal composite reclamation was proposed. The waste resin bonded sand was first reclaimed by a thermal method and the waste clay bonded sand was reclaimed by a wet method. Then, hot thermal reclaimed sand and the dehydrated wet reclaimed sand were mixed in certain proportions so that the hot thermal reclaimed sand dried the wet reclaimed sand leaving some water. The thermal reclamation efficiency of the waste resin bonded sand was researched at different heat levels. The optimized wet reclamation process of the waste clay bonded sand was achieved by investigating the effects of wet reclamation times, sand-water ratio and pH value on the reclaimed sand characteristics. The composite reclamation cost also was calculated. The research results showed that the properties of the mixed reclaimed sand can satisfy the application requirements of foundries; in which the temperature of the thermal reclamation waste resin bonded sand needs to be about 800 篊, the number of cycles of wet reclamation waste clay bonded sand should reach four to five, the optimal sand-water ratio of wet reclamation is around 1:1.5, and the pH value should be adjusted by adding acid. The mass ratio of hot thermal reclaimed sand to dehydrated wet reclaimed sand is about 1:2.5, and the composite reclaimed sand cost is around 100 yuan RMB per ton.

  10. Response to Oil Sands Products Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Tailings ponds are an operating facility common to all types of surface mining. For oil sands, tailings consisting of water , sand, clay, and residual ...oil, are pumped to these basins—or ponds— where settling occurs and water is recycled for reuse in the process. When the ponds are no longer required...of crude oil transported by tank vessel in Washington waters . In a 2013 Bloomburg Business news article , Dan Murtaugh states, “The dock probably

  11. Distribution, fate and formation of non-extractable residues of a nonylphenol isomer in soil with special emphasis on soil derived organo-clay complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riefer, Patrick; Klausmeyer, Timm; Schäffer, Andreas; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic contaminants like nonylphenols (NP) are added to soil, for instance if sewage-sludge is used as fertilizer in agriculture. A commercial mixture of NP consists of more than 20 isomers. For our study, we used one of the predominate isomers of NP mixtures, 4-(3,5-dimethylhept-3-yl)phenol, as a representative compound. The aim was to investigate the fate and distribution of the isomer within soil and soil derived organo-clay complexes. Therefore, (14)C- and (13)C-labeled NP was added to soil samples and incubated up to 180 days. Mineralization was measured and soil samples were fractionated into sand, silt and clay; the clay fraction was further separated in humic acids, fulvic acids and humin. The organo-clay complexes pre-incubated for 90 or 180 days were re-incubated with fresh soil for 180 days, to study the potential of re-mobilization of incorporated residues. The predominate incorporation sites of the nonylphenol isomer in soil were the organo-clay complexes. After 180 days of incubation, 22 % of the applied (14)C was mineralized. The bioavailable, water extractable portion was low (9 % of applied (14)C) and remained constant during the entire incubation period, which could be explained by an incorporation/release equilibrium. Separation of organo-clay complexes, after extraction with solvents to release weakly incorporated, bioaccessible portions, showed that non-extractable residues (NER) were preferentially located in the humic acid fraction, which was regarded as an effect of the chemical composition of this fraction. Generally, 27 % of applied (14)C was incorporated into organo-clay complexes as NER, whereas 9 % of applied (14)C was bioaccessible after 180 days of incubation. The re-mobilization experiments showed on the one hand, a decrease of the bioavailability of the nonylphenol residues due to stronger incorporation, when the pre-incubation period was increased from 90 to 180 days. On the other hand, a shift of these residues from the

  12. Analysis of silt behavior induced by water waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the weak non-elastic porous model, the expressions of pore pressure, effective stress and displacements of soil skeletal frame and pore water have been deduced for a finite depth seabed. The distributions of several physical parameters have been analyzed for three kinds of marine sediment, including pore pressure, effective stress, stress angle, displacement of skeletal frame and pore fluid, and the variations of elastic waves with wave period. According to the experimental results, the resonant phenomena in the silt bed and the mechanism underlying such events have been discussed. It is proposed that the existence of a stiff soil layer inside the silt bed is a necessary condition for resonance to occur, and the possible location of resonance can be forecasted.

  13. Common clay and shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  14. Negative Pressure Consolidation of Silt Inside Bucket Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Hongyan丁红岩; Liu Yonggang刘永刚; Zhang Puyang张浦阳

    2015-01-01

    A series of model experiments of bucket foundations concerning suction installation and negative pres-sure consolidation in saturated silt were carried out in a cube steel bin at Tianjin University. The experimental re-sults show that the silt inside the bucket has been strengthened by negative pressure, and the strengthening effect decreases with the increase of the distance from the bucket. A three-dimensional numerical model of the experi-ments was built by means of finite element software ABAQUS with fluid-solid coupling method. The results show that the bearing capacity of the silt inside the bucket foundation increases significantly at the former stage of nega-tive pressure consolidation, while the increasing trend slows down over time. The rotation centers of the bucket foundation and the inner soil region tend to be closer to each other based on the consolidation. The bearing capacity of the bucket foundation is improved effectively with the increase of soil strength. The effects of negative pressure consolidation on the bearing capacity of bucket foundation were also illustrated by an actual offshore wind power project case.

  15. Decantation time of evaluation on bentonite clays fractionation; Avaliacao do tempo de decantacao no fracionamento de argilas bentonitas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, J.; Menezes, R.R.; Neves, G.A.; Lira, H.L; Santana, L.N.L., E-mail: lisiane@dema.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    Bentonite clays present a great number of industrial uses, from petroleum to pharmaceutics and cosmetic industry. The bentonite clay present particles with very fine particles that is responsible by the vast application of these materials. However, commercial clays present wide particle size distribution and a significant content of impurities, particularly quartz, in the form of silt and fine silt. So, the aim of this work is to analyze the effect of the stirring and decantation time in the deagglomeration, purification and size separation of the bentonite clay particles from Paraiba. The clays were characterized by X-ray diffraction and particle size distribution. Based on the results it was observed the decantation time give the elimination of the agglomerates formed by submicrometric particles. The uses of decantation column give separation of the fraction below 200nm. (author)

  16. TECHNIQUES ABOUT DIRECT OPTIMIZING CONTROL OF GREEN SAND QUALITY*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Green sand casting is still a main method in the world at present and it is very significant to develop the technology of controlling green sand quality. A new concept, from contents test to contents control, is advanced. In order to realize the new idea, a new method to on-line test active clay and moisture of green sand - double powers energizing alternately (DPEA) method is put forwards. The principle of the new method is to energize standard sand sample with AC and DC powers and to test the electric parameters, and then, to calculate active clay and moisture of green sand by using artificial neural network (ANN). Based on this new method, a direct optimizing system for controlling green sand quality is developed. Techniques about testing and controlling methods, hardware and software are discussed.

  17. Critical state of sand matrix soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marto, Aminaton; Tan, Choy Soon; Makhtar, Ahmad Mahir; Kung Leong, Tiong

    2014-01-01

    The Critical State Soil Mechanic (CSSM) is a globally recognised framework while the critical states for sand and clay are both well established. Nevertheless, the development of the critical state of sand matrix soils is lacking. This paper discusses the development of critical state lines and corresponding critical state parameters for the investigated material, sand matrix soils using sand-kaolin mixtures. The output of this paper can be used as an interpretation framework for the research on liquefaction susceptibility of sand matrix soils in the future. The strain controlled triaxial test apparatus was used to provide the monotonic loading onto the reconstituted soil specimens. All tested soils were subjected to isotropic consolidation and sheared under undrained condition until critical state was ascertain. Based on the results of 32 test specimens, the critical state lines for eight different sand matrix soils were developed together with the corresponding values of critical state parameters, M, λ, and Γ. The range of the value of M, λ, and Γ is 0.803-0.998, 0.144-0.248, and 1.727-2.279, respectively. These values are comparable to the critical state parameters of river sand and kaolin clay. However, the relationship between fines percentages and these critical state parameters is too scattered to be correlated.

  18. Critical State of Sand Matrix Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminaton Marto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Critical State Soil Mechanic (CSSM is a globally recognised framework while the critical states for sand and clay are both well established. Nevertheless, the development of the critical state of sand matrix soils is lacking. This paper discusses the development of critical state lines and corresponding critical state parameters for the investigated material, sand matrix soils using sand-kaolin mixtures. The output of this paper can be used as an interpretation framework for the research on liquefaction susceptibility of sand matrix soils in the future. The strain controlled triaxial test apparatus was used to provide the monotonic loading onto the reconstituted soil specimens. All tested soils were subjected to isotropic consolidation and sheared under undrained condition until critical state was ascertain. Based on the results of 32 test specimens, the critical state lines for eight different sand matrix soils were developed together with the corresponding values of critical state parameters, M, λ, and Γ. The range of the value of M, λ, and Γ is 0.803–0.998, 0.144–0.248, and 1.727–2.279, respectively. These values are comparable to the critical state parameters of river sand and kaolin clay. However, the relationship between fines percentages and these critical state parameters is too scattered to be correlated.

  19. Interpretation of Piezocones in Silt, Using Cavity Expansion and Critical State Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmar, Christian LeBlanc; Randolph, M. F.

    2008-01-01

    Silt sediments are frequently encountered in the coastal areas of the North Sea. Evaluation of the silt behaviour must ideally rely on in-situ tests, in particular the piezocone test. However, interpretation of piezocone data in silt sediments is problematic and derived parameters can seem to dif...

  20. Bright sand/dark dust: The identification of active sand surfaces on the Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, H. G., II; Greeley, R.; Christensen, P. R.; Arvidson, R.

    1987-05-01

    Field studies and analysis of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data in the Gran Desierto, Mexico may shed light on a technique to distinguish active from inactive (relict) sand surfaces. Active sand bodies in the study area are consistently brighter (by an average of 20%) at visual and near infrared wavelengths and darker at thermal infrared wavelengths than compositionally similar inactive sands. The reasons for the albedo difference between active and inactive sands are reviewed and the mixing model of Johnson et al. is examined for tracing the provenance of sands based on albedo and spectral variations. Portions of the wavelengths covered by the Mars Orbiter correspond to the Thematic Mapper data. The identification of active sands on Earth, with a priori knowledge of bulk composition and grain size distribution, may allow the remote mapping of active sand surfaces on Mars. In conjuction with thermal infrared remote sensing for composition, it may also provide a method for the remote determination of grain size distributions within sand/silt mixtures.

  1. Suspended silt concentrations in the lower Olifants River (Mpumalanga and the impact of silt releases from the Phalaborwa Barrage on water quality and fish survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Buermann

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Silt loads in the Olifants and Sabie river systems inside the Kruger National Park, were monitored by collecting water samples every consecutive week for a period of 20 months. The variation in silt concentration, changes in selected physico-chemical water quality variables and fish mortalities during flushing (i.e. release of silt, by sluicing of the Phalaborwa Barrage, were also monitored. The Olifants River inside the Kruger National Park carried high silt loads in summer; in the dry season the suspensoid load was greatly reduced. A similar pattern was observed in the Sabie River, but the silt loads were generally lower. It was apparent that silt loads released from the Phalaborwa Barrage led to large variations in the natural silt loads of the Olifants River. These increased amounts of silt (25 000 mg/1 to >70 000 mg/1 caused drastic reductions in the dissolved oxygen concentration of the water, ranging from >6 mg/1 to 0 mg/1. Depending on the severity and duration of the flushing, fish succumb to such silt loads. These findings, as well as published information, indicate that the management strategy of flushing to improve storage capacity is ecological unacceptable. It is therefore suggested that the use of the Phalaborwa Barrage as a future reservoir should be critically re-evaluated.

  2. Modified clay sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogler, H.S.; Srinivasan, K.R.

    1990-04-10

    This patent describes a clay-based sorbent. It comprises a clay having an external surface and lamellar layers; and cationic surfactant ions having a hydrocarbon portion and a cationic head portion, the cationic surfactant ions being irreversibly bound to the external surface by the hydrocarbon portion. This patent also describes cetylpyridinium-aluminum hydroxy-montmorillonite; the clay-based sorbent wherein the clay is a non-expandable clay; and the clay-based sorbent wherein the cationic surfactant ions are selected from the group consisting of ionized cetylpyridinium chloride and cetylakonium chloride.

  3. Mineralogical and technology characterization of raw materials of clay used for ceramic blocks fabrication; Caracterizacao tecnologica e mineralogica da materia-prima utilizada na fabricacao de blocos ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, N.Q.; Tapajos, N.S., E-mail: q.campos@hotmail.com [Instituto de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Para (IFPA/LABEM), Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Beneficiamento de Menerios

    2012-07-01

    In the state of Para, the red ceramic industry has several segments highly generators of jobs and a strong social appeal. With so many companies focused on this productive sector emerge, but many without any administration quality. Therefore, this study focused the technological and mineralogical characterization of the raw material used in the manufacture of ceramic blocks, by Ceramica Vermelha Company, located in the district of Inhangapi-PA. The raw material was obtained by the techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the present crystalline phases through an accurate and efficient procedure, where it was possible to identify the peaks relating to montmorillonite, illite and kaolinite clay in the sample, and kaolinite and quartz in the sample laterite. Another important result was the absorption of water, with average satisfactory according to the standards. According to a sieve analysis, the laterite the sand fraction showed a greater extent compared to the other, while the clay silt exceeding 80% was found to be too plastic material. The resistance to compression, the results were below the required by the standard, suggesting more accurate test methods. (author)

  4. Evidence for an eolian origin for the silt-enriched soil mantles on the glaciated uplands of eastern Upper Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaetzl, R.J.; Loope, W.L.

    2008-01-01

    We provide textural, geochemical, and mineralogical data on a thin, silty deposit that unconformably mantles glaciated uplands in the eastern Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Previous research on this deposit, which we hypothesize to be loess, is nonexistent. The uplands were islands or narrow peninsulas within one or more glacial lakes. We compare the distribution, likely source and nature of the 20-60??cm thick silty mantle by using the loess formation model of Mason et al. [Mason, J.A., Nater, E.A., Zanner, C.W., Bell, J.C., 1999. A new model of topographic effects on the distribution of loess. Geomorphology 28, 223-236], which focuses on the generation of eolian silt by saltating sand across upwind, barren surfaces. Parabolic dunes, with arms open to the NW, are common on former lake floors upwind of the silt-mantled uplands, attesting to the strength and direction of paleowinds. The abrupt termination of the dunes at the footslopes of the uplands, associated with silt deposition on upland soil surfaces in downwind locations, are both consistent with the model of Mason et al. [Mason, J.A., Nater, E.A., Zanner, C.W., Bell, J.C., 1999. A new model of topographic effects on the distribution of loess. Geomorphology 28, 223-236]. Sediments on former lake floors contain abundant strata of fine/medium sand and silt, and thus are likely sources for the silt and dune sand. The cap, dune and lake sediments are similar along many different geochemical axes, whereas the substrate sediment, i.e., the drift below the cap, is unique. Cap sediments, normally containing roughly 30% silt, are enriched in quartz and depleted in Ti and Zr, relative to dune sediment. The dune sediment, a more residual eolian deposit, is enriched in Ti and Zr, relative to the cap, probably due to its greater abundance of heavy minerals. Therefore, we conclude that the silty cap is loess that was deflated from abandoned lake floors after nearby glacial lakes drained, probably contemporaneously with dune

  5. Influence of Particle Composition on the Dynamic Strength of Silt%颗粒组成对粉土动强度的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李治朋; 张宇亭; 马希磊; 安彦勇; 张腾飞

    2015-01-01

    以天津汉沽地区某挡土墙地基粉土为研究对象,首先对不同颗粒组成的粉土做固结不排水动三轴剪切试验,采用各向等压固结,周围压力等于100 kPa。固结完成后在不排水条件下施加轴向激振力,试验波形为正弦波,振动频率1.0 Hz,试验中以试样在周期剪切时轴向周期应变达到5%作为破坏标准,得出粉土的动强度受颗粒组成的影响。细颗粒含量越大,其动强度越小,黏粒含量为7.2%的粉土循环剪应力比 CSR 约为20.3%黏粒含量粉土的2倍。粉土的动强度可以用循环剪应力比和破坏振次建立的幂函数关系式较好地拟合。在剪切过程中,粉土的孔隙水压力一直没有达到所施加的围压数值,最终稳定在75%~85%围压之间。同时,试验还得出孔隙水压力的增长模式不能用统一的 Seed 模型拟合,孔压增长规律的影响因素较多。%The silt under a retaining wall foundation in the Hangu area of Tianjin was studied in this paper.Specifically,a consolidated undrained dynamic triaxial shear test on the silt of different particles is described,and the conclusion is that the dynamic strength of silt was impacted by the particles.The test used isotropic consolidation,and the ambient pressure is equal to 100 kPa.After consolidation,we applied an axial dynamic load in the undrained condition.The test waveform is a sine wave,and the vibration frequency is equal to 1.0 Hz.The sample used a periodic shear axial strain of 5% as the failure criterion.The test instrument is a DDS-70-type dynamic three-axle in-strument.Silt samples were compacted in three layers in the cylindrical specimen.The sample wa-ter content is equal to 20%,and the dry density is 1.60 g/cm3 .The diameter of the sample is 39.1 mm,and the height is 80 mm.We prepared soil samples with different clay contents.The soil’s dynamic strength refers to,under the static stress conditions,the cycle load necessary to make the soil sample achieve

  6. Shear Strength Behavior of Two Landfill Clay Liners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Direct shear tests were conducted to obtain both the shear strength of compacted clay liners (CCLs) specimens and the interface shear strength between compacted clay liner and base soil. These experiments were conducted under the conditions of five different water contents. The experimental results show that shear strength of both CCLs and CCLs/base interface decreases with the increase in the water content of CCLs and base soil. In addition, the considerate concentration of NaCl in leachate has no deteriorating effect on the shear strength of liners. Triaxial shear tests were also conducted on clay liner specimens to obtain total and effective shear strength under a fast compression. The shear strength c'=100 kPa for sand-bentonite, respectively. These results indicate that the compacted clay-bentonite shows normal consolidation, but that the compacted sand-bentonite exhibits over-consolidation.

  7. Utilization of crushed clay brick in cellular concrete production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Aliabdo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research program is to study the effect of using crushed clay brick as an alternative aggregate in aerated concrete. Two series of mixtures were designed to investigate the physico-mechanical properties and micro-structural analysis of autoclave aerated concrete and foamed concrete, respectively. In each series, natural sand was replaced with crushed clay brick aggregate. In both series results showed a significant reduction in unit weight, thermal conductivity and sound attenuation coefficient while porosity has increased. Improvement on compressive strength of autoclave aerated concrete was observed at a percentage of 25% and 50% replacement, while in foamed concrete compressive strength gradually decreased by increasing crushed clay brick aggregate content. A comparatively uniform distribution of pore in case of foamed concrete with natural sand was observed by scanning electron microscope, while the pores were connected mostly and irregularly for mixes containing a percentage higher than 25% clay brick aggregate.

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE VACUUM PRESSURE IMPROVEMENT EFFECT ON DEEP SOFT CLAY FOUNDATION COVERED BY UNCONSOLIDATED HYDRAULIC FILL OF SILTY SAND%上覆欠固结吹填粉砂深厚软黏土地基加固效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐彤芝; 王海鹏; 孙国峰; 柴犇犇; 沈伟斌

    2015-01-01

    通过对某上覆欠固结吹填粉细砂土深厚软土地基真空预压中真空压力传递和衰减、超静孔隙水压增长和消散、地基表面沉降、土体分层沉降变形特性和规律的分析,研究上覆欠固结吹填粉细砂土层对真空预压软基固结变形的影响。欠固结吹填粉细砂土层有利于下卧深厚软基的排水消压,地基沉降前期快、波动大,中后期收敛稳定快。膜下真空压力表面传递的差异性和波动性较大,向地基深处传递的滞后性和衰减幅度较大。欠固结吹填粉细砂土压缩量较大,吸收了大部分的真空能量,不利于下卧深厚软基的压缩变形。处理后欠固结吹填土的加固效果明显好于下卧软基土体。%It was analyzed the law of the transmission and attenuation of vacuum pressure, the growth and dissipation of excess pore pressure, ground surface settlement, and the deformation characteristic and rules of layered settlement in the deep soft soil foundation covered by unconsolidated hydraulic fill of fine silty sand, and also studied the effects on consolidation deformation of the soft soil foundation covered by unconsolidated hydraulic fill of fine silt layer. Unconsolidated hydraulic fill of fine silty sand was conducive to the pore pressure dissipation and the drainage of underlying deep soft foundation.The foundation settlement was fast with fluctuation in the early stage, convergence and stability in the middle and later stage.When vacuum pressure under membrane transferred on the surface, its difference and fluctuation were large, when it passed to the deep foundation, its hysteresis and attenuation range was large.The compression of unconsolidated hydraulic fill of silty sand was large, and most of the vacuum energy was absorbed.The characteristic was not conducive to the compression deformation of underlying deep soft foundation. After treatment, the reinforcing effect of the unconsolidated hydraulic fill of

  9. Geosynthetic clay liners shrinkage under simulated daily thermal cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabadani, Hamid; Rayhani, Mohammad T

    2014-06-01

    Geosynthetic clay liners are used as part of composite liner systems in municipal solid waste landfills and other applications to restrict the escape of contaminants into the surrounding environment. This is attainable provided that the geosynthetic clay liner panels continuously cover the subsoil. Previous case histories, however, have shown that some geosynthetic clay liner panels are prone to significant shrinkage and separation when an overlying geomembrane is exposed to solar radiation. Experimental models were initiated to evaluate the potential shrinkage of different geosynthetic clay liner products placed over sand and clay subsoils, subjected to simulated daily thermal cycles (60°C for 8 hours and 22°C for 16 hours) modelling field conditions in which the liner is exposed to solar radiation. The variation of geosynthetic clay liner shrinkage was evaluated at specified times by a photogrammetry technique. The manufacturing techniques, the initial moisture content, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to width) of the geosynthetic clay liner were found to considerably affect the shrinkage of geosynthetic clay liners. The particle size distribution of the subsoil and the associated suction at the geosynthetic clay liner-subsoil interface was also found to have significant effects on the shrinkage of the geosynthetic clay liner.

  10. Utilization of crushed clay brick in cellular concrete production

    OpenAIRE

    Ali A. Aliabdo; Abd-Elmoaty M. Abd-Elmoaty; Hani H. Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research program is to study the effect of using crushed clay brick as an alternative aggregate in aerated concrete. Two series of mixtures were designed to investigate the physico-mechanical properties and micro-structural analysis of autoclave aerated concrete and foamed concrete, respectively. In each series, natural sand was replaced with crushed clay brick aggregate. In both series results showed a significant reduction in unit weight, thermal conductivity and ...

  11. Invasive plants on disturbed Korean sand dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee Dae

    2005-01-01

    The sand dunes in coastal regions of South Korea are important ecosystems because of their small size, the rare species found in this habitat, and the beautiful landscapes they create. This study investigated the current vegetative status of sand dunes on three representative coasts of the Korean peninsula, and on the coasts of Cheju Island, and assessed the conditions caused by invasive plants. The relationships between the degree of invasion and 14 environmental variables were studied. Plots of sand dunes along line transects perpendicular to the coastal lines were established to estimate vegetative species coverage. TWINSPAN (Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis), CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and DCCA (Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis) were performed to classify communities on sand dunes and assess species composition variation. Carex kobomugi, Elymus mollis, and Vitex rotundifolia were found to be the dominant species plotted on the east, the west, and the peripheral coasts of Cheju Island, respectively. Vegetation on the south coast was totally extinct. The 19 communities, including representative C. kobomugi, C. kobomugi- Ixeris repens, C. kobomugi- Oenothera biennis, E. mollis, Lolium multiflorum- Calystegia soldanella, and V. rotundifolia- C. kobomugi, were all classified according to TWINSPAN. Oenothera biennis and L. multiflorum were exotics observed within these native communities. CCA showed that invasive native and exotic species distribution was segregated significantly, according to disturbance level, exotic species number, gravel, sand and silt contents, as well as vegetation size. It further revealed that human disturbance can strongly favor the settlement of invasive and exotic species. Restoration options to reduce exotic plants in the South Korean sand dune areas were found to be the introduction of native plant species from one sand dune into other sand dune areas, prohibition of building and the introduction of exotic

  12. Silt and gas accumulation beneath an artificial recharge spreading basin, Southwestern Utah, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Solomon, D.K.; Ortiz, G.

    2009-01-01

    Sand Hollow Reservoir in southwestern Utah, USA, is operated for both surface-water storage and artificial recharge to the underlying Navajo Sandstone. The total volume of estimated artificial recharge between 2002 and 2007 is 85 million cubic meters (69,000 acre-feet). Since 2002, artificial recharge rates have generally been declining and are inversely correlated with the increasing surface area of the reservoir. Permeability testing of core samples retrieved from beneath the reservoir indicates that this decline may not be due to silt accumulation. Artificial recharge rates also show much seasonal variability. Calculations of apparent intrinsic permeability show that these variations can only partly be explained by variation in water viscosity associated with seasonal changes in water temperature. Sporadic seasonal trends in recharge rates and intrinsic permeability during 2002-2004 could be associated with the large fluctuations in reservoir elevation and wetted area. From 2005 through 2007, the reservoir was mostly full and there has been a more consistent seasonal pattern of minimum recharge rates during the summer and maximum rates during the autumn. Total dissolved-gas pressure measurements indicate the presence of biogenic gas bubbles in the shallow sediments beneath the shallower parts of Sand Hollow Reservoir when the water is warmer. Permeability reduction associated with this gas clogging may contribute to the decrease in artificial recharge rates during the spring and summer, with a subsequently increasing recharge rates in the autumn associated with a decline in volume of gas bubbles. Other possible causes for seasonal variation in artificial recharge rates require further investigation.

  13. Strength and Stiffness of Stabilized Alluvial Silt under Frost Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Yellow River alluvial silt was stabilized into pavement base materials for cold regions. The stabilizing additives were cement, fly ash, and lime, which were included in a range of combinations and dosages when mixed with the silt. Freeze-thaw cyclic impacts were conducted on the treated samples to assess materials performance of withstanding the frost actions. The tests were conducted on samples cured for 7 days to up to 180 days. Test results show that the cement-fly ash-treated samples outperform the other two stabilization categories with respect to material strength and stiffness developed under both normal and frost conditions. Under the normal conditions, the material unconfined compressive (UC strength rises to 3.0 MPa on day 28 depending on the cement and fly ash dosage used. If subjected to frost actions, the fly ash inclusions warrant a residual UC strength value of 1.3 MPa and above. The antifrost performance of the cement-fly ash-treated samples is related to thermal buffer capacity of the fly ash particles. Water adsorption and material soundness results agree with the strength and stiffness development. An optimal dosage was 3–6% for the cement and 0.3 for cement to fly ash mass ratio.

  14. Hydro-mechanical behaviour of sandy silt under generalised stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results on the deformation response of an artificially prepared sand-silt mixture in a hollow cylinder apparatus. The wetting stage was performed under constant mean net stress (p″=200 kPa and deviatoric stress (q=200 kPa but at different intermediate principal stresses (controlled through the principal stress parameter b=(σ2-σ3/(σ1-σ3 and with values b=0, 0.5 and 0.8. Shear strength tests were first performed at constant mean net stress, different Lode angles and water contents (as-compacted and saturated to ensure that the aforementioned stress state could be applied at the as-compacted water content. Consistent shear strength results were obtained when compared to triaxial compression and extension results at different water contents, which allowed defining the variation of the critical state line with Lode angle and suction. The soaking results indicated that collapse under constant mean and deviatoric stresses was larger when the intermediate stress coincided with the minor one, i.e. under conventional axi-symetric triaxial compression state (b=0. This is a consequence of the dominant shear strains that occurred during saturation when the stress point reached the critical state line at b=0.5 and 0.8.

  15. Numerical simulations of sand production in interbedded hydrate-bearing sediments during depressurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Shun; Lin, Jeen-Shang; Myshakin, Evgeniy; Seol, Yongkoo; Collett, Timothy S.; Boswell, Ray

    2017-01-01

    Geomechanical behavior of hydrate-bearing sediments during gas production is complex, involving changes in hydrate-dependent mechanical properties. When interbedded clay layers are present, the complexity is more pronounced because hydrate dissociation tends to occur preferentially in the sediments adjacent to the clay layers due to clay layers acting as a heat source. This would potentially lead to shearing deformation along the sand/clay contacts and may contribute to solid migration, which hindered past field-scale gas production tests. This paper presents a near-wellbore simulation of sand/clay interbedded hydrate-bearing sediments that have been subjected to depressurization and discusses the effect of clay layers on sand production.

  16. Multisensor on-the-go mapping of readily dispersible clay, particle size and soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaene, Guillaume; Niedźwiecki, Jacek; Papierowska, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    Particle size fractions affect strongly the physical and chemical properties of soil. Readily dispersible clay (RDC) is the part of the clay fraction in soils that is easily or potentially dispersible in water when small amounts of mechanical energy are applied to soil. The amount of RDC in the soil is of significant importance for agriculture and environment because clay dispersion is a cause of poor soil stability in water which in turn contributes to soil erodibility, mud flows, and cementation. To obtain a detailed map of soil texture, many samples are needed. Moreover, RDC determination is time consuming. The use of a mobile visible and near-infrared (VIS-NIR) platform is proposed here to map those soil properties and obtain the first detailed map of RDC at field level. Soil properties prediction was based on calibration model developed with 10 representative samples selected by a fuzzy logic algorithm. Calibration samples were analysed for soil texture (clay, silt and sand), RDC and soil organic carbon (SOC) using conventional wet chemistry analysis. Moreover, the Veris mobile sensor platform is also collecting electrical conductivity (EC) data (deep and shallow), and soil temperature. These auxiliary data were combined with VIS-NIR measurement (data fusion) to improve prediction results. EC maps were also produced to help understanding RDC data. The resulting maps were visually compared with an orthophotography of the field taken at the beginning of the plant growing season. Models were developed with partial least square regression (PLSR) and support vector machine regression (SVMR). There were no significant differences between calibration using PLSR or SVMR. Nevertheless, the best models were obtained with PLSR and standard normal variate (SNV) pretreatment and the fusion with deep EC data (e.g. for RDC and clay content: RMSECV = 0,35% and R2 = 0,71; RMSECV = 0,32% and R2 = 0,73 respectively). The best models were used to predict soil properties from the

  17. 粘土湿型砂处理系统的在线检测及质量控制%On-Line Test and Quality Control of Green Clay Moulding Sand Treating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴毅

    2011-01-01

    简述了型砂在线检测装置与质量控制系统的发展过程,介绍了以日本新东公司的MIA、MIC、MIE型砂控制系统为典型代表的全程在线检测装置与质量控制系统、以德国爱立许公司的质量师系统为典型代表的全程在线检测装置与质量控制系统和以常州好迪公司为代表的国产SC在线检测及质量控制装置的特点、控制精度及适用范围,总结了在线检测装置与质量控制系统的选用原则及注意事项.%The development process of the on-line test device and the quality control system was briefly described. An introduction was given to the characteristics and their application scope of some typical on-line full process test devices and the quality control systems including the SINTO-MIA, MIC, MIE moulding sand control system (Japan), EIRICH quality master system (Germany), and as well as, the on-line test and control device developed by the Haodi company(Changzhou, China) through assimilating the advanced technique from abroad. The usage principle and matters to be pay attentions of the on-line test device and quality system was also proposed.

  18. Using Modeling Clay to Model the Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, H. M.

    2016-12-01

    During this interactive exploration, students will be guided through the rock cycle using modeling clay as a medium. Each student will be given a ball of red clay and a ball of yellow clay. The instructor will introduce students to igneous rocks as they use their red clay to create a volcano. Students will then learn about weathering and erosion as they break their yellow ball of clay into smaller and smaller pieces that they will round into spheres. The "sand" created from the yellow clay gets accumulated and lithified (via gentle compression by the students) to form a sandstone. This sandstone then becomes covered by a lava flow, created by smashing the red clay volcanoes. The process of metamorphism is introduced as students gently cover their sandstone using the lava flow. This also serves a segue for a discussion about the various types of metamorphism beginning with contact metamorphism. Metamorphic grade is discussed as increased pressure further alters the sedimentary rock and lava flow. Ultimately a migmatite is formed by mixing the red and yellow clay together. Finally, they clays become so intermingled that a new larger orange ball is created, beginning the rock cycle anew with an igneous melt. This activity is engaging and effective with students of all ages. Intended as a fun, light-hearted approach to introducing rocks in an undergraduate earth science class, this can be effectively customized for use in an elementary, middle, or high school classroom.

  19. Silting in the Lower Courses of Tidal Sluices in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金善; 黄建维; 杨红

    2004-01-01

    Serious sediment deposition often occurs after the construction of tidal sluices in small or medium-sized tidal muddy estuaries, so desilting or dredging is needed to meet the demands of flood discharge, saltwater retaining, and navigation in those areas. In this paper, the problem of sedimeut deposition induced by construction of tidal sluices is analyzed.Different problems of silting near tidal sluices for different types of estuaries are summed up, at the same time, corresponding methods are given to solve these problems, and a few successful examples are also given. The idea of comprehensive regulation and utilization of estuaries is put forward, and some proposals for solution of sediment deposition in this kind of estuaries are made.

  20. Clay deposits of the Tierra Colorado district, southern Orange County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviess, Steven Norman; Bramlette, M.N.

    1953-01-01

    The clay of this district is being mined for fire brick by the Vitrofrax Corporation. Much of the clay contains 35 percent or more of alumina and between 1 and 2 percent of iron oxide. Production is largely from an underground mine as the best clay deposit known in the district occurs on the side of a steep hill with more than 100 feet of sandstone overlying most of it. The good clay deposits occur at the base of an Eocene sandstone formation, and overlie mottled clays with a high iron content that are residual deposits formed on an old weathered surface. Mapping indicates that the clay deposits are very lenticular, though all occur at the same stratigraphic position, and they grade laterally into sandy clay and quartz sand. Topographic relief and the dip of the strata preclude finding large areas where the clay strata have relatively little overburden.

  1. Sand-Mud Sediment Transport induced by tidal currents and wind waves in shallow microtidal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniello, L.; Defina, A.; D'Alpaos, L.

    2011-12-01

    Field data and mathematical modeling have demonstrated that the morphological evolution of shallow tidal basins is the result of the combined effect of tidal currents and wind waves. Tidal currents, in particular, drive the morphological evolution of shallow tidal systems in proximity of the inlets and within the channel network, whereas in shallow areas tidal current mainly acts enhancing the bottom shear stress due to wind waves and redistributing sediments within the basin. In this study we present a mathematical model for sediment entrainment, transport and deposition due to the combined effect of tidal currents and wind waves. The model is coupled with a hydrodynamic module based on the shallow water equations and with a module for the generation and propagation of wind waves. The sediment transport model describes the sediments by the way of a bi-granular mixtures composed by both cohesive and non-cohesive sediments thus considering the contemporary presence of clay, silt and sand which usually characterizes estuaries and tidal basins. Moreover, the model describes the bed evolution and evaluates the variation of bed sediment composition considering also the transition between cohesive and non-cohesive behavior. Attention is focused on some issues concerning the definition of a reliable initial bed composition and the incipient sediment motion which is treated following a stochastic approach for the bottom shear stress and for the critical shear stress distribution. The model is applied to the Lagoon of Venice (Italy) and the results of different simulations are compared, with good agreement, to a series of turbidity measurements collected inside the lagoon. The application of the model to the present bathymetry of the Venice lagoon allows for a first estimation of the actual net amount of sand and mud flowing through the three inlets and also gives some information on bottom evolution in terms of elevation and composition.

  2. Sands styrke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H. Moust; Jørgensen, Mogens B.; Poulsen, H. Serup

    1975-01-01

    På grundlag af triaxialforsøg med D=7 og 20 cm og varierende højde på løse og faste lejringer af Blokhussand kan effekten af varierende højde-breddeforhold og spændingsniveau samt skalaeffekten bestemmes. Ved sammenligning med pladeforsøg med overfladelast op til 8 t/m2 kan den almindelige fremga...... fremgangsmåde ved bæreevneberegninger på sand undersøges....

  3. Sedimentary facies of the central part of radial tidal sand ridge system of the eastern China coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong YIN; Xinqin ZOU; Dakui ZHU; Jiaxiang HUANG

    2008-01-01

    A unique radial tidal sand ridge system (RTSRS) has developed under a complex tidal current field on the eastern China coast between the Yangtze River delta to the south and the abandoned Yellow River (Huanghe) delta to the north. The present study examines the sedimentary evolution of a ridge-channel pair in the central RTSRS. Three cores, with two on the ridges and one in the channel, were drilled to reveal the late Pleistocene-Holocene deposits of the system. Five sedimentary facies were distinguished, i.e. ridge-shallow subtidal facies, ridge-deep subtidal facies, near-surface channel bottom facies, middle tidal flat facies and low tidal flat facies. The ridge-shallow subtidal facies consists of sandy strata with ripple cross bed-dings, horizontal lamina, and massive beddings. Bioturbation seldom occurs. The ridge-deep subtidal facies is primarily characterized by sandy and muddy interlayers with common flaser and lenticular bedding structures. Bioturbation appears abundantly. Massive and graded sediment sequences of storm origin are pre-sent as characterized by rich shell fragments. The near-surface channel bottom facies consists of loose, soft, clayey silt deposits with deformed sedimentary layers. This facies occurs in the deeper part of the active chan-nels. The middle tidal flat and lower tidal flat facies composed of silt-clay couplets prevailed primarily in the tidal flats. Incomplete sedimentary successions show that coastal plain deposits dominate in the study area during 12-13 ka B.P. The sandy ridge and channel facies became dominant during 4 6 ka B.P. when the sea level receded temporarily. Tidal ridge and channel in the study area became active during the last four decades. Sediment reworking due to typhoon and sandy ridge migration plays a key role in shaping the present radial ridge system.

  4. Low resistivity oil(gas)-bearing reservoir conductive model --Dual water clay matrix conductive model in the north area of Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘和平; 王家映; 樊政军; 马勇; 柳建华; 李明强

    2001-01-01

    Shaly sands reservoir is one of the most distributive types of the oil(gas)-bearing reservoirs discovered in China, and low resistivity oil(gas)-bearing reservoirs are mostly shaly sands reservoirs. Therefore, shaly sands reservoir conductive model is the key to evaluate low resistivity oil(gas)-bearing reservoirs using logging information. Some defects were found when we studied the clay distribution type conductive model, dual-water conductive model, conductive rock matrix model, etc. Some models could not distinguish the conductive path and nature of microporosity water and clay water and some models did not consider the clay distribution type and the mount of clay volume. So, we utilize the merits,overcome the defects of the above models, and put forward a new shaly sands conductive model-dual water clay matrix conductive model (DWCMCM) in which dual water is the free water and the microporosity water in shaly sands and the clay matrix(wet clay) is the clay grain containing water. DWCMCM is presented here, the advantages of which can tell the nature and conductive path from different water (microporosity water and freewater), in consid-eration of the clay distribution type and the mount of clay volume in shaly sands. So, the results of logging interpretation in the oil(gas)-bearing reservoirs in the north of Tarim Basin area, China with DWCMCM are better than those interpreted by the above models.

  5. Thermostability of montmorillonitic clays

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Jelínek; Dobosz, Stanisław M.; Jaroslav Beňo

    2014-01-01

    Bentonite is one of the most widespread used clays connected with various applications. In the case of foundry technology, bentonite is primarily used as a binder for mold manufacture. Thermal stability of bentonites is a natural property of clay minerals and it depends on the genesis, source and chemical composition of the clay. This property is also closely connected to bentonite structure. According to DTA analysis if only one peak of dehydroxylation is observed (about 600 ºC), the cis- is...

  6. Simulating Suspended Silt Concentrations in the Ems Estuary, The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasmeijer, B. T.

    2009-04-01

    1 Introduction The Ems Estuary is situated in the North-east Netherlands on the border with Germany. Its area, including the tidal river and excluding the outer delta, is ± 500 km2. The area of the outer delta is ± 100 km2. The length of the estuary from the inlet to the town of Leer in Germany is approximately 75 km. The mean tidal range varies over years (de Jonge, 1992), but is approximately 2.3 m near the island of Borkum (tidal inlet) and approximately 3.2 m near the town of Emden in Germany. The estuary receives water from the rain-fed River Ems (approximately 115 m3/s on average). A second much smaller freshwater input emanates from the small canalized river Westerwoldsche Aa (12.5 m3/s on average). These discharges vary strongly within and between years. The result of the interaction between freshwater discharge and seawater brought in by the tide is a salinity gradient, the length and position of which is strongly dependent on the water discharge by the rivers. The present morphology of the estuary is the result of natural processes such as tidal currents, wind and wave driven currents and river discharge, resulting in sediment trans-port and sedimentation and erosion patterns. These natural processes are affected by human interferences like maintenance dredging of the navigation channels, land reclamation, building of dikes, etc. The greatest changes in the last 50 years in the physical functioning of the Ems estuary have been the increased sea level and tidal range, the increased amplitude and frequency of storm surge, and greatly increased turbidity and sediment concentrations (particularly near the estuarine turbidity maximum). Much of the changes can be traced directly or indirectly to anthropogenic influence. 2 Aim and approach We studied the hydrodynamics and morphodynamics of the Ems estuary. One of the aims was to gain more insight in the behaviour of the suspended silt concentrations in the estuary and the anthropogenic influence thereon. We

  7. The cone penetration test in unsaturated silty sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little is known about how to interpret the cone penetration test (CPT when performed in unsaturated soils. The few published studies on the CPT in unsaturated soils have focused on either clean sands or a silt. In this study new results of laboratory-controlled CPTs in an unsaturated silty sand are presented. The silty sand exhibits hydraulic hysteresis and suction hardening. Suction is observed to have a pronounced affect on measured cone penetration resistance. For an isotropic net confining stress of 60 kPa it is observed that higher suctions give rise to cone penetration resistances that are 50% larger than those for lower suctions. A semi-theoretical correlation is presented that links measured cone penetration resistances to initial relative density and mean effective stress. For this silty sand it is shown that failing to account for suction may result in significant overestimations and unsafe predictions of soil properties from measured cone penetration resistances.

  8. JOINTS AND SYN-SEDIMENTARY FAULTS NETWORKS IN MARINE CLAYS AND MUDSTONES. Importance for Radwaste storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, M.

    2009-12-01

    There is a number of marine clays, mudstones, marls, 100 to 200 m thick, showing smectites, mixed layers illite/smectite, with a small percentage of organic matter and sulphides with a variable clay, silt, and carbonate content. I published (Arnould , 2006) examples from Lower Cambrian to Miocene in age and from the Baltic shore to Spain in Europe. Observations were made mostly in quarries and pits down to more than 40 m and in underground research laboratories (URL). Only visible on fresh cuts amongst a variety of fissures there is always a network of joints. Schematically one family is the bedding (horizontal) the two others are normal to the bedding and orthogonal between them. The orientations of vertical joints are different from the orientations of pits and quarries’s walls. The networks are intrinsic. It was first well described by Skempton & al (1969) in Eocene London Clay. Joints are matt in texture, clean, without filling or cement. The order of magnitude of their linear dimensions is decimeter to meter. It is necessary to start from the original sediment: mud. Deposited in flakes mud has a bee’s nest microscopic structure. Each nest is full of water. Hence mud may have a water content up to 300%, reported to its dry weight. Paradoxically mud is impervious. As proposed by Cosgrove (2001) progressive but discontinuous hydraulic fracturing could be the origin of vertical joints, with drainage upwards and compaction of the sediment. Geological observations show that ioints are formed during the sedimentation process. There is also a world literature concluding at the necessary early fracturing of mudstones and marls hosts of sand dykes. Very few faults are identified in field observations and on exploration logs. But it is obvious that drainage and compaction of mud over thousands square kilometers induced differential settlements with many syn-sedimentary non tectonic faults constituting another discontinuity network. These faults inside the same

  9. Tar sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

  10. The Bat Groundwater Monitoring System in Contaminant Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    sec , i.e., clean sands and sand-gravel mixes. The methods may be suitable in such soils as clays, silts, and clay or silt-sand mixes ( Cedergren , 1977... Cedergren , Harry R. (1977), Seepage. Drainage. and Flow Nets, 2nd edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, New York, pages 26-85. Clesceri

  11. Adsorption of zinc and lead on clay minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Jablonovská

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Clays (especially bentonite, zeolite and quartz sand are widely used as landfill barriers to prevent contamination of subsoil and groundwater by leachates containing heavy metals. The sorption of zinc and lead on these clays was studied as a function of time and it was found that the initial 1 h our was sufficient to exchange most of the metal ions. The retention efficiency of clay samples of Zn2+ and Pb2+ follows the order of bentonite > zeolite> quartz sand. Whatever the clay sample, lead is retained more than zinc. The concentration of elements in the solution was followed by atomic adsorption spectrofotometry. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus, previously isolated from the kaoline deposit Horna Prievrana was added into the clay samples to comparise the accumulation of Zn2+ and Pb2+ from the model solution. The study of heavy metal adsorption capacity of bacteria- enriched clay adsorbent showed a high retention efficiency for lead ions as comparised with zinc ions. Biosorption is considered a potential instrument for the removal of metals from waste solutions and for the precious metals recovery as an alternative to the conventional processes.

  12. Clay Portrait Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbert, Nancy Corrigan

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to incorporate sculptural elements into her ceramics program, the author decided to try direct plaster casting of the face to make a plaster mold for clay. In this article, the author shares an innovative ceramics lesson that teaches students in making plaster casts and casting the face in clay. This project gives students the…

  13. Columns in Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenhouts, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a clay project for students studying Greece and Rome. It provides a wonderful way to learn slab construction techniques by making small clay column capitols. With this lesson, students learn architectural vocabulary and history, understand the importance of classical architectural forms and their influence on today's…

  14. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotomácio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P.

    2008-08-01

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and 40K in these clay minerals. The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay. Measurement for the determination of 238U and 232Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906±340 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 40±9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 75±9 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra, 197±38 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb, 51±26 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 55±24 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  15. Sorptive affinity of ionic surfactants on silt loamy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchao Qi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to their broad applications, ionic surfactants have already been released into or utilized in soil and environmental systems. However, current understanding on the sorption behavior of surfactants onto soils is still limited. This work systematically investigated the sorption kinetics and isotherms of one cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, and one anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, onto a silt loamy soil to determine the governing sorption mechanisms. The pseudo-second-order rate equation described the sorption kinetics data better than the pseudo-first-order rate equation. Experimental data showed that the sorption equilibrium for CTAB and SDS were reached at 24 and 240 h, respectively. Langmuir equation was better than Freundlich equation in simulating the sorption isotherms of CTAB and SDS on the soil. Soil Langmuir maximum sorption capacity of CTAB was much higher than that to SDS. When the experimental temperature increased, the sorption of CTAB and SDS on the soil decreased. In addition, the sorptive process of the surfactants on the soil was spontaneous and exothermal, as indicated by the absolute values of Gibbs free energy and enthalpy. The results also indicated that physical sorption was the dominant mechanism for the sorption of the two surfactants on the soil. Findings from this work are crucial to understand the environmental behaviors of ionic surfactants.

  16. It's in the sand

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Sand is sand isn’t it? Sand gets everywhere but rather than a nuisance it is a valuable, high-purity raw material. Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist at the British Geological Survey (BGS), talks us through what sand is, what it can be used for and how to find it. His exploration of sand takes us from the deserts of Arabia to the damp sand pits of Mansfield!

  17. Siderophore sorption to clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Patricia A; Haack, Elizabeth A; Mishra, Bhoopesh

    2009-08-01

    Siderophores are low molecular weight organic ligands exuded by some aerobic organisms and plants to acquire Fe under Fe-limited conditions. The hydroxamate siderophores may sorb to aluminosilicate clays through a variety of mechanisms depending upon the nature of the clay and of the siderophore along with solution conditions such as pH, ionic strength, and presence of metal cations. They may also affect metal binding to clays. Here, we review previous studies of siderophore sorption to aluminosilicate clays; briefly discuss how the techniques of X-ray diffractometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy may be applied to such studies; review effects of siderophores on metal sorption to clays; and highlight some areas for future research.

  18. Late Quaternary fine silt deposits of Jammu, NW Himalaya: Genesis and climatic significance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajinder K Ganjoo; Vinod Kumar

    2012-02-01

    The fine silt deposits of Jammu (J & K State, India) stretch all along the Siwalik foothills from Jammu to the Potwar Plateau in Pakistan. The post-Siwalik deposits, first discussed by de Terra and Paterson (1939), are attributed to wind action. The deposits termed as ‘Potwar loessic silt’ comprising sandy silt are essentially of late Quaternary age (75–18 ka) and are re-looked herein from the point of view of genesis and climatic significance. The sorting, skewness and kurtosis parameters of fine silts of Jammu suggest fluvial environment of the deposits wherein the water budget fluctuated. The weak pedogenesis of fine silts at certain intervals corroborate to periods of less or no sedimentation. The bivariant plot studies further suggest fluvial environment of deposition for the fine silt at Jammu, with regular fluctuations in the budget of river water that was perhaps in consonance with oscillations in the climate of the region.

  19. Les argiles bleues du Cambrien inférieur de Saint-Pétersbourg et leur fissuration. Implications pour des stockages souterrainsLower Cambrian Saint Petersburg blue clays and their fissuration. Implication for underground stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, Marcel; Boisson, Jean-Yves; Ivanov, Ivan P.

    2002-12-01

    The Lower Cambrian Saint Petersburg blue clays are composed of predominant illite and chlorite, sometimes accompanied by kaolinite. The <0.1 μm fraction has a high content of illite-smectite mixed layers. Particle-size distribution is more than 50% of clay particles and about 30% of silts. These blue clays correspond to plastic (and soft) clays; they may be compared to the Callovian clays of Bure (France), where storage of natural waste is envisaged. To cite this article: M. Arnould et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 1135-1140.

  20. Age and origin of ice-rich Yedoma silts at Duvanny Yar, northeast Siberia: a record of Beringian environmental change since the last interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murton, J.; Edwards, M. E.; Murton, D.; Bateman, M.; Haile, J.

    2010-12-01

    Silty Yedoma deposits at the important Beringian site of Duvanny Yar (68o,37’ N; 159o08’ E) in northeast Siberia, have been interpreted before as both loess and nival deposits. The yedoma deposits form a stratigraphic unit more than 30 m thick that comprises sandy silts which are generally massive and rich in ground ice and organic material. The ground ice includes pore ice, segregated ice and wedge ice (both syngenetic and epigenetic), and much of it accumulated more or less coevally with deposition of the silt and upward growth of permafrost. Organic material includes pervasive rootlets of former steppe-tundra vegetation (e.g. grasses), vertebrate bones (e.g. mammoth, bison, horse), pollen, insect remains, and plant macrofossils. A number of cryoturbated organic horizons within the silts are interpreted as incipient palaeosols. The sedimentary properties of the silts (particle size and magnetic susceptibility) and the palaeocological characteristics of the contained organic material are both consistent with deposition of silts primarily as loess and loess-sand intergrades, sedimentologically similar to known aeolian deposits in northwest Europe (e.g. Pegwell Bay, UK). Deposition primarily by snow meltwater is unlikely because the nearest uplands where snow could have accumulated and hillslopes could have provided runoff sites are many kilometers distant. The remnants of the original landsurface—prior to thermokarst activity during the late-glacial and Holocene—indicate an essentially flat landscape during dust deposition. Radiocarbon dating of mainly in situ rootlets indicates a complete record of dust deposition during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), potentially one of the best terrestrial records of LGM palaeoenvironments. Older radiocarbon dates suggest at least two periods of soil formation between the LGM and about 40,000 radiocarbon years BP (within Marine Isotope Stage 3). Optical dating is currently being undertaken to constrain the ages of older

  1. A remediation performance model for enhanced metabolic reductive dechlorination of chloroethenes in fractured clay till

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoli, Gabriele; Chambon, Julie C.; Bjerg, Poul L.;

    2012-01-01

    ). The model is tested on lab batch experiments and applied to describe sediment core samples from a TCE-contaminated site. Model simulations compare favorably to field observations and demonstrate that dechlorination may be limited to narrow bioactive zones in the clay matrix around fractures and sand......A numerical model of metabolic reductive dechlorination is used to describe the performance of enhanced bioremediation in fractured clay till. The model is developed to simulate field observations of a full scale bioremediation scheme in a fractured clay till and thereby to assess remediation...... efficiency and timeframe. A relatively simple approach is used to link the fermentation of the electron donor soybean oil to the sequential dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) while considering redox conditions and the heterogeneous clay till system (clay till matrix, fractures and sand stringers...

  2. Experimental testing of a SAG digital SILT application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapanen, P.; Maskuniitty, M.; Heikkinen, J.; Korhonen, J.

    1995-10-01

    A prototype dynamic testing harness for programmable automation systems has been specified and implemented at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). In order to get experience on the methodology and equipment for the testing of systems important to the safety of nuclear power plants, where the safety and reliability requirements often are very high, two different pilot systems have been tested. One system was an ABB Master application, which was loaned for testing from ABB Atom by Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). Another system, loaned from Siemens AG(SAG) by IVO International Oy (IVO), was an application realized with SAG`s digital SILT technology. The report describes the testing of the SAG application. The purpose of the testing was not to assess the pilot system, but to get experience in the testing methodology and find out the further development needs and potentials of the test methodology and equipment. The experience show that dynamic testing is one feasible way to get more confidence about the safety and reliability of a programmable system that would be hard to achieve by other means. It also shows that more development of the test harness is still needed, especially concerning the comparison of the obtained test response to the expected response provided by the logical model of the system. Also the user interface of the on-line part of the test harness needs development. Methods for generation of the test cases also need further development eg. for achieving statistical significance for the reliability estimates. (10 refs., 90 figs., 9 tabs.).

  3. Industrial sand and gravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolley, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2012 was about 49.5 Mt (55 million st), increasing 13 percent compared with that of 2011. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

  4. Clay and concrete brick

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, MN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available are manufactured from raw clay as their primary ingredient. However concrete brick has also become a favoured material in recent times. This review will adumbrate the impact of these building materials on energy use and the environment....

  5. Clay goes patchy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kegel, W.K.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.

    2011-01-01

    Empty liquids and equilibrium gels have so far been only theoretical possibilities, predicted for colloids with patchy interactions. But evidence of both has now been found in Laponite, a widely studied clay.

  6. Geopolymerisation of silt generated from construction and demolition waste washing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampris, C; Lupo, R; Cheeseman, C R

    2009-01-01

    Recycling plants that size, sort and wash construction and demolition waste can produce high quality aggregate. However, they also produce up to 80ton per hour of filter cake waste containing fine (geopolymers containing silt, which would allow this problematic waste to be beneficially reused as aggregate. This would significantly improve the economic viability of recycling plants that wash wastes. Silt filter cakes have been collected from a number of aggregate washing plants operating in the UK. These were found to contain similar aluminosilicate crystalline phases. Geopolymer samples were produced using silt and silt mixed with either metakaolin or pulverised fuel ash (PFA). Silt geopolymers cured at room temperature had average 7-day compressive strengths of 18.7MPa, while partial substitution of silt by metakaolin or PFA increased average compressive strengths to 30.5 and 21.9MPa, respectively. Curing specimens for 24h at 105 degrees C resulted in a compressive strength of 39.7MPa and microstructural analysis confirmed the formation of dense materials. These strengths are in excess of those required for materials to be used as aggregate, particularly in unbound applications. The implications of this research for the management of waste silt at construction and demolition waste washing plants are discussed.

  7. Mineralogical and geochemical investigation of clay-rich mine tailings from a closed phosphate mine, Bartow Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekeler, Mark P. S.; Morton, Julie; Lepp, Jill; Tselepis, Cynthia M.; Samsonov, Mikhail; Kearns, Lance E.

    2008-07-01

    Clay-rich mine tailings from phosphate mine operations in Florida are a major environmental and economic problem. Options for reclamation and restoration for these tailings are very limited and are fundamentally restricted by poor physical properties such as low mechanical strength, low hydraulic conductivity, and heavy metal content. The major control on these bulk physical properties is the mineralogy of the materials. Eight continuous push borings were obtained to investigate stratigraphy, mineralogy, aspects of geochemistry, and bulk properties of a deposit of clay-rich mine tailings from a phosphate mine near Bartow, Florida that ceased operations in the early 1970s. Stratigraphy is dominated by laminated clay-rich sediment with minor units of silt and sand. An intact kaolinite liner occurs near the impoundment walls and the impoundment floor has approximately 4 m of relief. Moisture content varies from 4.35 to 57.40 wt% and organic content varies from 0.41 to 9.53 wt%. Bulk XRF investigation indicates that the P2O5 concentrations vary from approximately 4 to 21 wt%. A very strong correlation ( r 2 = 0.92) between CaO and P2O5 indicates that apatite is a major control on the phosphate. The strong correlation ( r 2 = 0.77) of Al2O3 and TiO2 suggests that the source materials for this deposit are comparatively uniform. A number of heavy metal elements and trace elements occur. Cr, V, Ni, Cu are interpreted to be in phosphate minerals, largely apatite. Sr and Pb are interpreted to be in both phyllosilicates and phosphate minerals. Two populations of apatite were observed in the clay-sized fraction, one that was Fe and Si- bearing and another that was only Si-bearing. Fe-bearing apatite had Fe2O3 contents that varied from 0.38 to 5.32 wt% and SiO2 contents that varied from 0.90 to 3.32 wt%. The other apatite population had a wider range of SiO2 contents that varied from 0.77 to 8.80 wt%. TEM imaging shows that apatite grains are dominantly single crystals with

  8. Light reflection visualization to determine solute diffusion into clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minjune; Annable, Michael D; Jawitz, James W

    2014-06-01

    Light reflection visualization (LRV) experiments were performed to investigate solute diffusion in low-permeability porous media using a well-controlled two-dimensional flow chamber with a domain composed of two layers (one sand and one clay). Two different dye tracers (Brilliant Blue FCF and Ponceau 4R) and clay domains (kaolinite and montmorillonite) were used. The images obtained through the LRV technique were processed to monitor two-dimensional concentration distributions in the low-permeability zone by applying calibration curves that related light intensity to equilibrium concentrations for each dye tracer in the clay. One dimensional experimentally-measured LRV concentration profiles in the clay were found to be in very good agreement with those predicted from a one-dimensional analytical solution, with coefficient of efficiency values that exceeded 0.97. The retardation factors (R) for both dyes were relatively large, leading to slow diffusive penetration into the clays. At a relative concentration C/C0=0.1, Brilliant Blue FCF in kaolinite (R=11) diffused approximately 10 mm after 21 days of source loading, and Ponceau 4R in montmorillonite (R=7) diffused approximately 12 mm after 23 days of source loading. The LRV experimentally-measured two-dimensional concentration profiles in the clay were also well described by a simple analytical solution. The results from this study demonstrate that the LRV approach is an attractive non-invasive tool to investigate the concentration distribution of dye tracers in clays in laboratory experiments.

  9. Geologic map of the Silt Quadrangle, Garfield County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroba, R.R.; Scott, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Silt 7.5' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area of the southwest flank of the White River uplift, the Grand Hogback, and the eastern Piceance Basin. The Wasatch Formation was subdivided into three formal members, the Shire, Molina, and Atwell Gulch Members. Also a sandstone unit within the Shire Member was broken out. The Mesaverde Group consists of the upper Williams Fork Formation and the lower Iles Formation. Members for the Iles Formation consist of the Rollins Sandstone, the Cozzette Sandstone, and the Corcoran Sandstone Members. The Cozzette and Corcoran Sandstone Members were mapped as a combined unit. Only the upper part of the Upper Member of the Mancos Shale is exposed in the quadrangle. From the southwestern corner of the map area toward the northwest, the unfaulted early Eocene to Paleocene Wasatch Formation and underlying Mesaverde Group gradually increase in dip to form the Grand Hogback monocline that reaches 45-75 degree dips to the southwest (section A-A'). The shallow west-northwest-trending Rifle syncline separates the northern part of the quadrangle from the southern part along the Colorado River. Geologic hazards in the map area include erosion, expansive soils, and flooding. Erosion includes mass wasting, gullying, and piping. Mass wasting involves any rock or surficial material that moves downslope under the influence of gravity, such as landslides, debris flows, or rock falls, and is generally more prevalent on steeper slopes. Locally, where the Grand Hogback is dipping greater than 60 degrees and the Wasatch Formation has been eroded, leaving sandstone slabs of the Mesa Verde Group unsupported over vertical distances as great as 500 m, the upper part of the unit has collapsed in landslides, probably by a process of beam-buckle failure. In

  10. The technique of sand control with expandable screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, P. [Petrochina, Liaohe (China). Liaohe Oilfield Co.

    2009-07-01

    Sand production in heavy oil reservoirs can limit the normal production of oil wells. In this study, expandable screens were used as a sand control mechanism by filtering the sand as it entered the wellbore. The screen systems consists of an expandable outer housing, an expandable base pipe and a filtering layer. The screen expands radially through an expandable cone and presses into the casing well. Axial tension is used to shrink the screens radially through a fishing anchor in order to remove them from the well. The lack of a sand ring between the screen and the casing increases the flow area of the oil and reduces flow resistance caused by fine silt blockages. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to study the expansion and shrinkage properties of the screens. A field test conducted at a well located in the Liaohe oilfield in China demonstrated that good sand control results can be obtained without the need for pump checking. It was concluded that the sand control method is easy to use and provides good sand control results in large open flow areas. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  11. Mineralogía de arenas y limos en suelos, sedimentos fluviales y eólicos actuales del sector austral de la cuenca Chacoparanense: Regionalización y áreas de aporte Sands and clay mineralogy in soils, fluvial and eolian Present sediments in the southern sector of the Chacoparanense basin: Different regions and source areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Etchichury

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Análisis mineralógicos de las fracciones arena fina y limo grueso de suelos y sedimentos actuales fluviales y eólicos de la pampa húmeda del norte de Santa Fe y parte de la Mesopotamia (Entre Ríos y Corrientes, permiten establecer dos zonas caracterizadas por sendas asociaciones mineralógicas genéticamente diferentes. En el área que comprende las provincias de Buenos Aires, noroeste de La Pampa, Córdoba, centro y sur de Santa Fe y sur de Entre Ríos, tanto los componentes pesados (hornblenda verde, basáltica, castaña, hipersteno, enstatita, augita, magnetita, hematita, ilmenita, leucoxeno, epidoto, zoicita como livianos (plagioclasas, litoclastos de volcanitas, vitroclastos, cuarzo, ortosa, tienen un origen volcánico piroclástico y derivan en gran parte de sedimentos pampeanos y postpampeanos a los que se añaden materiales propios de las volcanitas mesozoicas norpatagónicas, del basamento de Sierras Pampeanas y de las erupciones piroclásticas cuaternarias. En Corrientes y el norte de Santa Fe y Entre Ríos, la suite de minerales pesados (estaurolita, cianita, sillimanita, andalusita, hornblenda, epidoto, opacos refleja aporte metamórfico y la asociación de livianos (cuarzo mono y policristalino, ortosa, microclino, metamorfitas cuarzo-micáceas, arenitas cuarzosas, indica además contribución ígnea y sedimentaria procedente del cratón aflorante en Brasil y Uruguay y de las sucesiones sedimentarias superpuestas. La particular distribución de los materiales está condicionada a las diferentes direcciones de las redes de drenaje y a la acción de los vientos dominantes. La isopleta correspondiente al 30% de frecuencia del cuarzo marca el límite de las dos asociaciones mineralógicas.Mineralogical analysis based on fine sand and coarse silt fraction from soils and fluvial and aeolian recent sediments of the Pampa Húmeda (Wet Pampas and the northen region of Santa Fe province and part of the Mesopotamia (Entre Ríos and

  12. Quantification of annual sediment deposits for sustainable sand management in Aghanashini river estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, T V; Vinay, S; Subash Chandran, M D

    2017-08-11

    Sedimentation involving the process of silt transport also carries nutrients from upstream to downstream of a river/stream. Sand being one of the important fraction of these sediments is extracted in order to cater infrastructural/housing needs in the region. This communication is based on field research in the Aghanshini river basin, west coast of India. Silt yield in the river basin and the sedimentation rate assessed using empirical techniques supplemented with field quantifications using soundings (SONAR), show the sediment yield of 1105-1367 kilo cum per year and deposition of sediment of 61 (2016) to 71 (2015) cm. Quantifications of extractions at five locations, reveal of over exploitation of sand to an extent of 30% with damages to the breeding ground of fishes, reduced productivity of bivalves, etc., which has affected dependent people's livelihood. This study provides vital insights towards sustainable sand harvesting through stringent management practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Eastern Scheldt Sand, Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. T; Madsen, E. B.; Schaarup-Jensen, A. L.

    The present data report contains data from 13 drained triaxial tests, performed on two different sand types in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Aalborg University in March, 1997. Two tests have been performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15, which has already ken extensively tested in the Soil Mechanics...... Laboratory. The remaining 11 triaxial tests have ben performed on Eastern Scheldt Sand, which is a material not yet investigated at the Soil Mechanics Laboratory. In the first pari of this data report, the characteristics of the two sand types in question will be presented. Next, a description...

  14. Geologic and paleoecologic studies of the Nebraska Sand Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.; Fryberger, S.G.; Hanley, John H.; Bradbury, J. Platt

    1980-01-01

    PART A: The Nebraska Sand Hills are an inactive, late Quaternary, most probably Holocene, dune field (covering 57,000 km 2 ) that have been eroded along streams and in blowouts, resulting in excellent lateral and vertical exposures of the stratification of dune and interdune sediments. This paper presents new data on the geometry, primary sedimentary structures, modification of sedimentary structures, direction of sand movement, and petrography of these eolian deposits. Eolian deposits of the Sand Hills occur as relatively thin (9-24 m) 'blanket' sands, composed of a complex of dune and discontinuous, diachronous interdune deposits unconformably overlying fluviolacustrine sediments. The internal stratification of large dunes in the Sand Hills (as high as 100 m), is similar to the internal stratification of smaller dunes of the same type in the Sand Hills, differing only in scale. Studies of laminae orientation in the Sand Hills indicate that transverse, barchan, and blowout dunes can be differentiated in rocks of eolian origin using both the mean dip angle of laminae and the mean angular deviation of dip direction. A variety of secondary structures modify or replace primary eolian stratification in the Sand Hills, the more common of which are dissipation structures and bioturbation. Dissipation structures in the Sand Hills may develop when infiltrating water deposits clay adjacent to less permeable layers in the sand, or along the upper margins of frozen layers that form in the sands during winter. Cross-bed measurements from dunes of the Nebraska Sand Hills necessitate a new interpretation of the past sand transport directions. The data from these measurements indicate a general northwest-to-southeast drift of sand, with a more southerly drift in the southeast part of the Sand Hills. A large area of small dunes Sand Hills was interpreted by him on the basis of morphology only. We interpret these as transverse-ridge dunes that were generally moving to the south

  15. A review of WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) repository clays and their relationship to clays of adjacent strata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhansl, J.L.; Kimball, K.M.; Stein, C.L.

    1990-12-01

    The Salado Formation is a thick evaporite sequence located in the Permian Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico. This study focuses on the intense diagenetic alteration that has affected the small amounts of clay, feldspar, and quartz washed into the basin during salt deposition. These changes are of more than academic interest since this formation also houses the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). Site characterization concerns warrant compiling a detailed data base describing the clays in and around the facility horizon. An extensive sampling effort was undertaken to address these programmatic issues as well as to provide additional insight regarding diagenetic mechanisms in the Salado. Seventy-five samples were collected from argillaceous partings in halite at the stratigraphic level of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These were compared with twenty-eight samples from cores of the Vaca Triste member of the Salado, a thin clastic unit at the top of the McNutt potash zone, and with a clay-rich sample from the lower contact of the Culebra Dolomite (in the overlying Rustler Formation). These settings were compared to assess the influence of differences in brine chemistry (i.e., halite and potash facies, normal to hypersaline marine conditions) and sediment composition (clays, sandy silt, dolomitized limestone) on diagenetic processes. 44 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Researches on the Constitutive Models of Artificial Frozen Silt in Underground Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugui Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The researches on the mechanical characteristic and constitutive models of frozen soil have important meanings in structural design of deep frozen soil wall. In the present study, the triaxial compression and creep tests have been carried out, and the mechanical characteristic of frozen silt is obtained. The experiment results show that the deformation characteristic of frozen silt is related to confining pressure under conventional triaxial compression condition. The frozen silt presents strain softening in shear process; with increase of confining pressure, the strain softening characteristic gradually decreases. The creep curves of frozen silt present the decaying and the stable creep stages under low stress level; however, under high stress level, once the strain increases to a critical value, the creep strain velocity gradually increases and the specimen quickly happens to destroy. To reproduce the deformation behavior, the disturbed state elastoplastic and new creep constitutive models of frozen silt are developed. The comparisons between experimental results and calculated results from constitutive models show that the proposed constitutive models could describe the conventional triaxial compression and creep deformation behaviors of frozen silt.

  17. Full utilization of silt density index (SDI) measurements for seawater pre-treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai

    2012-07-01

    In order to clarify the fouling mechanism during silt density index (SDI) measurements of seawater in the seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination process, 11 runs were conducted under constant-pressure (207kPa) dead-end filtration mode according to the standard protocol for SDI measurement, in which two kinds of 0.45μm membranes of different material and seawater samples from the Mediterranean including raw seawater and seawater pre-treated by coagulation followed by sand filtration (CSF) and coagulation followed by microfiltration (CMF) technologies were tested. Fouling mechanisms based on the constant-pressure filtration equation were fully analyzed. For all runs, only t/(V/A)∼t showed very good linearity (correlation coefficient R 2>0.99) since the first moment of the filtration, indicating that standard blocking rather than cake filtration was the dominant fouling mechanism during the entire filtration process. The very low concentration of suspended solids rejected by MF of 0.45μm in seawater was the main reason why a cake layer was not formed. High turbidity removal during filtration indicated that organic colloids retained on and/or adsorbed in membrane pores governed the filtration process (i.e., standard blocking) due to the important contribution of organic substances to seawater turbidity in this study. Therefore the standard blocking coefficient k s, i.e., the slope of t/(V/A)∼t, could be used as a good fouling index for seawater because it showed good linearity with feed seawater turbidity. The correlation of SDI with k s and feed seawater quality indicated that SDI could be reliably used for seawater with low fouling potential (SDI 15min<5) like pre-treated seawater in this study. From both k s and SDI, the order of fouling potential was raw seawater>seawater pre-treated by CSF>seawater pre-treated by CMF, indicating the better performance of CMF than CSF. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Determination of p-y Curves for Bucket Foundations in Silt and Sand Using Finite Element Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vethanayagam, Vinojan; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Design of offshore wind turbine foundations are today based on analytical formulas, which describes the link between a displacement, y, and the associated soil pressure, p. The formulas are empirically developed on slender piles with a slenderness ratio L=D > 30, but foundations of today are less...

  19. Clay slurry and engineered soils as containment technologies for remediation of contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.R. [Reclamation Technology, Inc., Athens, GA (United States); Dudka, S.; Miller, W.P. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Johnson, D.O. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Clay Slurry and Engineered Soils are containment technologies for remediation of waste disposal sites where leaching, groundwater plumes and surface runoff of contaminants are serious ecological hazards to adjacent environments. This technology is a patent-pending process which involves the use of conditioned clay materials mixed with sand and water to form a readily pourable suspension, a clay slurry, which is either placed into a trench barrier system or allowed to de-water to create Engineered Soils. The Engineered Soil forms a layer impervious to water and air, therefore by inhibiting both water and oxygen from penetrating through the soil the material. This material can be installed in layers and as a vertical barrier to create a surface barrier containment system. The clay percentage in the clay slurry and Engineered Soils varies depending on site characteristics and desired performance standards. For example Engineered Soils with 1-2% of clay (dry wt.) had a hydraulic conductivity (K) of 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -1} cm/sec. Tests of tailing materials from a kyanite and pyrite mine showed that the clay slurry was effective not only in reducing the permeability of the treated tailings, but also in decreasing their acidity due to the inherent alkalinity of the clay. The untreated tailings had pH values in the range of 2.4 - 3.1; whereas, the effluent from clay and tailings mixtures had pH values in a slightly alkaline range (7.7-7.9). Pug-mills and high volume slurry pumps can be readily adapted for use in constructing and placing caps and creating Engineered Soils. Moreover, material on site or from a local sand supply can be used to create clay slurries and engineered soils. Clay materials used in cap construction are likewise readily available commercially. As a result, the clay slurry system is very cost effective compared to other capping systems, including the commonly used High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner systems.

  20. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    OpenAIRE

    N. Špirutová; J. Beňo; V. Bednářová; J. Kříž; M. Kandrnál

    2012-01-01

    Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron) are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this co...

  1. Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Marianne; Hedegaard, Jette

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar...... and biotit. Mainly the sand will be used for tests concerning the development og the theory of building up pore pressure in sand, L. B. Ibsen 1993....

  2. Laboratory evaluation of cement treated aggregate containing crushed clay brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Hu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The waste clay bricks from debris of buildings were evaluated through lab tests as environmental friendly materials for pavement sub-base in the research. Five sets of coarse aggregates which contained 0, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% crushed bricks, respectively, were blended with sand and treated by 5% cement. The test results indicated that cement treated aggregate which contains crushed clay brick aggregate had a lower maximum dry density (MDD and a higher optimum moisture content (OMC. Moreover, the unconfined compressive strength (UCS, resilience modulus, splitting strength, and frost resistance performance of the specimens decreased with increase of the amount of crushed clay brick aggregate. On the other hand, it can be observed that the use of crushed clay brick in the mixture decreased the dry shrinkage strain of the specimens. Compared with the asphalt pavement design specifications of China, the results imply that the substitution rate of natural aggregate with crushed clay brick aggregate in the cement treated aggregate sub-base material should be less than 50% (5% cement content in the mixture. Furthermore, it needs to be noted that the cement treated aggregate which contains crushed clay bricks should be cautiously used in the cold region due to its insufficient frost resistance performance.

  3. Lund Sand No 0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Finn Rosendal

    During the last 15 years the Geotechnical Engineering Group (GEG) at Aalborg University has performed triaxial tests with a sand called Lund No 0. Lund No 0 is a graded sand from a gravel pit near Horsens in Denmark. For the classification of the sand the following tests have been performed: Sieve...

  4. Clay illuviation provides a long-term sink for C sequestration in subsoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Sallan, Gemma; Schulte, Rogier P. O.; Lanigan, Gary J.; Byrne, Kenneth A.; Reidy, Brian; Simó, Iolanda; Six, Johan; Creamer, Rachel E.

    2017-04-01

    Soil plays a key role in the global carbon (C) cycle. Most current assessments of SOC stocks and the guidelines given by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) focus on the top 30 cm of soil. Our research shows that, when considering only total quantities, most of the SOC stocks are found in this top layer. However, not all forms of SOC are equally valuable as long-term stable stores of carbon: the majority of SOC is available for mineralisation and can potentially be re-emitted to the atmosphere. SOC associated with micro-aggregates and silt plus clay fractions is more stable and therefore represents a long-term carbon store. Our research shows that most of this stable carbon is located at depths below 30 cm (42% of subsoil SOC is located in microaggregates and silt and clay, compared to 16% in the topsoil), specifically in soils that are subject to clay illuviation. This has implications for land management decisions in temperate grassland regions, defining the trade-offs between primary productivity and C emissions in clay-illuviated soils, as a result of drainage. Therefore, climate smart land management should consider the balance between SOC stabilisation in topsoils for productivity versus sequestration in subsoils for climate mitigation.

  5. Magnificent Clay Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirker, Sara Schmickle

    2007-01-01

    Each August, third grade artists at Apple Glen Elementary in Bentonville, Arkansas, start the school year planning, creating, and exhibiting a clay relief mural. These mural projects have helped students to acquire not only art knowledge and techniques, but an even more important kind of knowledge: what it means to plan and successfully complete a…

  6. Rattles of Clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banning, Donna

    1983-01-01

    Using the rattles of Native American cultures as inspiration, students used pinching, coiling, and slab and molding techniques to form the bodies of rattles and clay pellets for sound. Surface decoration included glazed and unglazed areas as well as added handles, feathers, and leather. (IS)

  7. Physical Properties of Latvian Clays

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Physical and chemical properties of clays mostly depends on its mineral and chemical composition, particle size and pH value. The mutual influence of these parameters is complex. Illite is the most abundant clay mineral in Latvia and usually used in building materials and pottery. The viscosity and plasticity of Latvian clays from several deposits were investigated and correlated with mineral composition, particle size and pH value. Fractionated and crude clay samples were used. The p...

  8. Clay Animals and Their Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Creating clay animals and their habitats with second-grade students has long been one of the author's favorite classroom activities. Students love working with clay and they also enjoy drawing animal homes. In this article, the author describes how the students created a diorama instead of drawing their clay animal's habitat. This gave students…

  9. A New Unusual Ice-induced Sedimentary Structure: the Silt Mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianhua, Zhong; Liangtian, Ni; Ningliang, Sun; Chuang, Liu; Bing, Hao; Mengchun, Cao; Xin, Chen; Ke, Luo; Shengxin, Liu; Leitong, Huang; Guanqun, Yang; Shaojie, Wang; Feifei, Su; Xuejing, He; Yanqiu, Xue

    2016-11-11

    Upon channel bars or point bars within the lows of the Yellow River, a new sedimentary structure, named 'silt mushroom', has been observed. The process of their formation is interpreted to be via the ice process. The name, the silt mushroom comes from their figurative form. This is because they look somewhat similar to mushroom's in size and shape; being in the range of 1 to 10 cm in diameter, with the medium 3-5 cm, and on average 10 cm in height, occuring generally in groups, and occasionally in isolation in relatively soft silt. They develop in the transition from winter to spring, and are convincingly related to ice processes. Ice-induced silt mushrooms are best examined in association with the many other newly discovered ice-induced sedimentary structures (over 20 kinds). Clearly, up to now, ice processes have been significantly underestimated. With the substantial discovery of the ice-induced silt mushroom, it opens up new questions. This is because its structure mirrors the same sedimentary structures found in rocks, questioning their genesis, and sedimentary environment analysis. This achievement is significant not only in sedimentology, but also in palaeogeography, palaeoclimate, geological engineering, hydraulics and fluviology.

  10. Harmless treatment of used foundry sands and dewatered municipal sludge by microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A new method to treat four solid wastes of sodium silicate used sands, dewatered municipal sludge, clay sands sludge and waste polyethylene, was discussed. About wt/ 50 % sodium silicate used sands and wt/ 50 % dewatered sludge were mixed, and then cured by microwave with a certain thickness film of clay sands sludge and waste plastic of polyethylene in the surface. The results showed that the compression strength of granulation sample with the size of Ф 50 × 50 mm was over 0,45 MPa. The waste plastic was the key factor for the durability, and curing temperature must be over melting temperature, so the thicker film could be coated in the surface of used sands and sludge.

  11. Clay membrane made of natural high plasticity clay:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels; Baumann, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Leachate containment in Denmark has throughout the years been regulated by the DIF Recommendation for Sanitary Landfill Liners (DS/R4669. It states that natural clay deposits may be used as membrane material provided the membrane and drainage system contains at least 95% of all leachate created...... into account advective ion transport as well as diffusion. Clay prospecting for clays rich in smectite has revealed large deposits of Tertiary clay of very high plasticity in the area around Rødbyhavn on the Danish island of Lolland. The natural clay contains 60-75% smectite, dominantly as a sodium......-type. The clay material has been evaluated using the standardized methods related to mineralogy, classification, compaction and permeability, and initial studies of diffusion properties have been carried out. Furthermore, at a test site the construction methods for establishing a 0.15-0.3 m thick clay membrane...

  12. Hydrogeology in Clay Tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Klint, Knud Erik; Nilsson, Bertel;

    2012-01-01

    Low-permeability soils such as clayey tills constitute geological boundaries to underlying chalk aquifers that are commonly used as a drinking water resource. Fractures and sand lenses within till sequences represent hydraulic avenues with high hydraulic conductivites limiting the protective func...

  13. Calculation Method for Effect of Silt Sediment on Lifting Force of HydraulicGate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shizhao; Xu Guobin; Wang Mingbin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, silt sediment is considered to be Bingham body, which is made up of coarse and fine parti-cles in front of a hydraulic gate. The coarse and fine particles provide friction and shear stress in the course of opening the gate. They constitute together the adhesion force of the sediment. Based on this viewpoint, this paper putsforward a formula for the effect of silt sediment on the lifting force. The formula includes gate weight, down-suction force, sealing rubber friction, plus-weight, water-column pressure, plus-silted-sediment weight and rolling(or sliding)-bearing friction. Finally, the verification results show that the formula has certain reliability and the calculation accu-racy can meet the need of practical engineering.

  14. Thermostability of montmorillonitic clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Jelínek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite is one of the most widespread used clays connected with various applications. In the case of foundry technology, bentonite is primarily used as a binder for mold manufacture. Thermal stability of bentonites is a natural property of clay minerals and it depends on the genesis, source and chemical composition of the clay. This property is also closely connected to bentonite structure. According to DTA analysis if only one peak of dehydroxylation is observed (about 600 ºC, the cis- isomerism of bentonite is expected, while two peaks of de-hydroxylation (about 550 and 850 ºC are expected in the trans- one. In this overview, the bentonite structure, the water – bentonite interaction and the swelling behavior of bentonite in connection with the general technological properties of bentonite molding mixture are summarized. Further, various types of methods for determination of bentonite thermostability are discussed, including instrumental analytical methods as well as methods that employ evaluation of various technological properties of bentonite binders and/or bentonite molding mixtures.

  15. Thermostability of montmorillonitic clays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Petr Jelnek; Stanisaw M.Dobosz; Jaroslav Beo; Katarzyna Major-Gabry

    2014-01-01

    Bentonite is one of the most widespread used clays connected with various applications. In the case of foundry technology, bentonite is primarily used as a binder for mold manufacture. Thermal stability of bentonites is a natural property of clay minerals and it depends on the genesis, source and chemical composition of the clay. This property is also closely connected to bentonite structure. According to DTA analysis if only one peak of dehydroxylation is observed (about 600 ºC), thecis- isomerism of bentonite is expected, while two peaks of de-hydroxylation (about 550 and 850 ºC) are expected in thetrans- one. In this overview, the bentonite structure, the water - bentonite interaction and the sweling behavior of bentonite in connection with the general technological properties of bentonite molding mixture are summarized. Further, various types of methods for determination of bentonite thermostability are discussed, including instrumental analytical methods as wel as methods that employ evaluation of various technological properties of bentonite binders and/or bentonite molding mixtures.

  16. A novel wastewater cleaning system for the stone-crushing and sand-making process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wenjun; Li Yanfeng; Tang Jie

    2012-01-01

    The nature of the slurry from the stone-crushing and sand-making processes is analyzed to develop a novel separation process.The process comprises hydro-cyclone separation followed by screening of the fines,clarification,and filtration.Recovering fine sand and clean wastewater for recycle is demonstrated.The +0.045 mm fine sand fraction and-0.045 mm ultra-fine clay in the slurry are separated and recovered.Fine sand that was previously lost and wasted is now recoverable.The cleaned and reused water is as much as 94% of the total.

  17. 科尔沁不同沙地土壤饱和导水率比较研究%A COMPARISON OF SOIL SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY(KFS)IN DIFFERENT HORQIN SAND LAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚淑霞; 赵传成; 张铜会

    2013-01-01

    In situ measurements with a Guelph Permeator were performed to investigate the saturated hydraulic conductivity of soils (Kfs) at various desertified sand lands,such as grassland,fixed sand dune and mobile sand dune of Horqin Sand Land.Based on analyzing the relationships of Kfs with the sand land types,soil depths,slope position of sand dunes and soilphysical and chemical properties,the results indicated that:(l) The average Kfs increased in the order:grassland (potential desertification),fixed sand dune (light desertification) and mobile sand dune (serve desertification),and the value was 2.15,4.79 and 5.89 mm min-1,respectively.That was,the more serious desertified,the higher infiltration capacity.A statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in Kfs were found among the three sites and between the slope positions of the two dunes.So,the Kfs at Horqin Sand Land has showed a higher heterogeneity ; (2) The changes of Kfs was considerably with the increase of soil profile depths.The changes of Kfs with soil depths at grassland could be fitted with parabola models,and for fixed sand dune by exponential models; (3) The stepwise regression revealed that the soil organic matter content,the fine sand fraction (0.1 ~ 0.05 mm) and the clay and silt content (< 0.05 mm) were some key factors affecting Kfs with a significantly negative relationship,but there was a significantly positive correlation with the coarse sand fraction (2 ~ 0.1 mm).%用Guelph入渗仪对科尔沁沙地不同沙漠化阶段土壤不同层次的土壤饱和导水率(Kfs)进行测定,分析研究了Kfs与沙地类型、土层厚度、沙丘坡位及土壤理化性质的关系.结果表明:(1)草地(潜在沙漠化)、固定沙丘(轻度沙漠化)和流动沙丘(严重沙漠化)的Kfs依次增大,平均值分别为2.15、4.79和5.89 mm min-1,呈现出土壤入渗能力随沙漠化程度的增强而增强的趋势;三种沙地间Kfs差异显著,沙丘不同坡位Kfs也有较大差异,表明

  18. A Study of Clay-Epoxy Nanocomposites Consisting of Unmodified Clay and Organo Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Edward

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Clay-epoxy nanocomposites were synthesized from DGEBA resin and montmorillonite clay with an in-situ polymerization. One type of untreated clay and two types of organo clay were used to produce the nanocompsoites. The aims of this study were to examine the nanocomposite structure using different tools and to compare the results between the unmodified clay and modified clays as nanofillers. Although diffractogram in reflection mode did not show any apparent peak of both types of materials, the transmitted XRD (X-Ray Difraction graphs, DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter analysis and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope images revealed that the modified clay-epoxy and unmodified clay-epoxy provides different results. Interestingly, the micrographs showed that some of the modified clay layers possessed non-exfoliated layers in the modified clay-epoxy nanocomposites. Clay aggregates and a hackle pattern were found from E-SEM images for both types of nanocomposite materials. It is shown that different tools should be used to determine the nanocomposite structure.

  19. Chemical composition of the clays as indicator raw material sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khramchenkova Rezida Kh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of study on the chemical composition of unglazed pottery from the excavations of the Bulgar fortified settlement site and the clay, selected from the modern deposits of ceramic raw materials located near the medieval settlement sites. Significant differences in macro- and microelement composition of different groups of ceramics have been revealed. The difference in the macroelemental composition is largely determined by the ceramic fabric recipe. Thus, the high calcium content corresponds to the addition of river shells, the high content of silicon results from sand addition. A more interesting picture has been revealed in the course of studies of the so-called “trace elements” (microelements. Nine groups of ceramics with different elemental set have been distinguished. The first two groups consist of imported ceramics; other groups have demonstrated a rather pronounced elemental composition. The most notable variations are observed in chromium, vanadium and nickel content. Similar microelement composition variety has been observed in clays from deposits of different localization, while the concentration of the mentioned elements in a variety of clays also differs considerably. Therefore, marker elements typical of different clays have been identified. A comparative analysis of the data obtained for clay raw materials and ceramics has been conducted. The results demonstrate the potential of studying the elemental composition in order to determine the localization of the raw material sources for ceramic production.

  20. Sedimentary environment evolutionary characteristics of Longjie silt layer in the mid-dle reaches of the Jinsha River, Yunnan%金沙江中游云南龙街粉砂层沉积环境演化特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝柱; 王书兵; 傅建利; 蒋复初

    2015-01-01

    沿金沙江攀枝花三堆子至武定县白马口段河谷两岸分布一套以灰黑色、灰黄色、灰白色粉砂、粘土质粉砂和粘土为主的湖相地层,尤以云南省元谋县龙街盆地内最为发育,被称为龙街粉砂层。通过龙街YA钻孔和龙街、白泥湾剖面的磁性地层学和光释光年代学的研究,探讨龙街粉砂层的时代与归属。龙街YA钻孔地层厚度101.18m,其中龙街粉砂层厚92.96m,上覆7.5m的红棕色细砂和砂砾石层,下伏厚度大于0.72m的灰绿色含角砾粗砂。综合分析YA钻孔的磁性地层学和光释光年龄,认为获取龙街粉砂层的沉积时代为150~30ka BP,属于晚更新世。通过地层沉积特征变化,反演晚更新世以来湖泊的形成及沉积环境变化,探讨晚更新世以来区域新构造的活动阶段及其对河流演化过程的控制作用。%The Longjie silt layer consists of a series of silt, silty clay and clay lacustrine sediments which are grayish black, grayish yel⁃low and grayish white in color. This silt layer is distributed along the valley of the Jinsha River from Sanduizi of Panzhihua City to Baimakou of Wuding County, and is well developed in the Longjie basin in Yunnan Province. The Longjie drill hole intersects the stratatigraphic thickness of 101.18m, which includes 92.96m Longjie silt layer. Its sedimentation occurred about 150~30ka BP, as shown by the analysis of magnetostratigraphy and OSL dating. Through the study of sedimentary variation characteristics, this paper deals with the formation process of Longjie silt layer, the relative regional neotectonics movement stage and its influence on the devel⁃opment of the Jinsha River.

  1. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Špirutová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this contribution is: “How the green sand systems are influenced by core sands?”This effect is considered by determination of selected technological properties and degree of green sand system re-bonding. From the studies, which have been published yet, there is not consistent opinion on influence of core sand dilution on green sand system properties. In order to simulation of the effect of core sands on the technological properties of green sands, there were applied the most common used technologies of cores production, which are based on bonding with phenolic resin. Core sand concentration added to green sand system, was up to 50 %. Influence of core sand dilution on basic properties of green sand systems was determined by evaluation of basic industrial properties: moisture, green compression strength and splitting strength, wet tensile strength, mixture stability against staling and physical-chemistry properties (pH, conductivity, and loss of ignition. Ratio of active betonite by Methylene blue test was also determined.

  2. Water flow and nutrient transport in a layered silt loam soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de J.A.

    1997-01-01


    Theory, numerical models, and field and laboratory measurements are used to describe and predict water flow and nutrient transport in a layered silt loam soil. One- and two-dimensional models based on the Darcy equation for water flow and the convection-dispersion equation for solute

  3. Influence of wood-derived biochar on the compactibility and strength of silt loam soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed; Gariepy, Yvan; Raghavan, Vijaya

    2017-04-01

    Biochar is proven to enhance soil fertility and increase crop productivity. Given that the influence of biochar on soil compaction remains unclear, selected physico-mechanical properties of soil amended with wood-derived biochar were assessed. For unamended silt loam, the bulk density, maximum bulk density, optimum moisture content, plastic limit, liquid limit, and plasticity index were 1.05 Mg m-3, 1.69 Mg m-3, 16.55, 17.1, 29.3, and 12.2%, respectively. The penetration resistance and shear strength of the unamended silt loam compacted in the standard compaction Proctor mold and at its optimum moisture content were 1800 kPa and 850 kPa, respectively. Results from amending the silt loam with 10% particle size ranges (0.5-212 μm) led to relative decreases of 18.1, 17.75, 66.66, and 97.4% in bulk density, maximum bulk density, penetration resistance, and shear strength, respectively; a 26.8% relative increase in optimum moisture content; along with absolute increases in plastic limit, liquid limit, and plasticity index of 5.3, 13.7, and 8.4%, respectively. While the biochar-amended silt loam soil was more susceptible to compaction, however, soil mechanical impedance enhanced.

  4. Effectiveness of online silt traps in reducing localised and catchment scale flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Sarah; Pattison, Ian; Sander, Graham

    2017-04-01

    Geomorphological drivers are often neglected when proposing methods to reduce flood risk. Understanding the connections between hydrology, geomorphology and engineering is fundamental to predicating sediment transfer within river catchments and thus successfully implementing sustainable flood management. Fine sediment erosion is a continuing concern in the River Eye, Leicestershire. The predominately rural catchment has a history of flooding within the town of Melton Mowbray. Fine sediment connectivity has been recognised by stakeholders as a contributing factor to flood risk and the degradation of the SSSI. In response, two online silt traps were installed to inhibit sediment connectivity within the channel and prevent loss of channel capacity. The artificially widened and deepened areas of the channel have been excavated once since there installation in 2002. Time integrated mass suspended sediment samplers have been installed upstream and downstream of both silt traps to quantify the reduction in suspended sediment over a 12 month period. The sediment has been subjected to laboratory analysis to determine the size of suspended sediment particles and organic content, providing an estimate in distance travelled from the source. Due to their rarity, the silt traps provide a unique opportunity to explore their impact on local hydrology. Four monitoring stations have been installed above the largest silt trap to record river stage and to ascertain whether flood risk is locally increased as a result of their placement. These results have been combined to determine the overall success of the natural flood management scheme.

  5. Eolian sand deposition during th Medieval Climatic Anomaly in Playa San Bartolo, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, B.; Schaaf, P. E.; Murray, A.; Caballero, M.; Lozano Garcia, S.; Ramirez, A.

    2012-12-01

    Records of past climatic changes in desert environments are scarce due to the poor preservation of biological proxies. To overcome this lack we consider the paleoenvironmental significance and age of a lunette dune in the eastern rim of the Playa San Bartolo (PSB) in Sonoran Desert (Mexico). Rock magnetism, mineralogical, and geochemical analysis (major, trace and REE) allow assessment of sediment provenance and changes in the composition of the PSB dune over time. Thermoluminiscence and optical stimulated luminescence (TL and OSL) provide the chronology of lunette dune development. Dune sediments are composed by intercalated layers of sand beds and sandy silt strata. Variability in composition of dune sediments is attributed to changes in sediment sources. Mineralogical, geochemical and magnetic data show clear differences between the sand and the sandy silt of the PSB dune deposits, which suggest different sediment sources. Sand sized deposits, characterized by coarse magnetite grains, are mainly eroded from granitoids from nearby outcrops. Sandy silt deposits, rich in fine grained magnetite and evaporative minerals, resulted after the erosion of volcanic rocks and their soils from sierras at the NE of PSB during heavy rainfall episodes, the flooding of PSB and later deflation and accumulation in the dune of both detritic and authigenic components. The upper 6 m of dune accumulation occurred largely during AD 500 to 1200, a period that correlates with the Medieval climatic anomaly (AD 300 to 1300). These findings suggest that main dune accretion occurred during regionally extended drought conditions, disrupted by sporadic heavy rainfall.

  6. Estimation of sand liquefaction based on support vector machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏永华; 马宁; 胡检; 杨小礼

    2008-01-01

    The origin and influence factors of sand liquefaction were analyzed, and the relation between liquefaction and its influence factors was founded. A model based on support vector machines (SVM) was established whose input parameters were selected as following influence factors of sand liquefaction: magnitude (M), the value of SPT, effective pressure of superstratum, the content of clay and the average of grain diameter. Sand was divided into two classes: liquefaction and non-liquefaction, and the class label was treated as output parameter of the model. Then the model was used to estimate sand samples, 20 support vectors and 17 borderline support vectors were gotten, then the parameters were optimized, 14 support vectors and 6 borderline support vectors were gotten, and the prediction precision reaches 100%. In order to verify the generalization of the SVM method, two other practical samples’ data from two cities, Tangshan of Hebei province and Sanshui of Guangdong province, were dealt with by another more intricate model for polytomies, which also considered some influence factors of sand liquefaction as the input parameters and divided sand into four liquefaction grades: serious liquefaction, medium liquefaction, slight liquefaction and non-liquefaction as the output parameters. The simulation results show that the latter model has a very high precision, and using SVM model to estimate sand liquefaction is completely feasible.

  7. Sands cykliske styrke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1992-01-01

    Sands cykliske styrke kan beskrives ved Cyclic Liquefaction, Mobilisering, Stabilization og Instant Stabilization. I artiklen beskrives hvorfor Stabilization og Instant Stabilization ikke observeres, når sands udrænede styrke undersøges i triaxial celler, der anvender prøver med dobbelt prøvehøjde....

  8. Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Bødker, Lars Bødker

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar...

  9. Factors affecting the hydraulic performance of infiltration based SUDS in clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bockhorn, B.; Klint, K.E.S.; Locatelli, Luca;

    2017-01-01

    with hydraulic properties ranging from sand to clay showed that infiltration capacities vary greatly for the different soil types observed in glacial till. The inclusion of heterogeneities dramatically increased infiltration volume by a factor of 22 for a soil with structural changes above and below the CaC03...

  10. Aerolian erosion, transport, and deposition of volcaniclastic sands among the shifting sand dunes, Christmas Lake Valley, Oregon: TIMS image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Ramsey, Michael S.; Christensen, Philip R.

    1995-01-01

    Remote sensing is a tool that, in the context of aeolian studies, offers a synoptic view of a dune field, sand sea, or entire desert region. Blount et al. (1990) presented one of the first studies demonstrating the power of multispectral images for interpreting the dynamic history of an aeolian sand sea. Blount's work on the Gran Desierto of Mexico used a Landsat TM scene and a linear spectral mixing model to show where different sand populations occur and along what paths these sands may have traveled before becoming incorporated into dunes. Interpretation of sand transport paths and sources in the Gran Desierto led to an improved understanding of the origin and Holocene history of the dunes. With the anticipated advent of the EOS-A platform and ASTER thermal infrared capability in 1998, it will become possible to look at continental sand seas and map sand transport paths using 8-12 mu m bands that are well-suited to tracking silicate sediments. A logical extension of Blount's work is to attempt a similar study using thermal infrared images. One such study has already begun by looking at feldspar, quartz, magnetite, and clay distributions in the Kelso Dunes of southern California. This paper describes the geology and application of TIMS image analysis of a less-well known Holocene dune field in south central Oregon using TIMS data obtained in 1991.

  11. 80 FR 65469 - NESHAP for Brick and Structural Clay Products Manufacturing; and NESHAP for Clay Ceramics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-26

    ... Clay Products Manufacturing; and NESHAP for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal...; and NESHAP for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... NESHAP for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing. All major sources in these categories must meet...

  12. Suitability of a South African silica sand for three-dimensional printing of foundry moulds and cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyembwe, Kasongo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Applications of three-dimensional printing (3DP to metal casting include, among other things, the direct manufacturing of foundry moulds and cores in refractory materials such as silica sand. The main properties of silica sand that are essentially related to the traditional moulding and core-making processes are: size distribution, clay content, pH, acid demand, and refractoriness. The silica sand used for 3DP must also be appropriately selected for the layer-based manufacturing process involved in 3DP. Properties such as grain size distribution, grain surface morphology, angularity, flowability, and recoating abilities have a particular importance when determining sand suitability. Because of these extra requirements, only a limited range of available foundry silica sands can be used for 3DP processes. The latter situation explains the scarcity and high cost of suitable silica sands, thus contributing to the relatively high operational costs of the 3DP processes for the production of sand moulds and cores. This research paper investigates the suitability of a locally-available silica sand for use in a Voxeljet VX1000 3DP machine. The local silica sand was assessed and compared with an imported silica sand recommended by the manufacturer of 3DP equipment in terms of foundry characteristics and recoating behaviour. The study shows that, despite the differences between the characteristics of the two silica sands, the local sand could be considered a suitable alternative to imported sand for rapid sand casting applications.

  13. Clay resources in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Maljers, D.; Gessel, S.F. van; Gruijters, S.H.L.L.

    2007-01-01

    Clay is a common lithology in the Dutch shallow subsurface. It is used in earth constructions such as dikes, and as raw material for the fabricationof bricks, roof tiles etc. We present a new national assessment of Dutch clay resources, as part of a project that provides mineral-occurrenceinformatio

  14. Clay resources in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Maljers, D.; Gessel, S.F. van; Gruijters, S.H.L.L.

    2007-01-01

    Clay is a common lithology in the Dutch shallow subsurface. It is used in earth constructions such as dikes, and as raw material for the fabrication of bricks, roof tiles etc. We present a new national assessment of Dutch clay resources, as part of a project that provides mineral-occurrence informat

  15. Fluoride retention by kaolin clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kau, P. M. H.; Smith, D. W.; Binning, Philip John

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the potential effectiveness of kaolin clay liners in storage of fluoride contaminated waste, an experimental study of the sorption and desorption behaviour of fluoride in kaolin clay was conducted. The degree of fluoride sorption by kaolin was found to depend on solution p...

  16. Viscous property of dried clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li-sheng; LI Jian-zhong

    2006-01-01

    One dimensional and triaxial compression tests of air-dried and oven-dried Fujinomori clay and Pisa clay were carried out. Water content is less than 4.5 % and 1.0% for air-dried and oven-dried clay specimens, respectively. In all tests, axial strain rate was changed stepwise many times and drained creep tests were performed several times during monotonic loading at a constant strain rate. Global unloading (and also reloading in some tests) was applied during which creep loading tests were performed several times. Cyclic loading with small stress amplitude and several cycles was also performed to calculate the modulus of elasticity of the clay in tests. Local displacement transducer was used in triaxial compression test to increase measuring accuracy of axial strain. The results show that air-dried and oven-dried clay have noticeable viscous properties; during global unloading, creep deformation changes from positive to negative, i.e. there exist neutral points (zero creep deformation or no creep deformation point) in global unloading part of strain-stress curve; viscous property of Fujinomori clay decreases when water content decreases, i.e. viscous property of air-dried Fujinomori clay is more significant than that of oven-dried Fujinomori clay.

  17. Origin, distribution, and rapid removal of hydrothermally formed clay at Mount Baker, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David

    1983-01-01

    Clay minerals are locally abundant in two hydrothermal areas at Mount Baker-Sherman Crater and the Dorr Fumarole Field. The silt- and clay-size fractions of volcanic debris that is undergoing alteration at and near the ground surface around areas of current fumarolic activity in Sherman Crater are largely dominated by alunite and a silica phase, either opal or cristobalite, but contain some kaolinite and smectite. Correspondingly, the chemistry of solutions at the surface of the crater, as represented by the crater lake, favors the formation of alunite over kaolinite. In contrast, vent-filling debris that was ejected to the surface from fumaroles in 1975 contains more than 20 percent clay-size material in which kaolinite and smectite are dominant. The youngest eruptive deposit (probably 19th century) on the crater rim was also altered prior to ejection and contains as much as 27 percent clay-size material in which kaolinite, smectite, pyrophyllite, and mixed-layer illitesmectite are abundant. The hydrothermal products, kaolinite and alunite, are present in significant amounts in five large Holocene mudflows that originated at the upper cone of Mount Baker. The distribution of kaolinite in crater and valley deposits indicates that, with the passage of time, increasingly greater amounts of this clay mineral have been incorporated into large mass movements from the upper cone. Either erosion has cut into more kaolinitic parts of the core of Sherman Crater, or the amount of kaolinite has increased through time in Sherman Crater.

  18. Clay minerals in pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateo, F. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerca sulle Argille, Tito Scalo, PZ (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Clay minerals are fundamental constituents of life, not only as possible actors in the development of life on the Earth (Cairns-Smith and Hartman, 1986), but mainly because they are essential constituents of soils, the interface between the solid planet and the continental biosphere. Many, many authors have devoted themselves to the study of clays and clay minerals since the publication of the early modern studies by Grim (1953, 1962) and Millot (1964). In those years two very important associations were established in Europe (Association Internationale pour l'Etude des Argiles, AIPEA) and in the USA (Clay Mineral Society, CMS). The importance of these societies is to put together people that work in very different fields (agronomy, geology, geochemistry, industry, etc.), but with a common language (clays), very useful in scientific work. Currently excellent texts are being published, but introductory notes are also available on the web (Schroeder, 1998).

  19. Mineral resource of the Month: Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Clays were one of the first mineral commodities used by people. Clay pottery has been found in archeological sites that are 12,000 years old, and clay figurines have been found in sites that are even older.

  20. The influence of clay minerals on acoustic properties of sandstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Olav

    1997-12-31

    This thesis aims to provide better understanding of the relationship between the acoustic properties and the petrophysical/mineralogical properties in sand-prone rock. It emphasizes the influence of clay minerals. The author develops a method to deposit clay minerals/mineral aggregates in pore space of a rigid rock framework. Kaolinite aggregates were flushed into porous permeable Bentheimer sandstone to evaluate the effect of pore filling minerals on porosity, permeability and acoustic properties. The compressional velocity was hardly affected by the clay content and it was found that the effect of minor quantities of pore filling minerals may be acoustically modelled as an ideal suspension, where the pore fluid bulk modulus is modified by the bulk modulus of the clay minerals. The influence of clays on acoustic velocities in petroleum reservoir rocks was investigated through ultrasonic measurements of compressional- and shear-waves on core material from reservoir and non-reservoir units on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The measured velocities decrease as the porosity increases, but are not strongly dependent on the clay content. The measured velocities are less dependent on the petrophysical and lithological properties than indicated by previous authors and published mathematical models, and stiffness reduction factors are introduced in two of the models to better match the data. Velocities are estimated along the wellbores based on non-sonic well logs and reflect well the actual sonic log well measurements. In some wells the compressional velocity cannot be modelled correctly by the models suggested. Very high compressional wave anisotropy was measured in the dry samples at atmospheric conditions. As the samples were saturated, the anisotropy was reduced to a maximum of about 30% and decreases further upon pressurization. Reservoir rocks retrieved from 2500 m are more stress dependent than those retrieved from less than 200 m depth. 168 refs., 117 figs., 24

  1. Viscosity and Plasticity of Latvian Illite Clays

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Due to viscosity and plasticity, clays and clay minerals are used in civil engineering, pottery and also in cosmetics and medicine as thickening agents and emulsion and suspension stabilizers. The rheological properties of clay suspensions are complex. Mostly it is an interaction between mineral composition, clay particle size and pH value and also depends on clay minerals. Clay-water suspension is non-Newtonian fluid showing thixotropic and pseudoplastic properties. Results showed that plast...

  2. Colonic Patch and colonic SILT development are independent and differentially-regulated events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, AP; Olivier, BJ; Goverse, G; Greuter, M; Knippenberg, M; Kusser, K; Domingues, RG.; Veiga-Fernandes, H; Luster, AD; Lugering, A; Randall, TD; Cupedo, T; Mebius, RE

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal lymphoid tissues have to simultaneously ensure protection against pathogens and tolerance towards commensals. Despite such vital functions, their development in the colon is poorly understood. Here, we show that the two distinct lymphoid tissues of the colon–colonic patches and colonic SILTs–can easily be distinguished based on anatomical location, developmental timeframe and cellular organization. Furthermore, whereas colonic patch development depended on CXCL13-mediated LTi cell clustering followed by LTα-mediated consolidation, early LTi clustering at SILT anlagen did not require CXCL13, CCR6 or CXCR3. Subsequent dendritic cell recruitment to and gp38+VCAM-1+ lymphoid stromal cell differentiation within SILTs required LTα; B cell recruitment and follicular dendritic cell differentiation depended on MyD88-mediated signalling, but not the microflora. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that different mechanisms, mediated mainly by programmed stimuli, induce the formation of distinct colonic lymphoid tissues, therefore suggesting that these tissues may have different functions. PMID:22990625

  3. Sand and Gravel Deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a statewide polygon coverage of sand, gravel, and stone resources. This database includes the best data available from the VT Agency of Natural...

  4. Sand and Gravel Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes sand and gravel operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  5. Vestled - Hvide Sande

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel-Christiansen, Carsten; Hesselbjerg, Marianne; Schønherr, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Værket Vestled i Hvide Sande præsenteret i sammenhæng af 1000 nutidige landskabsarkitektoniske arbejder fra hele verden, hvor hvert værk vises på én side......Værket Vestled i Hvide Sande præsenteret i sammenhæng af 1000 nutidige landskabsarkitektoniske arbejder fra hele verden, hvor hvert værk vises på én side...

  6. [Monitoring of water and salt transport in silt and sandy soil during the leaching process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Teng-Fei; Jia, Yong-Gang; Guo, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Lei

    2012-11-01

    Water and salt transport in soil and its mechanism is the key point of the saline soil research. The dynamic rule of water and transport in soil during the leaching process is the theoretical basis of formation, flush, drainage and improvement of saline soil. In this study, a vertical infiltration experiment was conducted to monitor the variation in the resistivity of silt and sandy soil during the leaching process by the self-designed automatic monitoring device. The experimental results showed that the peaks in the resistivity of the two soils went down and faded away in the course of leaching. It took about 30 minutes for sandy soil to reach the water-salt balance, whereas the silt took about 70 minutes. With the increasing leaching times, the desalination depth remained basically the same, being 35 cm for sandy soil and 10 cm for the silt from the top to bottom of soil column. Therefore, 3 and 7 leaching processes were required respectively for the complete desalination of the soil column. The temporal and spatial resolution of this monitoring device can be adjusted according to the practical demand. This device can not only achieve the remote, in situ and dynamic monitoring data of water and salt transport, but also provide an effective method in monitoring, assessment and early warning of salinization.

  7. Comparison and analysis of reservoir rocks and related clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, M.E.; Donaldson, E.C.; Marchin, L.M.

    1983-10-01

    A series of instrumental and chemical analyses was made on sedimentary rocks to determine the surface chemical properties of sedimentry rocks and the physical characteristic of the pores. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analytic capability was used to study the morphology of the samples, surface mineral composition and type and location of clays, and to obtain a qualitative estimate of the pore sizes. A centrifuge was used to determine the pore size distributions which are correlated with SEM observations. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with an inductively coupled plasma for complete spectral analysis was used to obtain analyses of the rocks, clays, and effluents from ion exchange tests. Two of the results are as follows: (1) Sweetwater gas sands have a bimodal pore size distribution composed of pores with a mean diameter of 0.2 microns which is attributed to intergranular spaces and cracks in the expanded laborboratory sample but which will be close under the pressure of the overburden formations, and these Sweetwater sands have a distribution of pores at 2 microns which are solution vugs rather than intergranular porosity since the sand grains are completely packed together with the cementing material due to the high overburden pressures; and (2) Ion-exchange capacities of two rocks were 5.3 meq/kg and 18.0 meq/kg, and the surface areas were 0.9 m/sup 2//g and 2.30 m/sup 2//g, respectively, even though each had almost identical mineral composition, clay type and quantity, and permeability. 7 references, 12 figures, 3 tables.

  8. MECHANICAL REGENERATION OF SAND WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Gnir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental activation of the sand regenerator of the firm SINTO is carried out at ОАО “MZOO". It is shown that sand grains are cleared from films of binding agents, that allows to use the treated sand for preparation of agglutinant and core sands.

  9. Removal of Cr(VI from Aqueous Environments Using Micelle-Clay Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohannad Qurie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Removal of Cr(VI from aqueous solutions under different conditions was investigated using either clay (montmorillonite or micelle-clay complex, the last obtained by adsorbing critical micelle concentration of octadecyltrimethylammonium ions onto montmorillonite. Batch experiments showed the effects of contact time, adsorbent dosage, and pH on the removal efficiency of Cr(VI from aqueous solutions. Langmuir adsorption isotherm fitted the experimental data giving significant results. Filtration experiments using columns filled with micelle-clay complex mixed with sand were performed to assess Cr(VI removal efficiency under continuous flow at different pH values. The micelle-clay complex used in this study was capable of removing Cr(VI from aqueous solutions without any prior acidification of the sample. Results demonstrated that the removal effectiveness reached nearly 100% when using optimal conditions for both batch and continuous flow techniques.

  10. Clay membrane made of natural high plasticity clay:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels; Baumann, Jens

    1999-01-01

    -type. The clay material has been evaluated using the standardized methods related to mineralogy, classification, compaction and permeability, and initial studies of diffusion properties have been carried out. Furthermore, at a test site the construction methods for establishing a 0.15-0.3 m thick clay membrane...... have been tested successfully. At a natural water content of w=40-45% it is possible to establish a homogeneous membrane with hydraulic conductivity k...

  11. Chemical mechanism of flocculation and deposition of clay colloids in coastal aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Qiu, Lixia; Lin, Guoqing; Yan, Xiaoyun; Chen, Xiaolan; Pang, Honglu

    2016-10-01

    Seawater intrusion has become one of serious environmental problems in coastal areas. During the replacement of saline water by fresh water in the aquifers, in-situ clay could be released, transport and deposit in the porous media due to the change of hydrodynamic and geochemical conditions, which resulted in the increasing of particle size, plugging of pores and reduction of the permeability. Batch experiments and sand column experiments were explored to study the relationships between the flocculation of in-situ clay and geochemical conditions, by changing ionic strength and ionic type of clay suspension. Column outflow was analyzed for suspended particles and electrical conductivity. The total percentage of colloid straining and interception distribution in porous media was calculated. The results indicate that porous media had an effect on the interception of clay colloid particles with about 10 percent clay colloids captured due to the rough surfaces and spatial structure of porous media. Ionic strength played a key role on the permeability reductions. The higher ionic strength is, the greater the amount of colloidal particles trapped. Ionic type also had a significant effect on the interception of clay colloid particles. Ripening was the main mechanism for the interception within porous media when the bulk solution was potassium chloride while blocking happened when the bulk solution was sodium chloride. The distribution of clay colloids in porous media was heterogeneous. The closer to the sand column inlet was the less interception of clay colloids was. The results can provide the scientific basis for preventing the water sensitivity during the process of salty aquifer restoration.

  12. Hydrology of the sand-and-gravel aquifer, southern Okaloosa and Walton Counties, northwest Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, L.R.; Barr, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    The sand-and-gravel aquifer in southern Okaloosa and Walton Counties, northwest Florida, extends from land surface to depth of 50 to 150 feet. Intervening layers of clay generally separate the aquifer into an unconfined surficial zone, composed principally of fine to medium sand, and a lower confined zone, consisting of variable amounts of medium to coarse sand and gravel. Well yields of 50 to 500 gallons per minute are possible in most of the area, and yields of 500 to 1,000 gallons per minute can be developed in parts of southwestern Okaloosa County. (USGS)

  13. Connection equation and shaly-sand correction for electrical resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung W.

    2011-01-01

    Estimating the amount of conductive and nonconductive constituents in the pore space of sediments by using electrical resistivity logs generally loses accuracy where clays are present in the reservoir. Many different methods and clay models have been proposed to account for the conductivity of clay (termed the shaly-sand correction). In this study, the connectivity equation (CE), which is a new approach to model non-Archie rocks, is used to correct for the clay effect and is compared with results using the Waxman and Smits method. The CE presented here requires no parameters other than an adjustable constant, which can be derived from the resistivity of water-saturated sediments. The new approach was applied to estimate water saturation of laboratory data and to estimate gas hydrate saturations at the Mount Elbert well on the Alaska North Slope. Although not as accurate as the Waxman and Smits method to estimate water saturations for the laboratory measurements, gas hydrate saturations estimated at the Mount Elbert well using the proposed CE are comparable to estimates from the Waxman and Smits method. Considering its simplicity, it has high potential to be used to account for the clay effect on electrical resistivity measurement in other systems.

  14. Chemical dispersants and pre-treatments to determine clay in soils with different mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rodrigues

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the soil physical properties, including the clay content, is of utmost importance for agriculture. The behavior of apparently similar soils can differ in intrinsic characteristics determined by different formation processes and nature of the parent material. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of separate or combined pre-treatments, dispersion methods and chemical dispersant agents to determine clay in some soil classes, selected according to their mineralogy. Two Brazilian Oxisols, two Alfisols and one Mollisol with contrasting mineralogy were selected. Different treatments were applied: chemical substances as dispersants (lithium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, and hexametaphosphate; pre-treatment with dithionite, ammonium oxalate, and hydrogen peroxide to eliminate organic matter; and coarse sand as abrasive and ultrasound, to test their mechanical action. The conclusion was drawn that different treatments must be applied to determine clay, in view of the soil mineralogy. Lithium hydroxide was not efficient to disperse low-CEC electropositive soils and very efficient in dispersing high-CEC electronegative soils. The use of coarse sand as an abrasive increased the clay content of all soils and in all treatments in which dispersion occurred, with or without the use of chemical dispersants. The efficiency of coarse sand is not the same for all soil classes.

  15. Constitutive model for overconsolidated clays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the relationships between the Hvorslev envelope,the current yield sur-face and the reference yield surface,a new constitutive model for overconsolidated clays is proposed. It adopts the unified hardening parameter,to which the potential failure stress ratio and the characteristic state stress ratio are introduced. The model can describe many characteristics of overconsolidated clays,including stress-strain relationships,strain hardening and softening,stress dilatancy,and stress path dependency. Compared with the Cam-clay model,the model only re-quires one additional soil parameter which is the slope of the Hvorslev envelope. Comparisons with data from triaxial drained compression tests for Fujinomori clay show that the proposed model can rationally describe overconsolidated properties. In addition,the model is also used to predict the stress-strain relationship in the isotropic consolidation condition and the stress paths in the undrained triaxial compression tests.

  16. Colloidal gels: Clay goes patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Willem K.; Lekkerkerker, Henk N. W.

    2011-01-01

    Empty liquids and equilibrium gels have so far been only theoretical possibilities, predicted for colloids with patchy interactions. But evidence of both has now been found in Laponite, a widely studied clay.

  17. Bituminous sands : tax issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, B. [PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper examined some of the tax issues associated with the production of bitumen or synthetic crude oil from oil sands. The oil sands deposits in Alberta are gaining more attention as the supplies of conventional oil in Canada decline. The oil sands reserves located in the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River areas contain about 2.5 trillion barrels of highly viscous hydrocarbons called bitumen, of which nearly 315 billion barrels are recoverable with current technology. The extraction method varies for each geographic area, and even within zones and reservoirs. The two most common extraction methods are surface mining and in-situ extraction such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS); low pressure steam flood; pressure cycle steam drive; steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD); hot water flooding; and, fire flood. This paper also discussed the following general tax issues: bituminous sands definition; bituminous sands leases and Canadian development expense versus Canadian oil and gas property expense (COGPE); Canadian exploration expense (CEE) for surface mining versus in-situ methods; additional capital cost allowance; and, scientific research and experimental development (SR and ED). 15 refs.

  18. Porosity Investigation of Kosova's Clay

    OpenAIRE

    Makfire Sadiku; Naim Hasani; Altin Mele

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Acid activated clay minerals are used as catalysts in the desulphurization of crude oil or as catalyst carrier, as drilling mud, as bleaching earth. Approach: The efficiency of the acid activation can be described in two ways. As increase of the surface and as increase of the cumulative pore volume after the activation. Results: In different samples of the clay mineral the activation was done with different sulfuric acid concentrations for two and 3h. Afterwards the specifi...

  19. Clays in radioactive waste disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu-Jun; Tang, Anh-Minh

    2010-01-01

    Clays and argillites are considered in some countries as possible host rocks for nuclear waste disposal at great depth. The use of compacted swelling clays as engineered barriers is also considered within the framework of the multi-barrier concept. In relation to these concepts, various research programs have been conducted to assess the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of radioactive waste disposal at great depth. After introducing the concepts of waste isolation developed in Belgium, Fran...

  20. What makes a natural clay antibacterial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lynda B.; Metge, David W.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Harvey, Ronald W.; Turner, Amanda G.; Prapaipong, Panjai; Port-Peterson, Amisha T.

    2011-01-01

    Natural clays have been used in ancient and modern medicine, but the mechanism(s) that make certain clays lethal against bacterial pathogens has not been identified. We have compared the depositional environments, mineralogies, and chemistries of clays that exhibit antibacterial effects on a broad spectrum of human pathogens including antibiotic resistant strains. Natural antibacterial clays contain nanoscale (2+ solubility.

  1. The prediction model of thermal conductivity of sand-bentonite based buffer material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, Y.M.; Chu, C.A. [National Central University, Dpt. of Civil Engineering, Taiwan (China); Chuangz, W.S. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Taiwan (China)

    2005-07-01

    The thermal conductivity of sand-bentonite based buffer materials is a key factor for the design of HLW depository. In the Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical environment, the thermal conductivity varies due to the change in clay density, the water content, and the volumetric fraction of sand or crushed granite. In this article, an improved thermal probe method for the measurement of thermal conductivity is proposed. The probe is placed within the sand-bentonite powder inside the specially designed mold which the volume can be controlled by the position of the compacting piston. While the clay density reaches to a designated level, the measurement is executed to evaluate the thermal conductivity. With repeating the procedure, the relationship of clay dry density and the thermal conductivity can be established in one specimen. The weight water content of the bentonite is adjusted by placing in a humid chamber or in an oven for different periods. The relationship of thermal conductivity with clay dry density, water content, and sand or crushed granite is well established in this article. (authors)

  2. Lund Sand No 0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Finn Rosendal

    During the last 15 years the Geotechnical Engineering Group (GEG) at Aalborg University has performed triaxial tests with a sand called Lund No 0. Lund No 0 is a graded sand from a gravel pit near Horsens in Denmark. For the classification of the sand the following tests have been performed: Sieve...... test, Grain density, ds, Maximum, emax, and minimum, emin, void ratio. The strength parameters of Lund No 0 are detennined by some drained and undrained triaxial tests in the Danish Triaxial Cell. The Danish Triaxial Cell prescribes smooth pressure heads and specimens with equal height and diameter....... Four series with Id equal to 0.92, 0.87 0.76 and 0.55 have been performed....

  3. 81 FR 31234 - NESHAP for Brick and Structural Clay Products Manufacturing; and NESHAP for Clay Ceramics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-18

    ... AGENCY NESHAP for Brick and Structural Clay Products Manufacturing; and NESHAP for Clay Ceramics... Brick and Structural Clay Products (BSCP) Manufacturing and the final NESHAP for Clay Ceramics... No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2013-0290 for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing. All documents in the dockets are listed...

  4. Spectral induced polarization and the hydraulic properties of New Zealand sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, S.; Ingham, M.

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory measurements of spectral induced polarization (SIP) and permeability have been made on unconsolidated samples representative of shallow coastal aquifers in New Zealand. The samples consisted of sands sieved into different fractions ranging from a mean grain size of 1.0 mm to 0.125 mm. Although the occurrence in New Zealand natural sands of titomagnetite means that the magnitude of the SIP phase response is significantly greater than is generally found for "clean" sands, the peak in SIP phase shows a clear dependence on grain size. The SIP spectra have been represented in terms of a Cole-Cole model and the relaxation times derived from this show a strong linear correlation with the measured values of permeability. The SIP and permeability measurements are then extended to mixtures of sieved sands, sand with varying amount of clay, samples with varying amount of magnetic minerals and also natural samples from various locations in New Zealand.

  5. UK Frac Sand Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, C J

    2015-01-01

    Although still just a glimmer in the gas man’s eye, the prospect of shale hydrocarbon (oil and gas) development in the UK has many companies thinking about the industrial minerals it will require. Chief amongst these is silica sand which is used as a ‘proppant’ in the hydraulic fracturing, or ‘fracking’, of shales to help release the gas. The UK has large resources of sand and sandstone, of which only a small proportion have the necessary technical properties that classify them as ‘silica san...

  6. From shifting silt to solid stone: the manufacture of synthetic basalt in ancient mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone; Lindsley; Pigott; Harbottle; Ford

    1998-06-26

    Slabs and fragments of gray-black vesicular "rock," superficially resembling natural basalt but distinctive in chemistry and mineralogy, were excavated at the second-millennium B.C. Mesopotamian city of Mashkan-shapir, about 80 kilometers south of Baghdad, Iraq. Most of this material appears to have been deliberately manufactured by the melting and slow cooling of local alluvial silts. The high temperatures (about 1200 degreesC) required and the large volume of material processed indicate an industry in which lithic materials were manufactured ("synthetic basalt") for grinding grain and construction.

  7. Effects of anthropogenic silt on aquatic macroinvertebrates and abiotic variables in streams in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couceiro, Sheyla Regina Marques; Hamada, Neusa [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Entomologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Forsberg, Bruce Rider [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Entomologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Ecologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Padovesi-Fonseca, Claudia [Univ. de Brasilia, Dept. de Ecologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: While environmental risks associated with petroleum extraction such as oil spills or leaks are relatively well known, little attention has been given to the impacts of silt. The increase in petroleum exploitation in Amazonia has resulted in sediment input to aquatic systems, with impacts on their biodiversity. Here we use a combination of field measurements and statistical analyses to evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic silt derived from the construction of roads, borrow pits, and wells during the terrestrial development of gas and oil, on macroinvertebrate communities in streams of the Urucu Petroleum Province in the Central Brazilian Amazon. Material and methods: Ten impacted and nine non-impacted streams were sampled in January, April, and November of 2007. Macroinvertebrates were sampled along a 100-m continuous reach in each stream at 10-m intervals using a dip net. Abiotic variables including, a siltation index (SI), suspended inorganic sediment (SIS), sediment color index (SCI), suspend organic sediment (SOS), pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, water velocity, channel width, and depth, were measured at three equidistant points in each stream ({proportional_to}30-m intervals). Results and discussion: SI did not differ between impacted and undisturbed streams. SIS was higher and SCI lower (more reddish) in impacted than in non-impacted streams. SCI had a positive and SIS a negative effect on both macroinvertebrate richness and density. SIS and SCI also influenced macrophyte taxonomic composition. In impacted streams, taxonomic richness and density were 1.5 times lower than in non-impacted streams. No taxon was significantly associated with impacted streams. SIS was positively correlated with SOS and electrical conductivity while SCI was negatively correlated with SOS, electrical conductivity, and pH. The lack of difference in SI between impacted and nonimpacted streams suggests that anthropogenic sediment does not accumulate

  8. Management effects on greenhouse gas emissions from a fen covered with riverine silt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer, Melanie; Gatersleben, Peter; Tiemeyer, Bärbel

    2017-04-01

    Drainage is necessary to use peatlands for conventional agriculture, but this practice causes high emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The effect of hydrological conditions and management on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from "true" peat soils is relatively well examined, but there is little data on GHG emissions from organic soils covered with mineral soil. Such a cover may either be man-made to improve the trafficability of the fields or natural, e.g. due to the deposition of riverine silt. Such mineral covers are widespread in North-Western Germany and other regions with intensively used peatlands. Here, we aim to evaluate the effect of management, water table depth and properties of the mineral cover on the emissions of CO2, N2O and methane (CH4). As the majority of peatlands in North-Western Germany, the study area is used as grassland. The area is artificially drained and intensively used (4 to 5 cuts per year, annual nitrogen fertilisation of 112 to 157 kg/ha). The fen peat with a thickness of 0.6 to 1.50 m is covered by riverine silt deposited by the river Weser. Six measurement sites have been chosen to represent typical agricultural management, soil properties and hydrological conditions of one hydrological management unit. The sites differ in the soil organic carbon (SOC) content of the riverine silt (4 - 15 % SOC), the occurrence of a ploughed horizon as well as water and agricultural management. We use static closed chambers to measure CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes. CO2 measurement campaigns using transparent and opaque chambers and a portable IRGA take place every third or fourth week depending on season. CH4 and N2O samples are taken every second week and, in addition, on the first, third and seventh day after fertilizer application. Samples are analyzed by gas chromatography. First results show negligible CH4 fluxes due to low groundwater levels. Total N2O emissions reflected mainly the different fertilizer

  9. How mobile are sorbed cations in clays and clay rocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimmi, T; Kosakowski, G

    2011-02-15

    Diffusion of cations and other contaminants through clays is of central interest, because clays and clay rocks are widely considered as barrier materials for waste disposal sites. An intriguing experimental observation has been made in this context: Often, the diffusive flux of cations at trace concentrations is much larger and the retardation smaller than expected based on their sorption coefficients. So-called surface diffusion of sorbed cations has been invoked to explain the observations but remains a controversial issue. Moreover, the corresponding surface diffusion coefficients are largely unknown. Here we show that, by an appropriate scaling, published diffusion data covering a broad range of cations, clays, and chemical conditions can all be modeled satisfactorily by a surface diffusion model. The average mobility of sorbed cations seems to be primarily an intrinsic property of each cation that follows inversely its sorption affinity. With these surface mobilities, cation diffusion coefficients can now be estimated from those of water tracers. In pure clays at low salinities, surface diffusion can reduce the cation retardation by a factor of more than 1000.

  10. Preliminary study of sand jets in water-capped artificial and real MFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, J.; Zhu, D.; Rajaratnam, N. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-07-01

    A preliminary study of sand jets in water-capped artificial and real MFT was presented. Background information on oil sands tailing reclamation including water capping and sand capping were first discussed, followed by background information to the study, including non-Newtonian fluids and laponite clay, the artificial clay used mainly in small amounts as a rheology modifier in industrial fluids and materials. Although laponite clay is insoluble in water, it hydrates to make a clear and colourless colloidal, which is thixotropic and also behaves as a Bingham plastic fluid. The benefit of using gels made from laponite is the ability to see through to observe the physical processes in it. The objectives of the study were to examine the dynamics of sand jets in water-capped laponite gel and real MFT; improve the understanding of physical processes related to MFT and sand/slurry operations in tailings ponds; and find potential applications in recycling processed water and decommissioning of tailings ponds. It was concluded that it is much more difficult for jets to penetrate water-capped MFT due to larger yield stress in MFT. Future studies will focus on density correction, viscosity adjustment, and sensitivity analysis. tabs., figs.

  11. Contribution to the study of thermal properties of clay bricks reinforced by date palm fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhermeche, A.; Kriker, A.; Dahmani, S.

    2016-07-01

    The Saharan regions of Algeria are characterized by a hot and dry climate. The most used cement materials such as theconcrete or the mortar blocks have bad thermal characteristic. However, these regions have several local materials: clay, dune sand and some natural fibers, which are formerly proved their thermal efficiency. The price of construction material used therefore depends on the international market constantly destabilized by theeconomic crisis coupled with the energy crisis in recent times. To produce a framework of life at a lower cost, it is important, therefore, to circumvent the influence of the cost of energy by upgrading the local materials of construction. In order to improve thermal performances in Saharan building materials this study was lanced. The aim of this research isthen to fabricate some bricks using three local materials: namely the clay, sand dune and the fibers of date palm. The percentage of sand and fibers varies from 0% to 40% and 0% to 3% by mass respectively. A sand dune of Ain El Beida of Ouargla of Algeria was used. Clay was extracted from Beldet Amer of Touggourt Ouargla Algérie. The fibers used in this study were vegetable fibers from date palm of Ouargla Algeria. The results showed that increasing in the mass fraction of sand and of fiber were beneficial for improving thermal properties. As function of increasing the percentage of sand dune and fibers there were: A decrease in: thermal conductivity, specific heat, heat capacity, thermal effusivity and thermal diffusivity and there were an increase in the thermal resistance.

  12. Building with Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of…

  13. Faraday, Jets, and Sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandtke, M.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Versluis, Andreas Michel; Lohse, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    When a 6-mm layer of fine sand with an average grain size of 40 µm is poured into a cylindrical container and shaken vertically, thin jets are seen to emerge from an airy cloud of grains, almost like protuberances from the corona of the sun. A quasi two-dimensional setup reveals the jet-formation

  14. Building with Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of…

  15. Speleothems and Sand Castles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hance, Trevor; Befus, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The idea of building sand castles evokes images of lazy summer days at the beach, listening to waves crash, enjoying salty breezes, and just unplugging for a while to let our inner child explore the wonderful natural toys beneath our feet. The idea of exploring caves might evoke feelings and images of claustrophobia or pioneers and Native…

  16. Virksomhedens sande ansigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundholt, Marianne Wolff

    2017-01-01

    Er modhistorier en byrde eller en styrke i forandringsprocesser? Hvad stiller vi op, når adgangen til organisationens sande identitet går gennem medarbejdernes modhistorier? Når vi sammenholder denne erkendelse med vores viden om, at medarbejdere helt naturligt afholder sig fra at videregive disse...

  17. Sand (CSW4)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Estuarine and Coastal Research Unit

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available This report is one of a series on Cape Estuaries being published under the general title "The Estuaries of the Cape, Part 2". The report provides information on sand estuary: historical background, abiotic and biotic characteristics. It is pointed...

  18. Sand supply to beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2017-04-01

    In most cases, beaches and dunes are built by sand that has been transported onshore from the shoreface. While this has been known for a long time, we are still not able to quantitatively predict onshore sediment transport and sand supply to beaches. Sediment transport processes operating during brief, high-energy stormy conditions - when beaches erode and sand moves offshore - are fairly well known and they can be modelled with a reasonable degree of confidence. However, the slower onshore sand transport leading to beach recovery under low-to-moderate energy conditions - and the reason why beaches and dunes exist in the first place - is not yet well understood. This severely limits our capability to understand and predict coastal behaviour on long time scales, for example in response to changing sea level or wave conditions. This paper will discuss issues and recent developments in sediment transport measurement and prediction on the lower and upper shoreface and into the swash zone. The focus will be on the integration and upscaling of small-scale deterministic process measurements into parametric models that may increase modelling capabilities of coastal behaviour on larger temporal and spatial scales.

  19. Charm of Purple Clay A private museum in Wuxi is devoted to purple-clay art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Purple-clay art pieces will be on display in a museum opening soon in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province. The museum, named Shuaiyuan Purple Clay Museum, is part of the Shuaiyuan Purple Clay Art Exhibition Center

  20. Erosion phenomena in sand moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chojecki

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Authors studicd the erosion phcnorncna in sand moulds pured with cast iron. Thc study comprises an evaluation of erosionresistance of thc three sands: grccn sand. sand bondcd with inorganic or organic bindcr. It was concluded that thc most resistant is [heclassic green sand with thc addition of 5 B coal dust. Resistance of the sand with organic binder is generally weak and dcvnds onkind of used raisin. Spccinl nztcntion was paid to the sands with no organic bindcr watcr glass and phospha~c. It was Sound that thcirrcsistance depends on dehydratation conditions. When the mould is stored in law humidity of atmosphcrc the very strong crosion canbe expected. It rcsul ts hrn thc micro fractures in the bridges of binders, joining the grains of the sable. This phcnomcna facilitates thetearing away of fragments of sand [tom the surface

  1. Characterization of Heat-treated Clay Minerals in the Context of Nuclear Waste Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteo, E. N.; Wang, Y.; Kruichak, J. N.; Mills, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Clay minerals are likely candidates to aid in nuclear waste isolation due to their low permeability, favorable swelling properties, and high cation sorption capacities. Establishing the thermal limit for clay minerals in a nuclear waste repository is a potentially important component of repository design, as flexibility of the heat load within the repository can have a major impact on the selection of repository design. For example, the thermal limit plays a critical role in the time that waste packages would need to cool before being transferred to the repository. Understanding the chemical and physical changes, if any, that occur in clay minerals at various temperatures above the current thermal limit (of 100 °C) can enable decision-makers with information critical to evaluating the potential trade-offs of increasing the thermal limit within the repository. Most critical is gaining understanding of how varying thermal conditions in the repository will impact radionuclide sorption and transport in clay materials either as engineered barriers or as disposal media. A variety of repository-relevant clay minerals (illite, mixed layer illite/smectite, and montmorillonite), were heated for a range of temperatures between 100-1000 °C. These samples were characterized to determine surface area, mineralogical alteration, and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Our results show that for conditions up to 500 °C, no significant change occurs, so long as the clay mineral remains mineralogically intact. At temperatures above 500 °C, transformation of the layered silicates into silica phases leads to alteration that impacts important clay characteristics. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's Nation Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND Number: SAND2015-6524 A

  2. Assessment of Silt Density Index (SDI) as Fouling Propensity Parameter in Reverse Osmosis Desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi

    2011-07-01

    Reverse osmosis operations are facing persistent fouling phenomenon that has challenged the integrity of these processes. Prediction of fouling potential by measuring a fouling index toward feed water is essential to ensure robust operation. Moreover, employing a reliable fouling index with good reproducibility and precision is necessary. Silt density index (SDI) is considered insufficient in terms of reliability and empirical theory, among other limitations. Nevertheless due its simplicity, SDI measurement is utilized extensively in RO desalination systems. The aim of this research is to assess the reliability of SDI. Methods include the investigation of different SDI membranes and study of the nature of the SDI filtration. Results demonstrate the existence of the membrane properties\\' variation within manufacturers, which then causes a lack of accuracy in fouling risk estimation. The nature of particles during SDI filtration provides information that particle concentration and size play a significant role on SDI quantification with substantial representation given by particles with size close to membrane nominal pore size. Moreover, turbidity assisted SDI measurements along with determination of UF pretreated and clean water fouling potential, establishes the indication of non-fouling related phenomena involved on SDI measurement such as a natural organic matter adsorption and hydrodynamic condition that alters during filtration. Additionally, it was found that the latter affects the sensitivity of SDI by being represented by some portions of SDI value. Keywords: Reverse Osmosis, Fouling index, Particulate Fouling, Silt Density Index (SDI), and Assessment of SDI.

  3. Sulfur biogeochemistry of oil sands composite tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Lesley; Stephenson, Kate [Earth Sciences, McMaster University (Canada)], email: warrenl@mcmaster.ca; Penner, Tara [Syncrude Environmental Research (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the sulfur biogeochemistry of oil sands composite tailings (CT). The Government of Alberta is accelerating reclamation activities on composite tailings. As a CT pilot reclamation operation, Syncrude is currently constructing the first freshwater fen. Minor unpredicted incidents with H2S gas released from the dewatering process associated with these reclamations have been reported. The objective of this study is to ascertain the connection between microbial activity and H2S generation within CT and to assess the sulfur biogeochemistry of untreated and treated (fen) CT over seasonal and annual timescales. The microbial geochemical interactions taking place are shown using a flow chart. CT is composed of gypsum, sand, clay and organics like naphthenic acids and bitumen. Sulfur and Fe cycling in mining systems and their microbial activities are presented. The chemistry and the processes involved within CT are also given along with the results. It can be said that the diverse Fe and S metabolizing microorganisms confirm the ecology involved in H2S dynamics.

  4. Selection and preference of benthic habitat by small and large ammocoetes of the least brook lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.M.; Welsh, S.A.; Turk, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this laboratory study, we quantified substrate selection by small (large (100-150 mm) ammocoetes of the least brook lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera). In aquaria, ammocoetes were given a choice to burrow into six equally-available substrate types: small gravel (2.360-4.750 mm), coarse sand (0.500-1.400 mm), fine sand (0.125-0.500 mm), organic substrate (approximately 70% decomposing leaves/stems and organic sediment particles, and 30% silt and fine sand), an even mixture of silt, clay, and fine sand, and silt/clay (population sizes. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  5. On Pluvial Compaction of Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Moust

    At the Institute of Civil Engineering in Aalborg model tests on dry sand specimens have been carried out during the last five years. To reduce deviations in test results, the sand laying technique has been carefully studied, and the sand mass spreader constructed. Preliminary results have been...

  6. Interaction forces in bitumen extraction from oil sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianjun; Xu, Zhenghe; Masliyah, Jacob

    2005-07-15

    Water-based extraction process (WBEP) has been successfully applied to bitumen recovery from Athabasca oil sand ore deposits in Alberta. In this process, two essential steps are involved. The bitumen first needs to be "liberated" from sand grains, followed by "aeration" with air bubbles. Bitumen "liberation" from the sand grains is controlled by the interaction between the bitumen and sand grains. Bitumen "aeration" is dependent, among other mechanical and hydrodynamic variables, on the hydrophobicity of the bitumen surface, which is controlled by water chemistry and interactions between bitumen and fine solids. In this paper, the interaction force measured with an atomic force microscope (AFM) between bitumen-bitumen, bitumen-silica, bitumen-clays and bitumen-fines is summarized. The measured interaction force barrier coupled with the contacted adhesion force allows us to predict the coagulative state of colloidal systems. Zeta potential distribution measurements, in terms of heterocoagulation, confirmed the prediction of the measured force profiles using AFM. The results show that solution pH and calcium addition can significantly affect the colloidal interactions of various components in oil sand extraction systems. The strong attachment of fines from a poor processing ore on bitumen is responsible for the corresponding low bitumen flotation recovery. The identification of the dominant non-contact forces by fitting with the classical DLVO or extended DLVO theory provides guidance for controlling the interaction behavior of the oil sand components through monitoring the factors that could affect the non-contact forces. The findings provide insights into megascale industrial operations of oil sand extraction.

  7. 80 FR 75817 - NESHAP for Brick and Structural Clay Products Manufacturing; and NESHAP for Clay Ceramics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-04

    ... NESHAP for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing: Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...; and NESHAP for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing. These amendments make two technical corrections to...

  8. An Investigation into the Use of Manufactured Sand as a 100% Replacement for Fine Aggregate in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Pilegis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Manufactured sand differs from natural sea and river dredged sand in its physical and mineralogical properties. These can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fresh and hardened properties of concrete. This paper presents the results of a laboratory study in which manufactured sand produced in an industry sized crushing plant was characterised with respect to its physical and mineralogical properties. The influence of these characteristics on concrete workability and strength, when manufactured sand completely replaced natural sand in concrete, was investigated and modelled using artificial neural networks (ANN. The results show that the manufactured sand concrete made in this study generally requires a higher water/cement (w/c ratio for workability equal to that of natural sand concrete due to the higher angularity of the manufactured sand particles. Water reducing admixtures can be used to compensate for this if the manufactured sand does not contain clay particles. At the same w/c ratio, the compressive and flexural strength of manufactured sand concrete exceeds that of natural sand concrete. ANN proved a valuable and reliable method of predicting concrete strength and workability based on the properties of the fine aggregate (FA and the concrete mix composition.

  9. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Stephenson

    Full Text Available We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration.

  10. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  11. Strength Properties of Aalborg Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kirsten Malte; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    resulted in many damaged buildings in Aalborg. To provide sufficient bearing capacity it is therefore necessary either to remove the fill or to construct the building on piles. Both methods imply that the strength of Aalborg Clay is important for the construction. This paper evaluates the strength...... of Aalborg Clay by use of triaxial tests from four different locations. Both the drained strength (c and ϕ) and the undrained strength (cu) are assessed through two different methods: one where the strength is assumed to vary with the effective stress and another where the strength is found to be constant....

  12. Clay membrane made of natural high plasticity clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels; Baumann, Jens

    1998-01-01

    Leachate containment in Denmark has through years been regulated by the DIF Recommendation for Sanitary Landfill Liners (DS/R 466). It states natural clay deposits may be used for membrane material provided the membrane and drainage system may contain at least 95% of all leachate created throughout...

  13. Sand hazards on tourist beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W

    2013-01-01

    Visiting the beach is a popular tourist activity worldwide. Unfortunately, the beach environment is abundant with hazards and potential danger to the unsuspecting tourist. While the traditional focus of beach safety has been water safety oriented, there is growing concern about the risks posed by the sand environment on beaches. This study reports on the death and near death experience of eight tourists in the collapse of sand holes, sand dunes, and sand tunnels. Each incident occurred suddenly and the complete burial in sand directly contributed to the victims injury or death in each case report.

  14. Experimental study of surface texture and resonance mechanism of booming sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU; JianJun; ZHANG; KeCun; SUN; Bo; JIANG; ShengXiang; DONG; GuangRong; ZU; RuiPing; FANG; HaiYan

    2007-01-01

    The sound-producing mechanism of booming sand has long been a pending problem in the blown sand physics. Based on the earlier researches, the authors collected some silent sand samples from Tengger Desert, Australian Desert, Kuwait Desert, beaches of Hainan Island and Japanese coast as well as the soundless booming sand samples from the Mingsha Mountain in Dunhuang to make washing experiments. In the meantime the chemical corrosion experiment of glass micro-spheres, surface coating experiment and SEM examination were also conducted. The experimental results show that the sound production of booming sand seems to have nothing to do with the presence of SiO2 gel on the surface of sand grains and unrelated to the surface chemical composition of sand grains but is related to the resonance cavities formed by porous (pit-like) physical structure resulting from a number of factors such as wind erosion, water erosion, chemical corrosion and SiO2 gel deposition, etc. Its resonance mechanism is similar to that of Hemholz resonance cavity. Under the action of external forces, numerous spherical and sand grains with smooth surface and porous surface are set in motion and rub with each other to produce extremely weak vibration sound and then become audible sound by human ears through the magnification of surface cavity resonance. However the booming sands may lose their resonance mechanism and become silent sand due to the damping action caused by the invasion of finer particles such as dust and clay into surface holes of sand grains. Therefore, clearing away fine pollutants on the quartz grain surface is an effective way to make silent sand emit audible sound.

  15. PROCESSING OF MONAZITE SAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, G.D.; Bohlmann, E.G.

    1957-12-01

    A process for the recovery of thorium, uranium, and rare earths from monazite sands is presented. The sands are first digested and dissolved in concentrated NaOH, and the solution is then diluted causing precipitation of uranium, thorium and rare earth hydroxides. The precipitate is collected and dissolved in HCl, and the pH of this solution is adjusted to about 6, precipitating the hydroxides of thorium and uranium but leaving the rare earths in solution. The rare earths are then separated from the solution by precipitation at a still higher pH. The thorium and uranium containing precipitate is redissolved in HNO/sub 3/ and the two elements are separated by extraction into tributyl phosphate and back extraction with a weakly acidic solution to remove the thorium.

  16. Moving sand dunes

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    In several desert areas, the slow motion of sand dunes can be a challenge for modern human activities and a threat for the survival of ancient places or archaeological sites. However, several methods exist for surveying the dune fields and estimate their migration rate. Among these methods, the use of satellite images, in particular of those freely available on the World Wide Web, is a convenient resource for the planning of future human settlements and activities.

  17. Picasso Masks: Cubism in Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddino, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an art project developed by the author which provides a way to further the children's understanding of Picasso's Cubism style in 3-D. Through this project, upper-elementary students learn a bit about the life and art of Picasso as they gain a firm understanding of the style of art known as Cubism, and apply clay techniques…

  18. ADSORPTION OF SURFACTANT ON CLAYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surfactants used to enhance remediation of soils by soil washing are often lost in the process. Neither the amount nor the cause of this loss is known. It is assumed that clays present in the soil are responsible for the loss of the surfactant. In this papere, adsorption prope...

  19. Biodegradable Pectin/clay Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodegradable, foamlike materials based on renewable pectin and sodium montmorillonite clay were fabricated through a simple, environmentally friendly freeze-drying process. Addition of multivalent cations (Ca2+ and Al3+) resulted in apparent crosslinking of the polymer, and enhancement of aerogel p...

  20. Geotechnical properties of Karwar marine clay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.T.; Nayak, B.U.; Naik, R.L.

    Karwar marine clay possesses high plasticity characteristics with natural water content higher than the liquid limit. Liquidity index was as high as 1.7. Predominant clay mineral was kaolinite. Undrained shear strength showed an increasing trend...

  1. Mechanical Behaviors of Silt Rock Subjected to Coupling Static and Impact Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zilong; LI Xibing; HONG Liang; MA Chunde

    2006-01-01

    Experiments of silt rock subjected to coupling loads were carried out on tailormade equipment.With a constant dynamic load,the behaviors of eight sets of siltite specimens were investigated with different axial static loads.The experimental results show that the modulus of the specimens under coupling loads increases at first and then decreases with the increase of axial static pressure.The failure model of the specimens also varies.Keeping the dynamic load constant,when the axial static pressure is Iow,the specimen breaks in two simply.With the increase of axial static pressure,the cone-shaped fragment appeares.When the axial static pressure reaches 90% of the static strength of rock,the specimen smashes into amount of small fragments.

  2. Degradation of roxarsone in a silt loam soil and its toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tengfang; Ke, Zhengchen; Chen, Qing; Liu, Li; Chen, Guowei

    2014-10-01

    The land application of poultry or swine litter, containing large amounts of roxarsone, causes serious arsenic pollution in soil. Understanding biotransformation process of roxarsone and its potential risks favors proper disposal of roxarsone-contaminated animal litter, yet remains not achieved. We report an experimental study of biotransformation process of roxarsone in a silt loam soil under various soil moisture and temperature conditions, and the toxicity of roxarsone and its products from degradation. Results showed that soil moisture and higher temperature promoted roxarsone degradation, associating with emergent pentavalent arsenic. Analysis of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis activity revealed that roxarsone does not exert acute toxic on soil microbes. With the release of inorganic arsenic, FDA hydrolysis activity was inhibited gradually, as evidenced by ecotoxicological assessment using Photobacterium leiognathi. The results shade new lights on the dynamic roxarsone biotransformation processes in soil, which is important for guiding appropriate disposal of poultry or swine litter in the environment.

  3. Thermal Volume Change of Unsaturated Silt under Different Stress States and Suction Magnitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCartney John S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of the thermal volume change of compacted specimens of the same type of silt under a wide range of stress states, initial void ratios, and suction magnitudes. Stress states include both isotropic and anisotropic conditions with varying principal stress ratios, as well as normally consolidated and overconsolidated conditions. Initial void ratios range from 0.60 to 0.86, spanning very dense to loose conditions. Suctions evaluated range from saturated conditions, to low suctions in the funicular range, to suctions corresponding to residual saturation conditions. For the same soil, wide variations in thermal volume change are observed. Thermal contraction is observed for normally consolidated conditions regardless of the initial degree of saturation. Different mechanisms of thermal volume change can be used to explain the results, ranging from thermally-induced pore water pressure dissipation, to thermal collapse, to thermally-accelerated creep.

  4. Booming Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Nathalie

    "Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local

  5. NEXAFS microscopy studies of the association of hydrocarbon thin films with fine clay particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covelli, Danielle [Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5C9 (Canada); Hernandez-Cruz, Daniel [Brockhouse Institute for Material Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Haines, Brian M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5C9 (Canada); Munoz, Vincente; Omotoso, Oladipo; Mikula, Randy [CANMET Energy Technology Centre Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB, T9G 1A8 (Canada); Urquhart, Stephen [Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5C9 (Canada)], E-mail: stephen.urquhart@usask.ca

    2009-06-15

    The nature of organic species associated with clay minerals plays a significant role in several processes, from hydrocarbon recovery in oil sands to contaminated soil remediation and water treatment. In this work, we address the use of scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) in conjunction with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy to study the microstructure and chemistry of organic-clay associations in situ. A model system based on methylene blue and illite is used to explore the sensitivity of NEXAFS microscopy to these interactions, and to identify and resolve experimental challenges in these measurements. We find that sample contamination from X-ray induced photodeposition is a significant problem in STXM microscopy, but also that this problem can be substantially reduced with a liquid nitrogen cooled anticontaminator. With appropriate sample preparation and experimental procedures, we find that STXM microscopy is sensitive to thin carbon adsorbates on clay surfaces.

  6. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Clay (kaolin). 186.1256 Section 186.1256 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1256 Clay (kaolin). (a) Clay (kaolin) Al2O3.2SiO2.nH2O, Cas Reg. No. 1332-58-7) consists of hydrated aluminum silicate. The commercial products of clay (kaolin) contain...

  7. The Suitability Of Local Quartz Sand In The Production Of Bath Crucibles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. O. Okpanachi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of local quartz sand in the production of bath crucibles is a study that was carried out in order to impart overall strength on bath crucibles hence reduce breakages during fettling. Therefore this research constitutes a study to enhance the efficiency of production of bath crucibles by addition of quartz sand in slip preparation. The steps taken in the beneficiation of quartz sand for the production of bath crucibles are comminution which entails crushing and milling classification washing liquid dispersion sizing and reduction of iron content by magnetic separation. The slip contains materials like plastic clay feldspar kaolin talc sodium silicate water quartz sand etc. These were all milled in the ball mill for slip production casting and fettling glazing and sintering to get final bath crucibles as the end products. Quartz sand is used in a variety of products essentially as raw material for the foundry casting and glass industries and also in chemicals water filtration and ceramics the heat resistance nature of quartz sand makes it an excellent refractory substance for these industrial processes. Slip can be prepared for production of bath crucibles without the inclusion of quartz sand however the addition of quartz sand is needed to improve the mechanical performance of the slip in the production of bath crucibles.

  8. Sediment mathematical model for sand ridges and sand waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Daming; WANG Xiao; WANG Xin; LI Yangyang

    2016-01-01

    A new theoretical model is formulated to describe internal movement mechanisms of the sand ridges and sand waves based on the momentum equation of a solid-liquid two-phase flow under a shear flow. Coupling this equation with two-dimensional shallow water equations and wave reflection-diffraction equation of mild slope, a two-dimensional coupling model is established and a validation is carried out by observed hydrogeology, tides, waves and sediment. The numerical results are compared with available observations. Satisfactory agreements are achieved. This coupling model is then applied to the Dongfang 1-1 Gas Field area to quantitatively predict the movement and evolution of submarine sand ridges and sand waves. As a result, it is found that the sand ridges and sand waves movement distance increases year by year, but the development trend is stable.

  9. Clay Cuffman: A Cool, Calm, Relaxed Guy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Gina

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Clay Cuffman, a simple clay-sculpture project that requires two or three sessions, and works for students from the upper-elementary level through high school. It takes about 1.5 pounds of clay per student--about the size of a small grapefruit. The Cuffman project is a great way for upper-elementary through high-school…

  10. Hydrodynamic erosion process of undisturbed clay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, G.; Visser, P.J.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the hydrodynamic erosion process of undisturbed clay due to the turbulent flow, based on theoretical analysis and experimental results. The undisturbed clay has the unique and complicated characteristics of cohesive force among clay particles, which are highly different from dis

  11. Clay & Children: More than Making Pots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Ursula

    1997-01-01

    Working with clay enables young children to express, explore, and communicate their feelings and ideas. This resource booklet for early childhood practitioners and it promotes the clay table as a special place for shared discoveries, social interaction, and discussion. The booklet provides a glossary of terms used in clay work, as well as reasons…

  12. Microbially-accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. Pathway I: changes in porewater chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq eSiddique

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dispersed clay particles in mine tailings and soft sediments remain suspended for decades, hindering consolidation and challenging effective management of these aqueous slurries. Current geotechnical engineering models of self-weight consolidation of tailings do not consider microbial contribution to sediment behavior, however, here we show that microorganisms indigenous to oil sands tailings change the porewater chemistry and accelerate consolidation of oil sands tailings. A companion paper describes the role of microbes in alteration of clay chemistry in tailings. Microbial metabolism in mature fine tailings (MFT amended with an organic substrate (hydrolyzed canola meal produced methane (CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2. Dissolution of biogenic CO2 lowered the pH of amended MFT to pH 6.4 versus unamended MFT (pH 7.7. About 12% more porewater was recovered from amended than unamended MFT during 2 months of active microbial metabolism, concomitant with consolidation of tailings. The lower pH in amended MFT dissolved carbonate minerals, thereby releasing divalent cations including calcium (Ca2+ and magnesium (Mg2+ and increasing bicarbonate (HCO3- in porewater. The higher concentrations increased the ionic strength of the porewater, in turn reducing the thickness of the diffuse double layer (DDL of clay particles by reducing the surface charge potential (repulsive forces of the clay particles. The combination of these processes accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. In addition, ebullition of biogenic gases created transient physical channels for release of porewater. In contrast, saturating the MFT with non-biogenic CO2 had little effect on consolidation. These results have significant implications for management and reclamation of oil sands tailings ponds and broad importance in anaerobic environments such as contaminated harbors and estuaries containing soft sediments rich in clays and organics.

  13. Microbially-accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. Pathway I: changes in porewater chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Tariq; Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Arkell, Nicholas; Young, Rozlyn; Li, Carmen; Guigard, Selma; Underwood, Eleisha; Foght, Julia M

    2014-01-01

    Dispersed clay particles in mine tailings and soft sediments remain suspended for decades, hindering consolidation and challenging effective management of these aqueous slurries. Current geotechnical engineering models of self-weight consolidation of tailings do not consider microbial contribution to sediment behavior, however, here we show that microorganisms indigenous to oil sands tailings change the porewater chemistry and accelerate consolidation of oil sands tailings. A companion paper describes the role of microbes in alteration of clay chemistry in tailings. Microbial metabolism in mature fine tailings (MFT) amended with an organic substrate (hydrolyzed canola meal) produced methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Dissolution of biogenic CO2 lowered the pH of amended MFT to pH 6.4 vs. unamended MFT (pH 7.7). About 12% more porewater was recovered from amended than unamended MFT during 2 months of active microbial metabolism, concomitant with consolidation of tailings. The lower pH in amended MFT dissolved carbonate minerals, thereby releasing divalent cations including calcium (Ca(2+)) and magnesium (Mg(2+)) and increasing bicarbonate (HCO(-) 3) in porewater. The higher concentrations increased the ionic strength of the porewater, in turn reducing the thickness of the diffuse double layer (DDL) of clay particles by reducing the surface charge potential (repulsive forces) of the clay particles. The combination of these processes accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. In addition, ebullition of biogenic gases created transient physical channels for release of porewater. In contrast, saturating the MFT with non-biogenic CO2 had little effect on consolidation. These results have significant implications for management and reclamation of oil sands tailings ponds and broad importance in anaerobic environments such as contaminated harbors and estuaries containing soft sediments rich in clays and organics.

  14. Simulation Of Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination For Remediation Of Tce In A Fractured Clay System: A New Model Approach And Application To Field Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoli, Gabriele; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Christiansen, Camilla Maymann;

    2010-01-01

    with interspersed sand lenses and stringers. The transport model couples diffusion dominated transport in the clay matrix, with advective‐dispersive transport in the fractures and higher permeability sand lenses. The reactive model calculates sequential reductive dechlorination of TCE (trichloroethylene) to its...... a contamination of trichloroethylene located in a fractured clay till. The site is simulated using the model developed. Fracture geometry, site parameters and degradation rates are based on observations from the site and lab studies. The risk for drinking water is assessed and cleanup times are simulated using...

  15. Neoformation of clay in lateral root catchments of mallee eucalypts: a chemical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verboom, William H; Pate, John S; Aspandiar, Mehrooz

    2010-01-01

    A previous paper (Annals of Botany 103: 673-685) described formation of clayey pavements in lateral root catchments of eucalypts colonizing a recently formed sand dune in south-west Western Australia. Here chemical and morphological aspects of their formation at the site are studied. Chemical and physical examinations of soil cores through pavements and sand under adjacent heath assessed build-up of salts, clay and pH changes in or below pavements. Relationships of root morphology to clay deposition were examined and deposits subjected to scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Xylem transport of mineral elements in eucalypt and non-eucalypt species was studied by analysis of xylem (tracheal) sap from lateral roots. The columns of which pavements are composed develop exclusively on lower-tier lateral roots. Such sites show intimate associations of fine roots, fungal filaments, microbiota and clay deposits rich in Si, Al and Fe. Time scales for construction of pavements by eucalypts were assessed. Cores through columns of pavemented profiles showed gross elevations of bulk density, Al, Fe and Si in columns and related increases in pH, Mg and Ca status in lower profiles. A cutting through the dune exhibited pronounced alkalinity (pH 7-10) under mallee woodland versus acidity (pH 5-6.5) under proteaceous heath. Xylem sap analyses showed unusually high concentrations of Al, Fe, Mg and Si in dry-season samples from column-bearing roots. Deposition of Al-Fe-Si-rich clay is pivotal to pavement construction by eucalypts and leads to profound chemical and physical changes in relevant soil profiles. Microbial associates of roots are likely to be involved in clay genesis, with parent eucalypts supplying the required key mineral elements and carbon sources. Acquisition of the Al and Fe incorporated into clay derives principally from hydraulic uplift from ground water via deeply penetrating tap roots.

  16. The systems containing clays and clay minerals from modified drug release: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Luís Alberto de Sousa; Figueiras, Ana; Veiga, Francisco; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes; Nunes, Lívio César Cunha; da Silva Filho, Edson Cavalcanti; da Silva Leite, Cleide Maria

    2013-03-01

    Clays are materials commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry, either as ingredients or as active ingredients. It was observed that when they are administered concurrently, they may interact with drugs reducing their absorption. Therefore, such interactions can be used to achieve technological and biopharmaceutical advantages, regarding the control of release. This review summarizes bibliographic (articles) and technological (patents) information on the use of systems containing clays and clay minerals in modified drug delivery. In this area, formulations such natural clay, commercial clay, synthetic clay, composites clay-polymers, nanocomposites clay-polymers, films and hidrogels composites clay-polymers are used to slow/extend or vectorize the release of drugs and consequently they increase their bioavailability. Finally, this review summarizes the fields of technology and biopharmaceutical applications, where clays are applied.

  17. Sediments of Narragansett Bay acquired in 1960 (MCMASTER60 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Gravel, sand, silt, and clay contents were determined for samples from Narragansett Bay and the adjacent Rhode Island Shelf. In the Narragansett Bay system, clayey...

  18. Measure Twice, Build Once: Bench-Scale Testing to Evaluate Bioretention Media Design (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rain garden design manuals and guidelines typically recommend using native soils or engineered media that meet specifications for low content of clay, silt, fine and very fine sands, and organic matter. These characteristics promote stormwater infiltration and sorption of heavy ...

  19. Substrate deposit effect on the characteristic of an intertidal macroalgal community

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Imchen, T.

    Present study consists the effect of substrate deposit (silt, clay, sand, gravel and shards of shells) on the characteristic of an intertidal rocky shore macroalgae Macroalgal assemblage was segregated from substrate deposit in two stages Substrate...

  20. Clay Mineralogy of AN Alluvial Aquifer in a Mountainous, Semiarid Terrain, AN Example from Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, W. C.; Lim, D.; Zaunbrecher, L. K.; Pickering, R. A.; Williams, K. H.; Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Long, P. E.; Noel, V.; Bargar, J.; Qafoku, N. P.

    2015-12-01

    Alluvial sediments deposited along the Colorado River corridor in the semi-arid regions of central to western Colorado can be important hosts for legacy contamination including U, V, As and Se. These alluvial sediments host aquifers which are thought to provide important "hot spots" and "hot moments" for microbiological activity controlling organic carbon processing and fluxes in the subsurface. Relatively little is known about the clay mineralogy of these alluvial aquifers and the parent alluvial sediments in spite of the fact that they commonly include lenses of silt-clay materials. These lenses are typically more reduced than coarser grained materials, but zones of reduced and more oxidized materials are present in these alluvial aquifer sediments. The clay mineralogy of the non-reduced parent alluvial sediments of the alluvial aquifer located in Rifle, CO (USA) is composed of chlorite, smectite, illite, kaolinite and quartz. The clay mineralogy of non-reduced fine-grained materials at Rifle are composed of the same suite of minerals found in the sediments plus a vermiculite-smectite intergrade that occurs near the bottom of the aquifer near the top of the Wasatch Formation. The clay mineral assemblages of the system reflect the mineralogically immature character of the source sediments. These assemblages are consistent with sediments and soils that formed in a moderately low rainfall climate and suggestive of minimal transport of the alluvial sediments from their source areas. Chlorite, smectite, smectite-vermiculite intergrade, and illite are the likely phases involved in the sorption of organic carbon and related microbial redox transformations of metals in these sediments. Both the occurrence and abundance of chlorite, smectite-vermiculite, illite and smectite can therefore exert an important control on the contaminant fluxes and are important determinants of biogeofacies in mountainous, semiarid terrains.

  1. Evaluation of Concrete Compressive Strength by incorporating Used Foundry Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Rashid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the compressive strength of concrete by utilizing three types of used foundry sand; with bentonite clay, with sodium silicate & with phenolic resin as partial replacement of fine aggregates. To accomplish the research an experimental program was conducted in which ten concrete mixtures were casted, by keeping all other parameters for concrete proportioning as constant and only change made was in the amount of fine aggregates. Ten, Twenty and Thirty percent replacement level of river sand by used foundry sands was maintained in this study. All fine aggregates were selected after achieving desired physical and chemical tests. Work ability, compressive strength and modulus of elasticity were measured and compared with the conventional concrete termed as control mixture. It was observed that work ability increased with replacement levels. The cubes were crushed at 7, 28 and 63 days of standard moist curing. The compressive strength of all concrete specimens increased with increase in curing age. With exception to foundry sand with phenolic resin, compressive strength of concrete mixtures was decreased with increase in replacement level at all ages. Similar trends were observed in modulus of elasticity of concrete.

  2. The ratio of clay content to total organic carbon content is a useful parameter to predict adsorption of the herbicide butachlor in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongzhen; He, Yan; Xu, Jianming; Huang, Panming; Jilani, Ghulam

    2008-03-01

    Thirteen soils collected from 11 provinces in eastern China were used to investigate the butachlor adsorption. The results indicated that the total organic carbon (TOC) content, clay content, amorphous Fe2O3 content, silt content, CEC, and pH had a combined effect on the butachlor sorption on soil. Combination of the data obtained from the 13 soils in the present study with other 23 soil samples reported by other researchers in the literature showed that Koc would be a poor predictive parameter for butachlor adsorption on soils with TOC content higher than 4.0% and lower than 0.2%. The soils with the ratio of clay content to TOC content (RCO) values less than 60 adsorbed butachlor mainly by the partition into soil organic matter matrix. The soils with RCO values higher than 60 apparently adsorbed butachlor by the combination of the partition into soil organic matter matrix and adsorption on clay surface.

  3. Microstructure and porosity of Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, M. E.; Laurich, B.; Desbois, G.; Urai, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    The Mont Terri rock laboratory (Canton Jura, Switzerland) is an international scientific platform of research on radioactive waste disposal in Opalinus Clay and results provide input for assessing the feasibility and safety of deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in argillaceous formations [1]. A main safety issue is to accurately investigate mass transport rates. To date several methods analyzed bulk permeability and porosity of Opalinus Clay. However, detailed quantitative investigation of microstructure and pore morphology is necessary to understand sealing capacity, coupled flow, capillary processes and associated deformation. To produce high quality cross-sections without microstructural damage that enable investigation of microstructure and porosity down the nm scale a combination of Broad Ion Beam (BIB) milling and SEM imaging has been used [2]. This method allowed direct imaging of the clay fabric and porosity on ca. 1 mm2 areas. The lateral variability of Opalinus Clay is low on the regional scale [1], whereas vertically the Opalinus Clay can be subdivided into six different lithological subfacies [3] based on variable silt layers, sandstone layers and siderite concretions present, where the end-members are the Shaly and Sandy facies. In this contribution microstructures and pore space in Opalinus Clay from the undisturbed Shaly and Sandy facies are studied and compared to disturbed samples from the "Main fault" within the Mont Terri rock laboratory. The Shaly facies in the lower half of the sequence constitutes of dark grey silty calcerous shales and argillaceous marls, whereas the Sandy facies comprises silty to sandy marls with sandstone lenses cemented with carbonate [3]. The qualitative mineralogical composition of all Opalinus Clay facies is similar, whereas the "Main Fault" shows calcite, celestite and pyrite veins. Although the overall microfabric differs per layer and per facies we observe low variability of microstructure and porosity in

  4. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  5. Sand dollar sites orogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Dee

    2013-04-01

    The determinology of the humble sand dollars habitat changing from inception to the drastic evolution of the zone to that of present day. Into the cauldron along the southern Californian 'ring of fire' lithosphere are evidence of geosynclinals areas, metasedimentary rock formations and hydrothermal activity. The explanation begins with 'Theia' and the Moon's formation, battles with cometary impacts, glacial ages, epochs with evolutionary bottlenecks and plate tectonics. Fully illustrated the lecture includes localised diagrams and figures with actual subject photographic examples of plutonic, granitic, jade and peridodite. Finally, the origins of the materials used in the lecture are revealed for prosecution by future students and the enjoyment of interested parties in general.

  6. Sand Storms Trigger Alarm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ After an unusually humid winter with at least 10 snowfalls in Beijing, a severe andstorm blown by strong winds bringing with it thousands of tons of desert sand took many residents of the city by surprise.On the morning of March 20, Beijingers woke up to see clouds of yellow dust in the air and a sky that was an ominous orange in color.The loose soil and dust that had traveled htmdreds of miles from deserts in Mongolia and China's northwest blanketed Beijing's streets, covering parked vehicles, bikes, roofs and even plant life,as well as making its way into people's homes.

  7. Fortune Cookie Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-432, 25 July 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a field of small barchan sand dunes in the north polar region near 71.7oN, 51.3oW. Some of them are shaped like fortune cookies. The message these dunes provide: winds blow through this region from the lower right toward the upper left. The steep slip face slopes of these dunes, which point toward the upper left, indicate the wind direction. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper right. The image is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  8. Mineral acquisition from clay by budongo forest chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, Vernon; Lloyd, Andrew W.; English, Christopher J.; Lyons, Peter; Dodd, Howard; Hobaiter, Catherine; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas; Mullins, Caroline; Lamon, Noemie; Schel, Anne Marijke; Fallon, Brittany

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda were observed eating clay and drinking clay-water from waterholes. We show that clay, clay-rich water, and clay obtained with leaf sponges, provide a range of minerals in different concentrations. The presence of aluminium in the clay consum

  9. A family of sand automata

    CERN Document Server

    Faulkner, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    We study some dynamical properties of a family of two-dimensional cellular automata: those that arise from an underlying one dimensional sand automaton whose local rule is obtained using a latin square. We identify a simple sand automaton G whose local rule is algebraic, and classify this automaton as having equicontinuity points, but not being equicontinuous. We also show it is not surjective. We generalise some of these results to a wider class of sand automata.

  10. Dilatometric Characterization of Foundry Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Břuska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this contribution is summary of physical – chemistry properties of usually used foundry silica and no – silica sands in Czech foundries. With the help of dilatometry analysis theoretical assumptions of influence of grain shape and size on dilatation value of sands were confirmed. Determined was the possibility of dilatometry analysis employment for preparing special (hybrid sands with lower and/or more linear character of dilatation.

  11. Clay Mineralogy of Soils and Sediments from an Alluvial Aquifer, Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, W. C.; Zaunbrecher, L. K.; Lim, D.; Pickering, R. A.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.; Qafoku, N. P.

    2014-12-01

    Alluvial aquifers along the Colorado River corridor in central to western Colorado contain legacy contamination including U, V, As and Se. These alluvial aquifers host important "hot spots" and "hot moments" for microbiological activity controlling organic carbon processing and fluxes in the subsurface that are both significant on their own, but also influence contaminant behavior. Mineral phases likely active in the sequestration of metal contaminants are chlorite, smectite-vermiculite, illite, and smectite. These minerals are also important biogeofacies markers. The Colorado alluvial sediments include lenses of silt and clay that are commonly more reduced than coarser grained materials. The clay minerals that make up the alluvial aquifer sediments include these mineral phases important for metal sequestration (chlorite, smectite, illite), as well as kaolinite and quartz. More specifically, the clay mineralogy of soils derived from these sediments at Rifle are composed of the same suite of minerals found in the alluvial sediments plus a vermiculite-smectite intergrade. The vermiculite-smectite intergrade is a weathering product of illite. The presence of illite and chlorite in both the sediments and the soils at Rifle reflect a mineralogically immature character of the source rocks. These assemblages are consistent with sediments and soils that formed in a moderately low rainfall climate, indicative of mixed provence of immature (chlorite, smectite, illite) and mature (kaolinite) minerals relative to their source areas.

  12. Contact micromechanics in granular media with clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ita, Stacey Leigh [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Many granular materials, including sedimentary rocks and soils, contain clay particles in the pores, grain contacts, or matrix. The amount and location of the clays and fluids can influence the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the granular material. This research investigated the mechanical effects of clay at grain-to-grain contacts in the presence of different fluids. Laboratory seismic wave propagation tests were conducted at ultrasonic frequencies using spherical glass beads coated with Montmorillonite clay (SWy-1) onto which different fluids were adsorbed. For all bead samples, seismic velocity increased and attenuation decreased as the contact stiffnesses increased with increasing stress demonstrating that grain contacts control seismic transmission in poorly consolidated and unconsolidated granular material. Coating the beads with clay added stiffness and introduced viscosity to the mechanical contact properties that increased the velocity and attenuation of the propagating seismic wave. Clay-fluid interactions were studied by allowing the clay coating to absorb water, ethyl alcohol, and hexadecane. Increasing water amounts initially increased seismic attenuation due to clay swelling at the contacts. Attenuation decreased for higher water amounts where the clay exceeded the plastic limit and was forced from the contact areas into the surrounding open pore space during sample consolidation. This work investigates how clay located at grain contacts affects the micromechanical, particularly seismic, behavior of granular materials. The need for this work is shown by a review of the effects of clays on seismic wave propagation, laboratory measurements of attenuation in granular media, and proposed mechanisms for attenuation in granular media.

  13. Polyamide 66/Brazilian Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Araújo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyamide 66 (PA66/Brazilian clay nanocomposites were produced via direct melt intercalation. A montmorillonite sample from the Brazilian state of Paraíba was organically modified with esthearildimethylammonium chloride (Praepagen, quaternary ammonium salt and has been tested to be used in polymer nanocomposites. The dispersion analysis and the interlayer spacing of the clay particles in matrix were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Thermal behavior of the obtained systems was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetry (TG, and heat deflection temperature (HDT was reported too. The nanocomposites exhibited a partially exfoliated structure, very interesting HDT values which are higher than those of pure PA66, and good thermal stability.

  14. Triaxial tests in Fontainebleau sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, Chiara; Zania, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this internal report is to examine the influence of relative density on the strength and deformation characteristics of Fontainebleau sand. Compression triaxial tests were performed on saturated sand samples with different densities and initial confining pressure. Note that the tes......The purpose of this internal report is to examine the influence of relative density on the strength and deformation characteristics of Fontainebleau sand. Compression triaxial tests were performed on saturated sand samples with different densities and initial confining pressure. Note...... that the testing procedure and the data processing were carried out according to the specifications of ETCS-F1.97....

  15. Hands-on Virtual Clay

    OpenAIRE

    Pihuit, Adeline; Kry, Paul; Cani, Marie-Paule

    2008-01-01

    poster; International audience; This paper presents a new interaction system designed for hands-on 3D shape modeling and deformation through natural hand gestures. Our system is made of a Phantom haptic device coupled with a deformable foam ball that supports pressure sensors. These sensors detect forces exerted by the user's fingertips, and are used to control the configuration of a compliant virtual hand that is modeling soft virtual clay. During interaction, the user is provided both passi...

  16. Porosity Investigation of Kosova's Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makfire Sadiku

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Acid activated clay minerals are used as catalysts in the desulphurization of crude oil or as catalyst carrier, as drilling mud, as bleaching earth. Approach: The efficiency of the acid activation can be described in two ways. As increase of the surface and as increase of the cumulative pore volume after the activation. Results: In different samples of the clay mineral the activation was done with different sulfuric acid concentrations for two and 3h. Afterwards the specific surface was measured by means of nitrogen adsorption. All the measured isotherms belong to the pseudo-two kind. After the activation the surface enhanced from around 100-180 m2 g-1. The mesopore distribution is calculated out of the hysteresis between adsorption-desorption isotherms of the nitrogen. Conclusion: It is shown that the activation increases significantly the amount of mesopores which is reflected in the cumulative volume. The macrospore volume of the clay samples were measured by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry for pore sizes up to 320 nm. The volume of the macrospores results to an increase up to two times after the activation. The cumulative volume of all the pores is shown like a good parameter of the efficiency of the acid activation. The measurements were fulfilled in the newly equipped laboratory of the surface characterizations of the Tirana University. These analyses are of big interest for the industry in Albania and Kosove.

  17. Quantitative distribution of meiobenthos in the Gulf of Martaban, Myanmar Coast, north-east Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Mehta, P.; Furtado, R.; Aung, C.; Pandiyarajan, R.S.

    /10 cm2 in different sediment type and depth zone Numerical abundance of meiofauna was high in fine silty clay and low in sandy bottom Formation of three main clusters suggests the influence of dominant sediment texture of clayey sand sand silt clay...

  18. The association of soil organic matter with mineral surfaces depends on clay content in an arable Cambisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Steffen A.; Angelika, Koelbl; Hoeschen, Carmen; Mueller, Carsten W.; Koegel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2017-04-01

    The amount and distribution of mineral-associated soil organic matter (MOM) depends on the availability of adsorptive mineral surface area. In soils with low content of fine-sized mineral particles, the available mineral surface is limited in comparison to soils with high content of fine-sized mineral particles. Accordingly, the spatial distribution of MOM from soils with various contents of fine-sized mineral particles should reflect different structural organization of organo-mineral associations. In this study, we analyzed MOM and further indicators of its binding in the topsoil (020 cm) of an arable Cambisol. The sampled site showed a gradient in the content of clay-sized particles (6-35 %) under similar soil management and biomass input. We obtained fine silt-sized (26.3 μm) and clay-sized (0.22 μm) mineral-associated (>1.6 g cm3) fractions from a combined density and size fractionation. We measured solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and analyzed the specific surface area of the fractions by N2-BET with and without NaOCl oxidation. The spatial distribution of MOM was determined by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) at a lateral resolution of approximately 100 nm. We found that the mineral-associated carbon concentration of the fine silt and clay-sized fractions decreased from 80 to 40 mg g-1 when the content of clay-sized particles increased from 6 to 15 %. In the clay-rich soils the mineral-associated carbon remained constant at approximately 40 mg g-1 for higher contents of clay-sized particles from 15 to 30 %. In addition, the 12C and 12C14N ion distributions obtained from NanoSIMS indicated a much higher coverage of mineral surface with MOM in the sandy soils than in the clay-rich soils. Our data shows that both the concentration and coverage of MOM is increased in soils with a lower content of fine-sized mineral particles, when the input of organic material to the soil is similar.

  19. Soil nitrogen dynamics and Capsicum Annuum sp. plant response to biochar amendment in silt loam soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horel, Agota; Gelybo, Gyorgyi; Dencso, Marton; Toth, Eszter; Farkas, Csilla; Kasa, Ilona; Pokovai, Klara

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the growth of Capsicum Annuum sp. (pepper) in small-scale experiment to observe changes in plant growth and health as reflected by leaf area, plant height, yield, root density, and nitrogen usage. Based on field conditions, part of the study aimed to examine the photosynthetic and photochemical responses of plants to treatments resulting from different plant growth rates. During the 12.5 week long study, four treatments were investigated with biochar amount of 0, 0.5%, 2.5%, and 5.0% (by weight) added to silt loam soil. The plants were placed under natural environmental conditions, such that photosynthetic activities from photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the plants photochemical reflectance index (PRI) could be continuously measured after exposure to sunlight. In this study we found that benefits from biochar addition to silt loam soil most distinguishable occurred in the BC2.5 treatments, where the highest plant yield, highest root density, and highest leaf areas were observed compared to other treatments. Furthermore, data showed that too low (0.5%) or too high (5.0%) biochar addition to the soil had diminishing effects on Capsicum Annuum sp. growth and yield over time. At the end of the 12th week, BC2.5 had 22.2%, while BC0.5 and BC5.0 showed 17.4% and 15.7% increase in yield dry weight respectively compared to controls. The collected data also showed that the PRI values of plants growing on biochar treated soils were generally lower compared to control treatments, which could relate to leaf nitrogen levels. Total nitrogen amount showed marginal changes over time in all treatments. The total nitrogen concentration showed 28.6% and 17.7% increase after the 6th week of the experiment for BC2.5 and BC5.0, respectively, while inorganic nutrients of NO3-N and NH4+-N showed a continuous decrease during the course of the study, with a substantial drop during the first few weeks. The present study provides evidence for impact

  20. Modernity and putty-clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Trichur Kailas

    This dissertation addresses issues arising out of the problems of capital accumulation, productivity growth and 'putty-clay' technology. The concept of economic modernity occupies a central place in the subject-matter studied here in that it expresses both the incessant drive for newness that characterizes economic reality and the persistence of dated techniques that successfully resist replacement. This study examines the way in which an expansive development-theoretic 'putty-clay' framework may be employed to explain the historical processes behind both the avalanche of newness (innovations) and the conservatism of technology in the U.S. economy. The guiding link is the fixity of investments in physical capital equipment over time and space. The dilemma of fixed capital is studied in the context of the constant entrepreneurial search for flexibility and liquidity. The thesis advanced is that a development (Entwicklung)-theoretic 'putty-clay' conceptualization of the economic system adequately addresses the recurring problems of fixity, flexibility, and liquidity, and thereby permits important insights into the enigma surrounding the persistent productivity growth slowdown and 'stagflation' of the late sixties and seventies and the related phenomena of physical 'capital obsolescence' and the financial or 'speculative explosions' of our times. The notion of 'putty-clay' used here is an innovative one in that it departs from the growth-theoretic literature to re-appear as a Schumpeterian theory of modernity modified by a Veblenite view of an economic system directed by the exigencies of the 'machine-process'. The empirical aptitude of a macroeconomic 'putty-clay' model to explain capital obsolescence mediated by the energy 'crises' (supply shocks) of the seventies and eighties is examined in a separate chapter with results that differ markedly from the standard (Berndt and Wood) conclusions for the U.S. economy. The final chapter in the dissertation reverts to the

  1. A sand wave simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemeth, A.A.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Damme, van R.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Sand waves form a prominent regular pattern in the offshore seabeds of sandy shallow seas. A two dimensional vertical (2DV) flow and morphological numerical model describing the behaviour of these sand waves has been developed. The model contains the 2DV shallow water equations, with a free water su

  2. Regeneration of dredged sand waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Knaapen, Michiel; Scholl, Olaf; Scholl, O.; Trenteseaux., A.; Garlan, T.

    2000-01-01

    Sand waves form a wavy pattern in the offshore sandy seabed. Since their crests reduce the navigability, it is important to know their evolution. A simple model is presented to estimate the recovery of sand wave amplitudes. This model is partially based on the similarity with sea ripples and

  3. Namibia : triaxial test on sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfelt, Jørgen S.; Jacobsen, Kim P.

    In connection with a harbour project the friction angle of a fine sand is required. On Friday 13 March 1998 the Danish Geotechnical Institute (DGI) delivered app. 2.5 kg sand for testing at the Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University. The present Data Report summarises the results...

  4. On the mechanisms and kinetics of evaporation of a compacted silt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpawenayo Régis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to define a convective evaporation model able to reproduce the evaporation rates according to the atmospheric conditions, drying tests have been performed on cylindrical samples of a compacted silt in a closed chamber where the relative humidity of the air is controlled by means of saturated saline solutions. Calibrating such models using experimental results from small sample sizes can indeed be an interesting alternative to simplify the experimental procedures and to reduce the test duration in comparison with the standard in-situ tests (e.g. lysimeter. However the influence of the size of the samples on the kinetics of evaporation has to be investigated. Samples with different diameters and heights are therefore tested. The results show that the observed mechanisms of drying are similar to those at the scale of the geostructure if the dimensions of the sample are higher than a critical height and a critical diameter. We show then that the experimental critical height is consistent with the concept of critical length proposed by Lehman et al. (2008, who expresses analytically when the hydraulic connection between the sample surface and the drying front is upset. Finally the kinetics of evaporation recorded under different relative humidities highlight that the mass transfer coefficient defined in the convective evaporation model does not depend on the relative humidity.

  5. Assessment of silt density index (SDI) as fouling propensity parameter in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi

    2013-01-01

    Due to its simplicity, silt density index (SDI) is extensively used in reverse osmosis systems despite its limitations in predicting membrane fouling. Employing a reliable fouling index with good reproducibility and precision is necessary. The aim of this investigation is to assess the reliability of SDI in order to understand the reasons for the low level of precision and accuracy. Different commercial SDI membranes and feed water quality were used in this study. Results showed the existence of membrane properties\\' variation within manufacturers, which then causes a lack of accuracy in fouling risk estimation. The nature of particles during SDI filtration provides information that particle concentration and size play a significant role in SDI quantification with substantial representation given by particles with size close to membrane nominal pore size. Moreover, turbidity-assisted SDI measurements along with determination of ultrafiltration permeate and clean water fouling potential, establish the indication of nonfouling-related phenomena involved on SDI measurement such as natural organic matter adsorption and hydrodynamic conditions that alters during filtration. Additionally, it was found that the latter affects the sensitivity of SDI by being represented by some portions of SDI values. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON WAVE ENERGY DISSIPATION AND COHESIVE SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN SILT COAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixiong HU; Onyx WAI

    2001-01-01

    The interaction between the wave and fluid mud layer plays an important role in the development of silt coast. Sediment is essentially transported in the form of rheological flow of mud layer under the wave action, and on the other hand, the fluid mud layer damps the wave considerably. This paper studies the laws of wave energy dissipation and mud bed deformation, and the movement of mud layer through laboratory experiments. The results show that the wave energy dissipation follows an exponential law along the propagation distance. The bulk density of the mud layer affects the rate of the wave energy dissipation greatly. The wave damping coefficient (Ki) is a fuction of the mud density affected greatly by the relative wave height (H/h).Analysis also indicates that the mud density affect the rate of mud transport and the moving velocity (Vmax) of the surface mud is inversely proportional to the mud density. Both the relative wave height (H/h) and wave-damping coefficient (Ki) are proportional to the Vmax. Analysis also shows that the mud transport rate (Tr) is proportional to the wave damping rate (1-H0/H15), the relative wave height (H/h),and inversely proportional to the volume concentration (Cv) and dimensionless coefficient of H/gT2.

  7. Preparation and mechanism of the sintered bricks produced from Yellow River silt and red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongtao; Yue, Qinyan; Su, Yuan; Gao, Baoyu; Gao, Yue; Wang, Jingzhou; Yu, Hui

    2012-02-15

    The preparation, characteristics and mechanisms of sintered bricks manufactured by Yellow River silt and red mud were studied. The sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, water absorption and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition. Sintering mechanisms were discussed through linear regression analysis. Crystalline components of raw materials and bricks were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Leaching toxicity of raw materials and bricks were measured according to sulphuric acid and nitric acid method. Radiation safety of the sintered bricks was characterized by calculating internal exposure index and external exposure index. The results showed that at the chosen best parameters (red mud content of 40%, sintering temperature of 1050°C and sintering time of 2h), the best characteristics of sintered bricks could be obtained. The weight loss on ignition of sintered bricks was principally caused by the removal of absorbed water and crystal water. The sintering shrinkage of sintered bricks mainly depended on sodium compounds and iron compounds of red mud. The sintering process made some components of raw materials transform into other crystals having better thermostability. Besides, the leaching toxicity and radioactivity index of sintered bricks produced under the optimum condition were all below standards.

  8. Strength and deformation characteristics of carbonated reactive magnesia treated silt soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Guang-hua; LIU Song-yu; DU Yan-jun; ZHANG Ding-wen; ZHENG Xu

    2015-01-01

    A series of unconfined compression tests (UCTs) were conducted to investigate the effects of content of reactive magnesia (MgO) and carbonation time on the engineering properties including apparent characteristics, stress-strain relation, and deformation and strength characteristics of reactive MgO treated silt soils. The soils treated with reactive MgO at various contents were subjected to accelerated carbonation for different periods of time and later, UCTs were performed on them. The results demonstrate that the reactive MgO content and carbonation time have remarkable influences on the aforementioned engineering properties of the soils. It is found that with the increase in reactive MgO content, the unconfined compressive strength (qu) increases at a given carbonation time (<10 h), whereas the water content and amounts of crack of the soils decrease. A threshold content of reactive MgO exists at approximately 25% and a critical carbonation time exists at about 10 h for the development ofqu. A simple yet practical strength-prediction model, by taking into account two variables of reactive MgO content and carbonation time, is proposed to estimatequ of carbonated reactive MgO treated soils. A comparison of the predicated values of qu with the measured ones indicates that the proposed model has satisfactory accuracy.

  9. Sand swimming lizard: sandfish

    CERN Document Server

    Maladen, Ryan D; Kamor, Adam; Goldman, Daniel I

    2009-01-01

    We use high-speed x-ray imaging to reveal how a small (~10cm) desert dwelling lizard, the sandfish (Scincus scincus), swims within a granular medium [1]. On the surface, the lizard uses a standard diagonal gait, but once below the surface, the organism no longer uses limbs for propulsion. Instead it propagates a large amplitude single period sinusoidal traveling wave down its body and tail to propel itself at speeds up to ~1.5 body-length/sec. Motivated by these experiments we study a numerical model of the sandfish as it swims within a validated soft sphere Molecular Dynamics granular media simulation. We use this model as a tool to understand dynamics like flow fields and forces generated as the animal swims within the granular media. [1] Maladen, R.D. and Ding, Y. and Li, C. and Goldman, D.I., Undulatory Swimming in Sand: Subsurface Locomotion of the Sandfish Lizard, Science, 325, 314, 2009

  10. Recycling of iron foundry sand and glass waste as raw material for production of whiteware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragança, Saulo R; Vicenzi, Juliane; Guerino, Kareline; Bergmann, Carlos P

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the production feasibility of triaxial whiteware using sand from cast iron moulds as a raw material instead of silica, and recycled glass in place of feldspar. Formulations were prepared using sand, glass waste, and white-firing clay such that only 50% of the composition was virgin material (clay). The ceramic bodies were formed by pressing and fired at different temperatures (between 1100 and 1300 degrees C). Specimens were characterized in terms of green density prior to firing; and their flexural strength, linear shrinkage, and water absorption were measured after firing. The microstructure was determined by scanning electron microscopy. Possible environmental impacts of this recycling process were also evaluated, through solubility and leaching tests, according to Brazilian standards. Gaseous emissions during the firing process were also analysed. The results showed that it is possible to produce triaxial ceramics by using such alternative raw materials.

  11. Event sand layers suggesting the possibility of tsunami deposits identified in the upper Holocene sequence nearby the Kuwana fault, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Y.; Sugai, T.; Matsuzaki, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Kuwana fault is located on coastal area situated on inner part of the Ise Bay, central Japan, which opens to the Nankai Trough. This reverse fault displaces a late Pleistocene terrace surface with 1 to 2 mm/yr of average vertical slip rate, and a topset of delta at several meters, respectively. And, this fault is estimated to have generated two historical earthquakes (the AD 745 Tempyo and the AD 1586 Tensho earthquakes). We identified two event sand layers from upper Holocene sequence on the upthrown side of the Kuwana fault. Upper Holocene deposits in this study area show prograding delta sequence; prodelta mud, delta front sandy silt to sand, and flood plain sand/mud, respectively, from lower to upper. Two sand layers intervene in delta front sandy silt layer, respectively. Lower sand layer (S1) shows upward-coarsening succession, whereas upper sand layer (S2) upward-fining succession. These sand layers contain sharp contact, rip-up crust, and shell fragment, indicating strong stream flow. Radiocarbon ages show that these strong stream flow events occurred between 3000 and 1600 years ago. Decreasing of salinity is estimated from decreasing trend of electrical conductivity (EC) across S1. Based on the possibility that decreasing of salinity can be occurred by shallowing of water depth caused by coseismic uplift, and that S1 can be correlated with previously known faulting event on the Kuwana fault, S1 is considered to be tsunami deposits caused by faulting on the Kuwana fault. On the other hand, S2, which cannot be correlated with previously known faulting events on the Kuwana fault, may be tsunami deposits by ocean-trench earthquake or storm deposits. In the presentation, we will discuss more detail correlation of these sand deposits not only in the upthrown side of the Kuwana fault, but also downthrown side of the fault.

  12. Sand harm in taklimakan Desert highway and sand control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANZhiwen; WANGTao; SUNQingwei; DONGZhibao; WANGXunming

    2003-01-01

    Reputed as a wonderful achievement of the world’s highway construction history,the Taklimakan Desert highway is nor facing serious sand drift encroachment problems due to its 447-km-long passage of sand sea consisting of crescent dunes,barchan chains,compound transverse dune ridges and complex megadunes.To solve some technical problems in the protection of the highway from sang drift encroachment,desert experts have been conducting the theoretical and applied studies on sand movement laws;causes,severities and time-space differentiation of sand drift damages;and control ways including mechanical,chemical and biological measures.In this paper the authors give an overall summry on the research contents and recent progress in the control of sand drift damages in China and hold that the theoretical researc results and practices in the prevention of sand drift encroachment on the cross-desert highway represnt a breakthrough and has an cpoch-making significance.Since the construction of protective forest along the cross-desert highway requires large amount of ground water,what will be its environmental consequence and whether it can effectively halt sand drift encroachment on the highway forever are the questions to be studied urgently.

  13. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program (1983). Technical Report. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    moist Clay, moist, stiff Loose, moist topsoll with humus material, mostly sand and silt. Moist to wet clay, soft, low shear strength. Clay, sllty...i ....>-.-.*.S ■fc.-^—t :—i V* 13. G. Giouiriousis and D.P. Stevenson , "Reactions of Gaseous Molecule Ions with Gaseous Molecules. V. Theory," J

  14. Effects of Alumina Cement on the Refractory Properties of Leached Ipetumodu Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Oladayo FOLORUNSO

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of alumina cement (Fe2O3 on the refractory properties of leached Ipetumodu clay has been studied. The raw clay was analysed using Scanning Electron Microscope (XL 30 ESEM/EDX, X-Ray Diffraction Machine (Philips PW 3710 with PW 1752 graphite monocromator and X-Ray Fluorescence Machine (ARL 8410 in order to determine the purity level. The tests revealed an average of 5.7% Fe2O3 in the clay. The clay was then purified hydrometallurgical using different concentrations of oxalic acid (0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 and 2.0 mol/dm3 and combination of different times (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min, temperatures (30, 50, 70 and 90ºC and agitation speeds (120, 160, 200 and 240 rev/min. The purification process as revealed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry showed that Fe2O3 was reduced to 0.96%. Samples of leached clay containing different quantities of alumina cement, silica sand and sawdust were prepared, dried at 110ºC for 24 hours and fired at 900, 1100, 1300 and 1500ºC at rate of 4ºC /min, soaked for 2 hrs. These samples were presented for refractory tests (permanent linear change, refractoriness under load, thermal shock resistance, modulus of rupture, bulk density, cold crushing strength and apparent porosity. For all the properties tested, 3% sawdust, 20% silica sand and 10% alumina addition gave the optimum result with reliable phase integrity, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

  15. Computer controlled chamber measurements for clay adherence relevant for potential dioxin exposure through skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alesia; Bursac, Zoran; Johnson, Wayne; Davis, Jasmine

    2012-01-01

    A computer-controlled mechanical chamber was used to control the contact between aluminum sheet samples laden with clay, and cotton sheet samples for the measurement of mass transfer. The contact parameters of pressure (20 to 60 kPa) and time (10 to 70 sec) were varied for 160 multiple experiments of mass soil transfer. Before log transformation the average transfer for 'First Transfer' of clay particles was 34.4 ± 6.3 mg/8.97 cm(2) while that for 'Total Transfer' was 36.1 ± 6.8 mg/8.97 cm(2). Second contact, therefore, resulted in an average transfer of 1.70 ± 0.76 mg/8.97 cm(2). These values are well above adherence values measured for potting soil and sand as reported for previous experiments using the same methodologies. Based on the univariate analysis and the multiple regression analysis we were able to see some effect of parameters on the clay adherence values. The effect of pressure increases was significant for the higher levels of 50 and 60 kPa. In addition, we observed that increases in temperature were significant for 'First Transfer,' and less so for 'Total Transfer'. Past experiments using potting soil and play sand show high adherence values to human cadaver skin over cotton sample; the same scenario would be expected for clay. This data set can be used to improve estimates of dermal exposure to dioxins found in ball clays often used by artisans in the making of pottery.

  16. Application of micron X-ray CT based on micro-PIXE to investigate the distribution of Cs in silt particles for environmental remediation in Fukushima Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Keizo, E-mail: keizo.ishii@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Research Center for Remediation Engineering of Environments Contaminated with Radioisotopes, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2, Aramaki Aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Hatakeyama, Taisuke; Itoh, Shin; Sata, Daichi [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2, Aramaki Aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Ohnuma, Tohru; Yamaguchi, Toshiro; Arai, Hiromu; Arai, Hirotsugu [Research Center for Remediation Engineering of Environments Contaminated with Radioisotopes, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2, Aramaki Aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Matsuyama, Shigeo; Terakawa, Atsuki; Kim, Seong-Yun [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2, Aramaki Aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    We used X-ray computed tomography (CT) using characteristic X-rays produced in micro-particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) to investigate the internal structure of silt particles and develop new methods to decontaminate soil containing radioactive cesium. We obtained 3D attenuation coefficient images of silt particles with a diameter of approximately 100 μm for V K and Cr K X-rays. Owing to the absorption edges of the Cs L-shell, the differences between the V K and Cr K X-ray images revealed the spatial distribution of Cs atoms in the silt particles. Cs atoms were distributed over the surfaces of the silt particles to a thickness of approximately 10 μm. This information is useful for the decontamination of silt contaminated by radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

  17. Application of micron X-ray CT based on micro-PIXE to investigate the distribution of Cs in silt particles for environmental remediation in Fukushima Prefecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Keizo; Hatakeyama, Taisuke; Itoh, Shin; Sata, Daichi; Ohnuma, Tohru; Yamaguchi, Toshiro; Arai, Hiromu; Arai, Hirotsugu; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Terakawa, Atsuki; Kim, Seong-Yun

    2016-03-01

    We used X-ray computed tomography (CT) using characteristic X-rays produced in micro-particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) to investigate the internal structure of silt particles and develop new methods to decontaminate soil containing radioactive cesium. We obtained 3D attenuation coefficient images of silt particles with a diameter of approximately 100 μm for V K and Cr K X-rays. Owing to the absorption edges of the Cs L-shell, the differences between the V K and Cr K X-ray images revealed the spatial distribution of Cs atoms in the silt particles. Cs atoms were distributed over the surfaces of the silt particles to a thickness of approximately 10 μm. This information is useful for the decontamination of silt contaminated by radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

  18. Thermal stability of PMMA–clay hybrids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tanushree Choudhury; Nirendra M Misra

    2010-04-01

    Materials with small particle size are being extensively used in composites and hybrid materials. Exfoliated clay–polymer hybrids show enhanced properties. Exfoliation of clay platelets can be affected by selecting dispersing agents. In the present work, clay dispersed by natural dispersant (soap stone powder), cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) dispersed clay and acid clay (amorphous clay) are taken. They are then polymerized with poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) by solution intercalation method. The thermal stability of these different clay–PMMA hybrids have been studied and compared with that of pure PMMA by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The bonding of clay with PMMA has been studied by IR. Morphology of clay–PMMA hybrids has been shown by SEM and XRD which indicate partially exfoliated structure in T606-4 and intercalated structures in T606-6 and T606-2.

  19. Mars, clays and the origins of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Hyman

    1989-01-01

    To detect life in the Martian soil, tests were designed to look for respiration and photosynthesis. Both tests (labeled release, LR, and pyrolytic release, PR) for life in the Martian soils were positive. However, when the measurement for organic molecules in the soil of Mars was made, none were found. The interpretation given is that the inorganic constituents of the soil of Mars were responsible for these observations. The inorganic analysis of the soil was best fitted by a mixture of minerals: 60 to 80 percent clay, iron oxide, quartz, and soluble salts such as halite (NaCl). The minerals most successful in simulating the PR and LR experiments are iron-rich clays. There is a theory that considers clays as the first organisms capable of replication, mutation, and catalysis, and hence of evolving. Clays are formed when liquid water causes the weathering of rocks. The distribution of ions such as aluminum, magnesium, and iron play the role of bases in the DNA. The information was stored in the distribution of ions in the octahedral and tetrahedral molecules, but that they could, like RNA and DNA, replicate. When the clays replicated, each sheet of clay would be a template for a new sheet. The ion substitutions in one clay sheet would give rise to a complementary or similar pattern on the clay synthesized on its surface. It was theorized that it was on the surface of replicating iron-rich clays that carbon dioxide would be fixed in the light into organic acids such as formic or oxalic acid. If Mars had liquid water during a warm period in its past, clay formation would have been abundant. These clays would have replicated and evolved until the liquid water was removed due to cooling of Mars. It is entirely possible that the Viking mission detected life on Mars, but it was clay life that awaits the return of water to continue its evolution into life based on organic molecules.

  20. [Research on characteristics of soil clay mineral evolution in paddy field and dry land by XRD spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-dan; Li, Qiao; Luo, Xiang-li; Jiang, Hai-chao; Zheng, Qing-fu; Zhao, Lan-po; Wang, Ji-hong

    2014-08-01

    The present paper took the typical saline-alkali soil in Jilin province as study object, and determinated the soil clay mineral composition characteristics of soil in paddy field and dry land. Then XRD spectrum was used to analyze the evolutionary mechanism of clay mineral in the two kinds of soil. The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of soil in paddy field were better than those in dry land, and paddy field would promote the weathering of mineral particles in saline-alkali soil and enhance the silt content. Paddy field soil showed a strong potassium-removal process, with a higher degree of clay mineral hydration and lower degree of illite crystallinity. Analysis of XRD spectrum showed that the clay mineral composition was similar in two kinds of soil, while the intensity and position of diffraction peak showed difference. The evolution process of clay mineral in dry land was S/I mixture-->vermiculite, while in paddy field it was S/I mixture-->vermiculite-->kaolinite. One kind of hydroxylated 'chlorite' mineral would appear in saline-alkali soil in long-term cultivated paddy field. Taking into account that the physical and chemical properties of soil in paddy field were better then those in dry land, we could know that paddy field could help much improve soil structure, cultivate high-fertility soil and improve saline-alkali soil. This paper used XRD spectrum to determine the characteristics of clay minerals comprehensively, and analyzed two'kinds of land use comparatively, and was a new perspective of soil minerals study.

  1. Selective Clay Placement Within a Silicate-Clay Epoxy Blend Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A clay-epoxy nanocomposite may be prepared by dispersing a layered clay in an alkoxy epoxy, such as a polypropylene oxide based epoxide before combining the mixture with an aromatic epoxy to improve the nanocomposite's thermal and mechanical properties.

  2. Ceramic clays from the western part of the Tamnava Tertiary Basin, Serbia: Deposits and clay types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on geological, mineralogical, physical, chemical and technological investigations in the Tamnava Tertiary Basin near Šabac town (western Serbia, deposits of ceramic clays were studied. These ceramic clays are composed of kaolin-illite with a variable content of quartz, feldspars, mica, iron oxides and hydroxides, and organic matter. Four main types of commercial clays were identified: i red-yellow sandy-gravely (brick clays; ii grey-white poor sandy (ceramic clays; iii dark-carbonaceous (ceramic clays; and iv lamellar (“interspersed” fatty, poor sandy (highly aluminous and ferrous clays. Ceramic clays are defined as medium to high plastic with different ranges of sintering temperatures, which makes them suitable for the production of various kinds of materials in the ceramic industry. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI-176016

  3. Membrane behavior of clay liner materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jong Beom

    Membrane behavior represents the ability of porous media to restrict the migration of solutes, leading to the existence of chemico-osmosis, or the flow of liquid in response to a chemical concentration gradient. Membrane behavior is an important consideration with respect to clay soils with small pores and interactive electric diffuse double layers associated with individual particles, such as bentonite. The results of recent studies indicate the existence of membrane behavior in bentonite-based hydraulic barriers used in waste containment applications. Thus, measurement of the existence and magnitude of membrane behavior in such clay soils is becoming increasingly important. Accordingly, this research focused on evaluating the existence and magnitude of membrane behavior for three clay-based materials that typically are considered for use as liners for waste containment applications, such as landfills. The three clay-based liner materials included a commercially available geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) consisting of sodium bentonite sandwiched between two geotextiles, a compacted natural clay known locally as Nelson Farm Clay, and compacted NFC amended with 5% (dry wt.) of a sodium bentonite. The study also included the development and evaluation of a new flexible-wall cell for clay membrane testing that was used subsequently to measure the membrane behaviors of the three clay liner materials. The consolidation behavior of the GCL under isotropic states of stress also was evaluated as a preliminary step in the determination of the membrane behavior of the GCL under different effective consolidation stresses.

  4. The many ways of making anionic clays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Michael Rajamathi; Grace S Thomas; P Vishnu Kamath

    2001-10-01

    Together with hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides, bivalent and trivalent metal hydroxides and their hydroxy salts are actually anionic clays consisting of positively charged hydroxide layers with anions intercalated in the interlayer region. The anionic clays exhibit anion sorption, anion diffusion and exchange properties together with surface basicity making them materials of importance for many modern applications. In this article, we discuss many different ways of making anionic clays and compare and contrast the rich diversity of this class of materials with the better-known cationic clays.

  5. Probing the water interactions in clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, D.H. [Lausanne Univ., Lausanne (Switzerland); Fischer, H.E. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Skipper, N.T. [Univ. College, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    Clays, the microscopic mineral fraction of soils, are probably the most important substrate for interactions between water, the mineral world and the biosphere. A knowledge of the structuring of water and hydrated metal ions near clays surfaces is of importance in environmental science, including toxic and radioactive waste disposal, and in the industrial application of clays. The smectite clays, with their large hydrated internal surface areas represent excellent model systems for the interactions of aqueous phases with solid surface. We present the results of neutron diffraction experiments using isotopic substitutions to probe the structure in the aqueous interlayer region of Li-montmorillonite. (authors) 6 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Characterization of natural anaerobic dechlorination of TCE and 1,1,1-TCA in clay till including isotope fractionation and molecular biological tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida; Bælum, J.; Hunkeler, D.;

    2010-01-01

    One of the major challenges when using enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD) as a remediation technology at clay till sites is to obtain good contact between added agents such as donor, bacteria and the contamination. It is unclear whether degradation only takes place in fractures and/or sand l...

  7. Field wind tunnel testing of two silt loam soils on the North American Central High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Van Pelt, R.; Baddock, Matthew C.; Zobeck, Ted M.; Schlegel, Alan J.; Vigil, Merle F.; Acosta-Martinez, Veronica

    2013-09-01

    Wind erosion is a soil degrading process that threatens agricultural sustainability and environmental quality globally. Protecting the soil surface with cover crops and plant residues, practices common in no-till and reduced tillage cropping systems, are highly effective methods for shielding the soil surface from the erosive forces of wind and have been credited with beneficial increases of chemical and physical soil properties including soil organic matter, water holding capacity, and wet aggregate stability. Recently, advances in biofuel technology have made crop residues valuable feed stocks for ethanol production. Relatively little is known about cropping systems effects on intrinsic soil erodibility, the ability of the soil without a protective cover to resist the erosive force of wind. We tested the bare, uniformly disturbed, surface of long-term tillage and crop rotation research plots containing silt loam soils in western Kansas and eastern Colorado with a portable field wind tunnel. Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) were measured using glass fiber filters and respirable dust, PM10 and PM2.5, were measured using optical particle counters sampling the flow to the filters. The results were highly variable and TSP emission rates varied from less than 0.5 mg m-2 s-1 to greater than 16.1 mg m-2 s-1 but all the results indicated that cropping system history had no effect on intrinsic erodibility or dust emissions from the soil surfaces. We conclude that prior best management practices will not protect the soil from the erosive forces of wind if the protective mantle of crop residues is removed.

  8. Sand engine quells the coast's hunger for sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, T.

    2012-01-01

    An artificial peninsula at Ter Heijde is designed to feed the coast with sediment. Scientists are investigating whether this kind of sand engine could be the Netherlands’ answer to rising sea levels.

  9. Sand engine quells the coast's hunger for sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, T.

    2012-01-01

    An artificial peninsula at Ter Heijde is designed to feed the coast with sediment. Scientists are investigating whether this kind of sand engine could be the Netherlands’ answer to rising sea levels.

  10. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the role of clay in subaqueous sediment flows and its effect on run-out distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermidas, Navid; Luthi, Stefan; Eggenhuisen, Joris; Silva Jacinto, Ricardo; Toth, Ferenc; Pohl, Florian; de Leeuw, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Debris flows are driven by gravity, which in the tail region is overcome by the yield strength of the flow, forcing it to freeze. These flows are capable of achieving staggeringly large run-out distances on low gradients. The case in point, described in previous publications, is the flow which resulted in the deposit of Bed 5 of the Agadir megaslide on the north-west African margin. Debrites of this flow have been recorded several hundred kilometres away from the original landslide. Previous studies have attributed such long run-out distances to hydroplaning, low yield strength, and flow transformation. It is known that the net force acting on a volume of fluid in equilibrium is zero. In this work we show that clay-laden flows are capable of approaching equilibrium. The flows which can achieve the maximum run-out distance are cohesive enough to resist some of the surrounding disturbances, that can upset the equilibrium, and reach close to equilibrium conditions, yet are dilute enough to have low viscous stress, and relatively low yield strength and lose little sediment due to deposition. A flow that is not in equilibrium will always seek to approach equilibrium conditions by speeding up or slowing down, depositing sediment, eroding the substrate, contracting in the form of the tail approaching the head, stretching, entraining water and growing in height, or dewatering and collapsing. Here we present a theory that shows that two dimensional (2D) flows in equilibrium do not grow in height. 2D flume experiments were conducted on different mixtures of kaolinite, sand, silt, and water, on varying slopes and a transitionally rough bed (sand glued), and using various discharge rates, in order to map out different stages in the evolution of a density flow from a cohesive plug flow into a turbidity current. The following flow types were observed: high density turbidity currents, plug flows, and no flow. From the velocity profiles, certain runs demonstrated close to

  11. The Effect of Soil Particle Arrangement on Shear Strength Behavior of Silty Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Norsyahariati Nik Daud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of fines in sandy soil is recognized as a problem in geotechnical engineering. It is often assumed that the strength and liquefaction potential of a soil decreases with increasing fines content. Sand with a significant amount of fines is always encountered in geotechnical engineering projects. The main interest of this paper is to study the effect of particles arrangement and stress behaviour on sand and silty sand sample. The objectives are to determine the basic properties as well as the morphological and mineralogical properties and the relationship of those properties to the stress behaviour of the soils. Sand-silt mixtures with fines contents of 20% and 40% were prepared and a series of testing was carried out to determine their basic properties, morphological and thin section properties, and mechanical properties by using direct shear box equipment. Results show that the basic properties and morphological properties of soil affect the mechanical behaviour of soil. Shape of the soil particle can influence the packing of the soil, hence altering the mechanical behaviour of the soil. From the thin section, the soil is observed to be well graded and have a dense packing while the minerals observed were mainly quartz and rutile.

  12. Microbially-accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. Pathway II: solid phase biogeochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq eSiddique

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Consolidation of clay particles in aqueous tailings suspensions is a major obstacle to effective management of oil sands tailings ponds in northern Alberta, Canada. We have observed that microorganisms indigenous to the tailings ponds accelerate consolidation of mature fine tailings (MFT during active metabolism by using two biogeochemical pathways. In Pathway I, microbes alter porewater chemistry to indirectly increase consolidation of MFT. Here, we describe Pathway II comprising significant, direct and complementary biogeochemical reactions with MFT mineral surfaces. An anaerobic microbial community comprising Bacteria (predominantly Clostridiales, Synergistaceae and Desulfobulbaceae and Archaea (Methanolinea/Methanoregula and Methanosaeta transformed FeIII minerals in MFT to amorphous FeII minerals during methanogenic metabolism of an added organic substrate. Synchrotron analyses suggested that ferrihydrite (5Fe2O3. 9H2O and goethite (α-FeOOH were the dominant FeIII minerals in MFT. The formation of amorphous iron sulfide (FeS and possibly green rust entrapped and masked electronegative clay surfaces in amended MFT. Both Pathways I and II reduced the surface charge potential (repulsive forces of the clay particles in MFT, which aided aggregation of clays and formation of networks of pores, as visualized using cryo-scanning electron microscopy. These reactions facilitated the egress of porewater from MFT and increased consolidation of tailings solids. These results have large-scale implications for management and reclamation of oil sands tailings ponds, a burgeoning environmental issue for the public and government regulators.

  13. Microbially-accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. Pathway II: solid phase biogeochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Tariq; Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Li, Carmen; Young, Rozlyn; Arocena, Joselito M; Foght, Julia M

    2014-01-01

    Consolidation of clay particles in aqueous tailings suspensions is a major obstacle to effective management of oil sands tailings ponds in northern Alberta, Canada. We have observed that microorganisms indigenous to the tailings ponds accelerate consolidation of mature fine tailings (MFT) during active metabolism by using two biogeochemical pathways. In Pathway I, microbes alter porewater chemistry to indirectly increase consolidation of MFT. Here, we describe Pathway II comprising significant, direct and complementary biogeochemical reactions with MFT mineral surfaces. An anaerobic microbial community comprising Bacteria (predominantly Clostridiales, Synergistaceae, and Desulfobulbaceae) and Archaea (Methanolinea/Methanoregula and Methanosaeta) transformed Fe(III) minerals in MFT to amorphous Fe(II) minerals during methanogenic metabolism of an added organic substrate. Synchrotron analyses suggested that ferrihydrite (5Fe2O3. 9H2O) and goethite (α-FeOOH) were the dominant Fe(III) minerals in MFT. The formation of amorphous iron sulfide (FeS) and possibly green rust entrapped and masked electronegative clay surfaces in amended MFT. Both Pathways I and II reduced the surface charge potential (repulsive forces) of the clay particles in MFT, which aided aggregation of clays and formation of networks of pores, as visualized using cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These reactions facilitated the egress of porewater from MFT and increased consolidation of tailings solids. These results have large-scale implications for management and reclamation of oil sands tailings ponds, a burgeoning environmental issue for the public and government regulators.

  14. Spectroscopic characterization of a Nigerian standard sand: Igbokoda sand

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojuri, OO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available the Middle Ordovician St. Peter Sandstone near Ottawa, Illinois, had been picked by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as the reference sand to employ in testing cement and strength of concrete [9]. To the best of our knowledge... and magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques due to its importance in cement, geotechnical/geo-environmental research in Nigeria. This should halt importation of standard silica sand for mortar and concrete testing...

  15. Interrill erosion of carbon and phosphorus from conventionally and organically farmed Devon silt soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J; Armstrong, Elizabeth K; Ling, Amy C;

    2012-01-01

    Globally, between 0.57 and 1.33 Pg of soil organic carbon (SOC) may be affected by interrill processes. Also, a significant amount of phosphorus (P) is contained in the surface soil layer transformed by raindrop impact, runoff and crust formation. In the EU, the P content of a crusted (2 mm......) surface layer corresponds to 4 to 40 kg ha− 1 of P on arable land (1.094 mil km2). Therefore, the role of interrill processes for nutrient cycling and the global carbon cycle requires close attention. Interrill erosion is a complex phenomenon involving the detachment, transport and deposition of soil...... and particle size. As a consequence, erosion on interrill areas is selective, moving the most easily detached small and/or light soil particles. This leads to the enrichment of clay, phosphorous (P) and carbon (C). Such enrichment in interrill sediment is well documented, however, the role of interrill erosion...

  16. Saltation of Non-Spherical Sand Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengshi; Ren, Shan; Huang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Saltation is an important geological process and the primary source of atmospheric mineral dust aerosols. Unfortunately, no studies to date have been able to precisely reproduce the saltation process because of the simplified theoretical models used. For example, sand particles in most of the existing wind sand movement models are considered to be spherical, the effects of the sand shape on the structure of the wind sand flow are rarely studied, and the effect of mid-air collision is usually neglected. In fact, sand grains are rarely round in natural environments. In this paper, we first analyzed the drag coefficients, drag forces, and starting friction wind speeds of sand grains with different shapes in the saltation process, then established a sand saltation model that considers the coupling effect between wind and the sand grains, the effect of the mid-air collision of sand grains, and the effect of the sand grain shape. Based on this model, the saltation process and sand transport rate of non-spherical sand particles were simulated. The results show that the sand shape has a significant impact on the saltation process; for the same wind speed, the sand transport rates varied for different shapes of sand grains by as much as several-fold. Therefore, sand shape is one of the important factors affecting wind-sand movement. PMID:25170614

  17. Clay membrane made of natural high plasticity clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels; Baumann, Jens

    1998-01-01

    has been evaluated using standardised methods related to mineralogy, classification, compaction and permeability, and initial studies of diffusion properties have been carried out. Furthermore, at a test site the construction methods for establishing a 0.15 to 0.3m thick clay membrane have been tested...... successfully. At natural watercontent w = 40 to 45% it is possible to establish a homogeneous membrane with hydraulic conductivity k tests used for establishing swell and deformation properties showed...... to be very dependent on the stress level. It varies from k = E-11 to 2 E-13 m/s at vertical stresses from 5 to 4800 kPa and is clearly related to a reduced effective porosity diminishing with stress. Preliminary diffusion tests indicate a similar influence on the effective diffusion coefficient being much...

  18. Experimental Heat Transfer Study on Green Roofs in a Semiarid Climate during Summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy J. Issa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted on green roofs under the semiarid summer climatic conditions of West Texas to investigate the effect of soil type, moisture content, and the presence of a top soil grass layer on the conductive heat transfer through the roof. Two soil types were investigated: uniform sand and local silt clay. Tests were also conducted on a control roof. A dual-needle heat-pulse sensor was used to conduct thermal property tests on the soils. The tests reveal that unlike sand, the thermal conductivity of silt clay did not increase continuously with soil moisture. Better heat transfer conditions were achieved when the sand and silt clay roofs were watered to a water depth of 10 mm per day rather than double the amount of 20 mm per day. The roof with silt clay soil had the lowest fluctuation in inner temperature between daytime and nighttime. Green roofs with silt clay soil required more than twice the amount of soil moisture than green roofs with sand to achieve similar roof heat transfer rates. The best net heat flux gains for vegetated green roofs were 4.7 W/m2 for the sand roof and 7.8 W/m2 for the silt clay roof.

  19. Sub-base Construction of Silt Pavement%粉砂土路面底基层施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童旬宁

    2011-01-01

    The sub-base construction of freeway is the construction project that highway industry has concerned and been paid attention to for many years.For the sub-base construction of silt pavement, its application is not extensive in China.After the Development of the West Regions, people started to pay attention to the northwest region.Aiming at the desert land silt landscape of Yulin area in Shaanxi Province, this paper summed up the experience from long-term sub-base construction of silt pavement, to provide reference for the person who had engaged in related industry.%高速公路底基层施工,是公路界多年关注和重视的建设项目.对于粉砂土路面底基层施工,虽在国内公路施工中运用不广泛.国家进行西部经济大开发以后,在西北地区已经开始面临重视和研究,本文针对陕西省榆林地区特殊的沙漠粉砂土地貌,从长期的粉砂土路面底基层施工取得经验进行总结,对从事相关工作业内同仁有显著借鉴,可供参考.

  20. Clay minerals, metallic oxides and oxy-hydroxides and soil organic carbon distribution within soil aggregates in temperate forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Fernández-Ugalde, Oihane; Virto, Iñigo; Arias-González, Ander

    2017-04-01

    trachytes (8.2%) with no significant differences between the last two. On the other hand, ditionithe extractable iron was significantly different among all soils with the following content: sandstone (13%) 20%) in microaggregates (0.25-0.053 mm) and silt+clay size aggregates (< 0.053 mm) than the other two soils (<10%). The regression analysis revealed that short-range order minerals influence the amount of SOC via microaggregation and that chlorite-vermiculite mixed layer minerals had a significant influence on the amount of SOC relating this stabilization mechanism to macroagregation. This study highlights that dynamic models of SOC turnover in acid soils from temperate forest should include proxies for clay mineralogy and for the content of Fe and Al oxides and oxy-hydro-oxides.

  1. Management recommendations: Sand Lake Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and...

  2. Simulation of Water-Resistance of a Clay Layer During Mining: Analysis of a Safe Water Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Qing-hong; CAI Rong; YANG Wei-feng

    2007-01-01

    Given previous research and prototypical geological conditions of a mining workface, we simulated fissure development in clay layers at the bottom of Quaternary strata and above bedrock, sand and water inrush during mining by model experiments. The results show that V-shaped fissures usually occur in the bottom clay layer at the front top of the active face and that the position of these fissures changes periodically with ground pressure intervals. These fissures occur exactly in the area where the horizontal strain is concentrated. The results also demonstrate that the permeability coefficient of the cracked clay decreases while fissures tend to close. The permeability of the cracked bottom clay layer increases rapidly after a turning point in the permeability coefficient-water head curve (K-H curve) under a certain vertical load. Under static water pressure, the permeability coefficient of cracked clay decreases when load increases. A turning point in the K-H curve showed up and can be seen as a cutoff point to decide water inrush under a certain load level. Under an instantaneous water head, the greatest ability of the cracked clay to avoid drastic water inflow is a little higher than that under static conditions.

  3. Painting with Clay Van Gogh Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Vincent Van Gogh's painting "Starry Night" and describes a lesson where fifth- and sixth-grade students created their own version of the artwork. Explains that the students utilized four colors of Permoplast clay, using their hands and fingers as brushes and blending tools and the clay as paint. (CMK)

  4. Sectioning Clay Models Makes Anatomy & Development Tangible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Carina Endres; Howell, James Endres

    2010-01-01

    Clay models have proved to be useful teaching aids for many topics in biology that depend on three-dimensional reasoning. Students studying embryonic development struggle to mentally reconstruct the three-dimensional structure of embryos and larvae by observing prepared slides of cross-sectional slices. Students who build clay models of embryos…

  5. Quick clay and landslides of clayey soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaldoun, A.; Moller, P.; Fall, A.; Wegdam, G.; de Leeuw, B.; Méheust, Y.; Fossum, J.O.; Bonn, D.

    2009-01-01

    We study the rheology of quick clay, an unstable soil responsible for many landslides. We show that above a critical stress the material starts flowing abruptly with a very large viscosity decrease caused by the flow. This leads to avalanche behavior that accounts for the instability of quick clay s

  6. Moessbauer Spectra of Clays and Ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, F. E.; Wagner, U. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2004-06-15

    The physical, chemical and mineralogical aspects of the use of Moessbauer spectroscopy in studies of clay-based ceramics are described. Moessbauer spectra of pottery clays fired under oxidising, reducing and changing conditions are explained, and the possibilities of using Moessbauer spectra to derive information on the firing temperatures and the kiln atmosphere during firing in antiquity are discussed and illustrated by examples.

  7. Dehydration-induced luminescence in clay minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, L. M.; Lahav, N.; Lawless, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    Reports of triboluminescent phenomena in organic crystalline materials prompted a search for related processes in clay minerals. The reported extensive mechanical distortion produced on freezing and drying of montmorillonite was particularly interesting because of studies of condensation reactions in a wet/dry cycled reaction sequence. The discovery of an unusual luminescent process in several clay minerals is reported and its characteristics are described.

  8. Geohydrology of the High Energy Laser System Test Facility site, White Sands Missile Range, Tularosa Basin, south-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basabilvazo, G.T.; Nickerson, E.L.; Myers, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Yesum-HoHoman and Gypsum land (hummocky) soils at the High Energy Laser System Test Facility (HELSTF) represent wind deposits from recently desiccated lacustrine deposits and deposits from the ancestral Lake Otero. The upper 15-20 feet of the subsurface consists of varved gypsiferous clay and silt. Below these surfidai deposits the lithology consists of interbedded clay units, silty-clay units, and fine- to medium-grained quartz arenite units in continuous and discontinuous horizons. Clay horizons can cause perched water above the water table. Analyses of selected clay samples indicate that clay units are composed chiefly of kaolinire and mixed-layer illite/ smectite. The main aquifer is representative of a leaky-confined aquifer. Estimated aquifer properties are: transmissivity (T) = 780 feet squared per day, storage coefficient (S) = 3.1 x 10-3, and hydraulic conductivity (K) = 6.0 feet per day. Ground water flows south and southwest; the estimated hydraulic gradient is 5.3 feet per mile. Analyses of water samples indicate that ground water at the HELSTF site is brackish to slightly saline at the top of the main aquifer. Dissolved-solids concentration near the top of the main aquifer ranges from 5,940 to 11,800 milligrams per liter. Predominant ions are sodium and sulfate. At 815 feet below land surface, the largest dissolved-solids concentration measured is 111,000 milligrams per liter, which indicates increasing salinity with depth. Predominant ions are sodium and chloride.

  9. Diffusion of inorganic chemical wastes in compacted clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shackelford, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    The factors that were investigated included the water content/dry unit weight, the method of compaction, the mineralogy of the soil, and the concentration of the ions. The effective diffusion coefficients (D{asterisk}) of three anions (Cl{sup {minus}}, Br{sup {minus}}, and I{sup {minus}}) and three cations (K{sup +}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+}) in a simulated waste leachate were measured. Two clay soils (kaolinite and Lufkin clay) and a sand were used in the study. The clay samples were compacted and pre-soaked to minimize hydraulic gradients due to negative pore pressures. Mass balance calculations were performed to indicate possible sinks/sources in the diffusion system. The results of the diffusion tests were analyzed using two analytical solutions to Fick's second law and a commercially available semi-analytical solution. The D{asterisk} values for tests using high-concentration (0.04 N) leachate generally fell in the narrow range of about 4.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} to 2.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} cm{sup 2}/s, and were relatively insensitive to compaction water content/dry unit weight and to compaction method. The variability in the results from the tests with low-concentration (0.013 N) leachate precluded any definite conclusions from these tests. The values of D{asterisk} measured in this study were compared to values from previous studies, and the D{asterisk} values from this study were found to be slightly conservative (i.e., high). However, the results of the tests may be affected by several chemical and physical factors, and care should be taken to ensure that the soils used in the tests are representative of those used in the application of the test results. Recommendations are made for estimating D{asterisk} values for use in the design of compacted clay barriers for the containment of inorganic chemical wastes.

  10. Assessing the spatial continuity of low permeability media for deep waste disposal: the Boom Clay case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeannee, N. [GEOVARIANCES, 49bis Av. Franklin Roosevelt, BP91, Avon, 77212 (France); Berckmans, A.; Wouters, L. [ONDRAF/NIRAS (Belgium); Deraisme, J. [GEOVARIANCES (France); Chiles, J.P. [Ecole des Mines de Paris (France)

    2009-06-15

    The Boom Clay is currently investigated as potential host formation for the deep disposal of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste in Belgium. Deep disposal safety relies on multiple barriers: the 'super-container' containing the vitrified waste, the repository itself and the host formation in which the disposal could be constructed. The latter is the most important as it is the one that has to slow the migration of radionuclides towards the biosphere for a sufficiently long time when the man-made barriers are no longer effective. So it is the site's geology that must ensure that the long-term radiological impact of the waste in the repository stays below the nationally and internationally allowable limits and is therefore significantly lower than natural radioactivity. The Boom Clay is a marine Oligocene clay of approximately 100 m thick deposited in the North Sea basin. It is known in Germany, The Netherlands and Belgium as a continuous layer gently dipping ({approx}1 deg.) towards the north-north-east but also gaining thickness in this direction. One of the most remarkable characteristics of the Boom Clay is its structure of bands that are several tens of centimeters thick, reflecting mainly cyclical variations in grain size (silt and clay content). The Boom Clay aquitard requires to be precisely characterized in terms of hydrogeological parameters, to confirm its role of geological barrier between its surrounding aquifers. Therefore, hydraulic conductivity and diffusion parameters have been intensively measured at only a few boreholes in Belgium, mainly located in the Mol-Dessel area, assuming a good lateral continuity of the geology. Combining these measurements with more densely acquired geophysical information allows quantifying their spatial variability and consolidating the continuity assumption. From a methodological point of view, the 3D modeling of hydrogeological parameters requires to solve several issues. First, it is required

  11. The ratio of clay content to total organic carbon content is a useful parameter to predict adsorption of the herbicide butachlor in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zhongzhen; He Yan [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Xu Jianming [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)], E-mail: jmxu@zju.edu.cn; Huang Panming [Department of Soil Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8 (Canada); Jilani Ghulam [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2008-03-15

    Thirteen soils collected from 11 provinces in eastern China were used to investigate the butachlor adsorption. The results indicated that the total organic carbon (TOC) content, clay content, amorphous Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content, silt content, CEC, and pH had a combined effect on the butachlor sorption on soil. Combination of the data obtained from the 13 soils in the present study with other 23 soil samples reported by other researchers in the literature showed that K{sub oc} would be a poor predictive parameter for butachlor adsorption on soils with TOC content higher than 4.0% and lower than 0.2%. The soils with the ratio of clay content to TOC content (RCO) values less than 60 adsorbed butachlor mainly by the partition into soil organic matter matrix. The soils with RCO values higher than 60 apparently adsorbed butachlor by the combination of the partition into soil organic matter matrix and adsorption on clay surface. - The relative importance of organic matter and clay in butachlor adsorption in soil will depend on the ratio of clay content to total organic carbon content.

  12. Active containment systems incorporating modified pillared clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundie, P. [Envirotech (Scotland) Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)]|[Environmental Resource Industries Disposal Pty Ltd., Perth (Australia); McLeod, N. [Envirotreat Ltd., Kingswinford (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The application of treatment technologies in active containment systems provides a more advanced and effective method for the remediation of contaminated sites. These treatment technologies can be applied in permeable reactive walls and/or funnel and gate systems. The application of modified pillared clays in active containment systems provides a mechanism for producing permeable reactive walls with versatile properties. These pillared clays are suitably modified to incorporate reactive intercalatants capable of reacting with both a broad range of organic pollutants of varying molecular size, polarity and reactivity. Heavy metals can be removed from contaminated water by conventional ion-exchange and other reactive processes within the clay structure. Complex contamination problems can be addressed by the application of more than one modified clay on a site specific basis. This paper briefly describes the active containment system and the structure/chemistry of the modified pillared clay technology, illustrating potential applications of the in-situ treatment process for contaminated site remediation.

  13. Permeation properties of polymer/clay nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalendova, A.; Merinska, D.; Gerard, J. F.

    2012-07-01

    The important characteristics of polymer/clay nanocomposites are stability, barrier properties and in the case of polyvinyl chloride also plasticizer migration into other materials. Therefore, the permeation properties of polymer/clay nanocomposites are discussed in this paper. The attention was focused to the polyethylene (PE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Natural type of montmorillonite MMTNa+ and modified types of montmorillonite from Southern Clay Products were used as the inorganic phase. As the compounding machine, one screw Buss KO-kneader was employed. The principal aim is to fully exfoliate the clay into polymer matrix and enhanced the permeation properties. Prepared samples were tested for O2 and CO2 permeability. Polymer/clay nanocomposite structure was determined on the base of X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy (TEM).

  14. Air quality over the Alberta oil sands: Satellite observations of NO2 and SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, C. A.; Fioletov, V.

    2011-12-01

    A vast reserve of bitumen - oil mixed with sand, clay, and water generally referred to as oil sands - resides in northern Alberta, Canada. Extraction of bitumen and its upgrade to liquid fuel is very energy intensive and generates significant emissions, including nitrogen and sulphur oxides. Satellite observations of NO2 and SO2 vertical column densities have been used to assess the magnitude and distribution of these pollutants throughout the oil sands. Preliminary results indicate a statistically significant enhancement in both species over an area (~30 x 30 km2) of intensive surface mining. Quantifying the burden of these enhancements and their recent changes over such a small area, comparable to the resolution of the best air quality satellite instruments, represents a significant challenge. The methodology used to meet this challenge will be presented, as will initial results including trends over the past decade, comparisons with other large industrial operations, and an assessment of consistency with emission inventories.

  15. An update to the construction of the Suncor oil sands tailings pond 5 cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abusaid, Ayman; Pollock, Gord; Fear, Catherine; McRoberts, Ed [AMEC Earth and Environmental (Canada); Wells, Sean [Suncor Energy Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Tailings, produced during the extraction process that separates bitumen from oil sand, are pumped into holding ponds. The heaviest material - mostly sand - settles to the bottom, while water rises to the top, creating a middle layer, the mature fine tailings (MFT), made up of fine clay particles suspended in water. Suncor is using consolidated tailings technology to speed up the consolidation of MFT. To facilitate reclamation of its pond 5 oil sands tailings pond and make a trafficable surface, Suncor began construction of a full-scale floating cover over the fluid tailings in the pond in January, 2010. A road and infill approach was taken which involved constructing a network of roads as the first stage, followed by constructing the area between the roads (or cells) in the following stage, using geosynthetics overlain by petroleum coke. The results from a series of field trials conducted during this year and from other novel aspects of construction are presented and discussed in this paper.

  16. 1st International Conference on Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete

    CERN Document Server

    Favier, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    This volume focuses on research and practical issues linked to Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete. The main subjects are geology of clays, hydration and performance of blended systems with calcined clays, alkali activated binders, economic and environmental impacts of the use of calcined clays in cement based materials. Topics addressed in this book include the influence of processing on reactivity of calcined clays, influence of clay mineralogy on reactivity, geology of clay deposits, Portland-calcined clay systems, hydration, durability, performance, Portland-calcined clay-limestone systems, hydration, durability, performance, calcined clay-alkali systems, life cycle analysis, economics and environmental impact of use of calcined clays in cement and concrete, and field applications. This book compiles the different contributions of the 1st International Conference on Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete, which took place in Lausanne, Switzerland, June, 23-25, 2015.The papers present the latest  res...

  17. Investigating the Thermal Limit of Clay Minerals for Applications in Nuclear Waste Repository Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteo, E. N.; Miller, A. W.; Kruichak, J.; Mills, M.; Tellez, H.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Clay minerals are likely candidates to aid in nuclear waste isolation due to their low permeability, favorable swelling properties, and high cation sorption capacities. Establishing the thermal limit for clay minerals in a nuclear waste repository is a potentially important component of repository design, as flexibility of the heat load within the repository can have a major impact on the selection of repository design. For example, the thermal limit plays a critical role in the time that waste packages would need to cool before being transferred to the repository. Understanding the chemical and physical changes that occur in clay minerals at various temperatures above the current thermal limit (of 100 °C) can enable decision-makers with information critical to evaluating the potential trade-offs of increasing the thermal limit within the repository. Most critical is gaining understanding of how varying thermal conditions in the repository will impact radionuclide sorption and transport in clay materials either as engineered barriers or as disposal media. A variety of clays (illite, mixed layer illite/smectite, montmorillonite, and palygorskite) were heated for a range of temperatures between 100-500 °C. These samples were characterized by a variety of methods, including nitrogen adsorption, x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, barium chloride exchange for cation exchange capacity (CEC), and iodide sorption. The nitrogen porosimetry shows that for all the clays, thermally-induced changes in BET surface area are dominated by collapse/creation of the microporosity, i.e. pore diameters Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND Number: 2013-6352A.

  18. Rheology and zeta potential of cement pastes containing calcined silt and ground granulated blast-furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safi, B.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the re-use of dam silt as a supplementary binder for self-compacting concrete (SCC. When burnt, silt becomes more reactive because the kaolin it contains is converted into metakaolin. Portland cement, calcined or burnt silt and ground granulated blast furnace slag were used in this research. Cement pastes were prepared with blends containing two or three of these materials. The replacement ratio for burnt silt in both cases was 10 % and 20 % by cement weight and the ratio for the slag was a constant 30 % by weight of the blend. Rheological and zeta potential tests were conducted to evaluate paste electrokinetics and rheological behaviour. The findings showed that burnt silt is apt for use as an addition to cement for SCC manufacture.

    En el presente trabajo se ha analizado la posibilidad de utilizar los lodos procedentes de embalses como adición en la fabricación del hormigón autocompactante (HAC. Con la calcinación, estos materiales se vuelven más reactivos debido a la transformación en metacaolín, del caolín que forma parte de su composición. Las materias primas empleadas en esta investigación son: cemento Pórtland, lodos de embalse calcinados y escorias granuladas de horno alto. Se prepararon pastas de cemento con mezclas que contenían dos o tres de estos materiales. El porcentaje de reemplazo de los lodos calcinados osciló entre el 10 y el 20 % en peso del cemento, mientras que el de la escoria fue del 30 % en peso de la mezcla. Se llevaron a cabo ensayos reológicos y de potencial zeta para evaluar el comportamiento electrocinético y reológico de las distintas pastas. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, una vez calcinados, los lodos de embalse son aprovechables como adición al cemento con destino a la preparación de HAC.

  19. Clay Dispersibility and Soil Friability-Testing the Soil Clay-to-Carbon Saturation Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Munkholm, Lars Juhl;

    2012-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (OC) influences clay dispersibility, which affects soil tilth conditions and the risk of vertical migration of clay colloids. No universal lower threshold of OC has been identified for satisfactory stabilization of soil structure. We tested the concept of clay saturation with OC...... as a predictor of clay dispersibility and soil friability. Soil was sampled 3 yr in a field varying in clay content (∼100 to ∼220 g kg−1 soil) and grown with different crop rotations. Clay dispersibility was measured after end-over-end shaking of field-moist soil and 1- to 2-mm sized aggregates either air......-dried or rewetted to −100 hPa matric potential. Tensile strength of 1- to 2-, 2- to 4-, 4- to 8-, and 8- to 16-mm air-dried aggregates was calculated from their compressive strength, and soil friability estimated from the strength–volume relation. Crop rotation characteristics gave only minor effects on clay...

  20. Evidence for Smectite Clays from MSL SAM Analyses of Mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Amy; Franz, Heather; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Stern, Jennifer C.; Brunner, Anna; Archer, Paul Douglas; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Atreya, Sushil K.

    2013-01-01

    Drilled samples of mudstone from the Sheepbed unit at Yellowknife Bay were analyzed by MSL instruments including the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) and Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instruments in MSL's Analytical Laboratory. CheMin analyses revealed the first in situ X-ray diffraction based evidence of clay minerals on Mars, which are likely trioctahedral smectites (e.g., saponite) and comprise approx 20% of the mudstone sample (e.g., Bristow et al., this meeting). SAM analyses, which heated the mudstone samples to 1000 C and monitored volatiles evolved to perform in situ evolved gas analysis mass spectrometry (EGA-MS), resulted in a H2O trace exhibiting a wide evolution at temperatures clay mineral. Comparison to EGA-MS data collected under SAM-like conditions on a variety of clay mineral reference materials indicate that a trioctahedral smectite, such as saponite, is most consistent with the high temperature H2O evolution observed. There may also be SAM EGA-MS evidence for a small high temperature H2O evolution from scoop samples from the Yellowknife Bay Rocknest sand shadow bedform. As in the mudstone samples, this evolution may indicate the detection of smectite clays, and the idea that minor clays may be present in Rocknest materials that could be expected to be at least partially derived from local sources is reasonable. But, because smectite clays were not definitively observed in CheMin analyses of Rocknest materials, they must be present at much lower abundances than the approx 20% observed in the mudstone samples. This potential detection underscores the complementary nature of the MSL CheMin and SAM instruments for investigations of martian sample mineralogy. Information on the nature of Yellowknife Bay clay minerals may also be available from the detection of H2 evolved during SAM EGA-MS at high temperature. A likely source of at least some of this H2 is H2O evolved from the smectite clays at high temperature, and it is possible these evolutions can

  1. Soil microbial communities associated to plant rhizospheres in an organic farming system in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial communities under different organic crop rhizospheres (0-10 and 10-20 cm) were characterized using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and pyrosequencing techniques. The soil was a silt loam (12.8% clay, 71.8% silt and15.4% sand). Soils at this site are characterized as having pH of ~6.53, ...

  2. Modelling tools for assessing bioremediation performance and risk of chlorinated solvents in clay tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia

    transfer limitations in order to achieve remediation in reasonable timeframes. The importance of mass transfer limitations depends on the extent of the reductive dechlorination in the matrix (termed bioactive zones), and the spacing between them, which is controlled by the injection interval. Numerical......Chlorinated solvents are widespread contaminants in the subsurface. In lowpermeability fractured media, such as clay tills, chlorinated solvents are transported downwards along preferential pathways, formed by fractures and sand lenses, and diffuse into the adjacent clay matrix. These contaminants...... are trapped in the low-permeability matrix and can then slowly back diffuse to the fracture network, forming a long-term secondary contamination source to the underlying aquifers. Because of the complex transport and degradation processes and the mass transfer limitations, risk assessment and remediation...

  3. Disturbance of the inclined inserting-type sand fence to wind-sand flow fields and its sand control characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jian-jun; Lei, Jia-qiang; Li, Sheng-yu; Wang, Hai-feng

    2016-06-01

    The inclined inserting-type sand fence is a novel sand retaining wall adopted along the Lanxin High-Speed Railway II in Xinjiang for controlling and blocking sand movement. To verify the effectiveness of the new fence structure for sand prevention, a wind tunnel test was used for flow field test simulation of the sand fence. The results indicate that the inclined inserting-type sand fence was able to deflect the flow of the sand and was able to easily form an upward slant acceleration zone on the leeward side of the sand fence. As shown by the percentage change in sand collection rates on the windward side and the leeward side of the sand fence, the sand flux per unit area at 4 m height in the slant upward direction increased on the leeward side of the inclined inserting-type sand fence. By comparing the flow fields, this site is an acceleration zone, which also reaffirms the correspondence of wind-sand flow fields with the spatial distribution characteristic of the wind-carried sand motion. The field sand collection data indicates that under the effects of the inclined inserting-type sand fence, the sandy air currents passing in front and behind the sand fence not only changed in quality, but the grain composition and particle size also significantly changed, suggesting that the inclined inserting-type sand fence has a sorting and filtering effect on the sandy air currents that passed through. The fence retained coarse particulates on the windward side and fine particulates within the shade of the wind on the leeward side.

  4. THE EFFECT OF CLAY DISPERSION ON THE CRYSTALLIZATION AND MORPHOLOGY OF POLYPROPYLENE/CLAY COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Zhang; Xiao-lin Gao; Ke Wang; Qiang Fu

    2004-01-01

    PP/clay composites with different dispersions, namely, exfoliated dispersion, intercalated dispersion and agglomerates and panicle-like dispersion, were prepared by direct melt intercalation or compounding. The effect of clay dispersion on the crystallization and morphology of PP was investigated via PLM, SAXS and DSC. Experimental results show that exfoliated clay layers are much more efficient than intercalated clay and agglomerates of clay in serving as nucleation agent due to the nano-scale dispersion of clay, resulting in a dramatic decrease in crystal size (lamellar thickness and spherulites) and an increase of crystallization temperature and crystallization rate. On the other hand, a decrease of melting temperature and crystallinity was also observed in PP/clay composites with exfoliated dispersion, due to the strong interaction between PP and clay. Compared with exfoliated clay layers, the intercalated clay layers have a less important effect on the crystallization and crystal morphology. No effect is seen for samples with agglomerates and panicle-like dispersion, in regard to melting temperature, crystallization temperature, crystal thickness and crystallinity.

  5. Factors affecting the hydraulic performance of infiltration based SUDS in clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bockhorn, B.; Klint, K.E.S.; Locatelli, Luca;

    2015-01-01

    The influence of small scale soil heterogeneity on the hydraulic performance of infiltration based SUDS was studied using field data from a clayey glacial till and groundwater simulations with the integrated surface water and groundwater model HydroGeoSphere. Simulations of homogeneous soil blocks...... that exclusion of small scale soil physical features may greatly underestimate hydraulic performance of infiltration based SUDS....... with hydraulic properties ranging from sand to clay showed that infiltration capacities vary greatly for the different soil types observed in glacial till. The inclusion of heterogeneities dramatically increased infiltration volume by a factor of 22 for a soil with structural changes above and below the CaC03...

  6. 碎石桩加固饱和粉土地基的抗液化特性%Characteristics of Liquefaction Resistance for Stone Columns Treated in Saturated Silt Ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春霞; 隋志龙; 陈国兴

    2011-01-01

    Liquefaction of saturated silt is still an important topic remaining in geotechnical earthquake engineering besides liquefaction of sands. The risk of liquefaction and associated ground deformation can be reduced by various ground-improvement methods including the stone column technique. The effectiveness of stone columns for the prevention of soil liquefaction during an earthquake is often threefold: densification, drainage and the reduction of the total cyclic shear stress in the soil. However, there are obvious difference of characteristics of stone columns liquefaction resistance between in saturated silts and in sands.In this paper, a detailed review on effectiveness of densification, drainage and reinforcement of stone columns for the resistance of soil liquefaction during earthquakes is presented. The suggestions are offered for some problems worthy of further study.%除饱和砂土液化外,饱和粉土地震液化问题也是岩土地震工程中一个重要的研究课题.饱和粉土地基的地震液化及变形可以采用多种地基加固方法防治,碎石桩技术是常用方法之一.碎石桩复合地基的抗液化效应,主要是增加桩周土体的密度、利于桩体的排水以及由桩体分担地震水平剪应力(桩体减震作用).但由于粉土的土质特性,粉土-碎石桩复合地基的抗液化特性与砂土有着明显的差异.本文结合目前国内外碎石桩复合地基抗液化研究的最新进展,对粉土-碎石桩的密实、排水减压和减震作用做了较详细的评述,最后提出了关于碎石桩复合地基抗液化特性需要进一步研究的问题.

  7. Optimal array of sand fences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Izael A; Araújo, Ascânio D; Parteli, Eric J R; Andrade, José S; Herrmann, Hans J

    2017-03-24

    Sand fences are widely applied to prevent soil erosion by wind in areas affected by desertification. Sand fences also provide a way to reduce the emission rate of dust particles, which is triggered mainly by the impacts of wind-blown sand grains onto the soil and affects the Earth's climate. Many different types of fence have been designed and their effects on the sediment transport dynamics studied since many years. However, the search for the optimal array of fences has remained largely an empirical task. In order to achieve maximal soil protection using the minimal amount of fence material, a quantitative understanding of the flow profile over the relief encompassing the area to be protected including all employed fences is required. Here we use Computational Fluid Dynamics to calculate the average turbulent airflow through an array of fences as a function of the porosity, spacing and height of the fences. Specifically, we investigate the factors controlling the fraction of soil area over which the basal average wind shear velocity drops below the threshold for sand transport when the fences are applied. We introduce a cost function, given by the amount of material necessary to construct the fences. We find that, for typical sand-moving wind velocities, the optimal fence height (which minimizes this cost function) is around 50 cm, while using fences of height around 1.25 m leads to maximal cost.

  8. Water retention of rigid soils from a two-factor model for clay

    CERN Document Server

    Chertkov, V Y

    2014-01-01

    Water retention is one of the key soil characteristics. Available models of soil water retention relate to the curve-fitting type. The objective of this work is to suggest a physical model of water retention (drying branch) for soils with a rigid matrix. "Physical" means the prediction based on the a priori measured or estimated soil parameters with a clear physical meaning. We rely on the two-factor model of clay that takes into account the factors of capillarity and shrinkage. The key points of the model to be proposed are some weak pseudo shrinkage that the rigid soils demonstrate according to their experimental water retention curves, and some specific properties of the rigid grain matrix. The three input parameters for prediction of soil water retention with the rigid grain matrix include inter-grain porosity, as well as maximum and minimum grain sizes. The comparison between measured and predicted sand water retention curves for four different sands is promising.

  9. Some Tests on Heather Field Moraine Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mogens B.; Jacobsen, Moust

    This report deals with oedometer tests on three samples of moraine clay from the Heather Field in the English part of the North Sea. The tests have been carried out in the very unelastic apparatus used in Denmark and with special test procedures differing from the ones used elsewhere. In Denmark...... the English North Sea moraine clays with the corresponding Danish Moraine Clays. The Danish test procedures are explained in details and some comments are given in the hope that they may not be banalities all of them....

  10. Ni clay neoformation on montmorillonite surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dähn, R; Scheidegger, A; Manceau, A; Schlegel, M; Baeyens, B; Bradbury, M H

    2001-03-01

    Polarized extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (P-EXAFS) was used to study the sorption mechanism of Ni on the aluminous hydrous silicate montmorillonite at high ionic strength (0.3 M NaClO4), pH 8 and a Ni concentration of 0.66 mM. Highly textured self-supporting clay films were obtained by slowly filtrating a clay suspension after a reaction time of 14 days. P-EXAFS results indicate that sorbed Ni has a Ni clay-like structural environment with the same crystallographic orientation as montmorillonite layers.

  11. Chloride Dispersion across Silt Deposits in a Glaciated Bedrock River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotaru, Camelia; Ostendorf, David W; DeGroot, Don J

    2014-03-01

    Soil and groundwater from the Neponset River floodplain deposit that receive high concentrations of deicing agents from nearby highways were investigated. The silty sand floodplain is separated by a silty aquitard from the underlying aquifer that serves as a public water supply. We made a transport-based assessment of the capacity of the aquitard to protect the underlying aquifer. One hundred seventeen soil samples and 469 groundwater samples collected during a period of 4 yr from boreholes and 10 wells grouped in two well clusters were analyzed for dissolved Cl concentration. The soil characterization and groundwater monitoring results agreed, showing a very slow change in subsurface Cl contamination with time. These data also calibrated a vertical one-dimensional advective-dispersive transport model across the deposits. Advective transport dominated only in the top 3.37 m of the floodplain deposit, with dispersion being the main transport mechanism below this depth. Due to the silty nature of the aquitard, dispersion rather than diffusion was the main transport mechanism into the floodplain-aquitard system. Soil and groundwater quality data confirmed a Cl concentration at the floodplain surface near the highway runoff drainage outlets of 2450 mg L. The model estimated a vertical dispersivity at the site of 8 mm and a vertical hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient of 3.71 × 10 m s. These data confirmed the aquitard's capacity to contain deicing agents, protecting the underlying aquifer from contamination.

  12. Importância das espécies minerais no potássio total da fração argila de solos do Triângulo Mineiro Importance of mineral species in total potassium content of clay fraction in soils of the Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Melo

    2003-10-01

    arenito da Formação Uberaba, migmatito/micaxisto do Grupo Araxá e basalto da Formação Serra Geral.Few studies relate the K reserve in soils developed in a humid tropic climate with the minerals found in the clay fraction. Nineteen soils were collected for this purpose in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, developed from different parent materials and different weathering degrees. Due to the greater occurrence, a larger number of samples of the Bauru Group was collected, comprising all the geological formations found in the region. The total K content in soil and the sand, silt, and clay fractions were determined after the digestion of the soil samples by HF, HNO3 and H2SO4. To quantify the contribution of each mineral species to the total K content, Na-saturated clay samples were submitted by a sequential and selective mineral extraction procedure, following the order: amorphous Al and Fe oxides; crystalline Fe oxides; kaolinite and gibbsite; mica and other 2:1 minerals and; feldspar and resistant minerals. The clay mineralogy composition reflects the high weathering and leaching degree in soils of the Triângulo Mineiro, with low contents of amorphous minerals, a predominant proportion of kaolinite and the presence of other secondary resistant minerals. In spite of this mineral composition, the clay fraction presented the highest total K content, mainly in the most weathered soils. Due to the high proportion of kaolinite in the clay fraction, this mineral was an important source of non-exchangeable K forms. On the other hand, the contribution of amorphous Fe and Al oxides and crystalline Fe oxides to the total K content of the clay fraction was negligible. In general, easily weathered primary minerals (mica and feldspar contributed largely to the total K of the clay fraction, principally to the youngest soils developed from the Uberaba (sandstone and Serra Geral (basalt Formations, and the Araxá Group (migmatite/micaschist.

  13. ALCOHOL FLUSHING FOR REMOVING DNAPL'S FROM CLAY AND SAND LAYERED AQUIFER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.J. Hayden; P. Padgett; C. Farrell; J. Diebold; X. Zhou; M. Hood

    1999-08-01

    Alcohol flushing, also called cosolvent flushing, is a relatively new in-situ remediation technology that shows promise for removing organic solvents from the soil and groundwater. Soil and groundwater contamination from organic solvents and petroleum products is one of the most serious and widespread environmental problems of our time. Most of the DOE facilities and inactive sites are experiencing soil and groundwater contamination from organic solvents. These water immiscible solvents have entered the subsurface from leaking underground storage tanks and piping, and from past waste handling and disposal practices such as leaking lagoons, holding ponds and landfills. In many cases, they have traveled hundreds of feet down into the saturated zone. If left in the soil, these chemicals may pose a significant environmental and human health risk. Alcohol flushing has potential for application to spilled solvents located deep within the saturated zone which are difficult if not impossible to remove by current remediation strategies, thus, greatly expediting restoration time, reducing total remediation cost and reducing risk.

  14. Pesticide leaching in polders : field and model studies on cracked clays and loamy sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, K.P.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis reports on a study of pesticide leaching in polder areas. The study comprises two aspects: a data collection program and the development, calibration and application of the model SWACRO for the simulation of pesticide transport.

    Field data were

  15. Understanding and managing the morphology of Rhine Delta branches incising into sand-clay deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.; Van Spijk, A.; Stouthamer, E.; Sieben, A.

    2011-01-01

    In the Rhine-Meuse delta in the south-western part of the Netherlands, the morphology of the river branches is highly dependent on the erodibility of the subsoil. Erosion processes that were initiated after closure of the Haringvliet estuary branch by a dam (in 1970), caused a strong incision of sev

  16. Production of high quality water for oil sands application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudette-Hodsman, C.; Macleod, B. [Pall Corp., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Venkatadri, R. [Pall Corp., East Hills, NY (United States)

    2008-10-15

    This paper described a pressurized microfiltration membrane system installed at an oil sands extraction site in Alberta. The system was designed to complement a reverse osmosis (RO) system installed at the site to produce the high quality feed water required by the system's boilers. Groundwater in the region exhibited moderate total suspended solids and high alkalinity and hardness levels, and the RO system required feed water with a silt density index of 3 or less. The conventional pretreatment system used at the site was slowing down production due to the severe fouling of the RO membranes. The new microfiltration system contained an automated PVDF hollow fiber microfiltration membrane system contained in a trailer. Suspended particles and bacteria were captured within the filter, and permeate was sent to the RO unit. Within 6 hours of being installed, the unit was producing water with SDI values in the range of 1.0 to 2.5. It was concluded that the microfiltration system performed reliably regardless of wide variations in feed water quality and flow rates. 3 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  17. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack D.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Grin, E.A.; Li, Ron; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, B.; Bell, J.F.; Yingst, R. Aileen

    2014-01-01

    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  18. Study of Various Techniques for Improving Weak and Compressible Clay Soil under a High Earth Embankment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zein A.K. M.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the suitability of three soil improvement techniques for the construction of a high earth embankment on thick weak and highly compressible clay soil. The eastern approach embankment of Alhalfaya Bridge on the River Nile linking Khartoum North and Omdurman cities was chosen as a case study and a comprehensive site investigation program was carried out to determine the properties the subsurface soils. The study results showed that unless the subsurface soils have been improved they may fail or undergo excessively large settlements due to the embankment construction. Three ground improvement techniques based on the principles of the “staged construction method, SCM”, “vertical sand drain, VSD” and “sand compaction piles, SCP” of embankment foundation soil treatment are discussed and evaluated. Embankment design options based on applications of the above methods have been proposed for foundation treatment to adequately support embankment loads. A method performance evaluation based on the improvement of soil properties achieved; the time required for construction and compared estimated costs criteria was made to assess the effectiveness and expected overall performance. Adoption of any of the soil improvement techniques considered depends mainly on the most critical and decisive factor governing the embankment design. Based on the overall performance for the embankment case studied, the sand drains is considered as the most appropriate improvement method followed by the sand compaction piles technique whereas the staged construction method showed the poorest overall performance.

  19. Use of Compound-Specific Stable Isotope Analysis to Distinguish Between Vapor Intrusion and Indoor Sources of VOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    the hole and covered with approximately 3-4 inches of 20/40 sand. The remainder of the hole was sealed with a combination of hydrated bentonite clay ...Shallow stratigraphy consists of glacial lake sediments (e.g., clays and silts) overlying a sedimentary bedrock. In the vicinity of Building 1533...shallow soils are predominantly sand and gravel fill. Underlying the fill is a clay layer approximately 30- 40 feet thick (AMEC, 2010). Depth

  20. Óxidos de ferro das frações areia e silte de um Nitossolo desenvolvido de basalto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira B. A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a composição mineralógica dos óxidos de ferro das frações areia, silte e argila de cinco amostras coletadas de um perfil de um Nitossolo Vermelho desenvolvido de basalto toleítico, localizado próximo a Tupaciguara (18 º 35 ' 33 '' S; 48 º 42 ' 18 '' O, na região do Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais. Porções de areia e de silte foram submetidas à separação magnética e a ataques químicos seletivos com NaOH 5 mol L-1 e com uma mistura ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato, com o objetivo de identificar os principais óxidos de ferro magnéticos e suas associações mineralógicas. Maghemita (fórmula ideal, gFe2O3 foi o único mineral magnético identificado nas frações areia e silte; não foi encontrada evidência de ocorrência de magnetita nessas frações. Os resultados Mössbauer apenas sugerem a co-existência de mais de um tipo cristaloquímico de maghemita, na fração areia, embora não sejam claramente separáveis dos espectros Mössbauer obtidos sem campo magnético aplicado. A fase magnética mais rica em Al tem fórmula média, deduzida de resultados de microssondagem eletrônica, Fe2,36(23+ Al0,24(23+ Ti0,06(34+ Ä0,341(1 O4 (Ä = vacância catiônica. A ilmenita férrica detectada de dados Mössbauer na porção magnética da fração silte corresponde a uma solução sólida xFe2+Ti4+O3(1-xFe2(3+O3, com x » 0,83. São discutidas algumas dificuldades e alternativas de interpretação dos resultados Mössbauer, como os do presente caso, em que ocorrem contribuições espectrais simultâneas de hematita e maghemita.

  1. Applied mineralogy of the constituent clays of the mineral wastes from the coal mines in the Teruel mining zone; Mineralogia aplicada de arcillas constitutivas de esteriles en minas de carbon de la zona minera de Teruel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastida, J.; Lopez Buendia, A.M.; Serrano, J.; De La Torre, J.; Sienes, M. [Univ. Valencia, Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Geologia

    1993-12-31

    The coals of the district of Teruel (NE Spain) presents as mine wastes several industrial minerals and rocks (sands, kaolins, clays, Al-sulfates,...) the mining of which would be interesting. The aim of this work is the mineralogical and ceramic characterisation of these clays. So mineralogical and petrographical data as well as technological data concerning granulometry, chemical analysis and Atteberg index have been used in order to compare these clays with those analysed and typified in previous works and with those actually used as ceramic raw materials in the NE of Teruel. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Mullins' effect in polymer/clay nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozdov, Aleksey; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville; Klitkou, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Experimental data are reported on polypropylene/clay nanocomposites in uniaxial cyclic tensile tests at room temperature (oscillations between maximum strains and the zero minimum stress with maximum strains increasing monotonically with number of cycles). Observations reveal fading...

  3. Toward Accurate Adsorption Energetics on Clay Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Zen, Andrea; Cox, Stephen J; Hu, Xiao L; Sorella, Sandro; Alfè, Dario; Michaelides, Angelos

    2016-01-01

    Clay minerals are ubiquitous in nature, and the manner in which they interact with their surroundings has important industrial and environmental implications. Consequently, a molecular-level understanding of the adsorption of molecules on clay surfaces is crucial. In this regard computer simulations play an important role, yet the accuracy of widely used empirical force fields (FF) and density functional theory (DFT) exchange-correlation functionals is often unclear in adsorption systems dominated by weak interactions. Herein we present results from quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) for water and methanol adsorption on the prototypical clay kaolinite. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time QMC has been used to investigate adsorption at a complex, natural surface such as a clay. As well as being valuable in their own right, the QMC benchmarks obtained provide reference data against which the performance of cheaper DFT methods can be tested. Indeed using various DFT exchange-correlation functionals yields...

  4. Mullins' effect in polymer/clay nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozdov, Aleksey; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville; Klitkou, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Experimental data are reported on polypropylene/clay nanocomposites in uniaxial cyclic tensile tests at room temperature (oscillations between maximum strains and the zero minimum stress with maximum strains increasing monotonically with number of cycles). Observations reveal fading of ...

  5. The Basics in Pottery: Clay and Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Joan

    1985-01-01

    Art teachers at the middle school or junior high school level usually find themselves in a program teaching ceramics. The most essential tools needed for a ceramics class are discussed. Different kinds of clay are also discussed. (RM)

  6. Liquefaction Resistance of Chlef River Silty Sand: Effect of Low Plastic Fines and other Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Schanz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Silty sands are the most common type of soil that could be involved in both staticand earthquake-induced liquefaction. Most of the recent earthquakes have revealed theliquefaction of silty sands. Therefore, the selection of the appropriate undrained residualshear strength of liquefied soils to be used in the assessment of the post-liquefactionstability of earth dams and other earth structures is becoming a major challenge. A seriesof undrained monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests were carried out on reconstituted saturatedsamples of sand with variation in the fines content ranging from 0 to 50% for themonotonic tests and from 0 to 40% for the cyclic ones, in order to study the influence offines fraction and other parameters on the undrained residual shear strength andliquefaction potential of loose, medium dense and dense silty sand samples (Dr = 12%,50%, 60% and 90%. The results of the monotonic tests show that the stress-strain responseand shear strength behaviour is controlled by the percentage of fines fraction and thesamples become contractive for the studied relative densities (Dr = 12% and 90%. The undrained residual shear strength decreases as the global void ratio decreases and thefines content increases up to 30% fines content. Beyond that, it decreases with increasingthe global void ratio and the fines content. Moreover, the undrained residual strengthdecreases linearly as the fines content and the inter-granular void ratio increase. Cyclictest results show that the increase of the fines fraction accelerates the liquefactionphenomenon for the studied amplitude and the liquefaction resistance decreases with theincrease of the global void ratio and the loading amplitude. We notice that the reduction inthe liquefaction resistance of Chlef sand-silt mixtures becomes very marked for the smallercyclic stress ratios CSR = 0.15 and 0.25.

  7. Interaction of Auramine O with montmorillonite clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Avelardo U.C.; Poli, Alessandra L.; Gessner, Fergus; Neumann, Miguel G. [Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Caixa Postal 780, 13560-970 São Carlos SP (Brazil); Schmitt Cavalheiro, Carla C., E-mail: carla@iqsc.usp.br [Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Caixa Postal 780, 13560-970 São Carlos SP (Brazil)

    2013-04-15

    The spectroscopic behaviour of Auramine O (AuO) in aqueous suspensions of montmorillonite clays was studied using absorption and static and dynamic fluorescence techniques. The fluorescence of Auramine O increases immediately after mixing the dye solution with the suspension of clay due to its adsorption on the external surface of the clays, which restricts the torsional molecular motion of Auramine. At longer times, the dye molecules migrate into the interlamellar region of the clay particles. Aggregation of the dye molecules can occur in the interlayer region, leading to the decrease of the fluorescence emission. The fluorescence quantum yields (Φ{sub F}) of AuO on the natural montmorillonites SAz-1, SWy-1, Syn-1 and Laponite clays were 0.015, 0.007, 0.016 and 0.017, respectively. These values are higher than the Φ{sub F} of AuO in aqueous solution and are of the same order of magnitude of the Φ{sub F} found for viscous solvents such as n-hexanol and n-heptanol (0.014 and 0.015). Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy studies of adsorbed Auramine on clays revealed multi-exponential decays with components in the 25–36, 219–362 and 1300–1858 ps ranges. The short-lived components can be attributed to species bound to external surface and the longer lifetime is assigned to dye molecules in interlayer spaces interacting strongly with the clay. It seems clear that the binding of Auramine to clays causes a significant reduction of the rate of internal conversion that does involve rotational diffusion, so that the clay will be locked in a conformational geometry unfavourable for internal conversion. -- Highlights: ► Auramine O was dissolved in dispersions of different clays. ► The fluorescence quantum yields were higher than in aqueous solution. ► Decrease of the emission and triexponential decays were observed on SAz-1, LapRDS and SYn-1. ► On Swy-1 the decrease was slower and the decay monoexponential. ► The dye produces aggregates on the internal

  8. 2 nd Mid-European Clay Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The 2nd Mid-European Clay Conference (MECC'04) was held between 20-24th September 2004, in Miskolc, Hungary. The idea to hold common conferences was accepted by the national clay groups of four neighbouring countries, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Croatia, during the EUROCLAY Meeting in Cracow, Poland, in 1999. The first conference was held in 2001 at Stará Lesná, in the High Tatra Mts. in Slovakia.

  9. Cobalt sorption in silica-pillared clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, A; Fetter, G; Bosch, P; Bulbulian, S

    2006-01-03

    Silicon pillared samples were prepared following conventional and microwave irradiation methods. The samples were characterized and tested in cobalt sorption. Ethylenediammine was added before cobalt addition to improve the amount of cobalt retained. The amount of cobalt introduced in the original clay in the presence of ethylenediammine was the highest. In calcined pillared clays the cobalt retention with ethylenediammine was lower (ca. 40%). In all cases the presence of ethylenediammine increased twice the amount of cobalt sorption measured for aqueous solutions.

  10. CLAY SOIL STABILISATION USING POWDERED GLASS

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the stabilizing effect of powdered glass on clay soil. Broken waste glass was collected and ground into powder form suitable for addition to the clay soil in varying proportions namely 1%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 15% along with 15% cement (base) by weight of the soil sample throughout. Consequently, the moisture content, specific gravity, particle size distribution and Atterberg limits tests were carried out to classify the soil using the ASSHTO classification system. Based on the...

  11. Dynamic properties of composite cemented clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡袁强; 梁旭

    2004-01-01

    In this work,the dynamic properties of composite cemented clay under a wide range of strains were studied considering the effect of different mixing ratio and the change of confining pressures through dynamic triaxial test. A simple and practical method to estimate the dynamic elastic modulus and damping ratio is proposed in this paper and a related empirical normalized formula is also presented. The results provide useful guidelines for preliminary estimation of cement requirements to improve the dynamic properties of clays.

  12. Quantifying the effect of squirt flow dispersion from compliant clay porosity in clay bearing sandstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten Kanne; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2013-01-01

    Compliant porosity in the form of cracks is known to cause significant attenuation and velocity dispersion through pore pressure gradients and consequent relaxation, dubbed squirt flow. Squirt flow from cracks vanish at high confining stress due to crack closing. Studies on clay bearing sandstones......-squirt flow on the bulk modulus of a clay bearing sandstone. The predicted magnitude of the clay-squirt effect on the bulk modulus is compared with experimental data. The clay-squirt effect is found to possibly account for a significant portion of the deviances from Gassmann fluid substitution in claybearing...

  13. To what extent clay mineralogy affects soil aggregation? Consequences for soil organic matter stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Ugalde, O.; Barré, P.; Hubert, F.; Virto, I.; Chenu, C.; Ferrage, E.; Caner, L.

    2012-12-01

    decreased for greater intensities of disaggregation. These results and the SEM images taken at different disaggregation intensities indicate that when increasing disaggregation intensity above 5 J mL-1, the recovered material consists on sand particles covered by physical coatings of illite and kaolinite. Our results show that different clay minerals have different contribution to soil aggregation. Swelling phases are especially important for water-stable aggregates formation, whereas illite and kaolinite can either contribute to aggregation or been coated to sand grains in "mineral aggregates", without porosity and organic C protection capability. In conclusion, soils with large proportion of swelling clay minerals have greater potential for carbon storage by occlusion in aggregates and greater resistance to erosion. Tisdall JM, Oades JM (1982) Organic matter and water-stable aggregates in soils. J Soil Sci 62: 141-163.

  14. DPTM simulation of aeolian sand ripple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Aeolian sand ripple and its time evolution are simulated by the discrete particle tracing method (DPTM) presented in this paper. The difference between this method and the current methods is that the former can consider the three main factors relevant to the formation of natural aeolian sand ripples,which are the wind-blown sand flux above the sand bed formed by lots of sand particles with different di-ameters,the particle-bed collision and after it the rebound and ejection of sand particles in the sand bed,the saltation of high-speed sand particles and the creep of low-speed sand particles,respectively. The simulated aeolian sand ripple is close to the natural sand ripple not only in basic shape and characteristic,particle size segregation and stratigraphy,but also in formation stages. In addition,three important speeds can be obtained by this method,which are the propagation speed of the saturated aeolian sand ripple and the critical frictional wind speeds of emergence and disappearance of sand ripple.

  15. DPTM simulation of aeolian sand ripple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG XiaoJing; BO TianLi; XIE Li

    2008-01-01

    Aeolian sand ripple and its time evolution are simulated by the discrete particle tracing method (DPTM) presented in this paper.The difference between this method and the current methods is that the former can consider the three main factors relevant to the formation of natural aeolian sand ripples, which are the wind-blown sand flux above the sand bed formed by lots of sand particles with different di-ameters, the particle-bed collision and after it the rebound and ejection of sand particles in the sand bed, the saltation of high-speed sand particles and the creep of low-speed sand particles, respectively.The simulated aeolian sand ripple is close to the natural sand ripple not only in basic shape and characteristic, particle size segregation and stratigraphy, but also in formation stages.In addition, three important speeds can be obtained by this method, which are the propagation speed of the saturated aeolian sand ripple and the critical frictional wind speeds of emergence and disappearance of sand ripple.

  16. On The Thermal Consolidation Of Boom Clay

    CERN Document Server

    Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu-Jun

    2012-01-01

    When a mass of saturated clay is heated, as in the case of host soils surrounding nuclear waste disposals at great depth, the thermal expansion of the constituents generates excess pore pressures. The mass of clay is submitted to gradients of pore pressure and temperature, to hydraulic and thermal flows, and to changes in its mechanical properties. In this work, some of these aspects were experimentally studied in the case of Boom clay, so as to help predicting the response of the soil, in relation with investigations made in the Belgian underground laboratory at Mol. Results of slow heating tests with careful volume change measurements showed that a reasonable prediction of the thermal expansion of the clay-water system was obtained by using the thermal properties of free water. In spite of the density of Boom clay, no significant effect of water adsorption was observed. The thermal consolidation of Boom clay was studied through fast heating tests. A simple analysis shows that the hydraulic and thermal trans...

  17. Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Walter W.; Walsh, D.P.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Winkelman, D.L.; Miller, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors-especially soil properties-have been suggested as potentially important in the transmission of infectious prion diseases. Because binding to montmorillonite (an aluminosilicate clay mineral) or clay-enriched soils had been shown to enhance experimental prion transmissibility, we hypothesized that prion transmission among mule deer might also be enhanced in ranges with relatively high soil clay content. In this study, we report apparent influences of soil clay content on the odds of prion infection in free-ranging deer. Analysis of data from prion-infected deer herds in northern Colorado, USA, revealed that a 1% increase in the clay-sized particle content in soils within the approximate home range of an individual deer increased its odds of infection by up to 8.9%. Our findings suggest that soil clay content and related environmental properties deserve greater attention in assessing risks of prion disease outbreaks and prospects for their control in both natural and production settings. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  18. Dry reusing and wet reclaiming of used sodium silicate sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of used sodium silicate sand and the different use requirements for recycled sand, "dry reusing and wet reclaiming of used sodium silicate sand" is considered as the most suitable technique for the used sand. When the recycled sand is used as support sand, the used sand is only reused by dry process including breaking, screening, dust-removal, etc., and it is not necessary that the used sand is reclaimed with strongly rubbing and scraping method, but when the recycled sand is used as facing sand (or single sand), the used sand must be reclaimed by wet method for higher removal rate of the residual binders. The characteristics and the properties of the dry reused sand are compared with the wet reclaimed sand after combining the different use requirements of support sand and facing sand (or single sand), and above the most adaptive scheme has also been validated.

  19. Effects of Clay on Properties of Polycarboxylate Superplasticizer and Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lin; WANG Dongmin

    2015-01-01

    The inlfuence law of clay on mortar lfuidity mixed with polycarboxylate superplasticizer was studied. Several methods of inhibiting clay adsorption of polycarboxylate superplasticizer were discussed. The experimental results show that clay has signiifcant effect on the dispersion of polycarboxylate superplasticizer and montmorillonite clay has more signiifcant impact on mortar lfuidity than other clays. The pH value and the salts of the solution can affect the adsorption of clay to polycarboxylate superplasticizer. The incorporation of a small amount of sodium hydroxide solution, sodium silicate or cationic surfactants can improve the effect of the clay on the dispersion of polycarboxylate superplasticizer.

  20. The characterization of total and leachable metals in foundry molding sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungan, Robert S; Dees, Nikki H

    2009-01-01

    Waste molding sands from the foundry industry have been successfully used as a component in manufactured soils, but concern over metal contamination must be addressed before many states will consider this beneficial use. Since there is little data available on this topic, the purpose of this study was to characterize total and leachable metals from waste molding sands. A total elemental analysis for Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, and Zn was conducted on 36 clay-bonded and seven chemically bonded molding sands. Total metal concentrations in the molding sands were similar to those found in agricultural soils. The leaching of metals (i.e. Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) was assessed via the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), and ASTM water leach test. Based on the TCLP data, none of the 43 molding sands would meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) characteristic for toxicity due to high Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, and Pb. Compared to the TCLP results, the metal concentrations were generally lower in the SPLP and ASTM extracts, which is likely related to the buffering capacity of the extraction fluids.

  1. Changes of gas pressure in sand mould during cast iron pouring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mocek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a test method developed to measure changes of gas pressure in sand moulds during manufacture of iron castings. The pressure and temperature measurements were taken in the sand mould layers directly adjacent to the metal – mould interface. A test stand was described along with the measurement methodology. The sensors used allowed studying the fast-changing nature of the processes which give rise to the gas-originated casting defects. The study examined the influence of binders, clays and refining additives on the nature of the gas evolution process. The effect of the base sand type - quartz or olivine - on the nature of pressure changes was compared. The test stand design ensured the stability of technological parameters in the examined mould elements, and a repeatable process of making pilot castings. The main outcome was classification of sand mixtures in terms of pressure occurring during pouring of iron castings. The obtained results confirm the usefulness of the described method for testing gas pressure occurrence in a sand mould.

  2. Transient Electromagnetic Soundings Near Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, San Luis Valley, Colorado (2006 Field Season)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, David V.; de Sozua Filho, Oderson A.

    2009-01-01

    Time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) soundings were made near Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve in the San Luis Valley of southern Colorado to obtain subsurface information of use to hydrologic modeling. Seventeen soundings were made to the east and north of the sand dunes. Using a small loop TEM system, maximum exploration depths of about 75 to 150 m were obtained. In general, layered earth interpretations of the data found that resistivity decreases with depth. Comparison of soundings with geologic logs from nearby wells found that zones logged as having increased clay content usually corresponded with a significant resistivity decrease in the TEM determined model. This result supports the use of TEM soundings to map the location of the top of the clay unit deposited at the bottom of the ancient Lake Alamosa that filled the San Luis Valley from Pliocene to middle Pleistocene time.

  3. Sand and Water Table Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

  4. Sand and Water Table Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

  5. Impact on sand and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann, R.P.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the impact of a body on sand and water. When a body impacts a free surface in the inertial regime the series of events is the following: On impact material is blown away in all directions and an impact cavity forms. Due to the hydrostatic pressure from the sides the cav

  6. Silo model tests with sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Jørgen

    Tests have been carried out in a large silo model with Leighton Buzzard Sand. Normal pressures and shear stresses have been measured during tests carried out with inlet and outlet geometry. The filling method is a very important parameter for the strength of the mass and thereby the pressures...

  7. Microbial metabolism alters pore water chemistry and increases consolidation of oil sands tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkell, Nicholas; Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Tailings produced during bitumen extraction from surface-mined oil sands ores (tar sands) comprise an aqueous suspension of clay particles that remain dispersed for decades in tailings ponds. Slow consolidation of the clays hinders water recovery for reuse and retards volume reduction, thereby increasing the environmental footprint of tailings ponds. We investigated mechanisms of tailings consolidation and revealed that indigenous anaerobic microorganisms altered porewater chemistry by producing CO and CH during metabolism of acetate added as a labile carbon amendment. Entrapped biogenic CO decreased tailings pH, thereby increasing calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) cations and bicarbonate (HCO) concentrations in the porewater through dissolution of carbonate minerals. Soluble ions increased the porewater ionic strength, which, with higher exchangeable Ca and Mg, decreased the diffuse double layer of clays and increased consolidation of tailings compared with unamended tailings in which little microbial activity was observed. These results are relevant to effective tailings pond management strategies. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. [Effects of organic fish protein liquid fertilizer on enzyme activities and microbial biomass C and N in a silt soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiu-Li; Lei, Ping; Shi, Wei-Yong

    2010-08-01

    By the method of thermostatic culture, this paper studied the effects of different application rates (0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 ml x kg(-1)) of organic fish protein liquid fertilizer on the enzyme activities and microbial biomass C and N in a silt soil, and the relationships between these parameters and soil nutrient contents. Under the application of the liquid fertilizer, soil pH varied in the range of 7.07-7.31, but had no significant difference from the control. With the increasing application rate of the liquid fertilizer, the activities of soil phosphatase, urease, and protease, as well as the soil biomass C and N, all increased significantly, and the increment was 127, 190 and 196%, 39.81, 78.06 and 173.24%, 56.37, 108.29 and 199.98%, 167, 395 and 474%, and 121, 243 and 406%, respectively, compared with the control. The peak time of the soil urease and protease activities and microbial biomass C and N differed with the fertilization treatments. Soil phosphase, urease, and protease activities and microbial biomass C and N were significantly positively correlated with soil nutrient contents, suggesting that applying organic fish protein liquid fertilizer to silt soil could improve soil microbial growth and enzyme activities, and accordingly, promote the decomposition and transformation of soil organic matter and the release of soil available nutrient elements.

  9. One-step cell lysis suitable for quantitative bacteria detection in inhibitor-laden sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun Jeong; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Son, Ahjeong

    2015-04-01

    Complexity and heterogeneity of soils often hinder effective DNA extraction from the soil matrix. In particular, conventional DNA extraction techniques require extensive purification which makes DNA extraction time-consuming and labor-intensive. Other drawbacks include lower recovery yield, degradation, and damage of DNA, which are also caused by intensive purifications during DNA extraction. Therefore a rapid and simple and yet effective DNA pretreatment method is preferred for environmental monitoring and screening. This study has evaluated the feasibility of simple physical pretreatment for effective cell lysis of bacteria in sands. Bead beating method was selected as an effective physical cell lysis method in this study. We examined the capability of this physical lysis for Pseudomonas putida seeded sands without additional chemical purification steps. The lysate from the method was analysed by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay and subsequently compared to that by commercial DNA extraction kit. The best lysis condition (treatment with 0.1 mm glass beads at 3000 rpm for 3 minutes) was selected. The qPCR results of bead beating treated samples showed the better performance than that of conventional DNA extraction kit. Moreover, the qPCR assay was performed to the sands laden with qPCR inhibitors (humic acids, clay, and magnesium), which generally present in environmental samples. Further experiments with the sands containing less than 10 μg/g of humic acids and 70% of clay showed successful quantification results of qPCR assay. In conclusion, the bead beating method is useful for simplified DNA extraction prior to qPCR analysis for sand samples of particular composition. It is expected that this approach will be beneficial for environmental in-situ analysis or immediate pre-screening. It also provides the groundwork for future studies with real soil samples that have various physico-chemical properties.

  10. experimental studies of sand production from unconsolidated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    Production of sand during oil and gas exploration causes severe operational prob- ... duction such as risk of well failure, erosion of pipelines and surface facilities, sand separa- tion and disposal ... ment, theoretical and numerical analysis have.

  11. Premiminary tests on modified clays for electrolyte contaminated drilling fluids

    OpenAIRE

    den Hamer, Davina; Di Emidio, Gemmina; Bezuijen, Adam; Verastegui Flores, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The quality of a bentonite suspension declines in aggressive systems like brackish or saline pore water. An engineered clay (HYPER clay) was developed for sealing materials with enhanced resistance to aggressive conditions. The modified clay is produced by treating a sodium activated bentonite with a cellulose polymer following the HYPER clay process method. This study investigates the suitability of the modified clay for electrolyte contaminated drilling fluids. Drilling fluids become contam...

  12. NMR imaging and cryoporometry of swelling clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvinskikh, Sergey V.; Szutkowski, Kosma; Petrov, Oleg V.; Furó, István.

    2010-05-01

    Compacted bentonite clay is currently attracting attention as a promising "self-sealing" buffer material to build in-ground barriers for the encapsulation of radioactive waste. It is expected to fill up the space between waste canister and surrounding ground by swelling and thus delay flow and migration from the host rock to the canister. In environmental sciences, evaluation and understanding of the swelling properties of pre-compacted clay are of uttermost importance for designing such buffers. Major goal of present study was to provide, in a non-invasive manner, a quantitative measure of bentonite distribution in extended samples during different physical processes in an aqueous environment such as swelling, dissolution, and sedimentation on the time scale from minutes to years. The propagation of the swelling front during clay expansion depending on the geometry of the confining space was also studied. Magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were adapted and used as main experimental techniques. With this approach, spatially resolved movement of the clay/water interface as well as clay particle distributions in gel phase can be monitored [1]. Bulk samples with swelling in a vertical tube and in a horizontal channel were investigated and clay content distribution profiles in the concentration range over five orders of magnitude and with sub-millimetre spatial resolution were obtained. Expansion rates for bulk swelling and swelling in narrow slits were compared. For sodium-exchanged montmorillonite in contact with de-ionised water, we observed a remarkable acceleration of expansion as compared to that obtained in the bulk. To characterize the porosity of the clay a cryoporometric study [2] has been performed. Our results have important implications to waste repository designs and for the assessment of its long-term performance. Further research exploring clay-water interaction over a wide variety of clay composition and water ionic

  13. UK silica sand resources for fracking

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2013-01-01

    UK silica sand resources for fracking Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG Email: Silica sand is high purity quartz sand that is mainly used for glass production, as foundry sand, in horticulture, leisure and other industrial uses. One specialist use is as a ‘proppant’ to enhance oil and gas recovery. This presentation will focus on this application, particularly for shale gas recovery where it is mo...

  14. Use of Cement-Sand Admixture in Laterite Brick Production for Low Cost Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Olufemi AGBEDE

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Laterite was modified with 45% sand content by dry weight and stabilized with up to 9% cement content respectively and used in the production of 330 mm × 150 mm × 150 mm bricks through the application of a pressure of 3 N/mm2 with a brick moulding machine. Results showed that laterite used in this study cannot be stabilized for brick production within the economic cement content of 5% specified for use in Nigeria. However, bricks made with laterite admixed with 45% sand and 5% cement attained a compressive strength of 1.80 N/mm2 which is greater than the specified minimum strength value of 1.65 N/mm2. Cost comparison of available walling materials in Makurdi metropolis showed that the use of bricks made from 45% sand and 5% cement resulted in a saving of 30 - 47% when compared with the use of sandcrete blocks while the use of fired clay bricks resulted in a savings of 19% per square meter of wall. The study therefore recommends the use of laterite bricks in Makurdi and other locations because it is more economical and environmental friendly than fired clay bricks.

  15. CONSTRUCTION OF A NEW HIGHWAY EMBANKMENT ON THE SOFT CLAY SOIL TREATMENT BY STONE COLUMNS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QASIM A. ALJANABI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To continue of the second phase of the East Coast Expressway between Kuantan and Kula Terengganu in Malaysia system innovative solution are required. In this new phase there are embankment region has been subjected to extensive soft clay soil. These comprise typically of clayey silts of very high water content and undrained shear strengths in the range of 8 to 11 kPa to depths of up to 8m. To support an embankment height of up to 12 m, were filled and thereafter Vibro Replacement treatment was carried out to treat the very soft soil. Extensive instrumentation using rod settlement gauges, inclinometers and piezometers were installed to monitor the performance of the Vibro Replacement treatment. This paper reports on aspects of design, installation and the measured results from the instrumentation scheme.

  16. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  17. Evaluation of Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Perchlorate in Groundwater (Indian Head)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    material. There are a wide variety of microorganisms can degrade perchlorate to chloride and oxygen under oxygen limiting conditions (Coates et al., 1999...anaerobic respiration when oxygen is not present. This metabolic versatility suggests that 2 perchlorate reducing microorganisms will be active...consisted of mottled light to olive brown clay to sandy silts. The clay and sand fractions of the silts varied horizontally and vertically. Fine

  18. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 1 - Records Search AAC-Northern Region, Galena AFS, Campion AFS, Cape Lisburne AFS, Fort Yukon AFS, Indian Mountain AFS, Kotzebue AFS, Murphy Dome AFS, and Tin City AFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Geologic processes, glaciation and modern erosional effects have sculpted the land surface through time to create the state’s landscape. The principal...and alluvial fan deposits, consisting of clay , silt, sand, gravel and cobbles with some boulders present. A tundra surface layer mantles the coastal...some 100 feet of lacustrine deposits (lake sedients, predominantly silt and clay ) in the Fort Yukon area. Figure 3.16 is the log of a repre

  19. Removal of boron from aqueous solution by clays and modified clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Senem; Yurdakoç, Mürüvvet; Seki, Yoldaş; Yurdakoç, Kadir

    2006-01-01

    In order to increase the adsorption capacities of bentonite, sepiolite, and illite for the removal of boron form aqueous solution, the clay samples were modified by nonylammonium chloride. Specific surface areas of the samples were determined as a result of N2 adsorption-desorption at 77 K using the BET method. X-ray powder diffraction analysis of the clays and modified clays was used to determine the effects of modifying agents on the layer structure of the clays. The surface characterization of clays and modified clay samples was conducted using the FTIR technique before and after the boron adsorption. For the optimization of the adsorption of boron on clays and modified clays, the effect of pH and ionic strength was examined. The results indicate that adsorption of boron can be achieved by regulating pH values in the range of 8-10 and high ionic strength. In order to find the adsorption characteristics, Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherms were applied to the adsorption data. The data were well described by Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherms while the fit of Langmuir equation to adsorption data was poor. It was reached that modification of bentonite and illite with nonylammonium chloride increased the adsorption capacity for boron sorption from aqueous solution.

  20. Determining Upper Bounds for the Clay-squirt Effect in Clay Bearing Sandstone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten Kanne; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    Sonic measurements of saturated bulk moduli of clay bearing sandstones show larger values than expected by Gassmann modelling from dry rock properties. This causes difficulties in extrapolation of laboratory data to different saturants or frequencies. Squirt flow from the clay phase of the rock...

  1. Sand Waves. Report 1. Sand Wave Shoaling in Navigation Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    heights range from 0.8 m in the Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy (Dalrymple 1984) to 6.0 m in the Bahia Blanca Estuary, Argentina (Aliotta and Perillo 1987...26 PART IV: SITE-SPECIFIC SAND WAVE SHOALING PROBLEMS .. ........ 30 Columbia River Navigation Channel ........ ............... .. 30 Panama ...problem location discussed in this report is at St. Andrew Bay near Panama City, Florida. A relatively short section of the jettied inlet channel requires

  2. Enchanted Clays: 44th Annual Meeting of the Clay Minerals Society (June 2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall T. Cygan

    2007-06-01

    “Enchanted Clays: 44th Annual Meeting of the Clay Minerals Society” was held in early June 2007 in beautiful and historic Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Santa Fe provided an idyllic location in the southwestern United States for the attendees to enjoy technical and social sessions while soaking up the diverse culture and wonderful climate of New Mexico—The Land of Enchantment. The meeting included a large and varied group of scientists, sharing knowledge and ideas, benefitting from technical interactions, and enjoying the wonderful historic and enchanted environs of Santa Fe. Including significant number of international scientists, the meeting was attended by approximately two hundred participants. The meeting included three days of technical sessions (oral and poster presentations), three days of field trips to clay and geological sites of northern New Mexico, and a full day workshop on the stabilization of carbon by clays. Details can be found at the meeting web site: www.sandia.gov/clay.

  3. Clay nanocomposites for use in Li batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gregory John

    1999-11-01

    Nanocomposites, materials made of more than one component and combined in an ordered manner on the nanometer scale, were synthesized using clay mineral hosts with various types of guests. The guests include polymers such as polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polyaniline (PANI), large molecules such as ethylmethyl sulfone, tetramethylene sulfone, and various length alkylamines. Vanadyl groups (VO 2+) were also incorporated with the clays. The otherwise non-swellable mica clay, synthetic Na-fluorophlogopite, was expanded by intercalation of acidic ions such as Cu2+ and Fe3+. As aqueous solutions, these ions caused the stable fluoromica to go from its dehydrated interlayer spacing of 9.8 A to over 14 A. This clay became a host for many other reactions including swelling with alkylamines to over 25 A. However, despite hydrated Cu2+ ions swelling fluorophlogopite, polymeric species such as PEO or PANI could not be inserted. Another clay that was used for formation of nanocomposites came from a procedure for the synthesis of Li-taeniolite, Li(Mg2Li)Si 4O10F2. The clay was synthesized following a high temperature method that led to a non-reactive product. Instead, a novel precursor route was employed that gave a clay product with a single hydration layer. Various chemical analyses gave a formula of Li0.8(Mg 2.2Li0.8)Si4O10(F1.6O 0.4)·H2O. For the purpose of forming nanocomposite electrolytes, ethylmethyl sulfone was synthesized and incorporated into the clay. For comparison of different shaped sulfones, tetramethylene sulfone also was inserted into the layers for electrolytic studies. To make a polymer-clay electrolyte, polyethylene oxide was intercalated into the Li-taeniolite. All of these new electrolyte materials were characterized using impedance spectroscopy for measurement of their conductivity. Syntheses and analyses are thoroughly discussed for all of these materials. Special attention is placed on powder x-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric techniques to

  4. Behavior of compacted clay-concrete interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.R. SHAKIR; Jungao ZHU

    2009-01-01

    Tests of interface between compacted clay and concrete were conducted systematically using interface simple shear test apparatus. The samples, having same dry density with different water content ratio, were prepared.Two types of concrete with different surface roughness, i.e., relatively smooth and relatively rough surface rough-ness, were also prepared. The main objectives of this paper are to show the effect of water content, normal stress and rough surface on the shear stress-shear displacement relationship of clay-concrete interface. The following were concluded in this study: 1) the interface shear sliding dominates the interface shear displacement behavior for both cases of relatively rough and smooth concrete surface except when the clay water content is greater than 16% for the case of rough concrete surface where the shear failure occurs in the body of the clay sample; 2) the results of interface shear strength obtained by direct shear test were different from that of simple shear test for the case of rough concrete surface; 3) two types of interface failure mechanism may change each other with different water content ratio; 4) the interface shear strength increases with increasing water content ratio especially for the case of clay-rough concrete surface interface.

  5. Clay mineralogical and geochemical constraints on late Pleistocene weathering processes of the Qaidam Basin, northern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, WeiLiang; Fan, QiShun; Wei, HaiCheng; Zhang, XiYing; Ma, HaiZhou

    2016-09-01

    At the Qarhan Salt Lake (QSL) on the central-eastern Qaidam Basin, northern Tibetan Plateau, Quaternary lacustrine sediments have a thickness of over 3000 m and mainly composed of organic-rich clay and silty clay with some silt halite and halite. In this study, a 102-m-long sediment core (ISL1A) was obtained from the QSL. Combining with AMS 14C and 230Th dating, clay minerals and major-element concentrations of ISL1A were used to reconstruct the weathering process and trend of the QSL since late Pleistocene. The results reveal that the clay mineral from rocks, gneisses and schists of Eastern Kunlun Mountains on the south of the QSL. The abundance of illite mineral displays an opposite fluctuation trending with that of smectite, chlorite and kaolinite mineral in ISL1A, which is significantly different from the monsoon-controlled regions. Moreover, higher values of illite, kaolinite/chlorite and illite/chlorite ratios, and lower values of smectite, chlorite and kaolinite minerals occurred in 83-72.5 ka, 68.8-54 ka, 32-24 ka, corresponding to late MIS 5, late MIS 4, early MIS 3 and late MIS 3, respectively. These three phases were almost similarly changed with oxygen isotopes of authigenic carbonates and pollen records in ISL1A, which implies that stronger chemical weathering corresponds to higher effective moisture periods of source region in the Qaidam Basin. Based on chemical weathering index and (Al2O3-(CaO + Na2O)-K2O) diagram, chemical weathering degree in this study area takes a varying process from low to intermediate on the whole.

  6. Mineral Acquisition from Clay by Budongo Forest Chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Vernon; Lloyd, Andrew W; English, Christopher J; Lyons, Peter; Dodd, Howard; Hobaiter, Catherine; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas; Mullins, Caroline; Lamon, Noemie; Schel, Anne Marijke; Fallon, Brittany

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda were observed eating clay and drinking clay-water from waterholes. We show that clay, clay-rich water, and clay obtained with leaf sponges, provide a range of minerals in different concentrations. The presence of aluminium in the clay consumed indicates that it takes the form of kaolinite. We discuss the contribution of clay geophagy to the mineral intake of the Sonso chimpanzees and show that clay eaten using leaf sponges is particularly rich in minerals. We show that termite mound soil, also regularly consumed, is rich in minerals. We discuss the frequency of clay and termite soil geophagy in the context of the disappearance from Budongo Forest of a formerly rich source of minerals, the decaying pith of Raphia farinifera palms.

  7. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality at a land reclamation site, Neshaminy State Park, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickwedel, Ray S.; Linn, Jeff H.

    1987-01-01

    At Neshaminy State park, the most important aquifer is the informally named 'Trenton gravel' of Pleistocene age, which consists of poorly sorted sand and gravel. This is underlain by less permeable crystalline rock that limits the downward movement of water. Up to 5 feet of Holocene (or perhaps Pleistocene) alluvium consisting of clay and silt was deposited above the Trenton gravel, but much of the surficial material is dredge spoil, mostly sand and silt from the Delaware River.

  8. METHOD OF PROCESSING MONAZITE SAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welt, M.A.; Smutz, M.

    1958-08-26

    A process is described for recovering thorium, uranium, and rare earth values from monazite sand. The monazite sand is first digested with sulfuric acid and the resulting "monazite sulfate" solution is adjusted to a pH of between 0.4 and 3.0, and oxalate anions are added causing precipitation of the thorium and the rare earths as the oxalates. The oxalate precipitate is separated from the uranium containing supernatant solution, and is dried and calcined to the oxides. The thorium and rare earth oxides are then dissolved in nitric acid and the solution is contacted with tribntyl phosphate whereby an organic extract phase containing the cerium and thorium values is obtained, together with an aqueous raffinate containing the other rare earth values. The organic phase is then separated from the aqueous raffinate and the cerium and thorium are back extracted with an aqueous medium.

  9. Insulin storage in hot climates without refrigeration: temperature reduction efficacy of clay pots and other techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, G D; Abdullah, M; Mason, D; Januszewski, A S; Besançon, S

    2016-11-01

    Insulin loses potency when stored at high temperatures. Various clay pots part-filled with water, and other evaporative cooling devices, are used in less-resourced countries when home refrigeration is unavailable. This study examined the cooling efficacy of such devices. Thirteen devices used in Sudan, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Mali, India, Pakistan and Haiti (10 clay pots, a goat skin, a vegetable gourd and a bucket filled with wet sand), and two identical commercially manufactured cooling wallets were compared. Devices were maintained according to local instructions. Internal and ambient temperature and ambient humidity were measured by electronic loggers every 5 min in Khartoum (88 h), and, for the two Malian pots, in Bamako (84 h). Cooling efficacy was assessed by average absolute temperature difference (internal vs. ambient), and % maximal possible evaporative cooling (allowing for humidity). During the study period, mean ambient temperature and humidity were 31.0°C and 32.0% in Khartoum and 32.9°C and 39.8% in Bamako. All devices reduced the temperature (P clay pots (from Ethiopia and Sudan) and the suspended cooling wallet. Low-cost devices used in less-resourced countries reduce storage temperatures. With more efficacious devices, average temperatures at or close to standard room temperature (20-25°C) can be achieved, even in hot climates. All devices are more efficacious at lower humidity. Further studies are needed on insulin stability to determine when these devices are necessary. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  10. Characterization of sand lenses embedded in tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Klint, K.E.S.; Nilsson, B.

    2012-01-01

    of the various types of sand lenses is discussed, primarily in relation to the depositional and glaciotectonic processes they underwent. Detailed characterization of sand lenses facilitates such interpretations. Finally, the observations are linked to a more general overview of the distribution of sand lenses......Tills dominate large parts of the superficial sediments on the Northern hemisphere. These glacial diamictons are extremely heterogeneous and riddled with fractures and lenses of sand or gravel. The frequency and geometry of sand lenses within tills are strongly linked to glaciodynamic processes...... occurring in various glacial environments. This study specifically focuses on the appearance and spatial distribution of sand lenses in tills. It introduces a methodology on how to measure and characterize sand lenses in the field with regard to size, shape and degree of deformation. A set of geometric...

  11. A compact topology for sand automata

    CERN Document Server

    Dennunzio, Alberto; Masson, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we exhibit a strong relation between the sand automata configuration space and the cellular automata configuration space. This relation induces a compact topology for sand automata, and a new context in which sand automata are homeomorphic to cellular automata acting on a specific subshift. We show that the existing topological results for sand automata, including the Hedlund-like representation theorem, still hold. In this context, we give a characterization of the cellular automata which are sand automata, and study some dynamical behaviors such as equicontinuity. Furthermore, we deal with the nilpotency. We show that the classical definition is not meaningful for sand automata. Then, we introduce a suitable new notion of nilpotency for sand automata. Finally, we prove that this simple dynamical behavior is undecidable.

  12. Rheological Characterization of Green Sand Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Spangenberg, Jon; Hovad, Emil

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to characterize experimentally the flow behaviour of the green sand that is used for casting of sand moulds. After the sand casting process is performed, the sand moulds are used for metal castings. The rheological properties of the green sand is important to quantify...... module for characterizing granular materials. The new module enables viscosity measurements of the green sand as function of the shear rate at different flow rates, i.e. 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 15 L/min. The results show generally that the viscosity decreases with both the shear- and flow rate....... In addition, the measurements show that the green sand flow follows a shear-thinning behaviour even after the full fluidization point....

  13. Silo model tests with sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Jørgen

    Tests have been carried out in a large silo model with Leighton Buzzard Sand. Normal pressures and shear stresses have been measured during tests carried out with inlet and outlet geometry. The filling method is a very important parameter for the strength of the mass and thereby the pressures...... as well as the flow pattern during discharge of the silo. During discharge a mixed flow pattern has been identified...

  14. Formation of Craters in Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanissra Boonyaleepun

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The diameter of craters formed by spheres of varying mass dropped into sand at low speed was studied. The relationship between the diameter of the crater formed and the kinetic energy of the projectile at impact was found to be of the same general form as that for planetary meteor craters. The relationship is shown to be a power law with exponent 0.17.

  15. Formation of Craters in Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanissra Boonyaleepun

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The diameter of craters formed by spheres of varying mass dropped into sand at low speed was studied. The relationship between the diameter of the crater formed and the kinetic energy of the projectile at impact was found to be of the same general form as that for planetary meteor craters. The relationship is shown to be a power law with exponent 0.17

  16. Thermal Properties of oil sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEE, Y.; Lee, H.; Kwon, Y.; Kim, J.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal recovery methods such as Cyclic Steam Injection or Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are the effective methods for producing heavy oil or bitumen. In any thermal recovery methods, thermal properties (e.g., thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity) are closely related to the formation and expansion of steam chamber within a reservoir, which is key factors to control efficiency of thermal recovery. However, thermal properties of heavy oil or bitumen have not been well-studied despite their importance in thermal recovery methods. We measured thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of 43 oil sand samples from Athabasca, Canada, using a transient thermal property measurement instrument. Thermal conductivity of 43 oil sand samples varies from 0.74 W/mK to 1.57 W/mK with the mean thermal conductivity of 1.09 W/mK. The mean thermal diffusivity is 5.7×10-7 m2/s with the minimum value of 4.2×10-7 m2/s and the maximum value of 8.0×10-7 m2/s. Volumetric heat capacity varies from 1.5×106 J/m3K to 2.11×106 J/m3K with the mean volumetric heat capacity of 1.91×106 J/m3K. In addition, physical and chemical properties (e.g., bitumen content, electric resistivity, porosity, gamma ray and so on) of oil sand samples have been measured by geophysical logging and in the laboratory. We are now proceeding to investigate the relationship between thermal properties and physical/chemical properties of oil sand.

  17. One-Dimensional Simulation of Clay Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siljan Siljan

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Drying of clay is simulated by a one-dimensional model. The background of the work is to form a better basis for investigation of the drying process in production of clay-based building materials. A model of one-dimensional heat and mass transfer in porous material is used and modified to simulate drying of clay particles. The convective terms are discretized by first-order upwinding, and the diffusive terms are discretized by central differencing. DASSL was used to solve the set of algebraic and differential equations. The different simulations show the effect of permeability, initial moisture content and different boundary conditions. Both drying of a flat plate and a spherical particle are modelled.

  18. Clay Improvement with Burned Olive Waste Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkan Mutman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin countries. Since the olive oil industries are incriminated for a high quantity of pollution, it has become imperative to solve this problem by developing optimized systems for the treatment of olive oil wastes. This study proposes a solution to the problem. Burned olive waste ash is evaluated for using it as clay stabilizer. In a laboratory, bentonite clay is used to improve olive waste ash. Before the laboratory, the olive waste is burned at 550°C in the high temperature oven. The burned olive waste ash was added to bentonite clay with increasing 1% by weight from 1% to 10%. The study consisted of the following tests on samples treated with burned olive waste ash: Atterberg Limits, Standard Proctor Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests. The test results show promise for this material to be used as stabilizer and to solve many of the problems associated with its accumulation.

  19. The application of radioactive isotopes to the study of motion of silt and pebbles in the rivers and in the sea; Application des isotopes radioactifs a l'etude des mouvements des sediments et des galets dans les cours d'eau et en mer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hours, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Jaffry, P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Lab. National d' Hydraulique

    1959-07-01

    The application of radioactive tracers to the study of sediments drift has received considerable attention since 1954 in various countries. A comparative review is made of a number of techniques of labelling, immersing and detecting silts, sands, and pebbles. The influence of the burying of the active material is emphasized. The different experiments which have been so far carried out are described. (author) [French] L'application des traceurs radioactifs a l'etude des deplacements de sediments a fait depuis 1954 l'objet de travaux nombreux dans divers pays. On passe en revue et on compare differentes techniques de marquage, d'immersion et de detection des vases, sables et galets; on insiste sur l'influence de l'enfouissement du materiau actif. On decrit les differentes experiences effectuees jusqu'a ce jour. (auteur)

  20. Bitumen recovery from oil sands using deep eutectic solvent and its aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulati, Nuerxida

    Oil sands compose a significant proportion of the world's known oil reserves. Oil sands are also known as tar sands and bituminous sands, are complex mixtures of sand, clays, water and bitumen, which is "heavy" and highly viscous oil. The extraction and separation of bitumen from oil sands requires significant amount of energy and large quantities of water and poses several environmental challenges. Bitumen can be successfully separated from oil sands using imidazolium based ionic liquids and nonpolar solvents, however, ionic liquids are expensive and toxic. In this thesis, the ionic liquid alternatives- deep eutectic solvent, were investigated. Oil sands separation can be successfully achieved by using deep eutectic solvents DES (choline chloride and urea) and nonpolar solvent naphtha in different types of oil sands, including Canadian ("water-wet"), Utah ("oil-wet") and low grade Kentucky oil sands. The separation quality depends on oil sands type, including bitumen and fine content, and separation condition, such as solvent ratio, temperature, mixing time and mechanical centrifuge. This separation claims to the DES ability to form ion /charge layering on mineral surface, which results in reduction of adhesion forces between bitumen and minerals and promote their separation. Addition of water to DES can reduce DES viscosity. DES water mixture as a media, oil sands separation can be achieved. However, concentration at about 50 % or higher might be required to obtain a clear separation. And the separation efficiency is oil sands sample dependent. The highest bitumen extraction yield happened at 75% DES-water solution for Utah oil sands samples, and at 50 60% DES-water solutions for Alberta oil sands samples. Force curves were measured using Atomic Force Microscopy new technique, PeakForce Tapping Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping (PFTQNM). The results demonstrate that, by adding DES, the adhesion force between bitumen and silica and dissipation energy will