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Sample records for sand removal tool

  1. Biofilm removal technique using sands as a research tool for accessing microbial attachment on surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanon Trachoo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms have profound impacts on improved survival of the constituent microorganisms in nature. Biofilms were believed to protect constituent microorganisms from sanitizer treatment, provide a more suitable habitat for microorganisms, and become a site for genetic material exchanges between microorganisms. As we realize more about the significance of biofilm, methods used for biofilm study should be consistently developed and evaluated. To determine microbial attachment on surfaces, usually biofilms are grown on substratum surfaces and removed by vortexing with glass beads or scraping. However, scraping is not as effective as vortexing with glass beads. Another approach is direct-agar overlaying which cannot be used with high density biofilm. In this experiment, we compared effectiveness of glass beads (298±28 μm in diameter and sands (width: 221±55 μm and length: 329±118 μm in removing biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by vortexing method. The results suggested that acid-washed sands, which are significantly less inexpensive than glass beads, were as effective as (P>0.05 analytical grade glass beads in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm removal without inhibiting growth of the organism.

  2. Pathogen removal using saturated sand colums supplemented with hydrochar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    This PhD study has evaluated hydrochars derived from biowastes as adsorbents for pathogen removal in water treatment. Pathogen removal experiments were conducted by carrying out breakthrough analysis using a simple sand filtration set-up. Glass columns packed by 10 cm sand bed supplemented with

  3. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhaus, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw. 3 figs

  4. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, John E.

    1992-01-01

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw.

  5. Removal method of radium in mine water by filter sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taki, Tomihiro; Naganuma, Masaki

    2003-01-01

    Trace radium is contained in mine water from the old mine road in Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center, JNC. We observed that filter sand with hydrated manganese oxide adsorbed radium in the mine water safely for long time. The removal method of radium by filter sand cladding with hydrated manganese oxide was studied. The results showed that radium was removed continuously and last for a long time from mine water with sodium hypochlorite solution by passing through the filter sand cladding with hydrated manganese. Only sodium hypochlorite solution was used. When excess of it was added, residue chlorine was used as chlorine disinfection. Filter sand cladding with hydrated manganese on the market can remove radium in the mine water. The removal efficiency of radium is the same as the radium coprecipitation method added with barium chloride. The cost is much lower than the ordinary methods. Amount of waste decreased to about 1/20 of the coprecipitation method. (S.Y.)

  6. Evaluate of head loss, sediment value and copper removal in sand media (rapid sand filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daneshi Navab

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with the technology development and increasing consumption of water resources, we are experiencing low qualities in the mentioned resources. Copper brings about serious environment al pollution, threatening human health and ecosystem. This metal found variously in water resources and industrial activities. Therefore, it needs to treat the water resources from these excessive amounts. Different methods have used for this reason but the most used method during recent years has been the absorption by economic absorbers such as sand. Rapid sand filters usually used in water and wastewater treatment plants for water clarification. In this research, a single layer gravity rapid sand filter has used to reduce different concentrations of copper. sediment value and head loss arising in filter media is simulated by using combination of Carman-Kozeny, Rose and Gregory models in different discharges of rapid sand filter. Results have shown that with increasing in discharge and decreasing in input copper concentration, arriving time to given head loss, is increasing. In addition, results demonstrated that with increasing in copper concentration in influent, removal efficiency is decreasing somewhat. Results of this research can applied in an appropriate design of rapid sand filter to copper removal, a prediction of rapid sand filter ability to copper removal and an estimation of arising head loss during filter work thus evaluating of time interval backwash. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10641 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 276-286

  7. Mecoprop (MCPP) removal in full-scale rapid sand filters at a groundwater-based waterworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mathilde Jørgensen; Arvin, Erik; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.

    2014-01-01

    and secondary rapid sand filters. Water quality parameters were measured throughout the waterworks, and they behaved as designed for. MCPP was removed in secondary rapid sand filters — removal was the greatest in the sand filters in the filter line with the highest contact time (63min). In these secondary sand...... in the full-scale system. Therefore, microcosms were set up with filter sand, water and 14C-labelled MCPP at an initial concentration of 0.2μg/L. After 24h, 79–86% of the initial concentration of MCPP was removed. Sorption removed 11–15%, while the remaining part was removed by microbial processes, leading...... to a complete mineralisation of 13–18%. Microbial removal in the filter sand was similar at different depths of the rapid sand filter, while the amount of MCPP which adsorbed to the filter sand after 48h decreased with depth from 21% of the initial MCPP in the top layer to 7% in the bottom layer...

  8. Study of Slow Sand Filtration in Removing Total Coliforms and E.Coli

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    Ekha Yogafanny

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the performance of SSF in removing bacteria (Total Coliforms and E. Coli in regard to grain size distribution and grain shape intermittently. Two methodological approaches used in this reasearch were literature review and laboratory work. Bacteria removal was analyzed considering two different filter media (Rhine sand-spherical shape and Lava sand-angular shape with three different grain size distributions. The best performance was attained by filter column F4 which consisted of Lava sand and had the configuration C2 (d10 = 0.07 mm; Cu = 4.2. This filter column achieved 4.7log-units removal of Total Coliforms and 5.0log-units removal of E. coli. The results show that a smaller grain size and an angular shape of sand grain lead to an increase in bacteria removal.

  9. Mechanism of groundwater arsenic removal by goethite-coated mineral sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, J. D.; Khan, S. A.; Patti, A. F.; Adeloju, S.; Gates, W. P.

    2017-11-01

    Skye sand (Vic, Australia) has been considered for arsenic removal from groundwater. Analysis showed that the silica sand is coated with poorly crystalline goethite, hematite and clay minerals. Mössbauer spectra taken following arsenic adsorption revealed changes in the recoilless fraction and relaxation behaviour of the goethite compared to the original state, showing that the goethite is the main active species.

  10. Integration of sand and membrane filtration systems for iron and pesticide removal without chemical addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Krysztof; Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2013-01-01

    the content of key foulants, the techniques can be used as a pre-treatment for nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis that has proved to be capable of removing pesticides. It was found that a lower fouling potential could be obtained by using the membranes, but that sand filter was better at removing......Pilot plant investigations of sand and membrane filtration (MF/UF/NF/LPRO) have been performed to treat groundwater polluted with pesticides. The results show that simple treatment, with use of aeration and sand filtration or MF/UF membranes, does not remove pesticides. However, by reducing...... manganese and dissolved organic matter. The results indicate that combining aeration; sand filtration and membrane techniques might be a good option for pesticide removal without any addition of chemicals and minimized membrane maintenance....

  11. Microbial pesticide removal in rapid sand filters for drinking water treatment – Potential and kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mathilde Jørgensen; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Filter sand samples, taken from aerobic rapid sand filters used for treating groundwater at three Danish waterworks, were investigated for their pesticide removal potential and to assess the kinetics of the removal process. Microcosms were set up with filter sand, treated water, and the pesticides...... or metabolites mecoprop (MCPP), bentazone, glyphosate and p-nitrophenol were applied in initial concentrations of 0.03–2.4 μg/L. In all the investigated waterworks the concentration of pesticides in the water decreased – MCPP decreased to 42–85%, bentazone to 15–35%, glyphosate to 7–14% and p-nitrophenol 1....../L) increased from 0.21%/g filter sand to 0.75%/g filter sand, when oxygen availability was increased from 0.28 mg O2/g filter sand to 1.09 mg O2/g filter sand. Bentazone was initially cleaved in the removal process. A metabolite, which contained the carbonyl group, was removed rapidly from the water phase...

  12. Plug testing and removal tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baric, T.J.; Kauric, C.E.; Garcia, C.N.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for testing and removing a plug from an aperture in the cylindrical core barrel wall of a nuclear reactor. The plug has an enlarged head disposed along the wall in a narrow annular access space between the wall and a surrounding cylindrical thermal neutron shield. The apparatus comprises: fixed jaw means; movable jaw means pivotally connected to the fixed jaw means for movement with respect thereto between an open position accommodating reception of the plug head between the fixed and movable jaw means and a closed position for securely gripping the plug head between the fixed and movable jaw means; drive means carried by the fixed jaw means and coupled to the movable jaw means for effecting movement thereof between the open and closed positions thereof; and tensioning means carried by the jaw means for engagement with the core barrel when the jaw means are disposed in gripping engagement with the plug head for exerting on the jaw means and the gripped plug a predetermined force in a direction radially outwardly of the wall. The jaw means and the drive means and the tensioning means all have dimensions radially of the wall substantially less than the radial thickness of the access space to permit insertion into, movement within and removal from the access space

  13. Manganese Coated Sand for Copper (II Removal from Water in Batch Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal Hilal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Removal of heavy metals, such as copper ions, from water is important to protect human health and the environment. In this study, manganese coated sand (MCS was used as an adsorbent to remove copper ions in a batch system. Equilibrium data were determined at a temperature of 25.6 °C and the Langmuir model was used to describe the experimental data. Mn-coating improved the removal of copper ions by 70% as compared to uncoated sand. Based on a kinetics study, the adsorption of copper ions on MCS was found to occur through a chemisorption process and the pseudo-second-order model was found to fit the kinetics experimental data well. Due to particle interactions, the equilibrium uptake was reduced as the ratio of sand to volume of solution increased. pH affected the removal of copper ions with lowest uptakes found at pH 3 and pHs >7, whilst at pHs in the range of 4 to 7, the uptake was highest and almost constant at the value of 0.0179 mg/g ± 4%. This study has also revealed that copper ions removal was dissolved oxygen (DO dependent with the highest removal occurring at ambient DO concentration, which suggests that DO should be carefully studied when dealing with copper ions adsorption.

  14. Removal of heavy metals using a microbial active, continuously operated sand filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebner, C.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy metals play an important role within the spectrum of the various pollutants, emitted into the environment via human activities. In contrast to most organic pollutants, heavy metal can not be degraded. Many soils, lakes and rivers show a high contamination with heavy metals due to the enrichment of these pollutants. In addition to existing chemical-physical and biological technologies for the treatment of heavy metal containing waste waters a demand for new, efficient and low-cost cleaning technologies exists, particularly for high volumes of weakly contaminated waters. Such a technology was developed within the framework of a scientific project of the European Union. The approach makes use of a continuously operated, moving-bed Astrasand filter, which has been operated as a continuous biofilm reactor. By inoculation of the reactor with bacteria providing different, defined mechanisms of metal immobilization, and by continuous supply of suitable nutrients, a metal-immobilizing biofilm is built up and regenerated continuously. Metal-enriched biomass is removed continuously from the system, and the contained metals can be recycled by pyrometallurgical treatment of the biomass. The subjects of the present work were the optimization of the nutrient supply for the process of metal removal, the investigation of the toxicity of different waste waters, the optimization of inoculation and biofilm formation, set-up and operation of a lab scale sand filter and the operation of a pilot scale sand filter treating rinsing water of a chemical nickel plating plant. First, basic parameters like toxicity of heavy metal-containing waste waters and the influence of the nutrition of bacteria on biosorption and total metal removal were examined, using freely suspended bacteria in batch culture. Concerning toxicity great differences could be found within the spectrum of heavy metal-containing waste waters tested. Some waters completely inhibited growth, while others did not

  15. Using quartz sand to enhance the removal efficiency of M. aeruginosa by inorganic coagulant and achieve satisfactory settling efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Haiyan; Jin, Yan; Xu, Hangzhou; Ma, Chunxia; Sun, Jiongming; Li, Hongmin

    2017-10-19

    In this study, low-cost and non-polluting quartz sand was respectively mixed with AlCl 3 , FeCl 3 and PAFC to synergistically remove Microcystis aeruginosa. Results showed that quartz sand could markedly increase the algae removal efficiency and decrease the coagulant doses. The increase of removal efficiency with AlCl 3 and FeCl 3 was only due to the enhancement of floc density by the quartz sand. However, the removal efficiency with PAFC was increased not only by the enhanced floc density, but also by the enlarged floc size. Flocs from 50 mg/L sand addition were larger than that with other sand doses, which was on account of the appropriate enhancement of collision efficiency at this dose. After coagulation, the extracellular organic matter (EOM) and microcystins (MCs) in system with quartz sand was remarkably reduced. That's because quartz sand can enhance the coagulation so as to improve capping the EOM and MCs in flocs during coagulation process. Owing to 200 mg/L quartz sand could damage the cell's membrane during coagulation proces, algal cells in the system lysed two days earlier than with 50 mg/L sand during flocs storage. In addition, cells with PAFC incurred relatively moderate cellular oxidative damage and could remain intact for longer time.

  16. [Steam and air co-injection in removing TCE in 2D-sand box].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Peng, Sheng; Chen, Jia-Jun

    2014-07-01

    Steam and air co-injection is a newly developed and promising soil remediation technique for non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in vadose zone. In this study, in order to investigate the mechanism of the remediation process, trichloroethylene (TCE) removal using steam and air co-injection was carried out in a 2-dimensional sandbox with different layered sand structures. The results showed that co-injection perfectly improved the "tailing" effect compared to soil vapor extraction (SVE), and the remediation process of steam and air co-injection could be divided into SVE stage, steam strengthening stage and heat penetration stage. Removal ratio of the experiment with scattered contaminant area was higher and removal speed was faster. The removal ratios from the two experiments were 93.5% and 88.2%, and the removal periods were 83.9 min and 90.6 min, respectively. Steam strengthened the heat penetration stage. The temperature transition region was wider in the scattered NAPLs distribution experiment, which reduced the accumulation of TCE. Slight downward movement of TCE was observed in the experiment with TCE initially distributed in a fine sand zone. And such downward movement of TCE reduced the TCE removal ratio.

  17. Effective removal of trace thallium from surface water by nanosized manganese dioxide enhanced quartz sand filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Ma, Chengxue; Ma, Jun; He, Qiang; Yang, Chun; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Jin; Wang, Yaan

    2017-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) has drawn wide concern due to its high toxicity even at extremely low concentrations, as well as its tendency for significant accumulation in the human body and other organisms. The need to develop effective strategies for trace Tl removal from drinking water is urgent. In this study, the removal of trace Tl (0.5 μg L -1 ) by conventional quartz sand filtration enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide (nMnO 2 ) has been investigated using typical surface water obtained from northeast China. The results indicate that nMnO 2 enhanced quartz sand filtration could remove trace Tl(I) and Tl(III) efficiently through the adsorption of Tl onto nMnO 2 added to a water matrix and onto nMnO 2 attached on quartz sand surfaces. Tl(III)-HA complexes might be responsible for higher residual Tl(III) in the effluent compared to residual Tl(I). Competitive Ca 2+ cations inhibit Tl removal to a certain extent because the Ca 2+ ions will occupy the Tl adsorption site on nMnO 2 . Moreover, high concentrations of HA (10 mgTOC L -1 ), which notably complexes with and dissolves nMnO 2 (more than 78%), resulted in higher residual Tl(I) and Tl(III). Tl(III)-HA complexes might also enhance Tl(III) penetration to a certain extent. Additionally, a higher pH level could enhance the removal of trace Tl from surface water. Finally, a slight increase of residual Tl was observed after backwash, followed by the reduction of the Tl concentration in the effluent to a "steady" state again. The knowledge obtained here may provide a potential strategy for drinking water treatment plants threatened by trace Tl. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA - USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT DESERT SANDS MDWCA, NM SIX MONTH EVALUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during, and the results obtained from, the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Desert Sands Mutual Domestic Water Consumers Association (MDWCA) facility in Anthony, NM. The object...

  19. Nickel removal from nickel plating waste water using a biologically active moving-bed sand filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pümpel, Thomas; Macaskie, Lynne E; Finlay, John A; Diels, Ludo; Tsezos, Marios

    2003-12-01

    Efficient removal of dissolved nickel was observed in a biologically active moving-bed 'MERESAFIN' sand filter treating rinsing water from an electroless nickel plating plant. Although nickel is fully soluble in this waste water, its passage through the sand filter promoted rapid removal of approximately 1 mg Ni/l. The speciation of Ni in the waste water was modelled; the most probable precipitates forming under the conditions in the filter were predicted using PHREEQC. Analyses of the Ni-containing biosludge using chemical, electron microscopical and X-ray spectroscopic techniques confirmed crystallisation of nickel phosphate as arupite (Ni3(PO4)2 x 8H2O), together with hydroxyapatite within the bacterial biofilm on the filter sand grains. Biosorption contributed less than 1% of the overall sequestered nickel. Metabolising bacteria are essential for the process; the definitive role of specific components of the mixed population is undefined but the increase in pH promoted by metabolic activity of some microbial components is likely to promote nickel desolubilisation by others.

  20. Comparing Mixed-Media and Conventional Slow-Sand Filters for Arsenic Removal from Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina M. Śmiech

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a major public health concern worldwide. The problem has been reported mainly in southern Asia and, especially, in Bangladesh. Slow-sand filters (SSF augmented with iron were proven to be a simple, low-cost and decentralized technique for the treatment of arsenic-contaminated sources. In this research, three pilot-scale SSF (flowrate 6 L·h−1 were tested regarding their capability of removing arsenic from groundwater in conditions similar to those found in countries like Bangladesh (70 µg As(III L−1, 26 °C. From the three, two filters were prepared with mixed media, i.e., sand mixed with corrosive iron matter (CIM filter and iron-coated sand (ICS filter, and a third conventional SSF was used as a reference. The results obtained showed that the CIM filter could remove arsenic below the World Health Organization (WHO guideline concentration of 10 µg·L−1, even for inlet concentrations above 150 µg·L−1. After 230 days of continuous operation the arsenic concentration in the effluent started increasing, indicating depletion or saturation of the CIM layer. The effluent arsenic concentration, however, never exceeded the Bangladeshi standard of 50 µg·L−1 throughout the whole duration of the experiments.

  1. Removal of turbidity and suspended solids backwash water from rapid sand filter by using electrocoagulation

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    AR Yari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By appropriate method can be recycled more than 95 percent effluent backwashing the filter. This study aimed to examine the efficiency of the electrocoagulation process on turbidity and suspended solids removal from backwash effluent of rapid sand filter of water treatment plants No 1 in Karaj. Methods: This bench-scale experimental study was carried out on the samples of backwash effluent in a batch system. The Plexiglas tank with a volume of 4 liters, containing of 4 plate electrodes made of aluminum and iron was connected to a direct current power supply. Samples every 15 minutes to measure turbidity and suspended solids collected in the middle of the reactor and examined. Effect of several parameters such as current density, reaction time and voltage were studied. The total number of samples tested were 48. Turbidity and total suspended solids was measured by nephlometry and gravimetric method, respectively. Results: The highest removal efficiency of turbidity and suspended solids in reaction time of 60 minutes, current density of 2 mA and a voltage of 45 mV was observed. The highest removal efficiency of turbidity in aluminum and iron electrodes were 96.83 and 83.77 %, respectively. Also The highest removal efficiency of suspended solids were 96.73 and 86.22 %, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that electro- coagulation process can be a good choice to remove turbidity and suspended from backwash of rapid sand filter. Aluminum electrode efficiency in the removal of turbidity and suspended solids was greater than the iron electrode.

  2. Removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwater with application of iron electrodissolution, aeration and sand filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Krysztof; Arturi, Kasia; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2014-01-01

    The results from a new water treatment system for arsenic removal are presented. The technology is based on the employment of an electrolytic iron dissolution and efficient aeration procedure prior to sand filtration. The treatment was introduced and investigated in a pilot scale plant and full......, there was a relationship where the higher applied current from the iron generator resulted in a better quality of the produced water. The long period of use also helped to determine a proper iron dosage (the Fe/As ratio 68 mg/mg) and identify carbonate scale formation in the electrochemical process. The electrolytic...

  3. Phosphate limitation in biological rapid sand filters used to remove ammonium from drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Carson Odell; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Smets, Barth F.

    2013-01-01

    Removing ammonium from drinking water is important for maintaining biological stability in distribution systems. This is especially important in regions that do not use disinfectants in the treatment process or keep a disinfectant residual in the distribution system. Problems with nitrification c...... a pilot scale sand column which initial analysis confirmed performed similarly to the full scale filters. Long term increased ammonium loads were applied to the pilot filter both with and without phosphate addition. Phosphate was added at a concentration of 0.5 mg PO4-P/L to ensure...

  4. FeS-coated sand for removal of arsenic(III) under anaerobic conditions in permeable reactive barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y.-S.; Gallegos, T.J.; Demond, A.H.; Hayes, K.F.

    2011-01-01

    Iron sulfide (as mackinawite, FeS) has shown considerable promise as a material for the removal of As(III) under anoxic conditions. However, as a nanoparticulate material, synthetic FeS is not suitable for use in conventional permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). This study developed a methodology for coating a natural silica sand to produce a material of an appropriate diameter for a PRB. Aging time, pH, rinse time, and volume ratios were varied, with a maximum coating of 4.0 mg FeS/g sand achieved using a pH 5.5 solution at a 1:4 volume ratio (sand: 2 g/L FeS suspension), three days of aging and no rinsing. Comparing the mass deposited on the sand, which had a natural iron-oxide coating, with and without chemical washing showed that the iron-oxide coating was essential to the formation of a stable FeS coating. Scanning electron microscopy images of the FeS-coated sand showed a patchwise FeS surface coating. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed a partial oxidation of the Fe(II) to Fe(III) during the coating process, and some oxidation of S to polysulfides. Removal of As(III) by FeS-coated sand was 30% of that by nanoparticulate FeS at pH 5 and 7. At pH 9, the relative removal was 400%, perhaps due to the natural oxide coating of the sand or a secondary mineral phase from mackinawite oxidation. Although many studies have investigated the coating of sands with iron oxides, little prior work reports coating with iron sulfides. The results suggest that a suitable PRB material for the removal of As(III) under anoxic conditions can be produced through the deposition of a coating of FeS onto natural silica sand with an iron-oxide coating. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Characterization and removal of natural organic matter from slow sand filter effluent followed by alum coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah, Euis Nurul; Chou, Yung-Chen; Yeh, Hsuan-Hsien

    2018-03-01

    Characterization and removal of natural organic matter, which is contained in the effluent of slow sand filters, was observed by alum coagulation under various dosages. In addition to non-purgedable dissolved organic carbon (NPDOC), trihalomethanes formation potential (THMFP) and haloacetic acid formation potential (HAAFP) measurement, high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) with ultraviolet/visible and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) detectors was used to characterize the various organic fractions contained in the water before and after coagulation. The results show that alum coagulation could effectively remove hydrophobic aromatic, which forms mainly humic substances. The reduction in THMFP was found to be higher than that of NPDOC and HAAFP under specific alum dosage, and the former was also found to be proportional to the corresponding reduction in the area of hydrophobic aromatic fraction, mostly humic subtances, as obtained from HPSEC chromatogram with peak-fitting.

  6. Arsenic removal from drinking water by a household sand filter in Vietnam--effect of filter usage practices on arsenic removal efficiency and microbiological water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzsche, Katja Sonja; Lan, Vi Mai; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Viet, Pham Hung; Berg, Michael; Voegelin, Andreas; Planer-Friedrich, Britta; Zahoransky, Jan; Müller, Stefanie-Katharina; Byrne, James Martin; Schröder, Christian; Behrens, Sebastian; Kappler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Household sand filters are applied to treat arsenic- and iron-containing anoxic groundwater that is used as drinking water in rural areas of North Vietnam. These filters immobilize poisonous arsenic (As) via co-oxidation with Fe(II) and sorption to or co-precipitation with the formed Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides. However, information is lacking regarding the effect of the frequency and duration of filter use as well as of filter sand replacement on the residual As concentrations in the filtered water and on the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the filtered and stored water. We therefore scrutinized a household sand filter with respect to As removal efficiency and the presence of fecal indicator bacteria in treated water as a function of filter operation before and after sand replacement. Quantification of As in the filtered water showed that periods of intense daily use followed by periods of non-use and even sand replacement did not significantly (psand replacement, CFUs of Escherichia coli of sand filters regarding As removal, but indicate a potential risk for human health arising from the enrichment of coliform bacteria during filtration and from E. coli cells that are introduced by sand replacement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance of a sand filter in removal of micro-algae from seawater in aquaculture production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiri, N E; Castaing, J B; Massé, A; Jaouen, P

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a sand filter was used to remove micro-algae from seawater feeding aquaculture ponds. A lab-scale sand filter was used to filter 30,000 cells/mL of Heterocapsa triquetra suspension, a non-toxic micro-alga that has morphological and dimensional (15-20 microm) similarities with Alexandrium sp., one of the smallest toxic micro-algae in seawater. Removal efficiency and capture mechanisms for a fixed superficial velocity (3.5 m/h) were evaluated in relation to size distribution and mean diameter of the sand. Various sands (average diameter ranging between 200 microm and 600 microm) were characterized and used as porous media. The structural parameters of the fixed beds were evaluated for each medium using experimental measurements of pressure drop as a function of superficial velocity over a range of Reynolds numbers covering Darcy's regime and the inertial regime. For a filtration cycle of six hours, the best efficiency (E = 90%) was obtained with the following sand characteristics: sieved sand with a range of grain diameter of 100 and 300 microm and a mean grain diameter equal to 256 microm. Results obtained show the influence of the size distribution of sand on the quality of retention of the micro-algae studied.

  8. Comparison between Removal Efficiency of Slag, zeolite, and Conventional media in slow sand Filter for Removal of Lead and Cadmium from Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ebrahimi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals owing to their health hazards and high toxicity in low concentration for human and environment have very concern and attention. Slow sand filter is one of the simple and cost-effective for removal of these pollutants. In this method, media play an important role for removal of pollutant. Therefore, the aim of this study was investigation of different media like slag, zeolite, and conventional media in slow sand filter for removal of lead and cadmium. Methods: In this research there are three beds filter include typical filter bed, slag and zeolite that used in pilot plant for investigation of lead and cadmium removal at three concentration of 0.1T 1 and 10 ppm. Each of filters has an internal diameter of 8 cm and a height of 120 cm with Plexiglas, which have a continuous flow operation. Results: The removal efficiency of turbidity by three typical filter bed, slag, and zeolite with initial turbidity of 13 NTU was 46%, 77%, and 89% respectively. Removal efficiency of lead without turbidity was 70.3%, 79%, and 59.8% respectively for 0.1 ppm lead. For 1 ppm, concentration of lead removal efficiency was 51.8%, 52.7% and 52.6% respectively and for 10 ppm it was 53.4%, 57.8%, and 59.8% respectively. Cadmium removal for these media was 23.4%, 37.5%, and 59.4% respectively at 0.1 ppm cadmium. At 1 ppm of cadmium concentration, it was 37.9%, 45% and 41.3% respectively and at 10 ppm concentration of cadmium it was 68.3%, 68.6% and 67% respectively. Conclusion: Slag and zeolite beds are more efficiently than the conventional sand beds in the slow sand filter, so it can be used instead of the usual sand for removing lead and cadmium from resources water.

  9. Removal of dissolved heavy metals from pre-settled stormwater runoff by iron-oxide coated sand (IOCS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, J.; Ledin, Anna; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2002-01-01

    (Pb=20, Cu=40, Zn=110, and Cr=15 ppb). Column experiments were conducted to test the influence of the infiltration rate (1 or 3 m/h) and the type of iron(hydr)oxide mineral (amorphous ferrihydrite and goethite coated sand). The results show that at least 90% of lead, copper and zinc can be removed......Sorption to iron-oxide coated sand (IOCS) is a promosing technology for removal of the dissolved heavy metal fraction in stormwater runoff. The development of a new technology is necessary since studies of stormwater runoff from traffic areas indicate that an oil separator and detention pond may...... by IOCS after 480 pore volumes. Control columns with uncoated filter sand show that lead, copper and zinc were removed with >95%, 35% and 5%, respectively. The removal of the negative metaloxy-ion, CrO4-3 was insignificant in both IOCS and sand columns at pH=7.7. Destruction of the columns after...

  10. Bacterial, viral and turbidity removal by intermittent slow sand filtration for household use in developing countries: experimental investigation and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Marion W; Tiwari, Sangam K; Darby, Jeannie

    2011-11-15

    A two-factor three-block experimental design was developed to permit rigorous evaluation and modeling of the main effects and interactions of sand size (d(10) of 0.17 and 0.52 mm) and hydraulic head (10, 20, and 30 cm) on removal of fecal coliform (FC) bacteria, MS2 bacteriophage virus, and turbidity, under two batch operating modes ('long' and 'short') in intermittent slow sand filters (ISSFs). Long operation involved an overnight pause time between feeding of two successive 20 L batches (16 h average batch residence time (RT)). Short operation involved no pause between two 20 L batch feeds (5h average batch RT). Conditions tested were representative of those encountered in developing country field settings. Over a ten week period, the 18 experimental filters were fed river water augmented with wastewater (influent turbidity of 5.4-58.6 NTU) and maintained with the wet harrowing method. Linear mixed modeling allowed systematic estimates of the independent marginal effects of each independent variable on each performance outcome of interest while controlling for the effects of variations in a batch's actual residence time, days since maintenance, and influent turbidity. This is the first study in which simultaneous measurement of bacteria, viruses and turbidity removal at the batch level over an extended duration has been undertaken with a large number of replicate units to permit rigorous modeling of ISSF performance variability within and across a range of likely filter design configurations and operating conditions. On average, the experimental filters removed 1.40 log fecal coliform CFU (SD 0.40 log, N=249), 0.54 log MS2 PFU (SD 0.42 log, N=245) and 89.0 percent turbidity (SD 6.9 percent, N=263). Effluent turbidity averaged 1.24 NTU (SD 0.53 NTU, N=263) and always remained below 3 NTU. Under the best performing design configuration and operating mode (fine sand, 10 cm head, long operation, initial HLR of 0.01-0.03 m/h), mean 1.82 log removal of bacteria (98

  11. Removal of nitrate, ammonia and phosphate from aqueous solutions in packed bed filter using biochar augmented sand media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Hanandeh Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrients from wastewater are a major source of pollution because they can cause significant impact on the ecosystem. Accordingly, it is important that the nutrient concentrations are kept to admissible levels to the receiving environment. Often regulatory limits are set on the maximum allowable concentrations in the effluent. Therefore, wastewater must be treated to meet safe levels of discharge. In this study, laboratory investigation of the efficiency of packed bed filters to remove nitrate, ammonium and phosphate from aqueous solutions were conducted. Sand and sand augmented with hydrochloric acid treated biochar (SBC were used as packing media. Synthetic wastewater solution was prepared with PO43−, NO3−, NH4+ concentrations 20, 10, 50 mg/L, respectively. Each experiment ran for a period of five days; samples from the effluent were collected on alternate days. All experiments were duplicated. Over the experiment period, the average removal efficiency of PO43−, NO3−, NH4+ were 99.2%, 72.9%, 96.7% in the sand packed columns and 99.2%, 82.3%, 97.4% in the SBC packed columns, respectively. Although, the presence of biochar in the packing media had little effect on phosphate and ammonium removal, it significantly improved nitrate removal.

  12. Technology Combination Analysis Tool (TCAT) for Active Debris Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamot, B.; Richard, M.; Salmon, T.; Pisseloup, A.; Cougnet, C.; Axthelm, R.; Saunder, C.; Dupont, C.; Lequette, L.

    2013-08-01

    This paper present the work of the Swiss Space Center EPFL within the CNES-funded OTV-2 study. In order to find the most performant Active Debris Removal (ADR) mission architectures and technologies, a tool was developed in order to design and compare ADR spacecraft, and to plan ADR campaigns to remove large debris. Two types of architectures are considered to be efficient: the Chaser (single-debris spacecraft), the Mothership/ Kits (multiple-debris spacecraft). Both are able to perform controlled re-entry. The tool includes modules to optimise the launch dates and the order of capture, to design missions and spacecraft, and to select launch vehicles. The propulsion, power and structure subsystems are sized by the tool thanks to high-level parametric models whilst the other ones are defined by their mass and power consumption. Final results are still under investigation by the consortium but two concrete examples of the tool's outputs are presented in the paper.

  13. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Absorptive Media-U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Desert Sands MDWCA, NM Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Desert Sands Mutual Domestic Water Consumers Association (MDWCA) facility in Anthony, NM. The objectives of the project were to evalu...

  14. Comparing mixed-media and conventional slow-sand filters for arsenic removal from groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Śmiech, Karolina M.; Tolsma, Aize; Kovács, Tímea; Dalbosco, Vlade; Yasadi, Kamuran; Groendijk, Leo; Agostinho, Luewton L.F.

    2018-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a major public health concern worldwide. The problem has been reported mainly in southern Asia and, especially, in Bangladesh. Slow-sand filters (SSF) augmented with iron were proven to be a simple, low-cost and decentralized technique for the treatment of

  15. Biological removal of iron and manganese in rapid sand filters - Process understanding of iron and manganese removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Katie

    to precipitation and corrosion. Manganese and iron can either be removed physico-chemically or biologically or combined. The physico-chemical oxidation and precipitation of manganese can theoretically be achieved by aeration, but this process is slow unless pH is raised far above neutral, making the removal...... of manganese by simple aeration and precipitation under normal drinking water treatment conditions insignificant. Manganese may also be oxidized autocatalytically. Iron is usually easier to remove. First, iron is rapidly chemically oxidized by oxygen at neutral pH followed by precipitation and filtration......-filter, where iron is removed. Step 2: Filtration in an after-filter where e.g. ammonium and manganese is removed. The treatment relies on microbial processes and may present an alternative, greener and more sustainable approach for drinking water production spending less chemicals and energy than chemical (e...

  16. Removal of COD and TSS From Dye Solution Using Sand Filtration and Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Juniar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in order to obtain proper compositions and the standard condition for the simple filtration equipments and optimum operational conditions in adsorption column. The research was carried out by analyzing parameters COD and TSS. The result showed that the process was able to reduced parameters observed from filtration step until the process in adsorptions column. The optimum conditions for sand filter equipment were 10 cm sand height, at least 7 cm fibers, 3-4 cm gravel. In the adsorption column, the optimum conditions for green waste water were flow rate at 40 ml/min 60 min adsorptions time, and 60 cm bed height. While purple for waste water; 20 mL/min of flowrate, 60 min of adsorption time, and the 60 cm of bed height

  17. ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE FINISH AND DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY OF TOOLS MANUFACTURED BY METAL CASTING IN RAPID PROTOTYPING SAND MOULDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyembwe, K.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an initial assessment of the quality parameters of the surface finish and dimensional accuracy of tools made by metal casting in rapid prototyping (RP sand moulds is undertaken. A case study from a local tool room, dealing with the manufacturing of an aluminium die for the lost wax process, is employed. Modern techniques, including surface roughness analysis and three dimensional scanning, are used to determine and understand how each manufacturing step influences the final quality of the cast tool. The best surface finish obtained for the cast die had arithmetic average roughness (Ra and mean average roughness (Rz respectively equal to 3.23m and 11.38m. In terms of dimensional accuracy, 82% of cast-die points coincided with the Computer Aided Design (CAD data, which is within the typical tolerances of sand cast products. The investigation shows that mould coating contributes slightly to the improvement of the cast tool surface finish. The study also found that the additive manufacturing of the sand mould was the chief factor responsible for the loss of dimensional accuracy. These findings indicate that machining will always be required to improve the surface finish and the dimensional accuracy of cast tools in RP sand moulds.

  18. Application Of Bacterial Iron Reduction For The Removal Of Iron Impurities From Industrial Silica Sand And Kaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, A.; Yahaya, S.; Fialips, C. I.; White, M.; Manning, D. A.; Gray, N.

    2008-12-01

    Biogeochemical evidence exists to support the potential importance of crystalline or amorphous Fe minerals as electron acceptor for Fe reducing bacteria in soils and subsurface sediments. This microbial metabolic activity can be exploited as alternative method in different industrial applications. For instance, the removal of ferric iron impurities from minerals for the glass and paper industries currently rely on physical and chemical treatments having substantial economical and environmental disadvantages. The ability to remove iron by other means, such as bacterial iron reduction, may reduce costs, allow lower grade material to be mined, and improve the efficiency of mineral processing. Kaolin clay and silica sand are used in a wide range of industrial applications, particularly in paper, ceramics and glass manufacturing. Depending on the geological conditions of deposition, they are often associated with iron (hydr)oxides that are either adsorbed to the mineral surfaces or admixed as separate iron bearing minerals. In this study, we have examined the Fe(III) removal efficiency from kaolin and silica sand by a series of iron- reducing bacteria from the Shewanella species (S. alga BrY, S. oneidensis MR-1, S. putrefaciens CN32 and S. putrefaciens ATCC 8071) in the presence of anthraquinone 2,6 disulfonate (AQDS). We have also investigated the effectiveness of a natural organic matter, extracted with the silica sand, as a substitute to AQDS for enhancing Fe(III) reduction kinetics. The microbial reduction of Fe(III) was achieved using batch cultures under non-growth conditions. The rate and the extent of Fe(III) reduction was monitored as a function of the initial Fe(III) content, Shewanella species and temperature. The bacterially- treated minerals were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to observe any textural and mineralogical transformation. The whiteness and ISO brightness of the kaolin was also measured by

  19. Natural silica sand modified by calcium oxide as a new adsorbent for uranyl ions removal from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhefnawy, O.A.; Elabd, A.A. [Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (NRRA), Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Safeguards and Physical Protection Dept.

    2017-07-01

    Calcium oxide modified El-Zafarana silica sand (CMZS) was prepared as a new adsorbent for U(VI) removal from aqueous solutions in a series of batch experiments. The new adsorbent CMZS was characterized by different analysis techniques SEM, EDX, XRD, and FTIR. The influence of many parameters on the removal process like; effect of pH, contact time, U(VI) initial concentration and temperature on U(VI) removal were investigated. Kinetic experiments showed that U(VI) removal on CMZS followed pseudo-second-order kinetics model appropriately and the equilibrium data agreed well with the Langmuir isotherm model. Kinetics and isothermal data reveal the chemisorption process of U(VI) on CMZS. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH {sup circle}, ΔS {sup circle}, ΔG {sup circle}) were evaluated from temperature dependent adsorption data and the U(VI) removal on CMZS was found to be endothermic and spontaneous in nature. U(VI) desorption from CMZS was studied by a simple acid treatment. The results indicate that CMZS is an effective adsorbent for U(VI) from aqueous solutions.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE FINISH AND DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY OF TOOLS MANUFACTURED BY METAL CASTING IN RAPID PROTOTYPING SAND MOULDS

    OpenAIRE

    Nyembwe, K.; De Beer, D. J.; Van der Walt, J. G.; Bhero, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an initial assessment of the quality parameters of the surface finish and dimensional accuracy of tools made by metal casting in rapid prototyping (RP) sand moulds is undertaken. A case study from a local tool room, dealing with the manufacturing of an aluminium die for the lost wax process, is employed. Modern techniques, including surface roughness analysis and three dimensional scanning, are used to determine and understand how each manufacturing step influences the final qu...

  1. Innovative in-line separators: removal of water or sand in oil/water and gas/liquid/solid pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jepson, Paul; Cheolho Kang; Gopal, Madan [CC Technologies, Dublin, OH (United States)

    2003-07-01

    In oil and gas production, multiphase mixtures are often separated before downstream processing. The separators are large, often 20 - 40 feet long and large diameter and use sophisticated internals. The costs are in the millions of dollars. Further, the sand and water in the flow can cause severe internal erosion and corrosion respectively before the flow reaches the separators. The CC Technologies/MIST In line Separation System is a cost-effective, efficient device for use in multiphase environments. The device is applicable for gas/solid, gas/liquid/solid and oil/water systems and offers exceptional separation between phases for a fraction of the cost of expensive gravity separators and hydro cyclones. The System contains no moving parts and is designed to be of the same diameter as the pipe, and experiences low shear forces. It can be fabricated with standard pipes. The efficiency of the separator has been determined in an industrial scale, pilot plant test facility at CC Technologies in 4-inch diameter pipes and has been found to be in excess of 98-99% for the removal of sand. Two phase oil/water separation effectiveness is in excess of 90% in 1-stage and 95% in 2 - stage. (author)

  2. Dendrogeomorphology - a new tool to study drift-sand dynamics Netherlands Journal of Geosciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, den J.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Copini, P.

    2007-01-01

    dendrogeomorphological approach is presented, using wood characteristics of native oak (Quercus robur L.) to infer dynamics of aeolian sediment transport in drift-sand areas. Wood samples, taken from oaks in two drift-sand areas, were analysed to study changes in tree-ring pattern and wood anatomy

  3. Zirconium oxide-coated sand based batch and column adsorptive removal of arsenic from water: Isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Ali Chaudhry

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports zirconium oxide-coated sand preparation, characterization by SEM, EDX, XRD, FT-IR and thermoanalytical techniques, and use as an adsorbent for the removal of most toxic form of arsenic, As(III, from aqueous solution in both batch and column methods. Batch experimental parameters such as contact time, concentration, dose of adsorbent, pH of As(III solution and temperature were optimized. The adsorption data was fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms at 303, 308 and 313 K. The maximum Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 136.98 μg/g at 313 K. Values of ΔH°, ΔG° and ΔS° were found to be −12.90, −8.74 to –8.28 and 0.014 kJ/mol, suggesting exothermic and spontaneous adsorption process with slight increase in entropy. The adsorption process followed pseudo-second order kinetics and was controlled by film diffusion step. The column studies showed that when flow rate was increased from 3.0 to 5.0 mL/min, the arsenic adsorption capacity of ZrOCS increased from 33.104 to 42.231 μg/g and breakthrough, and exhaustion times got reduced reduced. The results indicated that zirconium oxide-coated sand (ZrOCS is an excellent adsorbent for the removal of As(III from water.

  4. Milling tool and method for removing a packer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.P.; Beeman, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a packer milling and retrieval tool including a mandrel having an upper milling portion with cutting blades for engaging the upper milling portion with cutting blades for engaging the upper end of a packer in cutting relation, and a lower retrieval portion for contacting the lower end of the packer for removal of the packer from the casing. It comprises an improved release means; a sleeve mounted on the mandrel; the sleeve when fingers are disengaged from the packer abutment and spaced downwardly therefrom being slidable upwardly on the mandrel from a differential fluid pressure exerted against opposite ends of the sleeve provided by pressurized drilling fluid discharged from the tool upon the upper end portion approaching the small diameter bore portion from lifting of the mandrel to position the fingers adjacent the reduced diameter portion for inward deflection of the fingers to permit the fingers to pass the packer bore upon upward lifting movement of the mandrel to release the tool from the packer

  5. Removal of ammonium and heavy metals by cost-effective zeolite synthesized from waste quartz sand and calcium fluoride sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Lin, Bing; Hong, Junming; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2017-02-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of zeolite (10% CF-Z [0.5]) hydrothermally synthesized from waste quartz sand and calcium fluoride (CF) for ammonium ion and heavy metal removal. Zeolite was characterized through powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, micromeritics N 2 adsorption/desorption analysis, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The effects of CF addition, Si/Al ratio, initial ammonium concentration, solution pH, and temperature on the adsorption of ammonium on 10% CF-Z (0.5) were further examined. Results showed that 10% CF-Z (0.5) was a single-phase zeolite A with cubic-shaped crystals and 10% CF-Z (0.5) efficiently adsorbs ammonium and heavy metals. For instance, 91% ammonium (10 mg L -1 ) and 93% lead (10 mg L -1 ) are removed. The adsorption isotherm, kinetics, and thermodynamics of ammonium adsorption on 10% CF-Z (0.5) were also theoretically analyzed. The adsorption isotherm of ammonium and lead on 10% CF-Z (0.5) in single systems indicated that Freundlich model provides the best fit for the equilibrium data, whereas pseudo-second-order model best describes the adsorption kinetics. The adsorption degree of ions on 10% CF-Z (0.5) in mixed systems exhibits the following pattern: lead > ammonium > cadmium > chromium.

  6. ALCOHOL FLUSHING FOR REMOVING DNAPL'S FROM CLAY AND SAND LAYERED AQUIFER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.J. Hayden; P. Padgett; C. Farrell; J. Diebold; X. Zhou; M. Hood

    1999-08-01

    Alcohol flushing, also called cosolvent flushing, is a relatively new in-situ remediation technology that shows promise for removing organic solvents from the soil and groundwater. Soil and groundwater contamination from organic solvents and petroleum products is one of the most serious and widespread environmental problems of our time. Most of the DOE facilities and inactive sites are experiencing soil and groundwater contamination from organic solvents. These water immiscible solvents have entered the subsurface from leaking underground storage tanks and piping, and from past waste handling and disposal practices such as leaking lagoons, holding ponds and landfills. In many cases, they have traveled hundreds of feet down into the saturated zone. If left in the soil, these chemicals may pose a significant environmental and human health risk. Alcohol flushing has potential for application to spilled solvents located deep within the saturated zone which are difficult if not impossible to remove by current remediation strategies, thus, greatly expediting restoration time, reducing total remediation cost and reducing risk.

  7. Cutting tool for removing materials from well bore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynde, G.D.; Harvey, H.H. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a cutting tool adapted to be positioned downhole in a well bore for removing a metal member from the well bore; a tool body adapted to be received within said well bore and to be supported at its upper end for rotation about a longitudinal axis; blades at spaced intervals on the body and extending outwardly therefrom, each of the blades having a base with a leading surface relative to the direction of rotation; closely spaced cutting elements of hard cutting material secured to said leading surface of the base in a plurality of transversely extending rows, each cutting element being of a predetermined size and shape and arranged in a predetermined generally symmetrical pattern on the base relative to the other elements, each of said cutting elements having an exposed from cutting face forming a cutting surface, a rear face secured to the leading surface of said base, a peripheral surface extending between said faces, and a relatively sharp edge formed at the juncture of the front face and peripheral surface; the front cutting face of each cutting element being arranged and constructed for directing an extending end portion of a turning cut form said member to effect a breaking of said turning from the member being cut in a predetermined manner to minimize interesting of the turning

  8. Modeling the Performance of Biological Rapid Sand Filters Used to Remove Ammonium, Iron, and Manganese From Drinking Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Carson; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Smets, Barth F.

    activated carbon and are often used following ozonation to remove additional biodegradable organics created during ozonation. In Europe, biological filters are also used to remove ammonium and reduced forms of iron and manganese. These compounds can cause biological instability in the distribution system...... tracer, are performed during an operational cycle of a filter to examine how the filter flow changes with time. The data is used to validate a mathematical model that can both predict process performance and to gain an understanding of how dynamic conditions can influence filter performance....... The mathematical model developed is intended to assist in the design of new filters, set up of pilot plant studies, and as a tool to troubleshoot existing problems in full scale filters. Unlike previous models, the model developed accounts for the effects of particle/precipitate accumulation and its effects...

  9. Can those organic micro-pollutants that are recalcitrant in activated sludge treatment be removed from wastewater by biofilm reactors (slow sand filters)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escolà Casas, Mònica; Bester, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The degradation of seven compounds which are usually recalcitrant in classical activated sludge treatment (e.g., diclofenac, propranolol, iopromide, iohexol, iomeprol tebuconazole and propiconazole) was studied in a biofilm reactor (slow sand filtration). This reactor was used to treat real effluent-wastewater at different flow rates (hydraulic loadings) under aerobic conditions so removal and degradation kinetics of these recalcitrant compounds were calculated. With the hydraulic loading rate of 0.012 m 3 m 2 h −1 the reactor removed 41, 94, 58, 57 and 85% of diclofenac, propranolol, iopromide, iohexol and iomeprol respectively. For these compounds the removal efficiency was dependent on hydraulic residence-times. Only 59 and 21% of the incoming tebuconazole and propiconazole respectively were removed but their removal did not depend on hydraulic residence time. Biofilm reactors are thus efficient in removing micro-pollutants and could be considered as an option for advanced treatment in small wastewater treatment plants. - Highlights: • A biofilm reactor (biofilter) can remove micro-pollutants from WWTP effluent. • Sorption could be excluded as the dominant removal mechanism. • Biodegradation was responsible for removing seven compounds. • The removal efficiency was usually proportional to the hydraulic residence-time. • Single first-order removal rates apply for most compounds

  10. Can those organic micro-pollutants that are recalcitrant in activated sludge treatment be removed from wastewater by biofilm reactors (slow sand filters)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escolà Casas, Mònica; Bester, Kai, E-mail: kb@dmu.dk

    2015-02-15

    The degradation of seven compounds which are usually recalcitrant in classical activated sludge treatment (e.g., diclofenac, propranolol, iopromide, iohexol, iomeprol tebuconazole and propiconazole) was studied in a biofilm reactor (slow sand filtration). This reactor was used to treat real effluent-wastewater at different flow rates (hydraulic loadings) under aerobic conditions so removal and degradation kinetics of these recalcitrant compounds were calculated. With the hydraulic loading rate of 0.012 m{sup 3} m{sup 2} h{sup −1} the reactor removed 41, 94, 58, 57 and 85% of diclofenac, propranolol, iopromide, iohexol and iomeprol respectively. For these compounds the removal efficiency was dependent on hydraulic residence-times. Only 59 and 21% of the incoming tebuconazole and propiconazole respectively were removed but their removal did not depend on hydraulic residence time. Biofilm reactors are thus efficient in removing micro-pollutants and could be considered as an option for advanced treatment in small wastewater treatment plants. - Highlights: • A biofilm reactor (biofilter) can remove micro-pollutants from WWTP effluent. • Sorption could be excluded as the dominant removal mechanism. • Biodegradation was responsible for removing seven compounds. • The removal efficiency was usually proportional to the hydraulic residence-time. • Single first-order removal rates apply for most compounds.

  11. Sea sand disruption method (SSDM) as a valuable tool for isolating essential oil components from conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Czapczyńska, Natalia B

    2011-11-01

    Essential oils are one of nature's most precious gifts with surprisingly potent and outstanding properties. Coniferous oils, for instance, are nowadays being used extensively to treat or prevent many types of infections, modify immune responses, soothe inflammations, stabilize moods, and to help ease all forms of non-acute pain. Given the broad spectrum of usage of coniferous essential oils, a fast, safe, simple, and efficient sample-preparation method is needed in the estimation procedure of essential oil components in fresh plant material. Generally, the time- and energy-consuming steam distillation (SD) is applied for this purpose. This paper will compare SD, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), and the sea sand disruption method (SSDM) as isolation techniques to obtain aroma components from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), spruce (Picea abies), and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). According to the obtained data, SSDM is the most efficient sample preparation method in determining the essential oil composition of conifers. Moreover, SSDM requires small organic solvent amounts and a short extraction time, which makes it an advantageous alternative procedure for the routine analysis of coniferous oils. The superiority of SSDM over MSPD efficiency is ascertained, as there are no chemical interactions between the plant cell components and the sand. This fact confirms the reliability and efficacy of SSDM for the analysis of volatile oil components. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  12. New generation expandable sand screens

    OpenAIRE

    Syltøy, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering This thesis aims to give a general insight into sand control and various sorts of sand control measures and applications of sand control tools. Special focus will be given to expandable sand screens – a technology which came about in the late 1990’s through the use of flexible, expandable tubulars as base pipe in sand screens. More specifically Darcy’s Hydraulic Endurance Screens, a compliant sand screen system using hydraulic activation, and the fu...

  13. Combined tool approach is 100% successful for emergency football face mask removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Aaron J; Decoster, Laura C; Swartz, Erik E; Gattie, Eric R; Gale, Stephanie D

    2007-11-01

    To compare effectiveness of two techniques for removing football face masks: cutting loop straps [cutting tool: FMXtractor (FMX)] or removing screws with a cordless screwdriver and using the FMXtractor as needed for failed removals [combined tool (CT)]. Null hypotheses: no differences in face mask removal success, removal time or difficulty between techniques or helmet characteristics. Retrospective, cross-sectional. NOCSAE-certified helmet reconditioning plants. 600 used high school helmets. Face mask removal attempted with two techniques. Success, removal time, rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Both techniques were effective [CT 100% (300/300); FMX 99.4% (298/300)]. Use of the backup FMXtractor in CT trials was required in 19% of trials. There was significantly (Pfootball player's helmet.

  14. Evaluation of the suitability of a plant virus, pepper mild mottle virus, as a surrogate of human enteric viruses for assessment of the efficacy of coagulation-rapid sand filtration to remove those viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, N; Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y; Yamashita, R

    2018-02-01

    Here, we evaluated the removal of three representative human enteric viruses - adenovirus (AdV) type 40, coxsackievirus (CV) B5, and hepatitis A virus (HAV) IB - and one surrogate of human caliciviruses - murine norovirus (MNV) type 1 - by coagulation-rapid sand filtration, using water samples from eight water sources for drinking water treatment plants in Japan. The removal ratios of a plant virus (pepper mild mottle virus; PMMoV) and two bacteriophages (MS2 and φX174) were compared with the removal ratios of human enteric viruses to assess the suitability of PMMoV, MS2, and φX174 as surrogates for human enteric viruses. The removal ratios of AdV, CV, HAV, and MNV, evaluated via the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, were 0.8-2.5-log 10 when commercially available polyaluminum chloride (PACl, basicity 1.5) and virgin silica sand were used as the coagulant and filter medium, respectively. The type of coagulant affected the virus removal efficiency, but the age of silica sand used in the rapid sand filtration did not. Coagulation-rapid sand filtration with non-sulfated, high-basicity PACls (basicity 2.1 or 2.5) removed viruses more efficiently than the other aluminum-based coagulants. The removal ratios of MS2 were sometimes higher than those of the three human enteric viruses and MNV, whereas the removal ratios of φX174 tended to be smaller than those of the three human enteric viruses and MNV. In contrast, the removal ratios of PMMoV were similar to and strongly correlated with those of the three human enteric viruses and MNV. Thus, PMMoV appears to be a suitable surrogate for human enteric viruses for the assessment of the efficacy of coagulation-rapid sand filtration to remove viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modelling the removal of p-TSA (para-toluenesulfonamide) during rapid sand filtration used for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffe, Raffaella; Kohfahl, Claus; Holzbecher, Ekkehard; Massmann, Gudrun; Richter, Doreen; Dünnbier, Uwe; Pekdeger, Asaf

    2010-01-01

    A finite element model was set-up to determine degradation rate constants for p-TSA during rapid sand filtration (RSF). Data used for the model originated from a column experiment carried out in the filter hall of a drinking water treatment plant in Berlin (Germany). Aerated abstracted groundwater was passed through a 1.6m long column-shaped experimental sand filter applying infiltration rates from 2 to 6mh(-1). Model results were fitted to measured profiles and breakthrough curves of p-TSA for different infiltration rates using both first-order reaction kinetics and Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Both approaches showed that degradation rates varied both in space and time. Higher degradation rates were observed in the upper part of the column, probably related to higher microbial activity in this zone. Measured and simulated breakthrough curves revealed an adaption phase with lower degradation rates after infiltration rates were changed, followed by an adapted phase with more elevated degradation rates. Irrespective of the mathematical approach and the infiltration rate, degradation rates were very high, probably owing to the fact that filter sands have been in operation for decades, receiving high p-TSA concentrations with the raw water.

  16. Removal of dissolved organic matter in municipal effluent with ozonation, slow sand filtration and nanofiltration as high quality pre-treatment option for artificial groundwater recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linlin, Wu; Xuan, Zhao; Meng, Zhang

    2011-04-01

    In the paper the combination process of ozonation, slow sand filtration (SSF) and nanofiltration (NF) was investigated with respect to dissolved organic matter (DOM) removal as high quality pre-treatment option for artificial groundwater recharge. With the help of ozonation leading to breakdown of the large organic molecules, SSF preferentially removes soluble microbial by-product-like substances and DOM with molecular weight (MW) less than 1.0 kDa. NF, however, removes aromatic, humic acid-like and fulvic acid-like substances efficiently and specially removes DOM with MW above 1.0 kDa. The residual DOM of the membrane permeate is dominated by small organics with MW 500 Da, which can be further reduced by the aquifer treatment, despite of the very low concentration. Consequently, the O(3)/SSF/NF system offers a complementary process in DOM removal. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) can be reduced from 6.5±1.1 to 0.7±0.3 mg L(-1) and from 267±24 to 52±6 μg L(-1), respectively. The very low DOC concentration of 0.6±0.2 mg L(-1) and THMFP of 44±4 μg L(-1) can be reached after the aquifer treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Simulation tools for robotic and teleoperated hazardous waste removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Bills, K.C.

    1997-02-01

    The primary mission of Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) during World War II was the processing of pure plutonium metal in support of the Manhattan Project. Between 1943 and 1951, the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) at ORNL were built to collect, neutralize, and store the radioactive by-products. Currently, twelve gunite tanks and four stainless steel tanks are located on the ORNL complex. These tanks hold approximately 75,000 gal of radioactive sludge and solids and over 350,000 gal of liquid. Characterization studies of these tanks in 1994 indicated that the structural integrity of some of the tanks is questionable. Subsequently, there is presently an aggressive program directed towards the remediation and relocation of waste stored in the ORNL tanks. A number of factors complicate the remediation process. The material stored in these tanks ranges from liquid to sludge and solid and is composed of organic materials, heavy metals, and radionuclides. The tanks, which range from 12 to 50 ft in diameter are located below ground and in the middle of the ORNL complex. The only access to these tanks is through one of three access ports that are either 12 or 24 in. in diameter. These characteristics provide a daunting challenge: How can material be safely removed from such a confined structure. This paper describes the existing strategy and hardware presently used in the remediation process. This is followed by a description of an integrated hardware system model. This investigation has isolated a few key areas where further work is needed

  18. Effect of pH and Calcium on the Adsorptive Removal of Cadmium and Copper by Iron Oxide–Coated Sand and Granular Ferric Hydroxide

    KAUST Repository

    Uwamariya, V.

    2015-08-17

    Iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS) and granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) were used to study the effect of Ca2+ and pH on the adsorptive removal of Cu2+ and Cd2+ from groundwater using batch adsorption experiments and kinetic modeling. It was observed that Cu2+ and Cd2+ were not stable in synthetic waters. The extent of precipitation increased with increasing pH. Removal of Cu2+ and Cd2+ was achieved through both precipitation and adsorption, with IOCS showing higher adsorption efficiency. Increase of pH (from 6 to 8) resulted in a higher overall removal efficiency of both Cu2+ and Cd2+, with precipitation as predominant removal mechanisms at higher pH values, especially for Cu2+. An increase in Ca2+ concentration increased the precipitation of Cu2+ [as Cu2(OH)2CO3 and Cu3(OH)2(CO3)2] and Cd2+ [as Cd(OH)2 and CdCO3]. In addition, Ca2+ competes with Cu2+ and Cd2+ for surface adsorption sites on IOCS and GFH, and reduces their adsorption capacity. The kinetic modeling revealed that the adsorption of Cd2+ onto IOCS is a complex process, with limited contribution of chemisorption that increases in the presence of Ca2+. © 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  19. Enhanced Column Filtration for Arsenic Removal from Water: Polymer-Templated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Immobilized on Sand via Layer-by-Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Calvin Chia-Hung

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in water sources around the world and is highly toxic. While precipitation and membrane filtration techniques are successfully implemented in developed cities, they are unsuitable for rural and low-resource settings lacking centralized facilities. This thesis presents the use of ultra-small iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles functionalized on sand granules for use as a house-hold scale adsorption filter. Water-stable alpha-Fe2O3 (hematite) nanoparticles (arsenic adsorption, with 147 +/- 2 mg As(III) per g Fe2O3 and 91 +/- 10 mg As(V) per g Fe2O3. The platform was also used to synthesize iron-based composites, including magnetite (Fe 3O4) and Fe-Cu oxide nanoparticles. For use as a column filter, Fe2O3-PAA nanoparticles were functionalized on sand granules using a layer-by-layer deposition method, with the nanoparticles embedded in the negative layer. The removal of As(III) by the Fe2O 3-PAA functionalized column was described by reversible 1st order kinetics where the forward and reverse rate constants were 0.31 hr -1 and 0.097 hr-1, respectively. Implemented as a passive water filter with 30 x 30 x 50 cm3 dimensions, the filter has an expected lifetime in the order of many years. By controlling the flow rate of the column depending on contamination levels, the filter effectively removes arsenic down to the safety limit of 0.01 mg/L. In a parallel project, the layer-by-layer deposition of Poly(diallydimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDDA) and poly(sodium 5-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) was exploited for a highly practical synthesis of discrete gradient surfaces. By independently controlling the concentration of NaCl in PDDA and PSS deposition solutions, a 2-dimensional matrix of surfaces was created in 96-well microtiter plates. Distinct non-monotonic dye adsorption patterns on the gradient surfaces was observed. Practical knowledge from this project was also used to enhance the nanoparticle surface functionalization described above. In all, a practical

  20. Dynamic Material Removal Rate and Tool Replacement Optimization with Calculus of Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian-Syung; Lo, Chih-Yao; Chiu, Min-Chie; Yeh, Long-Jyi

    This study mathematically presents an optimum material removal control model, where the Material Removal Rate (MRR) is comprehensively introduced, to accomplish the dynamic machining control and tool life determination of a cutting tool under an expected machining quantity. To resolve the incessant cutting-rate control problem, Calculus of Variations is implemented for the optimum solution. Additionally, the decision criteria for selecting the dynamic solution are suggested and the sensitivity analyses for key variables in the optimal solution are fully discussed. The versatility of this study is furthermore exemplified through a numerical illustration from the real-world industry with BORLAND C++ BUILDER. It is shown that the theoretical and simulated results are in good agreement. This study absolutely explores the very promising solution to dynamically organize the MRR in minimizing the machining cost of a cutting tool for the contemporary machining industry.

  1. Evaluation of virus removal efficiency of coagulation-sedimentation and rapid sand filtration processes in a drinking water treatment plant in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Tatsuya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Torrey, Jason Robert; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2016-09-15

    In order to properly assess and manage the risk of infection by enteric viruses in tap water, virus removal efficiency should be evaluated quantitatively for individual processes in actual drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs); however, there have been only a few studies due to technical difficulties in quantifying low virus concentration in water samples. In this study, the removal efficiency of indigenous viruses was evaluated for coagulation-sedimentation (CS) and rapid sand filtration (RSF) processes in a DWTP in Bangkok, Thailand by measuring the concentration of viruses before and after treatment processes using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Water samples were collected and concentrated from raw source water, after CS, and after RSF, and inhibitory substances in water samples were reduced by use of a hydrophobic resin (DAX-8). Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and JC polyomavirus (JC PyV) were found to be highly prevalent in raw waters, with concentrations of 10(2.88 ± 0.35) and 10(3.06 ± 0.42) copies/L (geometric mean ± S.D.), respectively. Step-wise removal efficiencies were calculated for individual processes, with some variation observed between wet and dry seasons. During the wet season, PMMoV was removed less by CS and more by RSF on average (0.40 log10 vs 1.26 log10, respectively), while the reverse was true for JC PyV (1.91 log10 vs 0.49 log10, respectively). Both viruses were removed similarly during the dry season, with CS removing the most virus (PMMoV, 1.61 log10 and 0.78 log10; JC PyV, 1.70 log10, and 0.59 log10; CS and RSF, respectively). These differences between seasons were potentially due to variations in raw water quality and the characteristics of the viruses themselves. These results suggest that PMMoV and JC PyV, which are more prevalent in environmental waters than the other enteric viruses evaluated in this study, could be useful in determining viral fate for the risk management of viruses in water treatment

  2. Handling tool for, and method of use of, ice basket removable cruciform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrabis, C.M.; Mazza, G.E.; Golick, L.R.; Pomaibo, P.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a method for selectively installing and removing a removable cruciform of a resiliently compressible type, in and from the interior of a generally cylindrical, elongated and vertically oriented ice containment structure, which interior is accessible from an open, upper and thereof. Each such removable cruciform comprises a central housing defining an axis of compression and expansion, means normally biasing the housing in the direction of expansion, legs extending from the housing in a generally radially oriented direction and means on the outer edges of the legs configured to engage a corresponding stiffenning ring rigidly secured on the interior of the cylindrical sidewall of the ice basket, comprising: providing a handling tool having an elongated frame defining an axis, guide means connected to the frame and comprising at least first and second guide fingers extending radially from the axis and angularly displaced thereabout and selectively moveable between retracted and extended positions, and clamping means mounted to the frame and extending axially outwardly therefrom, positioning the tool, with the clamping shoes in the disengaged positions, in axial alignment with and disposed radially outwardly about the central housing of a removable cruciform of the resiliently compressible type; selectively actuating the clamping means to the engaged positions of the clamping shoes for engaging and compressing the central housing of the cruciform and retracting the legs thereof; lowering the tool with the cruciform engaged thereby, axially downwardly through the ice basket to a desired elevation

  3. Improving material removal determinacy based on the compensation of tool influence function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bo; Chen, Xian-hua; Deng, Wen-hui; Zhao, Shi-jie; Zheng, Nan

    2018-03-01

    In the process of computer-controlled optical surfacing (CCOS), the key of correcting the surface error of optical components is to ensure the consistency between the simulated tool influence function and the actual tool influence function (TIF). The existing removal model usually adopts the fixed-point TIF to remove the material with the planning path and velocity, and it considers that the polishing process is linear and time invariant. However, in the actual polishing process, the TIF is a function related to the feed speed. In this paper, the relationship between the actual TIF and the feed speed (i.e. the compensation relationship between static removal and dynamic removal) is determined by experimental method. Then, the existing removal model is modified based on the compensation relationship, to improve the conformity between simulated and actual processing. Finally, the surface error modification correction test are carried out. The results show that the fitting degree of the simulated surface and the experimental surface is better than 88%, and the surface correction accuracy can be better than 1/10 λ (Λ=632.8nm).

  4. Fontainebleau Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    2006-01-01

    The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand.......The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand....

  5. Removal of pharmaceuticals, perfluoroalkyl substances and other micropollutants from wastewater using lignite, Xylit, sand, granular activated carbon (GAC) and GAC+Polonite® in column tests - Role of physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostvall, Ande; Zhang, Wen; Dürig, Wiebke; Renman, Gunno; Wiberg, Karin; Ahrens, Lutz; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo

    2018-06-15

    This study evaluated the performance of five different sorbents (granular activated carbon (GAC), GAC + Polonite ® (GAC + P), Xylit, lignite and sand) for a set of 83 micropollutants (MPs) (pharmaceuticals, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), personal care products, artificial sweeteners, parabens, pesticide, stimulants), together representing a wide range of physicochemical properties. Treatment with GAC and GAC + P provided the highest removal efficiencies, with average values above 97%. Removal rates were generally lower for Xylit (on average 74%) and lignite (on average 68%), although they proved to be highly efficient for a few individual MPs. The average removal efficiency for sand was only 47%. It was observed that the MPs behaved differently depending on their physicochemical properties. The physicochemical properties of PFASs (i.e. molecular weight, topological molecular surface area, log octanol water partition coefficient (K ow ) and distribution coefficient between octanol and water (log D)) were positively correlated to observed removal efficiency for the sorbents Xylit, lignite and sand (p < 0.05), indicating a strong influence of perfluorocarbon chain length and associated hydrophobic characteristics. In contrast, for the other MPs the ratio between apolar and polar surface area (SA/SP) was positively correlated with the removal efficiency, indicating that hydrophobic adsorption may be a key feature of their sorption mechanisms. GAC showed to be the most promising filter medium to improve the removal of MPs in on-site sewage treatment facilities. However, more studies are needed to evaluate the removal of MPs in field trials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heavy mineral sorting as a tool to distinguish depositional characteristics of “in situ” sands from their related injected sands in a Palaeogene submarine Canyon, Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moatari Kazerouni, Afsoon; Friis, Henrik; Svendsen, Johan. B

    Postdepositional remoblization and injection of sand are important processes in deep-water clastic systems. Subsurface mobilisation and injection of sand has been recently recognised as a significant control of deep-water sandstone geometry. Kilometre-scale injection complexes have been interpreted...

  7. Removal of corallivorous snails as a proactive tool for the conservation of acroporid corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana E. Williams

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Corallivorous snail feeding is a common source of tissue loss for the threatened coral, Acropora palmata, accounting for roughly one-quarter of tissue loss in monitored study plots over seven years. In contrast with larger threats such as bleaching, disease, or storms, corallivory by Coralliophila abbreviata is one of the few direct sources of partial mortality that may be locally managed. We conducted a field experiment to explore the effectiveness and feasibility of snail removal. Long-term monitoring plots on six reefs in the upper Florida Keys were assigned to one of three removal treatments: (1 removal from A. palmata only, (2 removal from all host coral species, or (3 no-removal controls. During the initial removal in June 2011, 436 snails were removed from twelve 150 m2 plots. Snails were removed three additional times during a seven month “removal phase”, then counted at five surveys over the next 19 months to track recolonization. At the conclusion, snails were collected, measured and sexed. Before-After-Control-Impact analysis revealed that both snail abundance and feeding scar prevalence were reduced in removal treatments compared to the control, but there was no difference between removal treatments. Recolonization by snails to baseline abundance is estimated to be 3.7 years and did not differ between removal treatments. Recolonization rate was significantly correlated with baseline snail abundance. Maximum snail size decreased from 47.0 mm to 34.6 mm in the removal treatments. The effort required to remove snails from A. palmata was 30 diver minutes per 150 m2 plot, compared with 51 min to remove snails from all host corals. Since there was no additional benefit observed with removing snails from all host species, removals can be more efficiently focused on only A. palmata colonies and in areas where C. abbreviata abundance is high, to effectively conserve A. palmata in targeted areas.

  8. Removal of corallivorous snails as a proactive tool for the conservation of acroporid corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dana E; Miller, Margaret W; Bright, Allan J; Cameron, Caitlin M

    2014-01-01

    Corallivorous snail feeding is a common source of tissue loss for the threatened coral, Acropora palmata, accounting for roughly one-quarter of tissue loss in monitored study plots over seven years. In contrast with larger threats such as bleaching, disease, or storms, corallivory by Coralliophila abbreviata is one of the few direct sources of partial mortality that may be locally managed. We conducted a field experiment to explore the effectiveness and feasibility of snail removal. Long-term monitoring plots on six reefs in the upper Florida Keys were assigned to one of three removal treatments: (1) removal from A. palmata only, (2) removal from all host coral species, or (3) no-removal controls. During the initial removal in June 2011, 436 snails were removed from twelve 150 m(2) plots. Snails were removed three additional times during a seven month "removal phase", then counted at five surveys over the next 19 months to track recolonization. At the conclusion, snails were collected, measured and sexed. Before-After-Control-Impact analysis revealed that both snail abundance and feeding scar prevalence were reduced in removal treatments compared to the control, but there was no difference between removal treatments. Recolonization by snails to baseline abundance is estimated to be 3.7 years and did not differ between removal treatments. Recolonization rate was significantly correlated with baseline snail abundance. Maximum snail size decreased from 47.0 mm to 34.6 mm in the removal treatments. The effort required to remove snails from A. palmata was 30 diver minutes per 150 m(2) plot, compared with 51 min to remove snails from all host corals. Since there was no additional benefit observed with removing snails from all host species, removals can be more efficiently focused on only A. palmata colonies and in areas where C. abbreviata abundance is high, to effectively conserve A. palmata in targeted areas.

  9. Developing an interactive Tool for evaluating sand nourishment strategies along the Holland coast in perspective of benthos, fish nursery and dune quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baptist, M.J.; Wolfshaar, van de K.E.; Huisman, B.J.A.; Groot, de A.V.; Boer, de W.; Ye, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Sand nourishments can affect the coastal ecosystem in various ways. Direct effects are the burial of benthic species under a layer of sand. In the direct vicinity, suffocation of benthos can occur due to the settling of a plume of suspended sediment particles. A plume of fine particles may also

  10. Sand consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spain, H H

    1965-01-21

    In a sand consolidation method in which there is injected a mixture of resin-forming liquids comprising an aryl-hydroxy low molecular weight compound, a water- soluble aldehyde, and a catalyst, an improvement is claimed which comprises diluting the resin-forming liquids with a diluent and with water so that the yield of the resin is sufficient to consolidate the sand particles with the minimum desirable pressure. The diluent may be mutually soluble in water and in the resin-forming liquids, and does not affect the setting time of the polymer. The aldehyde and the aryl-hydroxy compound may be in ratio of 5:1, and the diluent, methyl alcohol, is present in a ratio of 2:1 with reference to the water.

  11. Effect of pH and Calcium on the Adsorptive Removal of Cadmium and Copper by Iron Oxide–Coated Sand and Granular Ferric Hydroxide

    KAUST Repository

    Uwamariya, V.; Petrusevski, B.; Lens, P. N. L.; Amy, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    H (from 6 to 8) resulted in a higher overall removal efficiency of both Cu2+ and Cd2+, with precipitation as predominant removal mechanisms at higher pH values, especially for Cu2+. An increase in Ca2+ concentration increased the precipitation of Cu2+ [as

  12. Mineral sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an outlook of the Australian mineral sand industry and covers the major operators. It is shown that conscious of an environmentally minded public, the Australian miners have led the way in the rehabilitation of mined areas. Moreover the advanced ceramic industry is generating exciting new perspectives for zircon producers and there is a noticeable growth in the electronic market for rare earths, but in long term the success may depend as much on environmental management and communication skills as on mining and processing skills

  13. Developing and Applying Control Charts to Detect Change Water Chemistry Parameters Measured in the Athabasca River Near the Oil Sands: A Tool for Surveillance Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciszewski, Tim J; Hazewinkel, Rod R; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Kilgour, Bruce W

    2018-05-10

    Control charting is a simple technique to identify change and is well-suited for use in water quality programs. Control charts accounting for co-variation associated with discharge and time were used to explore example and representative variables routinely measured in the Athabasca River near the oil sands area for indications of change, including 5 major ions (chloride, sodium, sulphate, calcium, magnesium), 5 total metals (aluminum, iron, thallium, molybdenum, vanadium) and total suspended solids (TSS). Regression equations developed from reference data (1988-2009) were used to predict observations and calculate residuals from later test observations (2010-2016). Evidence of change was sought in the deviation of residual errors from the test period compared to the patterns expected and defined from probability distributions of the reference residuals using the Odds Ratio. In most cases, the patterns in test residuals were not statistically different from those expected from the reference period, especially when data was examined annually. However, some differences were apparent and more differences were apparent as data accumulated and was analysed over time. In sum, the analyses suggest higher concentrations than predicted in most major ions, but the source of the changes is uncertain. In contrast, most metals were lower than expected and may be related to changing deposition patterns of materials or weathering of minerals during construction activities of the 2000's which influence the reference data used. The analyses also suggest alternative approaches may be necessary to understand change in some variables. Despite this, the results support the use of control charts to detect changes in water chemistry parameters and the value of the tool in surveillance phases of long-term and adaptive monitoring programs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. PO43 Removal by and Permeability of Industrial Byproducts and Minerals: Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, Cement Kiln Dust, Coconut Shell Activated Carbon, Silica Sand and Zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess aqueous concentration of phosphate degrades the overall water quality of the receiving surface waters in a cumulatively damaging process referred to as eutrophication. Adsorption of excess phosphate has proven to be the most effective, and economical methods of phosphate removal from such wat...

  15. Treatment of municipal wastewater in full-scale on-site sand filter reduces BOD efficiently but does not reach requirements for nitrogen and phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Petteri; Sinkkonen, Aki; Zaitsev, Gennadi; Mäkinen, Esa; Grönroos, Timo; Romantschuk, Martin

    2017-04-01

    A traditional sand filter for treatment of household wastewater was constructed in the fall of 2012 at Biolinja 12, Turku, Finland. Construction work was led and monitored by an authorized wastewater treatment consultant. The filter was placed on a field bordered by open ditches from all sides in order to collect excess rain and snowmelt waters. The filter was constructed and insulated from the environment so that all outflowing water was accounted for. Untreated, mainly municipal, wastewater from Varissuo suburb was pumped from a sewer separately via three septic tanks (volume = 1 m 3 each) into the filters. Normally, wastewater was distributed to ground filters automatically according to pre-programmed schedule. Initially, the daily flow was 1200 L day -1 to reflect the average organic load of a household of five persons (load: ca 237 g day -1 BOD; 73 g day -1 total N; and 10.4 g day -1 total P). Later in the test, the flow rate was decreased first to 900 and then to 600 L day -1 to better reflect the average volume produced by five persons. Volumes of inlet wastewater as well as treated water were monitored by magnetic flow meters. Samples were withdrawn from the inlet water, from the water entering the filters after the third septic tank, and from the outflowing water. After an initial adaption time, the reductions in BOD and chemical oxygen demand were constantly between 92 and 98%, showing that the biological degradation process in the filters functioned optimally and clearly comply with the national and EU standards. The reduction in total nitrogen and total phosphorus, however, reached required levels only during the first months of testing, apparently when buildup of microbial biomass was still ongoing. After this initial period of 3 months showing satisfactory reduction levels, the reduction of total nitrogen varied between 5 and 25% and total phosphorus mostly between 50 and 65%. Nitrification was efficient in the filter, but as indicated

  16. Shear-induced hydrodynamic cavitation as a tool for pharmaceutical micropollutants removal from urban wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, Mojca; Kosjek, Tina; Petkovšek, Martin; Dular, Matevž; Kompare, Boris; Širok, Brane; Stražar, Marjeta; Heath, Ester

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the removal of clofibric acid, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, carbamazepine and diclofenac residues from wastewater, using a novel shear-induced cavitation generator has been systematically studied. The effects of temperature, cavitation time and H2O2 dose on removal efficiency were investigated. Optimisation (50°C; 15 min; 340 mg L(-1) of added H2O2) resulted in removal efficiencies of 47-86% in spiked deionised water samples. Treatment of actual wastewater effluents revealed that although matrix composition reduces removal efficiency, this effect can be compensated for by increasing H2O2 dose (3.4 g L(-1)) and prolonging cavitation time (30 min). Hydrodynamic cavitation has also been investigated as either a pre- or a post-treatment step to biological treatment. The results revealed a higher overall removal efficiency of recalcitrant diclofenac and carbamazepine, when hydrodynamic cavitation was used prior to as compared to post biological treatment i.e., 54% and 67% as compared to 39% and 56%, respectively. This is an important finding since diclofenac is considered as a priority substance to be included in the EU Water Framework Directive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dissolution enhancement and mathematical modeling of removal of residual trichloroethene in sands by ozonation during flushing with micro-nano-bubble solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Menghau; Teng, Chun-Hao; Yang, Tsung-Hsien

    2017-07-01

    Soil flushing using micro-nano-sized bubbles (MNB) in water as the flushing solution was tested in laboratory sand columns for the cleanup of residual trichloroethene (TCE) non-aqueous-phase-liquid (NAPL). Experiments considering flushing with MNB as well as ozone MNB (OZMNB) in water to treat soils contaminated with residual TCE liquid were conducted to examine effects of ozone on dissolution enhancement. The degrees of residual TCE saturation in soils, ranging from 0.44% to 7.6%, were tested. During flushings, aqueous TCE concentrations at the column exit were monitored and TCE masses remained in the columns after flushing were determined. Experimental results between runs with MNB and OZMNB in water revealed that dissolution enhancement was dependent on residual saturation conditions, and the maximum enhancement was around 9%. Governing equations consisting of three coupled partial differential equations (PDEs) were developed to model the system, and high-order finite difference (HOFD) method was employed to solve these PDEs. From mathematical modeling of reactive mass transfer under low residual saturation conditions (0.44% and 1.9%), experimental data were simulated and important controlling mechanisms were identified. It was concluded that a specific parameter pertinent to NAPL-water interfacial area in the Sherwood number had to be modified to satisfactorily describe the dissolution of TCE in the presence of MNB in water.

  18. Economic Optimized Medium for Tensio-Active Agent Production by Candida sphaerica UCP0995 and Application in the Removal of Hydrophobic Contaminant from Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galba M. Campos-Takaki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Statistical experimental designs and response surface methodology were employed to optimize the concentrations of agroindustrial residues as soybean oil (SORR from refinery, and corn steep liquor (CSL from corn industry, for tensio-active agent produced by Candida sphaerica UCP 0995. Three 22 full factorial design were applied sequentially to investigate the effects of the concentrations and interactions of soybean oil refinery residue and corn steep liquor on the surface tension of free-cell culture broth for 144 h. Two 22 central composite designs and response surface methodology were adopted to derive a statistical model to measure the effect of SORR and CSL on the surface tension of the free-cell culture broth for 144 h. The regression equation obtained from the experimental data using a central composite design was solved, and by analyzing the response surface contour plots, the optimal concentrations of the constituents of the medium were determined: 8.63% v/v (≈9% v/v of SORR and 8.80% v/v (≈9% v/v CSL. The minimum surface tension predicted and experimentally confirmed was 25.25 mN/m. The new biosurfactant, denominated Lunasan, recovered 95% of motor oil adsorbed in a sand sample, thus showing great potential for use in bioremediation processes, especially in the petroleum industry.

  19. Fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool for determination of organic matter removal efficiency at water treatment works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. Bieroza

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter (OM in drinking water treatment is a common impediment responsible for increased coagulant and disinfectant dosages, formation of carcinogenic disinfection-by products, and microbial re-growth in distribution system. The inherent heterogeneity of OM implies the utilization of advanced analytical techniques for its characterization and assessment of removal efficiency. Here, the application of simple fluorescence excitation-emission technique to OM characterization in drinking water treatment is presented. The fluorescence data of raw and clarified water was obtained from 16 drinking water treatment works. The reduction in fulvic-like fluorescence was found to significantly correlate with OM removal measured with total organic carbon (TOC. Fluorescence properties, fulvic- and tryptophan-like regions, were found to discriminate OM fractions of different removal efficiencies. The results obtained in the study show that fluorescence spectroscopy provides a rapid and accurate characterization and quantification of OM fractions and indication of their treatability in conventional water treatment.

  20. effect of turning parameters on metal removal and tool wear rates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2 SCHOOL OF AEROSPACE, TRANSPORT AND MANUFACTURING, CRANFIELD UNIV., ... AISI 1018 low carbon steel during turning operation to reduce tooling costs as a result of tool wear and achieve optimum metal ... performance of a system, part or component while ... traditional and experimental design methods of.

  1. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction as an efficient tool for removal of phospholipids from human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ask, Kristine Skoglund; Bardakci, Turgay; Parmer, Marthe Petrine

    2016-01-01

    Generic Parallel Artificial Liquid Membrane Extraction (PALME) methods for non-polar basic and non-polar acidic drugs from human plasma were investigated with respect to phospholipid removal. In both cases, extractions in 96-well format were performed from plasma (125μL), through 4μL organic...

  2. Experimental perforation of tubing with a hydraulic sand jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, Yu V

    1970-01-01

    A series of field tests has shown that perforation with a hydraulic sand jet improves the quality of well completion. The sand jet does not crack the cement sheath or the casing, and the perforations are larger and deeper than perforations formed by explosive charges. Fluid circulation during sand jet perforation can safely be stopped for at least 10 min. Water containing a surfactant can be used as a sand carrier. Sand jet perforation allows successful completion of wells cased by 2 tubing strings. Sand jet perforation can be used to clean the borehole well and to remove foreign objects from the well.

  3. Microbial community response reveals underlying mechanism of industrial-scale manganese sand biofilters used for the simultaneous removal of iron, manganese and ammonia from groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Rui; Zhou, Aijuan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Luan, Yunbo; Jia, Jianna; Yue, Xiuping; Zhang, Jie

    2018-01-08

    Most studies have employed aeration-biofiltration process for the simultaneous removal of iron, manganese and ammonia in groundwater. However, what's inside the "black box", i.e., the potential contribution of functional microorganisms behavior and interactions have seldom been investigated. Moreover, little attention has been paid to the correlations between environmental variables and functional microorganisms. In this study, the performance of industrial-scale biofilters for the contaminated groundwater treatment was studied. The effluent were all far below the permitted concentration level in the current drinking water standard. Pyrosequencing illustrated that shifts in microbial community structure were observed in the microbial samples from different depths of filter. Microbial networks showed that the microbial community structure in the middle- and deep-layer samples was similar, in which a wide range of manganese-oxidizing bacteria was identified. By contrast, canonical correlation analysis showed that the bacteria capable of ammonia-oxidizing and nitrification was enriched in the upper-layer, i.e., Propionibacterium, Nitrosomonas, Nitrosomonas and Candidatus Nitrotoga. The stable biofilm on the biofilter media, created by certain microorganisms from the groundwater microflora, played a crucial role in the simultaneous removal of the three pollutants.

  4. In-vessel inspection before head removal: TMI II, Phase III (tooling and systems design and verification)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.S.; Ryan, R.F.; Pieleck, A.W.; Bibb, H.Q.

    1982-09-01

    Under EG and G contract K-9003 to General Public Utilities Corporation, a Task Order was assigned to Babcock and Wilcox to develop and provide equipment to facilitate early assessment of core damage in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor vessel head. Described is the work performed, the equipment developed, and the tests conducted with this equipment on various mockups used to simulate the constraints inside and outside the reactor vessel that affect the performance of the inspection. The tooling developed provides several methods of removing a few control rod drive leadscrews from the reactor, thereby providing paths into which cameras and lights may be inserted to permit video viewing of many potentially damaged areas in the reactor vessel. The tools, equipment, and cameras demonstrated that these tasks could be accomplished

  5. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction as an efficient tool for removal of phospholipids from human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, Kristine Skoglund; Bardakci, Turgay; Parmer, Marthe Petrine; Halvorsen, Trine Grønhaug; Øiestad, Elisabeth Leere; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2016-09-10

    Generic Parallel Artificial Liquid Membrane Extraction (PALME) methods for non-polar basic and non-polar acidic drugs from human plasma were investigated with respect to phospholipid removal. In both cases, extractions in 96-well format were performed from plasma (125μL), through 4μL organic solvent used as supported liquid membranes (SLMs), and into 50μL aqueous acceptor solutions. The acceptor solutions were subsequently analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using in-source fragmentation and monitoring the m/z 184→184 transition for investigation of phosphatidylcholines (PC), sphingomyelins (SM), and lysophosphatidylcholines (Lyso-PC). In both generic methods, no phospholipids were detected in the acceptor solutions. Thus, PALME appeared to be highly efficient for phospholipid removal. To further support this, qualitative (post-column infusion) and quantitative matrix effects were investigated with fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and quetiapine as model analytes. No signs of matrix effects were observed. Finally, PALME was evaluated for the aforementioned drug substances, and data were in accordance with European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 49 CFR 1242.28 - Roadway machines, small tools and supplies, and snow removal (accounts XX-19-36 to XX-19-38...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... snow removal (accounts XX-19-36 to XX-19-38, inclusive). 1242.28 Section 1242.28 Transportation Other... tools and supplies, and snow removal (accounts XX-19-36 to XX-19-38, inclusive). Separate common expenses according to distribution of common expenses listed in § 1242.10, Administration—Track (account XX...

  7. Wavelet analysis as a tool to characteriseand remove environmental noisefrom self-potential time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ragosta

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiresolution wavelet analysis of self-potential signals and rainfall levels is performed for extracting fluctuations in electrical signals, which might be addressed to meteorological variability. In the time-scale domain of the wavelet transform, rain data are used as markers to single out those wavelet coefficients of the electric signal which can be considered relevant to the environmental disturbance. Then these coefficients are filtered out and the signal is recovered by anti-transforming the retained coefficients. Such methodological approach might be applied to characterise unwanted environmental noise. It also can be considered as a practical technique to remove noise that can hamper the correct assessment and use of electrical techniques for the monitoring of geophysical phenomena.

  8. Removable top nozzle and tool for a nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.F.; Cerni, S.; Gjertsen, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    A fuel assembly is described for a nuclear reactor including a bottom nozzle, at least one longitudinally extending control rod guide thimble having an upper end and a lower end being attached to the bottom nozzle and projecting upwardly therefrom, transverse grids axially spaced along-the thimble for supporting an array of upstanding fuel rods, and a top nozzle subassembly removable mounted on the upper end of the guide thimble for obtaining top access to the fuel rods upon removal thereof. The top nozzle subassembly consists of: (a) a section integrally formed on the upper end of the guide thimble and having external threads thereon; (b) a lower adapter plate having a guide thimble hole for receiving the guide thimble so as to mount the adapter plate on the guide thimble for slidable movement therealong; (c) a retainer mounted on the guide thimble for restably supporting and limiting the downward movement of the adapter plate along the guide thimble; (d) an upper hold-down plate having a guide thimble passageway with an internal ledge for receiving the thimble so as to mount the hold-down plate on the thimble for slidable movement therealong; (e) spring means interposed between the upper hold-down plate and the lower adapter plate for biasing the hold-down plate upwardly when a downward force is applied thereon whereby the downward force is yieldably transmitted to the fuel assembly; and (f) a collar disposed within the passageway and in abutment with the ledge, the collar having an internal threaded section engageable with the externally threaded section to move the hold-down plate down against the spring means and thereby mounting of the subassembly on the guide thimble

  9. Removable top nozzle and tool for a nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.F.; Cerni, S.; Gjertsen, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    A tool is described used in a nuclear reactor fuel assembly for connecting and disconnecting an internally threaded collar threadably engagable with an externally threaded upper end of a control rod guide thimble. The tool consists of: (a) rotation means engagable with the collar and operable to apply a torque in one direction to threadably connect the internally threaded collar on the thimble's externally threaded upper end and in an opposite direction to disconnect the collar from its threaded connection with the thimble; and (b) gripper means adapted to be inserted into the upper end of the guide thimble and operable to prevent the thimble from rotating about its longitudinal axis as the rotation means applies torque to the collar in connecting and disconnecting the collar on and off the guide thimble; (c) the gripper means being disposed within the rotation means and having a portion thereof projecting outwardly beyond the rotation means for insertion into the thimble when the rotation means is engaged with the collar

  10. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack D.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Grin, E.A.; Li, Ron; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, B.; Bell, J.F.; Yingst, R. Aileen

    2014-01-01

    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  11. Removal of cadmium by Lactobacillus kefir as a protective tool against toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbino, Esteban; Carasi, Paula; Tymczyszyn, E Elizabeth; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the capacity of Lactobacillus kefir strains to remove cadmium cations and protect eukaryotic cells from cadmium toxicity. Lb. kefir CIDCA 8348 and JCM 5818 were grown in a 1/2 dilution of MRS broth supplemented with Cd(NO3)2 ranging 0 to 1 mM. Growth kinetics were followed during 76 h at 30 °C by registering optical density at 600 nm every 4-10 h. The accumulated concentration of cadmium was determined on cultures in the stationary phase by atomic absorption. The viability of a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) upon exposure to (a) free cadmium and (b) cadmium previously incubated with Lb. kefir strains was evaluated by determining the mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. Lb. kefir strains were able to grow and tolerate concentrations of cadmium cations up to 1 mM. The addition of cadmium to the culture medium increased the lag time in all the concentrations used. However, a decrease of the total biomass (maximum Absorbance) was observed only at concentrations above 0.0012 and 0.0011 mM for strains CIDCA 8348 and JCM 5818, respectively. Shorter and rounder lactobacilli were observed in both strains upon microscopic observations. Moreover, dark precipitates compatible with intracellular precipitation of cadmium were observed in the cytoplasm of both strains. The ability of Lb. kefir to protect eukaryotic cells cultures from cadmium toxicity was analysed using HepG2 cells lines. Concentrations of cadmium greater than 3×10(-3) mM strongly decreased the viability of HepG2 cells. However, when the eukaryotic cells were exposed to cadmium pre-incubated 1 h with Lb. kefir the toxicity of cadmium was considerably lower, Lb. kefir JCM 5818 being more efficient. The high tolerance and binding capacity of Lb. kefir strains to cadmium concentrations largely exceeding the tolerated weekly intake (TWI) of cadmium for food (2.5 μg per kg of body weight) and water (3 μg/l) addressed to human consumption, is an important added value when

  12. MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SAND FRACTION IN A SAND GRAIN IMAGE CAPTURE SYSTEM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Arruda Viana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Morphology studies assume significant importance in analysis of phenomena of granular systems packaging, in particular with a view to the use of the technique of soil stabilization named particle size correction in forest roads. In this context, this study aimed to develop and operationalize a Sand Grain Image Capture System and, hereby, determine the morphological indices of the sand fractions of two sandy soils called João Pinheiro (JP and Cachoeira da Prata (CP. Soil samples, air-dried, were sieved (2.0 mm nominal mesh size for removal of gravels. The materials that passed through the sieve were subjected to dispersion, washing in 0.053 mm nominal mesh size sieve, removal of organic matter and iron oxides to obtain the clean sand fractions. Subsequently, each soil sample was sieved for separation into twelve classes, between the diameters of 0.149 mm and 1.190 mm, using a Rotap shaker. Next, tests were carried out to characterize the morphometric attributes of the twelve classes of sand fractions of the soils studied. For validation of the performance of the Sand Grain Image Capture System, the results were compared to those obtained using a standard procedure for image analysis. The analysis of the results led to the following conclusions: (i the sand fraction of the JP soil presented higher values for the morphometric indices roundness, elongation and compactness compared to sand fraction of the CP soil; and (ii the Sand Grain Image Capture System worked properly, with practicality.

  13. Eastern Scheldt Sand, Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. T; Madsen, E. B.; Schaarup-Jensen, A. L.

    The present data report contains data from 13 drained triaxial tests, performed on two different sand types in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Aalborg University in March, 1997. Two tests have been performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15, which has already ken extensively tested in the Soil Mechanics...... Laboratory. The remaining 11 triaxial tests have ben performed on Eastern Scheldt Sand, which is a material not yet investigated at the Soil Mechanics Laboratory. In the first pari of this data report, the characteristics of the two sand types in question will be presented. Next, a description...... will described. In this connection, the procedure for preparation of the soil specimens will be presented, and the actual performance of the tests will be briefly outlined. Finally, the procedure for processing of the measurements from the laboratory in order to obtain usable data will be described. The final...

  14. Tekstil Atıksularının Gideriminde Atık Döküm Kumlarının Kullanımı / Using of Waste Foundry Sands in Removal of Textile Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELİF HATİCE GÜRKAN

    2012-12-01

    öküm kumlarının, tekstil endüstrisi atık sularında renk gideriminde adsorbent olarak kullanılması amaçlanmaktadır. Using of Waste Foundry Sands in Removal of Textile Wastewater Nowadays, the accelerating need of water due to usage of water in industralized countries and global warming is causing all water sources to be exhausted. The effects the industrial wastewater made to the nature are important level, changer of natural balance, and sometimes non returned position. By reusing the treated the wastewater, not only the consumption of natural water sources has been prevented, but also the amount of discharged treated wastewater and its effects to the environment has been decreased. The wastewater resulted from industries shows big differences according to the wastewater in houses in the conditions of resource, amount, and character. So output water of the industry establishment has to be purified to prevent not to dirty natural water places. Textile industry is one of the biggest industries of Turkey and it consumes Access amount of water. As there are several methods and technologies used in this sector due to the different raw materials and various chemicals, the wastewaters obtained vary related to the products produced. The most prominent feature of textile industry wastewater is contained high amounts of organic and inorganic chemicals, and high total organic carbon (TOC, chemical oxygen demand (COD and intense color. The discharge of dyes into the receiving waters constitutes only a small portion of water pollution. However the presence of very low concentrations of dyes in receiving waters is aesthetically undesirable. Therefore, treatment processes removing dyes from textile effluents have become important in order to conserve receiving waters. In this study is to investigate using the adsorpsion method of removal with waste foundry sands, which are used expecially dye nd textile industries and are an important polluting agent in the waste water dumped into

  15. Sorption of europium by Haro river sand in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Moosa Hasany; Syed Javaid Khurshid

    1997-01-01

    The sorption of Eu(III) on Haro river sand has been investigated. Influences include composition of the sorptive medium, the concentration of sorbent and sorbate, and shaking time. Haro river sand can be exploited for the preconcentration and removal of europium from very dilute solutions, for the decontamination and treatment of radioactive waste water and effluents from nuclear installations. (Author)

  16. Investigation of material removal rate and surface roughness during wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM of Inconel 625 super alloy by cryogenic treated tool electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Goyal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation focuses the effect of process parameters on material removal rate (MRR and surface roughness (Ra in wire electric discharge machining of Inconel 625. Machining was done by using a normal zinc coated wire and cryogenic treated zinc coated wire. The experiments were performed by considering different process parameters viz. tool electrode, current intensity, pulse on time, pulse off time, wire feed and wire tension. The thickness of work material and dia. of wire are kept constant. Taguchi L18 (21 * 35 orthogonal array of experimental design is used to perform the experiments. Analysis of variance (ANOVA is employed to optimize the material removal rate and surface roughness. Based on analysis it is found that pulse on time, tool electrode and current intensity are the significant parameters that affect the material removal rate and surface roughness. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM are used to identify the microstructure of the machined work piece.

  17. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Špirutová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this contribution is: “How the green sand systems are influenced by core sands?”This effect is considered by determination of selected technological properties and degree of green sand system re-bonding. From the studies, which have been published yet, there is not consistent opinion on influence of core sand dilution on green sand system properties. In order to simulation of the effect of core sands on the technological properties of green sands, there were applied the most common used technologies of cores production, which are based on bonding with phenolic resin. Core sand concentration added to green sand system, was up to 50 %. Influence of core sand dilution on basic properties of green sand systems was determined by evaluation of basic industrial properties: moisture, green compression strength and splitting strength, wet tensile strength, mixture stability against staling and physical-chemistry properties (pH, conductivity, and loss of ignition. Ratio of active betonite by Methylene blue test was also determined.

  18. Processes of microbial pesticide degradation in rapid sand filters for treatment of drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mathilde Jørgensen; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    Aerobic rapid sand filters for treatment of groundwater at waterworks were investigated for the ability to remove pesticides. The potential, kinetics and mechanisms of microbial pesticide removal was investigated in microcosms consisting of filter sand, treated water and pesticides in initial...... concentrations of 0.04-2.4 μg/L. The pesticides were removed from the water in microcosms with filter sand from all three investigated sand filters. Within the experimental periode of six to 13 days, 65-85% of the bentazone, 86-93% of the glyphosate, 97-99% of the p-nitrophenol was removed from the water phase...

  19. Singing Sand Dunes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ble low-frequency (s. 75–105 Hz), that can some- times be heard up to 10 km away. Scientific in- vestigations suggest that the sustained low fre- quency sound of sand dunes that resembles a pure note from a musical instrument, is due to the synchronized motion of well-sorted dry sand grains when they spontaneously ...

  20. The Microbial Database for Danish wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal (MiDas-DK) – a tool for understanding activated sludge population dynamics and community stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielczarek, Artur Tomasz; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Larsen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006 more than 50 Danish full-scale wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal have been investigated in a project called ‘The Microbial Database for Danish Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plants with Nutrient Removal (MiDas-DK)’. Comprehensive sets of samples have been collected......, analyzed and associated with extensive operational data from the plants. The community composition was analyzed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) supported by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and deep metagenomics. MiDas-DK has been a powerful tool to study the complex activated sludge...

  1. MouldingSandDB – a modern database storing moulding sands properties research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakubski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of foundry processes requires the use of modern, advanced IT tools for optimization, storage and analysis of t echnicaldata. Properties of moulding and core sands that are collected in research laboratories, manufacturers, and finally in the foundries, are not in use later on. It seems important to create a database that will allow to use the results stored, along with the possibility of searching according to set criteria, adjusted to casting practice. This paper presents part of the database named „MouldingSandDB”, which allows to collect and search data for synthetic moulding sands.

  2. Sand and Gravel Deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a statewide polygon coverage of sand, gravel, and stone resources. This database includes the best data available from the VT Agency of Natural...

  3. Sand and Gravel Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes sand and gravel operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  4. Retorting of bituminous sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaney, P E; Ince, R W; Mason, C M

    1872-09-26

    This method of recovering oil from mined tar sands involves forming compacted tar sands pieces by special conditioning treatment that provides low internal permeability. The compacted pieces are then retorted in fixed bed form. The conditioning treatment can involve rolling of preformed pellets, compaction in a mold or pressure extrusion. Substantial collapsing of the bed during retorting is avoided. (9 claims) (Abstract only - original article not available from T.U.)

  5. Extensive formation of sinkholes in unconsolidated rock due to underground erosive removal of sand at a marginal batter of an opencast mine - causes, process and geotechnical safety measures. Grossflaechige Erdfallbildungen im Lockergestein durch unterirdische erosive Ausraeumung von Sand and einer Tagebauendboeschung - Ursachen, Verlauf und geotechnische Sicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, H

    1991-08-01

    When the ground water rose in the marginal batter of an opencast mine damage occurred. This was caused by the processes of internal erosion and suffusion in fine sand layers of slight thickness and by the disintegration of the overlying strata due to the formation of sinkholes. Effective safety measures involved lowering the ground-water level in the zone immediately in front of the area in question and installing an auxiliary filter unit at the marginal batter. (orig.).

  6. MECHANICAL REGENERATION OF SAND WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Gnir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental activation of the sand regenerator of the firm SINTO is carried out at ОАО “MZOO". It is shown that sand grains are cleared from films of binding agents, that allows to use the treated sand for preparation of agglutinant and core sands.

  7. Heavy mineral concentration from oil sand tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chachula, F.; Erasmus, N. [Titanium Corp. Inc., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation described a unique technique to recover heavy minerals contained in the froth treatment tailings produced by oil sand mining extraction operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. In an effort to process waste material into valuable products, Titanium Corporation is developing technology to recover heavy minerals, primarily zircon, and a portion of bitumen contained in the final stage of bitumen processing. The process technology is being developed to apply to all mined oil sands operations in the Fort McMurray region. In 2004, Titanium Corporation commissioned a pilot research facility at the Saskatchewan Research Council to test dry oil sands tailings. In 2005, a bulk sampling pilot plant was connected to the fresh oil sands tailings pipeline on-site in Fort McMurray, where washed sands containing heavy minerals were processed at a pilot facility. The mineral content in both deposited tailings and fresh pipeline tailings was assessed. Analysis of fresh tailings on a daily basis identified a constant proportion of zircon and higher levels of associated bitumen compared with the material in the deposited tailings. The process flow sheet design was then modified to remove bitumen from the heavy minerals and concentrate the minerals. A newly modified flotation process was shown to be a viable processing route to recover the heavy minerals from froth treatment tailings. 8 refs., 9 tabs., 12 figs.

  8. A Laboratory Screening Study On The Use Of Solidifiers As A Response Tool To Remove Crude Oil Slicks On Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of five solidifiers to remove Prudhoe Bay crude oil from artificial seawater in the laboratory was determined by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The performance of the solidifers was determined by US-V...

  9. Oil sands tax expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchum, K; Lavigne, R.; Plummer, R.

    2001-01-01

    The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  10. Bituminous sands : tax issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examined some of the tax issues associated with the production of bitumen or synthetic crude oil from oil sands. The oil sands deposits in Alberta are gaining more attention as the supplies of conventional oil in Canada decline. The oil sands reserves located in the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River areas contain about 2.5 trillion barrels of highly viscous hydrocarbons called bitumen, of which nearly 315 billion barrels are recoverable with current technology. The extraction method varies for each geographic area, and even within zones and reservoirs. The two most common extraction methods are surface mining and in-situ extraction such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS); low pressure steam flood; pressure cycle steam drive; steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD); hot water flooding; and, fire flood. This paper also discussed the following general tax issues: bituminous sands definition; bituminous sands leases and Canadian development expense versus Canadian oil and gas property expense (COGPE); Canadian exploration expense (CEE) for surface mining versus in-situ methods; additional capital cost allowance; and, scientific research and experimental development (SR and ED). 15 refs

  11. Big picture thinking in oil sands tailings disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boswell, J. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed methods of disposing oil sands tailings. Oil sands operators are currently challenged by a variety of legislative and environmental factors concerning the creation and disposal of oil sands tailings. The media has focused on the negative ecological impact of oil sands production, and technical issues are reducing the effect of some mitigation processes. Operators must learn to manage the interface between tailings production and removal, the environment, and public opinion. The successful management of oil sand tailings will include procedures designed to improve reclamation processes, understand environmental laws and regulations, and ensure that the cumulative impacts of tailings are mitigated. Geotechnical investigations, engineering designs and various auditing procedures can be used to develop tailings management plans. Environmental screening and impact assessments can be used to develop sustainable solutions. Public participation and environmental mediation is needed to integrate the public, environmental and technical tailings management strategies. Operators must ensure public accountability for all stakeholders. tabs., figs.

  12. A case study on the design of a modular surgical instrument for removing metastases using engineering design tools

    OpenAIRE

    Preca, George; Farrugia, Philip; Casha, Aaron; International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic cancer is a form of cancer stemming from a primary tumour that propagates to different organs and/or to different sites within the same organ. Studies have indicated that the chances of survival improve upon surgical removal of metastases. The overall goal of this research was to develop a modular surgical instrument that would be easy to use and manipulate and hence facilitate resection of metastases. This research forms part of a final year project carried out by a mechanical eng...

  13. CONTROL DE CALIDAD DE HERRAMIENTAS DE CORTE CON REMOCIÓN MÍNIMA DE MATERIAL QUALITY CONTROL OF CUTTING TOOLS WITH MINIMUM MATERIAL REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandrey Maldaner

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la mejora de las tecnologías de mecanizado, es necesario que las herramientas satisfagan las demandas requeridas. Una condición especial, para poder describir con seguridad el corte con remoción mínima de material, es el conocimiento de los valores característicos de la superficie y de la geometría. Las herramientas poseen una influencia substancial en la calidad de las piezas producidas, así como en la estabilidad y en la seguridad del proceso de mecanizado. Aunque hay una gran cantidad de herramientas para el corte con remoción mínima de material, se presenta como ejemplo la investigación con medición óptica y la obtención de los valores característicos para dientes de sierras de cinta.Due to improved machine cutting technologies it is necessary that tools fulfil the required performance. A special condition, for minimal machine cutting removal, is the knowledge of surface and geometry characteristic values. These tools represent both a substantial influence on the quality of the manufactured pieces and on stability and working safety of the cutting process. Since there is a large number of tools for minimal removal of material, examples of optical measurement and examination of characteristic values by the belt saw teeth are presented.

  14. Sand Dunes with Frost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    9 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a suite of frost-covered sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars in early spring, 2004. The dunes indicate wind transport of sand from left to right (west to east). These landforms are located near 78.1oN, 220.8oW. This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  15. Sand (CSW4)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Estuarine and Coastal Research Unit

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available This report is one of a series on Cape Estuaries being published under the general title "The Estuaries of the Cape, Part 2". The report provides information on sand estuary: historical background, abiotic and biotic characteristics. It is pointed...

  16. Inland drift sand landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanta, J.; Siepel, H.

    2010-01-01

    Man has had a complex relationship with inland drift sands through the ages. For some centuries these landscapes were seen as a threat to society, especially agriculture and housing. At present we conserve these landscapes as important Natura 2000 priority habitats. In this book you may find these

  17. On Pluvial Compaction of Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Moust

    At the Institute of Civil Engineering in Aalborg model tests on dry sand specimens have been carried out during the last five years. To reduce deviations in test results, the sand laying technique has been carefully studied, and the sand mass spreader constructed. Preliminary results have been...

  18. Environmental Impacts of Sand Exploitation. Analysis of Sand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dan Gavriletea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sand is an indispensable natural resource for any society. Despite society’s increasing dependence on sand, there are major challenges that this industry needs to deal with: limited sand resources, illegal mining, and environmental impact of sand mining. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to present an overview of the sand market, highlighting the main trends and actors for production, export and import, and to review the main environmental impacts associated with sand exploitation process. Based on these findings, we recommend different measures to be followed to reduce negative impacts. Sand mining should be done in a way that limits environmental damage during exploitation and restores the land after mining operations are completed.

  19. Statistical tools application on dextranase production from Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC4 and its application on dextran removal from sugarcane juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNA L. SUFIATE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to optimize the dextranase production by fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC4 and evaluate its activity in dextran reduction in sugarcane juice. The effects, over the P. chlamydosporia dextranase production, of different components from the culture medium were analyzed by Plackett-Burman design and central composite design. The response surface was utilized to determine the levels that, among the variables that influence dextranase production, provide higher production of these enzymes. The enzymatic effect on the removal of dextran present in sugarcane juice was also evaluated. It was observed that only NaNO3 and pH showed significant effect (p<0.05 over dextranase production and was determined that the levels which provided higher enzyme production were, respectively, 5 g/L and 5.5. The dextranases produced by fungus P. chlamydosporia reduced by 75% the dextran content of the sugarcane juice once treated for 12 hours, when compared to the control treatment.

  20. Oil sands supply outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, R.

    2004-01-01

    In March 2004, The Canadian Energy Research Institute released a report on the expected future supply from Alberta's oil sands. The report indicates that the future for the already well-established oil sands industry is promising, particularly given the outlook for oil prices. The challenges facing the industry include higher industry supply costs and the need for innovative commercial and technological solutions to address the risks of irregularities and changes in crude oil prices. In 2003, the industry produced 874 thousand barrels per day of synthetic crude oil and unprocessed crude bitumen. This represents 35 per cent of Canada's total oil production. Current production capacity has increased to 1.0 million barrels per day (mbpd) due to new projects. This number may increase to 3.5 mbpd by 2017. Some new projects may be deferred due to the higher raw bitumen and synthetic crude oil supply costs. This presentation provided supply costs for a range of oil sands recovery technologies and production projections under various business scenarios. tabs., figs

  1. Liquefaction resistance of calcareous sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval Vallejo, Eimar

    2012-01-01

    Calcareous sands are unique in terms of their origin, mineralogy, shape, fragility and intra particle porosity. This article presents results from an experimental program carried out to study the liquefaction resistance of a calcareous sand retrieved from Cabo Rojo at Puerto Rico. The experimental program included mineralogical characterization, index properties, and undrained cyclic triaxial tests on isotropically consolidated reconstituted samples. Due to the large variation in the calcareous sand properties, results are compared with previous researches carried out on other calcareous sands around the world. Results showed a wide range in the liquefaction resistance of the studied calcareous sands. Cabo Rojo sand experienced greater liquefaction resistance than most of the calcareous sands used for comparison. Important differences in the excess pore pressure generation characteristics were also found.

  2. Evaluation of multistage filtration to reduce sand filter exhaust activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zippler, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    Air from the Savannah River Plant Fuel Reprocessing facilities is filtered through deep bed sand filters consisting of 8 1 / 2 feet of gravel and sand. These filters have performed satisfactorily for the past 18 years in maintaining radioactive release levels to a minimum. The apparent filter efficiency has been determined for many years by measurements of the quantity of radioactivity in the air stream before and after the filter. Such tests have indicated efficiencies of 99.9 percent or better. Even with sand filter efficiency approaching a single stage HEPA filter, new emphasis on further reduction in release of plutonium activity to the environment prompted a study to determine what value backup HEPA filtration could provide. To evaluate the specific effect additional HEPA filtration would have on the removal of Pu from the existing sand filter exhaust stream, a test was conducted by passing a sidestream of sand-filtered air through a standard 24 x 24 x 11 1 / 2 in. HEPA filter. Isokinetic air samples were withdrawn upstream and downstream of the HEPA filter and counted for alpha activity. Efficiency calculations indicated that backup HEPA filtration could be expected to provide an additional 99 percent removal of the Pu activity from the present sand-filter exhaust. (U.S.)

  3. Booming Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Nathalie

    "Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local

  4. Sand moulds milling for one-of-a-kind pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A.; Calleja, A.; Olvera, D.; Peñafiel, F. J.; López de Lacalle, L. N.

    2012-04-01

    Time to market is a critical measurement for today's foundry market. Combining 3D digitizing and sand blocks milling is possible to reduce this time. Avoiding the use of a wood pattern, this technique is useful for art pieces or unique parts, when only one component is necessary. The key of the proposed methodology is to achieve enough tool life with conventional tool qualities, avoiding the risk of sand destruction or damage. A special study of tool wear is presented in this work, studying different tool materials and different sand types. Two examples of unique parts are also presented in this work following the proposed methodology in order to reduce time and cost for the rapid reproduction of very short batches.

  5. The Microbial Database for Danish wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal (MiDas-DK) - a tool for understanding activated sludge population dynamics and community stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, A T; Saunders, A M; Larsen, P; Albertsen, M; Stevenson, M; Nielsen, J L; Nielsen, P H

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006 more than 50 Danish full-scale wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal have been investigated in a project called 'The Microbial Database for Danish Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plants with Nutrient Removal (MiDas-DK)'. Comprehensive sets of samples have been collected, analyzed and associated with extensive operational data from the plants. The community composition was analyzed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) supported by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and deep metagenomics. MiDas-DK has been a powerful tool to study the complex activated sludge ecosystems, and, besides many scientific articles on fundamental issues on mixed communities encompassing nitrifiers, denitrifiers, bacteria involved in P-removal, hydrolysis, fermentation, and foaming, the project has provided results that can be used to optimize the operation of full-scale plants and carry out trouble-shooting. A core microbial community has been defined comprising the majority of microorganisms present in the plants. Time series have been established, providing an overview of temporal variations in the different plants. Interestingly, although most microorganisms were present in all plants, there seemed to be plant-specific factors that controlled the population composition thereby keeping it unique in each plant over time. Statistical analyses of FISH and operational data revealed some correlations, but less than expected. MiDas-DK (www.midasdk.dk) will continue over the next years and we hope the approach can inspire others to make similar projects in other parts of the world to get a more comprehensive understanding of microbial communities in wastewater engineering.

  6. Microbial degradation of pesticides in rapid sand filters for treatment of drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mathilde Jørgensen; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark drinking water supply is based on groundwater which is treated by aeration followed by filtration in rapid sand filters. Unfortunately pesticide contamination of the groundwater poses a threat to the water supply, since the simple treatment process at the waterworks is not considered...... to remove pesticides from the water phase and pesticides are detected in 24% of the active Danish waterworks wells. This study aimed at investigating the potential of microbial pesticide removal in rapid sand filters for drinking water treatment. Removal of the pesticides MCPP, bentazone, glyphosate...... and the degradation compound p-nitrophenol was investigated in the rapid sand filters at Islevbro and Sjælsø waterworks plant I and II. Microcosms were set up with sand from rapid sand filters, water and an initial pesticide concentration of 0.03-0.38 μg/L. In all the investigated waterworks the concentration...

  7. EASY: a simple tool for simultaneously removing background, deadtime and acoustic ringing in quantitative NMR spectroscopy--part I: basic principle and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Christian; Hemmann, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Elimination of Artifacts in NMR SpectroscopY (EASY) is a simple but very effective tool to remove simultaneously any real NMR probe background signal, any spectral distortions due to deadtime ringdown effects and -specifically- severe acoustic ringing artifacts in NMR spectra of low-gamma nuclei. EASY enables and maintains quantitative NMR (qNMR) as only a single pulse (preferably 90°) is used for data acquisition. After the acquisition of the first scan (it contains the wanted NMR signal and the background/deadtime/ringing artifacts) the same experiment is repeated immediately afterwards before the T1 waiting delay. This second scan contains only the background/deadtime/ringing parts. Hence, the simple difference of both yields clean NMR line shapes free of artefacts. In this Part I various examples for complete (1)H, (11)B, (13)C, (19)F probe background removal due to construction parts of the NMR probes are presented. Furthermore, (25)Mg EASY of Mg(OH)2 is presented and this example shows how extremely strong acoustic ringing can be suppressed (more than a factor of 200) such that phase and baseline correction for spectra acquired with a single pulse is no longer a problem. EASY is also a step towards deadtime-free data acquisition as these effects are also canceled completely. EASY can be combined with any other NMR experiment, including 2D NMR, if baseline distortions are a big problem. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  9. Performance of water filters towards the removal of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organic matter removal was found to be 47%, 43%, 53%, 43.4% for bio-sand, slow sand, ceramic and membrane purifier respectively, while, fluoride removal was found to be 95.5% for bone char filter. Furthermore, filters were also assessed in terms of media availability, buying costs, operation, benefits/ effectiveness ...

  10. Oil sands development update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A detailed review and update of oil sands development in Alberta are provided covering every aspect of the production and economic aspects of the industry. It is pointed out that at present oil sands account for 28 per cent of Canadian crude oil production, expected to reach 50 per cent by 2005. Based on recent announcements, a total of 26 billion dollars worth of projects are in progress or planned; 20 billion dollars worth of this development is in the Athabasca area, the remainder in Cold Lake and other areas. The current update envisages up to 1,800,000 barrels per day by 2008, creating 47,000 new jobs and total government revenues through direct and indirect taxes of 118 billion dollars. Provinces other than Alberta also benefit from these development, since 60 per cent of all employment and income created by oil sands production is in other parts of Canada. Up to 60 per cent of the expansion is for goods and services and of this, 50 to 55 per cent will be purchased from Canadian sources. The remaining 40 per cent of the new investment is for engineering and construction of which 95 per cent is Canadian content. Aboriginal workforce by common consent of existing operators matches regional representation (about 13 per cent), and new developers are expected to match these standards. Planned or ongoing development in environmental protection through improved technologies and optimization, energy efficiency and improved tailings management, and active support of flexibility mechanisms such as emission credits trading, joint implementation and carbon sinks are very high on the industry's agenda. The importance of offsets are discussed extensively along with key considerations for international negotiations, as well as further research of other options such as sequestration, environmentally benign disposal of waste, and enhanced voluntary action

  11. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  12. Aeolian sand transport and its effects on the stability of Miramar-Caranzalem beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, G.V.; Sastry, J.S.

    Removal of sand by wind from the beach at Miramar-Caranzalem, Goa, has been found to effect its stability over a relatively longer time scale. This aeolian sand transport has been computed for this strip of the beach utilising the relation between...

  13. Amadurecimento de filtros lentos de areia e remoção de microrganismos indicadores de qualidade da água ao longo da profundidade do leito: uma avaliação em instalação piloto Maturation of slow sand filters and removal of microorganisms' indicators of water quality along the media depth: an evaluation in pilot plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Ladeira Alves de Brito

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O potencial da filtração lenta como opção tecnológica para o tratamento de água nos países em desenvolvimento e sua capacidade de remoção de contaminantes, sobretudo patogênicos, são reconhecidos. Contudo, ainda permanece incompleto o conhecimento acerca dos mecanismos que predominantemente atuam na remoção dos microrganismos. Objetivando avançar nessa compreensão, desenvolveu-se uma investigação experimental, em unidades piloto, em filtros lentos de areia com escoamento descendente e ascendente, operados com água sintética e duas taxas de filtração (3 e 6m³/m2.d. A retenção dos microrganismos indicadores foi avaliada em cinco camadas, com 0,15 m de espessura cada, em dois momentos da carreira. A maturidade biológica do leito filtrante foi menos favorecida pela taxa mais alta de filtração e pelo fluxo ascendente. Os 0,45 m iniciais do leito filtrante foram importantes na remoção de microrganismos sob as condições estudadas, mas a remoção não se restringiu a estas camadas, tendo sido observada para todos os indicadores retenção nas camadas de 0,45-0,60 m e de 0,60-0,75 m. A schmutzdecke parece desempenhar papel efetivo na remoção de indicadores microbiológicos apenas quando bem desenvolvida. Há uma indicação de que a camada suporte exerce algum papel na retenção de sólidos e microrganismos no fluxo ascendente.The potential of the slow sand filtration as technological option for drinking-water treatment in developing countries and its capacity of contaminants removal, mainly pathogens, are recognized.However, the knowledge concerning the predominant mechanisms that act in microorganism's removal still remains incomplete. Aiming to advance in the understanding of these themes, an experimental investigation was carried out, working with pilot plants of downflow and upflow slow sand filters, operated with synthetic water and two filtration rates (3 and 6 m³/m².d. The microorganisms indicators removal was

  14. Oil sands to the rescue: oil sand microbial communities can degrade recalcitrant alkyl phenyl alkanoic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitby, Corinne [University of Essex (Canada)], email: cwhitby@essex.ac.uk

    2011-07-01

    Almost half of all global oil reserves are found as biodegraded heavy oils found in vast tar sand deposits located in North and South America and these account for 47% of Canadian oil production. Oil sand extraction generates large amounts of toxic waste water, known as oil sand process waters (OSPW), that are stored in large tailing ponds that contain toxic compounds like naphthenic acids (NAs). The presence of NAs creates problems like toxicity, corrosion, and the formation of calcium napthenate deposits which block pipelines and other infrastructure and need to be removed. This paper presents oil sand microbial communities that can degrade these NAs. The approach is to apply new aliphatic and aromatic NAs as substrates to supplement and identify NA degrading microbes and also to identify the metabolites produced and explain NA degradation pathways and the functional genes involved. The chemistry and the processes involved are explained. From the results, it is suggested that pure cultures of P. putida KT2440 be used against NAs.

  15. Deflouridation of water using physico-chemically treated sand as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Dr. Mahamadi

    chemically modified sand has potential application as an adsorbent for fluoride ions removal. ... activated carbon, minerals, fish bone charcoal, coconut ... (2003), established that red soils ..... solutions by granular ferric hydroxide (GFH). Water ...

  16. Remoção de atrazina e metabólitos pela filtração lenta com leito de areia e carvão ativado granular Removal of atrazine and metabolites through slow filtration by sand and granular activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edumar Ramos Cabral Coelho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A atrazina (ATZé um herbicida largamente utilizado no mundo, sendo encontrada associada aos seus produtos de degradação em águas superficiais e subterrâneas. Pertence à classe das s-triazinas e, juntamente com os metabólitos clorados deetilatrazina (DEA e deisopropilatrazina (DIA, possui potencial carcinogênico e toxicidade como disruptores endócrinos. A limitação dos processos que empregam a coagulação química na remoção de ATZ, a conhecida capacidade do carvão ativado em remover microcontaminantes em água e o risco que a ATZ e seus metabólitos apresentam à saúde motivaram o estudo da filtração lenta com leito de areia e carvão ativado granular. Os resultados apontaram a eficiência do processo de filtração lenta com camada intermediária de carvão ativado granular na remoção de ATZ e a limitação deste na remoção dos metabólitos DEA, DIA e deetilhidroxiatrazina (DEHA.Atrazine (ATZ is widely used as herbicide, commonly found in association to its degradation products in surface water and groundwater. It belongs to the class of s-triazines and together with the chlorinated metabolites dieethylatrazine (DEA and deisopropilatrazine (DIA have carcinogenic potential and toxicity as endocrine disruptors. The limitation of the processes employing chemical coagulation in the removal of atrazine, the known ability of activated carbon to remove microcontaminants in water and the risk that atrazine and the potential toxicity to human health of its metabolits motivated the study of slow sand filtration bed combined with granular activated carbon. The results showed the high efficiency of the slow filtration process with intermediate layer of granular activated carbon in the removal of atrazine and its limitation on the removal of the metabolites DEA, DIA and diethylhidroxiatrazine (DEHA.

  17. Sand Needs and Resources Offshore New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, J. M.; Flood, R. D.; White, M.; Bokuniewicz, H.; Hinrichs, C.; Wilson, R. E.

    2016-02-01

    , comprised of a combination of grab samples and vibracores. In addition, wave climate modeling is performed over the study area to provide further insight into the oceanographic changes wrought by the removal of sand reserves for use in nourishment projects.

  18. Rheological Characterization of Green Sand Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Spangenberg, Jon; Hovad, Emil

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to characterize experimentally the flow behaviour of the green sand that is used for casting of sand moulds. After the sand casting process is performed, the sand moulds are used for metal castings. The rheological properties of the green sand is important to quantif...

  19. A Bird's-eye View with X-ray Vision: Remote-sensing tools to Monitor Reach-scale Response to Dam Removal on the Elwha River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    Repeat digital surface models, orthoimagery and sidescan sonar data are being generated to monitor river response to the largest dam removal and controlled sediment release in history on the Elwha River, on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington State. These products are generated using low-cost readily-available tools to collect data at a spatial and temporal scale that provides important insight into effects of base-level change, sediment release, and discrete hydrologic events on erosion of reservoir sediments, downstream sediment transport, and channel evolution above and below the dam sites. In combination, these products provide a view above and below the water surface to changes in sediment composition and morphology that other methods cannot capture at this spatial scale and both spatial and temporal resolution. Orthoimagery is developed from still images collected with a plane-mounted point-and-shoot camera using customized firmware from the open-source Canon Hack Development Kit (CHDK) with a total hardware cost of about $300 USD. Images are processed using structure-from-motion algorithms. Several software options are available. Sonar data are collected from a raft-mounted platform using a high-resolution 990 KHz Starfish sidescan sonar, with a water-resistant topside enclosure holding top-side electronics. A steerable pole-mount was developed for this application to allow the sidescan to to remain oriented in the direction of motion-over-ground.; Surface reconstruction from aerial images collected during Elwha dam removal project. ; bedforms near Elwha Sediment Treatment Plant from sediment released from Lake Aldwell, surveyed 12 July 2012.

  20. Sand, jams and jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, H. [James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago (United States)]. E-mail: h-jaeger@uchicago.edu

    2005-12-01

    Granular media are offering new insights into problems in condensed-matter physics and materials science, as Heinrich Jaeger explains. The remarkable properties of granular materials are so familiar that most of us do not even notice them. It is clear, for example, that we cannot walk on water unless the temperature has dropped below freezing. However, we take it for granted that sand will support our weight as if it were a solid, even though it can also be poured like a liquid under the same ambient conditions. From breakfast cereal, sugar and flour to construction materials, mining products and pharmaceuticals, granular media are present everywhere in our daily lives. (U.K.)

  1. Riddle of the sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolheiser, P

    1998-09-01

    A geological model of the Alberta landscape during the period stretching from about 110 million to 100 million years ago during the Cretaceous period when dinosaurs roamed the earth, was sketched. Today, the region contains the Cold Lake oil sands deposit. Imperial Oil began large-scale production at Cold Lake in 1985. The formations within the area are the source of almost half of Imperial Oil`s daily crude oil production and account for one in every 20 barrels of oil produced daily in Canada. The bitumen is produced using cyclic steam stimulation where steam is injected at high pressure into the underground reservoir, fracturing the sandstone and heating the bitumen it holds to thin it so that it can then flow through well bores to the surface. Conventional geological theory suggested that the Cold Lake reservoir was the remains of a prehistoric river delta. In 1994, Imperial Oil established a Cold Lake sequence stratigraphy project to verify this theory. This highly complex project involves volumes of geophysical well-log data from the 2,500 wells at Cold Lake, core samples cut from more than 600 of these wells and microscopic fossilized remains of 100-million-year-old flora extracted from the core samples, and seismic information. The interpreted data helps to create a three-dimensional model of the reservoir`s structure and help define its boundaries. Results have shown that the Cold Lake deposit was created from at least 13 intersecting river beds. Each of the rivers flowed for a few hundred thousand years and deposited sands of varying quality in different layers and patterns. The oil came about 40 million years later after the plant and animal materials containing hydrogen and carbon were broken down by heat and pressure to form oil. 1 fig.

  2. The Alberta oil sands story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    This report serves as a detailed introduction to the Alberta oil sands and their development. It includes a description of the oil sands deposits, an outline of crude bitumen recovery and upgrading processes, the role of Alberta Energy Company in oil sands development, environmental aspects, manpower requirements for oil sands development, research needs, and further oil sands projects. Presently proven recoverable reserves in the oil sands amount to 26.5 billion bbl of synthetic crude. Production from the Syncrude plant (125,000 bbl/d capacity) is expected to begin in 1977, followed by a Shell Canada operation around 1980. The provincial government will participate in the oil sand industry through its joint venture participation in Syncrude and its 50% share in Alberta Energy Company; the latter company participates in related aspects of the Syncrude project, such as pipelines. The result of Alberta's participation in the industry will mean that, directly or indirectly, the province will realize 60% of the total profits. The job creation potential of oil sands projects is estimated to be extensive, with a direct and indirect work force supported by oil sands activities possibly reaching 180,000 persons by the year 2000. Research needs have been identified, particularly in the area of in-situ thermal recovery technology, and the creation of the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority has been authorized in order to meet these needs. Although current reserves are sufficient to support 20-30 synthetic crude plants, a number of factors will limit expansion of the industry. 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Stratification of nitrification activity in rapid sand filters for drinking water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Musovic, Sanin

    2013-01-01

    Rapid sand filters used in groundwater treatment remove ammonium, iron and manganese from the water. Ammonium is removed biologically by nitrifying microorganisms attached on the sand surface. Nitrification kinetics and activity is strongly affected by filter design and operation, which are the key...... and maximum nitrification capacity are derived and used to quantify nitrification activity. Nitrification activity was concentrated at the top 10 cm of filter depth, and maximum nitrification capacity was 7 g NH4+-N/ m3 sand/h compared with 0.8-0.4 g NH4+-N/ m3 sand/h in the middle and bottom layers. A water...... of this study is to investigate nitrification activity in a rapid sand filter, with focus on its homogeneity and how it relates to filter performance. Two groundwater treatment plants in Denmark were selected for the experimental investigations. Plant 1 operates a single line of pre and after filters and has...

  4. Steam and air co-injection in removing residual TCE in unsaturated layered sandy porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sheng; Wang, Ning; Chen, Jiajun

    2013-10-01

    Steam and air co-injection is a promising technique for volatile and semi-volatile organic contaminant remediation in heterogeneous porous media. In this study, removal of trichloroethene (TCE) with steam-air co-injection was investigated through a series of 2D sandbox experiments with different layered sand structures, and through numerical simulations. The results show that a layered structure with coarse sand, in which steam and air convection are relatively rapid, resulted in a higher removal rate and a larger removal ratio than those observed in an experiment using finer sand; however, the difference was not significant, and the removal ratios from three experiments ranged from 85% to 94%. Slight downward movement of TCE was observed for Experiment 1 (TCE initially in a fine sand zone encased in a coarse sand), while no such movement was observed for Experiment 2 (TCE initially in two fine sand layers encased in a coarse sand) or 3 (TCE initially in a silty sand zone encased in a coarse sand). Simulations show accumulation of TCE at the interface of the layered sands, which indicates a capillary barrier effect in restraining the downward movement of TCE. This effect is illustrated further by a numerical experiment with homogeneous coarse sand, in which continuous downward TCE movement to the bottom of the sandbox was simulated. Another numerical experiment with higher water saturation was also conducted. The results illustrate a complicated influence of water saturation on TCE removal in a layered sand structure. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Interactions between microbial activity and distribution and mineral coatings on sand grains from rapid sand filters treating groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülay, Arda; Tatari, Karolina; Musovic, Sanin

    Rapid sand filtration is a traditional and widespread technology for drinking water purification which combines biological, chemical and physical processes together. Granular media, especially sand, is a common filter material that allows several oxidized compounds to accumulate on its surface....... Preliminarily, we detected a strong relation between the amount of DNA and mineral coating mass. We hypothesized that the accumulated mineral coatings have a positive effect on amount of bacterial biomass, its spatial distribution and substrate removal rates. In this study, we combined molecular, microscopic...

  6. Direct Chlorination of Zircon Sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwiretnani Sudjoko; Budi Sulistyo; Pristi Hartati; Sunardjo

    2002-01-01

    It was investigated the direct chlorination of zircon sand in a unit chlorination equipment. The process was in semi batch. The product gas was scrubbed in aqueous NaOH. It was search the influence of time, ratio of reactant and size of particle sand to the concentration of Zr and Si in the product. From these research it was found that as the times, ratio of reactant increased, the concentration of Zr increased, but the concentration of Si decreased, while as grain size of zircon sand decreased the concentration of Zr decreased, but the concentration of Si increased. (author)

  7. Oil sands and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, R. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Calgary Research Centre

    2004-07-01

    Oil sands are a significant resource for Alberta and Canada with continuing growth opportunity. There is a need to ensure sustainable development of the oil sands resources from a social, economic and environmental perspective. The industry has succeeded in terms of proven reserves, technology advancements, reduced operating costs, reliability and market accessibility. Some of the major challenges facing the industry include high capital cost, infrastructure, social services and keeping pace with growth. This presentation outlined the proactive measures that the oil sands industry has taken to manage environmental issues such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions, greenhouse gases, water management and land reclamation. tabs., figs.

  8. Alberta oil sands royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgarpour, S.

    2004-01-01

    The long term objective of the Oil Sands Business Unit of Alberta Energy is to pave the way for Alberta's bitumen production to reach 3 million barrels per day by 2020. This presentation described the national government's role in resource development. It was emphasized that since the Crown is the owner of the oil sands resource, it would benefit by providing strategic leadership and by generating a larger royalty base. The oil sands fiscal regime was described with reference to generic royalty, risk sharing, investment, and project economics. Business rule principles were also outlined along with criteria for project expansions. Both upstream and downstream challenges and opportunities were listed. 4 figs

  9. Thermal Conductivity of Polymer Composite poypropilene-Sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betha; Mashuri; Sudirman; Karo Karo, Aloma

    2001-01-01

    Thermal conductivity composite materials polypropylene (PP)-sand have been investigated. PP composite with sand to increase thermal conductivity from the polymer. The composite in this observation is done by mixing matrix (PP melt flow 2/10)and filler sand)by means tool labo plastomil. The result of thermal conductivity is composite of PP-sand which is obtained increase and followed by the raising of filler particle volume fraction. The analysis of thermal conductivity based on the model Cheng and Vachon, model Lewis and Nielsen where this model has the function to support experiment finding. It is proved that Lewis' and Nielsen's model almost approach experiment result. And then thermal conductivity raising will be analyzed by the model of pararel-series conductive with the two (2)phases system. It is showed that sand in PP MF 2 composite have the big role to increase the thermal conductivity than sand in PP MF 10 composition, but it is not easy to shape conductive medium

  10. Saltation of non-spherical sand particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengshi Wang

    Full Text Available Saltation is an important geological process and the primary source of atmospheric mineral dust aerosols. Unfortunately, no studies to date have been able to precisely reproduce the saltation process because of the simplified theoretical models used. For example, sand particles in most of the existing wind sand movement models are considered to be spherical, the effects of the sand shape on the structure of the wind sand flow are rarely studied, and the effect of mid-air collision is usually neglected. In fact, sand grains are rarely round in natural environments. In this paper, we first analyzed the drag coefficients, drag forces, and starting friction wind speeds of sand grains with different shapes in the saltation process, then established a sand saltation model that considers the coupling effect between wind and the sand grains, the effect of the mid-air collision of sand grains, and the effect of the sand grain shape. Based on this model, the saltation process and sand transport rate of non-spherical sand particles were simulated. The results show that the sand shape has a significant impact on the saltation process; for the same wind speed, the sand transport rates varied for different shapes of sand grains by as much as several-fold. Therefore, sand shape is one of the important factors affecting wind-sand movement.

  11. Reclaimability of the spent sand mixture – sand with bentonite – sand with furfuryl resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dańko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of new binding materials and new technologies of their hardening in casting moulds and cores production requires theapplication of reclamation methods adequate to their properties as well as special devices realizing tasks. The spent sands circulationsystem containing the same kind of moulding and core sands is optimal from the point of view of the expected reclamation results.However, in the face of a significant variability of applied technologies and related to them various reclamation methods, the need - of theobtained reclamation products assessment on the grounds of systematic criteria and uniform bases – arises, with a tendency of indicatingwhich criteria are the most important for the given sand system. The reclaimability results of the mixture of the spent moulding sand withGeko S bentonite and the spent core sand with the Kaltharz 404U resin hardened by acidic hardener 100 T3, are presented in the paper.Investigations were performed with regard to the estimation of an influence of core sands additions (10 –25% on the reclaimed materialquality. Dusts and clay content in the reclaim, its chemical reaction (pH and ignition loss were estimated. The verification of the reclaiminstrumental assessment was performed on the basis of the technological properties estimation of moulding sand with bentonite, where the reclaimed material was used as a matrix.

  12. Documenting the global impacts of beach sand mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R.; Griffith, A.

    2009-04-01

    For centuries, beach sand has been mined for use as aggregate in concrete, for heavy minerals, and for construction fill. The global extent and impact of this phenomenon has gone relatively unnoticed by academics, NGOs, and major news sources. Most reports of sand mining activities are found at the very local scale (if the mining is ever documented at all). Yet, sand mining in many localities has resulted in the complete destruction of beach (and related) ecosystems along with severe impacts to coastal protection and tourism. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines at Western Carolina University and Beachcare.org have initiated the construction of a global database of beach sand mining activities. The database is being built through a combination of site visits and through the data mining of media resources, peer reviewed papers, and reports from private and governmental entities. Currently, we have documented sand mining in 35 countries on 6 continents representing the removal of millions of cubic meters of sand. Problems extend from Asia where critical infrastructure has been disrupted by sand mining to the Caribbean where policy reform has swiftly followed a highly publicized theft of sand. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines recently observed extensive sand mining in Morocco at the regional scale. Tens of kilometers of beach have been stripped of sand and the mining continues southward reducing hope of a thriving tourism-based economy. Problems caused by beach sand mining include: destruction of natural beaches and the ecosystems they protect (e.g. dunes, wetlands), habitat loss for globally important species (e.g. turtles, shorebirds), destruction of nearshore marine ecosystems, increased shoreline erosion rates, reduced protection from storms, tsunamis, and wave events, and economic losses through tourist abandonment and loss of coastal aesthetics. The threats posed by sand mining are made even more critical given the prospect of a

  13. Namibia : triaxial test on sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfelt, Jørgen S.; Jacobsen, Kim P.

    In connection with a harbour project the friction angle of a fine sand is required. On Friday 13 March 1998 the Danish Geotechnical Institute (DGI) delivered app. 2.5 kg sand for testing at the Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University. The present Data Report summarises the results...... of two CID, isotropically consolidated, drained triaxial tests carried out according to the instructions in DG1 letter dated 13 March 1998....

  14. Technology unlocks tar sands energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, C

    1967-09-25

    Tar sand processing technology has been developed primarily in the categories of extraction techniques and in-situ processing. In October, a $235 million venture into tar sand processing will be inspected by visitors from many points on the globe. A synthetic crude of premium quality will be flowing through a 16-in. pipeline from the Tar Island plant site of Great Canadian Oil Sands to Edmonton. This processing plant uses an extractive mining technique. The tar sand pay zone in this area averages approximately 150 ft in thickness with a 50-ft overburden. It has been estimated that the tar sands cannot be exploited when the formation thickness is less than 100 ft and overburden exceeds the same amount. This indicates that extraction techniques can only be used to recover approximately 15% of the tar sand deposits. An in-situ recovery technique developed by Shell of Canada is discussed in detail. In essence it is selective hydraulic fracturing, followed by the injection of emulsifying chemicals and steam.

  15. Removal of radium from drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauch, R.P.

    1992-08-01

    The report summarizes processes for removal of radium from drinking water. Ion exchange, including strong acid and weak acid resin, is discussed. Both processes remove better than 95 percent of the radium from the water. Weak acid ion exchange does not add sodium to the water. Calcium cation exchange removes radium and can be used when hardness removal is not necessary. Iron removal processes are discussed in relation to radium removal. Iron oxides remove much less than 20 percent of the radium from water under typical conditions. Manganese dioxide removes radium from water when competition for sorption sites and clogging of sites is reduced. Filter sand that is rinsed daily with dilute acid will remove radium from water. Manganese dioxide coated filter sorption removes radium but more capacity would be desirable. The radium selective complexer selectively removes radium with significant capacity if iron fouling is eliminated

  16. Economic impacts of Alberta's oil sands, volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, G.R.; LeBlanc, N.; Walden, T.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, the international media recognized Alberta's oil sands as part of the global oil reserves, thereby establishing Canada as second to Saudi Arabia as potential oil producing nations. The economic impacts of Alberta's oil sands industry on economies were assessed at regional, provincial and international levels for the 2000 to 2020 period. A customized input-output model was used to assess economic impacts, which were measured in terms of changes in gross domestic product; employment and labour income; and, government revenues. Cumulative impacts on employment by sector and by jurisdiction were also presented. An investment of $100 billion is expected through 2020, resulting in production of crude bitumen and synthetic crude oil outputs valued at about $531 billion. The impact of the oil sands industry on local employment was also evaluated. It was shown that activities in the oil sands industry will lead to significant economic impact in Alberta, Ontario, Quebec and the rest of Canada. Alberta's local economy would be the main beneficiary of oil sands activities with nearly 3.6 million person years employment created in Alberta during the 2000 to 2020. Another 3 million person years employment would be created in other Canadian provinces and outside Canada during the same time period. A sensitivity analysis on the responsiveness to oil prices and the removal of various constraints incorporated in the main analysis was also presented. The federal government will be the largest recipient of revenues generated to to oil sands activities. The results of the study were compared with that of the National Task Force on Oil Sands Strategies. This first volume revealed the results of the study while the second volume includes the data and detailed results. 48 refs., 57 tabs., 28 figs

  17. Characterization of napthenic acids in oil sands process-affected waters using fluorescence technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.; Alostaz, M.; Ulrich, A.

    2009-01-01

    Process-affected water from oil sands production plants presents a major environmental challenge to oil sands operators due to its toxicity to different organisms as well as its corrosiveness in refinery units. This abstract investigated the use of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices to detect and characterize changes in naphthenic acid in oil sands process-affected waters. Samples from oil sands production plants and storage ponds were tested. The study showed that oil sands naphthenic acids show characteristic fluorescence signatures when excited by ultraviolet light in the range of 260 to 350 mm. The signal was a unique attribute of the naphthenic acid molecule. Changes in the fluorescence signature can be used to determine chemical changes such as degradation or aging. It was concluded that the technology can be used as a non-invasive continuous water quality monitoring tool to increase process control in oil sands processing plants

  18. Suction removal of sediment from between armour blocks. Part 2. Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixen, Figen Hatipoglu; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    When a stone/armor layer on a sand bed is exposed to flow, the sand underneath will be agitated by the flow turbulence. When the flow velocity reaches a critical value, the sand will be sucked (winnowed out) from between the armor blocks. In a previous investigation, we studied suction removal of...

  19. Oil sands tailings leachability and toxicity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulley, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Fine tailings disposal and reclamation is a major issue facing the oil sands mining and extraction industry. Government regulations dictate that reclamation must return the site to a level of self-sustaining biological capability which approximates the natural condition. A two-phase laboratory program has been completed to investigate the suitability of alternative reclamation materials. For the first phase of the study, chemical and toxicological analyses were carried out on 13 different reclamation and reference materials (solid phase and extractions). Seedling emergence, nematode maturation, algal growth and bacterial luminescence for leachate samples showed a range of sensitivities in response to the tested materials, although phytotoxicity tests were generally the most sensitive. With the exception of one test material, high toxicity ratings were consistent with that expected from the chemical data. The second phase of the study focused on the evaluation of chemical and toxicological conditions in leachate water generated using bench-scale column percolation tests. Leachate water equivalent to 10 pore volume replacements was generated and temporal variations in toxicity and chemistry monitored. Similar to phase 1 findings, phytotoxicity tests were the most sensitive tests to leachate waters. For most materials tested, most toxicity was removed after 2--3 porewater replacements. More persistent toxicity was noted for samples containing bitumen (e.g., fine tails and oil sands). No clear correspondence was noted between chemical concentrations and toxicity in leachate waters

  20. Pathogen removal using saturated sand columns supplemented with hydrochar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Sufficient provision of clean drinking water is an essential need for sustaining human-well being. The majority of people suffering from lack of clean water reside in less developed communities, where the financial and technical barriers hamper the implementation of modern water-sanitation systems.

  1. Process of extracting oil from stones and sands. [heating below cracking temperature and above boiling point of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergfeld, K

    1935-03-09

    A process of extracting oil from stones or sands bearing oils is characterized by the stones and sands being heated in a suitable furnace to a temperature below that of cracking and preferably slightly higher than the boiling-point of the oils. The oily vapors are removed from the treating chamber by means of flushing gas.

  2. Effects of dynamic operating conditions on nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Carson Odell; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Musovic, Sanin

    2014-01-01

    Biological rapid sand filters are often used to remove ammonium from groundwater for drinking water supply. They often operate under dynamic substrate and hydraulic loading conditions, which can lead to increased levels of ammonium and nitrite in the effluent. To determine the maximum nitrification...... operating conditions. The ammonium removal rate of the filter was determined by the ammonium loading rate, but was independent of both the flow and influent ammonium concentration individually. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea were almost equally abundant in the filter. Both ammonium removal...... rates and safe operating windows of rapid sand filters, a pilot scale rapid sand filter was used to test short-term increased ammonium loads, set by varying either influent ammonium concentrations or hydraulic loading rates. Ammonium and iron (flock) removal were consistent between the pilot...

  3. Oil sands tailings management project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwalt, C. [Alberta WaterSMART, Calgary, AB (Canada); Kotecha, P. [Suncor Energy Inc, Calgary, AB (Canada); Aumann, C. [Alberta Innovates - Technology Futures, Alberta Governement, AB (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The Oil sands leadership initiative (OSLI) works with the Government of Alberta on the development of the oil sands industry, considering environmental, economical and social aspects. Water management was identified as one of most important areas to focus on. Alberta WaterSMART was requested to support the development and the management of projects resulting from the work done or underway in this field. The development of a regional water management solution stood out as the most interesting solution to obtain significant results. In the Athabasca Region, oil sands producers work independently on their water sourcing and disposal with particular attention to fresh water conservation and economics. The Athabasca River represents a source for mines and distant saline aquifers are the target of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operators. As part of a four-phase project aiming to study the environmental and economic footprint (EEF) benefit of alternatives for Athabasca oil sands production water supply and disposal, the purpose of the tailings water management project was to identify tailings treatment technologies that are ready to be implemented, and to design and evaluate solutions in order to improve regional oil sands production water sourcing and disposal. Alternatives were evaluated based on their total EEF, applying a lifecycle assessment methodology with a particular attention on the quantification of important performance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 figs.

  4. Oil sands tailings management project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godwalt, C.; Kotecha, P.; Aumann, C.

    2010-11-01

    The Oil sands leadership initiative (OSLI) works with the Government of Alberta on the development of the oil sands industry, considering environmental, economical and social aspects. Water management was identified as one of most important areas to focus on. Alberta WaterSMART was requested to support the development and the management of projects resulting from the work done or underway in this field. The development of a regional water management solution stood out as the most interesting solution to obtain significant results. In the Athabasca Region, oil sands producers work independently on their water sourcing and disposal with particular attention to fresh water conservation and economics. The Athabasca River represents a source for mines and distant saline aquifers are the target of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operators. As part of a four-phase project aiming to study the environmental and economic footprint (EEF) benefit of alternatives for Athabasca oil sands production water supply and disposal, the purpose of the tailings water management project was to identify tailings treatment technologies that are ready to be implemented, and to design and evaluate solutions in order to improve regional oil sands production water sourcing and disposal. Alternatives were evaluated based on their total EEF, applying a lifecycle assessment methodology with a particular attention on the quantification of important performance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 figs.

  5. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Removal KidsHealth / For Teens / Hair Removal What's in ... you need any of them? Different Types of Hair Before removing hair, it helps to know about ...

  6. Selected parameters of moulding sands for designing quality control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakubski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the modern methods of production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks owe their popularity to the fact thatthey are convenient tools, which can be utilised in a wide scope of problems. They are capable of reflecting complex functions. Especiallytheir non-linearity should be emphasised. They are gaining wider and wider application in the foundry industry, among others, to controlmelting processes in cupolas and arc furnaces, designing castings and supply systems, control of moulding sands treatments, prediction ofproperties of cast alloys as well as selecting die casting.An attempt of the application neural networks to the quality control of moulding sands with bentonite is presented in the paper. This isa method of assessing the suitability of moulding sands by finding correlations in between individual parameters, by means of artificialneural network systems. The presented investigations were performed with the application of the Statistica 8.0 program.The investigations were aimed at the selection of the proper kind of a neural network for prediction a sand moistness on the bases ofcertain moulding sand properties such as: permeability, compactibility and friability. These parameters – determined as sand moistness functions - were introduced as initial parameters.Application of the Statistica program allowed for an automatic selection of the most suitable network for the reflection of dependencies and interactions existing among the proposed parameters. The best results were obtained for unidirectional multi-layer perception network (MLP. The neural network sensitivity to individual moulding sand parameters was determined, which allowed to reject not important parameters when constructing the network.

  7. Biodegradation of gasoline compounds (BTEX) in a water works sand filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Engelsen, P.; Sebber, U.

    2004-01-01

    Various chemical compounds including aromatic gasoline compounds frequently contaminate drinking water wells in urban areas. Because ground water treatment is simple, usually consisting of aeration/stripping and sand-filtration, it is of significant interest to know the ability of the conventional...... treatment to remove the chemical contaminants. The removal of gasoline compounds was investigated in a two-stage pilot scale sand filter, each with a filter depth of 0.8-1 m and with a filtration rate of 7.6 m/h. The concentrations of aromatic compounds were in the range 7-15 mu g/L, which are realistically...... sand grains). Influent iron concentrations in the range 0-4 mg/L and backwashing did not adversely affect the biodegradation of hydrocarbons. This study has shown that a conventional biological active sand filter can act as an efficient barrier against gasoline compounds, thereby saving the consumer...

  8. Experimental study of optimal self compacting concrete with spent foundry sand as partial replacement for M-sand using Taguchi approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala D.B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of Taguchi approach to obtain optimal mix proportion for Self Compacting Concrete (SCC containing spent foundry sand and M-sand. Spent foundry sand is used as a partial replacement for M-sand. The SCC mix has seven control factors namely, Coarse aggregate, M-sand with Spent Foundry sand, Cement, Fly ash, Water, Super plasticizer and Viscosity modifying agent. Modified Nan Su method is used to proportion the initial SCC mix. L18 (21×37 Orthogonal Arrays (OA with the seven control factors having 3 levels is used in Taguchi approach which resulted in 18 SCC mix proportions. All mixtures are extensively tested both in fresh and hardened states to verify whether they meet the practical and technical requirements of SCC. The quality characteristics considering “Nominal the better” situation is applied to the test results to arrive at the optimal SCC mix proportion. Test results indicate that the optimal mix satisfies the requirements of fresh and hardened properties of SCC. The study reveals the feasibility of using spent foundry sand as a partial replacement of M-sand in SCC and also that Taguchi method is a reliable tool to arrive at optimal mix proportion of SCC.

  9. Experimental study of optimal self compacting concrete with spent foundry sand as partial replacement for M-sand using Taguchi approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, D. B.; Raviraj, S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the application of Taguchi approach to obtain optimal mix proportion for Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) containing spent foundry sand and M-sand. Spent foundry sand is used as a partial replacement for M-sand. The SCC mix has seven control factors namely, Coarse aggregate, M-sand with Spent Foundry sand, Cement, Fly ash, Water, Super plasticizer and Viscosity modifying agent. Modified Nan Su method is used to proportion the initial SCC mix. L18 (21×37) Orthogonal Arrays (OA) with the seven control factors having 3 levels is used in Taguchi approach which resulted in 18 SCC mix proportions. All mixtures are extensively tested both in fresh and hardened states to verify whether they meet the practical and technical requirements of SCC. The quality characteristics considering "Nominal the better" situation is applied to the test results to arrive at the optimal SCC mix proportion. Test results indicate that the optimal mix satisfies the requirements of fresh and hardened properties of SCC. The study reveals the feasibility of using spent foundry sand as a partial replacement of M-sand in SCC and also that Taguchi method is a reliable tool to arrive at optimal mix proportion of SCC.

  10. performance of water filters towards the removal of selected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morohani Merinyo

    sand, ceramic and membrane purifier respectively, while, fluoride removal was found to be 95.5% ... associated diseases in developing countries ... The main drinking water risks in developing ... Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey.

  11. Evolution of the gas atmosphere during filing the sand moulds with iron alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mocek

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of atmosphere of the mould cavity when pouring the cast iron has been analyzed. It was find that in dry sand mold the cavity is filled by air throughout the casting time. In green sand the air is removed by the water vapor the hydrogen or carbon oxides formed in contact with the liquid metal. The theoretical results have been confirmed experimentally.

  12. Image analysis to measure sorting and stratification applied to sand-gravel experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Orrú, C.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to develop new measuring techniques for providing detailed data on sediment sorting suitable for sand-gravel laboratory experiments. Such data will be of aid in obtaining new insights on sorting mechanisms and improving prediction capabilities of morphodynamic models. Two measuring techniques have been developed. The first technique is aimed at measuring the size stratification of a sand-gravel deposit through combining image analysis and a sediment remov...

  13. Removal of arsenic from drinking water by natural adsorbents

    OpenAIRE

    MD SHAHNOOR ALAM KHAN

    2017-01-01

    The presence of arsenic in groundwater has been reported in many countries across the world and it is a serious threat to public health. The aim of this study was to identify prospective natural materials with high arsenic adsorption capacity and durable hydraulic property to produce adequate flow of water. The comparative study identified Skye sand as the best natural adsorbent. The prototype household filter with Skye sand achieved complete removal of arsenic and iron. Arsenic removal by du...

  14. Modelling offshore sand wave evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemeth, Attila; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; van Damme, Rudolf M.J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional vertical (2DV) flow and morphological numerical model describing the behaviour of offshore sand waves. The model contains the 2DV shallow water equations, with a free water surface and a general bed load formula. The water movement is coupled to the sediment transport

  15. Rheology of oil sands slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, R.; Zhou, J. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Mineral Oil Sands Unit; Wallace, D. [Dean Wallace Consulting Inc., Beaumont, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This study focused on integrating rheology and colloid science to improve recovery of bitumen in surface mined oil sands. Factors that influence recovery, such as conditions of particle interaction, solids concentration and shear rate, were reviewed. In an effort to understand the rheological behaviour of clay-in-water suspensions, an elaborate procedure was developed to separate an inter-bedded clay layer from a site at Albian Sands Energy Inc. The variables were water chemistry, solids concentration, and shear rate. The research study was conducted at the Alberta Research Council with the support of the CONRAD Extraction Group. A controlled stress rheometer was used to provide the quantitative evaluations of the clay slurry properties. The research results indicate that the viscoelastic properties of the slurry are highly influenced by the shear history of the slurry, solids content, calcium concentration, and sample aging. Shear thinning behaviour was observed in all slurry samples, but the slurry viscosity increased with test time for a given shear rate. In order to classify the slurries, a method was developed to distinguish the gel strength. The slurries were then classified into 3 distinct patterns, including no gel, weak gel and strong gel. The evolution of the experimental protocols were described along with the current stability maps that correlate the domains of the gel strength according to the solids concentration, calcium ion content, and shear rate. It was concluded that the rheological properties of oil sands slurries influence bitumen recovery in commercial surface-mined oil sands operations. tabs., figs.

  16. Geology on a Sand Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  17. Mining aspects of hard to access oil sands deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, G.; Wright, D.; Lukacs, Z. [Norwest Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    While a variety of oil sands mining technologies have been explored since the 1960s, the oil sands industry has generally favoured truck and shovel mining as a proven, low-cost mining solution. However, surface mining economics are affected by the price of bitumen, haul distances, tailings storage and geotechnical constraints. Maintenance, labour and the cost of replacing tires and ground engaging tools also have a significant impact on the economics of surface mining. Large volumes of water are used in surface mining, and remediation of surface mined areas can take hundreds of years. Damage to machinery is common as oil sands are abrasive and adhere to equipment. This presentation examined recent technologies developed to improve the economics of surface mining. Various extraction and tailings technologies were reviewed. Issues concerning the integration of mining and extraction processes were discussed. Various monitoring tools were evaluated. A review of new underground mining options included outlines of: longwall mining; sub-level caving; tunnel boring; and room and pillar extraction techniques. A generalized regional geology was presented. It was concluded that the oil sands surfacing mining industry should concentrate on near-term research needs to improve the performance and economics of proven technologies. Screening studies should also be conducted to determine the focus for the development of underground technologies. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Understanding the fate of organic micropollutants in sand and granular activated carbon biofiltration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, L.; Fernandez-Fontaina, E.; Lema, J.M.; Omil, F.; Carballa, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, sand and granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilters were comparatively assessed as post-treatment technologies of secondary effluents, including the fate of 18 organic micropollutants (OMPs). To determine the contribution of adsorption and biotransformation in OMP removal, four reactors were operated (two biofilters (with biological activity) and two filters (without biological activity)). In addition, the influence of empty bed contact time (EBCT), ranging from 0.012 to 3.2 d, and type of secondary effluent (anaerobic and aerobic) were evaluated. Organic matter, ammonium and nitrate were removed in both biofilters, being their adsorption higher on GAC than on sand. According to the behaviour exhibited, OMPs were classified in three different categories: I) biotransformation and high adsorption on GAC and sand (galaxolide, tonalide, celestolide and triclosan), II) biotransformation, high adsorption on GAC but low or null adsorption on sand (ibuprofen, naproxen, fluoxetine, erythromycin, roxythromycim, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, bisphenol A, estrone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol), and, III) only adsorption on GAC (carbamazepine, diazepam and diclofenac). No influence of EBCT (in the range tested) and type of secondary effluent was observed in GAC reactors, whereas saturation and kinetic limitation of biotransformation were observed in sand reactors. Taking into account that most of the organic micropollutants studied (around 60%) fell into category II, biotransformation is crucial for the elimination of OMPs in sand biofilters. - Highlights: • OMP removal was comparatively assessed in sand and GAC biofilters. • The contribution of adsorption and biotransformation in OMP removal was identified. • The filtering material did not affect the biological activities in biofilters. • There is no direct correlation between EBCT and OMP removal in biofilters. • The type of secondary effluent determines the lifespan of filtering

  19. Understanding the fate of organic micropollutants in sand and granular activated carbon biofiltration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, L., E-mail: lidia.paredes@usc.es; Fernandez-Fontaina, E., E-mail: eduardo.fernandez.fontaina@usc.es; Lema, J.M., E-mail: juan.lema@usc.es; Omil, F., E-mail: francisco.omil@usc.es; Carballa, M., E-mail: marta.carballa@usc.es

    2016-05-01

    In this study, sand and granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilters were comparatively assessed as post-treatment technologies of secondary effluents, including the fate of 18 organic micropollutants (OMPs). To determine the contribution of adsorption and biotransformation in OMP removal, four reactors were operated (two biofilters (with biological activity) and two filters (without biological activity)). In addition, the influence of empty bed contact time (EBCT), ranging from 0.012 to 3.2 d, and type of secondary effluent (anaerobic and aerobic) were evaluated. Organic matter, ammonium and nitrate were removed in both biofilters, being their adsorption higher on GAC than on sand. According to the behaviour exhibited, OMPs were classified in three different categories: I) biotransformation and high adsorption on GAC and sand (galaxolide, tonalide, celestolide and triclosan), II) biotransformation, high adsorption on GAC but low or null adsorption on sand (ibuprofen, naproxen, fluoxetine, erythromycin, roxythromycim, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, bisphenol A, estrone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol), and, III) only adsorption on GAC (carbamazepine, diazepam and diclofenac). No influence of EBCT (in the range tested) and type of secondary effluent was observed in GAC reactors, whereas saturation and kinetic limitation of biotransformation were observed in sand reactors. Taking into account that most of the organic micropollutants studied (around 60%) fell into category II, biotransformation is crucial for the elimination of OMPs in sand biofilters. - Highlights: • OMP removal was comparatively assessed in sand and GAC biofilters. • The contribution of adsorption and biotransformation in OMP removal was identified. • The filtering material did not affect the biological activities in biofilters. • There is no direct correlation between EBCT and OMP removal in biofilters. • The type of secondary effluent determines the lifespan of filtering

  20. Remoção de matéria orgânica, coliformes totais e nitrificação no tratamento de esgotos domésticos por filtros de areia Organic matter and total coliform removal and nitrification in the treatment of domestic wastewater by sand filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Luiz Tonetti

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Segundo o IBGE (2000, 73% dos municípios brasileiros possuem menos de 20.000 habitantes, que em sua maior parte vive na zona rural ou em pequenos núcleos urbanos. Quase a totalidade dos esgotos destas cidades é lançada nos corpos hídricos, contribuindo com o agravamento dos problemas de saúde pública e ambiental. Esses danos podem ser minimizados com o emprego de sistemas de tratamento simples, eficientes, sustentáveis e economicamente viáveis. O filtro anaeróbio com recheio de bambu combinado com filtros de areia satisfaria estas exigências, propiciando um efluente adequado para disposição nos cursos d'água ou para reúso, resguardando as fontes de água potável. A aplicação piloto deste método demonstrou que no emprego de baixas cargas de efluente anaeróbio nos filtros de areia havia uma remoção superior a 96% da DBO, adequação na emissão de coliformes totais e uma completa nitrificação. Aumentando-se as cargas, ocorria uma pequena redução da eficiência, no entanto os resultados ainda eram satisfatórios.According to IBGE (2000 73% of the Brazilian cities are considered small communities with population smaller than 20,000 inhabitants. The majority of domestic wastewater of these places is normally disposed in rivers with no treatment. As a consequence, the irregular disposal may cause health and environmental problems. To reduce this risk it is necessary to develop treatment systems that are simple, efficient, sustainable and of low cost. The treatment of wastewater using up flow anaerobic filter combined with sand filters would be able to satisfy these exigencies, producing an effluent that could be disposed in rivers or even be reused, safeguarding the sources of potable water. The system achieved BOD removal of 96% and complete nitrification for the application of low loads. The increase of the applied loads caused a reduction in the efficiency; however the final values were still satisfactory.

  1. An innovative symbiotic microalgae-IFAS process for nutrient removal and photo-oxygenation: Multi-scale investigations using microelectrodes and next-generation molecular tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    A consortium of algae and bacteria is known to be effective in removing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from wastewater; however, the concept has largely been limited to suspended processes and fixed filmed (biofilm) processes have not fully been explored. Here we demonstrate the...

  2. Microbial degradation of pesticides in rapid sand filters used for drinking water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mathilde Jørgensen

    significantly with the maximum methane concentration in the raw water and did not correlate with other water quality parameters, such as the ammonium concentration. Furthermore, the connection between bentazone degradation and methane oxidation in filter sand was demonstrated by inhibition experiments, in which...... sustainable methods to remove pesticides from polluted water sources. Aeration of anaerobic groundwater, followed by biological rapid sand filtration is a widespread technology in drinking water treatment. Even though these systems are not designed for removal of trace contaminants, they have shown potential...... for microbial degradation of pesticides and their degradation products. If pesticides can be removed in rapid sand filters, it is of large commercial interest due to the importance in maintaining a simple, sustainable water treatment. To take advantage of the microbial pesticide degradation and identify...

  3. Tidal dynamics in the sand motor lagoon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, S.; Radermacher, M.; De Schipper, M.A.; Stive, M.J.F.

    2015-01-01

    The Sand Motor is a mega-nourishment characterized by a very large sand volume of around 20 million m3 placed along the Dutch coast. The Sand Motor is a pilot project to evaluate the performance of an alternative nourishment strategy with respect to different functions of the coastal system. Within

  4. Separability studies of construction and demolition waste recycled sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsen, Carina; Kahn, Henrique; Hawlitschek, Gustav; Masini, Eldon A; Angulo, Sérgio C

    2013-03-01

    The quality of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW) is strictly related to the content of porous and low strength phases, and specifically to the patches of cement that remain attached to the surface of natural aggregates. This phase increases water absorption and compromises the consistency and strength of concrete made from recycled aggregates. Mineral processing has been applied to CDW recycling to remove the patches of adhered cement paste on coarse recycled aggregates. The recycled fine fraction is usually disregarded due to its high content of porous phases despite representing around 50% of the total waste. This paper focus on laboratory mineral separability studies for removing particles with a high content of cement paste from natural fine aggregate particles (quartz/feldspars). The procedure achieved processing of CDW by tertiary impact crushing to produce sand, followed by sieving and density and magnetic separability studies. The attained results confirmed that both methods were effective in reducing cement paste content and producing significant mass recovery (80% for density concentration and 60% for magnetic separation). The production of recycled sand contributes to the sustainability of the construction environment by reducing both the consumption of raw materials and disposal of CDW, particularly in large Brazilian centers with a low quantity of sand and increasing costs of this material due to long transportation distances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermochemical method for the treatment of oil contaminated sand; Metodo termoquimico para tratamento de areia contaminada por oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Rosana C.G.M. [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)]|[PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Khalil, Carlos N. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    In January 2000 there was a major oil spill in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, which contaminated 2400 tons of sand. This work, based on NGS (Nitrogen Generating System) technology, was adapted for cleaning contaminated sand and recovering of spilled oil. NGS is a thermochemical method first developed for removal of paraffin deposits in production and export pipelines. The method is based on a strongly exothermic redox chemical reaction between two salts catalyzed in acidic pH. The reaction products are harmless to the environment and consist of nitrogen, sodium chloride, water and heat. By combining simultaneous effects of the treatment such as heating, turbulence and floatation, one can remove, within 98% of efficiency, spilling oil from contaminated sand. After treatment, removed oil can be securely returned to refining process. The method has proved to be efficient, fast, low cost and ecologically correct method for cleaning contaminated sand and can be applied in place right after a contamination event. (author)

  6. Three-Dimensional Printing as an Interdisciplinary Communication Tool: Preparing for Removal of a Giant Renal Tumor and Atrium Neoplastic Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golab, Adam; Slojewski, Marcin; Brykczynski, Miroslaw; Lukowiak, Magdalena; Boehlke, Marek; Matias, Daniel; Smektala, Tomasz

    2016-08-22

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing involves preparing 3D objects from a digital model. These models can be used to plan and practice surgery. We used 3D printing to plan for a rare complicated surgery involving the removal of a renal tumor and neoplastic mass, which reached the heart atrium. A printed kidney model was an essential element of communication for physicians with different specializations.

  7. METHOD OF PROCESSING MONAZITE SAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welt, M.A.; Smutz, M.

    1958-08-26

    A process is described for recovering thorium, uranium, and rare earth values from monazite sand. The monazite sand is first digested with sulfuric acid and the resulting "monazite sulfate" solution is adjusted to a pH of between 0.4 and 3.0, and oxalate anions are added causing precipitation of the thorium and the rare earths as the oxalates. The oxalate precipitate is separated from the uranium containing supernatant solution, and is dried and calcined to the oxides. The thorium and rare earth oxides are then dissolved in nitric acid and the solution is contacted with tribntyl phosphate whereby an organic extract phase containing the cerium and thorium values is obtained, together with an aqueous raffinate containing the other rare earth values. The organic phase is then separated from the aqueous raffinate and the cerium and thorium are back extracted with an aqueous medium.

  8. Sea sand for reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia R, G.; Ordonez R, E.; Ordonez R, En.

    2002-01-01

    Some phosphates have the property to suck in radioactive metals in solution, what it is taken in advance to make reactive barriers which are placed in the nuclear waste repositories. In an effort for contributing to the study of this type of materials, it has been obtained the zirconium silicate (ZrSiO 4 ) and the alpha zirconium hydrogen phosphate (Zr(HPO 4 ) 2H 2 O) starting from sea sand in an easy and economic way. (Author)

  9. Effects of pulse ON and OFF time and electrode types on the material removal rate and tool wear rate of the Ti-6Al-4V Alloy using EDM machining with reverse polarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, L.; Geeta Krishna, P.; Venugopal, L.; Prasad, N. E. C.

    2018-03-01

    Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is an unconventional metal removal process that is extensively used for removing the difficult-to-machine metal such as Ti alloys, super alloys and metal matrix composites. This paper investigates the effects of pulse (ON/OFF) time on EDM machining characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using copper and graphite as electrodes in reverse polarity condition. Full factorial design method was used to design the experiments. Two variables (Pulse On and OFF) with three levels are considered. The output variables are the tool wear rate and the material removal rate. The important findings from the present work are: (1) the material removal rate (MRR) increases gradually with an increase of the Pulse ON time whereas the change is insignificant with an increase of the Pulse OFF time, (2) Between copper and graphite electrodes, the copper electrode is proved to be good in terms of MRR, (3) a combination of high pulse ON time and OFF time is desirable for high MRR rate in the Cu electrode whereas for the graphite electrode, a combination of high pulse ON time and low pulse OFF time is desirable for high MRR rate, (4) the tool wear rate (TWR) reduces with the Pulse On or OFF time, the rate of TWR is uniform for the graphite electrode in contrast to abrupt decrease from 25 to 50 μs (pulse ON time) in the copper electrode, (5) In order to keep the TWR as minimum possible, it is desirable to have a combination of high pulse ON time and OFF time for both the copper and the graphite electrode.

  10. Study on strength characteristics of concrete using M-Sand and coconut fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeraja, D.; Wani, Amir Iqbal; Kamili, Zainulabideen; Agarwal, Krishnakant

    2017-11-01

    In the current world, concrete has become a very important part of the construction industry and the materials which are used in making concrete have evolved due to better quality of cement and better grade of coarse aggregates. The sand is an important part of concrete. It is mainly procured from natural sources. Thus the grade of sand is not under our control. The methods of removing sand from river beds are causing various environmental issues and river sand is depleting at a faster rate than it is replaced by natural methods. Hence, various replacements for the river sand are being done, one of which is manufactured-sand. It is obtained from various granite quarries. Manufactured-sand or M-sand is slowly replacing the fine aggregate in the concrete as the sand is well graded and gives higher strength of concrete. There are various fibers used for reinforcing concrete which consist mainly of artificial or steel fibers. Some of these fibers are quite costly and sometimes difficult to obtain. So there are many natural fibers which can be used in place of these fibers, one of which is coconut fiber, extracted from the shell of a coconut. Coconut fibers are used in various industries like rope making, coir mattresses etc. Since these fibers are one of the strongest fibers among naturally occuring fibers, they can be used in the concrete mix to increase the resistance in concrete. They are also light weight and easily available and thus can be used in reinforcement of concrete. The studies up till now have tested the use of coconut fibers in normal concrete involving river sand but in this study a particular ratio of M-sand and river sand is used to get the maximum possible strength. Hence, in this project an attempt was made to use M-sand and coconut fiber in concrete. Based on the test results, it can be concluded that combination of M-sand and coconut fibers gave favorable results in strength criteria.

  11. Understanding the fate of organic micropollutants in sand and granular activated carbon biofiltration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, L; Fernandez-Fontaina, E; Lema, J M; Omil, F; Carballa, M

    2016-05-01

    In this study, sand and granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilters were comparatively assessed as post-treatment technologies of secondary effluents, including the fate of 18 organic micropollutants (OMPs). To determine the contribution of adsorption and biotransformation in OMP removal, four reactors were operated (two biofilters (with biological activity) and two filters (without biological activity)). In addition, the influence of empty bed contact time (EBCT), ranging from 0.012 to 3.2d, and type of secondary effluent (anaerobic and aerobic) were evaluated. Organic matter, ammonium and nitrate were removed in both biofilters, being their adsorption higher on GAC than on sand. According to the behaviour exhibited, OMPs were classified in three different categories: I) biotransformation and high adsorption on GAC and sand (galaxolide, tonalide, celestolide and triclosan), II) biotransformation, high adsorption on GAC but low or null adsorption on sand (ibuprofen, naproxen, fluoxetine, erythromycin, roxythromycim, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, bisphenol A, estrone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol), and, III) only adsorption on GAC (carbamazepine, diazepam and diclofenac). No influence of EBCT (in the range tested) and type of secondary effluent was observed in GAC reactors, whereas saturation and kinetic limitation of biotransformation were observed in sand reactors. Taking into account that most of the organic micropollutants studied (around 60%) fell into category II, biotransformation is crucial for the elimination of OMPs in sand biofilters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. IMPROVEMENT OF EQUIPMENT FOR EFFECTIVE HARDENING SAND MIXTURE BY VACUUM MOLDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Doroshenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review deals with the design flask tooling and patterns for effective hardening sand mixture in the vacuum molding (V-Process, and molding on a one-off patterns (Lost Foam Casting. Sealing and evacuating sand mixture – two major factors influence the strength of the casting mold and casting quality, management practices which will enable to improve the casting process.

  13. Use of digital image analysis combined with fractal theory to determine particle morphology and surface texture of quartz sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia S. Araujo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The particle morphology and surface texture play a major role in influencing mechanical and hydraulic behaviors of sandy soils. This paper presents the use of digital image analysis combined with fractal theory as a tool to quantify the particle morphology and surface texture of two types of quartz sands widely used in the region of Vitória, Espírito Santo, southeast of Brazil. The two investigated sands are sampled from different locations. The purpose of this paper is to present a simple, straightforward, reliable and reproducible methodology that can identify representative sandy soil texture parameters. The test results of the soil samples of the two sands separated by sieving into six size fractions are presented and discussed. The main advantages of the adopted methodology are its simplicity, reliability of the results, and relatively low cost. The results show that sands from the coastal spit (BS have a greater degree of roundness and a smoother surface texture than river sands (RS. The values obtained in the test are statistically analyzed, and again it is confirmed that the BS sand has a slightly greater degree of sphericity than that of the RS sand. Moreover, the RS sand with rough surface texture has larger specific surface area values than the similar BS sand, which agree with the obtained roughness fractal dimensions. The consistent experimental results demonstrate that image analysis combined with fractal theory is an accurate and efficient method to quantify the differences in particle morphology and surface texture of quartz sands.

  14. Continuous adsorption of Pb(II) and methylene blue by engineered graphite oxide coated sand in fixed-bed column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Ji-Lai, E-mail: jilaigong@gmail.com [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Yong-Liang; Jiang, Yan [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zeng, Guang-Ming, E-mail: zgming@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Cui, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Ke; Deng, Can-Hui; Niu, Qiu-Ya; Deng, Jiu-Hua [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Huan, Shuang-Yan [State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-03-01

    Highlights: • GO-sand was prepared by coating GO on the surface of sand. • Pb(II) and MB were efficiently removed by GO-sand filter in column. • The removal of MB was enhanced with the presence of Pb(II). • GO-sand is low-cost and convenient for its application as packed bed filter. - Abstract: The mixture of several effluents, caused by the improper handling and management of effluents, generated multi-component wastewater containing both metals and dyes, leading to the complicated treatment process. In this study, a continuous adsorption of Pb(II) and methylene blue (MB) has been studied in single and binary solutions by using graphite oxide coated sand (GO-sand) as an adsorbent in a fixed-bed column. GO-sand was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy before and after analyte adsorption. Compared with sand filter, adsorption quantity and capacity for Pb(II) and MB by GO-sand filter were greatly increased. In Pb(II) and MB single solutions, the experimental parameters were investigated in detail including initial concentration, flow rate, bed depth and pH. Exhaustion time decreased with increasing initial concentration and flow rate, and increased with increasing bed depth and pH. In the Pb(II)-MB binary solution, exhaustion time significantly decreased for Pb(II) adsorption, but increased for MB adsorption. The reason was explained that the more favorable adsorption for MB onto the surface of GO-sand than that for Pb(II), which was derived from π–π interaction between MB and GO on sand surface in packed filter. The Yoon–Nelson model was applied at different concentration of Pb(II) and MB to predict the breakthrough curves. The experimental data were well fit with the model indicating that it was suitable for this column design.

  15. Submerged Pond Sand Filter-A Novel Approach to Rural Water Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhlenschlæger, Mia; Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Bregnhøj, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the new design and function of a modified version of a traditional slow sand filter. The Submerged Pond Sand Filter is built inside a pond and has a vertical as well as a horizontal flow of water through a sloped filter opening. The filter provides treated drinking water...... to a rural Indian village. The filter has functioned with minimal maintenance for five years without being subject to the typical scraping off and changing of sand as needed in traditional slow sand filters every few months. This five-year study showed bacterial removal efficiency of 97% on average...... to 10 CFU/100 mL on average compared to shorter pumping intervals (5 min). Though the treated water did not comply with the World Health Organization standards of 0 CFU/100 mL, the filter significantly improved water quality and provided one of the best sources of drinkable water in a water...

  16. Studies in Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-30

    Reporte de dos casos de [a ology of a sand fly, P/mlebolomu’,s diabolicuw Hall. in forma anergica difusa. Der matol. Rev. Mex. southwestern -Texas...Contribuiin al estudio de los Phmle- CDC, Veterinary Public Health Notes. USDHEW. bwmwnn de Costa Rica (Diptera, Psychodidae). Tesis. CDC. October. pp. 6- 7...janeiron R. j. 195 pp. the Unrited States (D1)pre ra: Psscfirdidae). j. Ortiz, 1. 1965a. Contribuci~in a! estudio tie los flebor- Partrsirtrl. 30:274-275

  17. On the origin of calcite-cemented sandstones in the clearwater formation oil-sands, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colquhoun, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis examined the formation of calcite-cemented sandstones in the Clearwater Formation within the Cold Lake and southern Primrose areas of the Alberta oil sands. Three stages of diagenesis have been recognized, both in the calcite-cemented sandstones and reservoir sands. Diagenesis of the Clearwater Formation in the Cold Lake and southern Primrose areas ended once the reservoir filled with hydrocarbons, but in the Cold Lake area, diagenesis of water-saturated sands likely continued after hydrocarbon emplacement. The reservoir sands in the formation contain a diverse clay mineral assemblage. In general, 0.7 nm clays dominate the diagenetic clay mineralogy of the Clearwater sands. Reservoir sands that contain large amounts of detrital clays and early diagenetic, grain-coating chlorite/smectite have significantly reduced bitumen-saturation. The presence of detrital and diagenetic smectitic clays complicates the removal of bitumen from the Clearwater formation using cyclic steam stimulation techniques because they swell during steam stimulation and reduce porosity and permeability of reservoir sands. Reservoir sands that contain kaolinite, feldspar and calcite react to form smectitic clays, which swell upon cyclic steam stimulation and further reduce porosity and permeability of reservoir sands. However, in the Cold Lake and Primrose areas, the dominant clay mineral is berthierine, which is associated with high calcite, which help to preserve porosity, permeability and bitumen saturation. The porous nature of bitumen-saturated, calcite-cemented sandstones that are laterally extensive could possibly provide a preferential path for steam to initiate calcite dissolution and produce significant concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide in injected fluids. It was noted that this may then precipitate as carbonate scale within the reservoir and could cause formation damage or affect production equipment. 207 refs., 9 tabs., 58 figs., 3 appendices.

  18. Galveston Island, Texas, Sand Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    billion m3 of beach quality sand . However, Texas projects to date have not utilized these sources because of transportation costs. The lack of nearby...estimate that the San Luis Pass flood shoal contains approximately 11.8 million yd3 of beach quality sand . However, it is expected that if permits...a source of beach- quality sand . 2. Sand could be intercepted before it reaches the present dry beach. ERDC/CHL TR-16-13 55 3. The volume of

  19. Crushed rock sand – An economical and ecological alternative to natural sand to optimize concrete mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mundra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the use of crushed rock sand as viable alternative to Natural River sand that is being conventionally used as fine aggregate in cement concrete. Various mix designs were developed for different grades of concrete based on IS, ACI and British codes using Natural River sand and crushed rock sand. In each case, the cube compressive strength test, and beam flexure tests were conducted. The results of the study show that, the strength properties of concrete using crushed rock sand are nearly similar to the conventional concrete. The study has shown that crushed stone sand can be used as economic and readily available alternative to river sand and can therefore help to arrest the detrimental effects on the environment caused due to excessive mining of river sand.

  20. Microbial community structure and a core microbiome in biological rapid sand filters at Danish waterworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülay, Arda; Musovic, Sanin; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    Rapid sand filtration is a traditional and common technology for drinking water purification from groundwater. Despite its wide scale and long-term use, the diversity and characterization of microbial communities in these engineered systems have remained unexplored and their roles in removal perf...

  1. Assessment of the capacity of slow sand filtration to eliminate Cryptosporidium oocysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijnen, W.A.M.; Dullemont, Y.J.; Bosklopper, K.T.G.J.; Schijven, J.F.; Medema, Gerriet Jan

    2006-01-01

    Decimal Elimination Capacity (DEC) of the slow sand filters of the Dutch drinking water Companies was assessed; first by literature review, followed by evaluation of the removal of environmental spores of sulphite-reducing clostridia (SSRC) and small-sized centric diatoms (SSCD) as surrogates.

  2. VDTT removal system functional design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legare, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Two Velocity Density Temperature Trees (H-2-815016) are to be removed from risers 14A and 1B of tank 241-SY-101. This document provides functional design criteria for the removal system. The removal system consists of a Liquid Removal Tool, Flexible Receiver (H-2-79216), Burial Container, Transport Trailers, and associated equipment

  3. Sand dune tracking from satellite laser altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabboor, Mohammed

    Substantial problems arise from sand movement in arid and semi-arid countries. Sand poses a threat to infrastructure, agricultural and urban areas. These issues are caused by the encroachment of sand on roads and railway tracks, farmland, towns and villages, and airports, to name a few. Sand movement highly depends on geomorphology including vegetation cover, shape and height of the terrain, and grain size of the sand. However, wind direction and speed are the most important factors that affect efficient sand movement. The direction of the movement depends on the main direction of the wind, but it has been shown that a minimum wind speed is required, e.g. wind gusts, to initiate sand transport. This fact prevents a simple calculation of sand transport from conventional wind data as wind records rarely contain sub-minute intervals masking out any wind gusts. An alternative of predicting sand transport is the direct observation of sand advance by in situ measurements or via satellite. Until recently, satellite imagery was the only means to compare dune shape and position for predicting dune migration over several years. In 2003, the NASA laser altimetry mission ICESat became operational and monitors elevations over all surface types including sand dunes with an accuracy of about 10-20 cm. In this study, ICESat observations from repeat tracks (tracks overlapping eachother within 50 m) are used to derive sand dune advance and direction. The method employs a correlation of the elevation profiles over several dunes and was sucessfully validated with synthetic data. The accuracy of this method is 5 meters of dune advance. One of the most active areas exhibiting sand and dune movement is the area of the Arabian Peninsula. Approximately one-third of the Arabian Peninsula is covered by sand dunes. Different wind regimes (Shamal, Kaus) cause sand dune movement in the selected study area in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula between 20-25 degrees North and 45-55 degrees

  4. Submarine sand ridges and sand waves in the eastern part of the China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziyin; Li, Shoujun; Shang, Jihong; Zhou, Jieqiong; Zhao, Dineng; Liang, Yuyang

    2016-04-01

    Integrated with multi-beam and single-beam echo sounding data, as well as historical bathymetric data, submarine bathymetric maps of the eastern part of the China Sea, including the Bohai Sea, Huanghai Sea, and East China Sea, are constructed to systematically study submarine sand ridges and sand waves in the eastern part of the China Sea, combined with high-resolution seismic, sub-bottom profile and borehole data. Submarine sand ridges are extraordinarily developed in the eastern part of the China Sea, and 7 sand ridge areas can be divided from north to south, that is, the Laotieshan Channel sand ridge area in the Bohai Sea, the Korea Bay sand ridge area in the southern Huanghai Sea, the sand ridge area in the eastern Huanghai islands and the Huanghai Troughs, the Jianggang sand ridge area in the western Huanghai Sea, the sand ridge area in the East China Sea shelf, and the sand ridge and sand wave area in the Taiwan Strait and Taiwan Banks. The distribution area of the sand ridges and sand waves covers more than 450,000 km2, wherein ~10,000 km2 in the Bohai Bay, ~200,000 km2 in the Huanghai Sea, ~200,000 km2 in the East China Sea shelf, and ~40,000 km2 in the Taiwan Strait and Taiwan Banks, respectively. The great mass of sand ridges are distributed within water depth of 5-160 m, with a total length of over 160 km and a main width of 5-10 km. The inner structure of the sand ridges presents features of high-angle inclined beddings, with main lithology of sands, sand-mud alternations partly visible, and a small number of mud cores. Dating results indicate that the sand ridges in the eastern part of the China Sea are mainly developed in the Holocene. Sea-level variation dominates the sand ridge evolution in the eastern part of the China Sea since the LGM, and the sand ridges developed in the area of < 60m water depth are appeared in bad activity, meanwhile sand ridges with good activity are still developed in large scale.

  5. Adhesion to sand and ability to mineralise low pesticide concentrations are required for efficient bioaugmentation of flow-through sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Elin Djurhuus; Badawi, Nora; Nybroe, Ole

    2017-01-01

    (Sphingomonas sp. PM2, Sphingomonas sp. ERG5, Burkholderia sp. TFD34, Cupriavidus sp. TFD38) were characterised with regard to their motility, cell surface hydrophobicity, biofilm formation, adhesion behaviour and ability to mineralise MCPA. Strains PM2 and ERG5 were non-motile and hydrophobic, whilst strains...... TFD34 and TFD38 were motile and less hydrophobic. All the strains except ERG5 showed low biofilm formation on polystyrene, although it was significantly higher on glass. PM2 was the most efficient MCPA degrader as it displayed no lag phase and reached >50 % mineralisation at all concentrations (0.......0016-25 mg L(-1)). PM2 adhered significantly better to sand than the other strains. No link was found between motility, biofilm formation and the ability to adhere to sand. PM2 completely removed MCPA for 14 days when inoculated in sand columns with a constant inlet of 1 mg L(-1) MCPA. These results...

  6. Fuel options for oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation examined fuel options in relation to oil sands production. Options include steam and hydrogen (H 2 ) for upgrading; natural gas by pipeline; bitumen; petroleum coke; and coal. Various cost drivers were also considered for each of the fuel options. It was noted that natural gas has high energy value but the capital cost is low, and that coke's energy value is very low but the capital cost is high. A chart forecasting energy prices was presented. The disposition of Western Canada's northern gas situation was presented. Issues concerning rail transportation for coal were considered. Environmental concerns were also examined. A chart of typical gas requirements for 75,000 B/D oil sands projects was presented. Issues concerning steam generation with gas and mining cogeneration with gas fuel and steam turbines were discussed, as well as cogeneration and H 2 with gas fuels and steam turbines. Various technology and fuel utility options were examined, along with details of equipment and processes. Boiler technologies were reviewed by type as well as fuel and steam quality and pressure. Charts of cogeneration with gas turbine and circulation fluid bed boilers were presented. Gasification processes were reviewed and a supply cost basis was examined. Cost drivers were ranked according to energy, operating considerations and capital investment. Results indicated that fuel costs were significant for gas and coal. Capital costs and capital recovery charge was most significant with coal and gasification technology. Without capital recovery, cash costs favour the use of bitumen and coke. Gasification would need lower capital and lower capital recovery to compete with direct burning. It was concluded that direct burning of bitumen can compete with natural gas. With price volatility anticipated, dual fuel capability for bitumen and gas has merit. Petroleum coke can be produced or retrieved from stockpiles. Utility supply costs of direct burning of coke is

  7. Combining epidemiology with basic biology of sand flies, parasites, and hosts to inform leishmaniasis transmission dynamics and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtenay, Orin; Peters, Nathan C; Rogers, Matthew E; Bern, Caryn

    2017-10-01

    Quantitation of the nonlinear heterogeneities in Leishmania parasites, sand fly vectors, and mammalian host relationships provides insights to better understand leishmanial transmission epidemiology towards improving its control. The parasite manipulates the sand fly via production of promastigote secretory gel (PSG), leading to the "blocked sand fly" phenotype, persistent feeding attempts, and feeding on multiple hosts. PSG is injected into the mammalian host with the parasite and promotes the establishment of infection. Animal models demonstrate that sand flies with the highest parasite loads and percent metacyclic promastigotes transmit more parasites with greater frequency, resulting in higher load infections that are more likely to be both symptomatic and efficient reservoirs. The existence of mammalian and sand fly "super-spreaders" provides a biological basis for the spatial and temporal clustering of clinical leishmanial disease. Sand fly blood-feeding behavior will determine the efficacies of indoor residual spraying, topical insecticides, and bed nets. Interventions need to have sufficient coverage to include transmission hot spots, especially in the absence of field tools to assess infectiousness. Interventions that reduce sand fly densities in the absence of elimination could have negative consequences, for example, by interfering with partial immunity conferred by exposure to sand fly saliva. A deeper understanding of both sand fly and host biology and behavior is essential to ensuring effectiveness of vector interventions.

  8. Study of Black Sand Particles from Sand Dunes in Badr, Saudi Arabia Using Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Abbas Khwaja

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Particulate air pollution is a health concern. This study determines the microscopic make-up of different varieties of sand particles collected at a sand dune site in Badr, Saudi Arabia in 2012. Three categories of sand were studied: black sand, white sand, and volcanic sand. The study used multiple high resolution electron microscopies to study the morphologies, emission source types, size, and elemental composition of the particles, and to evaluate the presence of surface “coatings or contaminants” deposited or transported by the black sand particles. White sand was comprised of natural coarse particles linked to wind-blown releases from crustal surfaces, weathering of igneous/metamorphic rock sources, and volcanic activities. Black sand particles exhibited different morphologies and microstructures (surface roughness compared with the white sand and volcanic sand. Morphological Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM analyses revealed that the black sand contained fine and ultrafine particles (50 to 500 nm ranges and was strongly magnetic, indicating the mineral magnetite or elemental iron. Aqueous extracts of black sands were acidic (pH = 5.0. Fe, C, O, Ti, Si, V, and S dominated the composition of black sand. Results suggest that carbon and other contaminant fine particles were produced by fossil-fuel combustion and industrial emissions in heavily industrialized areas of Haifa and Yanbu, and transported as cloud condensation nuclei to Douf Mountain. The suite of techniques used in this study has yielded an in-depth characterization of sand particles. Such information will be needed in future environmental, toxicological, epidemiological, and source apportionment studies.

  9. Understanding Colombian Amazonian white sand forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peñuela-Mora, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Although progress has been made in studies on white sand forests in the Amazon, there is still a considerable gap in our knowledge of the unique species composition of white sand forests and their structure and dynamics, especially in Western Amazon. This thesis aims to fill this gap by addressing

  10. Characterization of sand lenses embedded in tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Klint, K.E.S.; Nilsson, B.

    2012-01-01

    Tills dominate large parts of the superficial sediments on the Northern hemisphere. These glacial diamictons are extremely heterogeneous and riddled with fractures and lenses of sand or gravel. The frequency and geometry of sand lenses within tills are strongly linked to glaciodynamic processes...

  11. Japan's involvement in oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, T.

    1994-01-01

    According to Japanese national policy, exploration and development by Japanese companies in overseas countries are promoted in order to ensure stable oil supplies. Japan Canada Oil Sands Limited (JACOS), part of the JAPEX group, was established during the 1978 world oil crisis to explore and develop Canadian oil sand resources in accordance with Japan's national policy. The JAPEX group, including JACOS, has invested $123 million in oil sands projects in Alberta. JAPEX's first involvement in oil sands was in the Primrose Project operated by Norcen in the Cold Lake area. Five years of cyclic steam stimulation pilot tests did not produce sufficiently good results to justify further operation. The second involvement was the PCEJ Project, a joint effort by four companies that are participating in a bitumen recovery test project in the Athabasca Deposit. JACOS holds 2,452 km 2 of oil sands leases in Alberta. Tests conducted since 1978 in the PCEJ Project include multiwell steam injection pilot tests, some of which showed promise. JACOS is also participating in steam assisted gravity drainage projects and in federal/provincial research programs. Obstacles identified in developing Alberta oil sands are the lack of a bitumen pipeline to Edmonton and the insufficient length of oil sands leases (currently 10 years), given the difficulties of oil sand development. 10 figs

  12. Seasonal fluctuations of phlebotomines sand fly populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An entomological survey of phlebotomine sand flies was conducted in the Moulay Yacoub province, central Morocco. An anthropic niche (Ouled Aid) and a wild niche (Zliligh) were selected. Sand flies were collected twice a month between April 2011 and March 2012, using sticky traps and CDC light traps. 3675 specimens ...

  13. On shelterbelt design for combating sand invasion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammed, A.E.; Stigter, C.J.; Adam, H.S.

    1996-01-01

    After a review of the scarce literature on using trees against sand encroachment, a quantitative experiment with a wide shelterbelt to combat sand invasion is reported on. Experimental work was carried out at the northwestern border of the Gezira Scheme (Sudan), an area of severe land degradation

  14. Design of dry sand soil stratified sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erkang; Chen, Wei; Feng, Xiao; Liao, Hongbo; Liang, Xiaodong

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a design of a stratified sampler for dry sand soil, which can be used for stratified sampling of loose sand under certain conditions. Our group designed the mechanical structure of a portable, single - person, dry sandy soil stratified sampler. We have set up a mathematical model for the sampler. It lays the foundation for further development of design research.

  15. Pattern formation - Instabilities in sand ripples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. L.; v. Hecke, M.; Haaning, A.

    2001-01-01

    Sand ripples are seen below shallow wavy water and are formed whenever water oscillates over a bed of sand. Here we analyse the instabilities that can upset this perfect patterning when the ripples are subjected to large changes in driving amplitude or frequency, causing them to deform both...

  16. Flowability in crushed sand mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera, O. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experimental study explored the relationship between mortar flowability and the voids content in crushed sand to determine the effect of grain shape and surface texture as well as dust content on the behaviour of fresh mortar. The findings revealed a close correlation between voids content and the volume of paste needed for mortar to begin to flow as a continuous material, mortar flowability and the water content needed to attain a given flowability. The comparison of the empirical findings to the results obtained with the Larrard (1, 2 model provided further information on the effect of sand grain morphology on fresh mortars.

    En el presente trabajo se plantea un estudio experimental de la fluidez de morteros basado en el contenido de vacíos de arenas machacadas, para comprender la influencia de la forma y textura superficial de los granos de arena y del contenido de polvo de las mismas sobre el estado fresco de morteros. Los resultados muestran la estrecha relación entre el contenido de vacíos entre granos y los volúmenes de pasta necesarios para iniciar el escurrimiento como un material continuo, la fluidez de los morteros, el contenido de agua para alcanzar una determinada fluidez, etc. El comportamiento evaluado se compara con resultados obtenidos aplicando el modelo de F. de Larrard (1, 2, permitiendo de este modo obtener mayor información de la influencia de la morfología de los granos de la arena sobre el estado fresco de los morteros.

  17. Sand transportation and reverse patterns over leeward face of sand dune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Dun, Hongchao; Tong, Ding; Huang, Ning

    2017-04-01

    Sand saltation has complex interactions with turbulent flow and dune form. Most models of wind-blown sand consider ideal circumstances such as steady wind velocity and a flat surface, and the bulk of data on wind flow and sand transport over an individual dune has focused mostly on the influence of dune shape or inter-dune space on the wind flow, neglecting the effect of morphology on sand saltation, particularly airflow and sand transportation over the leeward slope. Wind flow structures over the leeward slope of sand dunes have a fundamental influence on the organization of sand dunes. In order to understand sand dune dynamics, lee face airflow and sediment transportation should be paid more attention. Previous field observations could not measure turbulent flow structure well because of the limited observation points and the influence of experiment structure on wind field. In addition, the reverse sand particles over leeward face could not be collected by sand trap in field. Numerous field observations could not measure turbulent flow structure because of the limited observation points and the influence of experimental structures on the wind field. In addition, the reverse transport of sand particles over leeward face could not be collected by sand traps in field. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the turbulent flow structure and sand transport pattern over the leeward slope. A numerical model of sand saltation over slope terrain is constructed, which also considers the coupling effects between air flow and sand particles. The large eddy simulation method is used to model turbulent flow. Sand transport is simulated by tracking the trajectory of each sand particle. The results show that terrain significantly alters the turbulent air flow structure and wind-blown sand movement, especially over the leeward slope. Here, mass flux increases initially and then decreases with height in the reversed flow region in the direction of wind flow, and the mass flux

  18. Spleen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spleen. Sickle cell anemia . Splenic artery aneurysm (rare). Trauma to the spleen. Risks Risks for anesthesia and surgery in general ... removal - series References Brandow AM, Camitta BM. Hyposplenism, splenic trauma, and splenectomy. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. ...

  19. Developing new markets for oil sands products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a review by Purvin and Gertz of western Canadian crude oil supply. This energy consulting firm provides advise to the energy sector. It suggests that oil sands production will surpass declining conventional production. Oil sands supply includes bitumen, synthetic crude oil (SCO), and diluent. It is forecasted that oil sands will increase from 42 per cent of western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. The potential of Alberta's oil sands was discussed along with a recent study of refined products and petrochemicals from bitumen. Upgrading, refining and petrochemical case studies were presented. The author examined if a Canadian oil sands upgrading project with high capital costs can be competitive with competing projects in the United States and internationally. In addition to supply and demand issues, the presentation examined infrastructure capability and market potential in the United States. The economic potential and risks of preferred business cases compared to upgrading to SCO were also evaluated. 15 figs

  20. Numerical simulation of aeolian sand ripples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Liqiang; Guo Liejin

    2004-01-01

    With a new horizontal saltation displacement vector, a model is implemented to simulate the initiation and evolution of aeolian sand ripples. In the model, saltation distance considers the effects of surface height and slope. A linear stability analysis is also carried out for formation of sand ripples. The results show that, the model can be able to successfully reproduce sand ripples which can increase in scale by merging of small ripples. The linear stability analysis indicates that sand ripples appear when the relaxation rate parameter is below a threshold value and wind strength parameter is larger than a critical value. The results also verified that the formation of sand ripples is a self-organization process

  1. Athabasca tar sand reservoir properties derived from cores and logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhouse, R.

    1976-01-01

    Log interpretation parameters for the Athabasca Tar Sand Lease No. 24 have been determined by careful correlation with Dean and Stark core analysis data. Significant expansion of Athabasca cores occurs as overburden pressure is removed. In the more shaly sands the core analysis procedures remove adsorbed water from the clays leading to further overestimation of porosity and free water volume. Log interpretation parameters (R/sub w/ = 0.5 ohm . m and m = n = 1.5) were defined by correlation with the weight of tar as a fraction of the weight of rock solids (grain or dry weight fraction of tar). This quantity is independent of the water content of the cores, whereas porosity and the weight of tar as a fraction of the bulk weight of fluids plus solids (bulk weight fraction) are both dependent on water content. Charts are provided for the conversion of bulk weight fraction of fluids to porosity; grain weight fraction of fluids to porosity; log derived porosity and core grain weight tar to water saturation. Example results show that the core analysis grain weight fraction of tar is adequately matched by the log analyses. The log results provide a better representation of the reservoir fluid volumes than the core analysis data

  2. Identification of causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puttaswamy, N.; Liber, K.

    2010-01-01

    The potential causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity were investigated. Chronic 7-day toxicity tests were conducted to demonstrate that oil sands coke leachates (CL) are acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia). CLs were generated in a laboratory to perform toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests in order to investigate the causes of the CL toxicity. The coke was subjected to a 15-day batch leaching process at 5.5 and 9.5 pH values. The leachates were then filtered and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-day estimates for the C. dubia survival were 6.3 for a pH of 5.5 and 28.7 per cent for the 9.5 CLs. The addition of EDTA significantly improved survival and reproduction in a pH of 5.5 CL, but not in a pH of 9.5 CL. The toxicity of the pH 5.5 CL was removed with a cationic resin treatment. The toxicity of the 9.5 pH LC was removed using an anion resin treatment. Toxicity re-appeared when nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) were added back to the resin-treated CLs. Results of the study suggested that Ni and V were acting as primary toxicants in the pH 5.5 CL, while V was the primary cause of toxicity in the pH 9.5 CL.

  3. Performance comparison of sand and fine sawdust vermifilters in treating concentrated grey water for urban poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adugna, Amare T; Andrianisa, Harinaivo A; Konate, Yacouba; Ndiaye, Awa; Maiga, Amadou H

    2015-01-01

    A comparative investigation was conducted for 10 months with sand and fine sawdust vermifilters and a control unit to treat concentrated grey water generated from a poor urban household in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Each of the filters was made up of cylindrical DN200-PVC pipes and filled with 10 cm of gravel at the bottom. On top of the gravel layer, filter 1 (fully sand, F1) was completed with 40 cm of sand and 10 cm of fine sawdust, filter 2 (partially sand, F2) with 20 cm of sand and 30 cm of fine sawdust, respectively, and filter 3 (fully sawdust, F3) and 4 (control, F4) with 50 cm of fine sawdust only. Two hundred Eudrilus eugeniae earthworms were inoculated in each of the vermifilters. The vermifiltration system was supplied with grey water four times per day at a hydraulic loading rate of 64 L/m(2)/day on a batch basis. The removal efficiencies of biological oxygen demand, total chemical oxygen demand, and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (dCOD) by the vermifilters were 25-30% higher than the control, but little differences were observed in terms of total suspended solids and coliform removal efficiencies. Though there was no significant difference in the performance of the three vermifilters (p > 0.05), except for dCOD removal efficiency, the lifespan of F2 and F3 was longer than that of F1. Therefore, fine sawdust can substitute sand as a filter medium in vermifilters.

  4. A combination of bioleaching and electromagnetic separation in the treatment of quartz sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovás Michal

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with the treatment of Slovakian eolic quartz sands by bioleaching and magnetic separation with the aim to remove iron. The X-ray study of sand patterns confirms that quartz occurs as a dominant mineral. Accompanying minerals are represented by smectite and feldspars. As to the sample of unground sand, bacterial leaching resulted in a Fe2O3 reduction to the content of 0.13 %. Similarly, in case of ground sample, the Fe2O3 content was decreased to the value of 0.19 %. Thus, biological leaching removed 60 % of Fe and by following leaching by oxalic acid total the iron removal was 70.5 %. Finally, the application of magnetic separation resulted in the total iron removal of 93 % and, in such combined way, the prepared product contained 0.024 % of Fe2O3. Achieved results on the iron removal points to the fact that the combination of leaching and magnetic separation enables to obtain a product usable in glass industry.

  5. Heterogeneous Nitrification in a Full Scale Rapid Sand Filter Treating Groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopato, Laure; Röttgers, Nina; Binning, Philip John

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine ammonium removal kinetics in an operating biologically active sand filter at a waterworks treating anaerobic groundwater. The ammonium load varied between 0.7 and 3 g N/h/m2 (concentration ranged from 0.23 to 0.78 mg N/l) and the inlet water flux varied...... nitrification rate constant was closely related to the water pore velocity which implies that the rate is strongly determined by the resistance to mass transport in the diffusion boundary layer around the sand grains. Read More: http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29EE.1943-7870.0000653...

  6. Determination of stability of saturated sands of Bredasdorp and Varswater Formations: Koeberg nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Witt, M.J.; Barker, O.B.

    1985-01-01

    The planning of the Koeberg nuclear power station was postulated on the basis of possible seismic ground movements of sufficient intensity to cause liquefaction of the sand overlying the bedrock. Where seismic instability may occur, it is normally necessary for the potentially liquefiable soils to be removed and replaced with a stable material. The site investigations were therefore designed to evaluate the soils parameters necessary for the safe excavation of sand. The properties of potential backfill materials were studied and requirements for selective stockpiling of material from the excavation defined

  7. Mass spectrometry of oil sands naphthenic acids : degradation in OSPW and wetland plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Headley, J. [Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Water Science and Technology Directorate

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed mass spectrometry of oil sands naphthenic acids and the degradation in OSPW and wetland plants. It presented background information on the Athabasca oil sands and naphthenic acids which involve a mixture of alkanes and cycloalkane carboxylic acids with aliphatic side chains. The presentation also discussed mass spectrometry with electrospray operating in negative ion modes. Loop injection, external standard methods and solid phase extraction were reviewed along with improved analysis by removing background ions. Other topics that were presented included hydroponic test systems and wetland plant toxicity, growth and transpiration. It was concluded that dissipation included species containing oxygen, ozone, O{sub 4}, and O{sub 5}. tabs., figs.

  8. The Holocene evolution of the beach and inland aeolian sand of the north-central Mediterranean coast of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, Joel; Sivan, Dorit; Bookman, Revital; Shteinberg, Gilad

    2015-04-01

    distance and age and did not significantly differ from the values of beach sand. The spatial distribution and temporal clustering of the 1.2-1.1 ka ages does not seem stochastic. However, this age range does not coincide with any local or regional climate change or anthropogenic anomaly that could explain the enhanced sand mobility. Assuming no late Holocene change in coastal sand supply and availability, sand transport may have been due to short term climate (multi-annual) episodes of increased windiness that may have followed short-term or cumulative removal of stabilizing dune vegetation by man, a hypothesis that requires further investigation.

  9. Critical State of Sand Matrix Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marto, Aminaton; Tan, Choy Soon; Makhtar, Ahmad Mahir; Kung Leong, Tiong

    2014-01-01

    The Critical State Soil Mechanic (CSSM) is a globally recognised framework while the critical states for sand and clay are both well established. Nevertheless, the development of the critical state of sand matrix soils is lacking. This paper discusses the development of critical state lines and corresponding critical state parameters for the investigated material, sand matrix soils using sand-kaolin mixtures. The output of this paper can be used as an interpretation framework for the research on liquefaction susceptibility of sand matrix soils in the future. The strain controlled triaxial test apparatus was used to provide the monotonic loading onto the reconstituted soil specimens. All tested soils were subjected to isotropic consolidation and sheared under undrained condition until critical state was ascertain. Based on the results of 32 test specimens, the critical state lines for eight different sand matrix soils were developed together with the corresponding values of critical state parameters, M, λ, and Γ. The range of the value of M, λ, and Γ is 0.803–0.998, 0.144–0.248, and 1.727–2.279, respectively. These values are comparable to the critical state parameters of river sand and kaolin clay. However, the relationship between fines percentages and these critical state parameters is too scattered to be correlated. PMID:24757417

  10. Comparison of Calculation Models for Bucket Foundation in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Molina, Salvador Devant; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The possibility of fast and rather precise preliminary offshore foundation design is desirable. The ultimate limit state of bucket foundation is investigated using three different geotechnical calculation tools: [Ibsen 2001] an analytical method, LimitState:GEO and Plaxis 3D. The study has focused...... on resultant bearing capacity of variously embedded foundation in sand. The 2D models, [Ibsen 2001] and LimitState:GEO can be used for the preliminary design because they are fast and result in a rather similar bearing capacity calculation compared with the finite element models of Plaxis 3D. The 2D models...

  11. Invasive plants on disturbed Korean sand dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee Dae

    2005-01-01

    The sand dunes in coastal regions of South Korea are important ecosystems because of their small size, the rare species found in this habitat, and the beautiful landscapes they create. This study investigated the current vegetative status of sand dunes on three representative coasts of the Korean peninsula, and on the coasts of Cheju Island, and assessed the conditions caused by invasive plants. The relationships between the degree of invasion and 14 environmental variables were studied. Plots of sand dunes along line transects perpendicular to the coastal lines were established to estimate vegetative species coverage. TWINSPAN (Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis), CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and DCCA (Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis) were performed to classify communities on sand dunes and assess species composition variation. Carex kobomugi, Elymus mollis, and Vitex rotundifolia were found to be the dominant species plotted on the east, the west, and the peripheral coasts of Cheju Island, respectively. Vegetation on the south coast was totally extinct. The 19 communities, including representative C. kobomugi, C. kobomugi- Ixeris repens, C. kobomugi- Oenothera biennis, E. mollis, Lolium multiflorum- Calystegia soldanella, and V. rotundifolia- C. kobomugi, were all classified according to TWINSPAN. Oenothera biennis and L. multiflorum were exotics observed within these native communities. CCA showed that invasive native and exotic species distribution was segregated significantly, according to disturbance level, exotic species number, gravel, sand and silt contents, as well as vegetation size. It further revealed that human disturbance can strongly favor the settlement of invasive and exotic species. Restoration options to reduce exotic plants in the South Korean sand dune areas were found to be the introduction of native plant species from one sand dune into other sand dune areas, prohibition of building and the introduction of exotic

  12. Hair Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hædersdal, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  13. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  14. Watching Faults Grow in Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Accretionary sandbox experiments provide a rich environment for investigating the processes of fault development. These experiments engage students because 1) they enable direct observation of fault growth, which is impossible in the crust (type 1 physical model), 2) they are not only representational but can also be manipulated (type 2 physical model), 3) they can be used to test hypotheses (type 3 physical model) and 4) they resemble experiments performed by structural geology researchers around the world. The structural geology courses at UMass Amherst utilize a series of accretionary sandboxes experiments where students first watch a video of an experiment and then perform a group experiment. The experiments motivate discussions of what conditions they would change and what outcomes they would expect from these changes; hypothesis development. These discussions inevitably lead to calculations of the scaling relationships between model and crustal fault growth and provide insight into the crustal processes represented within the dry sand. Sketching of the experiments has been shown to be a very effective assessment method as the students reveal which features they are analyzing. Another approach used at UMass is to set up a forensic experiment. The experiment is set up with spatially varying basal friction before the meeting and students must figure out what the basal conditions are through the experiment. This experiment leads to discussions of equilibrium and force balance within the accretionary wedge. Displacement fields can be captured throughout the experiment using inexpensive digital image correlation techniques to foster quantitative analysis of the experiments.

  15. Sudan challenges the sand dragon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, J

    1978-01-01

    Formerly productive areas have become wasteland as the desert advances in the Sudan. To understand how desertification is undermining the very survival of the Sahel, one ecosystem is reviewed in detail here: the gum arabic zone of Kordofan. After cotton, gum arabic is Sudan's largest export, worth from $14-26 million in recent years. In this zone the ecologically balanced cycle of gum gardens, fire, grain crops, and fallow is now breaking down; the 1968-1973 drought having in many areas delivered the final blow. Because of a growing population, the cultivation period is extended, and the soil becomes impoverished. Overgrazing in the fallow period, and the lopping of gum trees for firewood is producing a low return on the gum trees. Without this gum to harvest for cash, farmers must repeatedly replant their subsistence crops until the land becomes useless sand. The Sudanese have recognized the problem earlier than most, and a number of imaginative and practicable pilot projects are already in use: 1) waterpoint management; 2) construction of firebreaks; 3) land threatened by shifting dunes has been enclosed by stockproof fence and afforested with local trees; and 4) shelter belts have been planted around town perimeters where old gum tree stumps have started to sprout and the grass is reseeding itself. Out of these pilot projects, and with the advice of the U.N. Environment Program, the U.N. Development Program, and FAO, the Sudanese have developed a modest $26 million desert encroachment control and rehabilitation program (DECARP).

  16. Sand to Root Transfer of PAHs and PCBs by Carrots Grown on Sand with Pure Substances and Biosolids Amended Sand

    OpenAIRE

    Sablayrolles, Caroline; Montréjaud-Vignoles, Mireille; Silvestre, Jérôme; Patria, Lucie

    2006-01-01

    A study on behaviour of trace organic compounds (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAH, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls, PCB) in a sand-plant system has been carried out, with the reclamation of wastewater treatment plant biosolids for agriculture in mind. Carrot plants (Daucus carota) were grown on soilless culture (sand), to provide optimal transfer conditions, in plant containers inside a temperature regulated greenhouse. There were two types of experiment. The trace organic compounds have i...

  17. The recovery of rare earth elements (REE) from beach sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrache, Cristina A.; Santos, Gabriel P. Jr.; Fernandez, Lourdes G.; Castillo, Marilyn K.; Tabora, Estrellita U; Intoy, Socorro P.; Reyes, Rolando Y.

    2005-01-01

    This preliminary study describes a metallurgical process that will extract, recover and produce REE oxides from beach sands obtained from Ombo, San Vicente, northern Palawan. The beach sands contain REE minerals of allanite and small amounts of monazite. Allanite is a sorosilicate mineral containing rare earths, thorium and uranium. Monazite is the anhydrous phosphate of cerium and the lanthanum group of rare earths with thorium commonly present in replacement for cerium and lanthanum. Collected beach sand were first pan-concentrated in-situ to produce heavy mineral concentrates. Screening using a 32 mesh (0.500 mm) sieve was done at the Nuclear Materials Research Laboratory to remove oversize sand particles. The -32 mesh fraction was treated with bromoform (sp. gr. 2.89) to separate the heavy minerals from siliceous gangue. Grinding to -325 mesh size (0.044mm) followed to liberate the minerals prior to leaching. Two acids leachants were used - concentrated HCl for the first trial and a mixture of concentrated HCl and HNO 3 (10:1 volume ratio) for the second trial. Both leaching trials were carried out at 180 o C for 7 hours or until dry. The resulting leached residues were re-dissolved in concentrated HCl and filtered. Ionquest R 801, an organophosphorous extractant, was added to the filtrate to separate the radioactive thorium from REE. Sodium hydroxide was added to the aqueous phase to precipitate the REE. After filtering the precipitate, it was dissolved in HCl. The acid solution was repeatedly extracted three (3) times with Ionquest R 801 to remove iron and other contaminants. Ammonium hydroxide was added to the final solution to precipitate the REE, which was then dried in the oven. The precipitate was calcined/roasted in the furnace at two different temperatures for different periods of time to burn off the organic matter and to form oxides. Results of the XRD analysis showed peaks of the calcined precipitate matching with the peaks of lanthanum oxide

  18. Applications in the oil sands industry for Particlear{sup R} silica microgel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffett, B. [DuPont Chemical Solutions Enterprise, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation demonstrated the use of Particlear{sup R} silica microgel in the oil sands industry. The silica-based coagulant is an amorphous silicon dioxide microgel solution. The surface area of a football field can be obtained using 2.7 grams of the substance. The coagulation mechanism is achieved by charge neutralization and inter-particle bridging. The microgel is manufactured at the point of use from commodity chemicals, water, and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Applications for the microgel include potable water treatment, paper retention, and animal processing wastewater. In the oil sands industry, Particlear{sup R} can be used in tailings flocculation, thickened tailings drying, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) water treatment, and enhanced bitumen recovery. It was concluded that the microgel can be used in many oil sands processing and liquid-solid separation processes in order to remove dissolved solids and organics and increase the rate of solids dewatering. tabs., figs.

  19. Discovery and description of complete ammonium oxidizers in groundwater-fed rapid sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palomo, Alejandro

    as biological filtration has long been acknowledged and recently been investigated. Biological filtration technology is widely used around the world and is especially important in Denmark as groundwater is the main source water for drinking water production. Because the groundwater has a relative high-quality......, aeration followed by biological filtration is the only required treatment before distribution. In the last years, the microbial communities in rapid gravity sand filters, the typical biological filter used in Denmark, have been characterized, but little knowledge had been required about their physiological...... activity and roles in compound removal from the source water. This PhD project focused on a comprehensive investigation of the microbial communities in rapid sand filters beyond their purely taxonomical identification. For this purpose, samples collected from a rapid sand filter were subjected...

  20. Effect of bioremediation agents on oil biodegradation in medium-fine sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, B.C.; Swannell, R.P.J.; Grant, A.L.; Lee, K.

    1995-01-01

    A spill of weathered Arabian light crude oil on an intertidal sand zone was simulated in the laboratory. Respirometry, chemical, and microbiological methods were employed to assess the effectiveness of two bioremediation agents: a slow-release inorganic (Max Bac) and an oleophilic organic fertilizer (Inipol EAP22). Inipol EAP22 stimulated additional CO 2 evolution, and significantly increased both the total chemoheterotrophic population and the number of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms. At the end of the experiment, the residual oil extracted from the Inipol-treated sand was significantly more biodegraded, based on the application of the conserved biomarkers (phytane and 17α, 21β hopane), than that removed from the other sand columns, albeit by a relatively small amount. The results suggested that Inipol EAP22 stimulated the chemoheterotrophic and hydrocarbon-degrading microbial population and, after a lag phase, encouraged oil biodegradation in fine sandy sediments subjected to a vertical tidal cycle

  1. experimental studies of sand production from unconsolidated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    aDepartment of Chemical Engineering, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. bDepartment of Petroleum ... as risk of well failure, erosion of pipelines and surface facilities, sand separa- ... ment, theoretical and numerical analysis have lead to the ...

  2. A study of global sand seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Edwin D.

    1979-01-01

    The birth of the idea that led to this publication on "Global Sand Seas" dates back to the late 1920's. At that time I was engaged in a study of the Coconino Sandstone of Arizona's Grand Canyon. Considerable controversy existed then as to whether this sandstone was a subaqueous deposit or was composed of wind-formed dunes. It became apparent that definitive literature was sparse or lacking on types of dunes, global distribution of these types, the mechanics of their development, the precise nature of their internal structure of cross-stratificiation, and the relation of wind systems to these sand forms. Especially lacking were data on criteria that could confidently be used in the recognition of ancient dunes. The common denominator in this publication is eolian sand bodies. Although the book is concerned primarily with desert sand seas, the subject matter is not restricted to deserts; it includes many references to deposits of coastal sand and to sand bodies in humid climates. Nor does the book deal exclusively with dunes, which, according to most definitions, involve mounds or hills. Many references are made to sand sheets, sand stringers, and other types of sand deposits that have no prominent topographic expression. All sand bodies accumulated by the action of wind are discussed. Chapters A-J of this publication are primarily topical. Chapters cover the grain texture, the color, and the structure of modern dunes and other eolian sands. Special treatment is given to the relation of wind data to dune interpretation, the evolution of form in current-deposited sand bodies as determined from experimental studies, and the discriminant analysis technique for differentiating between coastal and inland desert sands. This topical part of the publication also includes an analysis of criteria used in ancient deposits to interpret their eolian genesis and a consideration of economic application of the principles described, including a discussion of potentials and problems

  3. Bioaugmentation of flow-through sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Elin Djurhuus

    for degradation performances in flow-through sand columns, with the aim of identifying a suitable inoculant strain for future environmental applications. Another aim was to identify a suitable genetic marker to monitor phenoxy acid degradation in strain Sphingobium sp. PM2. We were not able to link motility...... and biofilm formation to the strains´ ability to adhere to sand. Nevertheless, a correlation was found between cell surface hydrophobicity and adhesion and overall degradation performances in flow-through sand columns. We identified S phingobium sp. PM2 as a promising inoculant strain, displaying efficient...... MCPA degradation for prolonged periods in flow-through sand columns. In an expression study of catabolic genes with putative roles in phenoxy acid degradation, we observed a marked upregulation of catabolic genes cadA and tfdC upon exposure to MCPA, 2,4-D, dichlorprop and mecoprop in strain PM2, which...

  4. Geotechnical properties of crude oil contaminated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, V.K.; Das, B.M.; Cook, E.E.; Shin, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    Contamination of soil due to an oil spill influences its subsequent engineering behavior. An investigation was conducted to study the effect of crude oil contamination on compaction characteristics, shear strength, one-dimensional compression, and coefficient of permeability. Water permeability was also determined by using commercial grade motor oils as contaminants. The test results indicate that the compaction characteristics are influenced by oil contamination. The angle of internal friction of sand (based on total stress condition) decreases due to presence of oil within the pore spaces in sand. One dimensional compression characteristics of sand are significantly influenced by oil contamination resulting in a decrease in the value of constrained modulus with increase in the degree of oil contamination compared to the case of dry sand. Water permeability was observed to be a function of the initial viscosity and the degree of saturation due to the contaminating oil

  5. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a

  6. Supercritical solvent extraction of oil sand bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Tileuberdi, Ye.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Golovko, A. K.; Rudyk, S.

    2017-08-01

    The supercritical solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sand studied with organic solvents. The experiments were performed in autoclave reactor at temperature above 255 °C and pressure 29 atm with stirring for 6 h. The reaction resulted in the formation of coke products with mineral part of oil sands. The remaining products separated into SARA fractions. The properties of the obtained products were studied. The supercritical solvent extraction significantly upgraded extracted natural bitumen.

  7. Penggunaan Unit Slow Sand Filter, Ozon Generator dan Rapid Sand Filter Skala Rumah Tangga Untuk Meningkatkan Kualitas Air Sumur Dangkal Menjadi Air Layak Minum (Parameter Zat Organik dan Deterjen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Prawita Sari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Air sumur merupakan air tanah yang sering kali digunakan masyarakat untuk aktivitas sehari-hari. Air sumur dengan kadar organik dan deterjen tinggi tidak layak dikonsumsi masyarakat karena dapat menyebabkan berbagai macam penyakit. Selain itu, adanya zat organik dan deterjen mempengaruhi warna dan bau air sumur sehingga tidak layak konsumsi. Slow sand filter merupakan unit pengolahan yang mampu meremoval zat organik pada air. Slow sand filter dan rapid sand filter tidak menggunakan bahan kimia dalam proses pengolahan sehingga lebih ekonomis dan efektif. Sedangkan ozon, efektif digunakan untuk meremoval zat organik yang ada dalam air dengan mengubah rantai zat organik menjadi lebih sederhana. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keefektifan penggunaan slow sand filter, ozon generator dan rapid sand filter dalam menyisihkan beban deterjen dan zat organik pada air sumur. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa efisiensi removal pada unit slow sand filter untuk beban organik dan deterjen sebesar 57,6% dan 60,5 %, pada unit ozonasi sebesar 47,4% dan 17,5%, dan pada unit rapid sand filter sebesar 50,0% dan 50,9 %.

  8. Sorption and desorption of arsenic to ferrihydrite in a sand filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Soren; Larsen, Flemming; Koch, Christian Bender; Arvin, Erik

    2005-10-15

    Elevated arsenic concentrations in drinking water occur in many places around the world. Arsenic is deleterious to humans, and consequently, As water treatment techniques are sought. To optimize arsenic removal, sorption and desorption processes were studied at a drinking water treatment plant with aeration and sand filtration of ferrous iron rich groundwater at Elmevej Water Works, Fensmark, Denmark. Filter sand and pore water were sampled along depth profiles in the filters. The sand was coated with a 100-300 microm thick layer of porous Si-Ca-As-contaning iron oxide (As/Fe = 0.17) with locally some manganese oxide. The iron oxide was identified as a Si-stabilized abiotically formed two-line ferrihydrite with a magnetic hyperfine field of 45.8 T at 5 K. The raw water has an As concentration of 25 microg/L, predominantly as As(II). As the water passes through the filters, As(III) is oxidized to As(V) and the total concentrations drop asymptotically to a approximately 15 microg/L equilibrium concentration. Mn is released to the pore water, indicating the existence of reactive manganese oxides within the oxide coating, which probably play a role for the rapid As(III) oxidation. The As removal in the sand filters appears controlled by sorption equilibrium onto the ferrihydrite. By addition of ferrous chloride (3.65 mg of Fe(II)/L) to the water stream between two serially connected filters, a 3 microg/L As concentration is created in the water that infiltrates into the second sand filter. However, as water flow is reestablished through the second filter, As desorbs from the ferrihydrite and increases until the 15 microg/L equilibrium concentration. Sequential chemical extractions and geometrical estimates of the fraction of surface-associated As suggest that up to 40% of the total As can be remobilized in response to changes in the water chemistry in the sand filter.

  9. Remediation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater using media-injected permeable reactive barriers with a modified montmorillonite: sand tank studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ximing; Liu, Haifei; Huang, Guoxin; Li, Ye; Zhao, Yan; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    A modified montmorillonite (MMT) was prepared using an acid activation-sodium activation-iron oxide coating method to improve the adsorption capacities of natural MMTs. For MMT, its interlamellar distance increased from 12.29 to 13.36 Å, and goethite (α-FeOOH) was intercalated into its clay layers. Two novel media-injected permeable reactive barrier (MI-PRB) configurations were proposed for removing arsenic from groundwater. Sand tank experiments were conducted to investigate the performance of the two MI-PRBs: Tank A was filled with quartz sand. Tank B was packed with quartz sand and zero-valent iron (ZVI) in series, and the MMT slurry was respectively injected into them to form reactive zones. The results showed that for tank A, total arsenic (TA) removal of 98.57% was attained within the first 60 mm and subsequently descended slowly to 88.84% at the outlet. For tank B, a similar spatial variation trend was observed in the quartz sand layer, and subsequently, TA removal increased to ≥99.80% in the ZVI layer. TA removal by MMT mainly depended on both surface adsorption and electrostatic adhesion. TA removal by ZVI mainly relied on coagulation/precipitation and adsorption during the iron corrosion. The two MI-PRBs are feasible alternatives for in situ remediation of groundwater with elevated As levels.

  10. Ultrasonic Abrasive Removal Of EDM Recast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Johnny L.; Jacobson, Marlowe S.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic abrasive process removes layer of recast material generated during electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of damper pocket on turbine blade. Form-fitted tool vibrated ultrasonically in damper pocket from which material removed. Vibrations activate abrasive in pocket. Amount of material removed controlled precisely.

  11. Nutrient and dissolved organic carbon removal from water using mining and metallurgical by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Laura A; Douglas, Grant B; Coleman, Shandel; Yuan, Zheng

    2012-05-15

    Excess nutrient input to water bodies frequently results in algal blooms and development of oxygen deficient conditions. Mining or metallurgical by-products can potentially be utilised as filtration media within water treatment systems such as constructed wetlands, permeable reactive barriers, or drain liners. These materials may offer a cost-effective solution for the removal of nutrients and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from natural waters. This study investigated steel-making, alumina refining (red mud and red sand) and heavy mineral processing by-products, as well as the low-cost mineral-based material calcined magnesia, in laboratory column trials. Influent water and column effluents were analysed for pH and flow rate, alkalinity, nutrient species and DOC, and a range of major cations and anions. In general, by-products with high Ca or Mg, and to a lesser extent those with high Fe content, were well-suited to nutrient and DOC removal from water. Of the individual materials examined, the heavy mineral processing residue neutralised used acid (NUA) exhibited the highest sorption capacity for P, and removed the greatest proportions of all N species and DOC from influent water. In general, NUA and mixtures containing NUA, particularly those with calcined magnesia or red mud/red sand were the most effective in removing nutrients and DOC from influent water. Post-treatment effluents from columns containing NUA and NUA/steel-making by-product, NUA/red sand and NUA/calcined magnesia mixtures exhibited large reductions in DOC, P and N concentrations and exhibited a shift in nutrient ratios away from potential N- and Si-limitation and towards potential P-limitation. If employed as part of a large-scale water treatment scheme, use of these mining and metallurgical by-products for nutrient removal could result in reduced algal biomass and improved water quality. Identification and effective implementation of mining by-products or blends thereof in constructed wetlands

  12. Removing Bureaucracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    11 Defense AT&L: July–August 2015 Removing Bureaucracy Katharina G. McFarland McFarland is Assistant Secretary of Defense for Acquisition. I once...involvement from all of the Service warfighting areas came together to scrub the program requirements due to concern over the “ bureaucracy ” and... Bureaucracy ” that focuses on reducing cycle time, staffing time and all forms of inefficiencies. This includes review of those burdens that Congress

  13. Micromechanical investigation of sand migration in gas hydrate-bearing sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, S.; Klar, A.; Cohen, E.

    2017-12-01

    Past field gas production tests from hydrate bearing sediments have indicated that sand migration is an important phenomenon that needs to be considered for successful long-term gas production. The authors previously developed the continuum based analytical thermo-hydro-mechanical sand migration model that can be applied to predict wellbore responses during gas production. However, the model parameters involved in the model still needs to be calibrated and studied thoroughly and it still remains a challenge to conduct well-defined laboratory experiments of sand migration, especially in hydrate-bearing sediments. Taking the advantage of capability of micromechanical modelling approach through discrete element method (DEM), this work presents a first step towards quantifying one of the model parameters that governs stresses reduction due to grain detachment. Grains represented by DEM particles are randomly removed from an isotropically loaded DEM specimen and statistical analyses reveal that linear proportionality exists between the normalized volume of detached solids and normalized reduced stresses. The DEM specimen with different porosities (different packing densities) are also considered and statistical analyses show that there is a clear transition between loose sand behavior and dense sand behavior, characterized by the relative density.

  14. Effect of manufactured sand on the durability characteristics of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. SARAVANAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most sought after material due to increase in construction activities and infrastructural developments. Availability of natural sand is decreasing thereby increase in the cost of construction. In the present work undertaken, an attempt has been made to give an alternative to natural sand. Optimization of replacement of natural sand with manufactured sand in concrete, durability studies such as water absorption, rapid chloride permeability test, sorptivity, acid resistance, alkaline resistance, impact resistance and abrasion resistance of M40 and M50 grades of concrete have been studied with manufactured sand as fine aggregate and compared the results with the conventional sand concrete. The results shows that there is an increase in the durability properties up to 70 % level of replacements of sand with manufactured sand as fine aggregate and for 100 % use of manufactured sand also gives the better durability than the conventional sand concrete.

  15. Studies on various characteristics of concrete structures using crushed sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimatsu, Makoto; Sugita, Hideaki; Yonemura, Masataka.

    1985-01-01

    With the recent advances of construction industry, the demands for concrete, hence for aggregate, are rising. The sand as such is in extreme shortage due to the exhaustion of river sand. Under the situation, the recent trends are for the use of crushed sand, i.e. the artificial sand obtained by crushing rocks, which have advantages of stabilized quality and adequate supplies. In building of nuclear power plants requiring large amounts of concrete, the usage of crushed sand is now unavoidable. The following are described : the situation of aggregate in Kyushu. production method of crushed sand and the quality standards, rocks used for crushed stone and sand and the properties, quality survey on crushed sand and the basic tests, characteristic tests of crushed-stone and -sand mixed concrete, the application of crushed sand in structures of the Sendai Nuclear Power Station. (Mori, K.)

  16. Provenance and recycling of Arabian desert sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Vermeesch, Pieter; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Valagussa, Manuel; Allen, Kate; Kadi, Khalid A.; Al-Juboury, Ali I. A.

    2013-05-01

    This study seeks to determine the ultimate origin of aeolian sand in Arabian deserts by high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral techniques combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology. Point-counting is used here as the sole method by which unbiased volume percentages of heavy minerals can be obtained. A comprehensive analysis of river and wadi sands from the Red Sea to the Bitlis-Zagros orogen allowed us to characterize all potential sediment sources, and thus to quantitatively constrain provenance of Arabian dune fields. Two main types of aeolian sand can be distinguished. Quartzose sands with very poor heavy-mineral suites including zircon occupy most of the region comprising the Great Nafud and Rub' al-Khali Sand Seas, and are largely recycled from thick Lower Palaeozoic quartzarenites with very minor first-cycle contributions from Precambrian basement, Mesozoic carbonate rocks, or Neogene basalts. Instead, carbonaticlastic sands with richer lithic and heavy-mineral populations characterize coastal dunes bordering the Arabian Gulf from the Jafurah Sand Sea of Saudi Arabia to the United Arab Emirates. The similarity with detritus carried by the axial Tigris-Euphrates system and by transverse rivers draining carbonate rocks of the Zagros indicates that Arabian coastal dunes largely consist of far-travelled sand, deposited on the exposed floor of the Gulf during Pleistocene lowstands and blown inland by dominant Shamal northerly winds. A dataset of detrital zircon U-Pb ages measured on twelve dune samples and two Lower Palaeozoic sandstones yielded fourteen identical age spectra. The age distributions all show a major Neoproterozoic peak corresponding to the Pan-African magmatic and tectonic events by which the Arabian Shield was assembled, with minor late Palaeoproterozoic and Neoarchean peaks. A similar U-Pb signature characterizes also Jafurah dune sands, suggesting that zircons are dominantly derived from interior Arabia, possibly deflated from the Wadi al

  17. Submerged Pond Sand Filter—A Novel Approach to Rural Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Øhlenschlæger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the new design and function of a modified version of a traditional slow sand filter. The Submerged Pond Sand Filter is built inside a pond and has a vertical as well as a horizontal flow of water through a sloped filter opening. The filter provides treated drinking water to a rural Indian village. The filter has functioned with minimal maintenance for five years without being subject to the typical scraping off and changing of sand as needed in traditional slow sand filters every few months. This five-year study showed bacterial removal efficiency of 97% on average with a level of faecal coliforms of 2 ± 2 colony forming units (CFU/100 mL measured in the treated water. Turbidity was visibly removed during treatment. When water was retrieved from the filter through a manual pump for long consistent time intervals (60 min, faecal coliform counts increased from four to 10 CFU/100 mL on average compared to shorter pumping intervals (5 min. Though the treated water did not comply with the World Health Organization standards of 0 CFU/100 mL, the filter significantly improved water quality and provided one of the best sources of drinkable water in a water-depleted area, where only surface water was available. Furthermore, it is a sustainable treatment method due to low maintenance requirements.

  18. Mud-farming of fine oil sands tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Y.; Tol van, F.; Paassen van, L.; Everts, B.; Mulder, A. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Dept. of Geotechnology

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed an experimental mud-farming technique for fine oil sands tailings. The technique was based on a sub-areal drying technique for dredging sludge developed in the Netherlands for Rotterdam harbour sediments. Between 1960 and 1985, the sludge was deposited in confined disposal sites on land. The sludge was converted to usable clay between 1970 and 1980. The polluted portion of the sludge is stored in a man-made disposal site. The sludge was deposited in thin layers. Stagnant water was then removed. The mud was then dewatered and reused. The sludge was furrowed with amphirol and disc wheels in order to accelerate the ripening process. The dredged material was re-used in a clay factory. The technique was applied to oil sands tailings in order to understand the suction behaviour, sedimentation behaviour, and precipitation deficit of the tailings. State changes of the sludge were monitored. No clear sedimentation phase was identified prior to consolidation. A comparison of material properties showed that the total amount of water to be extracted was more than the Rotterdam sludge, but the suction behaviour was similar. The precipitation deficit from mid-April until September will require a customized deposition strategy. Details and photographs of the experimental studies were included. tabs., figs.

  19. Sand amendment enhances bioelectrochemical remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Zhang, Yueyong; Li, Nan; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-12-01

    Bioelectrochemical system is an emerging technology for the remediation of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. However, performance of such systems can be limited by the inefficient mass transport in soil. Here we report a new method of sand amendment, which significantly increases both oxygen and proton transports, resulting to increased soil porosity (from 44.5% to 51.3%), decreased Ohmic resistance (by 46%), and increased charge output (from 2.5 to 3.5Cg(-1)soil). The degradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons increased by up to 268% in 135d. The degradation of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with high molecular weight was accelerated, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that the microbial community close to the air-cathode was substantially stimulated by the induced current, especially the hydrocarbon degrading bacteria Alcanivorax. The bioelectrochemical stimulation imposed a selective pressure on the microbial community of anodes, including that far from the cathode. These results suggested that sand amendment can be an effective approach for soil conditioning that will enhances the bioelectrochemical removal of hydrocarbons in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nuclear energy in the oils sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    The major Canadian oil sands are located in Alberta and Saskatchewan, with most production from the strata along the Athabasca River in Alberta. The economically recoverable oil sands reserves are estimated to be 168 billion barrels which at a current production rate of 1.8 million barrels per day (2012), are projected to last a very long time. Canada has been blessed with vast energy resources which make it potentially energy-independent and able to provide significant exports but there are concerns that their development cannot be managed in a wholly acceptable manner. Comparable concerns have been applied to nuclear energy in the past and in recent times to the oil sands. The technologies associated with these energy sources have always been controversial because they are at the confluence of economics and politics where finding a balance between risk and reward is difficult. So it should be no surprise that when these technologies get linked together in certain proposals their prospect for success is doubly difficult. The possible use of nuclear energy for production of oil from the oil sands dates back to the late 1950s, when an experiment to mine the oil by detonating an underground nuclear device was proposed. It was predicted that the heat and pressure released from such a device would create a large cavern into which oil would flow, and from where it would be pumped to the surface. Almost at the same time, oil sands research using conventional sources of energy had culminated with the development of practical refining processes, essentially those still in use today. These methods require large amounts of heat energy in the form of hot water and steam. In this century nuclear energy was proposed as the source for the heat required by the oil sands production processes. To date neither of these nuclear proposals for oil sands projects have been successful, because the economic and political balance could not be struck. (author)

  1. Nuclear energy in the oils sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2014-09-15

    The major Canadian oil sands are located in Alberta and Saskatchewan, with most production from the strata along the Athabasca River in Alberta. The economically recoverable oil sands reserves are estimated to be 168 billion barrels which at a current production rate of 1.8 million barrels per day (2012), are projected to last a very long time. Canada has been blessed with vast energy resources which make it potentially energy-independent and able to provide significant exports but there are concerns that their development cannot be managed in a wholly acceptable manner. Comparable concerns have been applied to nuclear energy in the past and in recent times to the oil sands. The technologies associated with these energy sources have always been controversial because they are at the confluence of economics and politics where finding a balance between risk and reward is difficult. So it should be no surprise that when these technologies get linked together in certain proposals their prospect for success is doubly difficult. The possible use of nuclear energy for production of oil from the oil sands dates back to the late 1950s, when an experiment to mine the oil by detonating an underground nuclear device was proposed. It was predicted that the heat and pressure released from such a device would create a large cavern into which oil would flow, and from where it would be pumped to the surface. Almost at the same time, oil sands research using conventional sources of energy had culminated with the development of practical refining processes, essentially those still in use today. These methods require large amounts of heat energy in the form of hot water and steam. In this century nuclear energy was proposed as the source for the heat required by the oil sands production processes. To date neither of these nuclear proposals for oil sands projects have been successful, because the economic and political balance could not be struck. (author)

  2. Optical Dating of Holocene Dune Sands in the Ferris Dune Field, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Stephen; Gaylord, David R.

    1993-05-01

    Optical dating of late Quaternary quartz dune sands from the Clear Creek portion of Ferris dune field, Wyoming, demonstrates the considerable potential of the technique as a chronostratigraphic tool. A sequence of radiocarbon-dated Holocene interdune strata permit optical dating of the intercalated dune sand to be tested; the concordance is good. The optical dates for the aeolian deposits not datable by radiocarbon suggest that aeolian sedimentation at Clear Creek peaked during two relatively short phases at ca. 8500 and 4000 yr B.P. The dates indicate that aeolian accumulation maxima (at least in the Clear Creek area) may not be synchronous with previously defined phases of marked aridity.

  3. Comparison between predicted and observed sand waves and sand banks in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; van den Brink, G.M.

    2001-01-01

    For the first time a prediction model of regular morphological patterns on the seabed was tested against observations of sand wave and sand bank occurrence in the entire North Sea. The model, which originates from first physical principles, predicts this occurrence via two dimensionless parameters

  4. Importance of copper for nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Florian Benedikt

    When anoxic groundwater is treated to produce drinking water, ammonium is commonly removed through nitrification in rapid sand filters. Nitrification is a biological process, and is mediated by chemoautotrophic microorganisms. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) oxidize ammonium...... to remove ammonium to below the national drinking water quality standard of 0.05 mg NH4+/L. A better process understanding of nitrifying biofilters is needed to optimize treatment performance, remediate existing filters, and to prevent future nitrification problems. The frequent incidents of insufficient...... in the oxidation of ammonia to hydroxylamine. Thus, slow and incomplete nitrification could be caused by a lack of sufficient amounts of copper. The overall aim of this PhD project was therefore to determine whether copper supplementation could enhance nitrification in rapid sand filters with incomplete...

  5. NEW APPROACH TO MODELLING OF SAND FILTER CLOGGING BY SEPTIC TANK EFFLUENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Nieć

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The deep bed filtration model elaborated by Iwasaki has many applications, e.g. solids removal from wastewater. Its main parameter, filter coefficient, is directly related to removal efficiency and depends on filter depth and time of operation. In this paper the authors have proposed a new approach to modelling, describing dry organic mass from septic tank effluent and biomass distribution in a sand filter. In this approach the variable filter coefficient value was used as affected by depth and time of operation and the live biomass concentration distribution was approximated by a logistic function. Relatively stable biomass contents in deeper beds compartments were observed in empirical studies. The Iwasaki equations associated with the logistic function can predict volatile suspended solids deposition and biomass content in sand filters. The comparison between the model and empirical data for filtration lasting 10 and 20 days showed a relatively good agreement.

  6. Milk removal

    OpenAIRE

    Ferneborg, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Milk from dairy cows is a staple dietary component for humans all over the world. Regardless of whether milk is consumed in its purest, unaltered form or as high-end products such as fine cheese or ice cream, it needs to be of high quality when taken from the cow, produced at a low price and produced in a system that consider aspects such as animal health, animal welfare and sustainability. This thesis investigated the role of milk removal and the importance of residual milk on milk yield...

  7. A Improved Seabed Surface Sand Sampling Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X.

    2017-12-01

    In marine geology research it is necessary to obtain a suf fcient quantity of seabed surface samples, while also en- suring that the samples are in their original state. Currently,there are a number of seabed surface sampling devices available, but we fnd it is very diffcult to obtain sand samples using these devices, particularly when dealing with fne sand. Machine-controlled seabed surface sampling devices are also available, but generally unable to dive into deeper regions of water. To obtain larger quantities of seabed surface sand samples in their original states, many researchers have tried to improve upon sampling devices,but these efforts have generally produced ambiguous results, in our opinion.To resolve this issue, we have designed an improved andhighly effective seabed surface sand sampling device that incorporates the strengths of a variety of sampling devices. It is capable of diving into deepwater to obtain fne sand samples and is also suited for use in streams, rivers, lakes and seas with varying levels of depth (up to 100 m). This device can be used for geological mapping, underwater prospecting, geological engineering and ecological, environmental studies in both marine and terrestrial waters.

  8. Sand filter clogging by septic tank effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spychała, M; Błazejewski, R

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise conditions and factors affecting fine sand clogging by septic tank effluent on the basis of physical modelling. The physical model consisted of 12 sand columns dosed with sewage from one household (5 persons), preliminary treated in a septic tank. Hydraulic loadings of the sand filters were equal to 82 mm/d. The mean discharge from sand columns, measured as the effluent volume collected during 10 minutes, decreased significantly over the experiment period from 34 cm3/min in August 2000 to 20 cm3/min in August 2001 at the same temperature of about 20 degrees C. First the columns clogged almost completely after 480 days in December 2001, however six columns had remained unclogged till the end of the experiment (March 2002). The temperature had a significant impact on hydraulic conductivity. A vertical distribution of accumulated mass and biomass was investigated in partly clogged sand. Microscopic survey of the clogging layer showed a presence of live micro-organisms, residuals of dead micro-organisms, particularly pieces of small animal armour and many fibres. These particles accelerated the accumulation of solids in the upper clogging layer. The study indicated that temperature impact on the filter hydraulic conductivity was more significant for biological activity, than for sewage viscosity.

  9. The behavior of gaseous iodine in sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kanji

    1974-01-01

    Radioactive iodine gas was passed through 10 different sands collected at rivers and hills. The relation between the amount of the loaded gas and the amount of adsorbed gas was determined at room temperature, 50 -- 60 0 C, and 90 -- 100 0 C under humidity of 2 sand. This amount was about 1 -- 3 times as much as that of monomolecular membrane adsorption, 0.2 -- 0.3 μg/cm 2 . The decrease of adsorption amount that accompanies the increase of humidity is attributable to the decrease of effective surface area of sand due to the presence of water. The transport of iodine in sand was studied by passing gaseous iodine through a glass tubing packed with sand. The distribution in the flow direction of iodine indicated that the ease of desorption depends upon the situation of adsorption. Easily desorbed case was named Henry type adsorption. Hardly desorbed case was named absorption type. Discussion is made on experimental results. (Fukutomi, T.)

  10. Mitigating in situ oil sands carbon costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theriault, D.J.; Peterson, J. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Heinrichs, H. [Canadian Chemical Technology Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Carbon capture and sequestration is a complex problem with a variety of dimensions that need to be considered. The political, social, and regulatory pressures are forcing carbon costs on the oil sands industry in an effort to reduce the carbon footprint of oil sands operations. This paper reviewed the political, social, and regulatory pressures and obligations for the in-situ oil sands industry. It presented the views and insights of Laricina Energy on the carbon challenge. It also described the initiatives that Laricina Energy is taking to manage these imperatives and outlined the challenges the industry is facing. The purpose of the paper was to encourage dialogue and collaboration by the oil sands industry. The paper also described the dimensions of the carbon problem and how the industry can contribute to a solution. Last, the paper reviewed the parameters of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gas containment and storage issues. It was concluded that the regulatory and policy requirements need to be clarified so that industry understands the new business landscape as well as the requirements that influence the economics of in-situ oil sands development. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Study of possible economical ways of removing radium from drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, R.L.; Splinter, R.C.; Mulholland, T.S.; Baker, J.M.; Nogaj, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine variables that control the incidental removal of radium that has been observed to occur as a consequence of treatment to remove iron by oxidation--sand filtration. The study also evaluated the possibility of exploiting these factors to provide an inexpensive means of removing radium using existing or modified iron removal facilities. Studies were also conducted to evaluate radium sorption to hydrous manganese oxides and to evaluate the potential of radium sorption to filter sand as a novel removal technology. Results showed that radium sorption to iron and manganese oxides and filter sand appear to be controlled primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium, which are believed to compete for sorption sites

  12. Identification of Algerian Field-Caught Phlebotomine Sand Fly Vectors by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Lafri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies are known to transmit Leishmania parasites, bacteria and viruses that affect humans and animals in many countries worldwide. Precise sand fly identification is essential to prevent phlebotomine-borne diseases. Over the past two decades, progress in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS has emerged as an accurate tool for arthropod identification. The objective of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS as a tool for identifying field-caught phlebotomine.Sand flies were captured in four sites in north Algeria. A subset was morphologically and genetically identified. Six species were found in these areas and a total of 28 stored frozen specimens were used for the creation of the reference spectrum database. The relevance of this original method for sand fly identification was validated by two successive blind tests including the morphological identification of 80 new specimens which were stored at -80°C, and 292 unknown specimens, including engorged specimens, which were preserved under different conditions. Intra-species reproducibility and inter-species specificity of the protein profiles were obtained, allowing us to distinguish specimens at the gender level. Querying of the sand fly database using the MS spectra from the blind test groups revealed concordant results between morphological and MALDI-TOF MS identification. However, MS identification results were less efficient for specimens which were engorged or stored in alcohol. Identification of 362 phlebotomine sand flies, captured at four Algerian sites, by MALDI-TOF MS, revealed that the subgenus Larroussius was predominant at all the study sites, except for in M'sila where P. (Phlebotomus papatasi was the only sand fly species detected.The present study highlights the application of MALDI-TOF MS for monitoring sand fly fauna captured in the field. The low cost, reliability and

  13. Identification of Algerian Field-Caught Phlebotomine Sand Fly Vectors by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafri, Ismail; Almeras, Lionel; Bitam, Idir; Caputo, Aurelia; Yssouf, Amina; Forestier, Claire-Lise; Izri, Arezki; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are known to transmit Leishmania parasites, bacteria and viruses that affect humans and animals in many countries worldwide. Precise sand fly identification is essential to prevent phlebotomine-borne diseases. Over the past two decades, progress in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as an accurate tool for arthropod identification. The objective of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS as a tool for identifying field-caught phlebotomine. Sand flies were captured in four sites in north Algeria. A subset was morphologically and genetically identified. Six species were found in these areas and a total of 28 stored frozen specimens were used for the creation of the reference spectrum database. The relevance of this original method for sand fly identification was validated by two successive blind tests including the morphological identification of 80 new specimens which were stored at -80°C, and 292 unknown specimens, including engorged specimens, which were preserved under different conditions. Intra-species reproducibility and inter-species specificity of the protein profiles were obtained, allowing us to distinguish specimens at the gender level. Querying of the sand fly database using the MS spectra from the blind test groups revealed concordant results between morphological and MALDI-TOF MS identification. However, MS identification results were less efficient for specimens which were engorged or stored in alcohol. Identification of 362 phlebotomine sand flies, captured at four Algerian sites, by MALDI-TOF MS, revealed that the subgenus Larroussius was predominant at all the study sites, except for in M'sila where P. (Phlebotomus) papatasi was the only sand fly species detected. The present study highlights the application of MALDI-TOF MS for monitoring sand fly fauna captured in the field. The low cost, reliability and rapidity of MALDI

  14. Depth investigation of rapid sand filters for drinking water production reveals strong stratification in nitrification biokinetic behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    The biokinetic behavior of NH4 + removal was investigated at different depths of a rapid sand filter treating groundwater for drinking water preparation. Filter materials from the top, middle and bottom layers of a full-scale filter were exposed to various controlled NH4 + loadings in a continuous...

  15. Sand transport, erosion and granular electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrison, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    is expanding our current understanding and outline the areas of advancement needed in the future. Presentation is made of current models for wind driven detachment/entrainment and the transport rates of sand and dust, including the effects of contact induced grain electrification. This ubiquitous phenomenon...... can affect grain transport through the generation of intense electric fields and processes of electrostatic assembly. Importantly the transport of sand is characterized by saltation, which is known to be an active process for erosion and therefore a source for dust and sand formation. Using novel...... erosion simulation techniques the link between grain transport rates and erosion rates has been quantified. Furthermore this can be linked to production rates for dust and has been associated with chemical and mineral alteration through a process of mechanical activation of fractured surfaces. This work...

  16. Thermoluminescent dosimetric properties of Descalvado sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, M.I.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2006-01-01

    Sand samples proceeding from Descalvado, Sao Paulo, were studied with regard to their dosimetric properties using the thermoluminescence technique (TL) for high doses. These sand samples present steady physical and chemical characteristics to the end items, and they are used in the glass industry and for casting. The TL curves of the samples were obtained after an irradiation at the Gamma-Cell system ( 60 Co), of IPEN. The glow curves present two peaks at 80 C and 220 C approximately. Calibration curves were obtained for doses between 50 Gy and 5 kGy. The results indicate that the sand samples can be used for high-doses dosimetry in several areas of applications of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  17. Development tendencies of moulding and core sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw M. Dobosz1

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Further development of the technology for making moulding and core sands will be strictly limited by tough requirements due to protection of the natural environment. These tendencies are becoming more and more tense, so that we will reach a point when even processes, that from technological point of view fulfill high requirements of the foundry industry, must be replaced by more ecologically-friendly solutions. Hence, technologies using synthetic resins as binding materials will be limited. This paper presents some predictable development tendencies of moulding and core sands. The increasing role of inorganic substances will be noticed, including silicate binders with significantly improved properties, such as improved knock-out property or higher reclamation strength. Other interesting solutions might also be moulding sands bonded by geo-polymers and phosphate binders or salts and also binders based on degradable biopolymers. These tendencies and the usefulness of these binders are put forward in this paper.

  18. Thermoluminescent dosimetric properties of Descalvado sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, M.I.; Caldas, L.V.E

    2006-07-01

    Sand samples proceeding from Descalvado, Sao Paulo, were studied with regard to their dosimetric properties using the thermoluminescence technique (TL) for high doses. These sand samples present steady physical and chemical characteristics to the end items, and they are used in the glass industry and for casting. The TL curves of the samples were obtained after an irradiation at the Gamma-Cell system ({sup 60} Co), of IPEN. The glow curves present two peaks at 80 C and 220 C approximately. Calibration curves were obtained for doses between 50 Gy and 5 kGy. The results indicate that the sand samples can be used for high-doses dosimetry in several areas of applications of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  19. The effect of organics on the sorption of cobalt by glacial sand in laboratory experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haigh, G.; Williams, G.M.; Hooker, P.J.; Ross, C.A.M.; Allen, M.R.

    1989-02-01

    The effect of acetate, EDTA and natural organic compounds in groundwater at Drigg test site, on the sorption of cobalt by glacial sand has been studied in a series of batch experiments. Removing 50% of the organic material from the groundwater with DEAE cellulose increased the distribution ratio (R d ) of cobalt by a factor of about two. The addition of both EDTA and acetate to the sand/water system led to the removal of Ca, Mg, Sr and Ba from solution. Both organic compounds had the effect of reducing the pH and bicarbonated concentrations. EDTA also removed iron from the solution. EDTA reduced the R d for Co by up to 2 orders of magnitude. At EDTA concentrations greater than 5mg/1, there was no further reduction in sorption. EDTA was not itself sorbed, but formed a mobile complex with Co. Within the same period of equilibrium, the R d values were lower when EDTA was allowed to equilibrate with the sand before adding cobalt. The desorption of cobalt from the minerals surface may be a rate limiting step such that equilibrium was not achieved within the 14 day period of these experiments. Acetate had no effect of cobalt sorption. (author)

  20. Sand mining impacts on long-term dune erosion in southern Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, E.B.; Sallenger, Abby; Sesto, Juan Conforto; Egley, L.; McGee, Timothy; Parsons, Rost

    2006-01-01

    Southern Monterey Bay was the most intensively mined shoreline (with sand removed directly from the surf zone) in the U.S. during the period from 1906 until 1990, when the mines were closed following hypotheses that the mining caused coastal erosion. It is estimated that the yearly averaged amount of mined sand between 1940 and 1984 was 128,000 m3/yr, which is approximately 50% of the yearly average dune volume loss during this period. To assess the impact of sand mining, erosion rates along an 18 km range of shoreline during the times of intensive sand mining (1940–1990) are compared with the rates after sand mining ceased (1990–2004). Most of the shoreline is composed of unconsolidated sand with extensive sand dunes rising up to a height of 46 m, vulnerable to the erosive forces of storm waves. Erosion is defined here as a recession of the top edge of the dune. Recession was determined using stereo-photogrammetry, and LIDAR and GPS surveys. Long-term erosion rates vary from about 0.5 m/yr at Monterey to 1.5 m/yr in the middle of the range, and then decrease northward. Erosion events are episodic and occur when storm waves and high tides coincide, allowing swash to undercut the dune and resulting in permanent recession. Erosion appears to be correlated with the occurrence of El Niños. The calculated volume loss of the dune in southern Monterey Bay during the 1997–98 El Niño winter was 1,820,000 m3, which is almost seven times the historical annual mean dune erosion of 270,000 m3/yr. The alongshore variation in recession rates appears to be a function of the alongshore gradient in mean wave energy and depletions by sand mining. After cessation of sand mining in 1990, the erosion rates decreased at locations in the southern end of the bay but have not significantly changed at other locations.

  1. A Threshold Continuum for Aeolian Sand Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C.; Ewing, R. C.; Sherman, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport marks the initial entrainment of sand particles by the force of the wind. This is typically defined and modeled as a singular wind speed for a given grain size and is based on field and laboratory experimental data. However, the definition of threshold varies significantly between these empirical models, largely because the definition is based on visual-observations of initial grain movement. For example, in his seminal experiments, Bagnold defined threshold of motion when he observed that 100% of the bed was in motion. Others have used 50% and lesser values. Differences in threshold models, in turn, result is large errors in predicting the fluxes associated with sand and dust transport. Here we use a wind tunnel and novel sediment trap to capture the fractions of sand in creep, reptation and saltation at Earth and Mars pressures and show that the threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport is best defined as a continuum in which grains progress through stages defined by the proportion of grains in creep and saltation. We propose the use of scale dependent thresholds modeled by distinct probability distribution functions that differentiate the threshold based on micro to macro scale applications. For example, a geologic timescale application corresponds to a threshold when 100% of the bed in motion whereas a sub-second application corresponds to a threshold when a single particle is set in motion. We provide quantitative measurements (number and mode of particle movement) corresponding to visual observations, percent of bed in motion and degrees of transport intermittency for Earth and Mars. Understanding transport as a continuum provides a basis for revaluating sand transport thresholds on Earth, Mars and Titan.

  2. Gasification of oil sand coke: review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-08-01

    The production of synthetic crude from the tar sands in Western Canada has been steadily increasing. Most of the delayed coke produced by Suncor is combusted on site, whereas all fluid coke produced by Syncrude is stockpiled.The database on the chemical and physical properties of the oil sand coke, including the composition and fusion properties of the mineral matter, has been established. The reactivity of the coke was determined by oxygen chemisorption, fixed bed and fluid bed bench scale gasification and pilot plant gasification. The reactivity of the oil sand coke for gasification is rather low and comparable to high rank coals, such as anthracite. Slurrability tests revealed that a solid concentration in water, approaching 70 wt%, can be achieved. Gasification is the front runner among clean technologies for the conversion of carbonaceous solids to useful products. Several commercial gasifiers are available to cover the wide range of severity. Because of the low reactivity of oil sands coke, high severity conditions are required to achieve high gasification conversion. Such conditions can be attained in entrained bed gasifiers. Gasifiers employing both dry and slurry feeding systems are suitable. A high efficiency, low SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions, as well as a low solid waste production are among the key advantages of the gasification technology compared with thecompeting technologies. Commercial gasification of oil sands coke is delayed because of the availability of natural gas on the site of the upgrading plants. Potential for the transportation of the oil sand coke to USA for electricity generation using the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology was evaluated. 27 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Pilot study points way to iron/manganese removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, N.; Barnes, A. [Progressive Consulting Engineers Inc., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The use of coal, greensand and sand in filters for removing iron and manganese from the Brooklyn Park, Minnesota, water supply was investigated. The most effective and economic treatment involved using a dual media filtration and potassium permanganate as the oxidant.

  4. On the Size Distribution of Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A model is presented of the development of the size distribution of sand while it is transported from a source to a deposit. The model provides a possible explanation of the log-hyperbolic shape that is frequently found in unimodal grain size distributions in natural sand deposits, as pointed out......-distribution, by taking into account that individual grains do not have the same travel time from the source to the deposit. The travel time is assumed to be random so that the wear on the individual grains vary randomly. The model provides an interpretation of the parameters of the NIG-distribution, and relates the mean...

  5. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  6. Log-inject-log in sand consolidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, R.P.; Spurlock, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for gathering information for the determination of the adequacy of placement of sand consolidating plastic for sand control in oil and gas wells. The method uses a high neutron cross-section tracer which becomes part of the plastic and uses pulsed neutron logging before and after injection of the plastic. Preferably, the method uses lithium, boron, indium, and/or cadmium tracers. Boron oxide is especially useful and can be dissolved in alcohol and mixed with the plastic ingredients

  7. Oil sand synfuel production using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.

    1984-10-01

    The importance of oil sand as a primary energy carrier is illustrated. The oil sand mining project 'synfuel' in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, is described. On the basis of a layout of an In-situ-process different possibilities of introducing nuclear energy to the process are described. This leads to an increase of the product yield, leading finally to a doubling of the energy output compared to the reference layout. The introduction of nuclear energy contributes to the reduction of emissions, in particular to the emission of carbon dioxide in the conversion process. (orig.)

  8. Permeability Tests on Silkeborg Sand No. 0000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Willy; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    on the characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Silkeborg Sand No. 0000. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. The apparatus, test procedures and the analysis method are described......The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends...

  9. Permeability Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    on the characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. Finally the test results are briefly summarised and a relationship between......The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends...

  10. Sand control systems used in completing wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Wittenberger

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Expandable Tubular Technology is transforming the face of well completion and construction. This technology provides: a substantially higher hydrocarbon production rates from the reservoir, a reduced well drilling and construction costs, new possibilities for previously unreachable or uneconomic reservoirs, and step a change towards the single diameter well. ESS (Expandable Sand Screen has an unrivalled performance worldwide for delivering a reliable sand control in a wide range of applications. Well costs typically cut by over 20 %, and the productivity increases up to 70 %.

  11. Recovery of plutonium from insulation, scrap glass, and sand-slag residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Garnett, J.E.; Fraser, J.K.

    1979-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate methods for removing plutonium from insulation, glass leach heel, and sand and slag heel. The methods evaluated included hydrochloric acid leaching, nitric acid leaching, and a treatment consisting of a fusion step followed by acid leaching. Results indicate that a nitric acid leach is effective in lowering the plutonium concentration of these solid wastes to the desired limit, if multiple contacts are used. A hydrochloric acid leach was found to be superior to a nitric acid leach for removing plutonium from the residues

  12. Population dynamics of the sand shiner (notropis stramineus) in non-wadeable rivers of Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.D.; Neebling, T.E.; Quist, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The sand shiner (Notropis stramineus) is a common cyprinid found throughout the Great Plains region of North America that plays an important ecological role in aquatic systems. This study was conducted to describe population dynamics of sand shiners including age structure, growth, mortality, and recruitment variability in 15 non-wadeable rivers in Iowa. Fish were collected during June-August (2007-2008) using a modified Missouri trawl, a seine, and boat-mounted electrofishing. Scales were removed for age and growth analysis. A total of 3,443 fish was sampled from 15 populations across Iowa, of which 676 were aged. Iowa's sand shiner populations consisted primarily of age-1 fish (53% of all fish sampled), followed by age-2 fish (30%), age-0 fish (15%), and age-3 fish (2%). Sand shiners grew an average of 38.5 mm (SE = 5.7) during their first year, 13.8 mm (4.5) during their second year, and 9.0 mm (6.9) during their third year. Total annual mortality varied from 35.0% to 92.3% among populations with a mean of 77.9% (0.2). Incremental mortality rates were 84.5% (0.2) between age 1 and age 2, and 92.0% (0.1) between age 2 and age 3. Recruitment was highly variable, as indicated by a mean recruitment variation index of-0.12 (0.54). Overall, the sand shiner was characterized by relatively low mean age, fast growth, high mortality, and high recruitment variability. Indices of sand shiner population dynamics were poorly correlated with habitat characteristics.

  13. Preliminary screening of small-scale domestic wastewater treatment systems for removal of pharmaceutical and personal care products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matamoros, Victor; Arias, Carlos Alberto; Brix, Hans

    2009-01-01

    , two biological sand filters, five horizontal subsurface flow and four vertical flow constructed wetlands. As expected, all systems removed TSS and BOD5 efficiently (>95% removal). The PPCP removal efficiencies exceeded 80% with the exception of carbamazepine, diclofenac and ketoprofen because...

  14. Identification and Purification of Nyalo River Silica Sand as Raw Material for the Synthesis of Sodium Silicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aini, S.; Nizar, U. K.; NST, A. Amelia; Efendi, J.

    2018-04-01

    This research is on identification and purification of silica sand from Nyalo River. It will be used as a raw material for synthesis of sodium silicate. Silica sand was separated from clay by washing it with water, and then the existing alumina and iron oxide were removed by soaking the silica sand with 1 M HNO3 solution. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the silica sand with X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence revealed that, silica sand existed in quartz form and contained a small amount of impurity oxide such as Al2O3, K2O, MgO, CaO, Fe2O3 with percentage below the minimum threshold. The percentages of silica were 80.59% before purification. After three purificationsteps the silica percentage become 98.38%. It exceedsthe minimum threshold of silica percentage for industry.So, the silica sand from Nyalo River has high potency as a raw material for sodium silicate synthesizing.

  15. Advanced CANDU reactor: an optimized energy source of oil sands application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, J.M.; Bock, D.; Miller, A.; Kuran, S.; Keil, H.; Fiorino, L.; Duffey, R.; Dunbar, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is developing the ACR-700 TM (Advanced CANDU Reactor-700 TM ) to meet customer needs for reduced capital cost, shorter construction schedule, high capacity factor while retaining the benefits of the CANDU experience base. The ACR-700 is based on the concept of CANDU horizontal fuel channels surrounded by heavy water moderator. The major innovation of this design is the use of slightly enriched uranium fuel in a CANFLEX bundle that is cooled by light water. This ensures: higher main steam pressures and temperatures providing higher thermal efficiency; a compact and simpler reactor design with reduced capital costs and shorter construction schedules; and reduced heavy water inventory compared to existing CANDU reactors. ACR-700 is not only a technically advanced and cost effective solution for electricity generating utilities, but also a low-cost, long-life and sustainable steam source for increasing Alberta's Oil Sand production rates. Currently practiced commercial surface mining and extraction of Oil Sand resources has been well established over the last three decades. But a majority of the available resources are somewhat deeper underground require in-situ extraction. Economic removal of such underground resources is now possible through the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) process developed and proto-type tested in-site. SAGD requires the injection of large quantities of high-pressure steam into horizontal wells to form reduced viscosity bitumen and condensate mixture that is then collected at the surface. This paper describes joint AECL studies with CERI (Canadian Energy Research Institute) for the ACR, supplying both electricity and medium-pressure steam to an oil sands facility. The extensive oil sands deposits in northern Alberta are a very large energy resource. Currently, 30% of Canda's oil production is from the oil sands and this is expected to expand greatly over the coming decade. The bitumen deposits in the

  16. Undrained Cyclic Behaviour of Dense Frederikshavn Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Kjær; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Sørensen, Kris Wessel

    2013-01-01

    A modified contour diagram is created for the Frederikshavn Sand in the undrained case for a relative density of ID = 80 %. It can be used to estimate the number of cycles to failure for a given combination of pore pressure, average and cyclic load ratio. The diagram is based on a series of undra...

  17. Radiation safety in Australia's mineral sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.

    1989-06-01

    This brochure is part of a training package aiming to explain in simple terms what radiation is, how it affects people's lives and how, in the specific case of the mineral sand industry, the risk of ill-effects from low-level radioactivity could be effectively guarded against by simple and easily followed safety precautions. ills

  18. Geomechanical properties of lime stabilized clayey sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabani, M.; Karami, M. Veis

    2007-01-01

    Clayey sands that have low plasticity, low compressibility and high strength under loads, are suitable as a base material for any engineering construction projects as well as for roads and building construction. Decrease of plasticity and compressibility as well as increase in strength of these materials can be obtained by many different methods. Of these methods, lime stabilization is a common, applicable, and easy to use approach that can improve geomechanical and geotechnical properties of clayey sand fills. In this study some important geomechanical properties and geotechnical properties of clayey sands including compressive strength, CBR and elastic plastic behavior are investigated. A range of gradations representative of those gradations found in situ in the north of Iran were selected for testing and samples were artificially rebuilt in the laboratory. The mixes were then stabilized with hydrated lime and cured. Different mechanical tests were performed on mature materials. The stress-strain behavior of lime-stabilized mixes was plotted and a parabolic function was used to estimate the trend of stress-strain behavior. The data show that there is a correlation among the results of uniaxial load test, tensile strength, and CBR of the tested specimens. Also, results of the unconfined compression test and the indirect tensile strength test show that an increase in clay content up to a certain percent, in the clay-sand fills, tends to increase the strength of the materials in compression as well as in tension. (author)

  19. Market opportunities and challenges for oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    The use of Alberta bitumen as a clean fuel depends on upgrading, transportation, and refining processes. Forecasts show that oil sands production, which includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), will surpass declining conventional production from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The challenges facing the oils sands processing industry include: crude oil prices which affect the producer's market; market expansion options; diluent availability/cost; supply cost competitiveness; and, regional processing. The common market issues include light/heavy crude prices, oil sands crude qualities, prices of oil sands crudes, pipeline infrastructure, and competitive supplies. The issues facing the refiners are: refining margins, security of crude supply, refined product quality, and competitive product supply. It was noted that Alberta must retain or increase its share of the Midwest market. The market expansion options were reviewed for both downstream (refining) and upstream (upgrading) operations. New pipeline capacity is needed to reach more distant markets such as Southern Midwest, Washington, and California. The market is nearly saturated for Canada's heavy oil supply. More upgrading will be required as bitumen production increases. Market growth is still possible for Canada's SCO but according to forecasts, the market could also become saturated. To increase demand and allow supplies to grow, SCO prices may fall below light crude prices. It was noted that a balance must be achieved in order for producers to increase production and for refiner/upgraders to expand their conversion capacity. 13 figs

  20. Growing markets to sustain oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.

    2003-01-01

    The utilization of Alberta bitumen for the clean fuels market depends on upgrading, transportation, and refining processes. Forecasts show that oil sands production, which includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), will surpass declining conventional production in Western Canada. Several issues pose a challenge to the oil sands processing industry. The producers' market is affected by crude oil prices, market expansion options, diluent availability/cost, supply cost competitiveness, and regional processing. The common market issues include light/heavy crude prices, oil sands crude qualities, prices of oil sands crudes, pipeline infrastructure, and competitive supplies. The issues facing the refiners are: refining margins, security of crude supply, refined product quality, and competitive product supply. A brief review of markets for Canadian crude oil, including synthetic crude, was provided. The share of the Midwest market by Alberta must be retained and increased. The market expansion options were reviewed for both downstream (refining) and upstream (upgrading) operations. To reach more distant markets such as Southern Midwest, Washington, and California, new pipeline capacity would be required. The market is nearly saturated for Canada's heavy oil supply. More upgrading will be required as bitumen production increases. Market growth is still possible for Canada's SCO but according to forecasts, the market could also become saturated. To increase demand and allow supplies to grow, SCO prices may fall below light crude prices. It was noted that a balance must be achieved in order for producers to increase production and for refiner/upgraders to expand their conversion capacity. tabs., figs

  1. Microbial Characterization of Qatari Barchan Sand Dunes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Abdul Majid

    Full Text Available This study represents the first characterization of sand microbiota in migrating barchan sand dunes. Bacterial communities were studied through direct counts and cultivation, as well as 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequence analysis to gain an understanding of microbial abundance, diversity, and potential metabolic capabilities. Direct on-grain cell counts gave an average of 5.3 ± 0.4 x 105 cells g-1 of sand. Cultured isolates (N = 64 selected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria (58%, Firmicutes (27% and Proteobacteria (15%. Deep-sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 18 dunes demonstrated a high relative abundance of Proteobacteria, particularly enteric bacteria, and a dune-specific-pattern of bacterial community composition that correlated with dune size. Shotgun metagenome sequences of two representative dunes were analyzed and found to have similar relative bacterial abundance, though the relative abundances of eukaryotic, viral and enterobacterial sequences were greater in sand from the dune closer to a camel-pen. Functional analysis revealed patterns similar to those observed in desert soils; however, the increased relative abundance of genes encoding sporulation and dormancy are consistent with the dune microbiome being well-adapted to the exceptionally hyper-arid Qatari desert.

  2. Afyon-Sandıklı

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    δ18O and δD isotope ratios of the Sandıklı waters plot along the continental meteoric water line ... and district heating. Several studies on geology, hydrogeology along ..... precipitation; In: Handbook of Environmental Isotope. Geochemistry ...

  3. Dark grains of sand: a geological storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Maresca, Magda

    2017-04-01

    In the secondary Italian school the Earth science learning begins at first year, in synergy with other natural science subjects such as Astronomy, Chemistry and Biology. Italian teachers have to focus on the landscape geomorphological aspects and often Earth processes are difficult to display since they are related to certain phenomena happened during the past and often far from the involved country. In order to better understand the environment surrounding us, very simple and poor materials, like sands, allow the teachers to create attractive lab experiences. According to the IBSE (Inquiry Based Science Education) approach, a learning unit has been implemented starting from a walking along the light carbonate beaches of the Adriatic sea: a smart look to the sands ("engage step"), stroke the students fantasy pushing them to explore some strange black grains on the sands. Dirty sands? Or rock landscape, soil degradation and Ofanto river and coastal processes (erosion, transportation and deposition)? This was the teaching challenge. Due to the youngest age, a third level, guided inquiry, was adopted so the teacher is the "guide of inquiry" encouraging the students using the research question ("Why is the sand dark?", "Do all sands look the same?", "Where does it come from?") and driving the students around their investigation plans ("How can I measure grain size?"). A procedure to answer the above questions and validate the results and explanations has been implemented to allow the students to be proactive in their study. During the learning activities will be the students to ask for field trip to elaborate their new knowledge, verify and visualize the speculated processes. The teaching skills allow to address several geosciences domains such as mineralogy, petrology, regional geology and geodynamics as well as other scientific disciplines such as mathematics (more specifically statistics), forensic science and even life sciences (the presence of bioclasts might

  4. The provenance of Taklamakan desert sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittner, Martin; Vermeesch, Pieter; Carter, Andrew; Bird, Anna; Stevens, Thomas; Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Dutt, Ripul; Xu, Zhiwei; Lu, Huayu

    2016-03-01

    Sand migration in the vast Taklamakan desert within the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous region, PR China) is governed by two competing transport agents: wind and water, which work in diametrically opposed directions. Net aeolian transport is from northeast to south, while fluvial transport occurs from the south to the north and then west to east at the northern rim, due to a gradual northward slope of the underlying topography. We here present the first comprehensive provenance study of Taklamakan desert sand with the aim to characterise the interplay of these two transport mechanisms and their roles in the formation of the sand sea, and to consider the potential of the Tarim Basin as a contributing source to the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). Our dataset comprises 39 aeolian and fluvial samples, which were characterised by detrital-zircon U-Pb geochronology, heavy-mineral, and bulk-petrography analyses. Although the inter-sample differences of all three datasets are subtle, a multivariate statistical analysis using multidimensional scaling (MDS) clearly shows that Tarim desert sand is most similar in composition to rivers draining the Kunlun Shan (south) and the Pamirs (west), and is distinctly different from sediment sources in the Tian Shan (north). A small set of samples from the Junggar Basin (north of the Tian Shan) yields different detrital compositions and age spectra than anywhere in the Tarim Basin, indicating that aeolian sediment exchange between the two basins is minimal. Although river transport dominates delivery of sand into the Tarim Basin, wind remobilises and reworks the sediment in the central sand sea. Characteristic signatures of main rivers can be traced from entrance into the basin to the terminus of the Tarim River, and those crossing the desert from the south to north can seasonally bypass sediment through the sand sea. Smaller ephemeral rivers from the Kunlun Shan end in the desert and discharge their sediment there. Both river run

  5. EX8000 ramps up preparation phase in Horizon oil sands project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2006-07-15

    This article presented details of Hitachi's EX8000 hydraulic shovel, a key piece of equipment that will be used throughout the extensive mine preparation phase of the Horizon oil sands project. Within 2 years, the project expects to produce over 200,000 barrels of oil per day. However, more than 400 million cubic metres of soil will need to be moved before production can begin. In order to remain on schedule, overburden must be removed in massive volumes. With a 52.3 cubic yard bucket, the Hitachi EX8000 has the capacity to feed a dozen 320 metric tonne haul trucks as well as several smaller 282 metric tonne trucks, and can fill each truck in 4 passes. Material is now being moved by to an area in which dikes are being constructed to house water generated in the refining process. Stockpiling, relocation and reclamation phases will follow as the project progresses. In order to reach the oil, as much as 75 feet of overburden must be removed, including layers of sandstone, limestone, trap rock and other materials. Once the overburden has been removed, oil sand layers are also often intermixed with other materials. The EX8000 can separate the tramp material from the oil sands, improving the overall efficiency of the operation. The Alberta-based North American Construction Group, who have a 10-year contract with Canadian Natural Resources Ltd. for the Horizon project, owns more than 100 Hitachi units in various sizes and has already purchased another EX8000 which is slated for delivery in the Fall of 2006. It was concluded that the company has purchased hundreds of new trucks to handle added volumes of materials being moved as the oil sands industry gains momentum. 3 figs.

  6. High temperature thermal energy storage in moving sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. H.; Awaya, H. I.

    1978-01-01

    Several high-temperature (to 500 C) heat-storage systems using sand as the storage medium are described. The advantages of sand as a storage medium include low cost for sand, widespread availability, non-toxicity, non-degradation characteristics, easy containment, and safety. The systems considered include: stationary sand with closely spaced tubes throughout the volume, the use of a fluidized bed, use of conveyor belt transporter, and the use of a blower rapid transport system. For a stationary sand bed, very close spacing of heat transfer tubes throughout the volume is required, manifesting as high power related system cost. The suggestion of moving sand past or around pipes is intended to reduce the power related costs at the penalty of added system complexity. Preliminary system cost estimates are offered. These rough calculations indicate that mobile sand heat storage systems cost less than the stationary sand approach.

  7. Characteristics of SCC with Fly Ash and Manufactured Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen Kumar, K.; Radhakrishna

    2016-09-01

    Self compacting concrete (SCC) of M40 grade was designed. The binder in SCC consists of OPC and fly ash in the ratio of 65:35. River sand was replaced by manufactured sand (M-sand) at replacement levels of 20,40,60,80 and 100%. An attempt was made to evaluate the workability and strength characteristics of self compacting concrete with river sand and manufactured sand as fine aggregates. For each replacement level, constant workability was maintained by varying the dosage of superplasticizer. T50 flow time, V Funnel time, V-funnel T5 time as well as compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of SCC were found at each replacement level of M-sand. They were compared to SCC with river sand. Results indicate favourable use of M-sand in preparation of Self Compacting Concrete.

  8. Development of special tools for the cleaning of reactor's interior in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.-G.; Le, J.-H.; Ryu, J.-S.; Wu, J.-S.; Jung, H.-S.

    1999-01-01

    The HANARO (Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor) in Korea has been being operated for 5 years, including one year of non-nuclear system commissioning tests since the installation of the reactor in early 1994. The HANARO is an open-tank-in-pool type reactor which has the advantage of free access from the pool top. The HANARO reactor had special cleaning works twice to remove debris from the inside reactor. This paper summarizes the development of special tools for reactor cleaning and how the reactor's inside had been successfully cleaned within short periods. The first cleaning work, after the initial flushing of the reactor system in early 1994, was the removal of the silica-gel sands, contaminated during installation, from the reactor pool and all equipment in the pool, including the reactor structure, the reactivity control units and the primary cooling system. Water-jet, pump suction, vacuum suction and whirl methods were used in combination with specially designed tools. The second one, occurred in February 1997 after two years of reactor operation was the cleaning work for the reactor's interior to remove several metal pieces broken from the parts of a check valve assembly in the primary cooling system. This work required development of many special tools that are all compact in size and remotely operable to reach all areas of the inlet plenum through very limited access holes. The special tools used for this work were two kinds of underwater cameras equipped with lighting, a debris-picking tool named 'revolving dustpan', two kinds of flow tube replacement tools and many other supplementary tools. All work had been successfully accomplished on the in-pool-platform temporarily installed 9m above the pool bottom to maintain the pool water level required in view of radiation shielding. Finally, the reactor internals were inspected using the underwater cameras to confirm the absence of debris and the surface integrity of the plenum as well as all fuel

  9. Field test on sand compaction pile method with copper slag sand; Dosuisai slag wo mochiita SCP koho no shiken seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, K.; Matsui, H.; Naruse, E.; Kitazume, M. [Port and Harbour Research Inst., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-09-20

    This paper describes the sand compaction pile (SCP) method using copper slag sand. The SCP method is a method by which sand compaction piles are constructed in the ground, and improvement can be obtained in a short period. This method has been widely used even in the port areas for enhancing the bearing power of soft clay ground and the lateral resistance of sheet pile. A great deal of sand is required as a material. The sand requires high permeability, proper size distribution with less fine particle fraction content, easy compaction property with enough strength, and easy discharging property from the casing of construction machines as required properties. Recently, it becomes hard to secure proper sand materials. The copper slag sand is obtained from refining process of copper as a by-product which is quenched in water flow and crushed in water. The copper slag sand has higher particle density than that of sand, excellent permeability, and similar size distribution to that of sand. From compaction drainage triaxial compression test and permeability test, it was found that the mechanical properties of copper slag sand did not change by the crushing of grains with keeping excellent permeability. Through the test construction, applicability of the copper slag sand to the SCP method could be confirmed as an alternate material of sand. 17 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Comparison of LAMP and PCR for molecular mass screening of sand flies for Leishmania martiniquensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Kato, Hirotomo; Yeewa, Ranchana; Muengpan, Amontip; Polseela, Raxsina; Leelayoova, Saovanee

    2017-02-01

    Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania martiniquensis infection has been reported in human and domestic animals of Martinique Island, Germany, Switzerland, USA, Myanmar and Thailand. The peculiar clinical features of disseminated cutaneous and visceral forms co-existence render the urgent need of specific diagnostic tool to identify the natural sand fly vectors for effective prevention and control strategies. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of 18S rRNA gene as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of minicircle kinetoplast DNA gene (PCR-mkDNA) have never been applied to detect L. martiniquensis and L. siamensis in sand fly vectors. The present study was aimed to validate malachite green-LAMP (MG-LAMP) and PCR-mkDNA techniques to detect L. martiniquensis in sand fly vectors, compared with the conventional PCR of internal transcribed spacer 1 (PCR-ITS1). We compared the validity of LAMP of 18S rRNA gene and PCR-mkDNA, to PCR-ITS1 in simulation model of L. martiniquensis infection in Sergentomyia gemmea sand flies. Attributable to the sensitivity and specificity, PCR-mkDNA was consecutively applied to detect L. martiniquensis in 380 female sand fly individuals captured in the newly identified affected region of Lamphun Province, Thailand. Results showed that PCR-mkDNA could detect at least one promastigote per sand fly, which was 10-time superior to LAMP and PCR-ITS1. In addition, PCR-mkDNA was more specific, able to differentiate L. martiniquensis from other viscerotropic Leishmania species, such as L. siamensis, L. (L.) donovani, and L. (L.) infantum. Consecutively, mass screening of L. martiniquensis in 380 female sand fly individuals by PCR-mkDNA was implemented in a new affected area of Thailand where a patient with leishmaniasis/HIV co-infection resides; however Leishmania DNA was undetected. In conclusion, PCR-mkDNA is a promising tool for molecular mass screening of L. martiniquensis infection in outbreak areas where several species of Leishmania

  11. Comparison of LAMP and PCR for molecular mass screening of sand flies for Leishmania martiniquensis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Kato, Hirotomo; Yeewa, Ranchana; Muengpan, Amontip; Polseela, Raxsina; Leelayoova, Saovanee

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania martiniquensis infection has been reported in human and domestic animals of Martinique Island, Germany, Switzerland, USA, Myanmar and Thailand. The peculiar clinical features of disseminated cutaneous and visceral forms co-existence render the urgent need of specific diagnostic tool to identify the natural sand fly vectors for effective prevention and control strategies. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of 18S rRNA gene as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of minicircle kinetoplast DNA gene (PCR-mkDNA) have never been applied to detect L. martiniquensis and L. siamensis in sand fly vectors. OBJECTIVE The present study was aimed to validate malachite green-LAMP (MG-LAMP) and PCR-mkDNA techniques to detect L. martiniquensis in sand fly vectors, compared with the conventional PCR of internal transcribed spacer 1 (PCR-ITS1). METHODS We compared the validity of LAMP of 18S rRNA gene and PCR-mkDNA, to PCR-ITS1 in simulation model of L. martiniquensis infection in Sergentomyia gemmea sand flies. Attributable to the sensitivity and specificity, PCR-mkDNA was consecutively applied to detect L. martiniquensis in 380 female sand fly individuals captured in the newly identified affected region of Lamphun Province, Thailand. FINDINGS AND MAIN CONCLUSIONS Results showed that PCR-mkDNA could detect at least one promastigote per sand fly, which was 10-time superior to LAMP and PCR-ITS1. In addition, PCR-mkDNA was more specific, able to differentiate L. martiniquensis from other viscerotropic Leishmania species, such as L. siamensis, L. (L.) donovani, and L. (L.) infantum. Consecutively, mass screening of L. martiniquensis in 380 female sand fly individuals by PCR-mkDNA was implemented in a new affected area of Thailand where a patient with leishmaniasis/HIV co-infection resides; however Leishmania DNA was undetected. In conclusion, PCR-mkDNA is a promising tool for molecular mass screening of L. martiniquensis

  12. Use of biochar amendments for removing bacteria from simulated tile-drainage waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The addition of biochar has been shown to increase bacterial removal rates by several orders of magnitude in sand-packed columns, suggesting that biochar may be a suitable amendment for use in end-of-tile filter systems to remove indicator and pathogenic microorganisms in tile-drainage waters. Addit...

  13. Study of efficiency of particles removal by different filtration systems in a municipal wastewater tertiary treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreu, P. S.; Lardin Mifsut, C.; Farinas Iglesias, M.; Sanchez-Arevalo Serrano, J.; Perez Sanchez, P.; Rancano Perez, A.

    2009-01-01

    The disinfection of municipal wastewater using ultraviolet radiation depends greatly on the presence within the water of particles in suspension. This work determines how the level of elimination of particles varies depending on the technique of filtration used (open, closed sand filters, with continuous washing of the sand, cloth, disk and ring filters). all systems are very effective in the removal of particles more than 25 microns and for removing helminth eggs. The membrane bio-reactors with ultrafiltration membranes were superior in terms of particle removal when compared to conventional filters. (Author) 11 refs.

  14. Southeast Florida Sediment Assessment and Needs Determination (SAND) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    sand with some shell beds, sandstone , and limestone *Miami Limestone 0 to 80 ft Oolitic limestone, quartz sand, and sandstone Anastasia 0 to 100 ft...Sand, shell beds, marl, calcareous sandstone (coquina/calcarenite) Fort Thompson 0 to 80 ft Silty limestone, silty sand, clayey marl, shell marl...highly- to moderately- weathered quartzose sandstone , and highly-weathered (saprolitic) to moderately-weathered hard limestone. North-south and

  15. Biodegradable materials as binders for IVth generation moulding sands

    OpenAIRE

    K. Major-Gabry

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the possibility of using the biodegradable materials as binders (or parts of binders?compositions) for foundry moulding and core sands. Results showed that there is a great possibility of using available biodegradable materials as foundry moulding sand binders. Using biodegradable materials as partial content of new binders, or additives to moulding sands may not only decrease the toxicity and increase reclamation ability of tested moulding sands, but also accelerate the...

  16. SPECIFIC RESISTANCE AND SPECIFIC INTENSITY OF BELT SANDING OF WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boleslaw Porankiewicz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and discusses the specific belt sanding resistance K (N·cm-2 and specific belt sanding intensity SI (g·cm-2·min-1, for wood of Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies L., Quercus robra L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., and Populus Nigra L., by different sanding pressure pS, different sanding grit NG number, and different wood grain angles Phi(v.

  17. Quality stabilisation of synthetic sand containing bentonite in process lines

    OpenAIRE

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2010-01-01

    Stabilisation of sand quality requires the monitoring and control of sand moisture contents and its other parameters at each stage of sandprocessing, i.e. during the preparation of return sand mix and rebonding processes. Stabilisation of sand quality necessitates the use of reliable control equipment and evaluation procedures. This study outlines the scope and results of research work aimed to improve the control equipment to enhance the performance of turbine mixers. The paper reviews the m...

  18. Restoring sand shinnery oak prairies with herbicide and grazing in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaleta, Jennifer C.; Haukos, David A.; Grisham, Blake A.; Boal, Clint W.; Dixon, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) prairies are increasingly disappearing and increasingly degraded in the Southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico. Restoring and managing sand shinnery oak prairie can support biodiversity, specific species of conservation concern, and livestock production. We measured vegetation response to four treatment combinations of herbicide (tebuthiuron applied at 0.60 kg/ha) and moderate-intensity grazing (50% removal of annual herbaceous production) over a 10-year period in a sand shinnery oak prairie of eastern New Mexico. We compared the annual vegetation response to the historical climax plant community (HCPC) as outlined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Ecological Site Description. From 2 to 10 years postapplication, tebuthiuron-treated plots had reduced shrub cover with twice as much forb and grass cover as untreated plots. Tebuthiuron-treated plots, regardless of the presence of grazing, most frequently met HCPC. Tebuthiuron and moderate-intensity grazing increased vegetation heterogeneity and, based on comparison of the HCPC, successfully restored sand shinnery oak prairie to a vegetation composition similar to presettlement.

  19. Process water treatment in Canada's oil sands industry : 2 : a review of emerging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, E.W.

    2008-01-01

    This review was conducted to identify candidate treatment technologies for treating oil sands process water. The oil sands industry in Canada uses large volumes of fresh water in order to extract bitumen deposits. The development of process water treatment technologies has become a critical issue for the industry, particularly as oil sand production is expected to triple in the next decade. However, treatment technologies must be adapted to consider the fouling potential of bitumens and fine clays as well as the effect of alkaline process water on treatment performance. The review included developments in chemical modifications to membranes and adsorbents designed to improve pollutant removal and reduce fouling; hybridization technologies designed to enhance the biological treatment of toxic feedwaters; recent advances in photocatalytic oxidation technologies for organic compounds; and new designs for large-scale treatment wetlands for polluted waste waters. It was concluded that major knowledge gaps must be optimized and preliminary studies must be conducted in order to understand how the treatment technologies will be affected by the chemical and physical characteristics of oil sands process water. 188 refs., 8 tabs

  20. Thermochemical methods for the treatment of oil contaminated sand; Metodo termoquimico para tratamento de areia contaminada por oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Rosana C.G.M. [Fundacao Jose Bonifacio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Khalil, Carlos N. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The Nitrogen Generating System (SGN in Portuguese) is a thermochemical method first developed for cleaning and removal of paraffin deposits in production and export pipelines. SGN is based on a redox chemical reaction between two salts which is catalyzed in acidic pH. The reaction is strongly exothermic and its products are nitrogen, sodium chloride, water and heat. All reaction products are harmless to the environment. In January 2000 there was a major oil spill in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, which contaminated 2400 tons of sand. This work, developed at PETROBRAS Research Center (CENPES), was based on SGN technology which has been adapted for cleaning contaminated sand and recovering of spilled oil. By combining simultaneous effects of the SGN treatment such as heating, turbulence and floatation, one can remove, within 98% of efficiency, spilling oil from contaminated sand and removed oil can be securely returned to refining process. SGN technology has proved to be efficient, fast, low cost and ecologically correct method for cleaning contaminated sand and can be applied in loco right after a contamination event. (author)

  1. Dewatering Behaviour of Fine Oil Sands Tailings : An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Oil sands tailings are a warm aqueous suspension of sand, silt, clay, residual bitumen and naphtha. The tailings are hydraulically transported and stored in tailing ponds where they segregate, with the sand settling from suspension forming beaches and the remaining tailings flowing to the middle of

  2. Design and Fabrication of a Foundry Sand Mixer Using Locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most small foundry shops mix their sand manually which is not efficient since homogenous mix cannot be guaranteed and even when foundry mixer are available most of them are imported costing the nation huge foriegn exchange. A foundry sand mixer capable of mixing foundry sand has been designed and fabricated ...

  3. Seasonal changing sand waves and the effect of surface waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterlini, Fenneke; van Dijk, Thaiënne A.G.P.; IJzer, Steven; Hulscher, Suzanne; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Tomasicchio, Guiseppe Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Sand waves are wavelike subaqueous sediment structures that exist in large areas in shelf seas. Due to their characteristics sand waves can severely affect human offshore activities, such as navigation. This makes it important to understand the physical processes that shape and change sand waves. In

  4. Short Communications Sand moisture as a factor determining depth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-11-05

    Nov 5, 1993 ... The depths to which the animals burrow are, at least partly. determined by the moisture gradient in the sand. They are, however, incapable of burrowing into totally dry sand. Animals alter their position in the sand in response to changes in moisture content so as to ensure exposure to suitable conditions.

  5. Assessing environmental impacts of inland sand mining in parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sand is a valuable resource for construction and other purposes, however sand mining often result in serious environmental problems such as land degradation, loss of agricultural lands and biodiversity, as well increased poverty among people. This study assessed the environmental impacts of inland sand mining in six ...

  6. Acetylcholinesterase mutations and organophosphate resistance in sand flies and mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishmaniasis is an insect-borne disease caused by several protozoan species in the genus Leishmania, which are vectored by sand fly species in the genera Phlebotomus or Lutzomyia, depending on the sand fly species geographic range. Sand fly bites and leishmaniasis significantly impacted U.S. milita...

  7. [Factors affecting biological removal of iron and manganese in groundwater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gang; He, Sheng-Bing; Wang, Xin-Ze

    2006-01-01

    Factors affecting biological process for removing iron and manganese in groundwater were analyzed. When DO and pH in groundwater after aeration were 7.0 - 7.5 mg/L and 6.8 - 7.0 respectively, not only can the activation of Mn2+ oxidizing bacteria be maintained, but also the demand of iron and manganese removal can be satisfied. A novel inoculating approach of grafting mature filter material into filter bed, which is easier to handle than selective culture media, was employed in this research. However, this approach was only suitable to the filter material of high-quality manganese sand with strong Mn2+ adsorption capacity. For the filter material of quartz sand with weak adsorption capacity, only culturing and domesticating Mn2+ oxidizing bacteria by selective culture media can be adopted as inoculation in filter bed. The optimal backwashing rate of biological filter bed filled with manganese sand and quartz sand should be kept at a relatively low level of 6 - 9 L/(m2 x s) and 7 -11 L/( m2 x s), respectively. Then the stability of microbial phase in filter bed was not disturbed, and iron and manganese removal efficiency recovered in less than 5h. Moreover, by using filter material with uniform particle size of 1.0 - 1.2 mm in filter bed, the filtration cycle reached as long as 35 - 38h.

  8. The Rheology of Acoustically Fluidized Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, J. W.; Melosh, J.

    2013-12-01

    The collapse of large craters and the formation of central peaks and peak rings is well modeled by numerical computer codes that incorporate the acoustic fluidization mechanism to temporarily allow the fluid-like flow of rock debris immediately after crater excavation. Furthermore, long runout landslides require a similar mechanism to explain their almost frictionless movement, which is probably also a consequence of their granular composition coupled with internal vibrations. Many different investigators have now confirmed the ability of vibrations to fluidize granular materials. Yet it still remains to fully describe the rheology of vibrated sand as a function of stress, frequency and amplitude of the vibrations in the sand itself. We constructed a rotational viscometer to quantitatively investigate the relation between the stress and strain rate in a horizontal bed of strongly vibrated sand. In addition to the macroscopic stain rate, the amplitude and frequency of the vibrations produced by a pair of pneumatic vibrators were also measured with the aid of miniaturized piezoelectric accelerometers (B&K 4393) whose output was recorded on a digital storage oscilloscope. The initial gathering of the experimental data was difficult due to granular memory, but by having the sand compacted vibrationally for 8 minutes before each run the scatter of data was reduced and we were able to obtain consistent results. Nevertheless, our major source of uncertainty was variations in strain rate from run to run. We find that vibrated sand flows like a highly non-Newtonian fluid, in which the shear strain rate is proportional to stress to a power much greater than one, where the precise power depends on the amplitude and frequency of the applied vibrations. Rapid flow occurs at stresses less than half of the static yield stress (that is, the yield stress when no vibration is applied) when strong vibrations are present. For a Newtonian fluid, such as water, the relation between

  9. In situ viscosity of oil sands using low field NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, J.; Moon, D.; Kantzas, A.

    2005-01-01

    In heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs, oil viscosity is a vital piece of information that will have great bearing on the chosen EOR scheme and the recovery expected. Prediction of in situ viscosity with a logging tool would he very beneficial in reservoir characterization and exploitation design. Low field NMR is a technology that has shown great potential as a tool for characterizing hydrocarbon properties in heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. An oil viscosity correlation has previously been developed that is capable of providing order of magnitude viscosity estimates for a wide range of oils taken from various fields in Alberta. This paper presents tuning procedures to improve the NMR predictions for different viscosity ranges, and extends the NMR viscosity model to in situ heavy oil in unconsolidated sands. The results of this work show that the NMR oil peak can be de-convoluted from the in situ signals of the oil and water, and the bulk viscosity correlation that was developed for bulk oils can he applied to predict the in situ oil viscosity. These results can be translated to an NMR logging tool algorithm, allowing for in situ measurements of oil viscosity at the proper reservoir conditions. (author)

  10. Modeling wormhole growth and wormhole networks in unconsolidated sand media using the BP CHOPS model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderheyden, W.B. [BP America, Inc. Exploration and Production Technology Unconventional Oil Flagship (United States); Zhang, D. Z.; Jayaraman, B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory Theoretical Division Solid and Fluid Dynamics Group (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Cold Heavy Oil Production with Sand (CHOPS) is a recovery method used in unconsolidated sands to produce heavy oil. During the use of the CHOPS method, wormholes originating from production wells are generated. The aim of this paper is to present 2 modeling tools developed by BP in order to improve reservoir simulation of CHOPS operations with wormholes. The first tool developed is a CHOPS modeling framework representing wormhole networks through reservoir simulation and its wellbore model. The second one consists of the application of advanced fluid-structure interaction modeling into the simulation of wormhole and its network growth. Experiments were carried out and a qualitative agreement was achieved with the model. In addition the BP CHOPS model can predict probable oil production without calibration. This paper presented an improved model for reservoir simulation with wormholes but further work is required to predict wormhole shape in a more accurate manner.

  11. Planning for, and measuring, the business value of technology projects in the oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, M. [Northern Alberta Inst. of Technology, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Burgess, A. [Telus Energy Sector Organization, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This presentation discussed new communications technology options developed for oil sands industry operators. Technology options included broadband access for data, video and voice requirements, as well as new options for video, audio, and web conferencing. Recent technology options for inter-camp communications were presented, as well as new software developments for distance education, video surveillance, and data security. Various entertainment technologies for oil sands camp employees included in-room telephones, internet and gaming access, radio, television, and family web-cams. New electronic permitting equipment was described, and details of security and verification cards and tickets were provided. The economic benefits and social advantages of adopting the technologies were discussed. A research project and assessment tool designed to predict and measure the business value of information technology (IT) and communications technologies and projects was outlined. A case study of the Schlumberger heavy equipment program was used to demonstrate the assessment tool. refs., tabs., figs.

  12. The physics of wind-blown sand and dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jasper F; Parteli, Eric J R; Michaels, Timothy I; Karam, Diana Bou

    2012-10-01

    The transport of sand and dust by wind is a potent erosional force, creates sand dunes and ripples, and loads the atmosphere with suspended dust aerosols. This paper presents an extensive review of the physics of wind-blown sand and dust on Earth and Mars. Specifically, we review the physics of aeolian saltation, the formation and development of sand dunes and ripples, the physics of dust aerosol emission, the weather phenomena that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devils and other small-scale vortices. We also discuss the physics of wind-blown sand and dune formation on Venus and Titan.

  13. Longshore sediment transport at Golden Sands (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Nikolov

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on the qualitative and quantitative features of the littoral drift at Golden Sands (Bulgaria, carried out jointly by Polish and Bulgarian researchers. The mathematical modelling of physical coastal processes took wave transformation (wave diffraction and refraction; the effects of shoaling and wave breaking and longshore sediment transport into account. The computations were carried out for the mean statistical annual wave climate, determined on the basis of IO BAS wave data, simulated using the WAM method from long-term Black Sea wind data. The results of sediment transport computations clearly show that its direction off the Golden Sands shore is from north to south.

  14. Oil sands tailings preliminary ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Chemical data collected from various oil sands soil-tailings mixtures were used to determine the ecological risk that such tailings would pose to terrestrial wildlife at the surface of a reclaimed site. A methodology that could be used to evaluate the risks posed by various reclamation options (for dry land only) was proposed. Risks associated with other reclamation options, such as wet landscapes or deeper in-pit disposal, were not evaluated. Ten constituents (eight organic and two inorganic) were found to pose a threat to terrestrial biota. The relative contribution of different exposure pathways (water and food ingestion, incidental soil ingestion, inhalation) were studied by probabilistic models. Some physical and chemical reclamation alternatives which involve incorporating oil sands tailings in the landscape to produce a surface that could sustain a productive ecosystem, were described. 53 refs., 15 tabs., 3 figs

  15. Tailings dewatering in the oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longo, S.; Labelle, M. [Golder Paste Technology, Sudbury, ON (Canada); Wislesky, I. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Alberta's Directive 074 was established to reduce fluid tailings produced during oil sands extraction processes. This PowerPoint presentation examined some of the dewatering strategies available for oil sands operators and provided recommendations for implementing a dewatering plan. Sites must be evaluated in order to determine their chemistry, mineralogy, and the total quantity of material to be handled. The availability of potential additives must also be considered. Process technologies must be selected in relation to the operator's depositional strategy. Each site will require its own unique dewatering and depositional strategy. Dewatering technologies include thickening; in-line flocculation; centrifuge; co-mingling; and various new technologies such as electro-osmosis. Laboratory testing programs include index tests, primary stream thickening, and mini-pilot plant testing. The performance of various testing formats was evaluated. Thickening and depositional techniques were reviewed. tabs., figs.

  16. Radiation protection in the sand pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewson, Greg

    1997-01-01

    Radiation protection in the Western Australian minerals sands industry has attracted considerable controversy over the last 20 years: firstly, in relation to environmental and public health issues associated with the indiscriminate disposal of radioactive tailings as landfill in the mid to late 1970s and, secondly, in relation to occupational health issues associated with excessive radiation exposures to some workers at some plants in the mid to late 1980s. The industry also attracts attention through its proximity to coastal regions and population centres and consequent land use conflicts. Owing to intense political and societal scrutiny, and the emotional responses evoked by radiation, the industry's survival depends on a continuing high level of environmental and safety performance. This article summarises the successes and failures of the mineral sands industry in managing radiation protection and highlights some future issues and challenges for the industry. (Author)

  17. Oil sands market and transportation solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandahl, R.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation outlined the immense potential of the western Canadian oil sands reserves. Recoverable reserves have been estimated at 180 billion barrels, with production forecasts estimated at 5 million barrels per day by 2030. Resource development is occurring at a time when the world's largest oil importer is increasing supplies through concern for security of supply. The second and third largest oil importers in the world are experiencing economic and energy demand growth. These factors underscore the motivation for rapid growth of the Western Canadian Oil Sands reserves. One of the challenges that must be addressed is to ensure that incremental markets for the increased production are accessed. Another challenge is to ensure adequate infrastructure in terms of pipeline capacity to ensure deliverability of the product. tabs., figs

  18. Lasers and high-energy light as a decontamination tool for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flesher, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    Light-aided decontamination (LAD) removal of paint and concrete layers is competitive with sand blasting rates. Remote operations, up to 137 m (450 ft), and lower waste volumes can provide cost, safety, and environmental advantages for nuclear facilities

  19. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Ashraf; Nasr, Ahmed

    2013-03-01

    Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21-31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18-75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

  20. Fusion of arkosic sand by intrusive andesite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Roy A.

    1954-01-01

    An andesite dike in the Valles Mountains of northern New Mexico has intruded and partly fused arkosic sediments for a distance of 50 feet from its contacts. The dike is semi-circular in form, has a maximum width of about 100 feet, and is about 500 feet long. Small associated arcuate dikes are arranged in spiral fashion around the main dike, suggesting that they were intruded along shear fractures similar to those described by Burbank (1941). The fused rocks surrounding the andesite dike are of three general types: 1) partly fused arkosic sand, 2) fused clay, and 3) hybrid rocks. The fused arkosic sand consists of relict detrital grains of quartz, orthoclose, and plagioclase, imbedded in colorless glass containing microlites of tridymite, cordierite, and magnetite. The relict quartz grains are corroded and embayed by glass; the orthoclase is sanidinized and partly fused; and the plagioclase is inverted to the high temperature form and is partly fused. The fused clay, which was originally a mixture of montmorillonite and hydromica, consists primarily of cordierite but also contains needle-like crystals of sillimanite (?) or mullite (?). The hybrid rocks originated in part by intermixing of fused arkosic sediments and andesitic liquid and in part by diffusion of mafic constituents through the fused sediments. They are rich in cordierite and magnetite and also contain hypersthene, augite, and plagioclase. The composition of pigeonite in the andesite indicates that the temperature of the andesite at the time of intrusion probably did not exceed 1200?C. Samples of arkosic sand were fused in the presence of water in a Morey bomb at 1050?C. Stability relations of certain minerals in the fused sand suggest that fusion may have taken place at a lower temperature, however, and the fluxing action of volatiles from the andesite are thought to have made this possible.

  1. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  2. Comparison of SAND-II and FERRET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, D.W.; Schmittroth, F.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison was made of the advantages and disadvantages of two codes, SAND-II and FERRET, for determining the neutron flux spectrum and uncertainty from experimental dosimeter measurements as anticipated in the FFTF Reactor Characterization Program. This comparison involved an examination of the methodology and the operational performance of each code. The merits of each code were identified with respect to theoretical basis, directness of method, solution uniqueness, subjective influences, and sensitivity to various input parameters

  3. Drained Triaxial Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praastrup, U.; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    In the process of understanding and developing models for geomaterials, the stress-strain behaviour is commonly studied by performing triaxial tests. In the present study static triaxial tests have been performed to gain knowledge of the stress-strain behaviour of frictional materials during...... monotonic loading. The tests reported herein are all drained tests, starting from different initial states of stress and following various stress paths. AIl the tests are performed on reconstituted medium dense specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand....

  4. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Nazir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21–31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18–75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

  5. Transport processes in intertidal sand flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Christy

    2010-05-01

    Methane rich sulfate depleted seeps are observed along the low water line of the intertidal sand flat Janssand in the Wadden Sea. It is unclear where in the flat the methane is formed, and how it is transported to the edge of the sand flat where the sulfidic water seeps out. Methane and sulfate distributions in pore water were determined along transects from low water line toward the central area of the sand flat. The resulting profiles showed a zone of methane-rich and sulfate-depleted pore water below 2 m sediment depth. Methane production and sulfate reduction are monitored over time for surface sediments collected from the upper flat and seeping area. Both activities were at 22 C twice as high as at 15 C. The rates in sediments from the central area were higher than in sediments from the methane seeps. Methanogenesis occurred in the presence of sulfate, and was not significantly accelerated when sulfate was depleted. The observations show a rapid anaerobic degradation of organic matter in the Janssand. The methane rich pore water is obviously transported with a unidirectional flow from the central area of the intertidal sand flat toward the low water line. This pore water flow is driven by the pressure head caused by elevation of the pore water relative to the sea surface at low tide (Billerbeck et al. 2006a). The high methane concentration at the low water line accumulates due to a continuous outflow of pore water at the seepage site that prevents penetration of electron acceptors such as oxygen and sulfate to reoxidize the reduced products of anaerobic degradation (de Beer et al. 2006). It is, however, not clear why no methane accumulates or sulfate is depleted in the upper 2 m of the flats.

  6. Guide to preparing SAND reports. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, T.K. [ed.

    1996-04-01

    This guide contains basic information needed to produce a SAND report. Its guidelines reflect DOE regulation and Sandia policy. The guide includes basic writing instructions in an annotated sample report; guidance for organization, format, and layout of reports produced by line organizations; and information about conference papers, journal articles, and brochures. The appendixes contain sections on Sandia`s preferred usage, equations, references, copyrights and permissions, and publishing terms.

  7. Analysis of wind-blown sand movement over transverse dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Huang, Ning; Zhu, Yuanjian

    2014-12-01

    Wind-blown sand movement often occurs in a very complicated desert environment where sand dunes and ripples are the basic forms. However, most current studies on the theoretic and numerical models of wind-blown sand movement only consider ideal conditions such as steady wind velocity, flat sand surface, etc. In fact, the windward slope gradient plays a great role in the lift-off and sand particle saltation. In this paper, we propose a numerical model for the coupling effect between wind flow and saltating sand particles to simulate wind-blown sand movement over the slope surface and use the SIMPLE algorithm to calculate wind flow and simulate sands transport by tracking sand particle trajectories. We furthermore compare the result of numerical simulation with wind tunnel experiments. These results prove that sand particles have obvious effect on wind flow, especially that over the leeward slope. This study is a preliminary study on windblown sand movement in a complex terrain, and is of significance in the control of dust storms and land desertification.

  8. Naphtha evaporation from oil sands tailings ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperski, K.; Munoz, V.; Mikula, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Western Research Centre

    2010-07-01

    The environmental impacts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from oil sands tailings ponds must be considered when evaluating new oil sands mining and extraction operations. Studies have suggested that only 40 percent of the solvent sent to tailings ponds is available to the environment, while the rest is irreversibly trapped. The recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands froth process water is low. This PowerPoint presentation discussed a method of distinguishing between water and hydrocarbons at low temperatures. Samples were heated to 246 degrees C at 15 degrees C and held for 10 minutes. Heating was then resumed at 750 degrees C and held for 10 minutes in a pyrolysis phase, then cooled and reheated with an oxygen addition. The method demonstrated that the diluent distribution between the solids and water phases is misinterpreted as diluent that will evaporate, and diluent that will not evaporate. The study concluded by suggesting that the definition of recoverable and unrecoverable hydrocarbon should be re-termed as easily recoverable, and difficult to recover. tabs., figs.

  9. Insight conference reports : Western Canada oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This conference presented issues of concern to the Canadian oil sands industry. Focal points included supply and the potential for market growth as well as opportunities and challenges faced by the industry in the current market. Various projects were discussed, including the Northern Lights and Fort Hill projects. Reserves and resource booking procedures were examined, as well as issues concerning the streamlining of regulatory barriers and various approaches to the Kyoto Protocol and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Oil sands portfolios were reviewed as well as issues concerning the recovery of titanium and zircon, the economics of Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) options and innovations in technology and sub-surface risk assessment for in-situ projects. Transportation initiatives were examined as well as pipeline issues and storage infrastructure development. Issues concerning financing as well as the economic environment of the oil sands industry were also discussed. The conference featured 20 presentations, of which 5 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs, figs

  10. Recycled sand in lime-based mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, M; Anastasiou, E; Georgiadis Filikas, K

    2014-12-01

    The increasing awareness of the society about safe guarding heritage buildings and at the same time protecting the environment promotes strategies of combining principles of restoration with environmentally friendly materials and techniques. Along these lines, an experimental program was carried out in order to investigate the possibility of producing repair, lime-based mortars used in historic buildings incorporating secondary materials. The alternative material tested was recycled fine aggregates originating from mixed construction and demolition waste. Extensive tests on the raw materials have been performed and mortar mixtures were produced using different binding systems with natural, standard and recycled sand in order to compare their mechanical, physical and microstructure properties. The study reveals the improved behavior of lime mortars, even at early ages, due to the reaction of lime with the Al and Si constituents of the fine recycled sand. The role of the recycled sand was more beneficial in lime mortars rather than the lime-pozzolan or lime-pozzolan-cement mortars as a decrease in their performance was recorded in the latter cases due to the mortars' structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Numerical simulation of sand jet in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azimi, A.H.; Zhu, D.; Rajaratnam, N. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-07-01

    A numerical simulation of sand jet in water was presented. The study involved a two-phase flow using two-phase turbulent jets. A literature review was also presented, including an experiment on particle laden air jet using laser doppler velocimetry (LDV); experiments on the effect of particle size and concentration on solid-gas jets; an experimental study of solid-liquid jets using particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique where mean velocity and fluctuations were measured; and an experimental study on solid-liquid jets using the laser doppler anemometry (LDA) technique measuring both water axial and radial velocities. Other literature review results included a photographic study of sand jets in water; a comparison of many two-phase turbulent flow; and direct numerical simulation and large-eddy simulation to study the effect of particle in gas jet flow. The mathematical model and experimental setup were also included in the presentation along with simulation results for sand jets, concentration, and kinetic energy. The presentation concluded with some proposed future studies including numerical simulation of slurry jets in water and numerical simulation of slurry jets in MFT. tabs., figs.

  12. Mobil Oil Canada : Kearl Oil Sands Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The upgrader design at Mobil's Kearl Oil Sands Mine were described. Included were feed characteristics, upgrader products, process schemes and their overall economics and upgrader technologies in use, including coking, deasphalting, hydrocracking, hydrotreating and visbreaking. Advantages and disadvantages of the upgrader technologies were highlighted. As far as the product is concerned, much of it is destined to U.S. refineries that are equipped to process the material. The Kearl Oil Sands Mine upgrading facility will likely use a combination of coker/hydrotreating, which is a well proven process for high value products that has been used in all five of Mobil's refineries in the U.S., and visbreaker/deasphalting, which has shown promise in bench-scale testing, but at present still has some potential commercial difficulties. Foremost among these are the high softening product of asphalt from visbroken products, questionable commercial feasibility of the low yield of pitch, and problems in the disposal of asphalt. Severe visbreaking also yields unstable products. Details of Mobil Canada's oil sands project were also summarized 2 tabs., 9 figs

  13. Experimental investigation of sanding propensity for the Andrew completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkitaraman, A.; Li, H. [Schlumberger Perforating and Testing Center (United Kingdom); Leonard, A. J.; Bowden, P. R. [BP Exploration (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    A series of laboratory experiments were performed on three reservoir core samples selected from two plot wells to confirm the likelihood of sand production during the completion phase of the planned Andrew horizontal wells, and to perform risk analysis of formation failure at the time of underbalance perforation, and expected producing conditions. CT scans revealed no perforation failure, and the core samples did not show any propensity to produce sand during single-phase oil flow. Transient sand production was observed when water cut was introduced, but sand production declined as the percentage of water cut was increased. There was no evidence of sand production in the core samples during depletion testing either, and the wells were subsequently completed with perforated cemented liners without sand control. No sand problems have been encountered in two years of production, with some wells in water cut and declined reservoir pressure of 200 psi. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  14. Use of sand wave habitats by silver hake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auster, P.J.; Lindholm, J.; Schaub, S.; Funnell, G.; Kaufman, L.S.; Valentine, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Silver hake Merluccius bilinearis are common members of fish communities in sand wave habitats on Georges Bank and on Stellwagen Bank in the Gulf of Maine. Observations of fish size v. sand wave period showed that silver hake are not randomly distributed within sand wave landscapes. Regression analyses showed a significant positive relationship between sand wave period and fish length. Correlation coefficients, however, were low, suggesting other interactions with sand wave morphology, the range of current velocities, and available prey may also influence their distribution. Direct contact with sand wave habitats varied over diel periods, with more fish resting on the seafloor during daytime than at night. Social foraging, in the form of polarized groups of fish swimming in linear formations during crepuscular and daytime periods, was also observed. Sand wave habitats may provide shelter from current flows and mediate fish-prey interactions. ?? 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. bentonite-sand mixture as new backfill/buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Suli; Liu Jisheng; Zhang Huyuan; Liang Jian

    2008-01-01

    The mixture of bentonite and quartz sand is suggested as a new backfill/buffer material for geological disposal of HLW. To improve the further design of underground laboratory and in-situ industrial construction test, the optimization of sand addition to bentonite is focused at present research stage. Based on summarizing the research results abroad, laboratory tests were conducted on the mixture of GMZ001 bentonite and quartz sand, such as compaction test and swelling tests etc. Test data shows that GMZ bentonite-sand mixture exhibits a favorite compaction with a 30% sand addition, a highest swelling pressure with a 20% sand addition, and a decreasing plasticity with increases in sand addition and pore liquid concentration. (authors)

  16. Copper deficiency can limit nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Florian Benedikt; Nielsen, Peter Borch; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Incomplete nitrification in biological filters during drinking water treatment is problematic, as it compromises drinking water quality. Nitrification problems can be caused by a lack of nutrients for the nitrifying microorganisms. Since copper is an important element in one of the essential...... enzymes in nitrification, we investigated the effect of copper dosing on nitrification in different biological rapid sand filters treating groundwater. A lab-scale column assay with filter material from a water works demonstrated that addition of a trace metal mixture, including copper, increased ammonium...... to the bulk phase. Overall, copper dosing to poorly performing biological rapid sand filters increased ammonium removal rates significantly, achieving effluent concentrations of below 0.01 mg NH4-N L-1, and had a long-term effect on nitrification performance....

  17. A cost comparison of nuclear and fossil power for the Alberta tar sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochaski, R.O.; Smith, D.W.

    1977-04-01

    One technique envisaged for commercial development of the Alberta tar sands is in-situ removal of bitumen by injection of steam into the formation at high temperature and pressure. The 3000 MW of thermal power required for a typical 20 Gg/d plant could be supplied by a nuclear reactor. Accordingly, an economic comparison was made between a CANDU organic-cooled reactor and a conventional coal-fired station, using a variety of financial ground rules. This analysis shows that for debt-financed cases, nuclear power has essentially no economic competition from coal. For equity cases, the competitive position of a coal-fired station is heavily dependent on the cost of coal delivered to the tar sands area, discount rate, amortization period and inflation rate. (author)

  18. Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinti, Jennifer [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Birgenheier, Lauren [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, Milind [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Facelli, Julio [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, Michal [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, Kerry [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Miller, Jan [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); McLennan, John [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ring, Terry [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ruple, John [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Uchitel, Kirsten [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-09-30

    (March, 2012); Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah: Implications for Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development (May, 2012); Development of CFD-Based Simulation Tools for In Situ Thermal Processing of Oil Shale/Sands (February, 2012); Core-Based Integrated Sedimentologic, Stratigraphic, and Geochemical Analysis of the Oil Shale Bearing Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah (April, 2011); Atomistic Modeling of Oil Shale Kerogens and Asphaltenes Along with their Interactions with the Inorganic Mineral Matrix (April, 2011); Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis (March, 2011); Land and Resource Management Issues Relevant to Deploying In-Situ Thermal Technologies (January, 2011); Policy Analysis of Produced Water Issues Associated with In-Situ Thermal Technologies (January, 2011); and Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development (March, 2010)

  19. Sand wave fields beneath the Loop Current, Gulf of Mexico: Reworking of fan sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Neil H.; Akhmetzhanov, A.M.; Twichell, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive fields of large barchan-like sand waves and longitudinal sand ribbons have been mapped by deep-towed SeaMARC IA sidescan sonar on part of the middle and lower Mississippi Fan that lies in about 3200 m of water. The area is beneath the strongly flowing Loop Current. The bedforms have not been adequately sampled but probably consist of winnowed siliciclastic-foraminiferal sands. The size (about 200 m from wingtip to wingtip) and shape of the large barchans is consistent with a previously observed peak current speed of 30 cm/s, measured 25 m above the seabed. The types of small-scale bedforms and the scoured surfaces of chemical crusts, seen on nearby bottom photographs, indicate that near-bed currents in excess of 30 cm/s may sometimes occur. At the time of the survey the sand transport direction was to the northwest, in the opposite direction to the Loop Current but consistent with there being a deep boundary current along the foot of the Florida Escarpment. Some reworking of the underlying sandy turbidites and debris flow deposits is apparent on the sidescan sonar records. Reworking by deep-sea currents, resulting in erosion and in deposits characterised by coarsening upwards structures and cross-bedding, is a process that has been proposed for sand found in cores in shallower parts of the Gulf of Mexico. This process is more widespread than hitherto supposed. 

  20. Drawer compacted sand filter: a new and innovative method for on-site grey water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assayed, Almoayied; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Pedley, Steven

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, results ofa new sand filter design were presented. The drawer compacted sand filter (DCSF) is a modified design for a sand filter in which the sand layer is broken down into several layers, each of which is 10 cm high and placed in a movable drawer separated by a 10 cm space. A lab-scale DCSF was designed and operated for 330 days fed by synthetic grey water. The response of drawer sand filters to variable hydraulic and organic loading rates (HLR and OLR) in terms of biological oxygen demand (BODs), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), pH, electrical conductivity and Escherichia coli reductions were evaluated. The HLR was studied by increasing from 72 to 142 L m(-2) day(-1) and OLR was studied by increasing it from 23 to 30 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1) while keeping the HLR constant at 142 L m(-2) day(-1). Each loading regime was applied for 110 days. Results showed that DCSF was able to remove >90% of organic matter and total suspended solids for all doses. No significant difference was noticed in terms of overall filter efficiency between different loads for all parameters. Significant reduction in BOD5 and COD (P water was drained through the third drawer in all tested loads. The paper concludes that DCSF would be appropriate for use in dense urban areas as its footprint is small and is appropriate for a wide range of users because of its convenience and low maintenance requirements.

  1. Compositional Signatures in Acoustic Backscatter Over Vegetated and Unvegetated Mixed Sand-Gravel Riverbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscombe, D.; Grams, P. E.; Kaplinski, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Multibeam acoustic backscatter has considerable utility for remote characterization of spatially heterogeneous bed sediment composition over vegetated and unvegetated riverbeds of mixed sand and gravel. However, the use of high-frequency, decimeter-resolution acoustic backscatter for sediment classification in shallow water is hampered by significant topographic contamination of the signal. In mixed sand-gravel riverbeds, changes in the abiotic composition of sediment (such as homogeneous sand to homogeneous gravel) tend to occur over larger spatial scales than is characteristic of small-scale bedform topography (ripples, dunes, and bars) or biota (such as vascular plants and periphyton). A two-stage method is proposed to filter out the morphological contributions to acoustic backscatter. First, the residual supragrain-scale topographic effects in acoustic backscatter with small instantaneous insonified areas, caused by ambiguity in the local (beam-to-beam) bed-sonar geometry, are removed. Then, coherent scales between high-resolution topography and backscatter are identified using cospectra, which are used to design a frequency domain filter that decomposes backscatter into the (unwanted) high-pass component associated with bedform topography (ripples, dunes, and sand waves) and vegetation, and the (desired) low-frequency component associated with the composition of sediment patches superimposed on the topography. This process strengthens relationships between backscatter and sediment composition. A probabilistic framework is presented for classifying vegetated and unvegetated substrates based on acoustic backscatter at decimeter resolution. This capability is demonstrated using data collected from diverse settings within a 386 km reach of a canyon river whose bed varies among sand, gravel, cobbles, boulders, and submerged vegetation.

  2. Hydrodynamic calculation of a filter sand bed type used in the containment venting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas V, D.; Sainz M, E.; Ortiz V, J.

    2015-09-01

    The filtered venting of the containment has been adopted in European countries to mitigate the consequences of excess pressure containment during a severe accident. When venting has taken place, the fission products are released directly into the environment, unless a filter on the same path is placed, so that various types of filters are used to trap the fission products. The venting filters of the containment currently installed use different filtration technologies that involve more than one medium. Those using water as the first stage of filtration are called wet systems and are equipped with additional steps to remove water drops and fine aerosols emissions. And even they may also be equipped with an element containing certain absorption means for the filtration of gaseous iodine species. Other designs based on filtration of deep bed as the primary retention step; called dry filters, use filtration media of metal fiber, ceramic or sand to trap aerosols. This paper evaluates the hydraulic characteristics of the filter sand bed type designed by EDF as a candidate to be installed in the containment of BWR Mark II (type of primary containment of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde). The evaluation of filter sand bed type was performed using the software package of open source OpenFOAM. Models of each zone of the filtered device were generated and through a series of parametric calculations of computational fluid mechanics relevant hydrodynamic characteristics of the device were obtained, such as pressure drops against mass flow rate and pressure fields and speed at different operating conditions. On the other hand, the model validation of the sand bed filter when comparing the results of experimental tests on a sand column of PITEAS program (1985-1986) against OpenFOAM simulation was realized. The results are very close to those obtained experimentally. (Author)

  3. Compositional signatures in acoustic backscatter over vegetated and unvegetated mixed sand-gravel riverbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscombe, Daniel; Grams, Paul E.; Kaplinski, Matt A.

    2017-01-01

    Multibeam acoustic backscatter has considerable utility for remote characterization of spatially heterogeneous bed sediment composition over vegetated and unvegetated riverbeds of mixed sand and gravel. However, the use of high-frequency, decimeter-resolution acoustic backscatter for sediment classification in shallow water is hampered by significant topographic contamination of the signal. In mixed sand-gravel riverbeds, changes in the abiotic composition of sediment (such as homogeneous sand to homogeneous gravel) tend to occur over larger spatial scales than is characteristic of small-scale bedform topography (ripples, dunes, and bars) or biota (such as vascular plants and periphyton). A two-stage method is proposed to filter out the morphological contributions to acoustic backscatter. First, the residual supragrain-scale topographic effects in acoustic backscatter with small instantaneous insonified areas, caused by ambiguity in the local (beam-to-beam) bed-sonar geometry, are removed. Then, coherent scales between high-resolution topography and backscatter are identified using cospectra, which are used to design a frequency domain filter that decomposes backscatter into the (unwanted) high-pass component associated with bedform topography (ripples, dunes, and sand waves) and vegetation, and the (desired) low-frequency component associated with the composition of sediment patches superimposed on the topography. This process strengthens relationships between backscatter and sediment composition. A probabilistic framework is presented for classifying vegetated and unvegetated substrates based on acoustic backscatter at decimeter resolution. This capability is demonstrated using data collected from diverse settings within a 386 km reach of a canyon river whose bed varies among sand, gravel, cobbles, boulders, and submerged vegetation.

  4. Evaluating the oil sands reclamation process: Assessing policy capacity and stakeholder access for government and non-governmental organizations operating in Alberta's oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Tyler

    . In an effort to discern the overall status of reclamation in the oil sands this study explores several factors essential to policy capacity: work environment, training, employee attitudes, perceived capacity, policy tools, evidence based work, and networking. Data was collected through key informant interviews with senior policy professionals in government and non-government agencies in Alberta. The following are agencies of interest in this research: Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP); Alberta Environment and Sustainable Resource Development (AESRD); Alberta Energy Regulator (AER); Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA); Alberta Environment Monitoring, Evaluation, and Reporting Agency (AEMERA); Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA). The aim of this research is to explain how and why reclamation policy is conducted in Alberta's oil sands. This will illuminate government capacity, NGO capacity, and the interaction of these two agency typologies. In addition to answering research questions, another goal of this project is to show interpretive analysis of policy capacity can be used to measure and predict policy effectiveness. The oil sands of Alberta will be the focus of this project, however, future projects could focus on any government policy scenario utilizing evidence-based approaches.

  5. A combined CFD-experimental method for developing an erosion equation for both gas-sand and liquid-sand flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Amir

    The surface degradation of equipment due to consecutive impacts of abrasive particles carried by fluid flow is called solid particle erosion. Solid particle erosion occurs in many industries including oil and gas. In order to prevent abrupt failures and costly repairs, it is essential to predict the erosion rate and identify the locations of the equipment that are mostly at risk. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a powerful tool for predicting the erosion rate. Erosion prediction using CFD analysis includes three steps: (1) obtaining flow solution, (2) particle tracking and calculating the particle impact speed and angle, and (3) relating the particle impact information to mass loss of material through an erosion equation. Erosion equations are commonly generated using dry impingement jet tests (sand-air), since the particle impact speed and angle are assumed not to deviate from conditions in the jet. However, in slurry flows, a wide range of particle impact speeds and angles are produced in a single slurry jet test with liquid and sand particles. In this study, a novel and combined CFD/experimental method for developing an erosion equation in slurry flows is presented. In this method, a CFD analysis is used to characterize the particle impact speed, angle, and impact rate at specific locations on the test sample. Then, the particle impact data are related to the measured erosion depth to achieve an erosion equation from submerged testing. Traditionally, it was assumed that the erosion equation developed based on gas testing can be used for both gas-sand and liquid-sand flows. The erosion equations developed in this work were implemented in a CFD code, and CFD predictions were validated for various test conditions. It was shown that the erosion equation developed based on slurry tests can significantly improve the local thickness loss prediction in slurry flows. Finally, a generalized erosion equation is proposed which can be used to predict the erosion rate in

  6. Evaluation of the effects of different sand particles that used in dental implant roughened for osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurttutan, Mehmet Emre; Keskin, Ahmet

    2018-03-20

    Successful dental implant treatment is directly related to osseointegration. In achieving osseointegration, the surface property of the implant is of great importance. Sandblasting is the most commonly used basic method for modifying the surface. Many companies use different sand particles for surface roughening and claim their sand is the best. This leads clinicians to mix their minds in product selection. In this study, we tried to find the appropriate sand material by working objectively without praising any brand. We believe that the results of the study will help clinicians choose the right dental implant. In this study, machined-surfaced implants and implants sandblasted with Aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ), Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) and Silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) were compared via biomechanical testing. For the study, four 2 year-old sheep, weighing 45 kilograms (kg), were used. Eight implants (Al 2 O 3 , TiO 2 , and SiO 2 sandblasted implants and machined-surfaced implants), each with different surface characteristics, were inserted into the bilateral tibia of each sheep under general anesthesia. Results of the initial Resonance Frequency Analysis (RFA) were recorded just after implant insertion. The sheep were then randomly divided into two groups, each with 2 sheep, to undergo either a 1-month or a 3-month assessment. At the end of the designated evaluation period, RFA and removal torque tests were performed. Although there were no statistically significant differences between the groups, the implants sandblasted with Al 2 O 3 showed a higher Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ) and removal torque value at the end of the 1st and 3rd month. In short, the results of the study demonstrate that Aluminum oxide is superior to other sand particles.

  7. Enhanced ex situ bioremediation of crude oil contaminated beach sand by supplementation with nutrients and rhamnolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, M; Pasadakis, N; Norf, H; Kalogerakis, N

    2013-12-15

    Mediterranean coastal regions are particularly exposed to oil pollution due to extensive industrialization, urbanization and transport of crude and refined oil to and from refineries. Bioremediation of contaminated beach sand through landfarming is both simple and cost-effective to implement compared to other treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of alternative nutrients on biodegradation of crude oil contaminated beach sand in an effort to reduce the time required for bioremediation employing only indigenous hydrocarbon degraders. A natural sandy soil was collected from Agios Onoufrios beach (Chania, Greece) and was contaminated with weathered crude oil. The indigenous microbial population in the contaminated sand was tested alone (control treatment) or in combination with inorganic nutrients (KNO3 and K2HPO4) to investigate their effects on oil biodegradation rates. In addition, the ability of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids), in the presence of organic nutrients (uric acid and lecithin), to further stimulate biodegradation was investigated in laboratory microcosms over a 45-day period. Biodegradation was tracked by GC/MS analysis of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons components and the measured concentrations were corrected for abiotic removal by hopane normalizations. It was found that the saturated fraction of the residual oil is degraded more extensively than the aromatic fraction and the bacterial growth after an incubation period of approximately 3 weeks was much greater from the bacterial growth in the control. The results show that the treatments with inorganic or organic nutrients are equally effective over almost 30 days where C12-C35n-alkanes were degraded more than 97% and polyaromatic hydrocarbons with two or three rings were degraded more than 95% within 45 days. The results clearly show that the addition of nutrients to contaminated beach sand significantly enhanced the activity of

  8. Radium desorption, manganese and iron dissolution from sand filters of a conventional ground water treatment plant under reductive conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hobaib, A.S.; Al-Sulaiman, K.M.; Al-Dhayan, D.M.; Al-Suhybani, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Sand filters are used as a filter bed in many ground water treatment plants to remove the physical contaminants and oxidation products. A build-up of radioactivity may take place on the granules, where iron and manganese oxides are deposited and form thin films on the surface of sand filter. The oxides of iron and manganese play an important role in adsorbing radium from ground water. The disposal of those granules makes a significant problem. A batch technique is used for solubilization of radium from sand filters in the presence of some organic acids, which act as reducing agents. These acids are formic acid, acetic acid, benzoic acid, succinic acid, oxalic acid, phthalic acid, and adipic acid. The data were obtained as a function of acidity, temperature, contact time and liquid/solid ratio particle size and shaking speed. It was found that oxalic acid was the best for radium removal. The effectiveness of these acids on radium removal was as follows: oxalic acid > phthalic acid > adipic acid > succinic acid > formic acid > acetic acid. The maximum removal obtained was 69.9% at 1M oxalic acid at 8 ml/g ratio. Reaction kinetics and mechanism parameters of the dissolution process were studied and compared with other published data. (author)

  9. Removal of chromate in a permeable reactive barrier using zero-valent iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Locht, T

    2002-01-01

    Chromate is a commonly found groundwater contaminant. Permeable reactive barriers containing zero-valent iron as iron filings are able to remove the chromate by a combined reduction/precipitation reaction. However, due to the passivation of the reduction capability of the iron surfaces by the pre......). Mixing in sand had no significant enhancing effect on the removal capacity, in contrast to a pH adjustment of the groundwater to pH 4, which significantly increased the removal capacity....

  10. Energy infrastructure modeling for the oil sands industry: Current situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzaroni, Edoardo Filippo; Elsholkami, Mohamed; Arbiv, Itai; Martelli, Emanuele; Elkamel, Ali; Fowler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A simulation-based modelling of energy demands of oil sands operations is proposed. • Aspen simulations used to simulate delayed coking-based upgrading of bitumen. • The energy infrastructure is simulated using Aspen Plus achieving self-sufficiency. • Various scenarios affecting energy demand intensities are investigated. • Energy and CO_2 emission intensities of integrated SAGD/upgrading are estimated. - Abstract: In this study, the total energy requirements associated with the production of bitumen from oil sands and its upgrading to synthetic crude oil (SCO) are modeled and quantified. The production scheme considered is based on the commercially applied steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) for bitumen extraction and delayed coking for bitumen upgrading. In addition, the model quantifies the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of energy required for these operations from technologies utilized in the currently existing oil sands energy infrastructure. The model is based on fundamental engineering principles, and Aspen HYSYS and Aspen Plus simulations. The energy demand results are expressed in terms of heat, power, hydrogen, and process fuel consumption rates for SAGD extraction and bitumen upgrading. Based on the model’s output, a range of overall energy and emission intensity factors are estimated for a bitumen production rate of 112,500 BPD (or 93,272 BPD of SCO), which were determined to be 262.5–368.5 MJ/GJ_S_C_O and 14.17–19.84 gCO_2/MJ_S_C_O, respectively. The results of the model indicate that the majority of GHG emissions are generated during SAGD extraction (up to 60% of total emissions) due to the combustion of natural gas for steam production, and the steam-to-oil ratio is a major parameter affecting total GHG emissions. The developed model can be utilized as a tool to predict the energy demand requirements for integrated SAGD/upgrading projects under different operating conditions, and

  11. Revegetation and management of tailings sand slopes from tar sand extraction: 1978 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowell, M J

    1979-01-01

    The results are reported of research into the revegetation of two areas on a steeply sloping dike composed of tailings sand from tar sand extraction at the Great Canadian Oil Sand Limited plant at Fort McMurray, Alberta. One area was seeded with three pasture grasses and two legumes in 1971 after the slope surface had been mixed with peat to a depth of 15 cm. A second area had been amended with peat or peat and overburden and differing rates of fertilizer added. A mix containing nine grasses, four legumes, and oats, as a companion crop, was seeded in July 1976. The objectives of the research were to study methods for the establishment of a stable vegetative cover that would prevent erosion of the slope and, in time, might become a self maintaining unit. Tillage of soil amendments to a depth of 15 cm and 30 cm were compared in promoting deeper rooting and stabilizing of the slope.

  12. A new depositional model for sand-rich loess on the Buckley Flats outwash plain, northwestern Lower Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Kelsey E.; Schaetzl, Randall J.; Ignatov, Anthony; Miller, Bradley A.

    2018-04-01

    Loess was first studied in Michigan on the Buckley Flats, where outwash, overlain by ≈70 cm of loamy sediment, was originally interpreted as loess mixed with underlying sands. This paper re-evaluates this landscape through a spatial analysis of data from auger samples and soil pits. To better estimate the loamy sediment's initial textures, we utilized "filtered" laser diffraction data, which remove much of the coarser sand data. Textures of filtered silt data for the loamy sediment are similar to loess. The siltiest soils are found in the low-relief, central part of the Flats. Spatial analyses revealed that many silt fractions are nearly uniformly distributed, suggesting that the loess was not derived from a single source. The previous depositional model for the loamy mantle relied on loessfall followed by pedoturbation, but does not explain (1) the variation in sand contents across the Flats, or (2) the abrupt contact below the loamy mantle. This contact suggests that the outwash was frozen when the sediments above were deposited. Deep gullies at the western margins of the Flats were likely cut as permafrost facilitated runoff. Our new model for the origin of the loamy mantle suggests that the sands on the uplands were generated from eroding gullies and saltated onto the uplands along with loess that fell more widely. Sands saltating to the west of the Flats may have entrained some silts, facilitating loessfall downwind. At most sites, the loamy mantle gets increasingly silty near the surface, suggesting that saltation ended before loess deposition.

  13. Removing Hair Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  14. Properties of dune sand concrete containing coffee waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Guendouz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, an increase of coffee beverages consumption has been observed all over the world; and its consumption increases the waste coffee grounds which will become an environmental problems. Recycling of this waste to produce new materials like sand concrete appears as one of the best solutions for reduces the problem of pollution. This work aims to study the possibility of recycling waste coffee grounds (Spent Coffee Grounds (SCG as a fine aggregate by replacing the sand in the manufacturing of dune sand concrete. For this; sand concrete mixes were prepared with substitution of sand with the spent coffee grounds waste at different percentage (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by volume of the sand in order to study the influence of this wastes on physical (Workability, bulk density and porosity, mechanical (compressive and flexural strength and Thermal (Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity properties of dune sand concrete. The results showed that the use of spent coffee grounds waste as partial replacement of natural sand contributes to reduce workability, bulk density and mechanical strength of sand concrete mixes with an increase on its porosity. However, the thermal characteristics are improved and especially for a level of 15% and 20% of substitution. So, it is possible to obtain an insulating material which can be used in the various types of structural components. This study ensures that reusing of waste coffee grounds in dune sand concrete gives a positive approach to reduce the cost of materials and solve some environmental problems.

  15. Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-09-01

    For those who support U.S. oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands industry is often identified as a model the U.S. might emulate, yielding financial and energy security benefits. For opponents of domestic oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands experience illustrates the risks that opponents of development believe should deter domestic policymakers from incenting U.S. oil sands development. This report does not seek to evaluate the particular underpinnings of either side of this policy argument, but rather attempts to delve into the question of whether the Canadian experience has relevance as a foundational model for U.S. oil sands development. More specifically, this report seeks to assess whether and how the Canadian oil sands experience might be predictive or instructive in the context of fashioning a framework for a U.S. oil sands industry. In evaluating the implications of these underpinnings for a prospective U.S. oil sands industry, this report concentrates on prospective development of the oil sands deposits found in Utah.

  16. Changes in active eolian sand at northern Coachella Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katra, Itzhak; Scheidt, Stephen; Lancaster, Nicholas

    2009-04-01

    Climate variability and rapid urbanization have influenced the sand environments in the northern Coachella Valley throughout the late 20th century. This paper addresses changes in the spatial relationships among different sand deposits at northern Coachella Valley between two recent time periods by using satellite data acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). The approach employed here, involving multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) data and spectral mixture analysis, has shown that the major sand deposits can be spatially modeled at northern Coachella Valley. The "coarse-grained (quartz-rich) sand" deposit is associated with active eolian sand, and the "mixed sandy soil" and "fine-grained (quartz-rich) sand" deposits are associated with inactive eolian sand. The fractional abundance images showed a significant decrease between 2000 and 2006 in the percentage of active sand in the major depositional area for fluvial sediment, the Whitewater River, but also in two downwind areas: the Whitewater and Willow Hole Reserves. The pattern of the active sand appears to be related to variations in annual precipitation (wet and dry years) and river discharge in the northern Coachella Valley. We suggest here that recent human modifications to the major watercourses that supply sand affect the capability of fluvial deposition areas to restore sediments over time and consequently the responses of the sand transport system to climate change, becoming more sensitive to dry years where areas of active sand may shrink, degrade, and/or stabilize faster. The approach utilized in this study can be advantageous for future monitoring of sand in the northern Coachella Valley for management of these and similar environments.

  17. Different depth intermittent sand filters for laboratory treatment of synthetic wastewater with concentrations close to measured septic tank effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M; Walsh, G; Healy, M G

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to apply hydraulic and chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rates at the upper limits of the design criteria for buried sand filters to test the sand filter depth design criteria. Over a 274-day study duration, synthetic effluent with a strength of domestic wastewater was intermittently dosed onto two sand filters of 0.2 m diameter, with depths of 0.3 and 0.4 m. Hydraulic and organic carbon loading rates of 105 L m(-2) d(-1) and 40 g COD m(-2) d(-1), respectively, were applied to the filters. The filters did not clog and had good effluent removal capabilities for 274 and 190 days, respectively. However, the 0.3 m-deep filter did experience a reduced performance towards the end of the study period. In the 0.3 and 0.4 m-deep filters, the effluent COD and SS concentrations were less than 86 and 31 mg L(-1), respectively, and nitrification was nearly complete in both these columns. Ortho-phosphorus (PO(4)-P) removal in fine sand and laterite 'upflow' filters, receiving effluent from the 0.3 m-deep filter, was 10% and 44%, respectively.

  18. A new GIS-based model for automated extraction of Sand Dune encroachment case study: Dakhla Oases, western desert of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghadiry

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The movements of the sand dunes are considered as a threat for roads, irrigation networks, water resources, urban areas, agriculture and infrastructures. The main objectives of this study are to develop a new GIS-based model for automated extraction of sand dune encroachment using remote sensing data and to assess the rate of sand dune movement. To monitor and assess the movements of sand dunes in Dakhla oases area, multi-temporal satellite images and a GIS-developed model, using Python script in Arc GIS, were used. The satellite images (SPOT images, 1995 and 2007 were geo-rectified using Erdas Imagine. Image subtraction was performed using spatial analyst in Arc GIS, the result of image subtraction obtains the sand dune movement between the two dates. The raster and vector shape of sand dune migration was automatically extracted using spatial analyst tools. The frontiers of individual dunes were measured at different dates and movement rates were analyzed in GIS. The ModelBuilder in Arc GIS was used in order to create a user friendly tool. The custom built model window is easy to handle by any user who wishes to adapt the model in his work. It was found that the rate of sand dune movement ranged between 3 and 9 m per year. The majority of sand dunes have a rate movement between 0 and 6 m and very few dunes had a movement rate between 6 and 9 m. Integrating remote sensing and GIS provided the necessary information for determining the minimum, maximum, mean, rate and area of sand dune migration.

  19. Asian interests in Alberta oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, D.; Laureshen, C.

    2004-01-01

    The growing Asian interest in Alberta's oil sands and import opportunities was discussed along with the feasibility of marketing bitumen to Asia. Asia is an obvious new market for Canadian heavy oil and bitumen due to an increasing demand for petroleum products in Japan, Korea, Taiwan and China. This paper examined the following three criteria that will determine the success of any initiative to move Canadian crude oil to Asian-Pacific markets: (1) a sustainable supply from Alberta; a pipeline to transport the crude to a deepwater port on the west coast; and, a guaranteed market at the other end. The basis for Asian interest in Alberta's oil sands is the sustainable secure supply of oil for growing Asian markets; heavy dependence on supplies from the Middle East; the desire to diversify supply sources; and, opportunities to invest in oil sands developments. Examples of Asian (Japan, Korea, Taiwan and China) missions to Alberta were presented along with the challenges of getting products to market with reference to Enbridge's new market access plan, Terasen's staged capacity expansion for heavy crudes and refined products, and sea transport from Prince Rupert. The paper also included graphs depicting world GDP; incremental increase in world primary energy demand by fuel for 2000 to 2020; world oil demand by region; oil demand by region in Asia; oil demand and supply in northeast Asia (Japan, China, Korea) and dependence level on Middle Eastern oil; oil demand and supply in China; China's petroleum production and consumption; refined products market forecast for 2000 to 2020; 2002 crude oil imports to Asia; 2004 refining capacity; product quality comparisons; cost competitive study; and energy policy objectives for China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. 19 figs

  20. Radiometric Characterization of Sand in Northeast Sinai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, Kh.A.; Badran, H.M.; Ramadan, Kh.A.; Seddeek, M.K.; Sharshar, T.

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-eight locations covering an area of 350 km 2 in northeast Sinai were investigated by gamma-ray spectroscopy using a 50% HPGe detector. The limits of area are Al-Arish North, El-Hasana South, El-Oga East, and El- Gifgafa West. The range of activity concentrations of 238 U, 234 Th, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are 0.6-35.2, 3.9-22.6, 4.7-29.6, 4.7-23.9, and 108-295 Bq/kg for sands, respectively. 137 Cs in the region ranged from 0.1-8.0 Bq/kg. No major difference between the studied area and that previously investigated in the costal area in North Sinai. Reliable correlations (R2 = 0.8-0.9) among 238 U, 234 Th, and 226 Ra isotopes was obtained. On the other hand, low correlation (R 2 = 0.6-0.7) was obtained from the analysis of the isotopes of 238 U-seies and 232 Th. No evidence of correlation between the concentrations of radioisotopes and pH contents, TOM, and grain size were found. The soil-plant transfer factor are 226 Ra and 232 Th, 40 K, and 137 Cs, respectively. The wild vegetations collected from the studied area have average concentrations of 1.9, 1.4, 1.3, 254, and 0.3 for 234 Th, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, and 137 Cs, respectively. The average concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K in water samples collected from five wells are 0.02, 0.02, and 1.1 Bq/l, respectively. The average absorbed dose rate for the sand samples were calculated to be 19.4 n Gy h-1. The Raeq activities of the sands are lower than the recommended maximum value of 370 Bq kg-1 criterion limit of Raeq activity for building materials

  1. Western Gas Sands Project status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C.H.

    1978-11-30

    Progress of government-sponsored projects directed toward increasing gas production from the low-permeability gas sands of the western United States is summarized. A Technology Implementation Plan (TIP) meeting was held at the CER office in Las Vegas, Nevada, October 16--19 to initiate the implementation phase of the Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) working group activities. A WGSP Logging Program meeting was conducted on October 24, 1978, at CER offices to define the problems associated with logs in tight gas sands. CER personnel and the project manager attended a two-day course on the fundamentals of core and reservoir analysis in Denver, Colorado, and met with USGS personnel to discuss USGS work on the WGSP. A meeting was held to discuss a contract for coring a Twin Arrow well on the Douglas Creek Arch, Colorado. CER Corporation personnel attended the Geological Society of America Annual Meeting held in Toronto, Canada, October 23--27 and a Gas Stimulation Workshop at Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 11 and 12 to discuss recent mineback experiments conducted at the Nevada Test Site. Fiscal year 1979 projects initiated by USGS and the Energy Technology Centers and National Laboratories are progressing as scheduled. Mobil Research and Development Corporation fractured zone 8 of the F-31-13G well in Rio Blanco County, Colorado. Colorado Interstate Gas Company poured the concrete pad for the compresser expected to be delivered in December and were laying pipeline between the wells at month end. The Mitchell Energy well, Muse Duke No. 1 was flowing on test at a rate of 2,100 Mcfd and preparations proceeded to fracture the well on November 15 with approximately 1,000,000 gal of fluid and 3,000,000 lb of sand. Terra Tek completed laboratory analyses of cores taken from the Mitchell Energy well.

  2. Radiogenic heavy minerals in Brazilian beach sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malanca, A.

    1998-01-01

    Sand samples collected on the beaches of the 'radioactive' Brazilian town of Guarapari were first separated by flotation in bromoform and successively divided into various magnetic fractions with a Franz isodynamic separator. concentrations of background radionuclides in samples of monazite, ilmenite, and zircon were determined by a γ-ray spectrometer. Chemical composition of monazite, ilmenite and magnetite were assessed by means of an electron microprobe. Monazite resulted to be relatively rich in ThO 2 whose abundance ranged from 5.3 to 7.7 (wt%). (author)

  3. Limitation of releases and filtration by sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schektman, N.

    1986-01-01

    In the highly hypothetic case of a severe reactor accident, it may lead to an increase of pressure within the containment and up to a value above the calculated pressure. A procedure is necessary in this case to maintain the integrity of the containment to prevent a release of radioactive products to the environment, while controlling in the best way releases. So, EDF and the CEA have developed a device of decompression-filtration of the containment atmosphere, using a free penetration of the containment and a sand box; the device and its operation constitute the U5 procedure [fr

  4. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2012-08-07

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  5. Prolífica George Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Àngels Santa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A propósito de las obras de George Sand, Œuvres complètes. Sous la direction de Béatrice Didier. 1841-1842.Un hiver à Majorque. Édition critique par Angela Ryan. Horace.Édition critique par Jeanne Brunereau (París, Honoré Champion, 2013, 748 p. ISBN : 9782745319265 y Œuvres complètes. ́Sous la direction de Béatrice Didier. 1849.La petite Fadette. Édition critique par Andrée Mansau (París, Honoré Champion, 2013, 345p. ISBN : 9782745319203

  6. Investigation of Sand-Cement Grouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-09-01

    I -IEN NO Isis Table 1 InvestiiatLon of Sand-Cement Crouts Data on Lhe Physical Properties of the inely Divided Mineral Admixt)res Blaine Specific...Itoi, tuicrlt.nel, Caiftrnia; fl1; aish, Illinois; ;1iaricito, California; Lo’ss, Yisniasi~pi; bentornitoe, Wy~caing. Physical drnta for the raateriais...increase i’: tne a.cunt of .anj th-?t coul be puiped. As the diatomite had a specific ,i’face about 1C tines that of the loe33, it would appear that this

  7. SandBlaster: Reversing the Apple Sandbox

    OpenAIRE

    Deaconescu, Răzvan; Deshotels, Luke; Bucicoiu, Mihai; Enck, William; Davi, Lucas; Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza

    2016-01-01

    In order to limit the damage of malware on Mac OS X and iOS, Apple uses sandboxing, a kernel-level security layer that provides tight constraints for system calls. Particularly used for Apple iOS, sandboxing prevents apps from executing potentially dangerous actions, by defining rules in a sandbox profile. Investigating Apple's built-in sandbox profiles is difficult as they are compiled and stored in binary format. We present SandBlaster, a software bundle that is able to reverse/decompile Ap...

  8. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  9. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikas, John Michael [Houston, TX; Colmenares, Tulio Rafael [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX; Marino, Marian [Houston, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Ryan, Robert Charles [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Dombrowski, Robert James [Houston, TX; Jaiswal, Namit [Houston, TX

    2009-12-22

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  10. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  11. Evidence of co-metabolic bentazone transformation by methanotrophic enrichment from a groundwater-fed rapid sand filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mathilde Jørgensen; Deliniere, Hélène; Prasse, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    from 58 to 158, well within the range for methanotrophic co-metabolic degradation of trace contaminants calculated from the literature, with normalized substrate preferences varying from 3 to 400. High-resolution mass spectrometry revealed formation of the transformation products (TPs) 6-OH, 8-OH......The herbicide bentazone is recalcitrant in aquifers and is therefore frequently detected in wells used for drinking water production. However, bentazone degradation has been observed in filter sand from a rapid sand filter at a waterworks with methane-rich groundwater. Here, the association between...... and bentazone at concentrations below 2 mg/L showed methanotrophic co-metabolic bentazone transformation: The culture removed 53% of the bentazone in 21 days in presence of 5 mg/L of methane, while only 31% was removed in absence of methane. Addition of acetylene inhibited methane oxidation and stopped...

  12. Assessing Insecticide Susceptibility of Laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, David S; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Lawyer, Phillip G; Black, William C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2015-09-01

    Chemical insecticides are effective for controlling Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of Leishmania parasites. However, repeated use of certain insecticides has led to tolerance and resistance. The objective of this study was to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) and lethal exposure times (LTs) to assess levels of susceptibility of laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to 10 insecticides using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure kit assay and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay. Sand flies were exposed to insecticides coated on the interior of 0.5-gallon and 1,000-ml glass bottles. Following exposure, the flies were allowed to recover for 24 h, after which mortality was recorded. From dose-response survival curves for L. longipalpis and P. papatasi generated with the QCal software, LCs causing 50, 90, and 95% mortality were determined for each insecticide. The LCs and LTs from this study will be useful as baseline reference points for future studies using the CDC bottle bioassays to assess insecticide susceptibility of sand fly populations in the field. There is a need for a larger repository of sand fly insecticide susceptibility data from the CDC bottle bioassays, including a range of LCs and LTs for more sand fly species with more insecticides. Such a repository would be a valuable tool for vector management. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Assessment of sand quality on concrete performance : examination of acidic and sulfate/sulfide-bearing sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine how the presence of sulfide- and sulfate-containing : minerals in acidic aggregates may affect the properties of mortar and concrete. Analyses were : performed to compare two sands from a deposit in the Geor...

  14. Application of the ERICA Integrated Approach to the Drigg coastal sand dunes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.D. [Institute for Sustainable Water Integrated Management and Ecosystem Research (SWIMMER)/School of Biological Sciences, Nicholson Building, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mwood@liv.ac.uk; Marshall, W.A. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd., Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3LN (United Kingdom); Beresford, N.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, Lancashire LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Jones, S.R. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd., Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3LN (United Kingdom); Howard, B.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, Lancashire LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Copplestone, D. [Environment Agency, P.O. Box 12, Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Latchford, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 1HG (United Kingdom); Leah, R.T. [Institute for Sustainable Water Integrated Management and Ecosystem Research (SWIMMER)/School of Biological Sciences, Nicholson Building, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GP (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    The EC-funded project 'Environmental Risks from Ionising Contaminants: Assessment and Management' (ERICA) developed an 'Integrated Approach' for assessing the impact of ionising radiation on ecosystems. This paper presents the application of the ERICA Integrated Approach, supported by a software programme (the ERICA Tool) and guidance documentation, to an assessment of the Drigg coastal sand dunes (Cumbria, UK). Targeted sampling provided site-specific data for sand dune biota, including amphibians and reptiles. Radionuclides reported included {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. Site-specific data were compared to predictions derived using the ERICA Tool. Some under- and over-predictions of biota activity concentrations were identified but can be explained by the specific ecological characteristics and contamination mechanism of the dunes. Overall, the results indicated no significant impact of ionising radiation on the sand dune biota and the Integrated Approach was found to be a flexible and effective means of conducting a radiation impact assessment.

  15. Application of the ERICA Integrated Approach to the Drigg coastal sand dunes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.D.; Marshall, W.A.; Beresford, N.A.; Jones, S.R.; Howard, B.J.; Copplestone, D.; Leah, R.T.

    2008-01-01

    The EC-funded project 'Environmental Risks from Ionising Contaminants: Assessment and Management' (ERICA) developed an 'Integrated Approach' for assessing the impact of ionising radiation on ecosystems. This paper presents the application of the ERICA Integrated Approach, supported by a software programme (the ERICA Tool) and guidance documentation, to an assessment of the Drigg coastal sand dunes (Cumbria, UK). Targeted sampling provided site-specific data for sand dune biota, including amphibians and reptiles. Radionuclides reported included 90 Sr, 99 Tc, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am. Site-specific data were compared to predictions derived using the ERICA Tool. Some under- and over-predictions of biota activity concentrations were identified but can be explained by the specific ecological characteristics and contamination mechanism of the dunes. Overall, the results indicated no significant impact of ionising radiation on the sand dune biota and the Integrated Approach was found to be a flexible and effective means of conducting a radiation impact assessment

  16. The stable stiffness triangle - drained sand during deformation cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic, drained sand stiffness was observed using the Danish triaxial appa- ratus. New, deformation dependant soil property (the stable stiffness triangle) was detected. Using the the stable stiffness triangle, secant stiffness of drained sand was plausible to predict (and control) even during ir...... findings can find application in off-shore, seismic and other engi- neering practice, or inspire new branches of research and modelling wherever dynamic, cyclic or transient loaded sand is encountered....

  17. Evaluation of sand reserves in del Plata City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reserve of sand in the zone of del Plata city and beyond. This area is located in the S E edge of the department of San Jose near the mouth of Santa Lucia river. In this zone was identified the mantle of potentially exploitable sand which are based on their particle size, composition and depth of the limits cape. There are two powerful capes of sand separated by clay and silt

  18. Final report on Thermally Modified Sand demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-23

    The use of salt and salt/sand mixtures on icy roadway surfaces has dramatically increased during the past 30 years. Despite extensive documentation on salt related damage to the roadway improvements, vehicles and the environment, road maintenance departments have continued to rely on this practice. Road maintenance departments in northern climate areas have long recognized the safety benefits for public mobility on icy roadways from the use of sand. As an abrasive material, the sand improves the surface traction that results in more drivable and less hazardous road conditions during the winter months. Stockpiles of pure sand stored during the winter months oftentimes freeze into large unworkable, monolithic piles. To maintain a free-flowing condition, it has been found to be necessary to add salt to the sand. The addition of salt in amounts ranging from 5 to 10 percent to that of sand, is usually sufficient to provide relatively free-flowing abrasive material that could be stored in stockpiles and applied to icy road surfaces with conventional sand spreading trucks. Another alternative for winter storage of pure sand to maintain a free-flowing condition is in humidity-controlled, heated buildings. As would be expected, this method has high capital and operating costs. and not cost effective for general highway maintenance use. The invention demonstrated herein is a method of thermally modifying pure sand that will remain in a free-flowing state throughout the winter season without the need for the salt additive. The thermally modified sand provides an abrasive material that when applied to icy roads does not cause environmental and corrosive damage as done by the application of sand with salt. By employing a very simple process of freezing screened sand particles by forced air convection under subfreezing conditions, the invention creates a product that has significant value in terms of economic and environmental benefits.

  19. Relationships between sand and water quality at recreational beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Matthew C; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Piggot, Alan M; Klaus, James S; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-12-15

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (r(s) = 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (r(s) = 0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (r(s) = 0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida's beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Augmented REality Sandtable (ARES) during Sand Table Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    sand table, ARES, resulted in significantly higher- quality ratings overall for the terrain model based on a global rating scale, as well as...dependent measures in this study. Sand Table Construction Score Card: A 5-point Likert scale was used to identify the accuracy and quality of required...reproduced on the sand table. The quality of the map reproduced was evaluated using standard procedures of the map-drawing paradigm, such as that

  1. White Sands, New Mexico as seen from STS-60

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    White Sands National Monument (Park) is easily recognized in the center of this near-vertical color photograph. White Sands is the world's largest gypsum dune field. It represents an alabaster sea that covers nearly 300 square miles. At the southwest corner of the White Sands is dry lake, Lucero. In terms of cultural features the city of Alamogordo and Holloman Air Force Base can be seen with great clarity on this photograph.

  2. Process for separating and recovering oil from oil-sands, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preller, H

    1920-07-14

    A process for separating and recovering oil from oil-sands, bitumen from oil-chalk, oil shale, and coal is characterized in that the material to be separated feeds, by a self-acting feeding arrangement, to a system with slowly rotating drums alternating in different directions and thereby it is exposed to the action of hot water running opposite to the rotation, direction of the drum, with addition of extraction-medium, so that the light material is washed out and rises to the top. It is carried off, while the heavy material sinks to the bottom and, by bucket-conveyor is removed.

  3. Removal of radionuclides at a waterworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaefvert, T.; Ellmark, C.; Holm, E.

    2002-01-01

    A waterworks, providing several large cities in the province of Scania with drinking-water, with an average production rate of 1.3 m 3. s -1 has been studied regarding its removal capacity for several natural and anthropogenic radionuclides. The raw water is surface water from lake Bolmen which is transported through an 80 km long tunnel in the bedrock before it enters the waterworks. The method used for purification is a combination of precipitation and filtration in sand filters. Two different purification lines are at the moment in use, one using A1 2 (SO 4 ) 3 as a coagulant and one using FeC1 3 . After coagulation and flocculation the precipitation is removed and the water is passed through two different sand filters (rapid-filtration and slow-filtration). Water samples have been collected at the lake, the inlet at the waterworks, after each of the flocculation basins (A1 2 (SO 4 ) 3 and FeC1 3 ), after rapid-filtration and from the municipal distribution net. The samples have been analysed with respect to its content of uranium, thorium, polonium, radium, plutonium and caesium. (au)

  4. Pretreatment of Real Wastewater from the Chocolate Manufacturing Industry through an Integrated Process of Electrocoagulation and Sand Filtration

    OpenAIRE

    García-Morales, Marco A.; Juárez, Julio César González; Martínez-Gallegos, Sonia; Roa-Morales, Gabriela; Peralta, Ever; del Campo López, Eduardo Martin; Barrera-Díaz, Carlos; Miranda, Verónica Martínez; Blancas, Teresa Torres

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of removal of suspended solids in terms of turbidity, color, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) when integrating the electrocoagulation process using aluminum sacrificial anodes and the sand filtration process as a pretreatment of wastewater from the chocolate manufacturing plant in Toluca, México. Wastewater from the chocolate manufacturing industry used in this study is classified as nontoxic, but is characterized as having a high conte...

  5. Production and global transport of Titan's sand particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Radebaugh, Jani; Hayes, Alexander G.; Arnold, Karl; Chandler, Clayton

    2015-06-01

    Previous authors have suggested that Titan's individual sand particles form by either sintering or by lithification and erosion. We suggest two new mechanisms for the production of Titan's organic sand particles that would occur within bodies of liquid: flocculation and evaporitic precipitation. Such production mechanisms would suggest discrete sand sources in dry lakebeds. We search for such sources, but find no convincing candidates with the present Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer coverage. As a result we propose that Titan's equatorial dunes may represent a single, global sand sea with west-to-east transport providing sources and sinks for sand in each interconnected basin. The sand might then be transported around Xanadu by fast-moving Barchan dune chains and/or fluvial transport in transient riverbeds. A river at the Xanadu/Shangri-La border could explain the sharp edge of the sand sea there, much like the Kuiseb River stops the Namib Sand Sea in southwest Africa on Earth. Future missions could use the composition of Titan's sands to constrain the global hydrocarbon cycle.

  6. Trajectories of saltating sand particles behind a porous fence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Lee, Sang Joon; Chen, Ting-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Trajectories of aeolian sand particles behind a porous wind fence embedded in a simulated atmospheric boundary layer were visualized experimentally, to investigate the shelter effect of the fence on sand saltation. Two sand samples, one collected from a beach (d = 250 μm) and the other from a desert (d = 100 μm), were tested in comparison with the previous studies of a 'no-fence' case. A wind fence (ε = 38.5%) was installed on a flat sand bed filled with each sand sample. A high-speed photography technique and the particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) method were employed to reconstruct the trajectories of particles saltating behind the fence. The collision processes of these sand particles were analyzed, momentum and kinetic energy transfer between saltating particles and ground surface were also investigated. In the wake region, probability density distributions of the impact velocities agree well with the pattern of no-fence case, and can be explained by a log-normal law. The horizontal component of impact velocity for the beach sand is decreased by about 54%, and about 76% for the desert sand. Vertical restitution coefficients of bouncing particles are smaller than 1.0 due to the presence of the wind fence. The saltating particles lose a large proportion of their energy during the collision process. These results illustrate that the porous wind fence effectively abates the further evolution of saltating sand particles.

  7. Numerical simulation of flow and compression of green sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovad, Emil

    The focus of the industrial PhD project was concentrated on the production of the sand mold (green sand) which gives the cast component its final geometrical shape. In order to ensure a high quality of the cast component, it is important to control the manufacturing process of the mold itself so...... that it is homogeneous and stable. Therefore gaining a basic understanding of how the flow and deposition of green sand should be characterized and modelled was important, so that it could be used for simulation of the manufacturing process of the sand mold. The flowability of the green sand is important when the sand...... flows down through the hopper filling the chamber with sand during the sand shot. The flowability of green sand is mostly governed by the amount of water and bentonite which both decrease it. The flowability and the internal forces thus control how well you can fill a complex mold geom-etry in which...

  8. An investigation of waste foundry sand in asphalt concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakis, Recep; Koyuncu, Hakan; Demirbas, Ayhan

    2006-06-01

    A laboratory study regarding the reuse of waste foundry sand in asphalt concrete production by replacing a certain portion of aggregate with WFS was undertaken. The results showed that replacement of 10% aggregates with waste foundry sand was found to be the most suitable for asphalt concrete mixtures. Furthermore, the chemical and physical properties of waste foundry sand were analysed in the laboratory to determine the potential effect on the environment. The results indicated that the investigated waste foundry sand did not significantly affect the environment around the deposition

  9. Effective Laboratory Method of Chromite Content Estimation in Reclaimed Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaszak Z.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an original method of measuring the actual chromite content in the circulating moulding sand of foundry. This type of material is applied for production of moulds. This is the case of foundry which most frequently perform heavy casting in which for the construction of chemical hardening mould is used, both the quartz sand and chromite sand. After the dry reclamation of used moulding sand, both types of sands are mixed in various ratios resulting that in reclaimed sand silos, the layers of varying content of chromite in mixture are observed. For chromite recuperation from the circulating moulding sand there are applied the appropriate installations equipped with separate elements generating locally strong magnetic field. The knowledge of the current ratio of chromite and quartz sand allows to optimize the settings of installation and control of the separation efficiency. The arduous and time-consuming method of determining the content of chromite using bromoform liquid requires operational powers and precautions during using this toxic liquid. It was developed and tested the new, uncomplicated gravimetric laboratory method using powerful permanent magnets (neodymium. The method is used in the production conditions of casting for current inspection of chromite quantity in used sand in reclamation plant.

  10. Reuse of waste cutting sand at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, S.; Wilson, K.

    1998-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) examined the waste stream from a water jet cutting operation, to evaluate the possible reuse of waste garnet sand. The sand is a cutting agent used to shape a variety of materials, including metals. Nearly 70,000 pounds of waste sand is generated annually by the cutting operation. The Environmental Protection Department evaluated two potential reuses for the spent garnet sand: backfill in utility trenches; and as a concrete constituent. In both applications, garnet waste would replace the sand formerly purchased by LLNL for these purposes. Findings supported the reuse of waste garnet sand in concrete, but disqualified its proposed application as trench backfill. Waste sand stabilized in a concrete matrix appeared to present no metals-leaching hazard; however, unconsolidated sand in trenches could potentially leach metals in concentrations high enough to threaten ground water quality. A technical report submitted to the San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board was reviewed and accepted by that body. Reuse of waste garnet cutting sand as a constituent in concrete poured to form walkways and patios at LLNL was approved

  11. Influence of groundwater composition on subsurface iron and arsenic removal

    KAUST Repository

    Moed, David H.; Van Halem, Doris; Verberk, J. Q J C; Amy, Gary L.; Van Dijk, Johannis C.

    2012-01-01

    Subsurface arsenic and iron removal (SAR/SIR) is a novel technology to remove arsenic, iron and other groundwater components by using the subsoil. This research project investigated the influence of the groundwater composition on subsurface treatment. In anoxic sand column experiments, with synthetic groundwater and virgin sand, it was found that several dissolved substances in groundwater compete for adsorption sites with arsenic and iron. The presence of 0.01 mmol L -1phosphate, 0.2 mmol L -1 silicate, and 1 mmol L -1 nitrate greatly reduced the efficiency of SAR, illustrating the vulnerability of this technology in diverse geochemical settings. SIR was not as sensitive to other inorganic groundwater compounds, though iron retardation was limited by 1.2 mmol L -1 calcium and 0.06 mmol L -1 manganese. © IWA Publishing 2012.

  12. Influence of groundwater composition on subsurface iron and arsenic removal

    KAUST Repository

    Moed, David H.

    2012-06-01

    Subsurface arsenic and iron removal (SAR/SIR) is a novel technology to remove arsenic, iron and other groundwater components by using the subsoil. This research project investigated the influence of the groundwater composition on subsurface treatment. In anoxic sand column experiments, with synthetic groundwater and virgin sand, it was found that several dissolved substances in groundwater compete for adsorption sites with arsenic and iron. The presence of 0.01 mmol L -1phosphate, 0.2 mmol L -1 silicate, and 1 mmol L -1 nitrate greatly reduced the efficiency of SAR, illustrating the vulnerability of this technology in diverse geochemical settings. SIR was not as sensitive to other inorganic groundwater compounds, though iron retardation was limited by 1.2 mmol L -1 calcium and 0.06 mmol L -1 manganese. © IWA Publishing 2012.

  13. Mineral legislations applicable to beach sand industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Cruz, Eric

    2016-01-01

    India has got a wealth of natural resources in different geological environs and shoreline placers form an important constituent of the natural resources. Large reserves of beach sand minerals, viz. imenite, rutile, leucoxene, zircon, sillimanite, garnet and monazite are the economic minerals in the coastal and inland placer sands. In the federal structure of India, the State Governments are the owners of minerals located within their respective boundaries. The State Governments grant the mineral concessions for all the minerals located within the boundary of the State, under the provisions of the Acts and Rules framed for the purpose. Though the mineral wealth is under the control of the State, the power for framing the rules for the grant of mineral concessions vastly rest with the Central Government. Since mineral concessions are often granted for a longer duration of thirty to fifty years or more, a historical perspective of these rules are imperative in understanding the issues involved with BSM mining industry. Under the Govt. of India Act, 1935, Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development was kept under Federal control, declared by Federal Law. The word 'Federal' was substituted by the word 'Dominion' by the India (Provincial Constitution) Order, 1947. No legislation was, however, enacted in pursuance of above power until after Independence. However, the Govt. on India made the Mining Concession (Central) Rules, 1939 for regulating grants of prospecting license

  14. Integrated oil sands tailings pond water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Z. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed research currently being conducted to treat oil sands tailings pond water (TPW). The treatment of TPW is challenged by the high level of naphthenic acids (NAs), the slow settling rate of fine particulate materials, and the complex chemistry of the water. The treatment process consisted of bioflocculation, sludge blanket assisted clarification, ozonation, and oil sands coke assisted hybrid biodegradation. The aggregation and adsorption process bound small particles and cells together while also ensuring the passive uptake of pollutants using microbial masses. The mixed liquor then passed through a sludge blanket to ensure enhanced particle capture. An ozonation process was used to increase the biodegradability of the TPW as well as to increase the biodegradability of the residual NAs after ozonation. The process used a hybrid bioreactor that consisted of both suspended and fixed microbial communities. The coke served as a biofilm carrier for the waste. Further studies are being conducted to investigate the efficiency and capability of the process. tabs., figs.

  15. Ilmenite Mineral's Recovery from Beach Sand Tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Antoine F.; Mukendi-Ngalula, David; Waanders, Frans B.

    2002-01-01

    The mineral ilmenite is the major source of rutile for industrial use and is of interest to paint and fertiliser industries. Enormous unutilised tailing dams lie on the eastern coast of the South Africa. Although covered by a simulation of the original indigenous vegetation, these tailings are still ilmenite bearing and of economic value. Tailings emanating from beach sand mineral slimes dams of the Kwazulu-Natal area (South Africa) have been processed. Screening, flotation, spiral concentration and magnetic separation methods were used either separately or successively. The present work sheds light on alternative routes for the extraction of the ilmenite, from these tailings. It moreover points out the usefulness of the Moessbauer spectroscopy in the mineral processing product monitoring. Tailings from the beach sands were used in the present study after the economic industrial minerals zirconia, ilmenite and rutile had been extracted in previous mining operations. About 61% natural ilmenite recovery was observed in the flotation concentrate of a Humphrey Spiral concentrate while a 62% recovery of hematite was found in the flotation tailings. The combination of screening, spiral concentration and magnetic separation, and flotation yielded a product with the highest ilmenite and hematite concentration being 71% and 19%, respectively. A natural ilmenite mineral, containing 87% ilmenite and 13% hematite, could be produced and extracted from the tailings of the flotation process, collected subsequently to the spiral concentration and the initial screening.

  16. Avalanches of Singing Sand in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagois-Bohy, Simon; Courrech Du Pont, Sylvain; Douady, Stéphane

    2011-03-01

    The song of dunes is a natural phenomenon that has arisen travellers' curiosity for a long time, from Marco Polo to R.A. Bagnold. Scientific observations in the XXth century have shown that the sound is emitted during a shear flow of these particular grains, the free surface of the flow having coherent vibrations like a loud speaker. The sound emission is also submitted to a threshold effect with many parameters like humidity, flow speed, surface of the grains. The sound has been reproduced in laboratory avalanche experiments close to the natural phenomenon on field, but set in a channel with a hard bottom and a few centimeters of sand flowing, which contradicts explanations of the sound that involve a sand dune under the avalanche flow. Flow rates measurements also show the presence of a plug region in the flow above the sheared band, with the same characteristic length as the coherence zones of the sound. Finally we show experimentally that the Froude number, once modified to take into account the height of this plug band, is the parameter that sets the amplitude of the sound, and produces a threshold that depends on the grain type.

  17. Soil mixing of stratified contaminated sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tabba, A; Ayotamuno, M J; Martin, R J

    2000-02-01

    Validation of soil mixing for the treatment of contaminated ground is needed in a wide range of site conditions to widen the application of the technology and to understand the mechanisms involved. Since very limited work has been carried out in heterogeneous ground conditions, this paper investigates the effectiveness of soil mixing in stratified sands using laboratory-scale augers. This enabled a low cost investigation of factors such as grout type and form, auger design, installation procedure, mixing mode, curing period, thickness of soil layers and natural moisture content on the unconfined compressive strength, leachability and leachate pH of the soil-grout mixes. The results showed that the auger design plays a very important part in the mixing process in heterogeneous sands. The variability of the properties measured in the stratified soils and the measurable variations caused by the various factors considered, highlighted the importance of duplicating appropriate in situ conditions, the usefulness of laboratory-scale modelling of in situ conditions and the importance of modelling soil and contaminant heterogeneities at the treatability study stage.

  18. [Imperial Oil's Cold Lake oil sands operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingle, H. B.

    1999-01-01

    Imperial Oil Limited's Cold Lake oil sands resources, production and operations in Alberta are discussed. Cold Lake is the company's largest single asset and its largest source of crude oil production. In 1998, Cold Lake accounted for just under half of Imperial's total liquid production, averaging more than 135,000 barrels of bitumen a day. Despite the very difficult operating conditions experienced by the oil sands industry in 1998, Imperial Oil's Cold Lake operations generated a positive cash flow and earnings. Just as important, the near and long-term potential of Cold Lake property continues to be strong, even with the tough market conditions today and the foreseeable future. Proved reserves at the end of 1997 were 1.3 billions barrels, equal to about 24 years of current production, but even more important is Imperial's resource base in the Athabasca region, which represents 150 years of production at current rates. Although production forecasts for the near future are are revised downward because of production shut-in due to low prices, the company is confident of its long-term prospects mainly because of existing infrastructure, superior reservoir quality, 30 years worth of operating improvements and established bitumen-blend markets. Details of the company's future Cold Lake development plans are discussed. The need to continue technology development, which has been at the core of the industry's growth in the past and will continue to be the key to the future, are emphasized

  19. Enabling technologies for oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    A review of oil sands production and expansion possibilities in Alberta were presented. The enabling technologies for oil sands projects include mining (bucketwheels, draglines, trucks, shovels conveyors, slurry hydrotransport); extraction (conditioning tumblers, pipelines, tanks, hot water, caustic, cold water, frothers); froth cleaning (centrifuges, solvent treatment); tailings (tailings ponds, consolidated tailings); and upgrading (coking, hydrotreating for SCO, hydrocracking and multiple products). The enabling technologies for in situ production include cyclic steam stimulation for vertical wells, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) for dual horizontal wells, and cold production with wormholes. This paper described the recovery potentials of each of these processes. It also discussed the role of government and industry in research and cooperative research involving both the private and public sectors. Examples of each of these were described such as SAGD, the OSLO cold water extraction process, The consolidated tailings (CT) project, the low energy extraction process (slurry production, hydrotransport, pipeline conditioning and warm water extraction), and research in fine tailings, to demonstrate that although objectives may differ, government and industry research objectives are complementary

  20. Sulfur biogeochemistry of oil sands composite tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Lesley; Stephenson, Kate [Earth Sciences, McMaster University (Canada)], email: warrenl@mcmaster.ca; Penner, Tara [Syncrude Environmental Research (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the sulfur biogeochemistry of oil sands composite tailings (CT). The Government of Alberta is accelerating reclamation activities on composite tailings. As a CT pilot reclamation operation, Syncrude is currently constructing the first freshwater fen. Minor unpredicted incidents with H2S gas released from the dewatering process associated with these reclamations have been reported. The objective of this study is to ascertain the connection between microbial activity and H2S generation within CT and to assess the sulfur biogeochemistry of untreated and treated (fen) CT over seasonal and annual timescales. The microbial geochemical interactions taking place are shown using a flow chart. CT is composed of gypsum, sand, clay and organics like naphthenic acids and bitumen. Sulfur and Fe cycling in mining systems and their microbial activities are presented. The chemistry and the processes involved within CT are also given along with the results. It can be said that the diverse Fe and S metabolizing microorganisms confirm the ecology involved in H2S dynamics.

  1. Low enthalpy geothermal for oil sands (LEGO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Geothermal energy is generated by the slow decay of radioactive materials within the Earth. Geothermal energy resources include the water from hot springs used for heating; the withdrawal of high temperature steam from deep wells; and the use of stable ground or water temperatures near the Earth's surface to heat or cool buildings or in industrial processes. Heat pumps are used to transfer heat or water from the ground into buildings in winter. This paper discussed low enthalpy geothermal options for oil sands processes in order to reduce the use of natural gas and emissions from greenhouse gases (GHGs). The study was also conducted to aid in the development of a portfolio of renewable energy options for the oil and gas sector. The study estimated the costs and benefits of operating a shallow geothermal borehole cluster for meeting a portion of process heat demands for the Nexen's Albian mine. The costs and benefits of operating thermo-chillers integrated with a shallow geothermal borehole cluster for waste heat mitigation were also evaluated. The study showed that geothermal designs can be used to meet a portion of oil sands process heat and cooling demands. Mining operators may reduce carbon emissions and energy costs for process heat demands by installing closed loop borehole heat exchangers. Geothermal heat storage capacity can also be used to increase the efficiency of thermal chillers. It was concluded that pilot plant studies would contribute to a better understanding of the technology. tabs., figs.

  2. An approach to managing cumulative effects to groundwater resources in the Alberta oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fennell, J.; Forrest, Francine; Klebek, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    In the Athabasca region of Northern Alberta, oil sands activity has raised many concerns over how mining and extracting processes might affect groundwater quality and quantity. The groundwater management framework was developed by Alberta Environment to address these concerns by identifying and managing the potential environmental effects of oil sands activity on groundwater in a science-based manner. This paper develops the framework using risk identification and performance monitoring. The decision-making approach was conducted using decision support tools such as modeling, monitoring and management. Results showed the complexity and variability of groundwater conditions in the Athabasca region and pointed out that knowledge in this area is still developing. This paper presented how the groundwater management framework was developed and pointed out that it will have to be updated as new information arrives.

  3. Improvements in Sand Mold/Core Technology: Effects on Casting Finish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. John J. Lannutti; Prof. Carroll E. Mobley

    2005-08-30

    In this study, the development and impact of density gradients on metal castings were investigated using sand molds/cores from both industry and from in-house production. In spite of the size of the castings market, almost no quantitative information about density variation within the molds/cores themselves is available. In particular, a predictive understanding of how structure and binder content/chemistry/mixing contribute to the final surface finish of these products does not exist. In this program we attempted to bridge this gap by working directly with domestic companies in examining the issues of surface finish and thermal reclamation costs resulting from the use of sand molds/cores. We show that these can be substantially reduced by the development of an in-depth understanding of density variations that correlate to surface finish. Our experimental tools and our experience with them made us uniquely qualified to achieve technical progress.

  4. Chemical sulphate removal for treatment of construction and demolition debris leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2014-08-01

    Construction and demolition debris (CDD) is a product of construction, renovation or demolition activities. It has a high gypsum content (52.4% of total gypsum), concentrated in the CDD sand (CDDS) fraction. To comply with the posed limit of the maximum amount of sulphate present in building sand, excess sulphate needs to be removed. In order to enable reuse of CDDS, a novel treatment process is developed based on washing of the CDDS to remove most of the gypsum, and subsequent sulphate removal from the sulphate-rich CDDS leachate. This study aims to assess chemical techniques, i.e. precipitation and adsorption, for sulphate removal from the CDDS leachate. Good sulphate removal efficiencies (up to 99.9%) from the CDDS leachate can be achieved by precipitation with barium chloride (BaCl2) and lead(II) nitrate (Pb(NO3)2). Precipitation with calcium chloride (CaCl2), calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and calcium oxide (CaO) gave less efficient sulphate removal. Adsorption of sulphate to aluminium oxide (Al2O3) yielded a 50% sulphate removal efficiency, whereas iron oxide-coated sand as adsorbent gave only poor (10%) sulphate removal efficiencies.

  5. Application of forward osmosis membrane technology for oil sands process-affected water desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yaxin; Liang, Jiaming; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The extraction process used to obtain bitumen from the oil sands produces large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). As a newly emerging desalination technology, forward osmosis (FO) has shown great promise in saving electrical power requirements, increasing water recovery, and minimizing brine discharge. With the support of this funding, a FO system was constructed using a cellulose triacetate FO membrane to test the feasibility of OSPW desalination and contaminant removal. The FO systems were optimized using different types and concentrations of draw solution. The FO system using 4 M NH4HCO3 as a draw solution achieved 85% water recovery from OSPW, and 80 to 100% contaminant rejection for most metals and ions. A water backwash cleaning method was applied to clean the fouled membrane, and the cleaned membrane achieved 77% water recovery, a performance comparable to that of new FO membranes. This suggests that the membrane fouling was reversible. The FO system developed in this project provides a novel and energy efficient strategy to remediate the tailings waters generated by oil sands bitumen extraction and processing.

  6. Fixation of Cr(III) traces onto Haro river sand from acidic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasany, S.M.; Chaudhry, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    The sorption of chromium(III) onto Haro river sand has been investigated as a function of sorptive solution composition, amounts of sorbent (10-500 mg) and sorbate (4.33 x 10 -8 -5.17 x 10 -6 M), shaking time (I-60 minutes) and temperature (15-35 deg C). Maximum sorption has been achieved from 0.001M HCl solution using 50 mg of the sand and 20 minutes shaking time. The sorption data followed Freundlich and D-R isotherms. The sorption capacity of 0.4 μmole x g -1 and of sorption energy of 9.9 kJ x mole -1 have been computed from D-R parameters. Thermodynamic parameters ΔH = 84.4 kJ x mole -1 , ΔS 284.5 J x mole -1 x K -1 and ΔG = -3.32 kJ x mole -1 at 298 K have been evaluated. Fe(II), Al(III), citrate, borate, oxalate, tartrate and carbonate ions reduce the sorption significantly. Under similar experimental conditions Tc(VII), Re(VII), Sb(V) and Co(II) have very low sorption (<1%) and trivalent Eu and Sm have large distribution ratios. Haro river sand can be used to preconcentrate or to remove micro or submicro amounts of Cr(III) from very dilute solution and for the separation of Tc, Re and Sb from Cr, Eu and Sm. (author)

  7. Potensi Pasir Lokal Tanjung Bintang Pada Aluminium Sand Casting Terhadap Porositas Produk Hasil Cor Aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Hendronursito, Yusup; Prayanda, Yogi

    2016-01-01

    Green sand is one of the most important components in the process of metal casting. The sand in Indonesia region is varied level of subtlety, size of sand, and shape of sand. Green sand used in the process of metal casting is possible can affect the quality of casting product. This aims to determine the potential of Tanjung Bintang sand as green sand and the quality of the product in terms of porosity defects. The research was conducted by varying sand river from Tanjung Bintang and sand from...

  8. Experimental Study on Superfine Sand Concrete Mixed by Double Mixing Technology

    OpenAIRE

    yuqing zhao

    2013-01-01

    Traditional concept thought that medium sand and fine sand can be used to mix concrete, superfine sand can not used to mix concrete. This makes the source of superfine sand limited. With the shortage of medium sand and fine sand, it is imperative to exploit the resource of superfine sand. Superfine sand concrete is mixed by means of Double-doped Technology-ultra-fine fly ash and super plasticizer. Primary factor influencing superfine sand concrete strength is studied by orthogonal test, the o...

  9. Recovery of macrobenthic assemblages following experimental sand burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Barrón

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was supported by a fund provided by the Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología (UNAM and a fund provided to Celia Olabarria in 2004 and 2005 by the University of Vigo for overseas short stays.AbstractPeriodic inundation by sand is a very common feature of rocky coasts throughout the world. Even so, there have been few direct observations or experiments to investigate the role of sediments on intertidal rocky shores. We designed a field experiment in Mazatlán Bay, Mexico, to test the initial impact and subsequent recovery of intertidal macrobenthic assemblages exposed to sand burial at two sites of varying wave exposure. Both sites supported different natural assemblages. Treatment plots for the addition of sediment and control plots (50 × 50 cm, separated by at least 1.5 m, were randomly placed across the mid-water tidal level. The initial response of the resident macrobenthos and the subsequent recolonization was monitored over a period of 95 days. The main effect of sediment deposition at both sites was mortality and removal of biota due to smothering. The recovery process was rapid and may in part have been the result of the mechanism by which the small, disturbed patches were recolonized. Most of the invertebrates colonized the patches as adults; several seaweeds exhibited vegetative growth as the major mechanism of colonization (e.g., Ulva lactuca Linnaeus, 1753, Amphiroa valonioides Yendo, 1902 and Chaetomorpha antennina (Borgensen Kutzing, 1849. The rate of recovery varied between the sites, however. Recovery of species numbers proceeded quickly at the sheltered site (day 7, but took 95 days at the exposed site. In contrast, biomass reached control levels by day 45 at the sheltered site, but already by day 15 at the exposed site. By day 95, the assemblages recovered to 83.5% and 81% similarity with the controls at the sheltered and exposed sites respectively. Although differences in wave exposure could be very

  10. ARSENIC REMOVAL BY IRON REMOVAL PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation will discuss the removal of arsenic from drinking water using iron removal processes that include oxidation/filtration and the manganese greensand processes. Presentation includes results of U.S. EPA field studies conducted in Michigan and Ohio on existing iron remo...

  11. Properties of Desert Sand and CMAS Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2014-01-01

    As-received desert sand from a Middle East country has been characterized for its phase composition and thermal stability. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the presence of quartz (SiO2), calcite (CaCO3), gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), and NaAlSi3O8 phases in as-received desert sand and showed weight loss of approx. 35 percent due to decomposition of CaCO3 and CaSO4.2H2O when heated to 1400 C. A batch of as-received desert sand was melted into calcium magnesium aluminosilicate (CMAS) glass at approx. 1500 C. From inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, chemical composition of the CMAS glass was analyzed to be 27.8CaO-4MgO-5Al2O3-61.6SiO2-0.6Fe2O3-1K2O (mole percent). Various physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the glass have been evaluated. Bulk density of CMAS glass was 2.69 g/cc, Young's modulus 92 GPa, Shear modulus 36 GPa, Poisson's ratio 0.28, dilatometric glass transition temperature (T (sub g)) 706 C, softening point (T (sub d)) 764 C, Vickers microhardness 6.3 +/- 0.4 GPa, indentation fracture toughness 0.75 +/- 0.15 MPa.m (sup 1/2), and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) 9.8 x 10 (exp -6)/degC in the temperature range 25 to 700 C. Temperature dependence of viscosity has also been estimated from various reference points of the CMAS glass using the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) equation. The glass remained amorphous after heat treating at 850 C for 10 hr but crystallized into CaSiO3 and Ca-Mg-Al silicate phases at 900 C or higher temperatures. Crystallization kinetics of the CMAS glass has also been investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA). Activation energies for the crystallization of two different phases in the glass were calculated to be 403 and 483 kJ/mol, respectively.

  12. Conversion of sand filters into activated carbon filters at the La Presa (Valencia) water works; Conversion de filtros de arena porcarbon activo en la ETAP de La Presa (Valencia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macian Cervera, V. J.; Monforte Monleon, L.; Ribera Orts, R.; Suris Jorda, J. I.; Klee, J. M.

    2007-07-01

    To improve the water quality at potable water treatment plant of La P esa (Valencia), the sand filters have been replaced for activated carbon filters. In the following review the results and conclusions of the direct sand filter conversion into activated carbon filters will be presented. The leads to a simple and fast solution to odour and taste removal, as well as dissolved organic matter, without investments in works at the water works. (Author)

  13. Brand Revitalization: Penciptaan Brand Image Produk Green Sands Bebas Alkohol melalui Marketing Communication (Advertising dan Public Relation pada PT Multi Bintang Indonesia Tb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooky Tri Adhikara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available PT Multi Bintang Indonesia is a beverages production company, and one of its products are Green Sands. In early 2002, Green Sands revitalize to Green Sands Alcohol-Free and communicated through several promotional tools, including advertising and public relations. This study examines what brand image embedded on the consumers, and what is the level of influence of advertising and public relations toward the creation of brand image of products Green Sands Alcohol-Free. The research methods used in this study is test Cochran, multiple regression, and cobwebs. The result, brand image that is embedded in consumer brand is cool and trendy and unique and refreshing taste. Advertising and public relations by creating a brand image is only 7.2%, the rest from other factors. Brand image is embedded in the customers had not yet reached the desired scale of the company. 

  14. Carbon neutral 2020 : a leadership opportunity in Canada's oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, M.; Raynolds, M.; Wong, R.; Holmes, R. (ed.)

    2006-10-15

    Canada's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are projected to be 32 per cent higher in 2010 than they were in 1990. The development of Canada's oil sands is the single largest contributor to GHG emissions growth in Canada. This report estimates the cost for an oil sands operation to become carbon neutral by 2020. In addition to energy efficiency or fuel switching measures which should be considered on a continual basis, the 2 main options for achieving carbon neutrality are carbon capture and storage (CCS) and GHG offsets. This report considered 3 scenarios: (1) maximum CCS in which all point sources are captured and stored, (2) moderate CCS in which only carbon dioxide from hydrogen production is captured and stored, and (3) maximum offsets in which CCS is not used and all emissions are offset. The results for the 3 scenarios were presented under operating situations that ranged from 100 per cent mining, 100 per cent in-situ, and 55 per cent mining with 45 per cent in-situ operations. The estimated costs per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent using both CCS and offsets ranged from US $22 to US $66. The costs per barrel for achieving neutrality could therefore range from US $2-14, with the higher costs assigned to the CCS options. It was noted that the cost of becoming carbon neutral will continue to decline as oil sands companies generate greater profits per barrel. It was concluded that carbon neutrality is economically feasibly by 2020, given the current high profit margins for oil sands companies. In addition, the cost of reducing carbon is not much higher per barrel than the cost of removing lead or sulphur from fuel. 67 refs., 13 tabs., 10 figs.

  15. Granular activated carbon for simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation of toxic oil sands process-affected water organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahinoor; Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) released into oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) during bitumen processing in Northern Alberta are problematic for oil sands industries due to their toxicity in the environment and resistance to degradation during conventional wastewater treatment processes. Granular activated carbon (GAC) has shown to be an effective media in removing biopersistent organics from wastewater using a combination of adsorption and biodegradation removal mechanisms. A simultaneous GAC (0.4 g GAC/L) adsorption and biodegradation (combined treatment) study was used for the treatment of raw and ozonated OSPW. After 28 days of batch treatment, classical and oxidized NAs removals for raw OSPW were 93.3% and 73.7%, and for ozonated OSPW were 96.2% and 77.1%, respectively. Synergetic effects of the combined treatment process were observed in removals of COD, the acid extractable fraction, and oxidized NAs, which indicated enhanced biodegradation and bioregeneration in GAC biofilms. A bacteria copy number >10(8) copies/g GAC on GAC surfaces was found using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction after treatment for both raw and ozonated OSPW. A Microtox(®) acute toxicity test (Vibrio fischeri) showed effective toxicity removal (>95.3%) for the combined treatments. Therefore, the simultaneous GAC adsorption and biodegradation treatment process is a promising technology for the elimination of toxic OSPW NAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stakeholder relations in the oil sands : managing uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-05-15

    Alberta's oil sands are now at the crossroads of a series of significant and complex global issues that will require careful negotiation by all stakeholders involved in the oil sands industry. This paper discussed methods of managing uncertainty and risk related to the oil sands industry's agenda for the future. Oil sands developers must continue to secure permission from communities and other key stakeholders in order to develop oil sand projects. Stakeholder relations between oil sands operators, First Nations, and Metis Nation communities must ensure that respect is maintained while environmental impacts are minimized and long-term economic benefits are secured for all parties. Environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) must ensure that oil sands resources are developed responsibly, and that environmental standards are maintained. Seven key shifts in stakeholder relations resulting from the recent economic crisis were identified. These included (1) withdrawal from the multi-stakeholder process, (2) increased focus on government to demonstrate policy leadership, (3) a stronger push from ENGOs to express environmental concerns, (4) global lobby and public relations efforts from ENGOs, (5) companies retreating to local community stakeholders, (6) more active demands from First Nations and Metis Nations groups, and (7) companies challenging ENGO campaigns. The study concluded by suggesting that government leadership is needed to clear policy and regulatory frameworks for Canada's oil sands.

  17. On Foundation Improvement By Sand Replacement | Abam | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a simple foundation improvement method involving the replacement of poor foundation bearing soils with sand and the resultant improvement in bearing capacity and the minimization of settlement at the site of a large storage tank. Minimum thickness of sand replacement for various foundation loads ...

  18. Modeling sheet-flow sand transport under progressive surface waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    In the near-shore zone, energetic sea waves generate sheet-flow sand transport. In present day coastal models, wave-induced sheet-flow sand transport rates are usually predicted with semi-empirical transport formulas, based on extensive research on this phenomenon in oscillatory flow tunnels.

  19. Fine sand in motion: the influence of interstitial air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, T.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Sand is a granular material, and therefore it consists of individual grains arranged in a packing. The pores in-between the grains are usually filled with a fluid, in this case air. Now, is this interstitial air able to influence the behavior of the sand bed as a whole? When a ball impacts on fine,

  20. Geophysical mapping of the occurrence of shallow oil sands in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil sands are known to be an alternate source of energy and of great economic value. To map the occurrence of shallow oil sand deposits in Idiopopo, Okitipupa area in Ondo state southwestern Nigeria, vertical electric sounding (VES) in 11 stations along 3 profiles were carried out using the Schlumberger configuration.

  1. Provenance of Coastal dune sands along Red Sea, Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    26

    accumulation of sands behind vegetation or any other obstacles. ... The study areas Safaga (SF) and Quseir (QS) field dunes (Fig. 1) ..... coastal dune sands were deposited in a passive margin of a synrift .... Sed Petrol 63(6), 1110-1117.

  2. Sea Bed Sand Waves Studied To Help Pipeline Planners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mark, C.F.; de Koning, M.F.; Blom, Astrid; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Stolk, A.

    2008-01-01

    The article cites a study that offers information on the variability of sand wave characteristics in the North Sea. The sand waves variability includes a statement that pipelines may start vibrating due to turbulence generated under the free span and navigational channels often need to be dredged

  3. Archaen to Recent aeolian sand systems and their sedimentary record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-López, Juan Pedro; Clemmensen, Lars B; Lancaster, Nick

    2014-01-01

    The sedimentary record of aeolian sand systems extends from the Archean to the Quaternary, yet current understanding of aeolian sedimentary processes and product remains limited. Most preserved aeolian successions represent inland sand-sea or dunefield (erg) deposits, whereas coastal systems are ...

  4. Sand transport in urbanized beaches - models and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineiro, G.; Norbis, W.; Panario, D.

    2012-01-01

    The general objective is to quantify the wind transport of sand in the urbanized beaches. The specific objectives include testing and calibration of the wind velocity as well as the classification of the beaches according to the magnitude and the direction of sand transport

  5. Test Setup for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    The test setup for testing axially static and cyclic loaded piles in sand is described in the following. The purpose for the tests is to examine the tensile capacity of axially loaded piles in dense fully saturated sand. The pile dimensions are chosen to resemble full scale dimension of piles used...... in offshore pile foundations today....

  6. Beach Sand Analysis for Indicators of Microbial Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional beach monitoring has focused on water quality, with little attention paid to health risks associated with beach sand. Recent research has reported that fecal indicator bacteria, as well as human pathogens can be found in beach sand and may constitute a risk to human h...

  7. Effect of Crushed Sandstone Sand on the Properties of High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents results of the laboratory investigation on high performance concrete (HPC) using crushed sandstone sand as 20%, 40%, and 60% replacement of river sand together with superplastisizer and silica fume (SF). The fresh concrete properties such as slump, air content and fresh concrete density have been ...

  8. Sediment Source Fingerprinting of the Lake Urmia Sand Dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmady-Birgani, Hesam; Agahi, Edris; Ahmadi, Seyed Javad; Erfanian, Mahdi

    2018-01-09

    Aeolian sand dunes are continuously being discovered in inner dry lands and coastal areas, most of which have been formed over the Last Glacial Maximum. Presently, due to some natural and anthropogenic implications on earth, newly-born sand dunes are quickly emerging. Lake Urmia, the world's second largest permanent hypersaline lake, has started shrinking, vast lands comprising sand dunes over the western shore of the lake have appeared and one question has been playing on the minds of nearby dwellers: where are these sand dunes coming from, What there was not 15 years ago!! In the present study, the determination of the source of the Lake Urmia sand dunes in terms of the quantifying relative contribution of each upstream geomorphological/lithological unit has been performed using geochemical fingerprinting techniques. The findings demonstrate that the alluvial and the fluvial sediments of the western upstream catchment have been transported by water erosion and they accumulated in the lower reaches of the Kahriz River. Wind erosion, as a secondary agent, have carried the aeolian sand-sized sediments to the sand dune area. Hence, the Lake Urmia sand dunes have been originating from simultaneous and joint actions of alluvial, fluvial and aeolian processes.

  9. Effectiveness of SCADA Systems in Control of Green Sands Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaszak Z.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper undertakes an important topic of evaluation of effectiveness of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems, used for monitoring and control of selected processing parameters of classic green sands used in foundry. Main focus was put on process studies of properties of so-called 1st generation molding sands in the respect of their preparation process. Possible methods of control of this processing are presented, with consideration of application of fresh raw materials, return sand (regenerate and water. The studies conducted in one of European foundries were aimed at pointing out how much application of new, automated plant of sand processing incorporating the SCADA systems allows stabilizing results of measurement of selected sand parameters after its mixing. The studies concerned two comparative periods of time, before an implementation of the automated devices for green sands processing (ASMS - Automatic Sand Measurement System and MCM – Main Control Module and after the implementation. Results of measurement of selected sand properties after implementation of the ASMS were also evaluated and compared with testing studies conducted periodically in laboratory.

  10. Providing floating capabilities in latest-generation sand screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, E.G.; Coronado, M.P. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Baker Hughes, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Alternative production methods are needed for the massive reserves located in the bitumen region of Canada's tar sands. The area has over 100 installations of sand screens/slotted liners in both injection and production legs using steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) technology. Multiple wells must be drilled from a single pad because of the sensitive nature of the environment. With significant depths of these wells, a floating sand screen provides assurance that the sand screen will reach the desired depth. Paraffin is generally used to plug the flow access of the screen during installation. This paper discussed a new technology that has been developed to allow for sand screen installations without relying on paraffin wax to withstand differential pressure. The new technology uses a hydro-mechanical valving system incorporated into the screen design to temporarily close off the screen while being run in the hole. The paper described how the technology could provide a reliable, time-saving solution for SAGD installations when floating sand control screens are needed. The paper discussed current technology and its limitations, sand screen installation, screen design for floating applications, and additional applications. It was concluded that this technology solution provides a unique alternative to the methods currently used to install sand screens with SAGD technology in the fast growing Canadian market for bitumen recovery. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Cavity prediction in sand mould production applying the DISAMATIC process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovad, Emil; Larsen, Per; Spangenberg, Jon

    2017-01-01

    The sand shot in the DISAMATIC process is simulated by the discrete element method (DEM) taking into account the influence and coupling of the airflow with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The DEM model is calibrated by a ring shear test, a sand pile experiment and a slump test. Subsequently...

  12. Ecosystem-based design rules for marine sand extraction sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Maarten F.; Borsje, Bas W.; Baptist, Martin J.; Wal, van der Jan Tjalling; Lindeboom, Han J.; Hoekstra, Piet

    2016-01-01

    The demand for marine sand in the Netherlands as well as globally is increasing. Over the last decades, only shallow sand extraction of 2m below the seabed was allowed on the Dutch Continental Shelf (DCS). To guarantee sufficient supply and to decrease the surface area of direct impact, the Dutch

  13. Ecosystem-based design rules for marine sand extraction sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Maarten F.; Borsje, Bas W.; Baptist, Martin J.; van der Wal, Jan Tjalling; Lindeboom, Han J.; Hoekstra, Piet

    2016-01-01

    The demand for marine sand in the Netherlands as well as globally is increasing. Over the last decades, only shallow sand extraction of 2m below the seabed was allowed on the Dutch Continental Shelf (DCS). To guarantee sufficient supply and to decrease the surface area of direct impact, the Dutch

  14. Effects of oil sands sediments on fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.; Colavecchia, M.; Hewitt, L.; Sherry, J.; Headley, J.; Turcotte, D.; Liber, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper described a collaborative project organized by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) Panel of Energy Research and Development (PERD) with researchers from Environment Canada and the University of Saskatchewan. The 4-year study was conducted to assess the toxicity of oil sands sediments and river waters, and reclamation ponds and sediments on laboratory-raised fish. Three sediments from rivers were evaluated for their potential to cause adverse impacts on fathead minnow eggs and larvae for a period of 18 days. The study monitored hatching, larval survival, development, and growth. Naphthenic acids (NA), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals were measured in the sediments to determine if the compounds can be correlated with observed toxicity. The study will also assess walleye eggs exposed to sediments, and in situ fish exposures. Toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) studies will be conducted to isolate the fractions that may affect fish development and growth.

  15. The state of oil sands wetland reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The state of oil sand and wetlands reclamation was the subject of this presentation. Wildlife habitat and response, plant community and production, and microbial biology were examples of research areas surrounding this body of knowledge. Hydrological research and landscape ecology were discussed along with peatlands and marshes such as the Corvette and the Kia. A few examples of what has been learned in the area of wetlands reclamation was presented. Other topics were also discussed, such as timeframes, pragmatic policy approaches, reclamation costs, research needs and some ideas on maturing the field. It was concluded that environmental conditions change with time and area because of time, chemistry, physics, stoichiometry, as well as biotic mediation and facilitation. figs.

  16. Petro-Canada's oil sands supply outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangster, B.

    2004-01-01

    A report by the Canadian Energy Research Institute suggests that by 2017, production from the Athabasca Oil Sands could reach as high as 3.5 million barrels per day (mbpd), or it could be as low as 1.1 mbpd. This uncertainty in production is due to several variables such as capital costs, project size, reservoir quality, pipeline capacity and workforce productivity. Other factors that influence production include marginal economics, markets and prices, investor confidence, stakeholder concerns and the Kyoto Protocol. The production level that will be achieved by 2017 will depend on how industry address these emerging issues. The author discussed these issues in detail with particular reference to the approach that Petro-Canada has taken to address the challenges. Suggestions to reduce the potential impacts of these challenges were also presented. tabs., figs

  17. Bison and the oil sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauls, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    Syncrude's Mildred Lake oil sands development project is located within the central boreal mixed wood forest in an area supporting traditional land uses, including trapping and harvesting of wildlife and plant materials by Fort McKay First Nation residents, in a community within 10 km of the Syncrude development. Reclamation requirements and standards in Alberta specify that the reclamation process must restore a landscape capability equivalent to, or better than that existing before disturbance. Syncrude is committed to complying with all provincial requirements and guidelines in all aspects of its business, including land reclamation. A five year research program has been established to determine the feasibility of reclaiming a portion of the landscape to support wood bison and bison subspecies once indigenous to this area. The current project may be expanded as a pilot commercial ranching venture to explore its commercial viability as a business venture by the Fort McKay First nations

  18. Direct Production of Silicones From Sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry N. Lewis; F.J. Schattenmann: J.P. Lemmon

    2001-09-30

    Silicon, in the form of silica and silicates, is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. However the synthesis of silicones (scheme 1) and almost all organosilicon chemistry is only accessible through elemental silicon. Silicon dioxide (sand or quartz) is converted to chemical-grade elemental silicon in an energy intensive reduction process, a result of the exceptional thermodynamic stability of silica. Then, the silicon is reacted with methyl chloride to give a mixture of methylchlorosilanes catalyzed by cooper containing a variety of tract metals such as tin, zinc etc. The so-called direct process was first discovered at GE in 1940. The methylchlorosilanes are distilled to purify and separate the major reaction components, the most important of which is dimethyldichlorosilane. Polymerization of dimethyldichlorosilane by controlled hydrolysis results in the formation of silicone polymers. Worldwide, the silicones industry produces about 1.3 billion pounds of the basic silicon polymer, polydimethylsiloxane.

  19. Recycling of petroleum-contaminated sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, R; Ba-Omar, M; Pillay, A E; Roos, G; al-Hamdi, A

    2001-08-01

    The environmental impact of using petroleum-contaminated sand (PCS) as a substitute in asphalt paving mixtures was examined. An appreciable component of PCS is oily sludge, which is found as the dregs in oil storage tanks and is also produced as a result of oil spills on clean sand. The current method for the disposal of oily sludge is land farming. However, this method has not been successful as an oil content of reuse of the sludge in asphalt paving mixtures was therefore considered as an alternative. Standard tests and environmental studies were conducted to establish the integrity of the materials containing the recycled sludge. These included physical and chemical characterization of the sludge itself, and an assessment of the mechanical properties of materials containing 0%, 5%, 22% and 50% oily sludge. The blended mixtures were subjected to special tests, such as Marshall testing and the determination of stability and flow properties. The experimental results indicated that mixtures containing up to 22% oily sludge could meet the necessary criteria for a specific asphalt concrete wearing course or bituminous base course. To maximize the assay from the recycled material, the environmental assessment was restricted to the 50% oily sludge mixture. Leachates associated with this particular mixture were assayed for total organic residue and certain hazardous metal contaminants. The results revealed that the organics were negligible, and the concentrations of the metals were not significant. Thus, no adverse environmental impact should be anticipated from the use of the recycled product. Our research showed that the disposal of oily sludge in asphalt paving mixtures could possibly yield considerable savings per tonne of asphalt concrete, and concurrently minimize any direct impact on the environment.

  20. Integrated metagenomic and physiochemical analyses to evaluate the potential role of microbes in the sand filter of a drinking water treatment system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaohui Bai

    Full Text Available While sand filters are widely used to treat drinking water, the role of sand filter associated microorganisms in water purification has not been extensively studied. In the current investigation, we integrated molecular (based on metagenomic and physicochemical analyses to elucidate microbial community composition and function in a common sand filter used to treat groundwater for potable consumption. The results revealed that the biofilm developed rapidly within 2 days (reaching ≈ 10(11 prokaryotes per gram in the sand filter along with abiotic and biotic particulates accumulated in the interstitial spaces. Bacteria (up to 90% dominated the biofilm microbial community, with Alphaproteobacteria being the most common class. Thaumarchaeota was the sole phylum of Archaea, which might be involved in ammonia oxidation. Function annotation of metagenomic datasets revealed a number of aromatic degradation pathway genes, such as aromatic oxygenase and dehydrogenase genes, in the biofilm, suggesting a significant role for microbes in the breakdown of aromatic compounds in groundwater. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification pathways were confirmed as the primary routes of nitrogen removal. Dissolved heavy metals in groundwater, e.g. Mn(2+ and As(3+, might be biologically oxidized to insoluble or easily adsorbed compounds and deposited in the sand filter. Our study demonstrated that the role of the microbial community in the sand filter treatment system are critical to effective water purification in drinking water.

  1. Integrated metagenomic and physiochemical analyses to evaluate the potential role of microbes in the sand filter of a drinking water treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yaohui; Liu, Ruiping; Liang, Jinsong; Qu, Jiuhui

    2013-01-01

    While sand filters are widely used to treat drinking water, the role of sand filter associated microorganisms in water purification has not been extensively studied. In the current investigation, we integrated molecular (based on metagenomic) and physicochemical analyses to elucidate microbial community composition and function in a common sand filter used to treat groundwater for potable consumption. The results revealed that the biofilm developed rapidly within 2 days (reaching ≈ 10(11) prokaryotes per gram) in the sand filter along with abiotic and biotic particulates accumulated in the interstitial spaces. Bacteria (up to 90%) dominated the biofilm microbial community, with Alphaproteobacteria being the most common class. Thaumarchaeota was the sole phylum of Archaea, which might be involved in ammonia oxidation. Function annotation of metagenomic datasets revealed a number of aromatic degradation pathway genes, such as aromatic oxygenase and dehydrogenase genes, in the biofilm, suggesting a significant role for microbes in the breakdown of aromatic compounds in groundwater. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification pathways were confirmed as the primary routes of nitrogen removal. Dissolved heavy metals in groundwater, e.g. Mn(2+) and As(3+), might be biologically oxidized to insoluble or easily adsorbed compounds and deposited in the sand filter. Our study demonstrated that the role of the microbial community in the sand filter treatment system are critical to effective water purification in drinking water.

  2. HYDRAULIC ELEVATOR INSTALLATION ESTIMATION FOR THE WATER SOURCE WELL SAND-PACK CLEANING UP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ivashechkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article offers design of a hydraulic elevator installation for cleaning up water-source wells of sand packs. It considerers the installation hydraulic circuit according to which the normal pump feeds the high-level tank water into the borehole through two parallel water lines. The water-jet line with washing nozzle for destroying the sand-pack and the supply pipe-line coupled with the operational nozzle of the hydraulic elevator containing the inlet and the supply pipelines for respectively intaking the hydromixture and removing it from the well. The paper adduces equations for fluid motion in the supply and the water-jet pipelines and offers expressions for evaluating the required heads in them. For determining water flow in the supply and the water-jet pipe lines the author proposes to employ graphical approach allowing finding the regime point in Q–H chart by means of building characteristics of the pump and the pipe-lines. For calculating the useful vertical head, supply and dimensions of the hydraulic elevator the article employs the equation of motion quantity with consistency admission of the motion quantity before and after mixing the flows in the hydraulic elevator. The suggested correlations for evaluating the hydraulic elevator efficiency determine the sand pack removal duration as function of its sizes and the ejected fluid flow rate. A hydraulic-elevator installation parameters estimation example illustrates removing a sand pack from a water-source borehole of 41 m deep and 150 mm diameter bored in the village of Uzla of Myadelsk region, of Minsk oblast. The working efficiency of a manufactured and laboratory tested engineering prototype of the hydraulic elevator installation was acknowledged in actual tests at the indicated borehole site. With application of graphical approach, the suggested for the hydraulic elevator installation parameters calculation procedure allows selecting, with given depth and the borehole diameter

  3. Performance evaluation and modelling studies of gravel--coir fibre--sand multimedia stormwater filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Manoj P; Senthilvel, S; Tamilmani, D; Mathew, A C

    2012-09-01

    A horizontal flow multimedia stormwater filter was developed and tested for hydraulic efficiency and pollutant removal efficiency. Gravel, coconut (Cocos nucifera) fibre and sand were selected as the media and filled in 1:1:1 proportion. A fabric screen made up of woven sisal hemp was used to separate the media. The adsorption behaviour of coir fibre was determined in a series of column and batch studies and the corresponding isotherms were developed. The hydraulic efficiency of the filter showed a diminishing trend as the sediment level in inflow increased. The filter exhibited 100% sediment removal at lower sediment concentrations in inflow water (>6 g L(-1)). The filter could remove NO3(-), SO4(2-) and total solids (TS) effectively. Removal percentages of Mg(2+) and Na(+) were also found to be good. Similar results were obtained from a field evaluation study. Studies were also conducted to determine the pattern of silt and sediment deposition inside the filter body. The effects of residence time and rate of flow on removal percentages of NO3(-) and TS were also investigated out. In addition, a multiple regression equation that mathematically represents the filtration process was developed. Based on estimated annual costs and returns, all financial viability criteria (internal rate of return, net present value and benefit-cost ratio) were found favourable and affordable to farmers for investment in the developed filtration system. The model MUSIC was calibrated and validated for field conditions with respect to the developed stormwater filter.

  4. Contaminant removal and hydraulic conductivity of laboratory rain garden systems for stormwater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, J F; O'Sullivan, A D; Wicke, D; Cochrane, T A

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of substrate composition on stormwater treatment and hydraulic effectiveness, mesocosm-scale (180 L, 0.17 m(2)) laboratory rain gardens were established. Saturated (constant head) hydraulic conductivity was determined before and after contaminant (Cu, Zn, Pb and nutrients) removal experiments on three rain garden systems with various proportions of organic topsoil. The system with only topsoil had the lowest saturated hydraulic conductivity (160-164 mm/h) and poorest metal removal efficiency (Cu ≤ 69.0% and Zn ≤ 71.4%). Systems with sand and a sand-topsoil mix demonstrated good metal removal (Cu up to 83.3%, Zn up to 94.5%, Pb up to 97.3%) with adequate hydraulic conductivity (sand: 800-805 mm/h, sand-topsoil: 290-302 mm/h). Total metal amounts in the effluent were pH was elevated (up to 7.38) provided by the calcareous sand in two of the systems, whereas the topsoil-only system lacked an alkaline source. Organic topsoil, a typical component in rain garden systems, influenced pH, resulting in poorer treatment due to higher dissolved metal fractions.

  5. Effect of operating conditions in soil aquifer treatment on the removals of pharmaceuticals and personal care products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Kai, E-mail: hekai@urban.env.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Echigo, Shinya; Itoh, Sadahiko

    2016-09-15

    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is an alternative advanced treatment for wastewater reclamation, and it has the potential to control micropollutants including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). However, the relationship of operating conditions in SAT and removals of micropollutants was not clear. In this study, the effects of operating conditions on the removals of PPCPs were evaluated by using lab-scale columns and plant pilot-scale reactors under different operating conditions. Firstly, weathered granite soil (WGS), standard sand (SAND) and Toyoura standard sand (TS) have different soil characteristics such as total organic carbon (TOC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). In the columns with these packing materials, the removals of carboxylic analgesics and antilipidemics were effective regardless packing materials. The removals of antibiotics were more effective in WGS than in TS and SAND, indicating high TOC and CEC enhance the sorption in SAT. Secondly, with the extension of hydraulic retention time (HRT), the removals of sulfamethoxazole, acetaminophen, crotamiton, and antipyrine were improved in WGS columns, and adaptable biodegradation for moderately removable PPCPs was formed. Thirdly, the removal efficiencies of sulfamethoxazole and crotamiton were higher in the WGS column under vadose condition than in the WGS column under saturated condition, because of aerobic condition in WGS column under vadose condition. Though long HRT and vadose condition had positive influence on the removals of several PPCPs such as sulfamethoxazole, WGS column with an HRT of 7 days under saturated condition removed most PPCPs. - Highlights: • Soil organic matter and cation exchange capacity enhanced the removals of antibiotics in SAT. • A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7 days was sufficient for the removals of most PPCPs. • The removals of most selected PPCPs were similar under vadose and saturated conditions. • Vadose condition contributed to the

  6. Improvement of composition of core sand and molding sand mixtures for power machine building castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikanov, G.F.; Primak, I.N.; Brechko, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Considered is a problem of development and improvement of mixtures, as well as of antisticking coatings with the given parameters providing production of castings of the necessary quality. Requirements to properties of mixtures and antisticking coatings are formulated proceeding from the conditions of guaranteed production of qualitative steel castings with mass from 0.5 up to 20t and wall thickness from 60 up to 200 mm. Formation of film structure of binding compositions is studied, their marginal contact angle and surface tension are determined. In the result of work carried out on improvement of core sand and molding sand mixtures the labour productivity during the production of core and moldings has been increased in 20-25% in average, the quality has also been improved [ru

  7. Depth investigation of rapid sand filters for drinking water production reveals strong stratification in nitrification biokinetic behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    The biokinetic behavior of NH4 + removal was investigated at different depths of a rapid sand filter treating groundwater for drinking water preparation. Filter materials from the top, middle and bottom layers of a full-scale filter were exposed to various controlled NH4 + loadings in a continuous......-flow lab-scale assay. NH4 + removal capacity, estimated from short term loading up-shifts, was at least 10 times higher in the top than in the middle and bottom filter layers, consistent with the stratification of Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB). AOB density increased consistently with the NH4 + removal...... rate, indicating their primarily role in nitrification under the imposed experimental conditions. The maximum AOB cell specific NH4 + removal rate observed at the bottom was at least 3 times lower compared to the top and middle layers. Additionally, a significant up-shift capacity (4.6 and 3.5 times...

  8. Compressive Strength of Compacted Clay-Sand Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faseel Suleman Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of sand to improve the strength of natural clays provides a viable alternative for civil infrastructure construction involving earthwork. The main objective of this note was to investigate the compressive strength of compacted clay-sand mixes. A natural clay of high plasticity was mixed with 20% and 40% sand (SP and their compaction and strength properties were determined. Results indicated that the investigated materials exhibited a brittle behaviour on the dry side of optimum and a ductile behaviour on the wet side of optimum. For each material, the compressive strength increased with an increase in density following a power law function. Conversely, the compressive strength increased with decreasing water content of the material following a similar function. Finally, the compressive strength decreased with an increase in sand content because of increased material heterogeneity and loss of sand grains from the sides during shearing.

  9. Laboratory Test Setup for Cyclic Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive description and the considerations regarding the design of a new laboratory test setup for testing cyclic axially loaded piles in sand. The test setup aims at analysing the effect of axial one-way cyclic loading on pile capacity and accumulated displacements....... Another aim was to test a large diameter pile segment with dimensions resembling full-scale piles to model the interface properties between pile and sand correctly. The pile segment was an open-ended steel pipe pile with a diameter of 0.5 m and a length of 1 m. The sand conditions resembled the dense sand...... determined from the API RP 2GEO standard and from the test results indicated over consolidation of the sand. Two initial one-way cyclic loading tests provided results of effects on pile capacity and accumulated displacements in agreement with other researchers’ test results....

  10. Modelling the behavior of an oil saturated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evgin, E.; Altaee, A.; Lord, S.; Konuk, I.

    1990-01-01

    The experiments carried out in an earlier study show the oil contamination affects the strength and deformation characteristics of a crushed quartz sand. In the present study, a mathematical soil model is used to simulate the mechanical behavior of the same sand. The model parameters are determined for both clean and oil contaminated soil. Simulations are made for the stress-strain behavior of the soil in drained and undrained conventional traixial compression tests. In order to illustrate the effect of changes in the soil properties on the behavior of an engineering structure, a finite element analysis is carried out. In this paper comparative results are presented to show the differences in the behavior of a foundation resting on a clean sand, on an oil contaminated sand, and on a sand contaminated locally

  11. Sand impaction of the small intestine in eight dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles, A D; McGhite, A; Schaaf, O R; Read, R

    2010-01-01

    To describe signalment, clinical findings, imaging and treatment of intestinal sand impaction in the dog. Medical records of dogs with radiographic evidence of small intestinal sand impaction were reviewed. Sand impaction resulting in small intestinal obstruction was diagnosed in eight dogs. All dogs presented with signs of vomiting. Other clinical signs included anorexia, lethargy and abdominal pain. Radiographs confirmed the presence of radio-opaque material consistent with sand causing distension of the terminal small intestine in all dogs. Four dogs were treated surgically for their impaction and four dogs were managed medically. Seven of the eight dogs survived. Both medical and surgical management of intestinal sand impaction in the dog can be effective and both afford a good prognosis for recovery.

  12. Modeling phosphorus removal in wet ponds with filter zones containing sand or crushed concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderup, Melanie J.; Egemose, Sara; Hoffmann, Carl Christian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Generally, wet ponds are constructed only to reduce the hydraulic load of downstream receiving water bodies. Often most particulate matter will be retained, whereas dissolved nutrients mostly will be unaffected by the pond due to short retention times. A suite of lab-experiments have dem...

  13. Development and Evaluation of Solbrax-Water Nanoemulsions for Removal of Oil from Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila F. Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, surfactants have been used to clean up soils and aquifers contaminated by petroleum and petroleum derivatives. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate nanoemulsions for remediation of soil contaminated by petroleum, by using a commercial solvent Solbrax. The nanoemulsions were prepared by the phase inversion temperature (PIT method, using oil phase Solbrax (a solvent extracted from naphtha with low aromatics content and a nonionic ethoxylated lauryl ether surfactant. The surfactant concentrations were varied from 10 to 12 wt% and the oil phase was varied from 5 to 20 wt%. A 23 factorial experimental design with center point run was used to evaluate the soil washing process, varying time, temperature, and shear rate of the system. The results show that the most efficient system (with 90% efficiency was that using the nanoemulsion containing 5 wt% of Solbrax and 12 wt% of surfactant after four hours of washing, on 240 rotation·min−1 of shear rate and at a temperature of 318 K.

  14. Restoration of Black Oak (Quercus velutina) Sand Barrens via Three Different Habitat Management Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriska, David John

    Disturbance regimes, i.e. frequent fires, historically maintained oak barrens until European settlement patterns, and eventually, Smoky the Bear and the fire suppression campaign of the U.S. Forest Service snuffed out the periodic flames. In the absence of a disturbance regime, ground layer floral composition at many historical oak sand barrens will change predominantly because of a buildup of leaf litter and shading of the soils. Termed mesophication, this process of ecological succession will drive Black Oak Sand Barrens to an alternate steady state. A survey conducted on Singer Lake Bog in Green, Ohio, demonstrated that succession shifted the community to red maple-black cherry woodlands more typical of a dry southern forest. In an attempt to revive disturbance, three restoration techniques were applied at ten degraded northeast Ohio oak barrens to contrast their effectiveness in restoring black oak sand barren flora. The three restoration treatments were select canopy tree reduction favoring 5% to 30% tree canopy cover, forest floor leaf litter removal, and prescribed fire. Vegetation responses to manipulations were monitored prior to and following treatment applications, and were compared against both baseline data from before-treatment surveys and paired control sites adjacent treated areas. Imposing disturbance successfully increased species diversity and abundance above that found across Singer Lake Bog compared to sampling made prior to and adjacent to treated areas. Select canopy tree removal exhibited the largest floral responses from targeted barrens species, i.e. graminoids. A forest floor invertebrate family (Carabidea: Coleoptera) was measured for species richness and abundance pre and post treatment, where a noticeable shift occurred away from woodland obligate ground beetles toward open grassland species. Replicating oak barren structure, prior to replicating disturbance processes, is the first step in the ecological restoration of these systems.

  15. Aeolian sand transport and aeolian deposits on Venus: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslavsly, Mikhail A.; Bondarenko, Nataliya V.

    2017-06-01

    We review the current state of knowledge about aeolian sand transport and aeolian bedforms on planet Venus. This knowledge is limited by lack of observational data. Among the four planetary bodies of the Solar System with sufficient atmospheres in contact with solid surfaces, Venus has the densest atmosphere; the conditions there are transitional between those for terrestrial subaerial and subaqueous transport. The dense atmosphere causes low saltation threshold and short characteristic saltation length, and short scale length of the incipient dunes. A few lines of evidence indicate that the typical wind speeds exceed the saltation threshold; therefore, sand transport would be pervasive, if sand capable of saltation is available. Sand production on Venus is probably much slower than on the Earth; the major terrestrial sand sinks are also absent, however, lithification of sand through sintering is expected to be effective under Venus' conditions. Active transport is not detectable with the data available. Aeolian bedforms (transverse dunes) resolved in the currently available radar images occupy a tiny area on the planet; however, indirect observations suggest that small-scale unresolved aeolian bedforms are ubiquitous. Aeolian transport is probably limited by sand lithification causing shortage of saltation-capable material. Large impact events likely cause regional short-term spikes in aeolian transport by supplying a large amount of sand-size particles, as well as disintegration and activation of older indurated sand deposits. The data available are insufficient to understand whether the global aeolian sand transport occurs or not. More robust knowledge about aeolian transport on Venus is essential for future scientific exploration of the planet, in particular, for implementation and interpretation of geochemical studies of surface materials. High-resolution orbital radar imaging with local to regional coverage and desirable interferometric capabilities is the

  16. Sand waves on an epicontinental shelf: Northern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, M.E.; Nelson, C.H.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Sand waves and current ripples occupy the crests and flanks of a series of large linear sand ridges (20 km ?? 5 km ?? 10 m high) lying in an open-marine setting in the northern Bering Sea. The sand wave area, which lies west of Seward Peninsula and southeast of Bering Strait, is exposed to the strong continuous flow of coastal water northward toward Bering Strait. A hierarchy of three sizes of superimposed bedforms, all facing northward, was observed in successive cruises in 1976 and 1977. Large sand waves (height 2 m; spacing 200 m) have smaller sand waves (height 1 m; spacing 20 m) lying at a small oblique angle on their stoss slopes. The smaller sand waves in turn have linguoid ripples on their stoss slopes. Repeated studies of the sand wave fields were made both years with high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, side-scan sonographs, underwater photographs, current-meter stations, vibracores, and suspended-sediment samplers. Comparison of seismic and side-scan data collected along profile lines run both years showed changes in sand wave shape that indicate significant bedload transport within the year. Gouge marks made in sediment by keels of floating ice also showed significantly different patterns each year, further documenting modification to the bottom by sediment transport. During calm sea conditions in 1977, underwater video and camera observations showed formation and active migration of linguoid and straight-crested current ripples. Current speeds 1 m above the bottom were between 20 and 30 cm/s. Maximum current velocities and sand wave migration apparently occur when strong southwesterly winds enhance the steady northerly flow of coastal water. Many cross-stratified sand bodies in the geologic record are interpreted as having formed in a tidal- or storm-dominated setting. This study provides an example of formation and migration of large bedforms by the interaction of storms with strong uniform coastal currents in an open-marine setting. ?? 1981.

  17. Oblique second-order sand transport pathways on an intertidal sand flat in a natural tidal inlet system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Lefebvre, Alice; Kroon, Aart

    2013-01-01

    tide, sand is transported along ESE-oriented pathways across the intertidal flat towards the inner tidal basin. During the late stages of ebb tide, sand is transported in drainage channels (WSWoriented) from the intertidal flat towards the inlet channel. During storm events with winds from SW, wave...

  18. Spider Vein Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spider veins: How are they removed? I have spider veins on my legs. What options are available ... M.D. Several options are available to remove spider veins — thin red lines or weblike networks of ...

  19. The Geodiversity in Drift Sand Landscapes of The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Riksen, Michel

    2015-04-01

    The authors carried out detailed field studies of more than twelve drift sand landscapes in The Netherlands. The objective of these studies was to restore Natura-2000 values by restoring the wind activity. Active drift sands occur almost exclusively in The Netherlands, Natura 2000 habitat 2330 'Inland dunes with open Corynephorus and Agrostis grasslands', for which reason our country is largely responsible for this European landscape. Active drift sands had almost disappeared for two reasons: first, the stabilization of the drift sands by air pollution, mainly nitrogen, which stimulates the growth of algae and grasses that initiate soil formation, and second, by the growth of forests surrounding the sands, which decreases the wind force. The restoration studies revealed differences in the geodiversity between and within the drift sand areas. Whereas the drift sands on geological and soil maps show as almost homogenous areas, they have in fact highly variable geo-conditions of which examples will be given. These geodiversity aspects concern differences in geomorphological structure, origin, sediments and age of the drift sands. Differences in wind and water erosion, trampling and soil formation add to the geodiversity within the drift sand areas. Especially in the primary stages of succession the differences in geodiversity are relevant for the Natura-2000 values. We discerned three main types of active sands. Firstly, the impressive drift sands with large parabolic dune structures, often consisting of series of interlocking parabolic dunes. They developed from the northeast towards the southwest, against the direction of the dominant wind, and must have taken centuries to develop. Small parts of these systems are still active, other parts show different degrees of soil formation. Their origin is still unclear but probably dates from medieval times (Heidinga, 1985, Jungerius & Riksen, 2008). Second are the drift sand areas with irregular hills from 0.5 to about 2

  20. Influence of sand base preparation on properties of chromite moulding sands with sodium silicate hardened with selected methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stachowicz M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a research on the relation between thermal preparation of chromite sand base of moulding sands containing sodium silicate, hardened with selected physical and chemical methods, and structure of the created bonding bridges. Test specimens were prepared of chromite sand - fresh or baked at 950°C for 10 or 24 hours - mixed with 0.5 wt.% of the selected non-modified inorganic binder and, after forming, were hardened with CO2 or liquid esters, dried traditionally or heated with microwaves at 2.45 GHz. It was shown on the grounds of SEM observations that the time of baking the base sand and the hardening method significantly affect structure of the bonding bridges and are correlated with mechanical properties of the moulding sands. It was found that hardening chromite-based moulding mixtures with physical methods is much more favourable than hardening with chemical methods, guaranteeing also more than ten times higher mechanical properties.

  1. PLANNING YOUR REMOVALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service déménagement; ST Division

    1999-01-01

    To give you better service and avoid lengthy delays, the Removals Service advises you to refrain from programming moves between 26 July and 3 September, as large-scale removals are already planned during this summer period.Thanking you in advance for your co-operation and understanding.Removals Service STTel. 74185 / Mobile 164017

  2. PROGRAMMING OFFICE REMOVALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST-HM

    2000-01-01

    The Removals Service recommends you to plan your removals well in advance, taking into account the fact that the Transport and Handling Group’s main priority remains the dismantling of LEP and the installation of the LHC. The requests can be made by: http://st.web.cern.ch/st/hm/removal/DEMEE.HTM Thank you for your cooperation.

  3. Responses of macroinvertebrates and local environment to short-term commercial sand dredging practices in a flood-plain lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xingliang; Jiang, Xiaoming; Li, Zhengfei; Wang, Jun; Cooper, Keith M; Xie, Zhicai

    2018-08-01

    In parts of the developing world, the expansion of industrial sand mining activities has led to serious environmental concerns. However, current understanding of the effects of this activity on an inland water ecosystem remains limited. Herein, we choose the "most affected" lake in China (Dongting Lake), to assess short-term (1year) effects of sand dredging on key environmental parameters and on the structure of the macroinvertebrate assemblage. Within the dredged area we observed increases in water depth (on average 2.17m), turbidity and changes in sediment composition (e.g., increase in % medium sand, and a decrease in % clay). In addition, dredging was associated with a 50 % reduction in taxa richness, Simpson and Shannon-Wiener indices, and a 72 and 99 % reduction in abundance and biomass, respectively. Indirect effects were also observed in the zone surrounding the extraction sites (ca. 500m), most likely as a result of the dredging processes (e.g., sediment screening and overspill) and water flow. No such effects were observed at a nearby reference site. The direct removal of sediment and indirect alteration of physical conditions (e.g., water depth, turbidity and sediment composition) appear to be the most likely cause of variations in the benthic community. Implications of our findings for the planning, management and monitoring of sand dredging in inland waters are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Technical review of WSRC-TR-93-614 criticality safety evaluation for disassembly basin sand filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The study documented in WSRC-TR-93-614 performed an evaluation of the criticality potential associated with the Disassembly Basin Sand Filter for K and L Areas. The document reviewed incorporated results of calculations documented in the engineering calculation N-CLC-K-00151. Analyses of the contents of disassembly basin sludge has indicated that the sludge contains fissile material in excess of subcritical mass limits as specified in ANSI/ANS standards. Previous studies had determined that the fissile material can not collect into a critical configuration in the basin. Since the sand filter is intended to remove suspended particles from the basin water and could serve as a mechanism to collect the fissile material into a critical configuration, the study examined conditions under which criticality could occur in the sand filter. The study shows that criticality is not considered possible in the sand filter. This review emphasized the technical accuracy and presentation of the evaluation. The evaluation was also examined for the elements required for NCSEs. The review was performed in accordance with the NRTSC technical review requirements and procedures and the E7 Manual technical review requirements. The technical review (per the E7 manual) of the engineering calculation (N-CLC-K-0 1 5 1) was previously performed by this reviewer

  5. Sand quarry wetlands provide high-quality habitat for native amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sievers

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic disturbances to habitats influence the fitness of individual animals, the abundance of their populations, and the composition of their communities. Wetlands in particular are frequently degraded and destroyed, impacting the animals that inhabit these important ecosystems. The creation of wetlands during and following sand extraction processes is inevitable, and thus, sand quarries have the potential to support aquatic animals. To determine how amphibians utilise these wetlands, I conducted nocturnal call surveys at wetlands within the Kables Sands quarry, New South Wales, Australia, and within surrounding reference wetlands, and quantified levels of developmental instability (DI as a proxy for fitness. Whilst quarry and reference wetlands were largely similar in terms of environmental characteristics, quarry wetlands consistently harboured more amphibian species and individuals. Using unsigned asymmetry as a measure of DI, frogs from the quarry sites exhibited significantly lower levels of DI compared to reference wetlands, indicating that quarry wetlands may be comparatively higher quality. Levels of DI within quarry wetlands also compared favourably to data from healthy frog populations extracted from the literature. Further enhancing the suitability of quarry wetlands would require minimal effort, with potentially significant increases in local and regional biodiversity. Documenting species presence and quantifying individual fitness by measuring limb lengths is an economically and logistically feasible method to assess the health of quarry wetlands. Overall, the methods outlined here provide a powerful, yet simple, tool to assess the overall health and suitability of quarry wetlands that could be easily adopted at quarries throughout the world.

  6. Evaluation of wettability of binders used in moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutera B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Binders used in moulding sand have the differential properties. One of the main parameters influencing on moulding sand properties is wettability of the sand grain by binding material. In the article some problems concerned with wettability evaluation have been presented and the importance of this parameter for quantity description of process occurring in system: binder- sand grain has been mentioned. The procedure of wetting angle measurement and operation of prototype apparatus for wettability investigation of different binders used in moulding sand have been described, as well as the results of wetting angle measurement for different binders at different conditions. The addition of little amount of proper diluent to binder results in the state of equilibrium reached almost immediately. Such addition can also reduce the value of equilibrium contact angle. The uniform distribution of binder on the surface of the sand grains and reducing of the required mixing time can be obtained. It has also a positive effect on the moulding sand strength.

  7. Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in sand from bathing beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, F J; Surman, S B; Martin, K; Wareing, D R; Humphrey, T J

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in sand from non-EEC standard and EEC standard designated beaches in different locations in the UK and to assess if potentially pathogenic strains were present. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 82/182 (45%) of sand samples and Salmonella spp. in 10/182 (6%). Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 46/92 (50%) of samples from non-EEC standard beaches and 36/90 (40%) from EEC standard beaches. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was greater in wet sand from both types of beaches but, surprisingly, more than 30% of samples from dry sand also contained these organisms. The major pathogenic species C. jejuni and C. coli were more prevalent in sand from non-EEC standard beaches. In contrast, C. lari and urease positive thermophilic campylobacters, which are associated with seagulls and other migratory birds, were more prevalent in sand from EEC standard beaches. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by biotyping and serotyping, which confirmed that strains known to be of types associated with human infections were frequently found in sand on bathing beaches.

  8. Casting Ductile Iron in Layer Moulds Made from Ecological Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rączka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the results of tests performed under the target project in Hardtop Foundry Charsznica.The objective of the tests and studies was to develop a technology of making high-quality ductile iron castings, combined witheffective means of environmental protection. The studies presented in this article related to castings weighing from 1 to 300 kg made from ductile iron of grades 400-15 and 500-7, using two-layer moulds, where the facing and core sand was the sand with an alkaline organic binder, while backing sand was the sand with an inorganic geopolymer binder.A simplified method of sand reclamation was applied with possible reuse of the reclaim as an addition to the backing sand. The castiron spheroidising treatment and inoculation were selected taking into account the specific conditions of Hardtop Foundry. A pilot batch of castings was made, testing the gating and feeding systems and using exothermic sleeves on risers. The study confirmed the validity of the adopted concept of making ductile iron castings in layer moulds, while maintaining the content of sand with an organic binder at a level of maximum 15%.

  9. Canada's oil sands : opportunities and challenges to 2015 : an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This report updated an energy market assessment compiled and published by the National Energy Board (NEB) in 2004. Major changes resulting from recent developments in the oil sands industry were presented. The report was compiled from a series of informal meetings and discussions with a cross-section of oil sands stakeholders. Influences on recent oil sands development and production growth included market development and pipelines; rising capital and labour costs; operating costs; environmental impact management; high crude oil prices; rising global energy demand; technology innovations; and a more stable investment climate. A comparison of key assumptions between the current analysis and the 2004 report was presented, along with estimates of operating and supply costs for various types of oil sands recovery methods. Potential markets for oil sands production were reviewed. Environmental and socio-economic impacts on the industry included the larger than anticipated water withdrawals from the Athabasca River for mining operations; and uncertainties over land reclamation methods. The industry has also been impacted by a limited supply of skilled workers in Alberta. It was observed that the potential for building cogeneration capacity has decreased since the 2004 report. It was concluded that the oil sands industry will continue to grow rapidly, but the rate of development will depend on the balance that is reached between the opposing forces that affect the oil sands. Natural gas costs, high oil prices, air emissions management issues and water usage will continue to be of concern. 6 tabs., 7 figs

  10. The future of the Canadian oil sands: Engineering and project management advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, Peter; Morawski, Jacek

    2010-09-15

    Production technology and project management developments in Canada's oil sands industry, in the context of AMEC's experience as EPCM service provider, are discussed. Effective project management systems and workfront planning are critical to achieve cost and schedule targets and optimum construction execution. Construction Work Packages divide work into discrete pieces and Construction Work Execution Plans influence scheduling of engineering and procurement deliverables. AMEC's Engineering Data Warehouse works with intelligent engineering design tools to ensure information related to a piece of equipment is consistent across all systems. HSSE systems are proactively developed and AMEC's progressive improvement in safety performance is demonstrated.

  11. Oil sands economic impacts Canada : CERI report : backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    Oil sands production now accounts for 1 out of every 2 barrels of supply in Western Canada. It is anticipated that Alberta's oil sands sector will experience significant growth over the next few decades. This paper provided an outline of the challenges and economic impacts resulting from oil sands development in Canada. Alberta's oil sands reserves are estimated at 175 billion barrels that are deemed economically recoverable using current technology. At current production levels, reserves will sustain production of 2.5 million barrels per day for the next 200 years. A study by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) has forecast $100 billion in investment for the 2000-2020 period. Numerous companies hold leases and are planning new projects. A number of recent advances in oil sands technology are expected to further reduce costs as development matures. A royalty and tax regime that provides long-term fiscal certainty is a key factor that supports current oil sands growth forecasts. The CERI study has indicated that economic spinoffs from oil sands development relate to employment generated outside of Alberta, and that the largest percentage of government revenue accrues to the federal government. However, development may be constrained because the pace of growth in the sector may exceed underlying infrastructure related to roads, housing and municipal services. An adequate workforce of qualified trades and technical and professional people is also crucial. Several pipeline projects have been proposed to deliver oil sands crudes to new markets over the next decade. It was concluded that the billions of dollars invested in oil sands in Alberta will contribute to the economic prosperity of the entire country. 11 figs

  12. Potential building sand deposits in Songkhla province area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooptarnond, K.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of potential building sand deposits in Songkhla province area subdivided them into four regions according to their accumulation in various alluvial plains, meanders throughout alluvial deposits and residual soils. Four selected deposits, were Rattaphum-Khuan Niang, U-Taphao river, Na Mom, and Chana-Thepha regions. Information obtained from these deposits revealed a good correlation between the geomorphological features as interpreted from aerial photographs and those identified from vertical electrical resistivity sounding results. Sand samples were analysed for their physical and chemical properties. Petrographic studies were also undertaken to characterize the composition types, texture and shapes. An overview of the sand properties was used them to be within the acceptable limits for building sand. However, relatively high organic impurities and soundness were found in sand from Khuan Niang and Na Mom deposits. The result indicated a potential reconnaissance mineral resource of about 46 square kilometres.A reserve evaluation for natural building sand was carried out by using Geographic Information System (GIS. Maps of the various parameters considered were constructed in digital database format with the aid of Arc/Info and ArcView software. Overlay mapping and buffer zone modules were performed to evaluate inferred resources of building sand. The key parameters of analysis included the distance from transportation, distance from streams, lithology and thickness of sand layers. The remaining inferred sand total was of about 386 million cubic metres or about 1,021 million metric tons was therefore estimated, of which 60 percent lies in the Rattaphum-Khuan Niang region and 40 percent in the other regions.

  13. Impacts of grass removal on wetting and actual water repellency in a sandy soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindie, K.; Dekker, L.W.; Wesseling, J.G.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Soil water content and actual water repellency were assessed for soil profiles at two sites in a bare and grasscovered plot of a sand pasture, to investigate the impact of the grass removal on both properties. The soil of the plots was sampled six times in vertical transects to a depth of 33 cm

  14. co-removal with nucleated Cu(II) precipitation in continuous-flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A compact nucleated precipitation technology using two fluidised sand columns in series was developed to pretreat model metal-plating wastewater containing high concentrations of Cu(II) and Cr(VI). Since either Cu(II) precipitation or Cr(VI) co-removal with Cu(II) precipitation was found to be highly pH dependent in batch ...

  15. Metal (Cu, Cd and Zn) removal and stabilization during multiple soil washing by saponin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusiatin, Zygmunt Mariusz; Klimiuk, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The influence of multiple saponin washing on copper, cadmium and zinc removal and stability in three types of soils (loamy sand, loam, silty clay) was investigated. Distribution of metals and their mobility measured as the ratio of exchangeable form to the sum of all fractions in soils was differential. After single washing the highest efficiency of metal removal was obtained in loamy sand (82-90%) and loam (67-88%), whereas the lowest in silty clay (39-62%). In loamy sand and loam metals had higher mobility factors (44-61% Cu, 60-76% Cd, and 68-84% Zn) compared to silty clay (9% Cu, 28% Cd and 36% Zn). Triplicate washing led to increase both efficiency of metal removal and percentage content of their stable forms. In consequence, fractional patterns for metals before and after treatment changed visibly as a result of their redistribution. Based on the redistribution index, the most stable metal (mainly in residual and organic fractions) after triplicate washing was Cu in loamy sand and loam. For silty clay contaminated with Cd, effective metal removal and its stabilization required a higher number of washings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High Temperature Thermal Properties of Bentonite Foundry Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewski P.K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of measuring thermal conductivity and heat capacity of bentonite foundry sand in temperature range ambient - 900­­°C. During the experiments a technical purity Cu plate was cast into the green-sand moulds. Basing on measurements of the mould temperature field during the solidification of the casting, the temperature relationships of the measured properties were evaluated. It was confirmed that water vaporization strongly influences thermal conductivity of the moulding sand in the first period of the mould heating by the poured casting.

  17. Differences and commonalities impregnation of dry and wet sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maujuda МUZAFFAROVA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to research new methods of physic-chemical methods of preventing deflation to protect railways and highways from such phenomena as exogenous sand drifts. In particular, first studied the possibility of using binders in sand wet state. Results can significantly extend the scope of the method, and identified with particular impregnation maintaining stability requirements protective cover reduces both the concentration previously recommended binders, and their costs, thereby securing implementation in practice of shifting sands resource-saving technology.

  18. Oil sands: Strategies for future development - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Alberta Chamber of Resources developed a Task Force in 1993 to promote oil sands development, and to identify and publicize the social and economic benefits of oil sands operations. Formation, mission of the National Task Force, impediments and opportunities for development were summarized. Attributes of oil sands, benefits of their development, impediments to development, strategic development and potential growth scenarios were discussed. Cooperation between government and industry was deemed essential. Recommendations included development of a bitumen pipeline network, provision of incentives to encourage development, encouragement of risk and reward sharing between bitumen producers and up graders, and diversification of products and by-products. 7 figs., 12 refs

  19. Used Furan Sand Reclamation in REGMAS Vibratory Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dańko J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper, especially dealt with problems of reclamation of used furan sand, carried out in new, vibratory sand reclamation unit REGMAS developed by researches from AGH-University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering in Cracow (Poland. Functional characteristics of reclamation unit as well as the results of reclamation of used sand with furfuryl resin are discussed in the paper. The quality of reclaim was tested by means of the LOI and pH value, dust content in the reclaim and at least by the the quality of the castings produced in moulds prepared with the use of reclaimed matrix.

  20. Strength Characteristics of Quarry Dust in Replacement of Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam Prakash, K.; Hanumantha Rao, Ch, Dr

    2017-08-01

    The replacement of natural fine aggregate by using quarry dust leads to consumption of generated quarry dust, the requirement of land fill area can be reduced and solves the natural sand scarcity problem. The sand availability as a fine aggregate at low cost which needs the reason to search as a alternative material. Even it causes saddle to dump the crusher dust at one place which causes environmental pollution. The chemical analysis, specific gravity, sieve analysis and compressive strength is identified for various percentage and grades of concrete by replacement of sand with quarry dust.