Sample records for sand drains

  1. Drained Triaxial Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praastrup, U.; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    In the process of understanding and developing models for geomaterials, the stress-strain behaviour is commonly studied by performing triaxial tests. In the present study static triaxial tests have been performed to gain knowledge of the stress-strain behaviour of frictional materials during mono...... monotonic loading. The tests reported herein are all drained tests, starting from different initial states of stress and following various stress paths. AIl the tests are performed on reconstituted medium dense specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand....

  2. The stable stiffness triangle - drained sand during deformation cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    Cyclic, drained sand stiffness was observed using the Danish triaxial appa- ratus. New, deformation dependant soil property (the stable stiffness triangle) was detected. Using the the stable stiffness triangle, secant stiffness of drained sand was plausible to predict (and control) even during...

  3. Drained True Triaxial Tests on Aalborg University Sand No 0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praastrup, U.

    The paper presents the first series of true triaxial tests carried out on air-pluviated unfrozen and frozen specimens of Aalborg University Sand No O. The specimens have been tested in the newly improved version of the Danish rigid boundary true triaxial apparatus to optimise the preparation and ...

  4. Disinfection of drain water of tomato by means of UV radiation and slow sand filtration in real greenhouse circumstances. (United States)

    De Rocker, E; Goen, K; Van Poucke, K


    The efficiency of the disinfection of drain water was tested at 11 greenhouses with tomato cultivation on rockwool substrate in Flanders (Belgium) by means of mycological analysis. In addition the presence of phytopathogenic fungi in the drain water was analysed at 2 supplementary greenhouses with recirculation without disinfection.

  5. Evaluation of deformation and subsidence of improved ground by sand drain associated with reclamation. Properties of landfill ground during site construction works ad Tachibana Bay Coal-fired Power Station and their measurement results; Umetate ni tomonau sand drain kairyo jiban no henkei chinka hyoka. Tachibanawan hatsudensho shikichi zosei koji ni okeru umetate jiban no bussei to keisoku kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suesawa, H.; Iwahara, H.; Nakahiro, M. [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Kagawa (Japan)


    This paper describes properties of landfill ground during site construction works at Tachibana Bay Coal-fired Power Station. Measurement results of displacement and subsidence of the ground are also illustrated. For the reclamation works, three-stage landfill was conducted after the placement of sand drain. The displacement and subsidence were measured. Compaction subsidence was sufficiently accelerated without large displacement or sliding of soft soil marine sediments. Stable landfill ground with a small residual subsidence could be constructed. Since the residual subsidence of consolidated ground was small, negative friction could be neglected for the design of foundation piles. Foundation cost for structures on the constructed ground could be reduced. For the soft soil ground improved by sand drain, the total cost for accelerated compaction subsidence and consolidation for structures in the stage of design can be reduced by accurately evaluating the compaction subsidence with landfill and the residual subsidence after landfill. 9 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. The Drainage Consolidation Modeling of Sand Drain in Red Mud Tailing and Analysis on the Change Law of the Pore Water Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-sheng Wu


    Full Text Available In order to prevent the occurring of dam failure and leakage, sand-well drainages systems were designed and constructed in red mud tailing. It is critical to focus on the change law of the pore water pressure. The calculation model of single well drainage pore water pressure was established. The pore water pressure differential equation was deduced and the analytical solution of differential equation using Bessel function and Laplace transform was given out. The impact of parameters such as diameter d, separation distance l, loading rate q, and coefficient of consolidation Cv in the function on the pore water pressure is analyzed by control variable method. This research is significant and has great reference for preventing red mud tailings leakage and the follow-up studies on the tailings stability.

  7. Eastern Scheldt Sand, Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. T; Madsen, E. B.; Schaarup-Jensen, A. L.

    The present data report contains data from 13 drained triaxial tests, performed on two different sand types in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Aalborg University in March, 1997. Two tests have been performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15, which has already ken extensively tested in the Soil Mechanics...... Laboratory. The remaining 11 triaxial tests have ben performed on Eastern Scheldt Sand, which is a material not yet investigated at the Soil Mechanics Laboratory. In the first pari of this data report, the characteristics of the two sand types in question will be presented. Next, a description...

  8. Containment vessel drain system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Scott G.


    A system for draining a containment vessel may include a drain inlet located in a lower portion of the containment vessel. The containment vessel may be at least partially filled with a liquid, and the drain inlet may be located below a surface of the liquid. The system may further comprise an inlet located in an upper portion of the containment vessel. The inlet may be configured to insert pressurized gas into the containment vessel to form a pressurized region above the surface of the liquid, and the pressurized region may operate to apply a surface pressure that forces the liquid into the drain inlet. Additionally, a fluid separation device may be operatively connected to the drain inlet. The fluid separation device may be configured to separate the liquid from the pressurized gas that enters the drain inlet after the surface of the liquid falls below the drain inlet.

  9. Fontainebleau Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane


    The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand.......The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand....

  10. Drain opener poisoning (United States)

    Drain opener poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. BLOOD Severe change in acid level of blood (pH balance), which leads to damage in all of the body organs EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Burns to the eyes, which ...

  11. Drain for Gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzema, H.P.


    At present, about 299 Mha (or 18%) of the arable and permanent cropped areas worldwide are irrigated and, although drainage is an important component of irrigation, only 22% of these irrigated lands are drained. As a consequence, salinity and waterlogging problems affect about 10-16% of these

  12. Closed suction drain with bulb (United States)

    ... page: // Closed suction drain with bulb To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A closed suction drain is used to remove fluids that build ...

  13. MC-Parameter Calibration of Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Hanson, Mats; Hjort, T.

    The soil parameters are dependent on both confining pressure and density index. The density index of Baskarp Sand can be determined by conducting cone penetration tests with the mini-CPT cone used in the Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory at Aalborg University. The unit weight of Baskarp Sand No...... several conventional drained triaxial tests at two different density indices performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15 (Ibsen & Bødker, 1994). The used triaxial tests are listed in Table 1 and Table 2....

  14. Optimal shapes for best draining (United States)

    Sherwood, J. D.


    The container shape that minimizes the volume of draining fluid remaining on the walls of the container after it has been emptied from its base is determined. The film of draining fluid is assumed to wet the walls of the container, and is sufficiently thin so that its curvature may be neglected. Surface tension is ignored. The initial value problem for the thickness of a film of Newtonian fluid is studied, and is shown to lead asymptotically to a similarity solution. From this, and from equivalent solutions for power-law fluids, the volume of the residual film is determined. The optimal container shape is not far from hemispherical, to minimize the surface area, but has a conical base to promote draining. The optimal shape for an axisymmetric mixing vessel, with a hole at the center of its base for draining, is also optimal when inverted in the manner of a washed wine glass inverted and left to drain.

  15. Plumbing the brain drain. (United States)

    Saravia, Nancy Gore; Miranda, Juan Francisco


    Opportunity is the driving force of migration. Unsatisfied demands for higher education and skills, which have been created by the knowledge-based global economy, have generated unprecedented opportunities in knowledge-intensive service industries. These multi-trillion dollar industries include information, communication, finance, business, education and health. The leading industrialized nations are also the focal points of knowledge-intensive service industries and as such constitute centres of research and development activity that proactively draw in talented individuals worldwide through selective immigration policies, employment opportunities and targeted recruitment. Higher education is another major conduit of talent from less-developed countries to the centres of the knowledge-based global economy. Together career and educational opportunities drive "brain drain and recirculation". The departure of a large proportion of the most competent and innovative individuals from developing nations slows the achievement of the critical mass needed to generate the enabling context in which knowledge creation occurs. To favourably modify the asymmetric movement and distribution of global talent, developing countries must implement bold and creative strategies that are backed by national policies to: provide world-class educational opportunities, construct knowledge-based research and development industries, and sustainably finance the required investment for these strategies. Brazil, China and India have moved in this direction, offering world-class education in areas crucial to national development, such as biotechnology and information technology, paralleled by investments in research and development. As a result, only a small proportion of the most highly educated individuals migrate from these countries, and research and development opportunities employ national talent and even attract immigrants.

  16. Sands styrke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H. Moust; Jørgensen, Mogens B.; Poulsen, H. Serup


    På grundlag af triaxialforsøg med D=7 og 20 cm og varierende højde på løse og faste lejringer af Blokhussand kan effekten af varierende højde-breddeforhold og spændingsniveau samt skalaeffekten bestemmes. Ved sammenligning med pladeforsøg med overfladelast op til 8 t/m2 kan den almindelige fremga...... fremgangsmåde ved bæreevneberegninger på sand undersøges....

  17. sand mold (United States)

    Kovačević, Lazar; Terek, Pal; Miletić, Aleksandar; Kakaš, Damir


    Interfacial heat transfer coefficient at the metal-mold interface (IHTC) was estimated by an iterative algorithm based on the function specification method. An Al-9 wt% Si alloy plate casting was made in a sand mold prepared by CO2 process. Thermal history obtained from the experiment was used to solve an inverse heat conduction problem. Acquired transient IHTC values are then given in function of the casting surface temperature at the interface. By comparing the obtained results with previous findings, the influence of grain fineness number and consequently of mold roughness on maximum IHTC values is revealed.

  18. Drain versus No Drain after Thyroidectomy: A prospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Drains have been traditionally used routinely after thyroidectomy despite limited evidence to suggest any benefit. We conducted a prospective randomized clinical study to evaluate the necessity of drainage after thyroid surgery. Methods: This was a prospective randomized clinical study which was conducted ...

  19. Sand Diver (United States)

    Scott, Alan J.


    A few years ago, I was preparing to teach a summer enrichment program for middle school students at the University of Wisconsin-Stout. With swimming on the minds of most kids during the summer, I thought buoyancy would be a fun topic to discuss. An interesting way to introduce this concept is by discussing the beer-drinking balloonist who, in a lawn chair, floated to 11,000 feet above Los Angeles in 1997. However, I needed a hands-on project and was not about to go purchase some lawn chairs to duplicate this experiment. A simple submersible called the "Sand Diver" was designed and is now used as a hands-on activity for my introductory physics course.

  20. Interpretation of Cone Penetration Testing in Silty Soils Conducted under Partially Drained Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmsgaard, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    The standard penetration rate used in cone penetration tests (CPTs) is 20 mm=s, regardless of soil type, which yields fully drained penetration in sand and fully undrained penetration in clay. However, for silty soils that represent an intermediate grain size composition and unique characteristics...... compared with sand and clay, the standard rate of penetration results in partially drained penetration, often leading to misinterpretation of this soil type. In this study, 15 CPTs, with penetration rates varying from 0.5 to 60 mm=s, were performed at a test site in northern Denmark, where the subsoil...... penetration rate. Also evaluated and presented in this paper is how cone resistance obtained under partially drained conditions underestimates the interpreted relative density Dr and friction angle ?. Triaxial test results on undisturbed silt samples were applied for this analysis. © 2015. American Society...

  1. It's in the sand


    Mitchell, Clive


    Sand is sand isn’t it? Sand gets everywhere but rather than a nuisance it is a valuable, high-purity raw material. Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist at the British Geological Survey (BGS), talks us through what sand is, what it can be used for and how to find it. His exploration of sand takes us from the deserts of Arabia to the damp sand pits of Mansfield!

  2. Centrifuge modelling of drained lateral pile - soil response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte

    popular foundation methods today for offshore wind turbines. These piles are often installed in dense sand at water depths ranging from 10-30 meters. A monopile is a single, large diameter tubular steel pile. The current design methodology originates from tests on long slender piles but is also used...... for monopiles today. Therefore it appears that the methodology for monopiles lacks scientific justification and a better understanding of rigid piles is needed. More than 70 centrifuge tests on laterally loaded rigid model piles have been carried out in connection with this thesis to get a better understanding...... of rigid piles. The tests have been performed in homogeneously dense dry or saturated Fontainebleau sand in order to mimic simplified drained offshore soil conditions. Approximately half of the tests have been carried out to investigate the centrifuge procedure in order to create a methodology of testing...

  3. Industrial sand and gravel (United States)

    Dolley, T.P.


    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2012 was about 49.5 Mt (55 million st), increasing 13 percent compared with that of 2011. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

  4. Inverse problem in anisotropic poroelasticity: Drained constants from undrained ultrasound measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryman, J.G.; Nakagawa, S.


    Poroelastic analysis has traditionally focused on the relationship between dry or drained constants which are assumed known and the saturated or undrained constants which are assumed unknown. However, there are many applications in this field of study for which the main measurements can only be made on the saturated/undrained system, and then it is uncertain what the eects of the uids were on the system, since the drained constants remain a mystery. The work presented here shows how to deduce drained constants from undrained constants for anisotropic systems having symmetries ranging from isotropic to orthotropic. Laboratory ultrasound data are then inverted for the drained constants in three granular packings: one of glass beads, and two others for distinct types of more or less angular sand grain packings. Experiments were performed under uniaxial stress, which resulted in hexagonal (transversely isotropic) symmetry of the poroelastic response. One important conclusion from the general analysis is that the drained constants are uniquely related to the undrained constants, assuming that porosity, grain bulk modulus, and pore uid bulk modulus are already known. Since the resulting system of equations for all the drained constants is linear, measurement error in undrained constants also propagates linearly into the computed drained constants.

  5. Theoretical computation background for transformation of foundations using pile drains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ter-Martirosyan Zaven


    Full Text Available In the design of foundations for buildings and structures of various purposes, including improved risk, weak water-saturated clay soils with low mechanical characteristics are often found on a construction site. One of the possible ways of using them as a foundation is to seal them in various ways, including using pile drains of sand or rock stone material that are capable of both absorbing the load at the base and accelerating the process of filtration consolidation. This paper describes an analytical solution to the problem of interaction between the pile and the mattress with the surrounding soil of the foundation, taking into account the possibility of expanding the pile shaft. Solutions are obtained for determining the stresses in the shaft of the pile drain and in the soil under the mattress. The solution takes into account the influence of the pre-stressed state of the foundation after compaction on the formation of a stress-strain state during the erection and operation of structures. The solutions are relevant for consolidating pile drains made of rubble or for jet grouting piles, the rigidity of which is comparable to the rigidity of the surrounding soil. The paper describes the technique for determining the characteristics of the strength and deformability of the converted foundation and the results of large-scale tests at the experimental site for the construction of a large energy facility in Russia.

  6. Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Marianne; Hedegaard, Jette

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar...... and biotit. Mainly the sand will be used for tests concerning the development og the theory of building up pore pressure in sand, L. B. Ibsen 1993....

  7. Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Bødker, Lars Bødker

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar...... and biotit. Mainly the sand will be used for tests concerning the development of the theory of building up pore pressure in sand....

  8. Lund Sand No 0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Finn Rosendal

    During the last 15 years the Geotechnical Engineering Group (GEG) at Aalborg University has performed triaxial tests with a sand called Lund No 0. Lund No 0 is a graded sand from a gravel pit near Horsens in Denmark. For the classification of the sand the following tests have been performed: Sieve...

  9. Drain Back, Low Flow Solar Combi Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua


    Drain Back systems with ETC collectors are tested and analyzed in a Danish - Chinese cooperation project. Experiences from early work at DTU, with drain back, low flow systems, was used to design two systems: 1) One laboratory system at DTU and 2) One demonstration system in a single family house...... and that the performance can be enhanced. A combination of the drain back- and system expansion vessel was tested successfully. Small initial problems with installation and proposals for design improvements to avoid these in practice are described in the paper. Installer education and training is an important step to have...... success with drain back systems....

  10. To drain or not to drain after thyroid surgery: A randomized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: In many facilities, drains are routinely inserted after thyroidectomy with the aim of preventing hematoma formation and accumulation of seroma. The continued use of drains may be based more on tradition rather than proven scientific evidence. Objective: To assess the benefit of drain use after thyroidectomy by ...

  11. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Špirutová


    Full Text Available Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this contribution is: “How the green sand systems are influenced by core sands?”This effect is considered by determination of selected technological properties and degree of green sand system re-bonding. From the studies, which have been published yet, there is not consistent opinion on influence of core sand dilution on green sand system properties. In order to simulation of the effect of core sands on the technological properties of green sands, there were applied the most common used technologies of cores production, which are based on bonding with phenolic resin. Core sand concentration added to green sand system, was up to 50 %. Influence of core sand dilution on basic properties of green sand systems was determined by evaluation of basic industrial properties: moisture, green compression strength and splitting strength, wet tensile strength, mixture stability against staling and physical-chemistry properties (pH, conductivity, and loss of ignition. Ratio of active betonite by Methylene blue test was also determined.

  12. Numerical Study on Draining from Cylindrical Tank Using Stepped Drain Port

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jong Hyeon; Park, Il Seouk [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    An air-core vortex is generated during draining after stirring a rotating cylindrical tank or after filling it with water. The formation of the air-core vortex and the time of its formation are dependent on drain conditions such as the dimensions of the tank, the initial rotation or stirring speed, and the shape of the drain port. In this study, a draining process using a two-stage drain port was numerically investigated. The length and radius of the first drain stage located in the lower part of the drain port were kept constant, whereas the radius of the second drain stage was varied for simulating the draining process. The simulation was conducted by considering an axisymmetric swirling flow for all cases. The declining water level was monitored by an interface capturing method. Further, the effects of the radius of the second drain stage on the time of formation of the air-core vortex and the internal flow structure were investigated.

  13. Modelling sand wave variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterlini-Van der Meer, Fenneke


    The sea floor of shallow seas is rarely flat and often dynamic. A widely occurring bedform type is the sand wave. Sand waves form more or less regular wavelike patterns on the seabed with crests up to one third of the water depth, wave lengths of hundreds of metres and a migration rate of metres up

  14. Sands cykliske styrke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo


    Sands cykliske styrke kan beskrives ved Cyclic Liquefaction, Mobilisering, Stabilization og Instant Stabilization. I artiklen beskrives hvorfor Stabilization og Instant Stabilization ikke observeres, når sands udrænede styrke undersøges i triaxial celler, der anvender prøver med dobbelt prøvehøjde....

  15. Media filter drain : modified design evaluation. (United States)


    The media filter drain (MFD), a stormwater water quality treatment best management practice, consists of media made up of : aggregate, perlite, gypsum and dolomite in a trench located along roadway shoulders with gravel and vegetative pre-filtering f...

  16. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: omitting a pelvic drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Canes


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Our goal was to assess outcomes of a selective drain placement strategy during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP with a running urethrovesical anastomosis (RUVA using cystographic imaging in all patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients undergoing LRP between January 2003 and December 2004. The anastomosis was performed using a modified van Velthoven technique. A drain was placed at the discretion of the senior surgeon when a urinary leak was demonstrated with bladder irrigation, clinical suspicion for a urinary leak was high, or a complex bladder neck reconstruction was performed. Routine postoperative cystograms were obtained. RESULTS: 208 patients underwent LRP with a RUVA. Data including cystogram was available for 206 patients. The overall rate of cystographic urine leak was 5.8%. A drain was placed in 51 patients. Of these, 8 (15.6% had a postoperative leak on cystogram. Of the 157 undrained patients, urine leak was radiographically visible in 4 (2.5%. The higher leak rate in the drained vs. undrained cohort was statistically significant (p = 0.002. Twenty-four patients underwent pelvic lymph node dissection (8 drained, 16 undrained. Three undrained patients developed lymphoceles, which presented clinically on average 3 weeks postoperatively. There were no urinomas or hematomas in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Routine placement of a pelvic drain after LRP with a RUVA is not necessary, unless the anastomotic integrity is suboptimal intraoperatively. Experienced clinical judgment is essential and accurate in identifying patients at risk for postoperative leakage. When suspicion is low, omitting a drain does not increase morbidity.

  17. Sand and Gravel Deposits (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a statewide polygon coverage of sand, gravel, and stone resources. This database includes the best data available from the VT Agency of Natural...

  18. Vestled - Hvide Sande

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel-Christiansen, Carsten; Hesselbjerg, Marianne; Schønherr, Torben


    Værket Vestled i Hvide Sande præsenteret i sammenhæng af 1000 nutidige landskabsarkitektoniske arbejder fra hele verden, hvor hvert værk vises på én side......Værket Vestled i Hvide Sande præsenteret i sammenhæng af 1000 nutidige landskabsarkitektoniske arbejder fra hele verden, hvor hvert værk vises på én side...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap). (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in ventilator...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Gnir


    Full Text Available The experimental activation of the sand regenerator of the firm SINTO is carried out at ОАО “MZOO". It is shown that sand grains are cleared from films of binding agents, that allows to use the treated sand for preparation of agglutinant and core sands.

  1. Numerical investigation of underground drain radius, depth and location on uplift pressure reduction (Case study: Tabriz diversion dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Salmasi


    Full Text Available Water penetration from beneath of built structures on permeable soils causes uplift force along the contact of structure with foundation. This uplift force reduces hydraulic structure stability. Typically, these instabilities occur due to under-pressure development (uplift force, gradual inner degradation of foundation material (piping or sand boil phenomenon. Thus, it seems necessary to calculate the pressure applied to the contact surface of the dam. One method for preventing piping phenomenon, reduction in exit gradient as well as decrease of uplift force beneath diversion dams includes implementation of weep hole. This study aims to study the effect of radius, depth and location of pipe drains under stilling basin upon how much uplift force decreases. The benefit of this study in agricultural field for soil and water engineers is to have a safe design of lined canals, weirs or diversion dams. To do this, numerical simulation of Tabriz diversion dam with Geo-Studio software was carried out. Results showed that application of drain pipe under the structure reduced uplift force respect to without drain under the structure. Increasing of drain radius; caused reduction of uplift pressure more but increased of seepage flow slightly. Installation of drain in upper part of stilling basin had a tendency to decrease uplift pressure more. Existence of drain near the stilling basin bottom caused in more reducing of uplift pressure than of installation of it in deeper depth

  2. The Soil-Land use System in a Sand Spit Area in the Semi-Arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    system (ISSS/ISRIC/FAO, 1998) a Solonet, and according to Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1998), a. Natraqualf. They occupy the greater part of the flat, poorly drained areas adjoining the Keta Lagoon. The. Keta soil series occupies the scattered sandbars in the marsh area and the large narrow Keta sand spit along the ...

  3. Quantifying the increase in lateral capacity of monopiles in sand due to cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolai, Giulio; Ibsen, Lars Bo; O'Loughlin, Conleth


    The contribution of this paper is a simple method to predict the higher moment capacity of a monopile in dense silica sand after drained cyclic loading. The method accounts for the effect of cyclic load magnitude, symmetry and number of cycles, and is calibrated against a series of single gravity...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina BONCEA


    Full Text Available Scientific networking is the most accessible way a country can turn the brain drain into brain gain. Diaspora’s members offer valuable information, advice or financial support from the destination country, without being necessary to return. This article aims to investigate Romania’s potential of turning brain drain into brain networking, using evidence from the medical sector. The main factors influencing the collaboration with the country of origin are investigated. The conclusions suggest that Romania could benefit from the diaspora option, through an active implication at institutional level and the implementation of a strategy in this area.

  5. Reverse draining of a magnetic soap film. (United States)

    Moulton, D E; Pelesko, J A


    We investigate the draining of a vertical magnetic soap film in the presence of a strong, nonuniform magnetic field. A colloidal suspension of magnetic nanoparticles in a regular soap solution yields a magnetic soap solution, from which a soap film is formed across an isolated frame. Experiments demonstrate that with a strong magnet placed above the frame, the film may be made to flow upward against gravity. The amount of film draining upward is altered by varying the distance between the frame and magnet. A first mathematical model is developed for the evolution of the film. Simulations demonstrate qualitative agreement with the experiment.

  6. From Brain Drain to Brain Circulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    problematic for developing nations, where it is widespread. In these countries, higher education and professional certification are often viewed as the surest path to escape from a troubled economy or difficult political situation. Brain drain can be described as “soft brain drain” which is the non-availability of research results ...

  7. The European Politics of Brain Drain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Jacob

    on the issue. Although the current balance is weighted in favor of a supply-side, employability logic towards brain drain, there is evidence of a schism within the Commission that presents an opportunity to productively engage with other understandings of the issue in pursuit of best practices....

  8. Chronic Cutaneous Draining Sinus of Dental Origin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    surgery. It can also result from infection or inflammation. The root canal of a necrotic tooth is a source of predominantly anaerobic microbes. The tooth may present without any symptoms, except a cutaneous draining sinus.[1] Due to the extra-oral location of the sinus, patients tend to seek medical care first. These cutaneous.

  9. Studies on groundwater recharge through surface drains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 2, 2005 ... to change in the value of specific yield than hydraulic conductivity. Keywords: finite difference model, groundwater recharge, surface drain, water table. List of symbols a. = area of cross-section of flow at any z ..... avg. wt = Q(t)/(2L*drl). (23). Figure 2. Flow chart of the groundwater recharge model for surface.

  10. Perfect drain for the Maxwell Fish Eye lens.


    Gonzalez Lopez, Juan Carlos; Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos


    Perfect imaging of electromagnetic waves using the Maxwell fish eye (MFE) requires a new concept: a point called the perfect drain that we shall call the perfect point drain. From the mathematical point of view, a perfect point drain is just like an ideal point source, except that it drains power from the electromagnetic field instead of generating it. We introduce here the perfect drain for the MFE as a dissipative region of non-zero size that completely drains the power from the point source....

  11. Sand (CSW4)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Estuarine and Coastal Research Unit


    Full Text Available This report is one of a series on Cape Estuaries being published under the general title "The Estuaries of the Cape, Part 2". The report provides information on sand estuary: historical background, abiotic and biotic characteristics. It is pointed...

  12. Virksomhedens sande ansigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundholt, Marianne Wolff


    Er modhistorier en byrde eller en styrke i forandringsprocesser? Hvad stiller vi op, når adgangen til organisationens sande identitet går gennem medarbejdernes modhistorier? Når vi sammenholder denne erkendelse med vores viden om, at medarbejdere helt naturligt afholder sig fra at videregive disse...

  13. Speleothems and Sand Castles (United States)

    Hance, Trevor; Befus, Kevin


    The idea of building sand castles evokes images of lazy summer days at the beach, listening to waves crash, enjoying salty breezes, and just unplugging for a while to let our inner child explore the wonderful natural toys beneath our feet. The idea of exploring caves might evoke feelings and images of claustrophobia or pioneers and Native…

  14. Sand Filter Technology (United States)


    EXWC) performed the evaluation at the Naval Air Station Lemoore, CA . The two year evaluation period began with one year of sand filter operation...appear dirty? If you answered “ yes ” to the first question and “ yes ” to either of the other questions, investigate this technology for your

  15. Building with Sand (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy


    Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of…

  16. Drain Current Modulation of a Single Drain MOSFET by Lorentz Force for Magnetic Sensing Application. (United States)

    Chatterjee, Prasenjit; Chow, Hwang-Cherng; Feng, Wu-Shiung


    This paper reports a detailed analysis of the drain current modulation of a single-drain normal-gate n channel metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (n-MOSFET) under an on-chip magnetic field. A single-drain n-MOSFET has been fabricated and placed in the center of a square-shaped metal loop which generates the on-chip magnetic field. The proposed device designed is much smaller in size with respect to the metal loop, which ensures that the generated magnetic field is approximately uniform. The change of drain current and change of bulk current per micron device width has been measured. The result shows that the difference drain current is about 145 µA for the maximum applied magnetic field. Such changes occur from the applied Lorentz force to push out the carriers from the channel. Based on the drain current difference, the change in effective mobility has been detected up to 4.227%. Furthermore, a detailed investigation reveals that the device behavior is quite different in subthreshold and saturation region. A change of 50.24 µA bulk current has also been measured. Finally, the device has been verified for use as a magnetic sensor with sensitivity 4.084% (29.6 T(-1)), which is very effective as compared to other previously reported works for a single device.

  17. Carbon accumulation in pristine and drained mires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekilae, M.


    The carbon accumulation of 73 peat columns from 48 pristine and drained mires was investigated using a total of 367 dates and age-depth models derived from bulk density measurements. Peat columns were collected from mires of varying depth, age, degree of natural state and nutrient conditions in aapa mire and raised bog regions and coastal mires from southern and central Finland and Russian Karelia. Particular attention was paid to the accumulation of carbon over the last 300 years, as this period encompasses the best estimates of the oxic layer (acrotelm) age across the range of sites investigated. In general, drained mires are initially more nutrient-rich than pristine mires. Organic matter decomposes more rapidly at drained sites than at pristine sites, resulting in thinner peat layers and carbon accumulation but a higher dry bulk density and carbon content. The average carbon accumulation was calculated as 24.0 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine sites and 19.4 g m-2 yr-1 at drained sites, while for peat layers younger than 300 years the respective figures were 45.3 and 34.5 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine and drained sites. For the <300-year-old peat layers studied here, the average thickness was 19 cm less and the carbon accumulation rate 10.8 g m-2 yr-1 lower in drained areas than in pristine areas. The amount carbon accumulation of surface peat layers depends upon the mire site type, vegetation and natural state; variations reflect differences in plant communities as well as factors that affect biomass production and decay rates. The highest accumulation rates and thus carbon binding for layers younger than 300 years were measured in the ombrotrophic mire site types (Sphagnum fuscum bog and Sphagnum fuscum pine bog), and the second highest rates in wet, treeless oligotrophic and minerotrophic mire site types. The lowest values of carbon accumulation over the last 300 years were obtained for the most transformed, sparsely forested and forested mire site types, where the water

  18. Climate mitigation scenarios of drained peat soils (United States)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Åsa; Coria, Jessica; He, Hongxing; Liu, Xiangping; Nordén, Anna


    The national inventory reports (NIR) submitted to the UNFCCC show Sweden - which as many other countries has wetlands where parts have been drained for agriculture and forestry purposes, - to annually emit 12 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents, which is more GHG'es than industrial energy use release in Sweden. Similar conditions can be found in other northern countries, having cool and wet conditions, naturally promoting peat accumulation, and where land use management over the last centuries have promoted draining activities. These drained peatland, though covering only 2% of the land area, have emissions corresponding to 20% of the total reported NIR emissions. This substantial emission contribution, however, is hidden within the Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry sector (LULUCF) where the forest Carbon uptake is even larger, which causes the peat soil emissions become invisible. The only drained soil emission accounted in the Swedish Kyoto reporting is the N2O emission from agricultural drained organic soils of the size 0.5 million tonnes CO2e yr-1. This lack of visibility has made incentives for land use change and management neither implemented nor suggested, however with large potential. Rewetting has the potential to decrease soil mineralization, why CO2 and N2O emissions are mitigated. However if the soil becomes very wet CH4 emission will increase together with hampered plant growth. By ecological modeling, using the CoupModel the climate change mitigation potential have been estimated for four different land use scenarios; 1, Drained peat soil with Spruce (business as usual scenario), 2, raised ground water level to 20 cm depth and Willow plantation, 3, raised ground water level to 10 cm depth and Reed Canary Grass, and 4, rewetting to an average water level in the soil surface with recolonizing wetland plants and mosses. We calculate the volume of biomass production per year, peat decomposition, N2O emission together with nitrate and DOC

  19. Triaxial tests in Fontainebleau sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, Chiara; Zania, Varvara


    The purpose of this internal report is to examine the influence of relative density on the strength and deformation characteristics of Fontainebleau sand. Compression triaxial tests were performed on saturated sand samples with different densities and initial confining pressure. Note...

  20. Northern Sand Sea (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form. This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. On Pluvial Compaction of Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Moust

    At the Institute of Civil Engineering in Aalborg model tests on dry sand specimens have been carried out during the last five years. To reduce deviations in test results, the sand laying technique has been carefully studied, and the sand mass spreader constructed. Preliminary results have been...

  2. Gender bias and the female brain drain


    Aniruddha Mitra; James T. Bang


    This paper contributes to the emerging literature on gender differences in the causes and consequences of brain drain. Differentiating between gender bias in the access to economic opportunities and gender differentials in economic outcomes, we find that differences in access have a significant impact on the emigration of highly-skilled women relative to that of men. However, differentials in outcomes do not have a significant impact. Additionally, the structure of political institutions in t...

  3. Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to retained lumbar drain. (United States)

    Guppy, Kern H; Silverthorn, James W; Akins, Paul T


    Intrathecal spinal catheters (lumbar drains) are indicated for several medical and surgical conditions. In neurosurgical procedures, they are used to reduce intracranial and intrathecal pressures by diverting CSF. They have also been placed for therapeutic access to administer drugs, and more recently, vascular surgeons have used them to improve spinal cord perfusion during the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Insertion of these lumbar drains is not without attendant complications. One complication is the shearing of the distal end of the catheter with a resultant retained fragment. The authors report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to the migration of a retained lumbar drain that sheared off during its removal. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of rostral migration of a retained intrathecal catheter causing subarachnoid hemorrhage. The authors review the literature on retained intrathecal spinal catheters, and their findings support either early removal of easily accessible catheters or close monitoring with serial imaging.

  4. Brain drain: Propulsive factors and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan ILIC


    Full Text Available When speaking about the total number of highly educated individuals’ migration, it is easy to spot that it is rapidly increasing. The brain drain issues should be taken very seriously especially in under developed and in the developing countries, knowing that the human capital is globally mobile and that highly educated individuals can without any issues market their knowledge around the globe. Dealing with it requires a carefully tailored strategy for these countries, which are suffering from severe human capital losses on annual basis. Since the labor markets of today are highly competitive, it is necessary for these countries to secure good advancement and doing business opportunities. The purpose of this research is to provide an insight into the key propulsive factors and potential consequences caused by the brain drain. The method used in order to conduct the research was a carefully designed questionnaire taken by the date subject enrolled at the third and fourth years of state governed and privately owned universities. This research shows that one of the key reasons for brain drain in underdeveloped and in the developing countries is shortage of further educational advancement opportunities.

  5. Environmental Impacts of Sand Exploitation. Analysis of Sand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dan Gavriletea


    Full Text Available Sand is an indispensable natural resource for any society. Despite society’s increasing dependence on sand, there are major challenges that this industry needs to deal with: limited sand resources, illegal mining, and environmental impact of sand mining. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to present an overview of the sand market, highlighting the main trends and actors for production, export and import, and to review the main environmental impacts associated with sand exploitation process. Based on these findings, we recommend different measures to be followed to reduce negative impacts. Sand mining should be done in a way that limits environmental damage during exploitation and restores the land after mining operations are completed.

  6. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from spaces...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boncea Irina


    Full Text Available Medical brain drain is defined as the migration of health personnel from developing countries to developed countries and between industrialized nations in search for better opportunities. This phenomenon became a global growing concern due to its impact on both the donor and the destination countries. This article aims to present the main theoretical contributions starting from 1950 until today and the historical evolution, in the attempt of correlating the particular case of medical brain drain with the theory and evolution of the brain drain in general. This article raises questions and offers answers, identifies the main issues and looks for possible solutions in order to reduce the emigration of medical doctors. Factors of influence include push (low level of income, poor working conditions, the absence of job openings and social recognition, oppressive political climate and pull (better remuneration and working conditions, prospects for career development, job satisfaction, security factors. Developing countries are confronting with the loss of their most valuable intellectuals and the investment in their education, at the benefit of developed nations. An ethical debate arises as the disparities between countries increases, industrialized nations filling in the gaps in health systems with professionals from countries already facing shortages. However, recent literature emphasizes the possibility of a “beneficial brain drain” through education incentives offered by the emigration prospects. Other sources of “brain gain” for donor country are the remittances, the scientific networks and return migration. Measures to stem the medical brain drain involve the common effort and collaboration between developing and developed countries and international organizations. Measures adopted by donor countries include higher salaries, better working conditions, security, career opportunities, incentives to stimulate return migration. Destination

  8. Moisture migration during loading and shearing of unsaturated sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwan Bestun


    Full Text Available A series of drained unsaturated direct shear tests were conducted on a fine sand where suction was controlled by means of a hanging water column. A rise in the water level in the column was observed in conjunction with normal stress application for unsaturated samples. During shearing, the water level in the column also increased indicating continued water content loss from the sand. This is over and above any change in saturation that would arise due to volume change. Samples taken after the test for water content measurement confirmed the observed effect. Discussion of the phenomenon in the context of the soil water characteristic curve (SWCC is presented and a simple hypothesis to explain this behaviour is proposed.

  9. Moving sand dunes

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina


    In several desert areas, the slow motion of sand dunes can be a challenge for modern human activities and a threat for the survival of ancient places or archaeological sites. However, several methods exist for surveying the dune fields and estimate their migration rate. Among these methods, the use of satellite images, in particular of those freely available on the World Wide Web, is a convenient resource for the planning of future human settlements and activities.

  10. Mechanical and Hydraulic Properties of Wax-coated Sands for Sport Surfaces (United States)

    Bardet, J. P.; Benazza, C.; Bruchon, J. F.; Mishra, M.


    Natural soils such as sandy loams are being replaced by synthetic soils for various types of sport and recreational surfaces, including horseracing tracks. These synthetic soils are made of a mixture of sand, microcrystalline wax, synthetic fibers and rubber chips which optimize the mechanical and hydraulic properties of natural soils so that they drain faster after rainstorms and decrease risks of sport injuries while retaining appropriate sport performances. Silica sand, which makes up the largest fraction of synthetic soils, is hydrophyllic by nature, i.e., tends to retain water on sand grain surfaces. After rainstorms, hydrophilic surfaces retain a large amount of water, are difficult to compact, and yield uncontrollable mechanical and hydraulic properties when too moist. The addition of wax contributes to improving both mechanical and hydraulic properties of sands. Wax coats the sand grains with a thin layer, and enhances adherence between sand particles. It repels water from sand grains and influences both compaction and hydraulic properties. This study reports experimental results that help to understand the properties of wax-coated sands used in synthetic surfaces, especially the degradation of synthetic surfaces that have insufficient wax-coatings.

  11. Booming Sand Dunes (United States)

    Vriend, Nathalie

    "Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local

  12. Laboratory singing sand avalanches. (United States)

    Dagois-Bohy, Simon; Ngo, Sandrine; du Pont, Sylvain Courrech; Douady, Stéphane


    Some desert sand dunes have the peculiar ability to emit a loud sound up to 110 dB, with a well-defined frequency: this phenomenon, known since early travelers (Darwin, Marco Polo, etc.), has been called the song of dunes. But only in late 19th century scientific observations were made, showing three important characteristics of singing dunes: first, not all dunes sing, but all the singing dunes are composed of dry and well-sorted sand; second, this sound occurs spontaneously during avalanches on a slip face; third this is not the only way to produce sound with this sand. More recent field observations have shown that during avalanches, the sound frequency does not depend on the dune size or shape, but on the grain diameter only, and scales as the square root of g/d--with g the gravity and d the diameter of the grains--explaining why all the singing dunes in the same vicinity sing at the same frequency. We have been able to reproduce these singing avalanches in laboratory on a hard plate, which made possible to study them more accurately than on the field. Signals of accelerometers at the flowing surface of the avalanche are compared to signals of microphones placed above, and it evidences a very strong vibration of the flowing layer at the same frequency as on the field, responsible for the emission of sound. Moreover, other characteristics of the booming dunes are reproduced and analyzed, such as a threshold under which no sound is produced, or beats in the sound that appears when the flow is too large. Finally, the size of the coherence zones emitting sound has been measured and discussed.

  13. Fortune Cookie Sand Dunes (United States)


    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-432, 25 July 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a field of small barchan sand dunes in the north polar region near 71.7oN, 51.3oW. Some of them are shaped like fortune cookies. The message these dunes provide: winds blow through this region from the lower right toward the upper left. The steep slip face slopes of these dunes, which point toward the upper left, indicate the wind direction. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper right. The image is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  14. Hydrological modelling of drained blanket peatland (United States)

    Ballard, C. E.; McIntyre, N.; Wheater, H. S.; Holden, J.; Wallage, Z. E.


    SummaryOpen ditch drainage is a commonly implemented land management practice in upland blanket peatlands, particularly in the UK, where policy decisions between the 1940s and 1970s led to widespread drainage of the uplands. The change in the hydrological regime associated with the drainage of blanket peat is poorly understood, yet has perceived importance for flooding, low flows and water quality. We propose a new simplified physics-based model that allows the associated hydrological processes and flow responses to be explored. The model couples four one-dimensional models to represent a three-dimensional hillslope, allowing for the exploration of flow and water table response throughout the model domain for a range of drainage configurations and peat properties. The model is tested against a data set collected from Oughtershaw Beck, UK, with results showing good model performance for wet periods although less conformity with borehole observations during rewetting periods. A wider exploration of model behaviour indicates that the model is consistent with the hydrological response reported in the literature for a number of drained blanket peat sites, and therefore has potential to provide guidance to decision makers concerning the effects of management practices. Through a global sensitivity analysis, we conclude that further field investigations to assist in the surface and drain roughness parameterisation would help reduce the uncertainty in the model predictions.

  15. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)


    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  16. Variation in Drain Management After Pancreatoduodenectomy: Early Versus Delayed Removal. (United States)

    Beane, Joal D; House, Michael G; Ceppa, Eugene P; Dolejs, Scott C; Pitt, Henry A


    The objectives are to report practice patterns and management of operatively placed drains and to compare outcomes in patients with early versus delayed drain removal after pancreatoduodenectomy. Early drain removal after pancreatoduodenectomy, when guided by postoperative day (POD) 1 drain fluid amylase (DFA-1), is associated with reduced rates of clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula (CR-POPF). However, whether surgeons have altered their management based on this strategy is unknown. The American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) 2014 Participant Use File was queried to identify patients having undergone pancreatoduodenectomy (n = 3093). Patients with intraoperatively placed drains were stratified according to measurement of DFA-1 and day of drain removal. Patients with POD 1 DFA-1 of ≤5000 U/L whose drains were removed by POD 3 were propensity score-matched with patients whose drains were removed after POD 3. Of 2698 patients, 580 (21.5%) had a DFA-1 recorded. Measurement of DFA-1 was associated with earlier time to drain removal and shorter postoperative length of stay (P DFA-1 was ≤5000 U/L was associated with significant (P < 0.05) reductions in overall morbidity (35.3% vs 52.3%), CR-POPF (0.9% vs 7.9%), and length of stay (6 vs 8 days). Significant variation exists in the use of drain fluid amylase in the management and timing of surgical drain removal after pancreatoduodenectomy. Clinical outcomes are best when drain fluid amylase is low and operatively placed drains are removed by POD 3.

  17. Drain Back Systems in Laboratory and in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua


    with less components and that the performance can be enhanced. Also problems with long term degradation of glycol collector loops are totally avoided. A combination of the drain back and system expansion vessel was tested successfully. It is very important to achieve a continuous slope for the pipes...... step to have success with drain back systems. Practices used in glycol systems may give serious failures. Key-words: Drain Back, Low Flow, Solar Combi System, ETC collectors....

  18. Thermokarst lakes, drainage, and drained basins (United States)

    Grosse, G.; Jones, B.; Arp, C.; Shroder, John F.


    Thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins are widespread in Arctic and sub-Arctic permafrost lowlands with ice-rich sediments. Thermokarst lake formation is a dominant mode of permafrost degradation and is linked to surface disturbance, subsequent melting of ground ice, surface subsidence, water impoundment, and positive feedbacks between lake growth and permafrost thaw, whereas lake drainage generally results in local permafrost aggradation. Thermokarst lakes characteristically have unique limnological, morphological, and biogeochemical characteristics that are closely tied to cold-climate conditions and permafrost properties. Thermokarst lakes also have a tendency toward complete or partial drainage through permafrost degradation and erosion. Thermokarst lake dynamics strongly affect the development of landscape geomorphology, hydrology, and the habitat characteristic of permafrost lowlands.

  19. Fine root production at drained peatland sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, L. [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Laine, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology


    The preliminary results of the Finnish project `Carbon balance of peatlands and climate change` show that fine roots play an important role in carbon cycling on peat soils. After drainage the roots of mire species are gradually replaced by the roots of trees and other forest species. Pine fine root biomass reaches a maximum level by the time of crown closure, some 20 years after drainage on pine mire. The aim of this study is to compare the results of the sequential coring method and the ingrowth bag method used for estimating fine root production on three drained peatland sites of different fertility. The results are preliminary and continuation to the work done in the study Pine root production on drained peatlands, which is part of the Finnish project `Carbon cycling on peatlands and climate change`. In this study the fine root biomass was greater on the poor site than on the rich sites. Pine fine root production increased with the decrease in fertility. Root turnover and the production of field layer species were greater on the rich sites than on the poor site. The results suggested that the in growth bag method measured more root activity than the magnitude of production. More than two growing seasons would have been needed to balance the root dynamics in the in growth bags with the surrounding soil. That time would probably have been longer on the poor site than on the rich ones and longer for pine and field layer consisting of dwarf shrubs than for field layer consisting of sedge like species and birch. (11 refs.)

  20. Namibia : triaxial test on sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfelt, Jørgen S.; Jacobsen, Kim P.

    In connection with a harbour project the friction angle of a fine sand is required. On Friday 13 March 1998 the Danish Geotechnical Institute (DGI) delivered app. 2.5 kg sand for testing at the Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University. The present Data Report summarises the results...

  1. Atlas of Dutch drift sands (United States)

    Riksen, Michel; Jungerius, Pieter


    The Netherlands is well known for its aeolian landscapes. Frequent storms during the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 AD) reactivated Pleistocene coversands and river dunes and are responsible for the formation of the Holocene drift sands at a scale which is unique for Europe. A hypothesized relationship with farmer practices for making plaggensoils has recently been refuted, because drift sand formation began centuries earlier. The coastal dune belt with their parabolic dunes dates from the same period as the drift sand. An estimate of the extent of drift sands can be made from soil maps: drift sands are too young to show much profile development (Regosols). With this method Koster estimated the maximum extent of Holocene drift sands in the Netherlands to be about 800 km2 (Koster 2005). Laser altimetry allows a more precise estimate of the total surface affected by wind from the characteristic relief patterns produced by the Holocene wind, which is different from the smooth surface of cover sand deposits. Laser altimetry has been used before to investigate the mechanism of drift sand formation (Jungerius & Riksen 2010). Most of the surface affected by wind is not active anymore, but the tell-tale rough surface survived ages of different landuse. The total affected surface amounts to 825 km2. It is noteworthy that both methods give comparable results. We recorded a total number of 367 of affected areas of varying shapes, ranging in size from 1.6 ha to a large complex of drif sands of 7,119.5 ha. As is to be expected from their mode of origin, most occurrences are associated with cover sands, and with river dunes along the river Meuse and smaller rivers in other parts of the country. Particularly the final phases of cover sand and river dunes that show more relief as parabolic dunes were affected. There are also small aeolian deposits at the lee side blown from fallow agricultural fields but they are (sub)recent. Most of the relief is irregular, but the larger

  2. 2010 oil sands performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, oil sands have become an important energy resource for meeting energy needs. Oil sands are a mixture of water, sand, clay and bitumen which is recovered either through open pit mining or in situ drilling techniques. The bitumen is then converted into syncrude or sold to refineries for the production of gasoline, diesel or other products. Shell has oil sands operations in Alberta and the aim of this report is to present its 2010 performance in terms of CO2, water, tailings, land, and reclamation and engagement. This document covers several of Shell's operations in the Muskeg River and Jackpine mines, Scotford upgrader, Peace River, Orion, Seal, Cliffdale and Chipmunk. It provides useful information on Shell's oil sands performance to governments, environmental groups, First Nations, local communities and the public.

  3. Brain drain from developing countries: how can brain drain be converted into wisdom gain?


    Dodani, Sunita; LaPorte, Ronald E


    Brain drain is defined as the migration of health personnel in search of the better standard of living and quality of life, higher salaries, access to advanced technology and more stable political conditions in different places worldwide. This migration of health professionals for better opportunities, both within countries and across international borders, is of growing concern worldwide because of its impact on health systems in developing countries. Why do talented people leave their count...

  4. An Experimental Study of the Drained Capacity of Bucket Foundations for Offshore Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Barari, Amin; Larsen, Kim André


    Today, wind energy offers the most competitive production prices for renewable energy. Therefore there are strong political and industrial forces, especially in northern Europe, which support the development of the offshore wind industry. The present paper presents the results of drained tests...... on offshore bucket foundations for wind turbines in saturated dense sand. The bearing capacity of bucket foundations subject to combined loadings which are of interest particularly to the offshore geotechnical engineers, were calculated and found to be largely dependent on embedment ratios and load paths....... Based on the results of the analyses, new failure criteria are calibrated for bucket foundations, in contrast to previous studies using the failure envelop e approach which have suggested that yield surface is constant in shape....

  5. Modeling Subsurface Storm and Tile Drain Systems in GSSHA with SUPERLINK (United States)


    discharge to overland flow. ERDC/CHL TR-14-11 12 3 Tile Drains As described in Chapter 2, pipes in SUPERLINK represent both storm drains and network. Storm drains may also function as tile drains as long as saturated groundwater is being simulated in the GSSHA model. The input...requirements for storm drains and tile drains are the same; only the value of hydraulic conductivity for the pipe differs between storm and tile drains

  6. Geologic map of Great Sand Dunes National Park, Colorado (United States)

    Madole, Richard F.; VanSistine, D. Paco; Romig, Joseph H.


    Geologic mapping was begun after a range fire swept the area of what is now the Great Sand Dunes National Park in April 2000. The park spans an area of 437 square kilometers (or about 169 square miles), of which 98 percent is blanketed by sediment of Quaternary age, the Holocene and Pleistocene Epochs; hence, this geologic map of the Great Sand Dunes National Park is essentially a surficial geologic map. These surficial deposits are diverse and include sediment of eolian (windblown), alluvial (stream and sheetwash), palustrine (wetlands and marshes), lacustrine (lake), and mass-wasting (landslides) origin. Sediment of middle and late Holocene age, from about 8,000 years ago to the present, covers about 80 percent of the park.Fluctuations in groundwater level during Holocene time caused wetlands on the nearby lowland that bounds the park on the west to alternately expand and contract. These fluctuations controlled the stability or instability of eolian sand deposits on the downwind (eastern) side of the lowland. When groundwater level rose, playas became lakes, and wet or marshy areas formed in many places. When the water table rose, spring-fed streams filled their channels and valley floors with sediment. Conversely, when groundwater level fell, spring-fed streams incised their valley floors, and lakes, ponds, and marshes dried up and became sources of windblown sand.Discharge in streams draining the west flank of the Sangre de Cristo Range is controlled primarily by snowmelt and flow is perennial until it reaches the mountain front, beyond which streams begin losing water at a high rate as the water soaks into the creek beds. Even streams originating in the larger drainage basins, such as Sand and Medano Creeks, generally do not extend much more than 4 km (about 2.5 miles) beyond where they exit the mountains.The Great Sand Dunes contain the tallest dunes (maximum height about 750 feet, or 230 m) in North America. These dunes cover an area of 72 square kilometers

  7. Influence of Hudiara Drain Water Irrigation on Trace Elements Load ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) requirements of Drain water were also found higher than the. National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) established under the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997. It was concluded that continuous use of untreated drain's water is not suitable for ...

  8. Drains after Thyroidectomy for Benign Thyroid Disorders; Are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hematoma or seroma) and also for detection of continuing bleeding. This is aimed at ... None of the patients in the non-drain group had post-surgical wound infection whereas four (9%) of those who had drains developed wound sepsis.

  9. The health workforce crisis: the brain drain scourge. (United States)

    Ike, Samuel O


    The magnitude of the health workforce crisis engendered by brain drain particularly in Africa, and nay more especially Nigeria, has been assuming increasingly alarming proportions in the past three decades. The challenge it poses in meeting the manpower needs in the healthcare sector as well as in the larger economy of the sending countries is enormous. This paper thus sets out to highlight the scope of this brain drain, its effects and the reasons sustaining it, as well as makes concrete suggestions to help stern the tide. A review of the literature on brain drain with particular emphasis on the health workforce sector was done, with focus on Africa, and specifically Nigeria. Literature search was done using mainly the Medline, as well as local journals. The historical perspectives, with the scope of external and internal brain drain are explored. The glaring effects of brain drain both in the global workforce terrain and specifically in the health sectors are portrayed. The countries affected most and the reasons for brain drain are outlined. Strategic steps to redress the brain drain crisis are proffered in this paper. The health workforce crisis resulting from brain drain must be brought to the front-burner of strategic policy decisions leading to paradigm shift in political, social and economic conditions that would serve as incentives to curb the scourge.

  10. Rethinking "Brain Drain" in the Era of Globalisation (United States)

    Rizvi, Fazal


    This paper discusses a range of issues concerning the idea of "brain drain" within the context of recent thinking on transnational mobility. It argues that the traditional analyses of brain drain are not sufficient, and that we can usefully approach the topic from a postcolonial perspective concerned with issues of identity, national…

  11. A new specifically designed forceps for chest drain insertion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Andrews, Emmet


    Insertion of a chest drain can be associated with serious complications. It is recommended that the drain is inserted with blunt dissection through the chest wall but there is no specific instrument to aid this task. We describe a new reusable forceps that has been designed specifically to facilitate the insertion of chest drains.A feasibility study of its use in patients who required a chest drain as part of elective cardiothoracic operations was undertaken. The primary end-point was successful and accurate placement of the drain. The operators also completed a questionnaire rating defined aspects of the procedure. The new instrument was used to insert the chest drain in 30 patients (19 male, 11 female; median age 61.5 years (range 16-81 years)). The drain was inserted successfully without the trocar in all cases and there were no complications. Use of the instrument rated as significantly easier relative to experience of previous techniques in all specified aspects. The new device can be used to insert intercostal chest drains safely and efficiently without using the trocar or any other instrument.

  12. Influence of Hudiara Drain Water Irrigation on Trace Elements Load ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cultivated area along the Drain by lifting the drain's water through electric pumps, peter engines and tractor driven devices. The density of tubewells is 7 pumps per kilometres for irrigating the farmer's fields and it is increasing day by day. Three points were selected for sampling the vegetables along the 54.6 km stretch of ...

  13. Late sensory changes following chest drain insertion during thoracotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildgaard, K; Ringsted, T K; Ravn, J


    ) patients, in regard to pain and sensory dysfunction. METHODS: We quantified thermal and pressure thresholds on both the chest drain side and the contralateral side in 11 PTPS patients and 10 pain-free post-thoracotomy patients 33 months after the thoracotomy. On average, each patient had two chest drains...

  14. Analysis of three-dimensional transient seepage into ditch drains ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -dependent three-dimensional seepage into ditch drains from a flat, homogeneous and anisotropic ponded field of finite size,the field being assumed to be surrounded on all its vertical faces by ditch drains with unequal water level heights in ...

  15. Horner's syndrome caused by an intercostal chest drain.


    Campbell, P.; Neil, T; Wake, P. N.


    Horner's syndrome occurred in a young woman as a complication of the treatment of a traumatic pneumothorax with an intercostal drain. The nerve damage probably occurred when the lung had fully re-expanded, pressing the tip of the intercostal drain, lying at the apex of the pleural cavity, on to the sympathetic chain.

  16. 241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomer, Kayle D. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Engeman, Jason K. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Gunter, Jason R. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Joslyn, Cameron C. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Vazquez, Brandon J. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Venetz, Theodore J. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Garfield, John S. [AEM Consulting, Richland, WA (United States)


    This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line.

  17. Design criteria Drain Rerouting Project 93-OR-EW-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document contains the design criteria to be used by the architect-engineer (A--E) in the performance of Title I and II design for the Drain Rerouting Project. The Drain Rerouting project at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee will provide the Y-12 Plant with the capability to reroute particular drains within buildings 9202, 9203 and 9995. Process drains that are presently connected to the storm sewer shall be routed to the sanitary sewer to ensure that any objectionable material inadvertently discharged into process drains will not discharge to East Fork Popular Creek (EFPC) without treatment. The project will also facilitate compliance with the Y-12 Plant`s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) discharge permit and allow for future pretreatment of once-through coolant.

  18. Spectroscopic characterization of a Nigerian standard sand: Igbokoda sand

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojuri, OO


    Full Text Available the Middle Ordovician St. Peter Sandstone near Ottawa, Illinois, had been picked by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as the reference sand to employ in testing cement and strength of concrete [9]. To the best of our knowledge... and magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques due to its importance in cement, geotechnical/geo-environmental research in Nigeria. This should halt importation of standard silica sand for mortar and concrete testing...

  19. Nitrate dynamics in artificially drained nested watersheds (United States)

    Billy, C.; Birgand, F.; Sebilo, M.; Billen, G.; Tournebize, J.; Kao, C.

    There is concern that subsurface drainage, by destroying or by-passing active denitrification areas, may prevent nitrate retention processes and enhance nitrate contamination of surface water by agriculture. To address this question, we studied the flow and concentration signatures of drainage waters and their transformations in a series of 5 nested watersheds, from 1 to 100 km 2 area, in the Brie region near Paris (France). At all scales, nitrate concentrations are generally higher during the winter drainage season compared to the low flow periods (late spring to early fall). High nitrate concentrations characterizing drainage waters are visible at the 1st, 2nd and 3rd stream order but are “diluted” by surface runoff from forested zones and buffered by groundwater contributions. The analysis of nitrate chemographs and nitrate budgets established for the different nested watersheds show significant nitrogen retention. Isotopic measurements indicate that the nitrate pool is enriched in δ 15N- NO3- as its concentration decreases. Direct estimation of benthic denitrification with benthic chambers allowed concluding that benthic denitrification is not the only retention mechanism and that “underground” denitrification, affecting nitrate on its way from the base of the root zone down to the limit of the river bed, may in fact dominate nitrogen retention processes even in this intensively drained watershed.

  20. LIGHT regulates inflamed draining lymph node hypertrophy (United States)

    Zhu, Mingzhao; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Yugang; Wang, Zhongnan; Fu, Yang-Xin


    Lymph node (LN) hypertrophy, the increased cellularity of LNs, is the major indication of the initiation and expansion of the immune response against infection, vaccination, cancer or autoimmunity. The mechanisms underlying LN hypertrophy remain poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that LIGHT (TNFSF14) is a novel factor essential for LN hypertrophy after CFA immunization. Mechanistically, LIGHT is required for the influx of lymphocytes into but not egress out of LNs. In addition, LIGHT is required for DC migration from the skin to draining LNs. Compared with WT mice, LIGHT−/− mice express lower levels of chemokines in skin and addressins in LN vascular endothelial cells after CFA immunization. We unexpectedly observed that LIGHT from radioresistant rather than radiosensitive cells, likely Langerhans cells, is required for LN hypertrophy. Importantly, antigen-specific T cell responses were impaired in DLN of LIGHT−/− mice, suggesting the importance of LIGHT regulation of LN hypertrophy in the generation of an adaptive immune response. Collectively, our data reveal a novel cellular and molecular mechanism for the regulation of LN hypertrophy and its potential impact on the generation of an optimal adaptive immune response. PMID:21572030

  1. Characterization of sand lenses embedded in tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Klint, K.E.S.; Nilsson, B.


    Tills dominate large parts of the superficial sediments on the Northern hemisphere. These glacial diamictons are extremely heterogeneous and riddled with fractures and lenses of sand or gravel. The frequency and geometry of sand lenses within tills are strongly linked to glaciodynamic processes...... occurring in various glacial environments. This study specifically focuses on the appearance and spatial distribution of sand lenses in tills. It introduces a methodology on how to measure and characterize sand lenses in the field with regard to size, shape and degree of deformation. A set of geometric...... parameters is defined to allow characterization of sand lenses. The proposed classification scheme uses a stringent terminology to distinguish several types of sand lenses based on the geometry. It includes sand layers, sand sheets, sand bodies, sand pockets and sand stringers. The methodology has been...

  2. Reclaimability of the spent sand mixture – sand with bentonite – sand with furfuryl resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dańko


    Full Text Available Introduction of new binding materials and new technologies of their hardening in casting moulds and cores production requires theapplication of reclamation methods adequate to their properties as well as special devices realizing tasks. The spent sands circulationsystem containing the same kind of moulding and core sands is optimal from the point of view of the expected reclamation results.However, in the face of a significant variability of applied technologies and related to them various reclamation methods, the need - of theobtained reclamation products assessment on the grounds of systematic criteria and uniform bases – arises, with a tendency of indicatingwhich criteria are the most important for the given sand system. The reclaimability results of the mixture of the spent moulding sand withGeko S bentonite and the spent core sand with the Kaltharz 404U resin hardened by acidic hardener 100 T3, are presented in the paper.Investigations were performed with regard to the estimation of an influence of core sands additions (10 –25% on the reclaimed materialquality. Dusts and clay content in the reclaim, its chemical reaction (pH and ignition loss were estimated. The verification of the reclaiminstrumental assessment was performed on the basis of the technological properties estimation of moulding sand with bentonite, where the reclaimed material was used as a matrix.

  3. The Critical Height of a Liquid Being Drained from the Tank with Bell-Mouth Drain Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mohammadi


    Full Text Available Vortexing occurs during draining of liquid from tanks. We studied the critical height of a liquid being drained from tank, that is, the liquid height at the moment when the air-core vortex reaches to the drain port. We firstly performed some experiments for determining the critical height, and then based upon the information obtained from the experiments; a simple analytical expression was derived to predict the critical height. The experimental results show that the vortex suppressor, which is suggested in the present paper, could effectively reduce the strength of vortex and consequently reduce the critical height. The results also show that the new analytical expression can predict the critical height with less than 20% error when vortex suppressor is used. To the best of our knowledge, draining from tanks with bell-mouth drain ports has not been paid attention to by other authors.

  4. A novel thin-film transistor with step gate-overlapped lightly doped drain and raised source/drain design (United States)

    Chien, Feng-Tso; Chen, Jian-Liang; Chen, Chien-Ming; Chen, Chii-Wen; Cheng, Ching-Hwa; Chiu, Hsien-Chin


    In this paper, a novel step gate-overlapped lightly doped drain (GOLDD) with raised source/drain (RSD) structure (SGORSD) is proposed for TFT electronic device application. The new SGORSD structure could obtain a low electric field at channel near the drain side owing to a step GOLDD design. Compared to the conventional device, the SGORSD TFT exhibits a better kink effect and higher breakdown performance due to the reduced drain electric field (D-EF). In addition, the leakage current also can be suppressed. Moreover, the device stability, such as the threshold voltage shift and drain current degradation under a high gate bias, is improved by the design of SGORSD structure. Therefore, this novel step GOLDD structure can be a promising design to be used in active-matrix flat panel electronics.

  5. Management recommendations: Sand Lake Complex (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and...

  6. Sensuous Communism: Sand with Marx


    White, Claire


    This article reads George Sand's Le Compagnon du Tour de France (1840) alongside Karl Marx's “Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844.” It considers how these contemporaries bring to bear on their accounts of labor, estrangement, and the structures of property an attention to the fate of the senses under capitalism. Both elaborate a critique of political economy—Sand's voiced by her worker-hero—that demonstrates how the individual's sensuous life is circumscribed by the pressures of mate...

  7. Analytical model for vacuum consolidation incorporating soil disturbance caused by mandrel-driven drains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Indraratna, Buddhima; Kelly, Richard; Perera, Darshana; Rujikiatkamjorn, Cholachat; Leroueil, Serge

    ... as a result of drain installation. The soil samples were obtained from various locations after drain installation to determine the characteristics of soil surrounding the vertical drain in terms of compressibility and permeability...

  8. Sediment Mobilization in Ravines Draining Minnesota Cropland (United States)

    Choquette, A. W.; Triplett, L.; Gran, K. B.


    In recent years, studies have found that Lake Pepin, a naturally-dammed lake on the Mississippi River on the border of Minnesota and Wisconsin, is filling in with sediment at an alarming rate. Most of this sediment comes from the Minnesota River, which contributes about 80% of all the sediment being deposited in Lake Pepin, even though it contains only 35% of the upstream area. This study focuses on understanding sediment derived from ravine erosion in a tributary of the Minnesota River basin through event monitoring of two ravines in the Le Sueur River watershed. Ravines represent one of the key sediment sources in the Le Sueur watershed, with sediment mobilized through ravine widening and headcutting. In addition, sediment may be mobilized through riverbank and bluff erosion and erosion of the topsoil. A major effort is underway to reduce the amount of sediment in the Minnesota River and Lake Pepin, so we must discover what is causing the sediment to be mobilized and when. Dominant land use in the area is agricultural with over 90% of the crops consisting of row crops. Field drainage in these agricultural areas is heavily influenced by the installation of drainage ditches and drain tile. While this has increased crop yield, it has altered the natural drainage of the area. Southern Minnesota is covered by a thick layer of glacial till allowing the landscape to rapidly respond to hydrologic conditions within a relatively short amount of time, and those changes could include ravine widening or elongation. To better understand how ravines respond to different hydrologic events, we monitored ravines over the course of one monitoring season. From April-October 2013, three Sigma 930 automated samplers measured discharge and collected water samples for total suspended sediment analysis at three sites in two ravines. We tested whether the volume, intensity or seasonality of precipitation events is most important in mobilizing sediment in the ravines. Data are being

  9. Ethics and policy of medical brain drain: a review. (United States)

    Kollar, Eszter; Buyx, Alena


    Health-worker migration, commonly called "medical brain drain", refers to the mass migration of trained and skilled health professionals (doctors, nurses, midwives) from low-income to high-income countries. This is currently leaving a significant number of poor countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, with critical staff shortages in the healthcare sector. A broad consensus exists that, where medical brain drain exacerbates such shortages, it is unethical, and this review presents the main arguments underpinning this view. Notwithstanding the general agreement, which policies are justifiable on ethical grounds to tackle brain drain and how best to go about implementing them remains controversial. The review offers a discussion of the specific ethical issues that have to be taken into account when deciding which policy measures to prioritise and suggests a strategy of policy implementation to address medical brain drain as a matter of urgency.

  10. The Hunter Drain Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge Fallon, Nevada (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document outlines water quality concerns related to the operation of the Hunter Drain located in the vicinity of the Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge. This...

  11. Development of Charge Drain Coatings: Final CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Jeffrey W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The primary goal of this CRADA project was to develop and optimize tunable resistive coatings prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) for use as charge-drain coatings on the KLA-Tencor digital pattern generators (DPGs).

  12. Disturbance of the inclined inserting-type sand fence to wind-sand flow fields and its sand control characteristics (United States)

    Cheng, Jian-jun; Lei, Jia-qiang; Li, Sheng-yu; Wang, Hai-feng


    The inclined inserting-type sand fence is a novel sand retaining wall adopted along the Lanxin High-Speed Railway II in Xinjiang for controlling and blocking sand movement. To verify the effectiveness of the new fence structure for sand prevention, a wind tunnel test was used for flow field test simulation of the sand fence. The results indicate that the inclined inserting-type sand fence was able to deflect the flow of the sand and was able to easily form an upward slant acceleration zone on the leeward side of the sand fence. As shown by the percentage change in sand collection rates on the windward side and the leeward side of the sand fence, the sand flux per unit area at 4 m height in the slant upward direction increased on the leeward side of the inclined inserting-type sand fence. By comparing the flow fields, this site is an acceleration zone, which also reaffirms the correspondence of wind-sand flow fields with the spatial distribution characteristic of the wind-carried sand motion. The field sand collection data indicates that under the effects of the inclined inserting-type sand fence, the sandy air currents passing in front and behind the sand fence not only changed in quality, but the grain composition and particle size also significantly changed, suggesting that the inclined inserting-type sand fence has a sorting and filtering effect on the sandy air currents that passed through. The fence retained coarse particulates on the windward side and fine particulates within the shade of the wind on the leeward side.

  13. Optimal array of sand fences (United States)

    Lima, Izael A.; Araújo, Ascânio D.; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Andrade, José S.; Herrmann, Hans J.


    Sand fences are widely applied to prevent soil erosion by wind in areas affected by desertification. Sand fences also provide a way to reduce the emission rate of dust particles, which is triggered mainly by the impacts of wind-blown sand grains onto the soil and affects the Earth’s climate. Many different types of fence have been designed and their effects on the sediment transport dynamics studied since many years. However, the search for the optimal array of fences has remained largely an empirical task. In order to achieve maximal soil protection using the minimal amount of fence material, a quantitative understanding of the flow profile over the relief encompassing the area to be protected including all employed fences is required. Here we use Computational Fluid Dynamics to calculate the average turbulent airflow through an array of fences as a function of the porosity, spacing and height of the fences. Specifically, we investigate the factors controlling the fraction of soil area over which the basal average wind shear velocity drops below the threshold for sand transport when the fences are applied. We introduce a cost function, given by the amount of material necessary to construct the fences. We find that, for typical sand-moving wind velocities, the optimal fence height (which minimizes this cost function) is around 50 cm, while using fences of height around 1.25 m leads to maximal cost.

  14. Brain drain from developing countries: how can brain drain be converted into wisdom gain? (United States)

    Dodani, Sunita; LaPorte, Ronald E


    Brain drain is defined as the migration of health personnel in search of the better standard of living and quality of life, higher salaries, access to advanced technology and more stable political conditions in different places worldwide. This migration of health professionals for better opportunities, both within countries and across international borders, is of growing concern worldwide because of its impact on health systems in developing countries. Why do talented people leave their countries and go abroad? What are the consequences of such migrations especially on the educational sector? What policies can be adopted to stem such movements from developing countries to developed countries? This article seeks to raise questions, identify key issues and provide solutions which would enable immigrant health professionals to share their knowledge, skills and innovative capacities and thereby enhancing the economic development of their countries.

  15. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack D.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Grin, E.A.; Li, Ron; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, B.; Bell, J.F.; Yingst, R. Aileen


    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  16. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack; Arvidson, Raymond; Grin, Edmond; Li, Ronxing; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, Barbara; Bell, James F.; Aileen Yingst, R.


    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  17. Nurses’ Knowledge Levels of Chest Drain Management: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Tarhan


    Full Text Available Objective: The physician is responsible for inserting one or more chest tubes into the pleural space or the mediastinal space and connecting them to an appropriate drainage system. When the general principles about care of patients with chest drains were implemented correctly and effectively by nurses, nurse will contribute to accelerate the healing process of patients. In this context, the aim of this study was to determine the nurses’ level of knowledge regarding the care of patients with chest drains. Methods: The study was conducted with 153 nurses who worked in a chest diseases and thoracic surgery hospital in July 2014. Questionnaire form of 35 questions prepared by investigators was used to collect data. For the analysis of results, frequency tests, independent sample t-test and oneway ANOVA test were used. Results: 69.3% of nurses stated that they had obtained information from colleguages. 35.3% considered their knowledge about chest drain management to be inadequate. 55.6% scored 13 points and above from knowledge questionnaire about chest drain management. There were statistically significant difference between knowledge level and educational background, clinic work type, working unit, years of professional experience and institutional experience, frequency of contact patients with chest drain and perception of knowledge level (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that lack of evidence-based nursing care and insufficient training has resulted in uncertainty and knowledge deficit in important aspects of chest drain care. It can be concluded that nurses receive training needs and training protocols are about chest drain management.

  18. Behavior of a gravel-sand material on cyclic way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hocine bendadouche


    Full Text Available This article has the results of the cyclic triaxial compression tests to study the potential of liquefaction of a gravel-sand material.  The last part is devoted to the not drained cyclic tests and their analyses.  Many articles are devoted to the tests on the standard sand of laboratory Hostun in particular for the study of liquefaction or on reconstituted clays but few tests are carried out on a natural material.  The scarcity of cyclic tests on such rough natural materials shows the difficulty of assessing the seismic risk. Faced with these difficulties, the use of tests such as the CPT provides a different but very practical approach. The overall results show a trend of relatively high liquefaction of the material, even under conditions of moderate stress (qc / 2s'3 = 0.2. This trend is growing very strongly when the rate of cyclic loading reached 0.3. The CPT test also shows a great tendency to liquefaction with a safety factor of well below 1.

  19. Settling Tube Analysis of Sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldof, H.J.; Slot, R.E.


    For various reasons particle-size analysis of sediment is used in many fields of science and technology, a.o. earth sciences, agricultural and civil engineering. Relatively coarse-grained sediment like sand, with dimensions ranging from 0.06 till 2 mm, is analyzed almost exclusively by sieving. The

  20. Silo model tests with sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Jørgen

    Tests have been carried out in a large silo model with Leighton Buzzard Sand. Normal pressures and shear stresses have been measured during tests carried out with inlet and outlet geometry. The filling method is a very important parameter for the strength of the mass and thereby the pressures...

  1. Sand and Water Table Play (United States)

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan


    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

  2. V-2 at White Sands (United States)


    A V-2 rocket is hoisted into a static test facility at White Sands, New Mexico. The German engineers and scientists who developed the V-2 came to the United States at the end of World War II and continued rocket testing under the direction of the U. S. Army, launching more than sixty V-2s.

  3. The eolian sand problems arising from desertification. (United States)

    Bofah, K K; Owusu, Y A


    Eolian (wind blown) sand constitutes a very serious problem to development in sandy desert lands and causes equally serious problems in lands that are undergoing desertification. In this paper, eolian sand movement due to bulk movement such as sand dune and ripple movement, sand drift by saltation, and sand storms by strong winds are discussed. Associated problems such as eolian sand encroachment on highways, farms, communities and industrial complexes are also discussed and workable solutions are offered. Solutions include chemical stabilization of the surface grains, fences to trap the blown sand and vegetation to prevent soil deflation. Vegetation is emphasized and recommended as the ultimate viable solution to combat desertification and eolian sand problems.

  4. Drain Site Hernia in an Adult: A Case Report | Makama | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Surgical drains, as useful as they are, have been noted not to be without complications. Small bowel herniation through a previous drain site is a rare complication of abdominal drain insertion. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of strangulated hernia through a drain site. METHODS: A 46-year-old civil servant ...

  5. On the use of drains in orthopedic and trauma | Lawal | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Those patients whose wounds were drained had no need for drain change thus making the wound care less eventful. Conclusion: Postoperative wound drains make for neat postoperative period with less tissue swelling. There was no statistically significant differences between the drained and undrained wounds in terms of ...

  6. experimental studies of sand production from unconsolidated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    consolidated samples has been used to simulate the effect of flow rates, confining pressure, pressure drawdown and fluid viscosity on sand production in the Niger. Delta. The model was also used to determine the ability of using the flow rate to control the production of sand. Sand sample from an unconsolidated reser-.

  7. Thoracoscopic pulmonary wedge resection without post-operative chest drain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Bo Laksafoss; Hansen, Henrik Jessen; Kehlet, Henrik


    effusion and coagulopathy. Chest X-rays were done twice on the day of surgery. 30-day complications were compiled from patient records. RESULTS: 49 patients underwent 51 unilateral VATS wedge resections without using a post-operative chest drain. No patient required reinsertion of a chest drain. 30 (59...... %) patients had a pneumothorax of mean size 12 ± 12 mm on supine 8-h post-operative X-ray for which the majority resolved spontaneously within 2-week control. There were no complications on 30-day follow-up. Median length of stay was 1 day. CONCLUSIONS: The results support that VATS wedge resection...... for pulmonary nodules without a post-operative chest drain may be safe in a selected group of patients....

  8. Comparison of drain clamp after bilateral total knee arthroplasty. (United States)

    Madadi, Firooz; Mehrvarz, Amir Sarshekeh; Madadi, Firoozeh; Boreiri, Majid; Abachizadeh, Kambiz; Ershadi, Ali


    Suction drains provide an easy and feasible method for controlling hemorrhage after total knee arthroplasty. However, there has been no compromise regarding the optimum clamping time for these drains. We conducted a randomized clinical trial in 50 patients to compare 12-hour drain clamping and continuous drainage after total knee arthroplasty in terms of wound complications, blood loss, and articular arc of motion. To eliminate any other factor except duration of clamping, we chose to compare only knees belonging to a single patient and to restrict the study to those knees undergoing surgery due to osteoarthritis. From a total of 100 knees (50 patients) studied, the 12-hour-clamping method resulted in a significantly smaller amount of postoperative blood loss (p < 0.001). The passive ranges of motion and wound complications were not significantly different between the two groups.

  9. Predicting artificailly drained areas by means of selective model ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Bjørn; Beucher, Amélie; Iversen, Bo Vangsø

    produced with one of these approaches, a better prediction can be achieved by combining the predictions of several models (Caruana et al., 2004, Sollich and Krogh, 1996). As more approaches become available, the importance of the method used for selecting the models for use in the ensemble increases....... The study aims firstly to train a large number of models to predict the extent of artificially drained areas using various machine learning approaches. Secondly, the study will develop a method for selecting the models, which give a good prediction of artificially drained areas, when used in conjunction...... method, when selecting the models. In this way, the developed method should be able to produce a highly accurate and robust map of artificially drained areas within a limited span of time....

  10. Randomized Controlled Trial to Reduce Bacterial Colonization of Surgical Drains After Breast and Axillary Operations (United States)

    Degnim, Amy C.; Scow, Jeffrey S.; Hoskin, Tanya L.; Miller, Joyce P.; Loprinzi, Margie; Boughey, Judy C.; Jakub, James W.; Throckmorton, Alyssa; Patel, Robin; Baddour, Larry M.


    Objective To determine if bacterial colonization of drains can be reduced by local antiseptic interventions. Summary Background Drains are a potential source of bacterial entry into surgical wounds and may contribute to surgical site infection (SSI) after breast surgery. Methods Following IRB approval, patients undergoing total mastectomy and/or axillary lymph node dissection were randomized to standard drain care (control) or drain antisepsis (treated). Standard drain care comprised twice daily cleansing with alcohol swabs. Antisepsis drain care included 1) a chlorhexidine disc at the drain exit site and 2) irrigation of the drain bulb twice daily with dilute sodium hypochlorite (Dakin’s) solution. Cultures results of drain fluid and tubing were compared between control and antisepsis groups. Results Overall, 100 patients with 125 drains completed the study with 48 patients (58 drains) in the control group and 52 patients (67 drains) in the antisepsis group. Cultures of drain bulb fluid at one week were positive (1+ or greater growth) in 66% (38/58) of control drains compared to 21% of antisepsis drains (14/67), (p=0.0001). Drain tubing cultures demonstrated >50 CFU in 19% (8/43) of control drains versus 0% (0/53) of treated drains (p=0.004). SSI was diagnosed in 6 patients (6%) - 5 patients in the control group and 1 patient in the antisepsis group (p=0.06). Conclusions Simple and inexpensive local antiseptic interventions with a chlorhexidine disc and hypochlorite solution reduce bacterial colonization of drains. Based on these data, further study of drain antisepsis and its potential impact on SSI rate is warranted. PMID:23518704

  11. Rare bile duct anomaly: B3 duct draining to gallbladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Lee


    Full Text Available A 10-year-old girl presented with recurrent right upper abdominal pain and dyspepsia. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a dilated common channel of intrahepatic bile duct of segment 3 (B3 and segment 4 (B4 drained into the gallbladder directly. The patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and Roux-en Y hepaticojejunostomy (B3-jejunostomy. Among the anatomical variability of the biliary system, the cholecystohepatic ducts are controversial in existence and incidence. We report a very rare variant of a cholecystohepatic duct in which the B3 duct drained into gallbladder directly and to the best of our knowledge this is the first report.

  12. The African brain drain: causes and policy prescriptions. (United States)

    Danso, K


    "This article analyzes the causes of the African Brain Drain. It also identifies policy prescriptions to stem the tide of the brain drain....The analysis shows that African governments should try to retain their skilled personnel by significantly improving their economies so as to provide the basic necessities of life to their people. African governments should also democratize their political institutions and respect individual human rights. Finally, they should create a conducive socio political environment for the skilled professional to operate, otherwise even the most patriotic of them would be tempted to emigrate." excerpt

  13. Response of stiff piles in sand to long-term cyclic lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmar, Christian LeBlanc; Houlsby, Guy T.; Byrne, Byron W.


    . To address this, a series of laboratory tests were conducted where a stiff pile in drained sand was subjected to between 8000 and 60000 cycles of combined moment and horizontal loading. A typical design for an offshore wind turbine monopile was used as a basis for the study, to ensure that pile dimensions...... and loading ranges were realistic. A complete non-dimensional framework for stiff piles in sand is presented and applied to interpret the test results. The accumulated rotation was found to be dependent on relative density and was strongly affected by the characteristics of the applied cyclic load. The pile...... stiffness increased with number of cycles, which contrasts with the current methodology where static p - y curves are degraded to account for cyclic loading. Methods are presented to predict the change in stiffness and the accumulated rotation of a stiff pile due to long-term cyclic loading. The use...

  14. Deep Foundation Modeling with Morh-Coulomb Model in Dense Sands with Dilatancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Macijauskas


    Full Text Available The analysis of load distribution in deep foundations found in dense and indiscrete sand between base and shaft is considered in this paper. The availability of designing deep foundations in sand with dilatancy was studied with changing dilatancy angle. For design, Plaxis 3D Foundation v2 Morh-Coulomb model was used. Various load distributions between shaft and base were obtained when dilatancy angle varied from 0° to 5°. Skin friction increases significantly increasing dilatancy angle. However, in Mohr-Coulomb model, (drained conditions soil will continue to dilate as long as shear deformations occurs. This error decreases in case relative foundation length L/D and dilatancy angle ψ decrease. Article in Lithuanian

  15. Strain localization in sand: an overview of the experimental results obtained in Grenoble using stereophotogrammetry (United States)

    Desrues, Jacques; Viggiani, Gioacchino


    Experimental results are presented from the extensive program of drained plane strain compression tests on sand carried out in Grenoble over the last two decades. Systematic analysis of photographs of the deforming specimen allowed for measuring deformations and determining strain fields throughout the test, that is: prior to, at, and after the onset of strain localization. The principles, details and accuracy of the procedure are described, as well as its suitability to properly depict the patterns of deformation. Findings concerning the occurrence and progression of strain localization are discussed. The issues of shear band orientation and thickness are addressed, as well as temporary and persistent complex localization patterns, and the volumetric behaviour inside a band after its formation. The influence of such variables as initial state of the sand (effective stress and relative density), specimen size and slenderness, as well as grain size, is discussed. Copyright

  16. Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands


    Patchett, Merle M; Lozowy, A


    Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands” is a collaborative exchange between photographer Andriko Lozowy and cultural geographer Merle Patchett that engages photography and photographic theory to evoke a more critical and politically meaningful visual engagement with the world’s largest capital oil project. Since the appearance of Edward Burtynsky’s aerial and abstracted photographic-mappings of the region, capturing the scale of the Oil Sands from ‘on high’ has become the dominant visual imaginary....

  17. Rheological Characterization of Green Sand Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Spangenberg, Jon; Hovad, Emil


    The main aim of this paper is to characterize experimentally the flow behaviour of the green sand that is used for casting of sand moulds. After the sand casting process is performed, the sand moulds are used for metal castings. The rheological properties of the green sand is important to quantify...... module for characterizing granular materials. The new module enables viscosity measurements of the green sand as function of the shear rate at different flow rates, i.e. 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 15 L/min. The results show generally that the viscosity decreases with both the shear- and flow rate....... In addition, the measurements show that the green sand flow follows a shear-thinning behaviour even after the full fluidization point....

  18. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

  19. Surgical Drains: What the Resident Needs To Know | Makama ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Drains remove content of body organs, secretion of body cavities and tissue fluids such as blood, serum, lymph and other body fluid that accumulate in wound bed after surgical procedures. Therefore, reduction of pressure to surgical site as well as adjacent organs, nerves and blood vessels, enhances wound ...

  20. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet (United States)

    Damron, Neil


    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  1. Watershed Models for Predicting Nitrogen Loads from Artificially Drained Lands (United States)

    R. Wayne Skaggs; George M. Chescheir; Glenn Fernandez; Devendra M. Amatya


    Non-point sources of pollutants originate at the field scale but water quality problems usually occur at the watershed or basin scale. This paper describes a series of models developed for poorly drained watersheds. The models use DRAINMOD to predict hydrology at the field scale and a range of methods to predict channel hydraulics and nitrogen transport. In-stream...

  2. Brain drain and capacity building in Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Feb 1, 2011 ... In 25 years, Africa will be empty of brains.” That dire warning, from Dr Lalla Ben Barka of the UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), reflects the growing alarm over Africa's increasing exodus of human capital. Data on brain drain in Africa is scarce and inconsistent; however, statistics show a continent ...

  3. Emergency medicine program targets "brain drain" in Ethiopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 juil. 2014 ... "brain drain" in Ethiopia. Dr Dave MacKinnon gives a demonstration on casting to medical residents in Addis Ababa. Over the last three decades, 4,000 doctors have left Ethiopia for specialized training abroad. But very few return home to practice their specialty. Now, thanks to the Toronto-Addis Ababa ...

  4. Organic loss in drained wetland: managing the carbon footprint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durham, B.; van de Noort, R.; Martens, V.V.; Vorenhout, M.


    The recent installation of land drains at Star Carr, Yorkshire, UK, has been linked with loss of preservation quality in this important Mesolithic buried landscape, challenging the PARIS principle. Historically captured organic carbon, including organic artefacts, is being converted to soluble

  5. Brain drain or brain gain : The case of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.W. Dulam (Tina)


    markdownabstractAbstract Brain drain refers to the emigration of highly skilled individuals mostly from a less developed (home) to a developed country (destination) thereby reducing the capacity of the home country to generate welfare for its population. In the literature there is much written

  6. Short-channel drain current model for asymmetric heavily / lightly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Jul 29, 2017 ... transistors (MOSFETs) is a good practice for semicon- ductor industry to achieve higher packing density and better circuit performance. But down-scaling has some disadvantages also. These small scaled devices suffer from various types of short channel effects like veloc- ity saturation, drain-induced ...

  7. A Study of Factors Influencing Brain Drain among Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This economic situation deeply affected the medical groups that migration became the chorus of the medical personnel. This perennial situation made the study to examine the factors influencing brain drain among the medical personnel in Nigeria, using a selected University Teaching Hospital Complex as a case study.

  8. Reversing brain drain in Africa by engaging the diaspora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impacts of brain drain in Africa are phenomenal. In the lst five decades of the continent's political history, political and economic factors have collectively acted as push factors in the migration of young Africans from the continent. As such, reducing, reversing and mitigated the effects of emigration from Africa have been a ...

  9. Diasporic and Discursive Eruptions in the New Zealand Brain Drain. (United States)

    Boshier, Roger


    Human and social capital discourses attempt to explain New Zealand's brain drain. Solutions related to each discourse involve offering incentives for returning or creating links so that expatriates can contribute to their homeland from abroad. Establishing such "diaspora networks" might be the role of adult education. (Contains 43…

  10. Does State Merit-Based Aid Stem Brain Drain? (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Ness, Erik C.


    In this study, the authors use college enrollment and migration data to test the brain drain hypothesis. Their results suggest that state merit scholarship programs do indeed stanch the migration of "best and brightest" students to other states. In the aggregate and on average, the implementation of state merit aid programs increases the…

  11. Moving Policy Forward: "Brain Drain" as a Wicked Problem (United States)

    Logue, Danielle


    The mobility of scientists and the concerns surrounding "brain drain" are not new. Even in the Ptolemic dynasty, the first king set out to attract and influence the movements of scholars to shift the centre of learning from Athens to Alexandria. Yet after all this time, there is still much policy discourse and debate focused on attempting to…

  12. Brain Drain in Higher Education: Lost Hope or Opportunity? (United States)

    Odhiambo, George


    The flight of human capital is a phenomenon that has been of concern to academics and development practitioners for decades but unfortunately, there is no systematic record of the number of skilled professionals that many African countries have continued to lose to the developed world. Termed the "brain drain", it represents the loss of…

  13. Can a brain drain be good for growth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mountford, A.W.


    This paper shows how a brain drain - the emigration of agents with a relatively high level of human capital in an economy - can paradoxically increase the productivity of an economy where productivity is a function of the average level of human capital. The model uses Galor and Tsiddon's model of

  14. Peritoneal Drains in Perforated Appendicitis without Peritonitis: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Appendicitis is recognized worldwide as the commonest surgical emergency. Its management becomes more challenging when the patient presents with perforated appendicitis In the western world To determine the value of peritoneal drains in patients operated with an appendicular pathology more advanced ...

  15. Xpand chest drain: assessing equivalence to current standard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Penetrating chest trauma is a leading cause of admission to South African emergency departments. The resultant pneumo-/haemothoraces are currently routinely treated by means of standard underwater bottle drainage. A South African company, Sinapi Biomedical, recently launched the Xpand chest drain.

  16. Drains after Thyroidectomy for Benign Thyroid Disorders; Are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drains after Thyroidectomy for Benign Thyroid Disorders; Are Associated With More Pain, Wound Infection and Prolonged Hospital Stay. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  17. The syringe suction drain - A unique improvisation in rural plastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Closed suction drains are often needed in surgical practice. However, they are luxury in rural plastic surgery practice. This study highlights how syringes have become a reliable substitute. Materials and methods: This is a prospective study of the surgical outcome of patient who had various plastic surgical ...

  18. Case Report: Supernumerary right renal vein draining inferior to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With recent increase in renal transplantations, renovascular reconstructions and imaging advances, meticulous knowledge of the normal and variant anatomy of the renal vasculature is important to avoid potential pitfalls. We report a case of an accessory renal vein arising from the right kidney, and draining into the inferior ...

  19. New SWAT tile drain equations: Modifications, Calibration, Validation, and Application (United States)

    Subsurface tile drainage is a commonly used agricultural practice to enhance crop yield in poorly drained but highly productive soils in many other regions of the world. However, the presence of subsurface tile drainage systems also expedites the transport of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and other chemi...

  20. High drain amylase and lipase values predict post-operative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Post-operative pancreatitis is a severe complication after cyst excision with hepaticoenterostomy (CEHE) for choledochal cysts. The aim of this study was to examine the dynamic post-operative changes in drain amylase and lipase values after CEHE for choledochal cysts, and then compare these values with ...

  1. English and the Brain Drain : An Uncertain Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtkamp, C.


    In his book Linguistic Justice for Europe and the World, Van Parijs analyses in one of his chapters the brain drain from non-Anglophone to Anglophone countries, which hurts the economic development of the nonAnglophone states. Van Parijs deems it clear that English is a very important factor to

  2. Water balance of drained plantation watersheds in North Carolina (United States)

    Johnny M. Grace; R. W. Skaggs


    A 3-year study to evaluate the effect of thinning on the hydrology of a drained loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation was conducted in eastern North Carolina. The study utilized a paired watershed design with a 40-ha thinned watershed (WS5) and a 16-ha control watershed (WS2). Data from the field experiment conducted from 1999-2002 was used to...

  3. Domestic wastewater treatment with a vertical completely drained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domestic wastewater treatment with a vertical completely drained pilot scale constructed wetland planted with Amaranthus hybridus. ... +: 69%, PO4 3-: 67%) than in the control (NH4 +: 15%; PO4 3-: 56%). However the important oxidation of NH4 + to NO2 - and NO3 - provoked their accumulation in these beds filtrates than ...

  4. Xpand chest drain: assessing equivalence to current standard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    our current treatment modalities and search for more cost- effective means of treatment. Underwater seal drainage was first described by Playfair1 in 1875 and has become the standard form of chest drainage throughout the world. In South Africa the underwater drain. (UWD) is the most common device used for chest ...

  5. Studies on groundwater recharge through surface drains | Singh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for the estimation of groundwater recharge through surface drains for both free flow as well as detained flow conditions. The Dupuit-Forchheimmer equation is solved using the Crank-Nicolson central finite difference scheme, to obtain the mound height matrix. The Gaussian elimination method was used to solve the matrix ...

  6. Role of Sand Grains in Sorption Processes by Surface Layers of Components of Sand Moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaźnica N.


    Full Text Available The results of researches of sorption processes of surface layers of components of sand moulds covered by protective coatings are presented in the hereby paper. Investigations comprised various types of sand grains of moulding sands with furan resin: silica sand, reclaimed sand and calcined in temperature of 700°C silica sand. Two kinds of alcoholic protective coatings were used - zirconium and zirconium - graphite. Tests were performed under condition of a constant temperature within the range 30 - 35°C and high relative air humidity 75 - 80%. To analyze the role of sand grains in sorption processes quantitavie moisture sorption with use of gravimetric method and ultrasonic method were used in measurements. The tendency to moisture sorption of surface layers of sand moulds according to the different kinds of sand grains was specified. The effectiveness of protective action of coatings from moisture sorption was analyzed as well.

  7. Evaluation of Durability Parameters of Concrete with Manufacture Sand and River Sand (United States)

    Sangoju, Bhaskar; Ramesh, G.; Bharatkumar, B. H.; Ramanjaneyulu, K.


    Most of the states in our country have banned sand quarrying from the river beds, causing a scarcity of natural river sand for the construction sector. Manufacture sand (M-sand) is one of the alternate solutions to replace the river sand (R-sand) in concrete. The main aim of the present study is to evaluate the durability parameters of concrete with M-sand when compared to that of concrete with R-sand. Corrosion of reinforcement is one of the main deteriorating mechanisms of reinforced concrete due to the ingress of chloride ions or carbon-di-oxide. For comparative evaluation of durability parameters, accelerated tests such as Rapid Chloride Permeability Test, Rapid Chloride Migration Test and accelerated carbonation test were carried out on specimens of R-sand and M-sand. All tests were carried out after 90 days of casting. Test results reveal that the durability parameters of the concrete with M-sand in chloride induced environment is relatively better than that of concrete with R-sand and hence is recommended to use M-sand as a replacement to R-sand.

  8. Drain fistulography: Radiological sphincter identification in high anal fistulae. Drain-Fistulographie. Radiologische Sphinkteridentifikation bei hohen Analfisteln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, P. (Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik, 1. Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Vienna (Austria)); Wunderlich, M. (Krankenhaus Hollabrunn (Austria). Chirurgische Abt.); Herbst, F. (1. Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Vienna (Austria)); Jantsch, H. (Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik, 1. Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Vienna (Austria)); Waneck, R. (Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik, 1. Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Vienna (Austria)); Lechner, G. (Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik, 1. Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Vienna (Austria))


    To warrant permanent surgical cure of high anal fistulae, while avoiding at the same time faecal incontinence due to inadvertent division of the puborectalis muscle, distinction between a trans- and suprasphincteric fistula track is essential. This differentiation is often crucial, since digital-rectal palpation and conventional fistulography tend to be unreliable. Therefore we developed a radiological technique of imaging the anorectal fistulous track, 'drain fistulography'. After silicon drainage of the fistula the contrast-visualization of anal canal, rectum and fistula drain allows to assess the topographic relation between fistula and anal sphincters as well as the sphincteric functional component above the fistula. A transsphincteric fistula track was demonstrated in 7 of 8 patients (5 with recurrent fistulae) by means of 'drain fistulography', permitting complete laying open of each fistula in a second operation. In one patient a supraphincteric fistula track was found and a 'mucosal flap repair' was carried out. After a mean observation time of 53 months all patients are perfectly continent and free of recurrence. The method of 'drain fistulography' is a valuable diagnostic tool to select the appropriate definitive surgical procedure in the treatment of high anal fistulae. (orig.)

  9. SAND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Grete

    Der er udført et konsolideringsforsøg med bakkesand fra Lunds grusgrav, Lund no. O. forsøget er udført i samme konsolideringsapparat, som er anvendt til måling af deformationsegenskaberne af mange forskellige danske jordarter. Forsøgsresultaterne er søgt tolket som ved forsøg med andre jordarter....

  10. Hydrogen sulfide removal from sediment and water in box culverts/storm drains by iron-based granules. (United States)

    Sun, J L; Shang, C; Kikkert, G A


    A renewable granular iron-based technology for hydrogen sulfide removal from sediment and water in box culverts and storm drains is discussed. Iron granules, including granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), granular ferric oxide (GFO) and rusted waste iron crusts (RWIC) embedded in the sediment phase removed aqueous hydrogen sulfide formed from sedimentary biological sulfate reduction. The exhausted iron granules were exposed to dissolved oxygen and this regeneration process recovered the sulfide removal capacities of the granules. The recovery is likely attributable to the oxidation of the ferrous iron precipitates film and the formation of new reactive ferric iron surface sites on the iron granules and sand particles. GFH and RWIC showed larger sulfide removal capacities in the sediment phase than GFO, likely due to the less ordered crystal structures on their surfaces. This study demonstrates that the iron granules are able to remove hydrogen sulfide from sediment and water in box culverts and storm drains and they have the potential to be regenerated and reused by contacting with dissolved oxygen.

  11. Assessing the drain estuaries’ water quality in response to pollution abatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Farouk Abukila


    Full Text Available To assess 12 years of pollution abatement efforts in all drain estuaries in Northern Egypt, which discharge to Northern Lakes and the Mediterranean Sea, this paper provides temporal trends in water quality indices from 2002 to 2013. For the estuary of 20 drains: one drain had insufficient data to analyze for trends (Burullus Drain, four drains had significant increase in water quality index (WQI score (Bahr ElBaqar Drain, Drain No. 1, Tabia Drain and No. 11 Drain, one drain had significant declination in water quality score over the tested time period (Ramsis Drain. While the rest (14 drains showed insignificant trend in either direction (improving or declining. Water quality fluctuated over that time period. On average, temporal changes in excursions of coliform count from their threshold can explain 83.3% of the temporal variability observed in water quality indicators monitored in all drain estuaries (38.9%% < R2 < 89.2%. Therefore, the most effective water quality variables among a set of variables affecting the WQI score was total coliform.

  12. Control of Culex quinquefasciatus in a storm drain system in Florida using attractive toxic sugar baits. (United States)

    Müller, G C; Junnila, A; Qualls, W; Revay, E E; Kline, D L; Allan, S; Schlein, Y; Xue, R D


    Attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSBs) were used to control mosquitoes in the storm drains of a residential area on the outskirts of St Augustine, Florida. The drainage system was newly constructed and no mosquitoes were breeding inside it. The area covered by the storm drains was divided in half; 10 drains served as control drains and 16 drains served as experimental drains. The baits, which consisted of a mixture of brown sugar, fruit juice, green dye marker and boric acid, were presented at the entrances of the treated drains and exit traps were positioned over the drain openings and the connecting tubes leading to retention ponds. Similar baits with orange dye and without toxin were presented at the entrances of control drains. A total of 220 pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) were released in each control and toxin-treated drain, and the numbers of recovered mosquitoes were examined to determine the effectiveness of ATSBs in the storm drain system. An average of 178.2 mosquitoes exited each drain in the control area; 87.0% of these had fed on the baits and were stained orange, whereas 13.0% were unstained. In the toxin-treated drains, 83.7% of hatched females and 86.6% of hatched males were controlled by the baits. © 2010 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Advanced source/drain and contact design for nanoscale CMOS (United States)

    Vega, Reinaldo

    The development of nanoscale MOSFETs has given rise to increased attention paid to the role of parasitic source/drain and contact resistance as a performance-limiting factor. Dopant-segregated Schottky (DSS) source/drain MOSFETs have become popular in recent years to address this series resistance issue, since DSS source/drain regions comprise primarily of metal or metal silicide. The small source/drain extension (SDE) regions extending from the metallic contact regions are an important design parameter in DSS MOSFETs, since their size and concentration affect contact resistance, series resistance, band-to-band tunneling (BTBT), SDE tunneling, and direct source-to-drain tunneling (DSDT) leakage. This work investigates key design issues surrounding DSS MOSFETs from both a modeling and experimental perspective, including the effect of SDE design on ambipolar leakage, the effect of random dopant fluctuation (RDF) on specific contact resistivity, 3D FinFET source/drain and contact design optimization, and experimental methods to achieve tuning of the SDE region. It is found that DSS MOSFETs are appropriate for thin body high performance (HP) and low operating power (LOP) MOSFETs, but not low standby power (LSTP) MOSFETs, due to a trade-off between ambipolar leakage and contact resistance. It is also found that DSDT will not limit DSS MOSFET scalability, nor will RDF limit contact resistance scaling, at the end of the CMOS roadmap. Furthermore, it is found that SDE tunability in DSS MOSFETs is achievable in the real-world, for an implant-to-silicide (ITS) process, by employing fluorine implant prior to metal deposition and silicidation. This is found to open up the DSS process design space for the trade-off between SDE junction depth and contact resistance. Si1-xGex process technology is also explored, and Ge melt processing is found to be a promising low-cost alternative to epitaxial Si1-xGex growth for forming crystalline Si1-xGe x films. Finally, a new device

  14. Crest line minimal model for sand dune


    Guignier, Lucie; Valance, Alexandre; Lague, Dimitri


    International audience; In desert, complex patterns of dunes form. Under unidirectional wind, transverse rectilinear dunes or crescent shaped dunes called barchan dunes can appear, depending on the amount of sediment available. Most rectilinear transverse sand dunes are observed to fragment, for example at White Sands (New Mexico, United States of America) or Walvis Bay (Namibia). We develop a reduced complexity model to investigate the morphodynamics of sand dunes migrating over a non-erodib...

  15. Crushed rock sand – An economical and ecological alternative to natural sand to optimize concrete mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mundra


    Full Text Available The study investigates the use of crushed rock sand as viable alternative to Natural River sand that is being conventionally used as fine aggregate in cement concrete. Various mix designs were developed for different grades of concrete based on IS, ACI and British codes using Natural River sand and crushed rock sand. In each case, the cube compressive strength test, and beam flexure tests were conducted. The results of the study show that, the strength properties of concrete using crushed rock sand are nearly similar to the conventional concrete. The study has shown that crushed stone sand can be used as economic and readily available alternative to river sand and can therefore help to arrest the detrimental effects on the environment caused due to excessive mining of river sand.

  16. Reduction in wick drain effectiveness with spacing for Utah silts and clays. (United States)


    Although decreasing the spacing of vertical drains usually decreases the time for consolidation, previous field tests have shown that there is a critical drain spacing for which tighter spacing does not decrease the time for consolidation. This...

  17. An experimental study on recovering heat from domestic drain water (United States)

    Ramadan, Mohamad; Al Shaer, Ali; Haddad, Ahmad; Khaled, Mahmoud


    This paper concerns an experimental study on a system of heat recovery applied to domestic drain water pipes. The concept suggested consists of using the heat still present in the drain water as a preheating/heating source to the cold water supply of the building. To proceed, an appropriate experimental setup is developed and a coil heat exchanger is used as heat transfer device in the recovery system. Several scenarios are simulated and corresponding parameters are recorded and analyzed. It was shown that the suggested recovery concept can considerably preheat the cold water supply and then decrease the energy consumption. Particularly, up to 8.6 kW of heat were recovered when the cold water supply is initially at 3 °C.

  18. Return Migration After Brain Drain: An Agent Based Simulation Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Biondo, A E; Rapisarda, A


    The Brain Drain phenomenon is particularly heterogeneous and is characterized by peculiar specifications. It influences the economic fundamentals of both the country of origin and the host one in terms of human capital accumulation. Here, the brain drain is considered from a microeconomic perspective: more precisely we focus on the individual rational decision to return, referring it to the social capital owned by the worker. The presented model, restricted to the case of academic personnel, compares utility levels to justify agent's migration conduct and to simulate several scenarios with a NetLogo agent based model. In particular, we developed a simulation framework based on two fundamental individual features, i.e. risk aversion and initial expectation, which characterize the dynamics of different agents according to the random evolution of their personal social networks. Our main result is that, according to the value of risk aversion and initial expectation, the probability of return migration depends on...

  19. On the use of drains in orthopedic and trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 8, 2013 ... On the use of drains in orthopedics and trauma. 367. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • May-Jun 2014 • Vol 17 • Issue 3 may be incurred by the patient, not to mention the distress cause to the patient for another visit to the theatre.[4‑7] In a study of Orthopedic surgeons of the mid‑Trent region of the.

  20. Brain drain leads to more physicists heading to the US (United States)

    Cartwright, Jon


    If budgets are too tight at home, academics often flock abroad in what is known as a "brain drain". But now a study by economists in the UK has revealed that elite physicists seem to be more mobile than ever. Having ana lysed the career paths of 158 of the world's most highly cited physicists, Andrew Oswald of the University of Warwick and colleagues found that half do not now work in the countries where they were born (Economic Journal 119 F231).

  1. Brain drain or brain gain: The case of Suriname


    Dulam, Tina


    markdownabstractAbstract Brain drain refers to the emigration of highly skilled individuals mostly from a less developed (home) to a developed country (destination) thereby reducing the capacity of the home country to generate welfare for its population. In the literature there is much written about this phenomenon, but there is a new theory, entitled brain gain. This theory suggests that the prospect of emigrating and earning higher income when being highly educated encourages the remaining ...

  2. Modeling Draining Flow in Mobile and Immobile Soap Films. (United States)

    Schwartz; Roy


    A mathematical model is constructed to describe the two-dimensional flow in a vertical soap film that is draining under gravity. An asymptotic analysis is employed that uses the long-wave or "lubrication" approximation. The modeling results in three coupled partial differential equations that include a number of dimensionless input parameters. The equations are solved numerically. The three functions calculated, as they vary in space and time, are the film thickness, the surface concentration of an assumed insoluble surfactant, and the slip or surface velocity. The film is assumed to be supported by "wire frame" elements at both the top and the bottom; thus the liquid area and the total surfactant are conserved in the simulation. A two-term "disjoining" pressure is included in the model that allows the development of thin, stable, i.e., "black," films. While the model uses a simplified picture of the relevant physics, it appears to capture observed soap film shape evolution over a large range of surfactant concentrations. The model predicts that, depending on the amount of surfactant that is present, the film profile will pass through several distinct phases. These are (i) rapid initial draining with surfactant transport, (ii) slower draining with an almost immobile interface due to the surface tension gradient effect, and (iii) eventual formation of black spots at various locations on the film. This work is relevant to basic questions concerning surfactant efficacy, as well as to specific questions concerning film and foam draining due to gravity. Prospects for extension to three-dimensional soap film flows are also considered. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. Methane fluxes from waterlogged and drained Histosols of highland areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Fernando Glück Rachwal


    Full Text Available Soil can be either source or sink of methane (CH4, depending on the balance between methanogenesis and methanotrophy, which are determined by pedological, climatic and management factors. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of drainage of a highland Haplic Histosol on CH4 fluxes. Field research was carried out in Ponta Grossa (Paraná, Brazil based on the measurement of CH4 fluxes by the static chamber method in natural and drained Histosol, over one year (17 sampling events. The natural Histosol showed net CH4 eflux, with rates varying from 238 µg m-2 h-1 CH4, in cool/cold periods, to 2,850 µg m-2 h-1 CH4, in warm/hot periods, resulting a cumulative emission of 116 kg ha-1 yr-1 CH4. In the opposite, the drained Histosol showed net influx of CH4 (-39 to -146 µg m-2 h-1, which resulted in a net consumption of 9 kg ha-1 yr-1 CH4. The main driving factors of CH4 consumption in the drained soil were the lowering of the water-table (on average -57 cm, vs -7 cm in natural soil and the lower water content in the 0-10 cm layer (average of 5.5 kg kg-1, vs 9.9 kg kg-1 in natural soil. Although waterlogged Histosols of highland areas are regarded as CH4 sources, they fulfill fundamental functions in the ecosystem, such as the accumulation of organic carbon (581 Mg ha-1 C to a depth of 1 m and water (8.6 million L ha-1 = 860 mm to a depth of 1 m. For this reason, these soils must not be drained as an alternative to mitigate CH4 emission, but effectively preserved.

  4. Simulating and understanding sand wave variation: a case study of the Golden Gate sand waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterlini-Van der Meer, Fenneke; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Hanes, D.M


    In this paper we present a detailed comparison between measured features of the Golden Gate sand wave field and the results of a nonlinear sand wave model. Because the Golden Gate sand waves exhibit large variation in their characteristics and in their environmental physics, this area gives us the

  5. Domestic wastewater treatment with a vertical completely drained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 7, 2007 ... A pilot scale constructed wetland planted with Amaranthus hybridus was developed for domestic wastewater treatment. The reactor system was composed of rectangular beds realized in cement. Each bed was filled from the bottom to the top with 0.1 m of gravel (15/25 mm) and 0.30 m of a white sand.

  6. 7 CFR 58.416 - Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables. 58.416 Section 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.416 Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables. (a) The vats, tanks and drain tables used for making cheese should be of metal construction with adequate jacket capacity for...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1455 - Draining of fluids subject to freezing. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draining of fluids subject to freezing. 25.1455 Section 25.1455 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 25.1455 Draining of fluids subject to freezing. If fluids subject to freezing may be drained...

  8. Prediction of Long-Term Drainage-Water Salinity of Pipe Drains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelleners, T.J.; Kamra, S.K.; Jhorar, R.K.


    Long term drainage water salinity of pipe drains is modeled with the advection-dispersion equation for the zone above drain level and stream functions for the zone below drain level. Steady-state water flow is assumed. The model is applied to two experimental pipe drainage sites in Haryana State,

  9. The Simple Urine Bag as Wound Drain Post-Craniotomy in a Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In the face of the practical non-availability of custom-made surgical wound drain materials, many other substitutes are used in developing countries. ... Data analyzed include the patients' brief demographics; the types of cranial surgery in which drain was used; the drain performance, and any associated ...

  10. An economic perspective on Malawi's medical "brain drain"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohiddin Abdu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The medical "brain drain" has been described as rich countries "looting" doctors and nurses from developing countries undermining their health systems and public health. However this "brain-drain" might also be seen as a success in the training and "export" of health professionals and the benefits this provides. This paper illustrates the arguments and possible policy options by focusing on the situation in one of the poorest countries in the world, Malawi. Discussion Many see this "brain drain" of medical staff as wrong with developed countries exploiting poorer ones. The effects are considerable with Malawi facing high vacancy rates in its public health system, and with migration threatening to outstrip training despite efforts to improve pay and conditions. This shortage of staff has made it more challenging for Malawi to deliver on its Essential Health Package and to absorb new international health funding. Yet, without any policy effort Malawi has been able to demonstrate its global competitiveness in the training ("production" of skilled health professionals. Remittances from migration are a large and growing source of foreign exchange for poor countries and tend to go directly to households. Whilst the data for Malawi is limited, studies from other poor countries demonstrate the power of remittances in significantly reducing poverty. Malawi can benefit from the export of health professionals provided there is a resolution of the situation whereby the state pays for training and the benefits are gained by the individual professional working abroad. Solutions include migrating staff paying back training costs, or rich host governments remitting part of a tax (e.g. income or national insurance to the Malawi government. These schemes would allow Malawi to scale up training of health professionals for local needs and to work abroad. Summary There is concern about the negative impacts of the medical "brain-drain". However a

  11. Study of Black Sand Particles from Sand Dunes in Badr, Saudi Arabia Using Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Abbas Khwaja


    Full Text Available Particulate air pollution is a health concern. This study determines the microscopic make-up of different varieties of sand particles collected at a sand dune site in Badr, Saudi Arabia in 2012. Three categories of sand were studied: black sand, white sand, and volcanic sand. The study used multiple high resolution electron microscopies to study the morphologies, emission source types, size, and elemental composition of the particles, and to evaluate the presence of surface “coatings or contaminants” deposited or transported by the black sand particles. White sand was comprised of natural coarse particles linked to wind-blown releases from crustal surfaces, weathering of igneous/metamorphic rock sources, and volcanic activities. Black sand particles exhibited different morphologies and microstructures (surface roughness compared with the white sand and volcanic sand. Morphological Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM analyses revealed that the black sand contained fine and ultrafine particles (50 to 500 nm ranges and was strongly magnetic, indicating the mineral magnetite or elemental iron. Aqueous extracts of black sands were acidic (pH = 5.0. Fe, C, O, Ti, Si, V, and S dominated the composition of black sand. Results suggest that carbon and other contaminant fine particles were produced by fossil-fuel combustion and industrial emissions in heavily industrialized areas of Haifa and Yanbu, and transported as cloud condensation nuclei to Douf Mountain. The suite of techniques used in this study has yielded an in-depth characterization of sand particles. Such information will be needed in future environmental, toxicological, epidemiological, and source apportionment studies.

  12. Understanding Colombian Amazonian white sand forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peñuela-Mora, M.C.


    Although progress has been made in studies on white sand forests in the Amazon, there is still a considerable gap in our knowledge of the unique species composition of white sand forests and their structure and dynamics, especially in Western Amazon. This thesis aims to fill this gap by addressing

  13. Pattern formation - Instabilities in sand ripples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. L.; v. Hecke, M.; Haaning, A.


    Sand ripples are seen below shallow wavy water and are formed whenever water oscillates over a bed of sand. Here we analyse the instabilities that can upset this perfect patterning when the ripples are subjected to large changes in driving amplitude or frequency, causing them to deform both...

  14. Silica sand resources in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Westerhoff, W.E.; Menkovic, A.; Gruijters, S.H.L.L.; Dubelaar, C.W.; Maljers, D.


    Silica sand, (almost) pure quartz sand, is a valuable and scarce mineral resource within the shallow Dutch subsurface. High-grade deposits are exploited in the southeastemmost part of the country, as raw material for the glass, ceramic, chemical and other process industries. Dutch land-use policy

  15. Excerpt of the Interview with Mathew Sands

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 9. Excerpt of the Interview with Mathew Sands. Mathew Sands Finn Aaserud. Face to Face Volume 16 Issue 9 September 2011 pp 881-885. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Seasonal fluctuations of phlebotomines sand fly populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An entomological survey of phlebotomine sand flies was conducted in the Moulay Yacoub province, central Morocco. An anthropic niche (Ouled Aid) and a wild niche (Zliligh) were selected. Sand flies were collected twice a month between April 2011 and March 2012, using sticky traps and CDC light traps. 3675 specimens ...

  17. Review of Sand Production Prediction Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rahmati


    Full Text Available Sand production in oil and gas wells can occur if fluid flow exceeds a certain threshold governed by factors such as consistency of the reservoir rock, stress state and the type of completion used around the well. The amount of solids can be less than a few grams per cubic meter of reservoir fluid, posing only minor problems, or a substantial amount over a short period of time, resulting in erosion and in some cases filling and blocking of the wellbore. This paper provides a review of selected approaches and models that have been developed for sanding prediction. Most of these models are based on the continuum assumption, while a few have recently been developed based on discrete element model. Some models are only capable of assessing the conditions that lead to the onset of sanding, while others are capable of making volumetric predictions. Some models use analytical formulae, particularly those for estimating the onset of sanding while others use numerical models, particularly in calculating sanding rate. Although major improvements have been achieved in the past decade, sanding tools are still unable to predict the sand mass and the rate of sanding for all field problems in a reliable form.

  18. Sand transportation and reverse patterns over leeward face of sand dune (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Dun, Hongchao; Tong, Ding; Huang, Ning


    Sand saltation has complex interactions with turbulent flow and dune form. Most models of wind-blown sand consider ideal circumstances such as steady wind velocity and a flat surface, and the bulk of data on wind flow and sand transport over an individual dune has focused mostly on the influence of dune shape or inter-dune space on the wind flow, neglecting the effect of morphology on sand saltation, particularly airflow and sand transportation over the leeward slope. Wind flow structures over the leeward slope of sand dunes have a fundamental influence on the organization of sand dunes. In order to understand sand dune dynamics, lee face airflow and sediment transportation should be paid more attention. Previous field observations could not measure turbulent flow structure well because of the limited observation points and the influence of experiment structure on wind field. In addition, the reverse sand particles over leeward face could not be collected by sand trap in field. Numerous field observations could not measure turbulent flow structure because of the limited observation points and the influence of experimental structures on the wind field. In addition, the reverse transport of sand particles over leeward face could not be collected by sand traps in field. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the turbulent flow structure and sand transport pattern over the leeward slope. A numerical model of sand saltation over slope terrain is constructed, which also considers the coupling effects between air flow and sand particles. The large eddy simulation method is used to model turbulent flow. Sand transport is simulated by tracking the trajectory of each sand particle. The results show that terrain significantly alters the turbulent air flow structure and wind-blown sand movement, especially over the leeward slope. Here, mass flux increases initially and then decreases with height in the reversed flow region in the direction of wind flow, and the mass flux

  19. The Effect of Sand on Strength of Mixtures of Bentonite-Sand (United States)

    Pakbaz, Mohammad C.; Khayat, Navid

    The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the effect of sand on strength of compacted samples of bentonite sand mixtures. Samples of bentonite with 10,30,50,70, and 80 percent by weight of sand at standard proctor optimum water content were compacted and tested to measure confined and unconfined strength. Unconfined strength of mixtures increased with percentage of sand until 50 percent and then it decreased thereafter. On the other hand, the confined strength of mixtures tested in triaxial UU increased with percentage of sand.

  20. Hematite Outlier and Sand Dunes (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 4 December 2003This image shows a crater just south of the edge of the famous hematite-bearing surface, which is visible in the context image as a smooth area to the north. The crater has two features of immediate note. The first is a layered mound in the north part of the crater floor. This mound contains hematite, and it is an outlying remnant of the greater deposits to the north that have otherwise completely disappeared in this crater. The second feature is a dune field in the center of the crater floor, with dark dunes indicating winds from the northwest. The dunes grade into a dark sand sheet with no coherent structure, indicating that the sand layer thins out to the south and east.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -4.4, Longitude 357.3 East (2.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Flowability in crushed sand mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera, O. A.


    Full Text Available The present experimental study explored the relationship between mortar flowability and the voids content in crushed sand to determine the effect of grain shape and surface texture as well as dust content on the behaviour of fresh mortar. The findings revealed a close correlation between voids content and the volume of paste needed for mortar to begin to flow as a continuous material, mortar flowability and the water content needed to attain a given flowability. The comparison of the empirical findings to the results obtained with the Larrard (1, 2 model provided further information on the effect of sand grain morphology on fresh mortars.

    En el presente trabajo se plantea un estudio experimental de la fluidez de morteros basado en el contenido de vacíos de arenas machacadas, para comprender la influencia de la forma y textura superficial de los granos de arena y del contenido de polvo de las mismas sobre el estado fresco de morteros. Los resultados muestran la estrecha relación entre el contenido de vacíos entre granos y los volúmenes de pasta necesarios para iniciar el escurrimiento como un material continuo, la fluidez de los morteros, el contenido de agua para alcanzar una determinada fluidez, etc. El comportamiento evaluado se compara con resultados obtenidos aplicando el modelo de F. de Larrard (1, 2, permitiendo de este modo obtener mayor información de la influencia de la morfología de los granos de la arena sobre el estado fresco de los morteros.

  2. Preserving inland drift sands in the Netherlands (United States)

    Riksen, M.; Sparrius, L.; Nijssen, M.; Keestra, S.


    Inland drift sands in the Netherlands are an important landscape type within the Dutch nature. They represent an important pioneer habitat which has become rare in European nature. Under current climate and environmental conditions (i.e. high N-deposition) these inland drift sands tend to be rapid colonialized by vegetation and therefor lose their aeolian activity. To maintain the area bare sand, managers regularly remove the vegetation. Lack of proper knowledge about the geomorphological processes and even more important on the geomorphological structure of these drift sands, could lead to the loss of characteristic dune structure. In an interdisciplinary research project a new management strategy was developed in which the geomorphological processes and structure form the base for the planning process. To improve the awareness of these aspects among nature managers we developed a management tool "PROMME". Several activities were taken to communicate this with the people involved in the management of drift sands like a brochure and field workshops.

  3. Ecological release in White Sands lizards. (United States)

    Roches, S Des; Robertson, J M; Harmon, L J; Rosenblum, E B


    Ecological opportunity is any change that allows populations to escape selection from competition and predation. After encountering ecological opportunity, populations may experience ecological release: enlarged population size, broadened resource use, and/or increased morphological variation. We identified ecological opportunity and tested for ecological release in three lizard colonists of White Sands, New Mexico (Sceloporus undulatus, Holbrookia maculata, and Aspidoscelis inornata). First, we provide evidence for ecological opportunity by demonstrating reduced species richness and abundance of potential competitors and predators at White Sands relative to nearby dark soils habitats. Second, we characterize ecological release at White Sands by demonstrating density compensation in the three White Sands lizard species and expanded resource use in White Sands S. undulatus. Contrary to predictions from ecological release models, we observed directional trait change but not increased trait variation in S. undulatus. Our results suggest that ecological opportunity and ecological release can be identified in natural populations, especially those that have recently colonized isolated ecosystems.

  4. Choosing an optimum sand control method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Khamehchi


    Full Text Available Formation sand control is always one of the main concerns of production engineers. There are some different methods to prevent sand production. Choosing a method for preventing formation sand production depends on different reservoir parameters and politic and economic conditions. Sometimes, economic and politic conditions are more effective to choose an optimum than reservoir parameters. Often, simultaneous investigation of politic and economic conditions with reservoir parameters has different results with what is expected. So, choosing the best sand control method is the result of thorough study. Global oil price, duration of sand control project and costs of necessary equipment for each method as economic and politic conditions and well productivity index as reservoir parameter are the main parameters studied in this paper.

  5. Ecological release in White Sands lizards (United States)

    Roches, S Des; Robertson, J M; Harmon, L J; Rosenblum, E B


    Ecological opportunity is any change that allows populations to escape selection from competition and predation. After encountering ecological opportunity, populations may experience ecological release: enlarged population size, broadened resource use, and/or increased morphological variation. We identified ecological opportunity and tested for ecological release in three lizard colonists of White Sands, New Mexico (Sceloporus undulatus, Holbrookia maculata, and Aspidoscelis inornata). First, we provide evidence for ecological opportunity by demonstrating reduced species richness and abundance of potential competitors and predators at White Sands relative to nearby dark soils habitats. Second, we characterize ecological release at White Sands by demonstrating density compensation in the three White Sands lizard species and expanded resource use in White Sands S. undulatus. Contrary to predictions from ecological release models, we observed directional trait change but not increased trait variation in S. undulatus. Our results suggest that ecological opportunity and ecological release can be identified in natural populations, especially those that have recently colonized isolated ecosystems. PMID:22393523

  6. Global sand trade is paving the way for a tragedy of the sand commons (United States)

    Torres, A.; Brandt, J.; Lear, K.; Liu, J.


    In the first 40 years of the 21st century, planet Earth is highly likely to experience more urban land expansion than in all of history, an increase in transportation infrastructure by more than a third, and a great variety of land reclamation projects. While scientists are beginning to quantify the deep imprint of human infrastructure on biodiversity at large scales, its off-site impacts and linkages to sand mining and trade have been largely ignored. Sand is the most widely used building material in the world. With an ever-increasing demand for this resource, sand is being extracted at rates that far exceed its replenishment, and is becoming increasingly scarce. This has already led to conflicts around the world and will likely lead to a "tragedy of the sand commons" if sustainable sand mining and trade cannot be achieved. We investigate the environmental and socioeconomic interactions over large distances (telecouplings) of infrastructure development and sand mining and trade across diverse systems through transdisciplinary research and the recently proposed telecoupling framework. Our research is generating a thorough understanding of the telecouplings driven by an increasing demand for sand. In particular, we address three main research questions: 1) Where are the conflicts related to sand mining occurring?; 2) What are the major "sending" and "receiving" systems of sand?; and 3) What are the main components (e.g. causes, effects, agents, etc.) of telecoupled systems involving sand mining and trade? Our results highlight the role of global sand trade as a driver of environmental degradation that threatens the integrity of natural systems and their capacity to deliver key ecosystem services. In addition, infrastructure development and sand mining and trade have important implications for other sustainability challenges such as over-fishing and global warming. This knowledge will help to identify opportunities and tools to better promote a more sustainable use

  7. A retrospective study of the use of active suction wound drains in dogs and cats. (United States)

    Bristow, P C; Halfacree, Z J; Baines, S J


    To report indications for use and complications associated with commonly used closed active suction wound drains in a large number of clinical cases. Retrospective review of medical case records (from 2004 to 2010) for dogs and cats that had a closed active suction drain placed into a wound. Only the four most common drain types were included: Mini Redovac®, Redovac®, Jackson Pratt® and Wound Evac®. Two hundred and fifty-three drains were placed in 33 cats and 195 dogs. Mini Redovac drains were used most frequently in cats (76 · 5%) and Redovac drains in dogs (54 · 3%). The infection rate for clean surgeries in dogs was 15 · 6% (unattainable in cats). Major complications occurred in four dogs; minor complications occurred in 12 drains in cats (35 · 3%), and in 74 drains in dogs (33 · 8%). There was no statistically significant association between the type of drain and complication rate for either species. Although closed active suction drains can be used with low risk of major complications, they lead to a high rate of infection in clean surgeries in dogs. It is recommended that such drains are kept in place for the shortest time possible and that strict asepsis is adhered to both during placement and management. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  8. Drain current local variability from linear to saturation region in 28 nm bulk NMOSFETs (United States)

    Karatsori, T. A.; Theodorou, C. G.; Haendler, S.; Dimitriadis, C. A.; Ghibaudo, G.


    In this work, we investigate the impact of the source - drain series resistance mismatch on the drain current variability in 28 nm bulk MOSFETs. For the first time, a mismatch model including the local fluctuations of the threshold voltage (Vt), the drain current gain factor (β) and the source - drain series resistance (RSD) in both linear and saturation regions is presented. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the influence of the source - drain series resistance mismatch is attenuated in the saturation region, due to the weaker sensitivity of the drain current variability on the series resistance variation. The experimental results were further verified by numerical simulations of the drain current characteristics with sensitivity analysis of the MOSFET parameters Vt, β and RSD.

  9. Is a closed-suction drain advantageous for penile implant surgery? The debate continues. (United States)

    Kramer, Andrew; Goldmark, Ellen; Greenfield, Jason


    The debate about leaving a closed-suction drain during penile implant surgery remains unsolved. What is the current thinking about the pros and cons of leaving a scrotal drain for inflatable penile implant (IPP) surgery? The aim of this study is to explore the fund of existing information, and formulate a point and counterpoint debate analyzing the drain issue for implant surgery. Two differing points of view are given to answer the question of benefit vs. risk drains in implant patients. To facilitate the debate about a longstanding urologic question. There are two conflicting points presented in this manuscript, one supporting drain placement, the other opposing it in light of the risks and benefits. Without prospective randomized controlled trials specifically looking at drain placement following IPP, it is unclear whether or not this intervention is beneficial. Until a study of this type is performed, leaving a drain will largely remain a surgeon preference. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. India: 'brain drain' or the migration of talent? (United States)

    Oommen, T K


    2 views on "brain drain" exist: 1) LDCs lose their enormous investments on higher education when skilled people migrate to other countries and 2) LDCs are exaggerating the problem and only a few skilled people migrate at 1 time. India does not completely lose its investment in education when professionals migrate, since the migrants still contribute to knowledge and also send remittances to relatives in India. Unemployed educated people would cause a greater drain on India's resources than educated migrants. The author prefers the phrase migration of talent to brain drain, since the former indicates a 2-way movement. Most migrants from LDCs are students. About 11,000 university graduates leave India every year for advanced study and/or work. A conservative estimate is that 2500 will remain abroad permanently. Most professionals who migrate go to the US and Canada. Factors promoting migration include 1) unemployment, 2) immigration rules, 3) colonial links, 4) financial incentives and material benefits, 5) pursuit of higher education, 6) improvement of working conditions and facilities, 7) avoidance of excessive bureaucratic procedures, and 8) compensation for the mismatch between Indian education and employment. Reasons for returning to India include 1) deference to wives who were unable to adjust to a foreign way of life, 2) contributing to Indian development, and 3) racial discrimination. It will probably not be possible to lure back migrants who left for material reasons. Attractive job offers could entice back those who left for advanced training. To encourage the return of those who left to pursue high quality research, India must 1) increase expenditure on research and development, possibly through the private industrial sector, 2) promote travel to other countries for professional enrichment, and 3) improve conditions of research work. The article concludes with an analysis of migration of talent from 3 perspectives: 1) the individual, 2) the nation

  11. The safe use of spinal drains in thoracic aortic surgery. (United States)

    Field, Mark; Doolan, Jim; Safar, Maria; Kuduvalli, Manoj; Oo, Aung; Mills, Keith; Kendall, Jonathan; Desmond, Michael


    Paraplegia is a devastating complication which may occur following surgery on the thoracic aorta. The use of a cerebrospinal fluid drain (CSFD) has helped reduce the incidence of neurological deficit; however, the management of patients with a CSFD postsurgery requires nurses and doctors to have expertise and awareness of the associated complications. The National Patient Safety Agency (UK) has highlighted a number of cases involving inadvertent spinal injections throughout the UK National Health Service (NHS). To this end we have introduced a protocol or 'care bundle' for safe CSFD care as well as drain management. The protocol was developed by medical and nursing staff at our institution based on clinical experience and literature reviews over a two-year period (2008-2010). Interventions undertaken during the development of the protocol included discussion with the UK National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA). Content of the protocol was reviewed by internal regulatory bodies within the hospital prior to ratification and general dissemination. Clear guidance is given within the policy on the standards expected when caring for the line and managing drainage according to agreed parameters of spinal cord perfusion pressure. The protocol constitutes five documents which guide staff in the care of CSFD, its routine management, documentation and interventions necessary once neurological deficit is detected. Document 1 which is a checklist, communication tool and aide-memoire was developed to ensure effective management, when the patient arrives in intensive care unit (ICU) from theatre. Document 2 ensures that early detection of a neurological deficit is noted and with Document 3 is acted upon immediately to reverse the injury. Document 4 provides information on the safe administration of analgesia via the spinal drain and has reference to the Glasgow Coma Scale. Document 5 is a bespoke observation chart for documenting CSFD pressure and cerebrospinal fluid drainage. In

  12. Randomized trial of drain antisepsis after mastectomy and immediate prosthetic breast reconstruction. (United States)

    Degnim, Amy C; Hoskin, Tanya L; Brahmbhatt, Rushin D; Warren-Peled, Anne; Loprinzi, Margie; Pavey, Emily S; Boughey, Judy C; Hieken, Tina J; Jacobson, Steven; Lemaine, Valerie; Jakub, James W; Irwin, Chetan; Foster, Robert D; Sbitany, Hani; Saint-Cyr, Michel; Duralde, Erin; Ramaker, Sheri; Chin, Robin; Sieg, Monica; Wildeman, Melissa; Scow, Jeffrey S; Patel, Robin; Ballman, Karla; Baddour, Larry M; Esserman, Laura J


    In this 2-site randomized trial, we investigated the effect of antiseptic drain care on bacterial colonization of surgical drains and infection after immediate prosthetic breast reconstruction. With IRB approval, we randomized patients undergoing bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction to drain antisepsis (treatment) for one side, with standard drain care (control) for the other. Antisepsis care included both: chlorhexidine disc dressing at drain exit site(s) and irrigation of drain bulbs twice daily with dilute sodium hypochlorite solution. Cultures were obtained from bulb fluid at 1 week and at drain removal, and from the subcutaneous drain tubing at removal. Positive cultures were defined as ≥1+ growth for fluid and >50 CFU for tubing. Cultures of drain bulb fluid at 1 week (the primary endpoint) were positive in 9.9 % of treatment sides (10 of 101) versus 20.8 % (21 of 101) of control sides (p = 0.02). Drain tubing cultures were positive in 0 treated drains versus 6.2 % (6 of 97) of control drains (p = 0.03). Surgical site infection occurred within 30 days in 0 antisepsis sides versus 3.8 % (4 of 104) of control sides (p = 0.13), and within 1 year in three of 104 (2.9 %) of antisepsis sides versus 6 of 104 (5.8 %) of control sides (p = 0.45). Clinical infection occurred within 1 year in 9.7 % (6 of 62) of colonized sides (tubing or fluid) versus 1.5 % (2 of 136) of noncolonized sides (p = 0.03). Simple and inexpensive local antiseptic interventions with a chlorhexidine disc and hypochlorite solution reduce bacterial colonization of drains, and reduced drain colonization was associated with fewer infections.

  13. Primum Nocere: Medical Brain Drain and the Duty to Stay. (United States)

    Ferracioli, Luara; De Lora, Pablo


    In this essay, we focus on the moral justification of a highly controversial measure to redress medical brain drain: the duty to stay. We argue that the moral justification for this duty lies primarily in the fact that medical students impose high risks on their fellow citizens while receiving their medical training, which in turn gives them a reciprocity-based reason to temporarily prioritize the medical needs of their fellow citizens. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  14. Brain-drain and health care delivery in developing countries. (United States)

    Misau, Yusuf Abdu; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Gerei, Adamu Bakari


    Migration of health workers 'Brain drain' is defined as the movement of health personnel in search of a better standard of living and life quality, higher salaries, access to advanced technology and more stable political conditions in different places worldwide. The debate about migration of health workers from the developing to the developed world has remained pertinent for decades now. Regardless of the push and pull factors, migration of health care workers from developing countries to developed ones, have done more harm than good on the health care deliveries in the developing countries. This article reviews the literature on the effects of cross-border migration of health care professionals.

  15. Right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Sidi, Daniel; Bonnet, Damien [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Batisse, Alain [Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, Paris (France); Vouhe, Pascal [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Ou, Phalla [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France)


    The right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium is a rare malformation causing cyanosis and clubbing in patients in whom no other signs of congenital heart defect are present. Diagnosis may be difficult as cyanosis may be mild and the anomaly is not always easily detectable by echocardiography. For this reason we report a 13-month-old male in whom we confirmed the clinical and echocardiographic suspicion of anomalous drainage of the right superior vena cava using multidetector CT. This allowed successful surgical reconnection of the right superior vena cava to the right atrium. (orig.)

  16. Application of Prefabricated Vertical Drain in Soil Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedjakusuma B.


    Full Text Available Although the use of Prefabricated Vertical Drain (PVD in soil improvement is not new, this paper is interesting since it gives the full spectrum from preliminary design stage; trial embankment and pilot test to final soil improvement. The final installation of the PVD was based on the soil investigation report and the results of instrumentation monitoring. Finally, using back analysis, vertical and horizontal coefficients of consolidation and compression index can be determined, which can be applied to predict a more accurate prediction of settlement.

  17. Fat Harvest Using a Closed-Suction Drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavit Amin


    Full Text Available We propose a safe, simple, and novel method to harvest fat using a standard liposuction cannula and a Redivac or alternative closed-suction drain. The authors have used this technique for both 'dry' and 'wet' liposuction. This technique is both easy to perform and cost-effective whilst providing both a silent and relatively atraumatic fat harvest. The lower negative pressure compared with traditional harvesting systems likely preserves fat integrity for lipofilling. This method maximises resources already held within a hospital environment.

  18. Responses of Young Slash Pine on Poorly Drained to Somewhat Poorly Drained Silt Loam Soils to Site Preparation and Fertilization Treatments (United States)

    James D. Haywood


    Slash pines (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii) were planted on poorly drained Wrightsville and somewhat poorly drained Vidrine silt loam soils in southwest Louisiana. Neither flat disking nor bedding increased pine growth and yield substantially after nine growing seasons, but broadcast application of triple superphoshate...

  19. Scaling laws in sand launch process (United States)

    Min, Li; Yang, Zhang


    As the bond linking the micro research to the macro research in wind-sand flow, the scaling laws on sand mean launch velocity and mean launch angle can be used to calculate the mean velocity and the transport rate, and they also play an important role in understanding saltation. However, universal scaling laws are still absent. In analogy to the fluid flows, the wind-sand flow is divided into three periods based on the way of sand taking off from sand bed, and the hypothesis on the scaling laws in each period is proposed. Then according to the hypothesis we deduce the sand concentration piece-wise function for saltation layer and also the critical shields numbers dividing three periods. The comparisons between the predictions and the experimental observations show that under a lower shields number the vertical mean launch velocity and the mean launch angle scale with the wind shear velocity and the square root of shields number respectively. However, under a higher shields number the vertical mean launch velocity scale with the sand diameter and the mean launch angle is almost constant at 700 or so.

  20. The Influence of Sand Grains Properties on Electrical Properties of Moulding Sand with Inorganic Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opyd B.


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of basic research on the influence of the properties of sand grains on electrical properties of water glass moulding sands. It shows electrical properties of the main component – sand grains, crucial to the kinetics of moulding sands heating, such as permittivity εr and loss factor tgδ. Measurements were carried out with the use of the perturbation method for silica, chromite and olivine sands of different mineral, chemical composition and particle size distribution, as well as for moulding sands with water glass grade 145. Analysis of the results of measurements of electrical properties shows that all moulding sands are characterized by a similar permittivity εr and loss factor tgδ. It was found that the electrical properties and the quantity and quality of other components may have a decisive influence on the effectiveness and efficiency of the microwave heating of moulding sands with sand grains. In determining the ability to efficiently absorb the microwave radiation for mixtures which moulding sands are, the impact of all components influencing their individual technological parameters should be taken into account.

  1. Fecal indicators in sand, sand contact, and risk of enteric illness among beachgoers (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Sams, Elizabeth; Dufour, Alfred P.; Brenner, Kristen P.; Haugland, Richard A.; Chern, Eunice; Wing, Steve; Marshall, Stephen; Love, David C.; Serre, Marc; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J.


    Background Beach sand can harbor fecal indicator organisms and pathogens, but enteric illness risk associated with sand contact remains unclear. Methods In 2007, visitors at two recreational marine beaches were asked on the day of their visit about sand contact. Ten to 12 days later, participants answered questions about health symptoms since the visit. F+ coliphage, Enterococcus, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides, and Clostridium spp. in wet sand were measured using culture and molecular methods. Results We analyzed 144 wet sand samples and completed 4,999 interviews. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were computed, comparing those in the highest tertile of fecal indicator exposure with those who reported no sand contact. Among those digging in sand compared with those not digging in sand, a molecular measure of Enterococcus spp. (calibrator cell equivalents/g) in sand was positively associated with gastrointestinal (GI) illness (aOR = 2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2–3.2]) and diarrhea (2.4 [1.4–4.2]). Among those buried in sand, point estimates were greater for GI illness (3.3 [1.3–7.9]) and diarrhea (4.9 [1.8–13]). Positive associations were also observed for culture-based Enterococcus (colony-forming units/g) with GI illness (aOR digging = 1.7 [1.1–2.7]) and diarrhea (2.1 [1.3–3.4]). Associations were not found among non-swimmers with sand exposure. Conclusions We observed a positive relationship between sand contact activities and enteric illness as a function of concentrations of fecal microbial pollution in beach sand. PMID:22157306

  2. Murzuk Sand Sea, Sahara Desert, Libya, Africa (United States)


    This near vertical view of the Murzuk Sand Sea, Sahara Desert, Libya (22.5N, 13.0E) shows the very diverse landscape that is part of the great Sahara Desert of North Africa. The vast expanse of sand dunes known as the Murzuk sand Sea of Libya and the adjacent rock outcrops support little human habitation. In fact, the tiny village of Murzuk with its center pivot, swing arm irrigated agriculture complex is the only sign of life in the region.

  3. Harry Sands (1917-2007). (United States)

    Ochroch, Ruth


    To everyone who knew and had worked with him, the death of Harry Sands on January 3, 2007, three days before his 90th birthday, resounded as though a mighty oak had fallen. Harry was a giant of a man, both as a human being and as a psychologist. Harry was born January 6, 1917, on the Lower East Side of Manhattan to Russian immigrant parents who ran a laundry. His bachelor's degree in psychology (1941) and his doctoral degree (1952) were both earned at New York University. Harry became a member of the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1943. With his breadth of experience and knowledge, as well as his firm foundation in management and finance, he eventually became a financial advisor to the APA Practice Directorate as well as to the American Psychological Foundation. As the executive director of the Postgraduate Center for Mental Health, Harry made creative strides to improve both the public awareness of the organization as well as its fiscal health. Harry was an active writer and researcher, with a particular interest in epilepsy and various psychoanalytic topics. 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  4. English and the Brain Drain: an Uncertain Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houtkamp Christopher


    Full Text Available In his book Linguistic Justice for Europe and the World, Van Parijs analyses in one of his chapters the brain drain from non-Anglophone to Anglophone countries, which hurts the economic development of the non-Anglophone states. Van Parijs deems it clear that English is a very important factor to explain high-skilled migration. He, therefore, urges the non-Anglophone countries to relax their linguistic territorial constraints and allow English as a communication language in many different sectors, most notably higher education and scientific research. This would remove the incentive for potential expatriate brains to migrate for linguistic reasons. This article takes a closer look at Van Parijs’ reasoning and proposed solutions. It is concluded that the assumed connection between English and high-skilled migration cannot be proven empirically for research on this topic is scarcely available. Furthermore, the solutions presented by Van Parijs will produce uncertain results at best. Van Parijs rightfully puts the brain drain problem on the political and research agenda, but much more additional studies are needed to formulate solid solutions.

  5. Consolidation by Prefabricated Vertical Drains with a Threshold Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Guo


    Full Text Available This paper shows the development of an approximate analytical solution of radial consolidation by prefabricated vertical drains with a threshold gradient. To understand the effect of the threshold gradient on consolidation, a parametric analysis was performed using the present solution. The applicability of the present solution was demonstrated in two cases, wherein the comparisons with Hansbo’s results and observed data were conducted. It was found that (1 the flow with the threshold gradient would not occur instantaneously throughout the whole unit cell. Rather, it gradually occurs from the vertical drain to the outside; (2 the moving boundary would never reach the outer radius of influence if R+1

  6. Drain Insertion in Chronic Subdural Hematoma: An International Survey of Practice. (United States)

    Soleman, Jehuda; Kamenova, Maria; Lutz, Katharina; Guzman, Raphael; Fandino, Javier; Mariani, Luigi


    To investigate whether, after the publication of grade I evidence that it reduces recurrence rates, the practice of drain insertion after burr-hole drainage of chronic subdural hematoma has changed. Further, we aimed to document various practice modalities concerning the insertion of a drain adopted by neurosurgeons internationally. We administered a survey to neurosurgeons worldwide with questions relating to the surgical treatment of chronic subdural hematoma, with an emphasis on their practices concerning the use of a drain. The preferred surgical technique was burr-hole drainage (89%). Most surgeons prefer to place a drain (80%), whereas in 56% of the cases the reason for not placing a drain was brain expansion after evacuation. Subdural drains are placed by 50% and subperiosteal drains by 27% of the responders, whereas 23% place primarily a subdural drain if possible and otherwise a subperiosteal drain. Three quarters of the responders leave the drain for 48 hours and give prophylactic antibiotic treatment, mostly a single-shot dose intraoperatively (70%). Routine postoperative computed tomography is done by 59% mostly within 24-48 hours after surgery (94%). Adjunct treatment to surgery rarely is used (4%). The publication of grade I evidence in favor of drain use influenced positively this practice worldwide. Some surgeons are still reluctant to insert a drain, especially when the subdural space is narrow after drainage of the hematoma. The insertion of a subperiosteal drain could be a good alternative solution. However, its outcome and efficacy must be evaluated in larger studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimating drain flow from measured water table depth in layered soils under free and controlled drainage (United States)

    Saadat, Samaneh; Bowling, Laura; Frankenberger, Jane; Kladivko, Eileen


    Long records of continuous drain flow are important for quantifying annual and seasonal changes in the subsurface drainage flow from drained agricultural land. Missing data due to equipment malfunction and other challenges have limited conclusions that can be made about annual flow and thus nutrient loads from field studies, including assessments of the effect of controlled drainage. Water table depth data may be available during gaps in flow data, providing a basis for filling missing drain flow data; therefore, the overall goal of this study was to examine the potential to estimate drain flow using water table observations. The objectives were to evaluate how the shape of the relationship between drain flow and water table height above drain varies depending on the soil hydraulic conductivity profile, to quantify how well the Hooghoudt equation represented the water table-drain flow relationship in five years of measured data at the Davis Purdue Agricultural Center (DPAC), and to determine the impact of controlled drainage on drain flow using the filled dataset. The shape of the drain flow-water table height relationship was found to depend on the selected hydraulic conductivity profile. Estimated drain flow using the Hooghoudt equation with measured water table height for both free draining and controlled periods compared well to observed flow with Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency values above 0.7 and 0.8 for calibration and validation periods, respectively. Using this method, together with linear regression for the remaining gaps, a long-term drain flow record for a controlled drainage experiment at the DPAC was used to evaluate the impacts of controlled drainage on drain flow. In the controlled drainage sites, annual flow was 14-49% lower than free drainage.

  8. Sand Lake WMD vegetation mapping project update (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report on the vegetation mapping project at Sand Lake Wetland Management District. This project is being completed by the use of SPRING software and ground...

  9. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.


    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a

  10. Supercritical solvent extraction of oil sand bitumen (United States)

    Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Tileuberdi, Ye.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Golovko, A. K.; Rudyk, S.


    The supercritical solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sand studied with organic solvents. The experiments were performed in autoclave reactor at temperature above 255 °C and pressure 29 atm with stirring for 6 h. The reaction resulted in the formation of coke products with mineral part of oil sands. The remaining products separated into SARA fractions. The properties of the obtained products were studied. The supercritical solvent extraction significantly upgraded extracted natural bitumen.

  11. Laboratory evaluation of selected tar sand asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, J.W.; Epps, J.A.; Gallaway, B.M.


    Three tar sand asphalts of similar grades prepared from one syncrude by three different refining methods were characterized by tests commonly used to specify paving asphalts together with certain special tests. Asphalt-aggregate mixtures were prepared using these asphalts and tested in the laboratory to determine strength stiffness stability, tensile properties, temperature effects and water susceptibility. Comparison of the tar sand asphalt properties to conventional petroleum asphalt properties reveal no striking differences.

  12. Pragmatics of reclaimed sand quality assessment recovered nowadays from various used sand systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dańko


    Full Text Available The assessment of the reclamation degree of used sands is not a simple, clearly defined issue. The great variety of technologies ofmoulding and core sands, based on the organic and inorganic binders does not allow the use of a single, universal index assessing thedegree of reclamation. The article presents the problems of research relating to selection of proper criteria for assessing the degree ofreclamation process of used moulding and core sands deriving from different technologies. The most often applied in practice types ofused sands and the most adequate in practice methods of assessing the degrees of their reclamation were characterized.

  13. Sand Dune Encroachment and Desertification Processes of the Rigboland Sand Sea, Central Iran. (United States)

    Ahmady-Birgani, Hesam; McQueen, Kenneth G; Moeinaddini, Mazaher; Naseri, Hamidreza


    Early studies on sand dune movement and desertification in Iran have not always been convincingly demonstrated because of problems with the field-based measurements. In some areas where various land uses have been engulfed by aeolian sand dunes, desertification is clear, but in other less settled areas, it may not be so obvious. The objective of this study is to demonstrate encroachments of the Rigboland sand sea, central Iran, in its different directions and variable magnitude rates. Determining the rate and direction of the sand sea movements is critical for specifying which lands should be prioritized and quickly protected. The study has trialed a change detection technique which uses a Cross-Tabulation module to compare two available LandsatTM images over the Rigboland sand sea. This indicates that within a ten-year span (from 1988 to 1998) more than 200 ha/yr were added to the Rigboland sand sea, from the alluvial fan landforms in the eastern upstream, outer margins of the Rigboland sand sea. Coupled with GIS techniques, this type of analysis of the remote sensing (RS) images provides an effective tool for the monitoring and prognostication of sand dune movement and sand sea change.

  14. Layers, Landslides, and Sand Dunes (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 27 October 2003This image shows the northern rim of one of the Valles Marineris canyons. Careful inspection shows many interesting features here. Note that the spurs and gullies in the canyon wall disappear some distance below the top of the canyon wall, indicating the presence of some smooth material here that weathers differently from the underlying rocks. On the floor of the canyon, there are remains from a landslide that came hurtling down the canyon wall between two spurs. Riding over the topography of the canyon floor are many large sand dunes, migrating generally from the lower right to upper left.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -14.1, Longitude 306.7 East (53.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Brain drain and health workforce distortions in Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Sherr

    Full Text Available Trained human resources are fundamental for well-functioning health systems, and the lack of health workers undermines public sector capacity to meet population health needs. While external brain drain from low and middle-income countries is well described, there is little understanding of the degree of internal brain drain, and how increases in health sector funding through global health initiatives may contribute to the outflow of health workers from the public sector to donor agencies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs, and the private sector.An observational study was conducted to estimate the degree of internal and external brain drain among Mozambican nationals qualifying from domestic and foreign medical schools between 1980-2006. Data were collected 26-months apart in 2008 and 2010, and included current employment status, employer, geographic location of employment, and main work duties.Of 723 qualifying physicians between 1980-2006, 95.9% (693 were working full-time, including 71.1% (493 as clinicians, 20.5% (142 as health system managers, and 6.9% (48 as researchers/professors. 25.5% (181 of the sample had left the public sector, of which 62.4% (113 continued working in-country and 37.6% (68 emigrated from Mozambique. Of those cases of internal migration, 66.4% (75 worked for NGOs, 21.2% (24 for donor agencies, and 12.4% (14 in the private sector. Annual incidence of physician migration was estimated to be 3.7%, predominately to work in the growing NGO sector. An estimated 36.3% (41/113 of internal migration cases had previously held senior-level management positions in the public sector.Internal migration is an important contributor to capital flight from the public sector, accounting for more cases of physician loss than external migration in Mozambique. Given the urgent need to strengthen public sector health systems, frank reflection by donors and NGOs is needed to assess how hiring practices may undermine the very systems they

  16. Greenhouse gases emission from the sewage draining rivers. (United States)

    Hu, Beibei; Wang, Dongqi; Zhou, Jun; Meng, Weiqing; Li, Chongwei; Sun, Zongbin; Guo, Xin; Wang, Zhongliang


    Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration, saturation and fluxes in rivers (Beitang drainage river, Dagu drainage rive, Duliujianhe river, Yongdingxinhe river and Nanyunhe river) of Tianjin city (Haihe watershed) were investigated during July and October in 2014, and January and April in 2015 by static headspace gas chromatography method and the two-layer model of diffusive gas exchange. The influence of environmental variables on greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentration under the disturbance of anthropogenic activities was discussed by Spearman correlative analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that the concentration and fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were seasonally variable with >winter>fall>summer, spring>summer>winter>fall and summer>spring>winter>fall for concentrations and spring>summer>fall>winter, spring>summer>winter>fall and summer>spring>fall>winter for fluxes respectively. The GHGs concentration and saturation were higher in comprehensively polluted river sites and lower in lightly polluted river sites. The three GHGs emission fluxes in two sewage draining rivers of Tianjin were clearly higher than those of other rivers (natural rivers) and the spatial variation of CH4 was more obvious than the others. CO2 and N2O air-water interface emission fluxes of the sewage draining rivers in four seasons were about 1.20-2.41 times and 1.13-3.12 times of those in the natural rivers. The CH4 emission fluxes of the sewage draining rivers were 3.09 times in fall to 10.87 times in spring of those in the natural rivers in different season. The wind speed, water temperature and air temperature were related to GHGs concentrations. Nitrate and nitrite (NO3-+NO2--N) and ammonia (NH4+-N) were positively correlated with CO2 concentration and CH4 concentration; and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was negatively correlated with CH4 concentration and N2O concentration. The effect of human activities on carbon and

  17. RF power FinFET transistors with a wide drain-extended fin (United States)

    Chen, Bo-Yuan; Chen, Kun-Ming; Chiu, Chia-Sung; Huang, Guo-Wei; Chen, Hsiu-Chih; Chen, Chun-Chi; Hsueh, Fu-Kuo; Chen, Min-Cheng; Chang, Edward Yi


    Drain-extended FinFET transistors for RF power applications have been fabricated and is presented in this paper. Power FinFETs with a wide drain extension are proposed to reduce the drain resistance. Compared with conventional drain-extended FinFETs, our proposed new devices exhibit lower on-resistances and better high-frequency performances while keeping a similar breakdown voltage. The enhancements of the on-resistance and peak cutoff frequency are 16 and 56%, respectively, under an optimal drain-extension layout. These experimental results suggest that FinFET transistors with a wide drain extension could be used for RF power applications, increasing the possibility of integrating RF power parts into future FinFET system-on-a-chip technologies.

  18. The Requirement of Sutures to Close Intercostal Drains Site Wounds in Thoracic Surgery. (United States)

    Smelt, Jeremy L C; Simon, Natalie; Veres, Lukacs; Harrison-Phipps, Karen; Bille, Andrea


    Chest drains are used routinely in thoracic surgery. Often a pursestring or mattress suture is used to facilitate closure of the defect on removal of the drain. This stitch can cause an unsightly scar, increase drain removal pain, and necessitate that the patient attend a community health care center to have this removed. The objective of this study was to assess whether this stitch is necessary in modern thoracic surgical practice. Data from a single surgeon's practice were collected over an 18-month period. During this time, all patients who underwent both emergency and elective thoracic surgery who had at least one postoperative chest drain of 28F or above inserted were included in the study. The surgeon did not routinely use a suture to close the drain site. In all, 312 patients underwent thoracic surgery during the 18-month period. Each patient had a range of 1 to 3 drains inserted of a size between 28F and 32F. No patients had drain sutures for closure of the drain site. Four patients had pneumothoraces after drain removal requiring further chest drain insertion. Five patients had superficial drain site infections. A single patient had to have a suture inserted at a local hospital owing to leakage from the drain site. The use of pursestring sutures in thoracic surgery is an outdated practice that causes not only unsightly scars but is also associated with increased pain. Furthermore, these unnecessary pursestring sutures place a burden on the patient and health care system to have them removed. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of an intervention in storm drains to prevent Aedes aegypti reproduction in Salvador, Brazil


    Souza, Raquel Lima; Mugabe, V?nio Andr?; Paploski,Igor Adolfo Dexheimer; Rodrigues, Moreno S.; Moreira, Patr?cia Sousa dos Santos; Nascimento, Leile Camila Jacob; Roundy, Christopher Michael; Weaver, Scott C.; Reis, Mitermayer Galv?o; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro,Guilherme Sousa


    Background Aedes aegypti, the principal vector for dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, is a synanthropic species that uses stagnant water to complete its reproductive cycle. In urban settings, rainfall water draining structures, such as storm drains, may retain water and serve as a larval development site for Aedes spp. reproduction. Herein, we describe the effect of a community-based intervention on preventing standing water accumulation in storm drains and their consequent infestation by ...

  20. Effect of an intervention in storm drains to prevent Aedes aegypti reproduction in Salvador, Brazil. (United States)

    Souza, Raquel Lima; Mugabe, Vánio André; Paploski, Igor Adolfo Dexheimer; Rodrigues, Moreno S; Moreira, Patrícia Sousa Dos Santos; Nascimento, Leile Camila Jacob; Roundy, Christopher Michael; Weaver, Scott C; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro, Guilherme Sousa


    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector for dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, is a synanthropic species that uses stagnant water to complete its reproductive cycle. In urban settings, rainfall water draining structures, such as storm drains, may retain water and serve as a larval development site for Aedes spp. reproduction. Herein, we describe the effect of a community-based intervention on preventing standing water accumulation in storm drains and their consequent infestation by adult and immature Ae. aegypti and other mosquitoes. Between April and May of 2016, local residents association of Salvador, Brazil, after being informed of water accumulation and Ae. aegypti infestation in the storm drains in their area, performed an intervention on 52 storm drains. The intervention consisted of placing concrete at the bottom of the storm drains to elevate their base to the level of the outflow tube, avoiding water accumulation, and placement of a metal mesh covering the outflow tube to avoid its clogging with debris. To determine the impact of the intervention, we compared the frequency at which the 52 storm drains contained water, as well as adult and immature mosquitoes using data from two surveys performed before and two surveys performed after the intervention. During the pre-intervention period, water accumulated in 48 (92.3%) of the storm drains, and immature Ae. aegypti were found in 11 (21.2%) and adults in 10 (19.2%). After the intervention, water accumulated in 5 (9.6%) of the storm drains (P storm drains also decreased after the intervention. This study exemplifies how a simple intervention targeting storm drains can result in a major reduction of water retention, and, consequently, impact Ae. aegypti larval populations. Larger and multi-center evaluations are needed to confirm the potential of citywide structural modifications of storm drains to reduce Aedes spp. infestation level.

  1. Revisited approach for the characterization of Gate Induced Drain Leakage (United States)

    Rafhay, Quentin; Xu, Cuiqin; Batude, Perrine; Mouis, Mireille; Vinet, Maud; Ghibaudo, Gérard


    This work presents a critical review and a re-investigation of the electrical characterization of Gate Induced Drain Leakage (GIDL) [1,2]. The underlying assumptions of the previously proposed extraction methods are exposed and their ability to capture Band-to-Trap mechanisms is discussed. A new approach is introduced to overcome some of the limiting assumptions made by the previous extraction methods. This new approach is benchmarked against the previously proposed ones. The results show that it enables a better extraction of the GIDL parameters compared to the conventional methods, by using the voltage dependency of the activation energy to gain insight in the electric field responsible for Band-to-Band Tunneling in the device. Finally, the experimental application of this new approach is carried out on cold process FDSOI MOSFET and confirms the ability of this new method to quantify the impact of trap assisted tunneling on GIDL.

  2. Differential radiodiagnosis of draining pararectal cysts and rectal fistulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushnikova, V.N.; Savvateeva, N.Yu.; Arablinskij, V.M.

    Proceeding from an analysis of multimodality examination and treatment of patients with difficulties in differential diagnosis, it has been established that proctography and fistulography play the most important role in radiodiagnosis. The presence of a multichamber cavity with clear even contours at the level of the medium- or lower ampullar region of the rectum is characteristic of draining pararectal cysts. The fustulous passage is single and unramified. Usually there is no connection between the cavity and fistula with the rectum. In rectal fistulas as a result of chronic periproctites the cavity is single, of uneven shape with unclear irregular contours at the level of the anal canal or lower ampullar region of the rectum. The fustulous passage is ramified, frequently connected with the rectal lumen.

  3. Wettable Ceramic-Based Drained Cathode Technology for Aluminum Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.N. Bruggeman; T.R. Alcorn; R. Jeltsch; T. Mroz


    The goal of the project was to develop the ceramic based materials, technology, and necessary engineering packages to retrofit existing aluminum reduction cells in order to reduce energy consumption required for making primary aluminum. The ceramic materials would be used in a drained cathode configuration which would provide a stable, molten aluminum wetted cathode surface, allowing the reduction of the anode-cathode distance, thereby reducing the energy consumption. This multi-tasked project was divided into three major tasks: (1) Manufacturing and laboratory scale testing/evaluation of the ceramic materials, (2) Pilot scale testing of qualified compositions from the first task, and (3) Designing, retrofitting, and testing the ceramic materials in industrial cells at Kaiser Mead plant in Spokane, Washington. Specific description of these major tasks can be found in Appendix A - Project Scope. Due to the power situation in the northwest, the Mead facility was closed, thus preventing the industrial cell testing.

  4. How Do Meningeal Lymphatic Vessels Drain the CNS? (United States)

    Raper, Daniel; Louveau, Antoine; Kipnis, Jonathan


    The many interactions between the nervous and the immune systems, which are active in both physiological and pathological states, have recently become more clearly delineated with the discovery of a meningeal lymphatic system capable of carrying fluid, immune cells, and macromolecules from the central nervous system (CNS) to the draining deep cervical lymph nodes. However, the exact localization of the meningeal lymphatic vasculature and the path of drainage from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the lymphatics remain poorly understood. Here, we discuss the potential differences between peripheral and CNS lymphatic vessels and examine the purported mechanisms of CNS lymphatic drainage, along with how these may fit into established patterns of CSF flow. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. External ventricular drain causes brain tissue damage: an imaging study. (United States)

    Ortolano, Fabrizio; Carbonara, Marco; Stanco, Antonella; Civelli, Vittorio; Carrabba, Giorgio; Zoerle, Tommaso; Stocchetti, Nino


    An external ventricular drain (EVD) is used to measure intracranial pressure (ICP) and to drain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The procedure is generally safe, but parenchymal sequelae are reported as a possible side effect, with variable incidence. We investigated the mechanical sequelae of EVD insertion and their clinical significance in acute brain-injured patients, with a special focus on hemorrhagic lesions. Mechanical sequelae of EVD insertion were detected in patients by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), performed for clinical purposes. In 155 patients we studied the brain tissue surrounding the EVD by CT scan (all patients) and MRI (16 patients); 53 patients were studied at three time points (day 1-2, day 3-10, >10 days after EVD placement) to document the lesion time course. Small hemorrhages, with a hyperdense core surrounded by a hypodense area, were identified by CT scan in 33 patients. The initial average (hyper- + hypodense) lesion volume was 8.16 ml, increasing up to 15 ml by >10 days after EVD insertion. These lesions were not accompanied by neurologic deterioration or ICP elevation. History of arterial hypertension, coagulation abnormalities and multiple EVD insertions were significantly associated with hemorrhages. In 122 non-hemorrhagic patients, we detected very small hypodense areas (average volume 0.38 ml) surrounding the catheter. At later times these hypodensities slightly increased. MRI studies in 16 patients identified both intra- and extracellular edema around the catheters. The extracellular component increased with time. EVD insertion, even when there are no clinically important complications, causes a tissue reaction with minimal bleedings and small areas of brain edema.

  6. Contribution of laser altimetry images to the geomorphology of the Late Holocene inland drift sands of the European Sand Belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungerius, P.D.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.


    The paper explores the possibilities of applying the analysis of laser altimetry images to Dutch drift sands. All along the European Sand Belt, which stretches from Great Britain to the Ural Mountains, Late Glacial cover sands, river dunes and other ice-age deposits were reactivated as drift sand

  7. Contribution of laser altimetry images to the geomorphology of the Late Holocene inland drift sands of the European Sand Belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungerius, P.D.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.


    The paper explores the possibilities of applying the analysis of laser altimetry images to Dutch drift sands. All along the European Sand Belt, which stretches from Great Britain to the Ural Mountains, Late Glacial cover sands, river dunes and other ice–age deposits were reactivated as drift sand

  8. Nuclear energy in the oils sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, J.E.


    The major Canadian oil sands are located in Alberta and Saskatchewan, with most production from the strata along the Athabasca River in Alberta. The economically recoverable oil sands reserves are estimated to be 168 billion barrels which at a current production rate of 1.8 million barrels per day (2012), are projected to last a very long time. Canada has been blessed with vast energy resources which make it potentially energy-independent and able to provide significant exports but there are concerns that their development cannot be managed in a wholly acceptable manner. Comparable concerns have been applied to nuclear energy in the past and in recent times to the oil sands. The technologies associated with these energy sources have always been controversial because they are at the confluence of economics and politics where finding a balance between risk and reward is difficult. So it should be no surprise that when these technologies get linked together in certain proposals their prospect for success is doubly difficult. The possible use of nuclear energy for production of oil from the oil sands dates back to the late 1950s, when an experiment to mine the oil by detonating an underground nuclear device was proposed. It was predicted that the heat and pressure released from such a device would create a large cavern into which oil would flow, and from where it would be pumped to the surface. Almost at the same time, oil sands research using conventional sources of energy had culminated with the development of practical refining processes, essentially those still in use today. These methods require large amounts of heat energy in the form of hot water and steam. In this century nuclear energy was proposed as the source for the heat required by the oil sands production processes. To date neither of these nuclear proposals for oil sands projects have been successful, because the economic and political balance could not be struck. (author)

  9. An evaluation of aeolian sand transport models using four different sand traps at the Hors, Texel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijma, M.P.; Lodder, Quirijn J.


    This report shows the result of an evaluation of how 12 aeolian sand transport models perform on a beach in Northwest-Europe. Their predictions are compared to measured rates of sand transport using four different traps. The efficiency of the different types of traps was also evaluated. From this it

  10. Simulating and understanding sand wave variation: A case study of the Golden Gate sand waves (United States)

    Sterlini, F.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Hanes, D.M.


    In this paper we present a detailed comparison between measured features of the Golden Gate sand wave field and the results of a nonlinear sand wave model. Because the Golden Gate sand waves exhibit large variation in their characteristics and in their environmental physics, this area gives us the opportunity to study sand wave variation between locations, within one well-measured, large area. The nonlinear model used in this paper is presently the only tool that provides information on the nonlinear evolution of large-amplitude sand waves. The model is used to increase our understanding of the coupling between the variability in environmental conditions and the sand wave characteristics. Results show that the model is able to describe the variation in the Golden Gate sand waves well when both the local oscillating tidal current and the residual current are taken into account. Current and water depth seem to be the most important factors influencing sand wave characteristics. The simulation results give further confidence in the underlying model hypothesis and assumptions. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Arruda Viana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Morphology studies assume significant importance in analysis of phenomena of granular systems packaging, in particular with a view to the use of the technique of soil stabilization named particle size correction in forest roads. In this context, this study aimed to develop and operationalize a Sand Grain Image Capture System and, hereby, determine the morphological indices of the sand fractions of two sandy soils called João Pinheiro (JP and Cachoeira da Prata (CP. Soil samples, air-dried, were sieved (2.0 mm nominal mesh size for removal of gravels. The materials that passed through the sieve were subjected to dispersion, washing in 0.053 mm nominal mesh size sieve, removal of organic matter and iron oxides to obtain the clean sand fractions. Subsequently, each soil sample was sieved for separation into twelve classes, between the diameters of 0.149 mm and 1.190 mm, using a Rotap shaker. Next, tests were carried out to characterize the morphometric attributes of the twelve classes of sand fractions of the soils studied. For validation of the performance of the Sand Grain Image Capture System, the results were compared to those obtained using a standard procedure for image analysis. The analysis of the results led to the following conclusions: (i the sand fraction of the JP soil presented higher values for the morphometric indices roundness, elongation and compactness compared to sand fraction of the CP soil; and (ii the Sand Grain Image Capture System worked properly, with practicality.

  12. Elution of Mixed Moulding Sands with the GEOPOL Binder and Core Sands with the Phenolic Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtzer M.


    Full Text Available Out of moulding and core sands used in the foundry industry, sands with organic binders deserve a special attention. These binders are based on synthetic resins, which ensure obtaining the proper technological properties and sound castings, however, they negatively influence the environment. Depending on the kind of the applied resin under an influence of a temperature such compounds as for example BTEX group and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs can be formed and released. During storing or economic utilization of used sand is possibility of eluting harmful substances into the environment. Therefore at assessing an influence of the used sand on the environment two above elements should be taken into consideration. Only such investigations provide the complete assessment of the given sand harmfulness.

  13. Fracturing in the oil-sands reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Y.; Yang, B. [Society of Petroleum Engineers (Canada); Xu, B. [BitCan G and E Inc (Canada)


    Oil sands reservoirs stimulation requires the use of steam or solvent in order to reduce oil viscosity, making for better recovery. Injection of these stimulants is generally achieved by hydro-fracturing and, given concerns over the impact of this on caprock integrity, a better understanding is needed of the phenomena involved during fracturing. Based on a review of the literature and on analytical, numerical and field data, this paper aims to explore the phenomena involved during hydro-fracturing of oil sands. Review of existing test data shows that oil sands have a clear dilatation tendency. Analytical derivation then compares the effects and occurrence of dilatation and tensile parting during hydro-fracturing, showing a dominance of dilatation, resulting in much higher porosity in the sands formation. Field data then confirmed these derivations, thus giving them an experimental validation. Glaciation is proposed as a cause for the presence of these phenomena in oil sands, thus the results can safely be extrapolated to other similar rock formations.

  14. Source/Drain Engineering for High Performance Vertical MOSFET (United States)

    Imamoto, Takuya; Endoh, Tetsuo

    In this paper, Source/Drain (S/i>/D) engineering for high performance (HP) Vertical MOSFET (V-MOSFET) in 3Xnm generation and its beyond is investigated, by using gradual S/i>/D profile while degradation of driving current (ION) due to the parasitic series resistance (Rpara) is minimized through two-dimensional device simulation taking into account for gate-induced-drain-leakage (GIDL). In general, it is significant to reduce spreading resistance in the case of conventional Planar MOSFET. Therefore, in this study, we focused and analyzed the abruptness of diffusion layer that is still importance parameter in V-MOSFET. First, for improving the basic device performance such as subthreshold swing (SS), ION, and Rpara, S/D engineering is investigated. The dependency of device performance on S/D abruptness (σS/D) for various Lightly Doped Drain Extension (LDD) abruptness (σLDD) is analyzed. In this study, Spacer Length (LSP) is defined as a function of σS/D. As σS/D becomes smaller and S/D becomes more abrupt, LSP becomes shorter. SS depends on the σS/D rather than the σLDD. ION has the peak value of 1750µA/µm at σS/D =2nm/dec. and σLDD=3nm/dec. when the silicon pillar diameter (D) is 30nm and the gate length (Lg) is 60nm. As σS/D becomes small, higher ION is obtained due to reduction of Rpara while SS is degraded. However, when σS/D becomes too small in the short channel devices (Lg =60nm and Lg =45nm), ION is degraded because the leakage current due to GIDL is increased and reaches IOFF limit of 100nA/µm. In addition, as σLDD becomes larger, larger ION is obtained in the case of Lg =100nm and Lg =60nm because channel length becomes shorter. On the other hand, in the case of Lg =45nm, as σLDD becomes larger, ION is degraded because short channel effect (SCE) becomes significant. Next, the dependency of the basic device performance on D is investigated. By slimming D from 30nm to 10nm, while SS is improved and approaches the ideal value of 60mV/Decade, ION

  15. Planet-wide sand motion on mars (United States)

    Bridges, N.T.; Bourke, M.C.; Geissler, P.E.; Banks, M.E.; Colon, C.; Diniega, S.; Golombek, M.P.; Hansen, C.J.; Mattson, S.; McEwen, A.S.; Mellon, M.T.; Stantzos, N.; Thomson, B.J.


    Prior to Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter data, images of Mars showed no direct evidence for dune and ripple motion. This was consistent with climate models and lander measurements indicating that winds of sufficient intensity to mobilize sand were rare in the low-density atmosphere. We show that many sand ripples and dunes across Mars exhibit movement of as much as a few meters per year, demonstrating that Martian sand migrates under current conditions in diverse areas of the planet. Most motion is probably driven by wind gusts that are not resolved in global circulation models. A past climate with a thicker atmosphere is only required to move large ripples that contain coarse grains. ?? 2012 Geological Society of America.

  16. Thermoluminescent dosimetric properties of Descalvado sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, M.I.; Caldas, L.V.E


    Sand samples proceeding from Descalvado, Sao Paulo, were studied with regard to their dosimetric properties using the thermoluminescence technique (TL) for high doses. These sand samples present steady physical and chemical characteristics to the end items, and they are used in the glass industry and for casting. The TL curves of the samples were obtained after an irradiation at the Gamma-Cell system ({sup 60} Co), of IPEN. The glow curves present two peaks at 80 C and 220 C approximately. Calibration curves were obtained for doses between 50 Gy and 5 kGy. The results indicate that the sand samples can be used for high-doses dosimetry in several areas of applications of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  17. On the Size Distribution of Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael


    by Bagnold and confirmed in numerous empirical studies. The model implies that the size distribution of a sand deposit is a logarithmic normal-inverse Gaussian (NIG) distribution, which is one of the generalized hyperbolic distributions. The model modifies a previous model, which implied a log-normal size-distribution......, variance and skewness of the log-size distribution to the physical parameters of the model. The results might be useful when comparing empirical size-distributions from different deposits. It is argued that size-distributions with the same general shape as the NIG-distributions can be obtained also when......A model is presented of the development of the size distribution of sand while it is transported from a source to a deposit. The model provides a possible explanation of the log-hyperbolic shape that is frequently found in unimodal grain size distributions in natural sand deposits, as pointed out...

  18. Permeability Tests on Silkeborg Sand No. 0000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Willy; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends on the charact......The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends...... on the characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Silkeborg Sand No. 0000. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. The apparatus, test procedures and the analysis method are described...

  19. Permeability Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends on the charact......The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends...... on the characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. Finally the test results are briefly summarised and a relationship between...

  20. Development tendencies of moulding and core sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw M. Dobosz1


    Full Text Available Further development of the technology for making moulding and core sands will be strictly limited by tough requirements due to protection of the natural environment. These tendencies are becoming more and more tense, so that we will reach a point when even processes, that from technological point of view fulfill high requirements of the foundry industry, must be replaced by more ecologically-friendly solutions. Hence, technologies using synthetic resins as binding materials will be limited. This paper presents some predictable development tendencies of moulding and core sands. The increasing role of inorganic substances will be noticed, including silicate binders with significantly improved properties, such as improved knock-out property or higher reclamation strength. Other interesting solutions might also be moulding sands bonded by geo-polymers and phosphate binders or salts and also binders based on degradable biopolymers. These tendencies and the usefulness of these binders are put forward in this paper.

  1. Sand transport, erosion and granular electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrison, J.P.


    The transport of granular materials by wind has a major impact on our environment through sand/soil erosion and the generation and transport of atmospheric dust aerosols. Terrestrially the transport of dust involves billions of tons of material every year, influencing the global climate...... can affect grain transport through the generation of intense electric fields and processes of electrostatic assembly. Importantly the transport of sand is characterized by saltation, which is known to be an active process for erosion and therefore a source for dust and sand formation. Using novel...... erosion simulation techniques the link between grain transport rates and erosion rates has been quantified. Furthermore this can be linked to production rates for dust and has been associated with chemical and mineral alteration through a process of mechanical activation of fractured surfaces. This work...

  2. Bioaugmentation of flow-through sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Elin Djurhuus

    MCPA degradation for prolonged periods in flow-through sand columns. In an expression study of catabolic genes with putative roles in phenoxy acid degradation, we observed a marked upregulation of catabolic genes cadA and tfdC upon exposure to MCPA, 2,4-D, dichlorprop and mecoprop in strain PM2, which...... coincided with efficient mineralisation/degradation, and proposed the tfdC gene as a suitable marker for monitoring phenoxy acid degradation in strain PM2. Furthermore, when testing strain PM2s degradation performance in flow-through sand columns, we found that strain PM2 was able to sustain induced...... for degradation performances in flow-through sand columns, with the aim of identifying a suitable inoculant strain for future environmental applications. Another aim was to identify a suitable genetic marker to monitor phenoxy acid degradation in strain Sphingobium sp. PM2. We were not able to link motility...

  3. Influence of thinning operations on the hydrology of a drained coastal plantation watershed (United States)

    Johnny M. Grace; R.W. Skaggs; H.R. Malcom; G.M. Chescheir; D.K. Cassel


    Forest management activities such as harvesting, thinning, and site preparation can affect the hydrologic behavior of watersheds on poorly drained soils. The effects of thinning on hydrology are presented for an artificially drained pine plantation paired watershed in eastern North Carolina. Outflow and water table depths were monitored over a 3-year study period...

  4. Mandibular impacted third molar Surgery and Drains: a review of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral surgeons have used drains after the surgical removal of mandibular impacted third molars to minimize postoperative morbidity with varying degrees of success. The use of a drain in association with primary suture after the surgical removal of the impacted lower third molars allows the patient to experience a more ...

  5. 77 FR 30886 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain (United States)


    ... Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety... interpretation of the term ``unblockable drain,'' as used in the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act... document does not alter the current requirement that public pools and spas be in compliance with the VGBA...

  6. Laparoscopic elective cholecystectomy with and without drain: A controlled randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouda El-labban


    Full Text Available Background : Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the main method of treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Routine drainage after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is an issue of considerable debate. Therefore, a controlled randomised trial was designed to assess the value of drains in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: During a two-year period (From April 2008 to January 2010, 80 patients were simply randomised to have a drain placed (group A, an 8-mm pentose tube drain was retained below the liver bed, whereas 80 patients were randomised not to have a drain (group B placed in the subhepatic space. End points of this trial were to detect any differences in morbidity, postoperative pain, wound infection and hospital stay between the two groups. Results : There was no mortality in either group and no statistically significant difference in postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting, wound infection or abdominal collection between the two groups. However, hospital stay was longer in the drain group than in group without drain and it is appearing that the use of drain delays hospital discharge. Conclusion : The routine use of a drain in non-complicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy has nothing to offer; in contrast, it is associated with longer hospital stay.

  7. Drain Tube-Induced Jejunal Penetration Masquerading as Bile Leak following Whipple’s Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ho Bae


    Full Text Available A 70-year-old man had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy due to a distal common bile duct malignancy. After the operation, serous fluid discharge decreased from two drain tubes in the retroperitoneum. Over four weeks, the appearance of the serous fluid changed to a greenish bile color and the patient persistently drained over 300 ml/day. Viewed as bile leak at the choledochojejunostomy, treatment called for endoscopic diagnosis and therapy. Cap-fitted forward-viewing endoscopy demonstrated that the distal tip of a pancreatic drain catheter inserted at the pancreaticojejunostomy site had penetrated the opposite jejunum wall. One of the drain tubes primarily placed in the retroperitoneum had also penetrated the jejunum wall, with the distal tip positioned near the choledochojejunostomy site. No leak of contrast appeared beyond the jejunum or anastomosis site. Following repositioning of a penetrating catheter of the pancreaticojejunostomy, four days later, the patient underwent removal of two drain tubes without additional complications. In conclusion, the distal tip of the catheter, placed to drain pancreatic juice, penetrated the jejunum wall and may have caused localized perijejunal inflammation. The other drain tube, placed in the retroperitoneal space, might then have penetrated the inflamed wall of the jejunum, allowing persistent bile drainage via the drain tube. The results masqueraded as bile leakage following pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  8. The current state of the evidence for the use of drains in spinal surgery: systematic review. (United States)

    Patel, Salil B; Griffiths-Jones, William; Jones, Conor S; Samartzis, Dino; Clarke, Andrew J; Khan, Shahid; Stokes, Oliver M


    Search for evidence pertaining to the effectiveness of drains used in spinal surgeries. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles pertaining to the use of drains in all types of spinal surgery. The bibliographies of relevant studies were searched for additional papers that met the initial inclusion criteria. Level I and II studies were scored according to guidelines in the Cochrane Collaboration Back Review Group. We utilised the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes and Study design (PICOS) method to define our study eligibility criteria. Nineteen papers were identified: four level I studies, eight level III studies and seven level IV studies. The four level I, involving the randomization of patients into 'drain' and 'non-drain' groups, identified a total of 363 patients. Seven of the eight level III retrospective studies concluded that the use of drains did not reduce complications. Two of the seven level IV studies agreed with this conclusion. The remaining five level IV studies reported the benefits of lumbar drainage following dural tears. There is a paucity of published literature on the use of drains following spinal surgery. This is the first study to assess the evidence for the benefits of drains post-operatively in spinal surgery. The identified studies have shown that drains do not reduce the incidence of complications in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, one and two level posterior cervical fusions, lumbar laminectomies, lumbar decompressions or discectomies and posterior spinal fusion for adolescent scoliosis. Further level I and II studies are needed.

  9. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.425 Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. The conveyor shall be constructed so that it will not contaminate the cheese and be easily...

  10. Filling, storing and draining. Three key aspects of landslide hydrology (United States)

    Bogaard, Thom; Greco, Roberto


    Rainfall-triggered landslides are among the most widespread hazards in the world. The hydrology in and around a landslide area is key to pore pressure build-up in the soil skeleton which reduces shear strength due to the buoyancy force exerted by water in a saturated soil and to soil suction in an unsaturated soil. Extraordinary precipitation events trigger most of the landslides, but, at the same time, the vast majority of slopes do not fail. The intriguing question is: 'When and where exactly can a slope become triggered to slide and flow downwards?' The objective of this article is to present and discuss landslide hydrology at three scales - pore, hillslope, and catchment - which, taken together, give an overview of this interdisciplinary science. In fact, for rainfall-triggered landslides to occur, an unfavourable hydrological interplay should exist between fast and/or prolonged infiltration, and a relatively 'slow' drainage. The competition of water storage, pressure build-up and the subsequently induced drainage contains the importance of the timing, which is indisputably one of the more delicate but relevant aspects of landslide modelling, the overlay of hydrological processes with different time scales. As slopes generally remain stable, we can argue that effective drainage mechanisms spontaneously develop, as the best for a slope to stay stable is getting rid of the overload of water (above field capacity), either vertically or laterally. So, landslide hydrology could be framed as 'Filling-Storing-Draining'. Obviously, 'Storing' is added to stress the importance of dynamic pressure build-up for slope stability. 'Draining' includes all removal of water from the system (vertical and lateral flow, evaporation and transpiration) and thus pore water pressure release. Furthermore, by addressing landslide hydrology from both earth sciences and soil mechanics perspectives, we aim to manifest the hydrological processes in hillslopes and their influence on behaviour

  11. A Threshold Continuum for Aeolian Sand Transport (United States)

    Swann, C.; Ewing, R. C.; Sherman, D. J.


    The threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport marks the initial entrainment of sand particles by the force of the wind. This is typically defined and modeled as a singular wind speed for a given grain size and is based on field and laboratory experimental data. However, the definition of threshold varies significantly between these empirical models, largely because the definition is based on visual-observations of initial grain movement. For example, in his seminal experiments, Bagnold defined threshold of motion when he observed that 100% of the bed was in motion. Others have used 50% and lesser values. Differences in threshold models, in turn, result is large errors in predicting the fluxes associated with sand and dust transport. Here we use a wind tunnel and novel sediment trap to capture the fractions of sand in creep, reptation and saltation at Earth and Mars pressures and show that the threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport is best defined as a continuum in which grains progress through stages defined by the proportion of grains in creep and saltation. We propose the use of scale dependent thresholds modeled by distinct probability distribution functions that differentiate the threshold based on micro to macro scale applications. For example, a geologic timescale application corresponds to a threshold when 100% of the bed in motion whereas a sub-second application corresponds to a threshold when a single particle is set in motion. We provide quantitative measurements (number and mode of particle movement) corresponding to visual observations, percent of bed in motion and degrees of transport intermittency for Earth and Mars. Understanding transport as a continuum provides a basis for revaluating sand transport thresholds on Earth, Mars and Titan.

  12. Sand control systems used in completing wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Wittenberger


    Full Text Available Expandable Tubular Technology is transforming the face of well completion and construction. This technology provides: a substantially higher hydrocarbon production rates from the reservoir, a reduced well drilling and construction costs, new possibilities for previously unreachable or uneconomic reservoirs, and step a change towards the single diameter well. ESS (Expandable Sand Screen has an unrivalled performance worldwide for delivering a reliable sand control in a wide range of applications. Well costs typically cut by over 20 %, and the productivity increases up to 70 %.

  13. Undrained Cyclic Behaviour of Dense Frederikshavn Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Kjær; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Sørensen, Kris Wessel


    A modified contour diagram is created for the Frederikshavn Sand in the undrained case for a relative density of ID = 80 %. It can be used to estimate the number of cycles to failure for a given combination of pore pressure, average and cyclic load ratio. The diagram is based on a series of undra......A modified contour diagram is created for the Frederikshavn Sand in the undrained case for a relative density of ID = 80 %. It can be used to estimate the number of cycles to failure for a given combination of pore pressure, average and cyclic load ratio. The diagram is based on a series...

  14. Sand dunes - a study of the different dune formations in the Namib Sand Sea, Namibia (United States)

    Sangunji, Antonio


    Sand dunes - a study of the different dune formations in the Namib Sand Sea, Namibia By: Antonio Sangunji, Academia Secondary School, Windhoek, Namibia The Namib Sand Sea has spectacular dunes, some of which are 5700 years old. Large, complex, linear dune in the northern part of the Namib Sand Sea provide new information on the age and internal sedimentary structures of these dunes, with important implications for interpretations of paleoclimates and the rock record of eolian sandstones. Academia Secondary School learners study several science subjects including Life and Physical sciences. As part of their Science course, they study the environment and landforms. To better understand the dune dynamics, several grade 8 pupils, 35 learners in total were taken to the field to demonstrate the formation of dunes. One of the highest points in the Namib Sand Sea - Dune 7 which is 388 meters was visited. Learners made models of the dunes in the classroom with different types of modeling clay, such as oil-based, polymer, dough and pottery clay. The learners also carried out hands-on exercises on the link between different types of sand, wind speed, size and altitude of the dunes. Field trips are a great opportunity for learners to learn how sand dunes are formed and show how simple experiments can be used to demonstrate dune formation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Migration is an old phenomenon in the history of humankind. However, the magnitude, complexity, and structure of migration flows in the global era are all unprecedented. According to the United Nations Report “Trends in International Migrant Stock: the 2015 Revision” at world level 244 million international migrants were recorded in 2015. With the increase in the number of migrants, the emigration of ‘high-skilled’ individuals is also growing. OECD and United Nation Statistics show that in the last decade the number of migrants with tertiary education increased by about 70%. Brain drain is also a well-known phenomenon. Highly educated individuals and scientists have travelled the world in all centuries in search of better study and research, and working conditions, and of new opportunities. Nowadays, in the era of globalisation and, implicitly, of swifter development of international markets, the emigration rate of high-skilled experts exceeds the total emigration rate, which shows the selectiveness of migration at educational level. The paper presents a brief analysis of the interdependencies between migration and globalisation and of the effects of globalisation on the migration of high-skilled individuals. The trends, structure, and volume of high-skilled labour force from Romania are analysed along with the effects generated by them.

  16. Hydraulic Capacity of an ADA Compliant Street Drain Grate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottes, Steven A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bojanowski, Cezary [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    Resurfacing of urban roads with concurrent repairs and replacement of sections of curb and sidewalk may require pedestrian ramps that are compliant with the American Disabilities Act (ADA), and when street drains are in close proximity to the walkway, ADA compliant street grates may also be required. The Minnesota Department of Transportation ADA Operations Unit identified a foundry with an available grate that meets ADA requirements. Argonne National Laboratory’s Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center used full scale three dimensional computational fluid dynamics to determine the performance of the ADA compliant grate and compared it to that of a standard vane grate. Analysis of a parametric set of cases was carried out, including variation in longitudinal, gutter, and cross street slopes and the water spread from the curb. The performance of the grates was characterized by the fraction of the total volume flow approaching the grate from the upstream that was captured by the grate and diverted into the catch basin. The fraction of the total flow entering over the grate from the side and the fraction of flow directly over a grate diverted into the catch basin were also quantities of interest that aid in understanding the differences in performance of the grates. The ADA compliant grate performance lagged that of the vane grate, increasingly so as upstream Reynolds number increased. The major factor leading to the performance difference between the two grates was the fraction of flow directly over the grates that is captured by the grates.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FISCHER, Jakub


    Full Text Available The Slovak Republic is experiencing a growing brain drain of elite secondary school students. Slovak human capital flows chiefly to Czech Higher Education Institutes (HEIs. The aim of this paper is to analyse who these Slovak students are to create a complete profile of Slovak students at Czech HEIs. We used a unique dataset based on the surveys EUROSTUDENT V and DOKTORANDI 2014 to explore differences between Czech and Slovak students, their financial situation and the functionality of the intergenerational transmission mechanism. We have found that Slovak students at Czech HEIs come from highly educated families and from the middle and higher class families significantly more often than Czech students at Czech HEIs or Slovak students at Slovak HEIs. Approximately 80% of them came from grammar schools. Slovak students also often have better language skills. We have discovered that Slovak students at Czech HEIs enjoy certain social benefits, slightly more often they have higher monthly income compared to Czech students, and they work slightly less often during their studies. Finally, according to our findings, Slovak doctoral students are often reluctant to return back to the Slovak Republic or to stay in the Czech Republic.

  18. Oculo-peritoneal shunt: draining aqueous humor to the peritoneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maldonado-Junyent


    Full Text Available In 2010, there were estimated to be approximately 60.5 million people with glaucoma. This number is expected to increase to 79.6 million by 2020. In 2010, there were 8.4 million people with bilateral blindness caused by glaucoma, and this number is expected in increase to 11.2 million by 2020. Filtering implants are special devices that have been developed to reduce intraocular pressure in patients with refractory glaucoma. The success rate of these implants is relatively low, and they continue to fail over time. To avoid failure caused by the formation of scar tissue around the implants, attempts have been made to drain the aqueous humor to various sites, including the venous system, lacrimal sac, sinuses, and conjunctival fornix. Recently, a system to shunt aqueous humor from the anterior chamber to the peritoneum has been developed. The surgical technique involved in this system is a modification of the technique currently used by neurosurgeons for the treatment of hydrocephalus. We present the first case operated using this technique.

  19. Operating sand and environment: can harmonising?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriton Geraldo Vieira


    Full Text Available Mining is considered one of the basic sectors of Brazil's economy. The mining activity provides basic raw material for industry, and several products from the simplest to the most complex have mineral origin. Most products mined in Brazil, by volume, are sand and crushed stone. The sand extraction activities are of great importance for social development, but equally responsible for negative environmental impacts, sometimes irreversible. Due to the location’s rigidity, the sand miner is forced to mine where there is mineral occurrence, which constantly is near the bottom of valleys and rivers, often coinciding with the riparian forests, which are considered to be permanently protected areas (APP. In this context, objective is to demonstrate through a dialectical approach, procedurally developed through literature the possibility of conciliating the exploration of ore sand in permanently protected areas. Thus, will be analyzed the rules established in the Law 12.651/12 (New forest law, as well as will be demonstrated the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of mining activities which have to be observed to achieve the environmental function of property. The research was supported by the qualitative method and its construction we used the technique of bibliographical and documentary review.

  20. A Triaxial Characteristic State Model for Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, S.; Borup, M.; Hedegaard, J.

    A non-associated plasticity model for sand is presented. The loading surface is a closed two-parameter surface in the principal stress space, determined by a size and a shape parameter. The shape parameter is determined explicitly from the slope of the characteristic line. For small mean stress...

  1. Sublittoral sand dollar (Echillodiscus bisperforatus) communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *To whom cnrrespondence should he addressed. **Prc~cnt Jddrcss: Sea hsheries Research Institute, Privsand communities and a numher of morphologically simi- lar species inhabit a variety of relatively sheltered habitats.

  2. Our Footprints on the Sands of Time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 1. Our Footprints on the Sands of Time. Partha P Majumder D Balasubramanian. General Article Volume 11 Issue 1 January 2006 pp 32-50. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. experimental investigation of sand minimum transport velocity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The production of reservoir fluid through long tiebacks/pipelines has emerged as one of the cost effective alternative especially for many marginal fields which can now be produced as clusters into a common processing facility. However, sand is often co-produced with the reservoir fluid especially when produced from ...

  4. Fatal toxoplasmosis in sand cats (Felis margarita). (United States)

    Pas, An; Dubey, J P


    The sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid occurring in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The sand cat captive-breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in Sharjah, UAE, has until recently been severely compromised by very high newborn mortality rates. Two different pairs of sand cats gave birth, respectively, to one and two litters (with a total of eight kittens) between 1999 and 2006. Seven out of eight kittens died between the third and 21st wk of life. Toxoplasmosis was confirmed as the cause of death in these two litters. Adult cats had high antibody titers to Toxoplasma gondii before pregnancy, suggesting that maternal immunity did not protect the kittens against infection with T. gondii and that maternal immunity might not have prevented transplacental transmission of the parasite. This observation contrasts with what is seen in domestic cats. To date, this is the first report on confirmed fatal toxoplasmosis and prevalence of T. gondii in sand cats.

  5. V-2 Rocket at White Sands (United States)


    A V-2 rocket takes flight at White Sands, New Mexico, in 1946. The German engineers and scientists who developed the V-2 came to the United States at the end of World War II and continued rocket testing under the direction of the U. S. Army, launching more than sixty V-2s.

  6. Sublittoral sand dollar ( Echinodiscus bisperforatus ) communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macrofauna, meiofauna and sediment parameters together with sand dollar abundance and distribution were recorded along transects with stations at 2 m depth intervals from 4 m to 12 m. A wave-induced, depth-related turbulence gradient was evident with both mean particle size and sediment sorting decreasing with ...

  7. Soil and humus development in drift sands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevink, J.; de Waal, R.W.; Fanta, J.; Siepel, H.


    In drift sand, incipient mineral soils with a very thin endorganic horizon develop towards highly acid soils with a thick, differentiated, mor to moder type ectorganic horizon and incipient podzolisation, within a period of about 100 years. This is due slow litter decomposition and associated soil

  8. Undrained Triaxial Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    of frictional materials during monotonic loading. The tests conducted includes undrained and constant volume tests, starting from different initial states of stress and following various stress paths. All the tests are performed on reconstituted loose to medium dense specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand....

  9. Dark grains of sand: a geological storytelling (United States)

    Gallo Maresca, Magda


    In the secondary Italian school the Earth science learning begins at first year, in synergy with other natural science subjects such as Astronomy, Chemistry and Biology. Italian teachers have to focus on the landscape geomorphological aspects and often Earth processes are difficult to display since they are related to certain phenomena happened during the past and often far from the involved country. In order to better understand the environment surrounding us, very simple and poor materials, like sands, allow the teachers to create attractive lab experiences. According to the IBSE (Inquiry Based Science Education) approach, a learning unit has been implemented starting from a walking along the light carbonate beaches of the Adriatic sea: a smart look to the sands ("engage step"), stroke the students fantasy pushing them to explore some strange black grains on the sands. Dirty sands? Or rock landscape, soil degradation and Ofanto river and coastal processes (erosion, transportation and deposition)? This was the teaching challenge. Due to the youngest age, a third level, guided inquiry, was adopted so the teacher is the "guide of inquiry" encouraging the students using the research question ("Why is the sand dark?", "Do all sands look the same?", "Where does it come from?") and driving the students around their investigation plans ("How can I measure grain size?"). A procedure to answer the above questions and validate the results and explanations has been implemented to allow the students to be proactive in their study. During the learning activities will be the students to ask for field trip to elaborate their new knowledge, verify and visualize the speculated processes. The teaching skills allow to address several geosciences domains such as mineralogy, petrology, regional geology and geodynamics as well as other scientific disciplines such as mathematics (more specifically statistics), forensic science and even life sciences (the presence of bioclasts might

  10. Characteristics of SCC with Fly Ash and Manufactured Sand (United States)

    Praveen Kumar, K.; Radhakrishna


    Self compacting concrete (SCC) of M40 grade was designed. The binder in SCC consists of OPC and fly ash in the ratio of 65:35. River sand was replaced by manufactured sand (M-sand) at replacement levels of 20,40,60,80 and 100%. An attempt was made to evaluate the workability and strength characteristics of self compacting concrete with river sand and manufactured sand as fine aggregates. For each replacement level, constant workability was maintained by varying the dosage of superplasticizer. T50 flow time, V Funnel time, V-funnel T5 time as well as compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of SCC were found at each replacement level of M-sand. They were compared to SCC with river sand. Results indicate favourable use of M-sand in preparation of Self Compacting Concrete.

  11. Triaxial and Torsional Shear Test Results for Sand (United States)


    Hettler & Vardoulais Compression Behavior of dry sand (1994)__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Vaid & Chem (1985) Cyclic...1, 2 and 3, ELE Internationa Limited, 1985. Hettler , A. W., and Vardoulakis, I., "Behavior of Dry Sand Tested in a Larger Triaxial Apparatus

  12. Fiber-reinforced sand strength and dilation characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M. Eldesouky


    Full Text Available Randomly distributed fiber reinforcement is used to provide an isotropic increase in the sand shear strength. The previous studies were not consistent regarding the fibers effect on the volumetric change behavior of fiber-reinforced sand. In this paper, direct shear tests are conducted on 108 specimens to investigate the effects of the fibers content, relative density, normal stress and moisture content on the shear strength and volumetric change behaviors of fiber-reinforced sand. The study investigates also the possibility of using dry fiber-reinforced sand as an alternative to heavily compacted unreinforced moist sand. The results indicate that the fibers inclusion increases the shear strength and dilation of sand. Moisture suppresses the fibers effect on the peak and post-peak shear strengths, and dilation. Dry loose fiber-reinforced sand achieves the same shear strength of heavily compacted unreinforced moist sand, yet at more than double the horizontal displacement.

  13. Mineral resource of the month: industrial sand and gravel (United States)

    Dolley, Thomas


    With many diverse uses, industrial sand and gravel, also known as silica sand, is one of the most important nonmetallic minerals in the world. Industrial sand and gravel is a mining industry term used for sands that have a very high percentage of silicon dioxide, or greater than 95 percent quartz. Deposits of industrial sand and gravel can be found virtually everywhere on Earth, but are less widespread than deposits of common construction sand and gravel. Industrial sand and gravel is distinctive in grain size, hardness, inertness and resistance to high temperature and chemical action. Beverage containers, fiberglass insulation, fiber-optic cables and light bulbs are just some of today’s many products produced from industrial sand and gravel.

  14. Oil sands fever : the environmental implications of Canada's oil sands rush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woynillowicz, D.; Severson-Baker, C.; Raynolds, M.


    This report puts forward recommendations to improve the environmental management of oil sands while calling for an accelerated transition towards sustainable energy in Canada. It presents a historical discussion and background of Canada's oil sands rush and discusses making oil from tar, fuel consumption by oil sand operations, and transportation to refineries. Climate change consequences such as escalating greenhouse gas emissions, emissions intensity, the Kyoto commitment and taking meaningful action are identified along with the cumulative environmental impacts on water, land and air. The paper addressed the issue of managing these cumulative impacts and protecting the environment. Government assistance and subsidies were discussed with reference to Alberta's favourable royalty regime and federal tax breaks. Last, the report discussed stewardship and leadership for responsible oil sand use, climate protection, regional environment protection and establishment of an equitable fiscal regime. 266 refs., 7 tabs., 34 figs.

  15. Incipient Motion of Sand and Oil Agglomerates (United States)

    Nelson, T. R.; Dalyander, S.; Jenkins, R. L., III; Penko, A.; Long, J.; Frank, D. P.; Braithwaite, E. F., III; Calantoni, J.


    Weathered oil mixed with sediment in the surf zone in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, forming large mats of sand and oil. Wave action fragmented the mats into sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs) with diameters of about 1 to 10 cm. These SOAs were transported by waves and currents along the Gulf Coast, and have been observed on beaches for years following the spill. SOAs are composed of 70%-95% sand by mass, with an approximate density of 2107 kg/m³. To measure the incipient motion of SOAs, experiments using artificial SOAs were conducted in the Small-Oscillatory Flow Tunnel at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory under a range of hydrodynamic forcing. Spherical and ellipsoidal SOAs ranging in size from 0.5 to 10 cm were deployed on a fixed flat bed, a fixed rippled bed, and a movable sand bed. In the case of the movable sand bed, SOAs were placed both proud and partially buried. Motion was tracked with high-definition video and with inertial measurement units embedded in some of the SOAs. Shear stress and horizontal pressure gradients, estimated from velocity measurements made with a Nortek Vectrino Profiler, were compared with observed mobility to assess formulations for incipient motion. For SOAs smaller than 1 cm in diameter, incipient motion of spherical and ellipsoidal SOAs was consistent with predicted critical stress values. The measured shear stress at incipient motion of larger, spherical SOAs was lower than predicted, indicating an increased dependence on the horizontal pressure gradient. In contrast, the measured shear stress required to move ellipsoidal SOAs was higher than predicted, even compared to values modified for larger particles in mixed-grain riverine environments. The laboratory observations will be used to improve the prediction of incipient motion, transport, and seafloor interaction of SOAs.

  16. Oxic limestone drains for treatment of dilute, acidic mine drainage (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.


    Limestone treatment systems can be effective for remediation of acidic mine drainage (AMD) that contains moderate concentrations of dissolved O2 , Fe3+ , or A13+ (1‐5 mg‐L‐1 ). Samples of water and limestone were collected periodically for 1 year at inflow, outflow, and intermediate points within underground, oxic limestone drains (OLDs) in Pennsylvania to evaluate the transport of dissolved metals and the effect of pH and Fe‐ and Al‐hydrolysis products on the rate of limestone dissolution. The influent was acidic and relatively dilute (pH 1 mg‐L‐1 ) but was near neutral (pH = 6.2‐7.0); Fe and Al decreased to less than 5% of influent concentrations. As pH increased near the inflow, hydrous Fe and Al oxides precipitated in the OLDs. The hydrous oxides, nominally Fe(OH)3 and AI(OH)3, were visible as loosely bound, orange‐yellow coatings on limestone near the inflow. As time elapsed, Fe(OH)3 and AI(OH)3 particles were transported downflow. During the first 6 months of the experiment, Mn 2+ was transported conservatively through the OLDs; however, during the second 6 months, concentrations of Mn in effluent decreased by about 50% relative to influent. The accumulation of hydrous oxides and elevated pH (>5) in the downflow part of the OLDs promoted sorption and coprecipitation of Mn as indicated by its enrichment relative to Fe in hydrous‐oxide particles and coatings on limestone. Despite thick (~1 mm) hydrous‐oxide coatings on limestone near the inflow, CaCO3 dissolution was more rapid near the inflow than at downflow points within the OLD where the limestone was not coated. The rate of limestone dissolution decreased with increased residence time, pH, and concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3‐ and decreased PCO2. The following overall reaction shows alkalinity as an ultimate product of the iron hydrolysis reaction in an OLD:Fe2+ + 0.25 O2 +CaCO3 + 2.5 H2O --> Fe(OH)3 + 2 Ca2+ + 2 HCO3-where 2 moles of CaCO3 dissolve for each mole of Fe(OH)3 produced

  17. Homogenization of one-dimensional draining through heterogeneous porous media including higher-order approximations (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel M.; McLaughlin, Richard M.; Miller, Cass T.


    We examine a mathematical model of one-dimensional draining of a fluid through a periodically-layered porous medium. A porous medium, initially saturated with a fluid of a high density is assumed to drain out the bottom of the porous medium with a second lighter fluid replacing the draining fluid. We assume that the draining layer is sufficiently dense that the dynamics of the lighter fluid can be neglected with respect to the dynamics of the heavier draining fluid and that the height of the draining fluid, represented as a free boundary in the model, evolves in time. In this context, we neglect interfacial tension effects at the boundary between the two fluids. We show that this problem admits an exact solution. Our primary objective is to develop a homogenization theory in which we find not only leading-order, or effective, trends but also capture higher-order corrections to these effective draining rates. The approximate solution obtained by this homogenization theory is compared to the exact solution for two cases: (1) the permeability of the porous medium varies smoothly but rapidly and (2) the permeability varies as a piecewise constant function representing discrete layers of alternating high/low permeability. In both cases we are able to show that the corrections in the homogenization theory accurately predict the position of the free boundary moving through the porous medium.

  18. Maintenance of agricultural drains alters physical habitat, but not macroinvertebrate assemblages exploited by fishes. (United States)

    Ward-Campbell, Belinda; Cottenie, Karl; Mandrak, Nicholas; McLaughlin, Robert


    The effects of drain maintenance on fish habitat and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages (fish prey) were investigated for eight agricultural drains in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Our investigation employed a replicated Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) design where each maintained section of a drain was paired with an unmaintained section downstream and an unmaintained section on a nearby reference drain of similar size and position in the watershed. Seven variables characterizing physical habitat features important to fishes and three variables characterizing the taxonomic abundance, densities, and relative densities of benthic macroinvertebrates were measured before drain maintenance and 10-12 times over 2 years following maintenance. Pulse responses were detected for three habitat variables quantifying vegetative cover: percent vegetation on the bank, percent in-stream vegetation, and percent cover. All three variables returned to pre-maintenance levels within two years of maintenance. No consistent changes were observed in the remaining habitat features or in the richness and densities of benthic invertebrate assemblages following drain maintenance. Our findings suggest that key features of fish habitat, structural properties and food availability, are resistant to drain maintenance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of pond draining on biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. (United States)

    Usio, Nisikawa; Imada, Miho; Nakagawa, Megumi; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Takamura, Noriko


    Farm ponds have high conservation value because they contribute significantly to regional biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Japan pond draining is a traditional management method that is widely believed to improve water quality and eradicate invasive fish. In addition, fishing by means of pond draining has significant cultural value for local people, serving as a social event. However, there is a widespread belief that pond draining reduces freshwater biodiversity through the extirpation of aquatic animals, but scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of pond draining is lacking. We conducted a large-scale field study to evaluate the effects of pond draining on invasive animal control, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity relative to different pond-management practices, pond physicochemistry, and surrounding land use. The results of boosted regression-tree models and analyses of similarity showed that pond draining had little effect on invasive fish control, water quality, or aquatic biodiversity. Draining even facilitated the colonization of farm ponds by invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which in turn may have detrimental effects on the biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current pond management and developing management plans with respect to multifunctionality of such ponds. Efectos del Drenado de Estanques sobre la Biodiversidad y la Calidad del Agua en Estanques de Cultivo. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Stormwater drains and catch basins as sources for production of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. (United States)

    Arana-Guardia, Roger; Baak-Baak, Carlos M; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars; García-Rejón, Julián E


    We present data showing that structures serving as drains and catch basins for stormwater are important sources for production of the mosquito arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Mérida City, México. We examined 1761 stormwater drains - located in 45 different neighborhoods spread across the city - over dry and wet seasons from March 2012 to March 2013. Of the examined stormwater drains, 262 (14.9%) held water at the time they were examined and 123 yielded mosquito immatures. In total, we collected 64,560 immatures representing nine species. The most commonly encountered species were Cx. quinquefasciatus (n=39,269) and Ae. aegypti (n=23,313). Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were collected during all 11 months when we found water-filled stormwater drains, and both were found in stormwater drains located throughout Mérida City. We also present data for associations between structural characteristics of stormwater drains or water-related characteristics and the abundance of mosquito immatures. In conclusion, stormwater drains produce massive numbers of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus across Mérida City, both in the wet and dry seasons, and represent non-residential development sites that should be strongly considered for inclusion in the local mosquito surveillance and control program. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Geochemical evidence for a Cretaceous oil sand (Bima oil sand) in the Chad Basin, Nigeria (United States)

    Bata, Timothy; Parnell, John; Samaila, Nuhu K.; Abubakar, M. B.; Maigari, A. S.


    Paleogeographic studies have shown that Earth was covered with more water during the Cretaceous than it is today, as the global sea level was significantly higher. The Cretaceous witnessed one of the greatest marine transgressions in Earth's history, represented by widespread deposition of sands directly on underlying basement. These sand bodies hold much of the world's heavy oil. Here, we present for the first time, geochemical evidence of a Cretaceous oil sand (Bima oil sand) in the Chad Basin, Nigeria. Bima oil sand is similar to other Cretaceous oil sands, predominantly occurring at shallow depths on basin flanks and generally lacking a seal cover, making the oil susceptible to biodegradation. The bulk properties and distribution of molecular features in oils from the Bima oil sand suggest that they are biodegraded. Sterane maturity parameters and the trisnorhopane thermal indicator for the oils suggest thermal maturities consistent with oils generated as conventional light oils, which later degraded into heavy oils. These oils also show no evidence of 25-norhopane, strongly suggesting that biodegradation occurred at shallow depths, consistent with the shallow depth of occurrence of the Bima Formation at the study locality. Low diasterane/sterane ratios and C29H/C30H ratios greater than 1 suggest a carbonate source rock for the studied oil. The Sterane distribution further suggests that the oils were sourced from marine carbonate rocks. The C32 homohopane isomerization ratios for the Bima oil sand are 0.59-0.60, implying that the source rock has surpassed the main oil generation phase, consistent with burial depths of the Fika and Gongila Formations, which are both possible petroleum source rocks in the basin.

  2. Assessing the biodegradability of microparticles disposed down the drain. (United States)

    McDonough, Kathleen; Itrich, Nina; Casteel, Kenneth; Menzies, Jennifer; Williams, Tom; Krivos, Kady; Price, Jason


    Microparticles made from naturally occurring materials or biodegradable plastics such as poly(3-hydroxy butyrate)-co-(3-hydroxy valerate), PHBV, are being evaluated as alternatives to microplastics in personal care product applications but limited data is available on their ultimate biodegradability (mineralization) in down the drain environmental compartments. An OECD 301B Ready Biodegradation Test was used to quantify ultimate biodegradability of microparticles made of PHBV foam, jojoba wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, stearyl stearate, blueberry seeds and walnut shells. PHBV polymer was ready biodegradable reaching 65.4 ± 4.1% evolved CO2 in 5 d and 90.5 ± 3.1% evolved CO2 in 80 d. PHBV foam microparticles (125-500 μm) were mineralized extensively with >66% CO2 evolution in 28 d and >82% CO2 evolution in 80 d. PHBV foam microparticles were mineralized at a similar rate and extent as microparticles made of jojoba wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, and stearyl stearate which reached 84.8  ± 4.8, 84.9  ± 2.2, 82.7  ± 4.7, and 86.4 ± 3.2% CO2 evolution respectively in 80 d. Blueberry seeds and walnut shells mineralized more slowly only reaching 39.3  ± 6.9 and 5.1 ± 2.8% CO2 evolution in 80 d respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Schaefer, Kevin; Gusmeroli, Alessio; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Zhang, Tinjun; Parsekian, Andrew; Zebker, Howard


    Drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs) are ubiquitous landforms on Arctic tundra lowland. Their dynamic states are seldom investigated, despite their importance for landscape stability, hydrology, nutrient fluxes, and carbon cycling. Here we report results based on high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements using space-borne data for a study area located on the North Slope of Alaska near Prudhoe Bay, where we focus on the seasonal thaw settlement within DTLBs, averaged between 2006 and 2010. The majority (14) of the 18 DTLBs in the study area exhibited seasonal thaw settlement of 3–4 cm. However, four of the DTLBs examined exceeded 4 cm of thaw settlement, with one basin experiencing up to 12 cm. Combining the InSAR observations with the in situ active layer thickness measured using ground penetrating radar and mechanical probing, we calculated thaw strain, an index of thaw settlement strength along a transect across the basin that underwent large thaw settlement. We found thaw strains of 10–35% at the basin center, suggesting the seasonal melting of ground ice as a possible mechanism for the large settlement. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of permafrost landforms, demonstrate the capability of the InSAR technique to remotely monitor surface deformation of individual DTLBs, and illustrate the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations to estimate thaw strain. Our study highlights the need for better description of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-scale processes for regional assessment of surface dynamics on Arctic coastal lowlands.

  4. Advanced testing and characterization of transportation soils and bituminous sands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph


    Full Text Available Modulus with Hydrostatic Stress for Oil Sands at 30oC. .......... 79 FIGURE 4.7 Bulk Modulus Model 3 Performances for Oil Sand Samples at 20oC................... 82 FIGURE 4.8 Bulk Modulus Model 3 Performances for Oil Sand Samples at 30o... of Resilient Modulus with Applied Deviator Stress at Two Test Temperatures for AU-14 Sample............................................................................................. 140 FIGURE 6.15 Performances of the SE-09 Oil sand Sample Resilient...

  5. Research on the evaporation of gasoline on beach sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berqueiro, J.R.; Dominguez, F.; Pons, J.M

    Gasoline evaporation is an importent factor in spill behavour. When a gasoline spill occurs on beach sand, part of the gasoline is spread over the sand surface while the rest is being absorbed. The spread and absorption rate depend on, amoung other things, the permeability of the sand which in turn also depends on it's water content. It is important to study the effects of gasoline evaporation on sand beaches in order to determine when risk of explosion is low, so that cleaning of the polluted beach surface can be carried out without danger. The effects of the evaporation of 90 and 97 octane (normal and super) gasoline on beach sand have been studied using the tray evaporation technique as described in the literature. The size of the sand particles have been included along with temperature and air speed as variables in the evaporation process. The effects of gasoline on the retention capacity of three distinct types of sand particles, as well as the effects of water in the sand, have been studied for normal and super gasolines. The following conclusions can be drawn: sand retention capacity is inversely proportional to sand particle size; when sand is moistened, its gasoline retention capacity increases proportionally with the decreasing particle size; with the same sand fractions and air speed conditions; the evaporation rate increases with increasing air speeds; with the same sand fractions and air speed conditions the evaporation rate increases with temperature; given the same temperature and air conditions, a gasoline spill on coarse sand evaporates faster than one on medium sand; and given the same temperatures and air speed conditions, the evaporation rate of normal gasoline spreading over any of the three types of sand is always higher than super gasoline due to the higher volatility of the 90 octane gasoline. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Use of multiple drains after mastectomy is associated with more patient discomfort and longer postoperative stay. (United States)

    Saratzis, Athanasios; Soumian, Soni; Willetts, Rachel; Rastall, Sarah; Stonelake, Paul S


    Seromas constitute a common complication following surgery for breast cancer, and closed drainage is used routinely to reduce its incidence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of number of drains on patient discomfort, seroma formation, and hospital stay during the immediate postoperative period after mastectomy for breast cancer. Based on a retrospective review of our clinical database, 110 consecutive patients from January 2004 through January 2006 who had undergone a mastectomy and axillary clearance for breast cancer were sent a simple postal questionnaire for collection of data. A total of 70 patients responded (all women; mean age, 69.4 +/- 11.4 years). Twenty-seven patients (38.57%) had 3 drains implanted unilaterally, 24 (34.28%) had 2, and 19 (27.14%) had 1 drain. They were divided into 2 groups: the first group with 1 drain (19 patients) and the other with 2 or 3 drains (51 patients). Median postoperative hospital stay was 2 days (range, 1-8 days); patients with 1 drain had a significantly shorter postoperative hospital stay (median, 2 days [range, 1-4 days] vs. 2 days [range, 1-8 days]; Mann-Whitney U test, P = .02). A total of 15 patients (21.43%) complained of a seroma. There was no difference in seroma rates between groups. Patients who had a single drain implanted had a significantly lower rate of discomfort (median, 2 [range, 1-5] vs. 3 [range, 1-7]; Mann-Whitney U test; P = .04). The number of drains used after a mastectomy for breast cancer did not significantly affect the rate or amount of seromas in this study, but the use of a single drain after mastectomy was significantly associated with less discomfort and shorter postoperative hospital stay.

  7. Timing and origin for sand dunes in the Green River Lowland of Illinois, upper Mississippi River Valley, USA (United States)

    Miao, X.; Hanson, P.R.; Wang, Hongfang; Young, A.R.


    The recent increase in dune studies in North America has been heavily focused in the Great Plains, while less attention has historically been given to the dune fields east of the Mississippi River. Here we report ages and suggest a potential sediment source for sand dunes in the Green River Lowland, Illinois, which may provide a better understanding of the dynamic interactions between eolian, glacial, lacustrine and fluvial processes that shaped the landscapes of the upper Midwest. Seven coherent optically stimulated luminescence ages (OSL, or optical ages) obtained from four sites suggest that major dune construction in the Green River Lowland occurred within a narrow time window around 17,500 ago. This implies either an enhanced aridity or an episodic increase of sediment supply at 17,500 years ago, or combination of the both. Contrary to previous assertions that dune sand was sourced from the deflation of the underlying outwash sand deposited when the Lake Michigan Lobe retreated from the area, we propose that Green River Lowland dunes sand originated from the Green Bay Lobe through the Rock River. Specifically, sediment supply increased in the Rock River valley during drainage of Glacial Lake Scuppernong, which formed between ???18,000 and 17,000 years ago, when the Green Bay Lobe retreated from its terminal moraine. The lake drained catastrophically through the Rock River valley, providing glacial sediment and water to erode the preexisting sandy sediments. Throughout the remainder of the late Pleistocene, the Laurentide Ice Sheet drained into larger more northerly glacial lakes that in turn drained through other river valleys. Therefore, the dunes in the Green River Lowland formed only during the catastrophic drainage of Glacial Lake Scuppernong, but were stabilized through the remainder of the Pleistocene. This scenario explains the abrupt dune construction around 17,500 years ago, and explains the lack of later dune activity up to the Pleistocene

  8. Evaluation of an Intergrated / Biocoagulant-sand filter Drum for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 18, 2015 ... pilot scale up was carried out using 120 L (120,000 ml) of water from Mezam River pretreated with 2400 g of powdered M. oleifera seeds for 15 min retention time and filtered through a sand filter drum made of fine sand, coarse sand, charcoal and gravel for 1 h filtration time. The total mean values of ...

  9. Dewatering Behaviour of Fine Oil Sands Tailings : An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Y.


    Oil sands tailings are a warm aqueous suspension of sand, silt, clay, residual bitumen and naphtha. The tailings are hydraulically transported and stored in tailing ponds where they segregate, with the sand settling from suspension forming beaches and the remaining tailings flowing to the middle of

  10. Permanent deformation behavior of naturally occurring bituminous sands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph


    Full Text Available Oil sand, or tar sand, is a generic name given to bituminous sand deposits that are rich in bitumen or asphalt content to the extent that oil can be extracted from these deposits. The typical 8% to 15% presence of bitumen in the soil composition...

  11. Design and Fabrication of a Foundry Sand Mixer Using Locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most small foundry shops mix their sand manually which is not efficient since homogenous mix cannot be guaranteed and even when foundry mixer are available most of them are imported costing the nation huge foriegn exchange. A foundry sand mixer capable of mixing foundry sand has been designed and fabricated ...

  12. Dredging Processes I : The Cutting of Sand, Clay & Rock - Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, S.A.


    This book gives an overview of cutting theories. It starts with a generic model, which is valid for all types of soil (sand, clay and rock) after which the specifics of dry sand, water saturated sand, clay, rock and hyperbaric rock are covered. For each soil type small blade angles and large blade

  13. Drainage of shallow peat harvesting areas with pipe drains; Mataloituneen turvekentaen kuivatus putkisalaojilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemetti, V.; Saenkiaho, K. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Rautiainen, O. [Ojamarkkinointi Oy, Heinola (Finland)


    This study aims to develop pipe draining technics in peat harvesting areas, which have been in active use so long time that the remaining peat layer is about one meter thick. The method should be technically and economically feasible as well as environmentally acceptable. Special attention is paid to pipe installation techniques, drain spacing and impacts on watercourses, which receive the drainage waters. After pipe installation the area is monitored by measuring pipe runoffs, water tables, moisture content of peat and quality of drain water

  14. An exact solution to the draining reservoir problem of the incompressible and non-viscous liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seok-In [Department of Science Education, Gyeongin National University of Education, Anyang 430-739 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail:


    The exact expressions for the drain time and the height, velocity and acceleration of the free surface are found for the draining reservoir problem of the incompressible and non-viscous liquid. Contrary to the conventional approximate results, they correctly describe the initial time dependence of the liquid velocity and acceleration. Torricelli's law does not hold in the initial transient region, which imposes restrictions on the validity of the analogy between the drain system and the electric circuit (Ohm's law)

  15. Drainage of shallow peat harvesting areas with pipe drains; Madaltuneen turvetuotantokentaen kuivatustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemetti, V. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)


    This study aims to develop pipe draining techniques in peat harvesting areas, which have been in active use so long time that the remaining peat layer is about one meter thick. The method should be technically and economically feasible as well as environmentally acceptable. Special attention is paid to pipe installation techniques, drain spacing and impacts on watercourses, which receive the drainage waters. After pipe installation the area was monitored by measuring pipe runoffs, water tables, moisture content of peat and quality of drain water. These are the results of second year. (orig.)

  16. Interactions between microbial activity and distribution and mineral coatings on sand grains from rapid sand filters treating groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülay, Arda; Tatari, Karolina; Musovic, Sanin

    Rapid sand filtration is a traditional and widespread technology for drinking water purification which combines biological, chemical and physical processes together. Granular media, especially sand, is a common filter material that allows several oxidized compounds to accumulate on its surface...

  17. Detecting peatland drains with Object Based Image Analysis and Geoeye-1 imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Connolly


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle. They provide important ecosystem services including carbon sequestration and storage. Drainage disturbs peatland ecosystem services. Mapping drains is difficult and expensive and their spatial extent is, in many cases, unknown. An object based image analysis (OBIA was performed on a very high resolution satellite image (Geoeye-1 to extract information about drain location and extent on a blanket peatland in Ireland. Two accuracy assessment methods: Error matrix and the completeness, correctness and quality (CCQ were used to assess the extracted data across the peatland and at several sub sites. The cost of the OBIA method was compared with manual digitisation and field survey. The drain maps were also used to assess the costs relating to blocking drains vs. a business-as-usual scenario and estimating the impact of each on carbon fluxes at the study site. Results The OBIA method performed well at almost all sites. Almost 500 km of drains were detected within the peatland. In the error matrix method, overall accuracy (OA of detecting the drains was 94% and the kappa statistic was 0.66. The OA for all sub-areas, except one, was 95–97%. The CCQ was 85%, 85% and 71% respectively. The OBIA method was the most cost effective way to map peatland drains and was at least 55% cheaper than either field survey or manual digitisation, respectively. The extracted drain maps were used constrain the study area CO2 flux which was 19% smaller than the prescribed Peatland Code value for drained peatlands. Conclusions The OBIA method used in this study showed that it is possible to accurately extract maps of fine scale peatland drains over large areas in a cost effective manner. The development of methods to map the spatial extent of drains is important as they play a critical role in peatland carbon dynamics. The objective of this study was to extract data on the spatial extent of

  18. Detecting peatland drains with Object Based Image Analysis and Geoeye-1 imagery. (United States)

    Connolly, J; Holden, N M


    Peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle. They provide important ecosystem services including carbon sequestration and storage. Drainage disturbs peatland ecosystem services. Mapping drains is difficult and expensive and their spatial extent is, in many cases, unknown. An object based image analysis (OBIA) was performed on a very high resolution satellite image (Geoeye-1) to extract information about drain location and extent on a blanket peatland in Ireland. Two accuracy assessment methods: Error matrix and the completeness, correctness and quality (CCQ) were used to assess the extracted data across the peatland and at several sub sites. The cost of the OBIA method was compared with manual digitisation and field survey. The drain maps were also used to assess the costs relating to blocking drains vs. a business-as-usual scenario and estimating the impact of each on carbon fluxes at the study site. The OBIA method performed well at almost all sites. Almost 500 km of drains were detected within the peatland. In the error matrix method, overall accuracy (OA) of detecting the drains was 94% and the kappa statistic was 0.66. The OA for all sub-areas, except one, was 95-97%. The CCQ was 85%, 85% and 71% respectively. The OBIA method was the most cost effective way to map peatland drains and was at least 55% cheaper than either field survey or manual digitisation, respectively. The extracted drain maps were used constrain the study area CO 2 flux which was 19% smaller than the prescribed Peatland Code value for drained peatlands. The OBIA method used in this study showed that it is possible to accurately extract maps of fine scale peatland drains over large areas in a cost effective manner. The development of methods to map the spatial extent of drains is important as they play a critical role in peatland carbon dynamics. The objective of this study was to extract data on the spatial extent of drains on a blanket bog in the west of Ireland. The

  19. Sand Needs and Resources Offshore New York (United States)

    Lashley, J. M.; Flood, R. D.; White, M.; Bokuniewicz, H.; Hinrichs, C.; Wilson, R. E.


    "Superstorm" Sandy (October, 2012) accentuated the persistent problem of coastal erosion on New York's ocean coast. The New York state Department of State in cooperation with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management has initiated further identification and assessment of marine sand reserves required to improve the resiliency of coastal communities and the maintenance of coastal habitats. The historical demand for beach nourishment has been about 1.5 million cubic meters per year, but sea level rise and the occurrence of extreme conditions may increase the demand to over 5 million cubic meters annually. Forty-four historical and proposed borrow sites have been delineated. This inner shelf is both sand rich and data rich. Geophysical and geological data has been compiled and reassessed to support identification, characterization, and delineation of sand resources for potential use in future coastal restoration, beach nourishment, and/or wetland restoration efforts. The South Shore of Long Island is composed in part by the Fire Island National Seashore. Holocene sand ridges extending at an oblique angle to the cross shore in the seaward direction. Borrow pits among the sand ridges, excavated were apparent in the most recent surveys and it appears that natural replenishment of offshore borrow areas has been occurring although the rates need to be determined in order to assess their sustainability. Not only is the area one of intense societal attention, but the use of this resource for coastal resilience must fit into a diverse framework marine spatial planning including not only traditional components, like commercial fishing, but also new factors like the siting of offshore wind-farms. To extend this assessment will include a recent survey, sponsored by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and the New York Department of State, providing approximately 700 km of geophysical survey lines located between 3 and 9 nautical miles offshore, and 46 geotechnical samples

  20. Radiographic parameters for diagnosing sand colic in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egenvall Agneta


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ingestion of sand can cause colic, diarrhoea and weight loss in horses, but these signs are unspecific and can have many other causes. The amount of sand that induces disease may vary between individuals. To avoid over-diagnosing, it is important to determine the amount of sand that can be found in horses without clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease. The aim of this study was to use previously suggested parameters for establishing a radiographic diagnosis of sand colic, and compare these findings between a sand colic group and a control group. Methods Abdominal radiographs were obtained in 30 horses with a complaint unrelated to the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, archived abdominal radiographs of 37 clinical cases diagnosed with sand impaction were investigated. The size of the mineral opacity indicative of sand in the abdomen was measured and graded according to a previously published protocol based on height and length. Location, homogeneity, opacity and number of sand accumulations were also recorded. Results Twenty out of 30 control horses (66% had one or more sand accumulations. In the present study; height, length and homogeneity of the accumulations were useful parameters for establishing a diagnosis of sand colic. Radiographically defined intestinal sand accumulation grades of up to 2 was a common finding in horses with no clinical signs from the gastrointestinal tract whereas most of the clinical cases had much larger grades, indicating larger sand accumulations. Conclusion Further work to establish a reliable grading system for intestinal sand content is warranted, but a previously proposed grading system based on measurements of height and length may be an alternative for easy assessment of sand accumulations in the meantime. The present study indicates that a grade 1 – 2 sand accumulation in the intestine is a frequent finding in horses. When working up a case with clinical signs from the

  1. Porosity and packing of Holocene river, dune, and beach sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, J.E. (Conoco, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)); McBride, E.F. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))


    The porosity and packing of 174 samples of well-sorted surficial and shallowly buried (to 17 m), unconsolidated Holocene sands were determined by point counting the upper surface of thin sections of epoxy-impregnated samples in reflected light. Average depositional porosity for 124 surficial beach sands, river point-bar and braid-bar sands, and eolian dune sands is between 40% and 58%. Beach sands exhibit an average packing value (contact index = CI) of 0.79, river sands an average IC of 0.91, and eolian dune sands an average CI of 1.02. Packing gets tighter with depth, but the authors found no decrease in porosity with depth for river and beach sands buried to 17 m. Thus, packing is more sensitive to small changes in fabric than is porosity. Beach sands typically contain 5.5% oversized pores (OSP), river sands 3.8% OSP, and eolian dune sands 4.0% OSP. Most OSP are packing defects rather than dissolution pores, although trapped air bubbles are common in some beach sands. OSP decrease linearly with depth to 17 m, our deepest sample. Extrapolation of our data indicates that they will be destroyed at a depth less than 100 m. Significant differences in porosity, oversized-pore, and packing values exist between most point-bar and braid-bar deposits and between two heavily sampled point bars, but no significant differences in these values exist when braid-bar sands are compared to other braid-bar sands. Sands form different beaches have significant differences in porosity, oversized pores, and packing. The average porosity is 46% for eolian ripple strata, 50% for grain-fall strata, and 51% for grain-flow strata. Ripple strata are tighter packed than grain-fall and grain-flow strata.

  2. Systematic review and meta-analysis of wound drains after thyroid surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Woods, R S R


    Drainage after routine thyroid and parathyroid surgery remains controversial. However, there is increasing evidence from a number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) suggesting no benefit from the use of drains.

  3. Compositional and functional stability of aerobic methane consuming communities in drained and rewetted peat meadows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, Sascha; Niklaus, Pascal A.; Morcillo, Sara Badwan; Meima-Franke, M.; Lüke, Claudia; Reim, Andreas; Bodelier, Paul L.E.


    The restoration of peatlands is an important strategy to counteract subsidence and loss of biodiversity. However, responses of important microbial soil processes are poorly understood. We assessed functioning, diversity, and spatial organization of methanotrophic communities in drained and rewetted

  4. Carbon balance of rewetted and drained peat soils used for biomass production: A mesocosm study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Sandhya; Elsgaard, Lars; Kandel, Tanka


    Rewetting of drained peatlands has been recommended to reduce CO2 emissions and to restore the carbon sink function of peatlands. Recently, the combination of rewetting and biomass production (paludiculture) has gained interest as a possible land use option in peatlands for obtaining such benefits...... of lower CO2 emissions without losing agricultural land. The present study quantified the carbon balance (CO2, CH4 and harvested biomass C) of rewetted and drained peat soils under intensively managed reed canary grass (RCG) cultivation. Mesocosms were maintained at five different ground water levels (GWL...... closed chamber methods. The average dry biomass yield was significantly lower from rewetted peat soils (12 Mg ha−1) than drained peat soils (15 Mg ha−1). Also, CO2 fluxes of gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) from rewetted peat soils were significantly lower than drained peat...

  5. Numerical Simulation of Liquids Draining From a Tank Using OpenFOAM (United States)

    Sakri, Fadhilah Mohd; Sukri Mat Ali, Mohamed; Zaki Shaikh Salim, Sheikh Ahmad; Muhamad, Sallehuddin


    Accurate simulation of liquids draining is a challenging task. It involves two phases flow, i.e. liquid and air. In this study draining a liquid from a cylindrical tank is numerically simulated using OpenFOAM. OpenFOAM is an open source CFD package and it becomes increasingly popular among the academician and also industries. Comparisons with theoretical and results from previous published data confirmed that OpenFOAM is able to simulate the liquids draining very well. This is done using the gas-liquid interface solver available in the standard library of OpenFOAM. Additionally, this study was also able to explain the physics flow of the draining tank.

  6. Drain-Site Hernia Containing the Vermiform Appendix: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Gass


    Full Text Available The herniated vermiform appendix has been described as content of every hernia orifice in the right lower quadrant. While the femoral and inguinal herniated vermiform appendix is frequent enough to result in an own designation, port-site or even drain-site hernias are less frequently described. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman who presented with right lower quadrant pain seven years after Roux-en-Y Cystojejunostomy for a pancreatic cyst. CT scan showed herniation of the vermiform appendix through a former drain-site. A diagnostic laparoscopy with appendectomy and direct closure of the abdominal wall defect combined with mesh reinforcement was performed. Despite the decreasing use of intraperitoneal drains over the recent years, a multitude of patients had intraperitoneal drainage in former times. These patients face nowadays the risk of drain-site hernias with sometimes even unexpected structures inside.

  7. Evaluating Use of Sub-Grade Drains with PFC for Stormwater Drainage : final report. (United States)


    The overarching objective of this project is to evaluate the effectiveness of incorporated subgrade drain (usually called underdrain) in the permeable friction course (PFC) pavement to facilitate drainage of stormwater within and on the pavemen...

  8. Media filter drain : modified design evaluation and existing design longevity evaluation. (United States)


    The media filter drain (MFD), a stormwater water quality treatment best management practice, consists of media made up of : aggregate, perlite, gypsum and dolomite in a trench located along roadway shoulders with gravel and vegetative pre-filtering :...

  9. Post-liquefaction reconsolidation of sand. (United States)

    Adamidis, O; Madabhushi, G S P


    Loosely packed sand that is saturated with water can liquefy during an earthquake, potentially causing significant damage. Once the shaking is over, the excess pore water pressures that developed during the earthquake gradually dissipate, while the surface of the soil settles, in a process called post-liquefaction reconsolidation. When examining reconsolidation, the soil is typically divided in liquefied and solidified parts, which are modelled separately. The aim of this paper is to show that this fragmentation is not necessary. By assuming that the hydraulic conductivity and the one-dimensional stiffness of liquefied sand have real, positive values, the equation of consolidation can be numerically solved throughout a reconsolidating layer. Predictions made in this manner show good agreement with geotechnical centrifuge experiments. It is shown that the variation of one-dimensional stiffness with effective stress and void ratio is the most crucial parameter in accurately capturing reconsolidation.

  10. Longshore sediment transport at Golden Sands (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Nikolov


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on the qualitative and quantitative features of the littoral drift at Golden Sands (Bulgaria, carried out jointly by Polish and Bulgarian researchers. The mathematical modelling of physical coastal processes took wave transformation (wave diffraction and refraction; the effects of shoaling and wave breaking and longshore sediment transport into account. The computations were carried out for the mean statistical annual wave climate, determined on the basis of IO BAS wave data, simulated using the WAM method from long-term Black Sea wind data. The results of sediment transport computations clearly show that its direction off the Golden Sands shore is from north to south.

  11. Response to Oil Sands Products Assessment (United States)


    indoors or leave the area to limit their exposure to toxic fumes. Specific information about the diluent added to an oil sands mixture of concern would...known as upgraders. These refineries essentially strip much of the carbon from the bitumen and produce a light synthetic crude oil (known as Syncrude...Minnesota’s new law, states: (Douglass, 2014) “ Essentially , there’s no meaningful regulation or requirements or standards for oil spill response for

  12. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, W.R.


    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  13. Energetic instability unjams sand and suspension. (United States)

    Jiang, Yimin; Liu, Mario


    Jamming is a phenomenon occurring in systems as diverse as traffic, colloidal suspensions, and granular materials. A theory on the reversible elastic deformation of jammed states is presented. First, an explicit granular stress-strain relation is derived that captures many relevant features of sand, including especially the Coulomb yield surface and a third-order jamming transition. Then this approach is generalized, and employed to consider jammed magnetorheological and electrorheological fluids, again producing results that compare well to experiments and simulations.

  14. Mineralogy of Eolian Sands at Gale Crater (United States)

    Achilles, C. N.; Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bristow, T. F.; Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Chipera, S. J.; Morris, R. V.; Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; hide


    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has been exploring outcrop and regolith in Gale crater since August 6, 2012. During this exploration, the mission has collected 10 samples for mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), using the CheMin instrument. The CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity uses a CCD detector and a Co-anode tube source to acquire both mineralogy (from the pat-tern of Co diffraction) and chemical information (from energies of fluoresced X-rays). A detailed description of CheMin is provided in [1]. As part of the rover checkout after landing, the first sample selected for analysis was an eolian sand deposit (the Rocknest "sand shadow"). This sample was selected in part to characterize unconsolidated eolian regolith, but primarily to prove performance of the scoop collection system on the rover. The focus of the mission after Rocknest was on the consolidated sediments of Gale crater, so all of the nine subsequent samples were collected by drilling into bedrock com-posed of lithified sedimentary materials, including mudstone and sandstone. No scoop samples have been collected since Rocknest, but at the time this abstract was written the mission stands poised to use the scoop again, to collect active dune sands from the Bagnold dune field. Several abstracts at this conference outline the Bagnold dune campaign and summarize preliminary results from analyses on approach to the Namib dune sampling site. In this abstract we review the mineralogy of Rocknest, contrast that with the mineralogy of local sediments, and anticipate what will be learned by XRD analysis of Bagnold dune sands.

  15. Cyclic Triaxial Loading of Cohesionless Silty Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    To engineer efficient structures offshore, we need to extend our knowledge of soil response. Cyclic loading and high water pressure encountered offshore greatly influence cohesionless soil performance. Silty sand from Frederikshavn wind turbine farm was tested using single diameter height samples...... with lubricated, smooth boundary piston heads in a Danish triaxial apparatus. Samples were successfully subjected to loading histories of high complexity. Loading include high strains and stresses, post liquefaction response, transitioning through multiple densities and restoring initial soil properties after...

  16. Sorption of Arsenite onto Mackinawite Coated Sand (United States)

    Gallegos, T. J.; Hayes, K. F.; Abriola, L. M.


    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a widespread problem affecting aquifers in the United States as well as abroad. Recent strengthening of the US EPA MCL for arsenic has prompted the need for technology capable of removing both arsenite and arsenate from solution. Arsenite, the more toxic form of arsenic, is more difficult to remove from anoxic zones in the subsurface. Studies by others have demonstrated the affinity of some types of iron sulfides for arsenite, such as troilite, pyrite, amorphous iron sulfide and mackinawite. However, these studies have not provided a comprehensive investigation of the macroscopic behavior of arsenite in the presence of crystalline mackinawite in a form that can be readily applied to real-world treatment technologies. This study examines the behavior of arsenite in the presence of mackinawite coated sand. PH edge results demonstrate that arsenite sorption onto mackinawite coated sand increases with increasing pH, reaching maximum removal at pH 10. Arsenite removal, albeit slight, occurring below pH 5 is independent of pH indicative of a different removal mechanism. Isotherm studies show that at low concentrations, removal is Langmuirian in nature. Arsenite sorption abruptly converts to linear behavior at high concentrations, possibly attributed to the saturation of the monolayer. Ionic strength effects were assessed by comparing pH edge data developed for three different concentrations of NaCl background electrolyte solution. Increases in ionic strength enhance the removal of arsenite from solution, suggesting possible inner-sphere surface complexation removal mechanisms. Information gathered in this study can be used to further develop surface complexation models to describe and predict reactivity of arsenite in the presence of mackinawite coated sands in anoxic regions. Mackinawite coated sands investigated here may provide a feasible reactive medium for implementation in above-ground sorption reactors or subsurface

  17. Fusion of arkosic sand by intrusive andesite (United States)

    Bailey, Roy A.


    An andesite dike in the Valles Mountains of northern New Mexico has intruded and partly fused arkosic sediments for a distance of 50 feet from its contacts. The dike is semi-circular in form, has a maximum width of about 100 feet, and is about 500 feet long. Small associated arcuate dikes are arranged in spiral fashion around the main dike, suggesting that they were intruded along shear fractures similar to those described by Burbank (1941). The fused rocks surrounding the andesite dike are of three general types: 1) partly fused arkosic sand, 2) fused clay, and 3) hybrid rocks. The fused arkosic sand consists of relict detrital grains of quartz, orthoclose, and plagioclase, imbedded in colorless glass containing microlites of tridymite, cordierite, and magnetite. The relict quartz grains are corroded and embayed by glass; the orthoclase is sanidinized and partly fused; and the plagioclase is inverted to the high temperature form and is partly fused. The fused clay, which was originally a mixture of montmorillonite and hydromica, consists primarily of cordierite but also contains needle-like crystals of sillimanite (?) or mullite (?). The hybrid rocks originated in part by intermixing of fused arkosic sediments and andesitic liquid and in part by diffusion of mafic constituents through the fused sediments. They are rich in cordierite and magnetite and also contain hypersthene, augite, and plagioclase. The composition of pigeonite in the andesite indicates that the temperature of the andesite at the time of intrusion probably did not exceed 1200?C. Samples of arkosic sand were fused in the presence of water in a Morey bomb at 1050?C. Stability relations of certain minerals in the fused sand suggest that fusion may have taken place at a lower temperature, however, and the fluxing action of volatiles from the andesite are thought to have made this possible.

  18. Guide to preparing SAND reports. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, T.K. [ed.


    This guide contains basic information needed to produce a SAND report. Its guidelines reflect DOE regulation and Sandia policy. The guide includes basic writing instructions in an annotated sample report; guidance for organization, format, and layout of reports produced by line organizations; and information about conference papers, journal articles, and brochures. The appendixes contain sections on Sandia`s preferred usage, equations, references, copyrights and permissions, and publishing terms.

  19. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Nazir


    Full Text Available Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21–31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18–75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

  20. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand (United States)

    Nazir, Ashraf; Nasr, Ahmed


    Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21–31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18–75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted. PMID:25685412

  1. The Role of CorrugateDrain In Decreasing Postoperative Complication Of Penile Fracture Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Abd El-Ameer Almosawi


    Full Text Available Objective:tostudy the role of corrugate drain (which is used by some urosurgeons followed surgical correction of fractured penis in decreasing post operative complications such as penile swelling, pain and curvature. Patient and method:comparative cross sectional study was carried out at the urological department of Al-Hilla teaching hospital from March 2008 to April 2011. Twenty male patients (age between 21-40 years admitted to the urological department in Al-Hila teaching hospital suffering from penile fracture from March 2008 to April 2011 were included in this study. Immediate surgical repair done to all those patients ,corrugate drain put post operatively for 10 patients while the remaining 10 patients without drains. All patients are fallowed for at least 3 months regarding postoperative penile swelling, deformity, pain and sexual function. Result:regarding age distribution of patients suffering from fracture penis, from twenty patients included in this study 11 patients their agerange from (20-30years, 7 patients their age group range from (31-45years and only 2 patients their age range from (46-60years. Fifteen patients are married and only 5 patients are unmarried. No one develop postoperative penile swelling in patients with corrugate drain and only one patient develops swelling in patients without corrugate drain. Regarding postoperative pain, in patients surgically corrected with drain, 6 patients develop pain and only 2 patients surgically corrected without drain develops pain. Conclusion:No beneficial effect of corrugate drain in decreasing postoperative penile swelling or curvature and on the other hand it increase post operative penile pain.

  2. The Role of CorrugateDrain In Decreasing Postoperative Complication Of Penile Fracture Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Abd El-Ameer Almosawi


    Full Text Available Objective:tostudy the role of corrugate drain (which is used by some urosurgeons followed surgical correction of fractured penis in decreasing post operative complications such as penile swelling, pain and curvature. Patient and method:comparative cross sectional study was carried out at the urological department of Al-Hilla teaching hospital from March 2008 to April 2011. Twenty male patients (age between 21-40 years admitted to the urological department in Al-Hila teaching hospital suffering from penile fracture from March 2008 to April 2011 were included in this study. Immediate surgical repair done to all those patients ,corrugate drain put post operatively for 10 patients while the remaining 10 patients without drains. All patients are fallowed for at least 3 months regarding postoperative penile swelling, deformity, pain and sexual function. Result:regarding age distribution of patients suffering from fracture penis, from twenty patients included in this study 11 patients their agerange from (20-30years, 7 patients their age group range from (31-45years and only 2 patients their age range from (46-60years. Fifteen patients are married and only 5 patients are unmarried. No one develop postoperative penile swelling in patients with corrugate drain and only one patient develops swelling in patients without corrugate drain. Regarding postoperative pain, in patients surgically corrected with drain, 6 patients develop pain and only 2 patients surgically corrected without drain develops pain. Conclusion:No beneficial effect of corrugate drain in decreasing postoperative penile swelling or curvature and on the other hand it increase post operative penile pain

  3. Suction Drain Tip Culture after Spine Surgery: Can It Predict a Surgical Site Infection?


    Ahn, Jae-Sung; Lee, Ho-Jin; Park, Eugene; Park, Il-Young; Lee, Jae Won


    Study Design Retrospective clinical study. Purpose To assess the diagnostic value of suction drain tip culture in patients undergoing primary posterior spine surgery. Overview of Literature To date, the diagnostic value of suction drain tip culture for predicting surgical site infection (SSI) has not been firmly established in orthopedic or spinal surgery. Methods In total, 133 patients who underwent primary posterior spine surgery from January 2013 to April 2015 were included in this retrosp...

  4. Highway filter drain waste arisings: a challenge for urban source control management? (United States)

    Ellis, J B; Rowlands, E G


    Essential maintenance activities on highway BMP drainage controls involve refurbishment of filter (French) drains which can generate substantial amounts of "controlled waste". An innovative procedure for their re-instatement is described which offers a more sustainable option for filter drain/trench management. The quality classification of these waste arisings is problematical and it is difficult to reliably identify the risks posed by such materials and the most effective forms of management and disposal options.

  5. Measurement and analysis of source/drain contact resistance in FinFETs (United States)

    Dixit, Abhisek; Collaert, Nadine; Jurczak, Malgorzata


    FinFET is a key device architecture for the 22-nm CMOS and beyond technology nodes. If special care is not taken, these devices could suffer from high series resistance due to the narrow width of their source/drain regions. Using the electrical characterization of fabricated devices, we extract and analyze the dominant component of this series resistance, namely the source/drain contact resistance.

  6. Human capital in European peripheral regions: brain - drain and brain - gain


    Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.


    Project goal - The overall goal of the project is to build a legitimate transnational network to transfer ideas and experiences and implement measures to reduce brain drain and foster brain gain while reinforcing the economical and spatial development of peripheral regions in NWE. This means a higher quality of life for the inhabitants of these regions combined with a healthy environment. To reach this goal, the project group will study the effects of brain drain/brain gain, co-ordinate appro...

  7. Superior epigastric artery pseudoaneurysm- a rare complication of chest drain insertion in coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Nick


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although chest drain insertion during coronary artery bypass grafting is a fairly standard procedure, however it may result in extremely rare complications. Case presentation This is the first case being reported that demonstrates a pseudoaneurysm of superior epigastric artery resulting from chest drain insertion following coronary artery bypass grafting. Conclusion Adequate caution should be used along with good understanding of the anatomical landmarks during apparently simple and standard operative procedures.

  8. Study of the anti-sand sucker rod pump (United States)

    Wei, Hangxin; Lv, Bingxin; Xi, Wenkui; Yi, Peng


    In order to solve the problem of sand stuck in the sucker rod pump, an anti-sand sucker rod pump is designed. The anti-sand sucker rod pump includes the conventional sucker rod pump and the swirl flow device. The sand particles can be separated from the oil in the swirl flow device, so the plunger of the sucker rod pump cannot be stuck. The motion equation of the sand particles in oil is deduced. The virtual model of the swirl flow device is built in GAMBIT software. And simulation of solid-liquid two phase flow is simulated in software FLUENT. The simulation results show that the swirl flow device can realize the sand particles separation from the oil completely. So the pump can have the effect of anti-sands.

  9. Optics At White Sands Missile Range (United States)

    Fronczek, Ron C.; Hayslett, Charles R.


    We present an overview of the optics and optical data gathering programs conducted at White Sands Missile Range. Activities at White Sands Missile Range have always been diverse - the first test conducted there was the world's first nuclear explosion. In the forty years since that event the range has hosted a large assortment of vehicles including V2, Nike, Aerobee, Space Shuttle, Cruise, and the Copperhead. The last three of these devices illustrate the difficulty of the White Sands optical data gathering task. One is acquired in orbit, one as it crosses through a mountain pass, and one as it issues from the muzzle of a cannon. A combination of optical, radar, video, computer, and communications technology has produced a versatile system that can satisfy the data gathering requirements of most range users. Another example of the diverse optics programs at the range is the development of the High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility (HELSTF). Because of the nature of the systems being tested, the HELSTF is full of optics and optical systems including the TRW MIRACL laser and the Hughes SEA LITE Beam Director.

  10. New production techniques for alberta oil sands. (United States)

    Carrigy, M A


    Low world oil prices represent a serious threat to expanded commercial development of the Canadian oil sands in the near term, as they do to all of the higher cost alternatives to crude oil such as oil shales and coal liquefaction. Nonetheless, research and field testing of new technology for production of oil from oil sands are being pursued by industry and government in Alberta. New production technology is being developed in Canada to produce synthetic oil from the vast resources of bitumen trapped in the oil sands and bituminous carbonates of northern Alberta. This technology includes improved methods of mining, extraction, and upgrading of bitumen from near-surface deposits as well as new drilling and production techniques for thermal production of bitumen from the more deeply buried reservoirs. Of particular interest are the cluster drilling methods designed to reduce surface disturbance and the techniques for horizontal drilling of wells from underground tunnels to increase the contact of injection fluids with the reservoir.

  11. The relationship between drained angle and flow rate of size fractions of powder excipients. (United States)

    Sklubalová, Z; Zatloukal, Z


    The influence of powder size of chosen pharmaceutical powder excipients on drained angle as well as the correlation between drained angle and the mass flow rate of certain powder size fractions were investigated in this work. A method of the indirect estimation of the three-dimensional drained angle from the mass of the residual powder was used experimentally to study the influence of powder size fractions in range of 0.200-0.630 mm for sodium chloride, sodium citrate, potassium chloride, and potassium citrate. Failures of flow significantly increased the drained angles for powder size fraction of 0.200-0.250 mm. For the uniformly flowable powder size fraction of 0.400-0.500 mm, the faster the flow rate, the smaller drained angles were observed for excipients investigated. To estimate parameters of the flow equation, the measurement of material flow rates from the hopper of different orifice sizes is needed, while the estimation of drained angle is much easier needing only one hopper. Finally, the increase of the hopper wall angle of the standard conical hopper to 70 degrees could be recommended to achieve uniform mass flow and to reduce the adverse effect of powder gliding along the hopper walls.

  12. Laparoscopic retrieval of retained intraperitoneal drain in the immediate postoperative period Report of two cases. (United States)

    Carlomagno, Nicola; Santangelo, Michele; Grassia, Sebastiano; La Tessa, Cristina; Renda, Andrea


    AIM: The purpose of this study is to analyze a "rare" complication on the management of abdominal surgical drains: abdominal drainage's retention. Starting from our experience we reviewed literature on this topic MATERIAL OF STUDY: We report two cases (occurred on 2004 and 2010) of retained intraperitoneal drain occurred in the immediate postoperative period after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. RESULTS: Both patients were successfully treated by early laparoscopic removal. DISCUSSION: We compared our experience with literature. Incidence, ethiology, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of this rare complication are analysed. We also considered the guidelines in the placement of intraperitoneal drains, the different fixation techniques, the causes of fragmentation of the drainage and removal techniques. CONCLUSIONS: Retained intraperitoneal drain secondary to fracture and adhesion in the immediate postoperative period is rare but probably underestimated surgical complication. It is impossible to know its real incidence. The role of laparoscopy is emphasized because this approach is cosmetically acceptable, contributes to early recovery and discharge of the patient, and helps to lessen the friction in worsening doctor-patient relationship. KEY WORDS: Abdominal drainage, Drain-related complications, Laparoscopy, Retained intraperitoneal drain.

  13. Reverse blocking characteristics and mechanisms in Schottky-drain AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a drain field plate and floating field plates (United States)

    Wei, Mao; Wei-Bo, She; Cui, Yang; Jin-Feng, Zhang; Xue-Feng, Zheng; Chong, Wang; Yue, Hao


    In this paper, a novel AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a Schottky drain and a compound field plate (SD-CFP HEMT) is presented for the purpose of better reverse blocking capability. The compound field plate (CFP) consists of a drain field plate (DFP) and several floating field plates (FFPs). The physical mechanisms of the CFP to improve the reverse breakdown voltage and to modulate the distributions of channel electric field and potential are investigated by two-dimensional numerical simulations with Silvaco-ATLAS. Compared with the HEMT with a Schottky drain (SD HEMT) and the HEMT with a Schottky drain and a DFP (SD-FP HEMT), the superiorities of SD-CFP HEMT lie in the continuous improvement of the reverse breakdown voltage by increasing the number of FFPs and in the same fabrication procedure as the SD-FP HEMT. Two useful optimization laws for the SD-CFP HEMTs are found and extracted from simulation results. The relationship between the number of the FFPs and the reverse breakdown voltage as well as the FP efficiency in SD-CFP HEMTs are discussed. The results in this paper demonstrate a great potential of CFP for enhancing the reverse blocking ability in AlGaN/GaN HEMT and may be of great value and significance in the design and actual manufacture of SD-CFP HEMTs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61204085, 61334002, 61306017, 61474091, 61574112, and 61574110).

  14. Aerobic Heterotrophic Biodégradation in Polluted Drains and Sewers: The drain and sewer as dual-phase biological reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Y.S.


    Wastewater collection systems such as sewers, sewage drains, and polluted shallow aquatic systems such as rivers, streams, and lagoons are characterized by the fact that both suspended and attached biomass exist and function. They are dual-phase systems. Contrary to biofilm dominated systems such as

  15. Pesticide leaching via subsurface drains in different hydrologic situations (United States)

    Zajíček, Antonín; Fučík, Petr; Liška, Marek; Dobiáš, Jakub


    esticides and their degradates in tile drainage waters were studied in two small, predominantly agricultural, tile-drained subcatchments in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands, Czech Republic. The goal was to evaluate their occurence and the dymamics of their concentrations in drainage waters in different hydrologic situations using discharge and concentration monitoring together with 18O and 2H isotope analysis for Mean Residence Time (MRT) estimation and hydrograph separations during rainfall - runoff (R-R) events. The drainage and stream discharges were measured continuously at the closing outlets of three drainage groups and one small stream. During periods of prevailing base and interflow, samples were collected manually in two-week intervals for isotope analysis and during the spraying period (March to October) also for pesticide analysis. During R-R events, samples were taken by automatic samplers in intervals varying from 20 min (summer) to 1 hour (winter). To enable isotopic analysis, precipitation was sampled both manually at two-week intervals and also using an automatic rainfall sampler which collected samples of precipitation during the R-R events at 20-min. intervals. The isotopic analysis showed, that MRT of drainage base flow and interflow varies from 2,2 to 3,3 years, while MRT of base flow and interflow in surface stream is several months. During R-R events, the proportion of event water varied from 0 to 60 % in both drainage and surface runoff. The occurrence of pesticides and their degradates in drainage waters is strongly dependent on the hydrologic situation. While degradates were permanently present in drainage waters in high but varying concentrations according to instantaneous runoff composition, parent matters were detected almost exclusively during R-R events. In periods with prevailing base flow and interflow (grab samples), especially ESA forms of chloracetanilide degradates occured in high concentrations in all samples. Average sum of

  16. Aeolian drift sand archives show evidence of Late Holocene groundwater dynamics in NE Belgium (United States)

    Beerten, Koen


    The sandy unconfined aquifers of NE Belgium (Kleine Nete catchment, Campine area) underlay a flat and slightly undulating landscape. It is drained by small rivers that occupy shallow valleys separated by weakly expressed interfluves. Instrumental time series (collected since the 1980s) show that the mean highest groundwater table (MHG) on these interfluves (late winter - early spring) is generally 1-2 m below the surface. For earlier periods there are no systematic observations of groundwater tables in the area. Such information would allow to extend the time window for hydrological model validation and verification under different boundary conditions (soil, land-use, climate) and thus build confidence in future hydrological predictions. The sandy interfluves of the Kleine Nete catchment have witnessed strong aeolian morphodynamics during the last few millenia. Many of the podzols that developed during the Holocene became either eroded by wind deflation or buried under drift sand. This situation provides a unique means to study palaeohydrological features, events and processes in such shallow unsaturated zones. Therefore, the aim of this presentation is to explore the potential of pedological, geomorphological and historical archives from drift sand landscapes in the Campine area as proxies for past groundwater tables. The adopted approach includes a wide variety of techniques, such as field descriptions of palaeosol profile morphology, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of intercalated drift sands, determination of groundwater-controlled blow-out surfaces and observations of surface water bodies on historical maps. The buried podzols often display hydromorphic properties, such as redoximorphic features, vague horizon boundaries and peat development. OSL dating of associated drift sands suggests that a very shallow MHG existed from ca. 6 ka until at least ca. 2 ka. Subsequently, historical maps suggest that groundwater tables started to decline during

  17. Transport of colloidal silica in unsaturated sand: Effect of charging properties of sand and silica particles. (United States)

    Fujita, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Motoyoshi


    We have studied the transport of colloidal silica in various degrees of a water-saturated Toyoura sand column, because silica particles are widely used as catalyst carriers and abrasive agents, and their toxicity is reported recently. Since water-silica, water-sand, and air-water interfaces have pH-dependent negative charges, the magnitude of surface charge was controlled by changing the solution pH. The results show that, at high pH conditions (pH 7.4), the deposition of colloidal silica to the sand surface is interrupted and the silica concentration at the column outlet immediately reaches the input concentration in saturated conditions. In addition, the relative concentration of silica at the column outlet only slightly decreases to 0.9 with decreasing degrees of water saturation to 38%, because silica particles are trapped in straining regions in the soil pore and air-water interface. On the other hand, at pH 5 conditions (low pH), where sand and colloid have less charge, reduced repulsive forces result in colloidal silica attaching onto the sand in saturated conditions. The deposition amount of silica particles remarkably increases with decreasing degrees of water saturation to 37%, which is explained by more particles being retained in the sand column associated with the air-water interface. In conclusion, at higher pH, the mobility of silica particles is high, and the air-water interface is inactive for the deposition of silica. On the other hand, at low pH, the deposition amount increases with decreasing water saturation, and the particle transport is inhibited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Properties of dune sand concrete containing coffee waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Guendouz


    Full Text Available In the last years, an increase of coffee beverages consumption has been observed all over the world; and its consumption increases the waste coffee grounds which will become an environmental problems. Recycling of this waste to produce new materials like sand concrete appears as one of the best solutions for reduces the problem of pollution. This work aims to study the possibility of recycling waste coffee grounds (Spent Coffee Grounds (SCG as a fine aggregate by replacing the sand in the manufacturing of dune sand concrete. For this; sand concrete mixes were prepared with substitution of sand with the spent coffee grounds waste at different percentage (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by volume of the sand in order to study the influence of this wastes on physical (Workability, bulk density and porosity, mechanical (compressive and flexural strength and Thermal (Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity properties of dune sand concrete. The results showed that the use of spent coffee grounds waste as partial replacement of natural sand contributes to reduce workability, bulk density and mechanical strength of sand concrete mixes with an increase on its porosity. However, the thermal characteristics are improved and especially for a level of 15% and 20% of substitution. So, it is possible to obtain an insulating material which can be used in the various types of structural components. This study ensures that reusing of waste coffee grounds in dune sand concrete gives a positive approach to reduce the cost of materials and solve some environmental problems.

  19. Numerical simulation of flow and compression of green sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovad, Emil

    with the flow of the sand particles and the deposition of sand dur-ing the production of sand molds using the sand shot in the DISAMATIC process. The deposition of the green sand in the chamber was investigated with a special cavity design where air vents were placed inside the cavities. The air vents are used...... to transport the green sand with an airflow during the sand shot. By changing the air vents settings in the chamber and in the cavities it was possible to improve the filling in the narrow passages in the cavity design, thereby improving the final sand mold as well. The sand shot with the cavity design...... was simulated by the discrete element method (DEM) modelling the flow of the green sand combined with classical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for modelling the airflow in the chamber and the airflow through the air vents. These experiments and simulations gave beneficial insights to the DISAMATIC process...

  20. Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    For those who support U.S. oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands industry is often identified as a model the U.S. might emulate, yielding financial and energy security benefits. For opponents of domestic oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands experience illustrates the risks that opponents of development believe should deter domestic policymakers from incenting U.S. oil sands development. This report does not seek to evaluate the particular underpinnings of either side of this policy argument, but rather attempts to delve into the question of whether the Canadian experience has relevance as a foundational model for U.S. oil sands development. More specifically, this report seeks to assess whether and how the Canadian oil sands experience might be predictive or instructive in the context of fashioning a framework for a U.S. oil sands industry. In evaluating the implications of these underpinnings for a prospective U.S. oil sands industry, this report concentrates on prospective development of the oil sands deposits found in Utah.

  1. Radiation dose associated with CT-guided drain placement for pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Cody J.; Isaacson, Ari J.; Fordham, Lynn Ansley; Ivanovic, Marija; Dixon, Robert G. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Radiology, UNC Health Care, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Taylor, J.B. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Environment, Health and Safety, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)


    To date, there are limited radiation dose data on CT-guided procedures in pediatric patients. Our goal was to quantify the radiation dose associated with pediatric CT-guided drain placement and follow-up drain evaluations in order to estimate effective dose. We searched the electronic medical record and picture archiving and communication system (PACS) to identify all pediatric (<18 years old) CT-guided drain placements performed between January 2008 and December 2013 at our institution. We compiled patient data and radiation dose information from CT-guided drain placements as well as pre-procedural diagnostic CTs and post-procedural follow-up fluoroscopic abscess catheter injections (sinograms). Then we converted dose-length product, fluoroscopy time and number of acquisitions to effective doses using Monte Carlo simulations and age-appropriate conversion factors based on annual quality-control testing. Fifty-two drainages were identified with mean patient age of 11.0 years (5 weeks to 17 years). Most children had diagnoses of appendicitis (n=23) or inflammatory bowel disease (n=11). Forty-seven patients had diagnostic CTs, with a mean effective dose of 7.3 mSv (range 1.1-25.5 mSv). Drains remained in place for an average of 16.9 days (range 0-75 days), with an average of 0.9 (0-5) sinograms per patient in follow-up. The mean effective dose for all drainages and follow-up exams was 5.3 mSv (0.7-17.1) and 62% (32/52) of the children had effective doses less than 5 mSv. The majority of pediatric patients who have undergone CT-guided drain placements at our institution have received total radiation doses on par with diagnostic ranges. This information could be useful when describing the dose of radiation to parents and providers when CT-guided drain placement is necessary. (orig.)

  2. Pancreatoduodenectomy: role of drain fluid analysis in the management of pancreatic fistula. (United States)

    Kong, Justin; Gananadha, Sivakumar; Hugh, Thomas J; Samra, Jaswinder S


    Pancreatic fistula remains an important cause of death following pancreatoduodenectomy. There is still uncertainty regarding the use of drains following pancreatoduodenectomy with recent reports suggesting that it might be harmful with increased complications. We evaluated the use of drain fluid analysis in the management of patients following pancreatoduodenectomy. A prospective study was conducted on all patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy at two hospitals between April 2004 and August 2006. Drain fluid analysis was carried out from day 3 to day 5. These data were collected with the clinical pictures of the patients and with subsequent radiological assessment. Fifty consecutive patients underwent modified extended pancreatoduodenectomy for a periampullary tumour. In patients with no clinical evidence of a fistula, the mean postoperative drain fluid amylase levels were as follows: on postoperative day 3 it was 262 U/mL (standard error of mean 69), on postoperative day 4 it was 112 U/mL (standard error of mean 47) and on postoperative day 5 it was 125 U/mL (standard error of mean 64). Only three (6/6, 50%) of these patients had clinical features suggestive of a leak and were found to have a pancreatic fistula on subsequent imaging. There was no correlation between the total or mean volumes of drainage and development of a pancreatic fistula. The drain fluid analysis did not provide additional information that was not already evident from the clinical picture of the patient. Drain fluid analysis had no effect on patients with a biochemical leak only. Patients who had a significant disruption of their pancreatic anastamosis did not need biochemical analysis as the character, that is, turbidity of the drain fluid was an equally reliable indicator of the underlying pathology.

  3. Mars Rover Curiosity Traverses of Sand Ripples (United States)

    Stein, N.; Arvidson, R. E.; Zhou, F.; Heverly, M.; Maimone, M.; Hartman, F.; Bellutta, P.; Iagnemma, K.; Senatore, C.


    Martian sand ripples present a challenge for rover mobility, with drives over ripples often characterized by high wheel sinkage and slippage that can lead to incipient embedding. Since landing in Gale Crater, Curiosity has traversed multiple sand ripples, including the transverse aeolian ridge (TAR) straddling Dingo Gap on sols 533 and 535. On sol 672, Curiosity crossed backward over a series of sand ripples before ending its drive after high motor currents initiated visual odometry (VO) processing, which detected 77% slip, well in excess of the imposed 60% slip limit. At the end of the drive, the right front wheel was deeply embedded at the base of a ripple flank with >20 cm sinkage and the rear wheels were near a ripple crest. As Curiosity continues its approach to Mount Sharp it will have to cross multiple ripples, and thus it is important to understand Curiosity's performance on sol 672 and over similar ripples. To this end the sol 672 drive was simulated in ARTEMIS (Adams-Based Rover Terramechanics Interaction Simulator), a software tool consisting of realistic rover mechanical models, a wheel-terrain interaction module for deformable and non-deformable surfaces, and realistic terrain models. ARTEMIS results, Dumont Dunes tests performed in the Mojave Desert using the Scarecrow test rover, and single wheel tests performed at MIT indicate that the high slip encountered on sol 672 likely occurred due to a combination of rover attack angle, ripple geometry, and soil properties. When ripple wavelength approaches vehicle length, the rover can reach orientations in which the leading wheels carry minimal normal loads and the trailing wheels sink deeply, resulting in high slippage and insufficient thrust to propel the rover over ripples. Even on relatively benign (i.e. low tilt) terrains, local morphology can impose high sinkage, thus impeding rover motion. Work is underway to quantify Curiosity's drive performance over various ripple geometries to retrieve soil

  4. On the extraction of the external drain and source resistors and effective channel length in Si-MOSFET (United States)

    Joodaki, M.


    This paper focuses on the extraction of drain/source resistance and effective channel length (Leff) of the silicon MOSFET in the linear drain current region. Leff is expressed as a function of drain/source resistance, drain current, threshold voltage, drain voltage, and body-effect coefficient. Using this definition, an additional component of drain/source resistance in the linear drain current region, inversion charge reduction resistance (RΔQ), is introduced which results from the influence of drain/source resistors, internal source/body voltage and drain voltage on the total inversion charge. Finally, a new method for extraction of the drain/source resistance is developed. In this method several parameters that have impact on device behavior are considered. The parameters include gate voltage dependency, short channel effects, and poly gate length dependency. The results presented here are not only very useful for accurate device modeling and characterization, but are also vital to better understanding of the device physics. Furthermore, they can describe shortcomings of the other methods which use devices of different gate lengths. The extracted linear model provides less than 1.07% and 3.3% average absolute error and maximum error, respectively, for all seven devices under test over the gate voltage range of 0.75-2 V.

  5. Influence of silicate on the transport of bacteria in quartz sand and iron mineral-coated sand. (United States)

    Dong, Zhe; Yang, Haiyan; Wu, Dan; Ni, Jinren; Kim, Hyunjung; Tong, Meiping


    The influence of silicate on the transport and deposition of bacteria (Escherichia coli) in packed porous media were examined at a constant 20 mM ionic strength with different silicate concentrations (from 0 to 1 mM) at pH 7. Transport experiments were performed in two types of representative porous media, both bare quartz sand and iron mineral-coated quartz sand. In bare quartz sand, the breakthrough plateaus in the presence of silicate in suspensions were lower and the corresponding retained profiles were higher than those without silicate ions, indicating that the presence of silicate in suspensions decreased cell transport in bare quartz sand. Moreover, the decrease of bacteria transport in quartz sand induced by silicate was more pronounced with increasing silicate concentrations from 0 to 1 mM. However, when EPS was removed from cell surfaces, the presence of silicate in cell suspensions (with different concentrations) did not affect the transport behavior of bacteria in quartz sand. The interaction of silicate with EPS on cell surfaces negatively decreased the zeta potentials of bacteria, resulting in the decreased cell transport in bare quartz sand when silicate was copresent in bacteria suspensions. In contrast, the presence of silicate in suspensions increased cell transport in iron mineral-coated sand. Silicate ions competed with bacteria for the adsorption sites on mineral-coated sand, contributing to the increased cell transport in mineral-coated sand with silicate present in cell suspensions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 'Sharks Teeth' -- Sand Dunes in Proctor Crater (United States)


    Sometimes, pictures received from Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) are 'just plain pretty.' This image, taken in early September 2000, shows a group of sand dunes at the edge of a much larger field of dark-toned dunes in Proctor Crater. Located at 47.9oS, 330.4oW, in the 170 km (106 mile) diameter crater named for 19th Century British astronomer Richard A. Proctor (1837-1888), the dunes shown here are created by winds blowing largely from the east/northeast. A plethora of smaller, brighter ripples covers the substrate between the dunes. Sunlight illuminates them from the upper left.

  7. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.


    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  8. Biogenic crust dynamics on sand dunes

    CERN Document Server

    Kinast, Shai; Yizhaq, Hezi; Ashkenazy, Yosef


    Sand dunes are often covered by vegetation and biogenic crusts. Despite their significant role in dune stabilization, biogenic crusts have rarely been considered in studies of dune dynamics. Using a simple model, we study the existence and stability ranges of different dune-cover states along gradients of rainfall and wind power. Two ranges of alternative stable states are identified: fixed crusted dunes and fixed vegetated dunes at low wind power, and fixed vegetated dunes and active dunes at high wind power. These results suggest a cross-over between two different forms of desertification.

  9. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX


    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  10. Considerations on sand control in natural gas wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foidaş Ion


    Full Text Available Mechanism of sand production in gas wells is complex and influenced by every operation performed into the well, starting from the opening of the production interval by drilling, and continuing with completion and putting into production as well as with the exploitation regime. Sand production along with fluids from gas reservoirs creates a series of potentially dangerous and costly problems. For selecting the most appropriate methods of sand-control all the data and information related to properties of reservoir rock, the history of sand production, the potential well flow rates as well as HSE and costs need to be evaluated. The conclusion of the authors is that the best results in sand control is achieved when the methods are applied before the production of sand may become an issue.

  11. Deformation and shock consolidation of various sands under explosive loading (United States)

    Weckert, S. A.; Resnyansky, A. D.


    The response of various geological materials to shock loading is important in both military and industrial applications. The composition of a real soil is complex and involves multiple constituents that undergo a number of physical and mechanical transformations during the shock loading. The present study analyzes several sands, a limestone sand both wet and dry, and a dry silica sand representing simplified model system for the soil. The sands are compressed using two different steel encapsulation assemblies subject to loading by explosive detonation products. These set-ups attempt to vary the magnitude and duration of applied pressure and temperature to the encapsulated sand. A comparative analysis of the recovered sand samples, including a microstructural analysis focusing on the grain breakage, compaction and consolidation, is correlated with a CTH numerical analysis employing a multi-phase rate sensitive material model.

  12. Environmental consequences of oil production from oil sands (United States)

    Rosa, Lorenzo; Davis, Kyle F.; Rulli, Maria C.; D'Odorico, Paolo


    Crude oil from oil sands will constitute a substantial share of future global oil demand. Oil sands deposits account for a third of globally proven oil reserves, underlie large natural forested areas, and have extraction methods requiring large volumes of freshwater. Yet little work has been done to quantify some of the main environmental impacts of oil sands operations. Here we examine forest loss and water use for the world's major oil sands deposits. We calculate actual and potential rates of water use and forest loss both in Canadian deposits, where oil sands extraction is already taking place, and in other major deposits worldwide. We estimated that their exploitation, given projected production trends, could result in 1.31 km3 yr-1 of freshwater demand and 8700 km2 of forest loss. The expected escalation in oil sands extraction thus portends extensive environmental impacts.

  13. The coal deposits of the Alkali Butte, the Big Sand Draw, and the Beaver Creek fields, Fremont County, Wyoming (United States)

    Thompson, Raymond M.; White, Vincent L.


    Large coal reserves are present in three areas located between 12 and 20 miles southeast of Riverton, Fremont County, central Wyoming. Coal in two of these areas, the Alkali Butte coal field and the Big Sand Draw coal field, is exposed on the surface and has been developed to some extent by underground mining. The Beaver Creek coal field is known only from drill cuttings and cores from wells drilled for oil and gas in the Beaver Creek oil and gas field.These three coal areas can be reached most readily from Riverton, Wyo. State Route 320 crosses Wind River about 1 mile south of Riverton. A few hundred yards south of the river a graveled road branches off the highway and extends south across the Popo Agie River toward Sand Draw oil and gas field. About 8 miles south of the highway along the Sand Draw road, a dirt road bears east and along this road it is about 12 miles to the Bell coal mine in the Alkali Butte coal field. Three miles southeast of the Alkali Butte turn-off, 3 miles of oiled road extends southwest into the Beaver Creek oil and gas field. About 6 miles southeast of the Beaver Creek turn-off, in the valley of Little Sand Draw Creek, a dirt road extends east 1. mile and then southeast 1 mile to the Downey mine in the Big Sand Draw coal field. Location of these coal fields is shown on figure 1 with their relationship to the Wind River basin and other coal fields, place localities, and wells mentioned in this report. The coal in the Alkali Butte coal field is exposed partly on the Wind River Indian Reservation in Tps. 1 and 2 S., R. 6 E., and partly on public land. Coal in the Beaver Creek and Big Sand Draw coal fields is mainly on public land. The region has a semiarid climate with rainfall averaging less than 10 in. per year. When rain does fall the sandy-bottomed stream channels fill rapidly and are frequently impassable for a few hours. Beaver Creek, Big Sand Draw, Little Sand Draw, and Kirby Draw and their smaller tributaries drain the area and flow

  14. Outbreak of severe Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections caused by a contaminated drain in a whirlpool bathtub. (United States)

    Berrouane, Y F; McNutt, L A; Buschelman, B J; Rhomberg, P R; Sanford, M D; Hollis, R J; Pfaller, M A; Herwaldt, L A


    During a 14-month period, 7 patients with hematological malignancies acquired serious infections caused by a single strain of multiply resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A case-control study, culture surveys, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis implicated a whirlpool bathtub on the unit as the reservoir. All case patients and 32% of control patients used this bathtub (P=.003). The epidemic strain was found only in cultures of samples taken from the bathtub. The drain of the whirlpool bathtub, which was contaminated with the epidemic strain, closed approximately 2.54 cm below the drain's strainer. Water from the faucet, which was not contaminated, became contaminated with P. aeruginosa from the drain when the tub was filled. The design of the drain allowed the epidemic strain to be transmitted to immunocompromised patients who used the whirlpool bathtub. Such tubs are used in many hospitals, and they may be an unrecognized source of nosocomial infections. This potential source of infection could be eliminated by using whirlpool bathtubs with drains that seal at the top.

  15. Effect of tunnel length on infection rate in patients with external ventricular drain. (United States)

    Rafiq, Mirza Faisal Ahmed; Ahmed, Noor; Ali, Shafqut


    External ventricular drain involves catheter placement in ventricles of brain. It is used for various purposes. Basic theme is to drain cerebrospinal fluid so as to control intracranial pressure. This study was carried out to see the effect of tunnel length on rate of infection. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Department of Neurosurgery, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad during 14 months from 1st December 2008 to 31 January 2010. External ventricular drain was placed in admitted patients after meticulous aseptic technique in operation theatre at right Kocher's point. It was carried out through a scalp tunnel and was connected to drainage bag through a drip set. Both long (> 5 Cm) and short (drain). All patients received prophylactic Ceftriaxone. Among 76 patients long tunnel was made in 44 (57.9%) and short in 32 (42.1%). Three patients (3.9%) with long tunnel while 6 (7.9%) patients with short tunnel had infection. The overall infection was in 9 (11.8%) patients. External ventricular drain tunnel length strongly influences the rate of infection.

  16. Stemming the Impact of Health Professional Brain Drain from Africa: A Systemic Review of Policy Options. (United States)

    Zimbudzi, Edward


    Africa has been losing professionally trained health workers who are the core of the health system of this continent for many years. Faced with an increased burden of disease and coupled by a massive exodus of the health workforce, the health systems of many African nations are risking complete paralysis. Several studies have suggested policy options to reduce brain drain from Africa. The purpose of this paper is to review possible policies, which can stem the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa. A systemic literature review was conducted. Cinahl, Science Direct and PubMed databases were searched with the following terms: health professional brain drain from Africa and policies for reducing impact of brain drain from Africa. References were also browsed for relevant articles. A total of 425 articles were available for the study but only 23 articles met the inclusion criteria. The review identified nine policy options, which were being implemented in Africa, but the most common was task shifting which had success in several African countries. This review has demonstrated that there is considerable consensus on task shifting as the most appropriate and sustainable policy option for reducing the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa.

  17. Stemming the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa: a systemic review of policy options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Zimbudzi


    Full Text Available Africa has been losing professionally trained health workers who are the core of the health system of this continent for many years. Faced with an increased burden of disease and coupled by a massive exodus of the health workforce, the health systems of many African nations are risking complete paralysis. Several studies have suggested policy options to reduce brain drain from Africa. The purpose of this paper is to review possible policies, which can stem the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa. A systemic literature review was conducted. Cinahl, Science Direct and PubMed databases were searched with the following terms: health professional brain drain from Africa and policies for reducing impact of brain drain from Africa. References were also browsed for relevant articles. A total of 425 articles were available for the study but only 23 articles met the inclusion criteria. The review identified nine policy options, which were being implemented in Africa, but the most common was task shifting which had success in several African countries. This review has demonstrated that there is considerable consensus on task shifting as the most appropriate and sustainable policy option for reducing the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa.

  18. Sensitivity of carbon gas fluxes to weather variability on pristine, drained and rewetted temperate bogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Urbanová


    Full Text Available Climate change is considered to alter the functioning of boreal peatland ecosystems, but the vulnerability of pristine, rewetted and drained peatlands to climate change in temperate regions is unknown. We measured carbon (C gas exchange during wet (2009 and dry (2010 growing periods in pristine, drained and rewetted sites in mountain bogs in the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic. Wetter lawns with sedges and drier habitats dominated by ericaceous shrubs were distinguished and studied at each site. Methane (CH4 emissions, which decreased in the order pristine > rewetted > drained, were generally lower during the 2010 growing period than in 2009 as a consequence of a drought. During the drought in 2010, photosynthesis (PG in the drier habitats with shrub vegetation increased on pristine and rewetted sites, while total respiration (RECO remained the same. Communities dominated by sedges maintained similar rates of PG and RECO during both growing periods. Generally, this led to higher C accumulation during the drought on pristine and rewetted bogs. At the drained bog site, the decreased water table (WT during the drought led to increased PG and RECO, such that the net C accumulation was similar in the two years. Drained peatlands may be more threatened by future climate change than pristine or rewetted peatlands because of their limited buffering capacity for decreased WT. In the case of further decreases in WT, they could lose the peatland vegetation and functions that have partly persisted through decades of drainage.

  19. Contribution of household herbicide usage to glyphosate and its degradate aminomethylphosphonic acid in surface water drains. (United States)

    Ramwell, Carmel T; Kah, Melanie; Johnson, Paul D


    It is necessary to understand the extent to which different sources of pesticides contribute to surface water contamination in order to focus preventive measures appropriately. The extent to which glyphosate use in the home and garden sector may contribute to surface water contamination has not previously been quantified. The aim of this study was to quantify the widely used herbicide glyphosate and its degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in surface water drains (storm drains) that could be attributed to amateur, non-professional usage alone. Maximum glyphosate and AMPA concentrations in surface water drains were 8.99 and 1.15 µg L(-1) respectively after the first rain event following the main application period, but concentrations rapidly declined to <1.5 and <0.5 µg L(-1) . The AMPA:glyphosate ratio was typically 0.35. Less than 1% of the applied glyphosate was recovered in drain water. Glyphosate and AMPA losses from urban areas that arise solely from amateur usage have been quantified. In spite of overdosing occurring, glyphosate concentrations in drain flow were lower than concentrations reported elsewhere from professional use in urban areas. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. [Risk of ventriculitis associated to the care of the ventricular drain in neurocritical patients]. (United States)

    Rivas-Rodriguez, Aida; Suarez-Mier, Belén; Rivas-Rodriguez, Lidia; Lana, Alberto


    To analyze the risk of ventriculitis associated to the care of the external ventricular drain. Case-control study among a sample of neurocritical patients of the University Hospital of Asturias (Spain) who carried a ventricular catheter (n = 127; 49 cases and 78 controls). Main outcome was the diagnosis of ventriculitus, according to established criteria. Independent variables were related to the catheter management, including nursing cares of the insertion point, administration of intrathecal medication, flushes, changes and mobilization of the catheter. Other variables (age, sex, APACHE score, admission diagnosis, comorbidity, antibiotics, time to insertion and permanence time of the drain) were studied as covariates. Nursing catheter cares (OR 3.8; 95% CI: 1.1-13.9) and administration of intrathecal medication (OR: 7.1; 95% CI: 2.1-23.6) were significantly associated with ventriculitis. After adjustment by the number of days at risk, the effect of nursing cares disappeared (OR 1.4; 95% CI: 0.3-6.6). Intrathecal medication and nursing cares seem to be associated with ventriculitis. The administration of medication by the ventricular drain really reflects that the physicians suspect ventriculitis before the diagnosis is confirmed and, therefore, they prescribe this medication. However, as the duration of drain increases the frequency of nursing cares, it seems prudent to recommend not lengthen the permanence of the ventricular drain and to improve the training of nurses.

  1. Effects of Source and Drain Resistances on Analytical Model Parameters for 20nm MOSFETs (United States)

    Yoon, Jong Chul; Nakade, Yasunari; Hiroki, Akira; Inoue, Fumitaka; Tomiyama, Kenji

    In this work, the effects of source and drain resistances (RS, RD) on device characteristics are investigated for sub-20nm MOSFETs. The current driving capability is calculated for several structures such as planar bulk, SOI, and Multi gate MOSFETs by using the ITRS data. It is found that the degradation of the drain currents due to RS and RD becomes significant as the gate lengths are scale down to sub-20nm region. In order to investigate the effects of RS and RD on the device parameters such as the channel length modulation coefficient λ and the saturation drain current IDSAT, the drain currents are simulated by using the circuit simulation. The intrinsic MOSFET model parameters were extracted from the experimental ID-VD characteristic of 20nm nMOSFET. The source and drain resistances are changed from 0 to 100 ohm. It is found that the degradation of IDSAT due to RS and RD shows the linear gate voltage dependence. For the long channel MOSFET, the degradation of λ shows the linear gate voltage dependence. On the contrary, for the short channel MOSFET, the degradation of λ shows the little gate voltage dependence.

  2. Modeling the response of shoreface-connected sand ridges to sand extraction on an inner shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nnafie, A.; de Swart, Huib; Calvete, D.; Garnier, R.


    Shoreface-connected sand ridges are rhythmic bedforms that occur on many storm-dominated inner shelves. The ridges span several kilometers, are a few meters high, and they evolve on a timescale of centuries. A processbased model is used to gain a fundamental insight into the response of these ridges

  3. Microwave processing of oil sands and contribution of clay minerals


    Robinson, John; Binner, Eleanor; Saeid, Abdul; Al-Harahsheh, Mohammed; Kingman, Sam


    This study establishes the feasibility of microwave heating for extracting oil from Oil Sands in ex-situ processes. Previous studies in this area have shown some potential, but have not characterised the dielectric properties of the Oil Sands used, nor related them to the mineral composition, both of which are vital if successful scale up is to be achieved. In this work the fundamental interactions of microwave energy with Oil Sands are investigated and understood for the first time, and the ...

  4. Provenance of coastal dune sands along Red Sea, Egypt (United States)

    Zaid, Samir M.


    Texture, mineralogy, and major and trace element geochemistry of 26 coastal dune sand samples were studied to determine the provenance and tectonic environment of two dune fields close to the beaches of Safaga (SF) and Quseir (QS) at the Egyptian Red Sea coast. Onshore winds generate fine, moderate, moderately-well to well-sorted, coarse-skewed to near-symmetrical dune sands with mesokurtic distributions. Winds pick up and transport grains from nearby beach sands and alluvial deposits into a wide Red Sea coastal plain at the border of the beach. The mineralogical (Qt-Ft-Lt) and geochemical composition of the sands, indicate that SF and QS coastal dune sands are mature and influenced by quartz-rich sands. The average CIA values in SF and QS coastal dune sands are low relative to the range of the PAAS, suggesting an arid climate and a low intensity of chemical weathering. The SF and QS coastal dune sand samples are plotted in the recycled orogen and partly in craton interior fields suggesting recycled older sedimentary and partly metamorphic-plutonic sources. The high content of quartz with shell debris and carbonates in coastal dune sands support the recycled sedimentary beach and alluvial sand sources. The dominance of heavy minerals like amphiboles (hornblende) and biotite in the coastal dune sands also supports the effect of metamorphic-plutonic source rocks. The new tectonic discriminant-function diagrams suggest that the coastal dune sands were deposited in a passive margin of a synrift basin. The results provide a good evidence for the extension in the Red Sea rift system during Oligocene-post Pliocene, which is consistent with the general geology of Egypt.

  5. Adsorption of L-amino Acids on Sea Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaia Dimas A. M.


    Full Text Available A study of adsorption of L-alanine, L-tyrosine, L-glutamic acid, and L-lysine on sea sand was carried out. Only L-lysine showed adsorption on sea sand, probably due to the presence of the positively charged R group. Our results raise some doubts as to whether sand was important for the pre-concentration of amino acids prior to peptide condensation on the Pre-Biotic Earth.

  6. Investigations on Local Quartz Sand for Application in Glass Industry (United States)

    Dararutana, Pisutti; Chetanachan, Prukswan; Wathanakul, Pornsawat; Sirikulrat, Narin


    Silica or glass sand is a special type of quartz sand that is suitable for glass-making, because of its high silica content, and its low content of iron oxide and other compounds. In Thailand, deposits of quartz sand are found as the beach and the river sands in many areas; eastern, southern, northeastern and northern. In this work, grain-size distribution and chemical analyses were carried out on 10 sand samples taken from various localities in Thailand such as Chanthaburi, Trat, Rayong, Chumphon, Nakhon Si, Pattani, Phuket, Songkhla, Nong Khai, and Tak provinces. The geological resources show that most of them are the surface-to-near-surface glass sand deposits. The sand grains in most deposits were mainly angular-to-rounded, except in some areas of either angular or rounded grains. Chemical analysis showed that the sands contained more than 95wt% silica and low content of Fe, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, and K. The concentration levels of these components in the samples confirm with internationally acceptable standard for glass production. The quartz sand dressing plants that used the spiral classifier to improve the properties of the quartz sands to meet the standard specifications are mostly located in the eastern area. It can be concluded that most of the quartz sand deposits in Thailand investigated show well-sorted grain-size with considerable purity, i.e. high-grade quality. The advanced works resulted in that these raw quartz sands can be used as raw material for fabrication of soda-lime, lead crystal, and lead-free high refractive index glasses. The colorless and various colored glass products have been satisfactorily used in the domestic art and glass manufactures.

  7. Developing a Sand Management Plan for Galveston Island (United States)


    US Army Corps of Engineers BUILDING STRONG® Developing a Sand Management Plan for Galveston Island Ashley E. Frey, P. E. Research Civil...BUILDING STRONG® Problem Statement/Approach Recommend a long-term plan of actions to better manage sands on Galveston Island Initial Tasks...Formalize and document Galveston Island Sand Management Plan 3 Innovative solutions for a safer, better world BUILDING STRONG® Sediment

  8. Chemical and biological control of phlebotominae sand flies


    Pružinová, Kateřina


    Phlebotominae sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) are important vectors of leishmaniasis. Control measures are complicated by the fact that sand fly breeding sites and resting places are generally hard to find. Measures used to control adult sand flies include the use of chemical insecticides for insecticide-treated bednets or curtains, residual spraying of dwellings, eventually the space-spraying. Domestic dogs as reservoir host of visceral leishmaniosis can be protected by dog-collars impre...

  9. Postoperative use of drain in thyroid lobectomy – a randomized clinical trial conducted at Civil Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memon Zahid


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroidectomy is a common surgical procedure, after which drains are placed routinely. This study aims to assess the benefits of placing postoperative drains, its complications and affects on postoperative stay, in thyroid lobectomy. Methodology Randomized Clinical Trial of 60 goitre patients undergoing lobectomy was conducted at Civil Hospital Karachi, during July’11-December’11. Patients were randomly assigned into drain and non drain groups. Patient demographics, labs and complications were noted. Ultrasound of neck was performed on both groups. For drain group, the amount of fluid present in the surgical bed and redivac drain was added to calculate fluid collection while in non drain group it was calculated by ultrasound of neck on first and second post-op days. Data was entered and analyzed on SPSS v16 using Independent T tests. Result The mean total drain output for 2 days in non-drain group was significantly lower 10.67 (±9.072 ml while in drain group was 30.97 (±42.812 ml (p = 0.014. The mean postoperative stay of drain group (79.2 ±15.63 hours was significantly higher, as compared to mean postoperative stay of non drain group (50.4 ±7.32 hours. Mean Visual Analogue Score (VAS for pain day 1 (6.2 ±0.997 and day 2 (4.17 ±0.95 in drain group were significantly higher compared to day 1 (2.6 ±1.163 and day 2 (1.3 ±0.877 of non drain group. From drain group, 2 patients complained of stridor, dyspnea on Day 1 which subsided by Day 2 and 1 case of voice change, with no such complains in non drain group. No patients from both groups developed seroma, wound infection or hematoma. Conclusion In uncomplicated surgeries especially for lobectomy, use of drain can be omitted.

  10. Numerical modeling of wind-blown sand on Mars. (United States)

    Huang, HaoJie; Bo, TianLi; Zheng, XiaoJing


    Recent observation results show that sand ripples and dunes are movable like those on Earth under current Martian climate. And the aeolian process on Mars therefore is re-attracting the eyes of scientific researchers in different fields. In this paper, the spatial and temporal evolution of wind-blown sand on Mars is simulated by the large-eddy simulation method. The simulations are conducted under the conditions of both friction wind speed higher and lower than the "fluid threshold", respectively. The fluid entrainment of the sand particles, the processes among saltation sand particles and sand bed, and the negative feedback of sand movement to flow field are considered. Our results show that the "overshoot" phenomenon also exists in the evolution of wind-blown sand on Mars both temporally and spatially; impact entrainment affects the sand transport rate on Mars when the wind speed is smaller or larger than the fluid threshold; and both the average saltation length and height are one order of magnitudes larger than those on Earth. Eventually, the formulas describing the sand transport rate, average saltation length and height on Mars are given, respectively.

  11. [Influence of perlite sand on the skin in experiment]. (United States)

    Dracheva, E E; Iatsyna, I V; Lapina, N E; Ianin, V A; Antoshina, L I; Zhadan, I Iu; Krasavina, E K


    In the present work influence of perlite sand has been studied on a skin of Sprague-Dawley male rat (300-350 g). The biopsy of intact rat skin has been used as control. Contact of the perlite sand with animals' skin causes the reaction of an inflammation amplifying with increase of duration of the influence of substance. Therefore, despite an inert chemical compound, long contact with perlite sand in conditions of production can promote development of skin diseases. From the result of this investigation it is concluded that perlite sand causes irritating action on the skin and it is necessary to apply additional protective means to workers contacting to this substance.

  12. Effective Laboratory Method of Chromite Content Estimation in Reclaimed Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaszak Z.


    Full Text Available The paper presents an original method of measuring the actual chromite content in the circulating moulding sand of foundry. This type of material is applied for production of moulds. This is the case of foundry which most frequently perform heavy casting in which for the construction of chemical hardening mould is used, both the quartz sand and chromite sand. After the dry reclamation of used moulding sand, both types of sands are mixed in various ratios resulting that in reclaimed sand silos, the layers of varying content of chromite in mixture are observed. For chromite recuperation from the circulating moulding sand there are applied the appropriate installations equipped with separate elements generating locally strong magnetic field. The knowledge of the current ratio of chromite and quartz sand allows to optimize the settings of installation and control of the separation efficiency. The arduous and time-consuming method of determining the content of chromite using bromoform liquid requires operational powers and precautions during using this toxic liquid. It was developed and tested the new, uncomplicated gravimetric laboratory method using powerful permanent magnets (neodymium. The method is used in the production conditions of casting for current inspection of chromite quantity in used sand in reclamation plant.

  13. Direct numerical simulations of aeolian sand ripples (United States)

    Durán, Orencio; Claudin, Philippe; Andreotti, Bruno


    Aeolian sand beds exhibit regular patterns of ripples resulting from the interaction between topography and sediment transport. Their characteristics have been so far related to reptation transport caused by the impacts on the ground of grains entrained by the wind into saltation. By means of direct numerical simulations of grains interacting with a wind flow, we show that the instability turns out to be driven by resonant grain trajectories, whose length is close to a ripple wavelength and whose splash leads to a mass displacement toward the ripple crests. The pattern selection results from a compromise between this destabilizing mechanism and a diffusive downslope transport which stabilizes small wavelengths. The initial wavelength is set by the ratio of the sediment flux and the erosion/deposition rate, a ratio which increases linearly with the wind velocity. We show that this scaling law, in agreement with experiments, originates from an interfacial layer separating the saltation zone from the static sand bed, where momentum transfers are dominated by midair collisions. Finally, we provide quantitative support for the use of the propagation of these ripples as a proxy for remote measurements of sediment transport. PMID:25331873

  14. Guidelines to sand control. Pt. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, H.J.; Ramos, J.


    Well preparation is much more critical for consolidation processes than for most screen or pack applications. Of particular importance are (1) adequate cementing; (2) selectively perforating short intervals with clean perforating fluids; (3) cleaning perforations and face of formation; (4) proper isolation of zones; and (5) packing before consolidation. The desirable characteristics for a consolidation process include (1) minimum preparation time at well site; (2) low injection pressure; (3) short cure time before restoring well to production; (4) high compressive strength of resulting matrix; (5) high retained permeability; and (6) good resistance to deterioration from well fluids and commonly used treating fluids. For a given resin, some compromises are necessary. Methods are now available to control sand in nearly any well. A technique which has been growing in acceptance recently is the placement of sand and resin in a single operation. This service is available with several resins and is usually placed as a pressure pack. A wide variety of consolidation processes is available from a number of service companies. Each process has some advantages and each is probably adequate, if it is suited to the well conditions and good practice has been followed in preparing the well. (21 refs.)

  15. Avalanches of Singing Sand in the Laboratory (United States)

    Dagois-Bohy, Simon; Courrech Du Pont, Sylvain; Douady, Stéphane


    The song of dunes is a natural phenomenon that has arisen travellers' curiosity for a long time, from Marco Polo to R.A. Bagnold. Scientific observations in the XXth century have shown that the sound is emitted during a shear flow of these particular grains, the free surface of the flow having coherent vibrations like a loud speaker. The sound emission is also submitted to a threshold effect with many parameters like humidity, flow speed, surface of the grains. The sound has been reproduced in laboratory avalanche experiments close to the natural phenomenon on field, but set in a channel with a hard bottom and a few centimeters of sand flowing, which contradicts explanations of the sound that involve a sand dune under the avalanche flow. Flow rates measurements also show the presence of a plug region in the flow above the sheared band, with the same characteristic length as the coherence zones of the sound. Finally we show experimentally that the Froude number, once modified to take into account the height of this plug band, is the parameter that sets the amplitude of the sound, and produces a threshold that depends on the grain type.

  16. Development and validation of model for sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Church P.


    Full Text Available There is a growing requirement within QinetiQ to develop models for assessments when there is very little experimental data. A theoretical approach to developing equations of state for geological materials has been developed using Quantitative Structure Property Modelling based on the Porter-Gould model approach. This has been applied to well-controlled sand with different moisture contents and particle shapes. The Porter-Gould model describes an elastic response and gives good agreement at high impact pressures with experiment indicating that the response under these conditions is dominated by the molecular response. However at lower pressures the compaction behaviour is dominated by a micro-mechanical response which drives the need for additional theoretical tools and experiments to separate the volumetric and shear compaction behaviour. The constitutive response is fitted to existing triaxial cell data and Quasi-Static (QS compaction data. This data is then used to construct a model in the hydrocode. The model shows great promise in predicting plate impact, Hopkinson bar, fragment penetration and residual velocity of fragments through a finite thickness of sand.

  17. Microstructural characterization of a Canadian oil sand

    CERN Document Server

    Dinh, Hong Doan; Nauroy, Jean-François; Tang, Anh-Minh; Souhail, Youssef; 10.1139/T2012-072


    The microstructure of oil sand samples extracted at a depth of 75 m from the estuarine Middle McMurray formation (Alberta, Canada) has been investigated by using high resolution 3D X-Ray microtomography ($\\mu$CT) and Cryo Scanning Electron Microscopy (CryoSEM). $\\mu$CT images evidenced some dense areas composed of highly angular grains surrounded by fluids that are separated by larger pores full of gas. 3D Image analysis provided in dense areas porosity values compatible with in-situ log data and macroscopic laboratory determinations, showing that they are representative of intact states. $\\mu$CT hence provided some information on the morphology of the cracks and disturbance created by gas expansion. The CryoSEM technique, in which the sample is freeze fractured within the SEM chamber prior to observation, provided pictures in which the (frozen) bitumen clearly appears between the sand grains. No evidence of the existence of a thin connate water layer between grains and the bitumen, frequently mentioned in th...

  18. Comparison of buried sand ridges and regressive sand ridges on the outer shelf of the East China Sea (United States)

    Wu, Ziyin; Jin, Xianglong; Zhou, Jieqiong; Zhao, Dineng; Shang, Jihong; Li, Shoujun; Cao, Zhenyi; Liang, Yuyang


    Based on multi-beam echo soundings and high-resolution single-channel seismic profiles, linear sand ridges in U14 and U2 on the East China Sea (ECS) shelf are identified and compared in detail. Linear sand ridges in U14 are buried sand ridges, which are 90 m below the seafloor. It is presumed that these buried sand ridges belong to the transgressive systems tract (TST) formed 320-200 ka ago and that their top interface is the maximal flooding surface (MFS). Linear sand ridges in U2 are regressive sand ridges. It is presumed that these buried sand ridges belong to the TST of the last glacial maximum (LGM) and that their top interface is the MFS of the LGM. Four sub-stage sand ridges of U2 are discerned from the high-resolution single-channel seismic profile and four strikes of regressive sand ridges are distinguished from the submarine topographic map based on the multi-beam echo soundings. These multi-stage and multi-strike linear sand ridges are the response of, and evidence for, the evolution of submarine topography with respect to sea-level fluctuations since the LGM. Although the difference in the age of formation between U14 and U2 is 200 ka and their sequences are 90 m apart, the general strikes of the sand ridges are similar. This indicates that the basic configuration of tidal waves on the ECS shelf has been stable for the last 200 ka. A basic evolutionary model of the strata of the ECS shelf is proposed, in which sea-level change is the controlling factor. During the sea-level change of about 100 ka, five to six strata are developed and the sand ridges develop in the TST. A similar story of the evolution of paleo-topography on the ECS shelf has been repeated during the last 300 ka.

  19. Metal biogeochemistry in constructed wetlands based on fluviatile sand and zeolite- and clinopyroxene-dominated lava sand


    Huang, Jen-How; Paul, Sonja; Mayer, Silke; Moradpour, Eloise; Hasselbach, Ralf; Gier?, Reto; Alewell, Christine


    For the first time, speciation of Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu and Pb was determined along the profiles of 8 constructed wetlands (CWs) consisting of fluviatile sand (Fluv), clinopyroxene-dominated lava sand (Cl-LS) and zeolite-dominated lava sand (Ze-LS), aiming at quantifying metal behaviour in CWs and the impact caused by different filter materials. With the exception of Mn, which underwent reductive dissolution, CWs were sinks for the studied metals. Metal accumulation rates differed in the followi...

  20. Pesticide transport to tile-drained fields in SWAT model – macropore flow and sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Shenglan; Trolle, Dennis; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte


    as a fraction of effective rainfall and transported to the tile drains directly. Macropore sediment transport is calculated similarly to the MACRO model (Jarvis et al., 1999). Mobile pesticide transport is calculated with a decay function with the flow, whereas sorbed pesticides transport is associated......Preferential flow and colloidal facilitated transport via macopores connected to tile drains are the main pathways for pesticide transport from agricultural areas to surface waters in some area. We developed a macropore flow module and a sediment transport module for the Soil and Water Assessment...... Tool (SWAT) to simulate transport of both mobile (e.g. Bentazon) and strongly sorbed (e.g. Diuron) pesticides in tile drains. Macropore flow is initiated when soil water content exceeds a threshold and rainfall intensity exceeds infiltration capacity. The amount of macropore flow is calculated...

  1. Modeling the drain current and its equation parameters for lightly doped symmetrical double-gate MOSFETs (United States)

    Bhartia, Mini; Chatterjee, Arun Kumar


    A 2D model for the potential distribution in silicon film is derived for a symmetrical double gate MOSFET in weak inversion. This 2D potential distribution model is used to analytically derive an expression for the subthreshold slope and threshold voltage. A drain current model for lightly doped symmetrical DG MOSFETs is then presented by considering weak and strong inversion regions including short channel effects, series source to drain resistance and channel length modulation parameters. These derived models are compared with the simulation results of the SILVACO (Atlas) tool for different channel lengths and silicon film thicknesses. Lastly, the effect of the fixed oxide charge on the drain current model has been studied through simulation. It is observed that the obtained analytical models of symmetrical double gate MOSFETs are in good agreement with the simulated results for a channel length to silicon film thickness ratio greater than or equal to 2.

  2. Short-channel drain current model for asymmetric heavily / lightly doped DG MOSFETs (United States)

    Dutta, Pradipta; Syamal, Binit; Koley, Kalyan; Dutta, Arka; Sarkar, C. K.


    The paper presents a drain current model for double gate metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (DG MOSFETs) based on a new velocity saturation model that accounts for short-channel velocity saturation effect independently in the front and the back gate controlled channels under asymmetric front and back gate bias and oxide thickness. To determine the front and the back-channel velocity saturation, drain-induced barrier lowering is evaluated by effective gate voltages at the front and back gates obtained from surface potential at the threshold condition after considering symmetric and asymmetric front and back oxide thickness. The model also incorporates surface roughness scattering and ionized impurity scattering to estimate drain current for heavily / lightly doped channel for short-channel asymmetric DG MOSFET and a good agreement has been achieved with TCAD simulations, with a relative error of around 3-7%.

  3. Use of closed suction devices and other drains in spinal surgery: results of an online, Germany-wide questionnaire. (United States)

    von Eckardstein, Kajetan L; Dohmes, Jaqueline E; Rohde, Veit


    The risks of drains in spine surgery (e.g., increasing venous plexus bleeding, maintaining CSF leakage, and infections) must be balanced with their benefits (e.g., reduced rate of postoperative hematoma and seroma formation). Little is known about factors that influence surgeons' decision to employ a drain. We conducted a survey among German spine surgeons regarding their use of drains. Neurosurgical and orthopedic departments along with privately practicing neurosurgeons were invited to complete an online questionnaire featuring general and case-specific questions with regard to drain placement. We received 163 questionnaires (private practice and small-volume centers 36.1%, medium- and large-volume centers 43.6%, university centers 20.2%). Factors influencing the decision to use a drain include size of wound, type of procedure, hemostasis at the end of the procedure, and coagulopathies; factors found to be less important include overall blood loss, body mass index, and implants. 31% of surgeons will use drains for microdiskectomies. For other pathologies, percentages are as follows: anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion, 58%; cervical laminoplasty, 62%; hemilaminectomy for bisegmental lumbar stenosis, 69%; transpedicular instrumentation, 88%; vertebral body replacement for metastasis, 94%. Over half of those who usually employ a drain will not use a drain in cases of unintentional durotomy. In terms of indication, duration, and safety measures, use of drains in spinal surgery is heterogeneous. The majority of surgeons prefer drains to suction in most cases, except for microdiskectomies, for which only 31% will use a drain. Nearly all colleagues discontinue drains by day 4.

  4. The hydrology of a drained topographical depression within an agricutlural field in north-central Iowa (United States)

    Roth, Jason L.; Capel, Paul D.


    North-central Iowa is an agriculturally intensive area comprising the southeastern portion of the Prairie Pothole Region, a landscape containing a high density of enclosed topographical depressions. Artificial drainage practices have been implemented throughout the area to facilitate agricultural production. Vertical surface drains are utilized to drain the topographical depressions that accumulate water. This study focuses on the hydrology of a drained topographical depression located in a 39.5 ha agricultural field. To assess the hydrology of the drained depression, a water balance was constructed for 11 ponding events during the 2008 growing season. Continuous pond and groundwater level data were obtained with pressure transducers. Flows into the vertical surface drain were calculated based on pond depth. Precipitation inflows and evaporative outflows of the ponds were calculated using climatic data. Groundwater levels were used to assess groundwater/pond interactions. Results of the water balances show distinct differences between the inflows to and outflows from the depression based on antecedent conditions. In wet conditions, groundwater inflow sustained the ponds. The ponds receded only after the groundwater level declined to below the land surface. In drier conditions, groundwater was not a source of water to the depression. During these drier conditions, infiltration comprised 30% of the outflows from the depression during declining pond stages. Over the entire study period, the surface drain, delivering water to the stream, was the largest outflow from the pond, accounting for 97% of the outflow, while evapotranspiration was just 2%. Precipitation onto the pond surface proved to be a minor component, accounting for 4% of the total inflows.

  5. Using MODFLOW drains to simulate groundwater flow in a karst environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, J.; Tomasko, D.; Glennon, M.A.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.


    Modeling groundwater flow in a karst environment is both numerically challenging and highly uncertain because of potentially complex flowpaths and a lack of site-specific information. This study presents the results of MODFLOW numerical modeling in which drain cells in a finite-difference model are used as analogs for preferential flowpaths or conduits in karst environments. In this study, conduits in mixed-flow systems are simulated by assigning connected pathways of drain cells from the locations of tracer releases, sinkholes, or other karst features to outlet springs along inferred flowpaths. These paths are determined by the locations of losing stream segments, ephemeral stream beds, geophysical surveys, fracture lineaments, or other surficial characteristics, combined with the results of dye traces. The elevations of the drains at the discharge ends of the inferred flowpaths are estimated from field data and are adjusted when necessary during model calibration. To simulate flow in a free-flowing conduit, a high conductance is assigned to each drain to eliminate the need for drain-specific information that would be very difficult to obtain. Calculations were performed for a site near Hohenfels, Germany. The potentiometric surface produced by the simulations agreed well with field data. The head contours in the vicinity of the karst features behaved in a manner consistent with a flow system having both diffuse and conduit components, and the sum of the volumetric flow out of the drain cells agreed closely with spring discharges and stream flows. Because of the success of this approach, it is recommended for regional studies in which little site-specific information (e.g., location, number, size, and conductivity of fractures and conduits) is available, and general flow characteristics are desired.

  6. Effects of Drains on Pain, Comfort and Anxiety in Patients Undergone Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummu Yildiz Findik


    Full Text Available Backround: Surgical drains negatively affect patients’ comfort, cause anxiety along with pain, as they are used to promote healing after surgery.Purpose: This study aimed to determine pain, comfort and anxiety levels of patients with drains postoperatively.Methodology: Research was performed with 192 patients undergone abdominal, neck, breast and open heart surgery and had surgical and underwater chest drains at the postoperative period. Patient Information Form, Numerical Pain Scale, General Comfort Questionnaire and Trait Anxiety Scale was used for collection of data. In evaluating the data, we used the t-test, variance and correlation analysis, mean, percentage and frequency.Results: The patients’ mean score of pain was 4.67±2.93, comfort was 2.75±0.29 and anxiety was 39.31±9.21. It was found statistically significant that the comfort level decreases as the pain level increases and that the patients undergone open heart surgery and with underwater chest drains have higher pain levels. It was found statistically significant that, comfort level in patients undergone abdominal or cardiac surgery is lower than patients undergone breast or neck surgery, and that the comfort level decreases as the duration of drains increases. The increasing state anxiety while pain increases and comfort decreases was found statistically significant.Conclusions: Surgeries and drains applied after these procedures decrease the comfort level of the patients as increases the pain level. Also, pain and discomfort increase the patients’ anxiety. Nurses who providing care to these patients are suggested to improve measures about pain and anxiety reduction for maintaining of comfort.

  7. Numerical simulation of draining and drying procedure for the ITER Generic Equatorial Port Plug cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanchuk, Victor, E-mail: [JSC “D.V. Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus”, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Grigoriev, Sergey; Lyublin, Boris [JSC “D.V. Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus”, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Maquet, Philippe [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Senik, Konstantin [JSC “D.V. Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus”, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Pak, Sunil [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Udintsev, Victor [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France)


    Highlights: • The cooling system of the ITER Generic Equatorial Port Plug (GEPP) is of a complicated combination of horizontal and vertical channels. • The calculation model for the entire GEPP cooling circuit comprising 12 sub-circuits and built up of 2421 finite-volume elements has been developed. • Transient analysis of this model simulating the draining procedure by the KORSAR/B1 code has been performed. • Water in amount of 263 g of initial 531 kg in the GEPP remains in the dead-ends of the DSM and DFW channels in 150 s of draining procedure. • Almost 3 h are required to boil off 263 g of water trapped in the dead-ends. - Abstract: For effective vacuum leak testing all cooling circuits serving the ITER vessel and in-vessel components shall be drained and dried so that after this procedure taking less than 100 h the purge gas passing through a component has water content less than 100 ppm. This process is four-stage, with the first stage using a short blast of compressed nitrogen to blow most of water in the coolant channels out of the circuit. This process is hindered by volumes which trap water due to gravity. To remove the trapped water, it is necessary, first, to heat up the structure by hot and compressed nitrogen, and then water is evaporated by depressurized nitrogen. The cooling system of the ITER Diagnostic Equatorial Port Plugs is of a complicated hydraulic configuration. The system branching might make difficult removal of water from the piping in the scheduled draining mode. The authors have proposed the KORSAR computation code to simulate draining of the GEPP cooling circuit. The numerical simulation performed has made it possible to describe the process dynamics during draining of the entire GEPP cooling circuit and to define the process time, amount and location of residual water and evolution of two-phase flow regime.

  8. Looped Penrose Drain for Minimally Invasive Treatment of Complex Superficial Abscesses of the Hand (United States)

    Ugrinich, Marija; Chang, Benjamin


    Complex superficial abscesses are a common occurrence that traditionally have been treated by making relatively large incisions over the surface of the abscess, in order to ensure drainage and access for packing and dressing changes. The authors outline a minimally invasive technique that can be used for draining complex subcutaneous abscesses that extend over a large surface area. It is a simple technique utilizing multiple small incisions and looped penrose drains. This technique has been found to be very effective in many areas of the body and has multiple advantages over traditional incision, drainage, gauze packing, and dressing changes. PMID:19921343

  9. A Mystery Unraveled: Booming Sand Dunes (United States)

    Vriend, N. M.; Hunt, M. L.; Clayton, R. W.


    "Booming" sand dunes have intrigued travelers and scientist for centuries. These dunes emit a persistent, low-frequency sound during a slumping event or a natural avalanche on the leeward face of the dune. The sound can last for several minutes and be audible from miles away. The resulting acoustic emission is characterized by a dominant audible frequency (70 - 105 Hz) and several higher harmonics. In the work of Vriend et al. (2007), seismic refraction experiments proved the existence of a multi-layer internal structure in the dune that acts as a waveguide for the acoustic energy. Constructive interference between the reflecting waves enables the amplification and sets the frequency of each boom. A relationship was established that correctly predicts the measured frequency in terms of the thickness (~ 2.0 m) and the seismic body wave velocity of the loose, dry surficial layer (~ 240 m/s) and the substrate half-space (~ 350 m/s). The current work highlights additional measurements and simulations supporting the waveguide model for booming sand dunes. Experiments with ground penetrating radar continuously display the subsurface features which confirm the layered subsurface structure within the dune. Cross-correlation analysis shows that the booming sound propagates at speeds close to the measured body wave velocity. Squeaking sounds, which are generated during the onset of the slide and precede the sustained booming emission, have been found to have distinctly different characteristics. These short bursts of sound are emitted at a lower frequency (50 - 65 Hz) and propagate at a lower propagation speed (125 m/s) than the booming emission. The acoustic and elastic wave propagation in the dune has been simulated with a finite difference code. The interaction between the air and the ground produces a coupling wave along the surface. The reflections in the surficial layer propagate in a dispersive band at a group velocity that is slower than the phase velocity of the

  10. Properties of Desert Sand and CMAS Glass (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.


    As-received desert sand from a Middle East country has been characterized for its phase composition and thermal stability. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the presence of quartz (SiO2), calcite (CaCO3), gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), and NaAlSi3O8 phases in as-received desert sand and showed weight loss of approx. 35 percent due to decomposition of CaCO3 and CaSO4.2H2O when heated to 1400 C. A batch of as-received desert sand was melted into calcium magnesium aluminosilicate (CMAS) glass at approx. 1500 C. From inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, chemical composition of the CMAS glass was analyzed to be 27.8CaO-4MgO-5Al2O3-61.6SiO2-0.6Fe2O3-1K2O (mole percent). Various physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the glass have been evaluated. Bulk density of CMAS glass was 2.69 g/cc, Young's modulus 92 GPa, Shear modulus 36 GPa, Poisson's ratio 0.28, dilatometric glass transition temperature (T (sub g)) 706 C, softening point (T (sub d)) 764 C, Vickers microhardness 6.3 +/- 0.4 GPa, indentation fracture toughness 0.75 +/- 0.15 MPa.m (sup 1/2), and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) 9.8 x 10 (exp -6)/degC in the temperature range 25 to 700 C. Temperature dependence of viscosity has also been estimated from various reference points of the CMAS glass using the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) equation. The glass remained amorphous after heat treating at 850 C for 10 hr but crystallized into CaSiO3 and Ca-Mg-Al silicate phases at 900 C or higher temperatures. Crystallization kinetics of the CMAS glass has also been investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA). Activation energies for the crystallization of two different phases in the glass were calculated to be 403 and 483 kJ/mol, respectively.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S


    The Department of Energy (DOE) identified the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) process as the preferred technology to remove cesium from radioactive waste solutions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As a result, Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) began designing and building a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) in the SRS tank farm to process liquid waste for an interim period until the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) begins operations. Both the solvent and the strip effluent streams could contain high concentrations of cesium which must be removed from the contactors, process tanks, and piping prior to performing contactor maintenance. When these vessels are drained, thin films or drops will remain on the equipment walls. Following draining, the vessels will be flushed with water and drained to remove the flush water. The draining reduces the cesium concentration in the vessels by reducing the volume of cesium-containing material. The flushing, and subsequent draining, reduces the cesium in the vessels by diluting the cesium that remains in the film or drops on the vessel walls. MCU personnel requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers conduct a literature search to identify models to calculate the thickness of the liquid films remaining in the contactors, process tanks, and piping following draining of salt solution, solvent, and strip solution. The conclusions from this work are: (1) The predicted film thickness of the strip effluent is 0.010 mm on vertical walls, 0.57 mm on horizontal walls and 0.081 mm in horizontal pipes. (2) The predicted film thickness of the salt solution is 0.015 mm on vertical walls, 0.74 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.106 mm in horizontal pipes. (3) The predicted film thickness of the solvent is 0.022 mm on vertical walls, 0.91 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.13 mm in horizontal pipes. (4) The calculated film volume following draining is: (a) Salt solution receipt tank--1.6 gallons; (b) Salt solution feed

  12. Provenance of coastal dune sands along Red Sea, Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The average CIA values in SF and QS coastal dune sands are low relative to the range of the PAAS, suggesting an arid climate and a low intensity of chemical weathering. The SF and QS coastal dune sand samples are plotted in the recycled orogen and partly in craton interior fields suggesting recycled older sedimentary ...

  13. Sand-Laterite Mixtures for Road Construction (A Laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained show that for all types of laterites tested, the addition of sand to laterites has beneficial effects in reducing the liquid limit, the optimum moisture content, the plasticity index, the linear shrinkage and in increasing the maximum dry density and the California Bearing Ratio. There is an optimum sand ...

  14. Pathogen removal using saturated sand colums supplemented with hydrochar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, J.W.


    This PhD study has evaluated hydrochars derived from biowastes as adsorbents for pathogen removal in water treatment. Pathogen removal experiments were conducted by carrying out breakthrough analysis using a simple sand filtration set-up. Glass columns packed by 10 cm sand bed supplemented with

  15. Cytotoxicity of yellow sand in lung epithelial cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    The Asian dust storms (called as 'yellow sand') bring a large amount of soil particles from the deserts of Mongo- lia and China to East Asia and North America. Yellow sand is a dust-laden air mass, and its effect to the atmos- pheric environment is of large concern in the Asian-. Pacific area including Korea, Japan and China.

  16. Geophysical mapping of the occurrence of shallow oil sands in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Oil sands are known to be an alternate source of energy and of great economic value. To map the occurrence of shallow oil sand deposits in Idiopopo, Okitipupa area in Ondo state southwestern. Nigeria, vertical electric sounding (VES) in 11 stations along 3 profiles were carried out using the. Schlumberger configuration.

  17. On Foundation Improvement By Sand Replacement | Abam | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a simple foundation improvement method involving the replacement of poor foundation bearing soils with sand and the resultant improvement in bearing capacity and the minimization of settlement at the site of a large storage tank. Minimum thickness of sand replacement for various foundation loads ...

  18. Effect of Crushed Sandstone Sand on the Properties of High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aggregates are the major constituents in the construction industry. With natural sand and gravel resources being rapidly depleted all over the world, the needs of construction industry will have to be met increasingly from crushed sand as fine aggregates. This paper presents results of the laboratory investigation on high ...

  19. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.


    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  20. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.


    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  1. Fine sand in motion: the influence of interstitial air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, T.A.M.


    Sand is a granular material, and therefore it consists of individual grains arranged in a packing. The pores in-between the grains are usually filled with a fluid, in this case air. Now, is this interstitial air able to influence the behavior of the sand bed as a whole? When a ball impacts on fine,

  2. Cavity prediction in sand mould production applying the DISAMATIC process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovad, Emil; Larsen, Per; Spangenberg, Jon


    The sand shot in the DISAMATIC process is simulated by the discrete element method (DEM) taking into account the influence and coupling of the airflow with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The DEM model is calibrated by a ring shear test, a sand pile experiment and a slump test. Subsequently, ...

  3. Modeling the dynamics of offshore tidal sand ridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, B.


    Tidal sand ridges are large-scale bedforms with horizontal dimensions of several kilometers and heights of tens of meters. They occur in the offshore area of shelf seas that have a wide range of water depths (10-200 m). Based on their present-day behavior, ridges are classified as `active' (sand

  4. Sand-Filtration System For Improving Water Quality For Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of a pilot sand filtration plant for a small town water supply was monitored over a seven month period to evaluate the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of the filtered water from a system installed at Assin Praso in the Central Region of Ghana. The sand filter was effective in reducing turbidity by ...

  5. Geophysical mapping of the occurrence of shallow oil sands in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil sands are known to be an alternate source of energy and of great economic value. To map the occurrence of shallow oil sand deposits in Idiopopo, Okitipupa area in Ondo state southwestern Nigeria, vertical electric sounding (VES) in 11 stations along 3 profiles were carried out using the Schlumberger configuration.

  6. Journal of EEA, Vol. 30, 2013 SAND SINTERING PROBLEM ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    methods of sand sintering protection on the tin bronze impeller body and internal surfaces. The research ... causes of formation and protection of it [4, 5]. Based on the adhering characteristics of sand grain with ..... including pumps, pipes, taps and impellers .It is because they resist corrosion and impingent effect of water.

  7. Ecology and management of sand shinnery communities: a literature review (United States)

    Roger Peterson; Chad S. Boyd


    Sand shinnery is codominated by oak shrubs and mid and tallgrasses; the grasses are usually taller than the oaks. The shrubs are the small, visible shoots of massive underground stem systems, which are hundreds or thousands of years old. Sand shinnery occupies 5 to 7 M acres in western Oklahoma, western Texas, and southeastern New Mexico. This area is a decrease from...

  8. Coastal Sand Dune Plant Ecology: Field Phenomena and Interpretation (United States)

    McDonald, K.


    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of selecting coastal sand dunes as the location for field ecology studies. Presents a descriptive zonal model for seaboard sand dune plant communities, suggestions concerning possible observations and activities relevant to interpreting phenomena associated with these forms of vegetation, and additional…

  9. Microwaves energy in curing process of water glass molding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granat K.


    Full Text Available This work presents the results of investigation of microwave heating on hardening process of water glass molding sands. Essential influence of this heating process on basic properties such as: compression, bending and tensile strength as well as permeability and abrasion resistance has been found. It has been proved, that all investigated sorts of sodium water glass with a module between 2.0 and 3.3 can be used as a binder of molding sands in microwave curing process. It has been found during analysis of research results of sands with 2.5 % water glass addition that they are practically the same as in case of identical molding sands dried for 120 minutes at the temperature of 110°C, used for comparative purposes. Application of microwave curing of molding sands with water glass, however, guarantees reduction of hardening time (from 120 to 4 minutes as well as significant reduction of energy consumption. Attempts of two stage hardening of the investigated water glass molding sands have also been carried out, that is after an initial hardening during a classical CO2 process (identical sands have also been tested for comparison after CO2 blowing process and additional microwave heating. It has been found that application of this kind of treatment for curing sands with 2.5 % sodium water glass content and module from 2.0 up to 3.3 results in the improvement of properties in comparison to classical CO2 process.

  10. Assessing environmental impacts of inland sand mining in parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other impacts include loss of farmland, depreciation of land value, and destruction of infrastructural facilities. The study concluded that sand mining should be subject to planning and other controls in order to curtail its negative impacts. Keywords: Urbanization, Housing, GIS, Land degradation, Sand mining, Pollution ...

  11. Design, Construction and Testing of a Dry Sand Sieving Machine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall and Design, Construction and Testing of a Dry Sand Sieving Machine. OLADEJI AKANNI OGUNWOLE. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: This paper reports on the design, construction and Testing of a dry sand sieving.

  12. Acetylcholinesterase mutations and organophosphate resistance in sand flies and mosquitoes (United States)

    The sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) is a major vector of Leishamnia major, the principle causative agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Middle East, southern Europe, northern Africa, and Southern Asia. Sand fly bites and leishmaniasis significantly impacted U.S. military operations...

  13. An Old-Growth Definition for Sand Pine Forests (United States)

    Kenneth W. Outcalt


    Sand pine scrub, Society of American Foresters cover type 69 (Eyre 1980), grows on deep, droughty, infertile sands of marine and aeolian origin. Water and wind formed these features as sea levels fluctuated during past glacial and interglacial periods (Kurz 1942, Laessle 1958, Brooks 1972). Because of washing and sorting during transport and deposition, soil parent...

  14. Provenance Study Of Bituminous Sands In Eastern Dahomey Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty (120) tar sand samples were collected at 8 localities along the Nigerian tar sand belt for both quartz variety and heavy mineral analyses. The quartz variety study carried out on 30 samples revealed both polycrystalline and monocrystalline quartz types occurring in all samples but in different ...

  15. Thermal Conductivity of Compacted Bentonite and Bentonite-Sand Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Kwon, Sang Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    For the Kyungju bentonite which is considered as a candidate material for the buffer and backfill in the high-level waste repository, the thermal conductivities of compacted bentonite and a bentonite-sand mixture were measured. The thermal conductivities of the compacted bentonite with a dry density of 1.2 to 1.8 Mg/m{sup 3}and the bentonite-sand mixture with a dry density of 1.6 and 1.8 Mg/m{sup 3} were measured within the gravimetric water content range of 10wt% to 20wt% and the sand fraction range of 10 to 30wt%. The thermal conductivity of compacted bentonite and a bentonite-sand mixture increases with increasing dry density and sand weight fraction in the case of constant water weight fraction, and increases with increasing water weight fraction and sand weight fraction in the case of constant dry density. The empirical correlations to describe the thermal conductivity of compacted bentonite and a bentonite-sand mixture as a function of water fraction at each dry density were suggested. These correlations can predict the thermal conductivities of bentonite and a bentonite-sand mixture with a difference below 10%.

  16. Test Setup for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    The test setup for testing axially static and cyclic loaded piles in sand is described in the following. The purpose for the tests is to examine the tensile capacity of axially loaded piles in dense fully saturated sand. The pile dimensions are chosen to resemble full scale dimension of piles used...... in offshore pile foundations today....

  17. Constitutive Soil Properties for Unwashed Sand and Kennedy Space Center (United States)

    Thomas, Michael A.; Chitty, Daniel E.; Gildea, Martin L.; T'Kindt, Casey M.


    Accurate soil models are required for numerical simulations of land landings for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. This report provides constitutive material models for one soil, unwashed sand, from NASA Langley's gantry drop test facility and three soils from Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The four soil models are based on mechanical and compressive behavior observed during geotechnical laboratory testing of remolded soil samples. The test specimens were reconstituted to measured in situ density and moisture content. Tests included: triaxial compression, hydrostatic compression, and uniaxial strain. A fit to the triaxial test results defines the strength envelope. Hydrostatic and uniaxial tests define the compressibility. The constitutive properties are presented in the format of LS-DYNA Material Model 5: Soil and Foam. However, the laboratory test data provided can be used to construct other material models. The four soil models are intended to be specific to the soil conditions discussed in the report. The unwashed sand model represents clayey sand at high density. The KSC models represent three distinct coastal sand conditions: low density dry sand, high density in-situ moisture sand, and high density flooded sand. It is possible to approximate other sands with these models, but the results would be unverified without geotechnical tests to confirm similar soil behavior.

  18. Compensation Grouting in Sand : Experiments, Field Experiences and Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezuijen, A.


    This thesis reports on experimental research on compensation grouting in sand. It is investigated in model tests, how the shape of the grout bodies made during injection depends on the grout properties, the density of the sand and the way the tubes are installed. The shape of the grout body affects

  19. Effects of oil sands sediments on fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, J.; Colavecchia, M.; Hewitt, L.; Sherry, J.; Headley, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Turcotte, D.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada)


    This paper described a collaborative project organized by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) Panel of Energy Research and Development (PERD) with researchers from Environment Canada and the University of Saskatchewan. The 4-year study was conducted to assess the toxicity of oil sands sediments and river waters, and reclamation ponds and sediments on laboratory-raised fish. Three sediments from rivers were evaluated for their potential to cause adverse impacts on fathead minnow eggs and larvae for a period of 18 days. The study monitored hatching, larval survival, development, and growth. Naphthenic acids (NA), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals were measured in the sediments to determine if the compounds can be correlated with observed toxicity. The study will also assess walleye eggs exposed to sediments, and in situ fish exposures. Toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) studies will be conducted to isolate the fractions that may affect fish development and growth.

  20. Direct Production of Silicones From Sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry N. Lewis; F.J. Schattenmann: J.P. Lemmon


    Silicon, in the form of silica and silicates, is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. However the synthesis of silicones (scheme 1) and almost all organosilicon chemistry is only accessible through elemental silicon. Silicon dioxide (sand or quartz) is converted to chemical-grade elemental silicon in an energy intensive reduction process, a result of the exceptional thermodynamic stability of silica. Then, the silicon is reacted with methyl chloride to give a mixture of methylchlorosilanes catalyzed by cooper containing a variety of tract metals such as tin, zinc etc. The so-called direct process was first discovered at GE in 1940. The methylchlorosilanes are distilled to purify and separate the major reaction components, the most important of which is dimethyldichlorosilane. Polymerization of dimethyldichlorosilane by controlled hydrolysis results in the formation of silicone polymers. Worldwide, the silicones industry produces about 1.3 billion pounds of the basic silicon polymer, polydimethylsiloxane.

  1. The state of oil sands wetland reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    The state of oil sand and wetlands reclamation was the subject of this presentation. Wildlife habitat and response, plant community and production, and microbial biology were examples of research areas surrounding this body of knowledge. Hydrological research and landscape ecology were discussed along with peatlands and marshes such as the Corvette and the Kia. A few examples of what has been learned in the area of wetlands reclamation was presented. Other topics were also discussed, such as timeframes, pragmatic policy approaches, reclamation costs, research needs and some ideas on maturing the field. It was concluded that environmental conditions change with time and area because of time, chemistry, physics, stoichiometry, as well as biotic mediation and facilitation. figs.

  2. Western Gas Sands Project status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C.H.


    This edition of the WGSP status report summarizes September 1978 progress of the government-sponsored projects directed towards increasing gas production from the low-permeability gas sands of the western United States. Background information is provided in the September 1977 Status Report, NVO/0655-100. The Williston Basin Symposium was held in Billings, Montana, the 24th through the 27th of September 1978. The USGS continued work on characterization and assessment of the resource in the four primary study areas and completed the 1978 field work in the Sand Wash and Green River Basins. CER Corporation is evaluating a Twin Arrow drill site, located on the Douglas Creek Arch for the possibility of obtaining core, and preparations are being made for the Logging Program meeting to be held at the CER offices the latter part of October, 1978. The design phase for the pressure coring system has been completed and work is progressing on the fabrication and testing of the improved system. The National Laboratories and Energy Technology Centers continued work on mathematical model development, new tools and instrumentation systems, data analysis techniques and rock mechanics. Work continued on the field tests and demonstrations aspect of the WGSP. Bids sent to several service companies by Mitchell Energy Corporation, for a massive fracture treatment, are due back in October and the treatment is expected to be performed in mid-November. Mobil Research and Development fractured Zone 8 of their PCU 31-13 well, then shut it in due to anticipated winter weather and work was started on Zone 9. Sandia's mineback program involved evaluation of the Hole No. 6 Formation Interface Fracture Experiment.

  3. Proceedings of the 7. annual Athabasca oil sands conference : oil sands trade show and conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Athabasca Oil Sands Projects are considered a major source energy supply for North America, which means increased commitments from producing companies to improve environmental impact and enhance the technology used for extraction and refining. This annual conference, which was hosted by the world's leading group of experts in the unconventional oil industry, provided a venue to network, do business and discover new strategies and innovations for the industry. The presentations highlighted thermal recovery methods, transportation infrastructure, and government policies designed to ensure project success. The four sessions of the conference were entitled: the oil sands landscape, technology advances; project updates; and, research and development. The conference featured 12 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  4. Effect of Sand Wetting on Physically Hardened Moulding Sands Containing a Selected Inorganic Binder. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stachowicz M.


    Full Text Available In the paper, an attempt was made to evaluate the effect of preliminary wetting of high-silica base during preparation of moulding sands containing a selected grade of sodium water-glass, designed for hardening by traditional drying or by electromagnetic microwaves at 2.45 GHz. In the research, some water was dosed during stirring the sandmix before adding 1.5 wt% of the binder that was unmodified sodium water-glass grade 137, characterised by high molar module within 3.2 to 3.4. Scope of the examinations included determining the effect of wetting the base on mechanical parameters like compression, bending and tensile strength, as well as on technological parameters like permeability, abrasion resistance and apparent density. The research revealed a significant positive effect of adding water to wet surfaces of high-silica base grains on mechanical properties and quality of moulding sands hardened by physical methods, in particular by microwave heating.

  5. Laboratory Test Setup for Cyclic Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard


    This paper presents a comprehensive description and the considerations regarding the design of a new laboratory test setup for testing cyclic axially loaded piles in sand. The test setup aims at analysing the effect of axial one-way cyclic loading on pile capacity and accumulated displacements....... Another aim was to test a large diameter pile segment with dimensions resembling full-scale piles to model the interface properties between pile and sand correctly. The pile segment was an open-ended steel pipe pile with a diameter of 0.5 m and a length of 1 m. The sand conditions resembled the dense sand...... determined from the API RP 2GEO standard and from the test results indicated over consolidation of the sand. Two initial one-way cyclic loading tests provided results of effects on pile capacity and accumulated displacements in agreement with other researchers’ test results....

  6. Compressive Strength of Compacted Clay-Sand Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faseel Suleman Khan


    Full Text Available The use of sand to improve the strength of natural clays provides a viable alternative for civil infrastructure construction involving earthwork. The main objective of this note was to investigate the compressive strength of compacted clay-sand mixes. A natural clay of high plasticity was mixed with 20% and 40% sand (SP and their compaction and strength properties were determined. Results indicated that the investigated materials exhibited a brittle behaviour on the dry side of optimum and a ductile behaviour on the wet side of optimum. For each material, the compressive strength increased with an increase in density following a power law function. Conversely, the compressive strength increased with decreasing water content of the material following a similar function. Finally, the compressive strength decreased with an increase in sand content because of increased material heterogeneity and loss of sand grains from the sides during shearing.

  7. Traceability of optical length measurements on sand surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohaghegh, Kamran; Yazdanbakhsh, Seyed Alireza; Tiedje, Niels Skat


    This work concerns traceable measurements on moulds used in automatic casting lines made of green sand, which has a very low strength against the force of a contact probe. A metrological set-up was made based on the use of calibrated workpieces following ISO 15530-3 to determine the uncertainty...... of optical measurements on a sand surface. A new customised sand sample was developed using a hard binder to withstand the contact force of a touch probe, while keeping optical cooperativeness similar to that of green sand. The length of the sample was calibrated using a dial gauge set-up. An optical 3D...... scanner with fringe pattern projection was used to measure the length of a green sand sample (soft sample) with traceability transfer through the hard sample. Results confirm that the uncertainty of the optical scanner on the substituted hard sample is similar to that of the soft sample, so the hard...

  8. Thermal aspects of temperature transformations in silica sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.St. Kowalski


    Full Text Available Problems related with the choice of moulding sand composition considering its behaviour in contact with molten metal were discussed.The investigations of high-temperature phenomena enable moulding sand composition to be evaluated in terms of its applicability underthe specific conditions of a foundry shop. It is also possible to eliminate the casting defects related to moulding sand and its properties. The investigations were carried out on selected moulding sands from the family of the traditional carbon-free moulding mixtures. The effect of moulding sand composition and moisture content on the linear dilatation and stress formation caused by an allotropic quartz transformation was determined. The investigated phenomena were analysed on 3D diagrams plotted from the test data. A strong effect of the beta quartz - alpha quartz transformation at a temperature of about 6000C was stated.

  9. The effects of psammophilous plants on sand dune dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bel, Golan


    Psammophilous plants are special plants that flourish in sand moving environments. There are two main mechanisms by which the wind affects these plants: (i) sand drift exposes roots and covers branches--the exposed roots turn into new plants and the covered branches turn into new roots; both mechanisms result in an enhanced growth rate of the psammophilous plant cover of the dunes; (ii) strong winds, often associated with sand movement, tear branches and seed them in nearby locations, resulting in new plants and an enhanced growth rate of the psammophilous plant cover of the dunes. Despite their important role in dune dynamics, to our knowledge, psammophilous plants have never been incorporated into mathematical models of sand dunes. Here, we attempt to model the effects of these plants on sand dune dynamics. We construct a set of three ordinary differential equations for the fractions of surface cover of regular vegetation, biogenic soil crust and psammophilous plants. The latter reach their optimal growth u...

  10. Broadband Scattering from Sand and Sand/Mud Sediments with Extensive Environmental Characterization (United States)


    Bryant, and G. Fechner, “Acoustic backscatter and sediment textural properties of inner shelf sands, northeastern Gulf of Mexico,” Geo -Mar. Lett., vol...comparisons using sediment fluid and Biot models,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 376–387, 2002. [10] C.-C. Wang and D. Tang, “Seafloor Roughness...consequence of the scattering effects mentioned in the previous section. A similar negative dispersion has been observed in fluid -saturated glass

  11. How confident is Fort McKay that industry can reclaim oil sand development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, C. [Fort McKay First Nations, AB (Canada)


    This presentation described how traditional environmental knowledge (TEK) can provide valuable information for both the reclamation design and assessment of oil sand development in Fort McKay. Conservation is valued by the Fort McKay First Nations communities who claim that current reclamation methods are too slow, and that the land is not being brought back to its original use with the uniqueness of the boreal landscape. Elders have noted that each year the water level in the Athabasca River is lower. The blowing tailings and coke dust are causing trees to dye and driving animals away. There is concern that the animals that remain may not be safe to eat. The Fort McKay First Nation community has stated that it will view reclamation as a success only when it functions with proof over many generations. The major concerns include: salt in the water draining from reclaimed areas; salt in the soils of reclaimed area; muskeg cannot be recreated; and, the issue of whether cranberry, blueberry and streambank forest areas can be recreated, along with traditional medicinal plants. Other concerns include the loss of rivers such as the Beaver Creek and Tar River, and that the water in reclaimed areas may not be suitable for animals to live in or to drink. tabs., figs.

  12. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health (United States)

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J.; Edge, Thomas A.; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.


    SUMMARY Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future

  13. Aeolian sand transport and aeolian deposits on Venus: A review (United States)

    Kreslavsly, Mikhail A.; Bondarenko, Nataliya V.


    We review the current state of knowledge about aeolian sand transport and aeolian bedforms on planet Venus. This knowledge is limited by lack of observational data. Among the four planetary bodies of the Solar System with sufficient atmospheres in contact with solid surfaces, Venus has the densest atmosphere; the conditions there are transitional between those for terrestrial subaerial and subaqueous transport. The dense atmosphere causes low saltation threshold and short characteristic saltation length, and short scale length of the incipient dunes. A few lines of evidence indicate that the typical wind speeds exceed the saltation threshold; therefore, sand transport would be pervasive, if sand capable of saltation is available. Sand production on Venus is probably much slower than on the Earth; the major terrestrial sand sinks are also absent, however, lithification of sand through sintering is expected to be effective under Venus' conditions. Active transport is not detectable with the data available. Aeolian bedforms (transverse dunes) resolved in the currently available radar images occupy a tiny area on the planet; however, indirect observations suggest that small-scale unresolved aeolian bedforms are ubiquitous. Aeolian transport is probably limited by sand lithification causing shortage of saltation-capable material. Large impact events likely cause regional short-term spikes in aeolian transport by supplying a large amount of sand-size particles, as well as disintegration and activation of older indurated sand deposits. The data available are insufficient to understand whether the global aeolian sand transport occurs or not. More robust knowledge about aeolian transport on Venus is essential for future scientific exploration of the planet, in particular, for implementation and interpretation of geochemical studies of surface materials. High-resolution orbital radar imaging with local to regional coverage and desirable interferometric capabilities is the

  14. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health. (United States)

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J; Edge, Thomas A; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M


    Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future work in

  15. Lipoabdominoplasty without drains or progressive tension sutures: an analysis of 100 consecutive patients. (United States)

    Epstein, Sarah; Epstein, Michael A; Gutowski, Karol A


    Subcutaneous surgical drains are commonly used in abdominoplasties to prevent seromas but are not tolerated well by patients and add additional discomfort after the procedure. The lipoabdominoplasty modification may create a more favorable surgical field to reduce the need for surgical drains without increasing seroma formation. The goal of this review was to determine if surgical drains can be completely eliminated in lipoabdominoplasty procedures without an increased risk of seromas. The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of 100 consecutive standard, extended, and circumferential lipoabdominoplasty patients done by a single surgeon with at least a 3-month follow-up period. Seroma was identified in 5% of patients, hematoma and abscess each in 2% of patients, and granuloma, cellulitis, and delayed wound healing each in 1% of patients. The use of discontinuous undermining with liposuction, limited direct undermining in the midline, preservation of a thin layer of fibrofatty tissue on the superficial abdominal wall fascia, and targeted surgical site compression can eliminate the need for surgical drains without increasing seroma rates. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission:

  16. X-DRAIN and XDS: a simplified road erosion prediction method (United States)

    William J. Elliot; David E. Hall; S. R. Graves


    To develop a simple road sediment delivery tool, the WEPP program modeled sedimentation from forest roads for more than 50,000 combinations of distance between cross drains, road gradient, soil texture, distance from stream, steepness of the buffer between the road and the stream, and climate. The sediment yield prediction from each of these runs was stored in a data...

  17. Increased water yields following harvesting operations on a drained coastal watershed (United States)

    Johnny M. Grace; R.W. Skaggs; H.R. Malcom; G.M. Chescheir; D.K. Cassel


    Forest harvesting operations have been reported to affect annual and seasonal outflow characteristics from drained forest watersheds. Increases in forest outflow, nutrient concentrations, and suspended sediments are commonly seen as a result of these forest management activities. Thus, it is important to assess the impact of forest management activities on hydrology,...

  18. Observation Bias Correction Reveals More Rapidly Draining Lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet (United States)

    Cooley, Sarah W.; Christoffersen, Poul


    Rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet enables the establishment of surface-to-bed hydrologic connections and subsequent basal water delivery. Estimates of the number and spatial distribution of rapidly draining lakes vary widely, and no study has so far quantified the impact of observation bias due to cloud cover in satellite imagery on reported frequency of rapid lake drainage. To better understand the rapid drainage mechanism, we map and track an average of 515 supraglacial lakes per year in central West Greenland from 2000 to 2015. We test four previously published definitions of rapid lake drainage and find the proportion of rapidly draining lakes to vary from 3% to 38% and to be strongly dependent on observation frequency. We then apply an observation bias correction and test three new drainage criteria, which reveal a bias-corrected rapid drainage probability of 36-45%. When observation bias is addressed, we can also show that lakes above 1,600 m are as likely to drain rapidly as lakes located at lower elevations. We conclude that inconsistent detection methodologies and observation bias have obscured the true frequency of rapidly draining lakes and that the rapid lake drainage mechanism will establish surface-to-bed hydrologic connections at increasing distance from the margin as supraglacial lakes expand inland under climate warming.

  19. Human capital in European peripheral regions: brain - drain and brain - gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.


    Project goal - The overall goal of the project is to build a legitimate transnational network to transfer ideas and experiences and implement measures to reduce brain drain and foster brain gain while reinforcing the economical and spatial development of peripheral regions in NWE. This means a

  20. Antimony retention and release from drained and waterlogged shooting range soil under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hockmann, K.; Tandy, S.; Lenz, M.; Reiser, R.; Conesa, H.; Keller, M.; Studer, B.; Schulin, R.


    Many soils polluted by antimony (Sb) are subject to fluctuating waterlogging conditions; yet, little is known about how these affect the mobility of this toxic element under field conditions. Here, we compared Sb leaching from a calcareous shooting range soil under drained and waterlogged conditions

  1. Photoactive TiO2 Films Formation by Drain Coating for Endosulfan Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Tapia-Orozco


    Full Text Available Heterogeneous photocatalysis is an advanced oxidation process in which a photoactive catalyst, such as TiO2, is attached to a support to produce free radical species known as reactive oxygen species (ROS that can be used to break down toxic organic compounds. In this study, the draining time, annealing temperature, and draining/annealing cycles for TiO2 films grown by the drain coating method were evaluated using a 23 factorial experimental design to determine the photoactivity of the films via endosulfan degradation. The TiO2 films prepared with a large number of draining/annealing cycles at high temperatures enhanced (P>0.05 endosulfan degradation and superoxide radical generation after 30 minutes of illumination with UV light. We demonstrated a negative correlation (R2=0.69; P>0.01 between endosulfan degradation and superoxide radical generation. The endosulfan degradation rates were the highest at 30 minutes with the F6 film. In addition, films prepared using conditions F1, F4, and F8 underwent an adsorption/desorption process. The kinetic reaction constants, Kapp (min−1, were 0.0101, 0.0080, 0.0055, 0.0048, and 0.0035 for F6, F2, F5, F3, and F1, respectively. The endosulfan metabolites alcohol, ether, and lactone were detected and quantified at varying levels in all photocatalytic assays.

  2. Oral tolerance is determined at the level of draining lymph nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilsem, van E.G.; BrevÃ, J.; Savelkoul, H.; Claessen, A.; Scheper, R.J.; Kraal, G.


    In the skin and in the epithelium of the oral mucosa a comparable network of Langerhans cells can be found. Antigen application on either epithelium leads to rapid emigration of Langerhans cells to the draining lymph nodes. Application on the oral mucosa leads to tolerance induction while

  3. Outcome in primary cemented total knee arthroplasty with or without drain A prospective comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Keska


    Conclusions: The present study conclude that there is no rationale for the use of drain after primary TKA. There are benefits in terms of lower opioid intake, lower blood loss on the first postoperative day and lower need for dressing reinforcement during hospitalization.

  4. Assessing the role of artificially drained agricultural land for climate change mitigation in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Carsten; Fealy, Réamonn; Fenton, Owen; Lanigan, Gary; O'Sullivan, Lilian; Schulte, Rogier P.O.


    In 2014 temperate zone emission factor revisions were published in the IPCC Wetlands Supplement. Default values for direct CO2 emissions of artificially drained organic soils were increased by a factor of 1.6 for cropland sites and by factors ranging from 14 to 24 for grassland sites. This

  5. Development and testing of watershed-scale models for poorly drained soils (United States)

    Glenn P. Fernandez; George M. Chescheir; R. Wayne Skaggs; Devendra M. Amatya


    Watershed-scale hydrology and water quality models were used to evaluate the crrmulative impacts of land use and management practices on dowrzstream hydrology and nitrogen loading of poorly drained watersheds. Field-scale hydrology and nutrient dyyrutmics are predicted by DRAINMOD in both models. In the first model (DRAINMOD-DUFLOW), field-scale predictions are coupled...

  6. Nutrient limitations in wet, drained and rewetted fen meadows : evaluation of methods and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Duren, IC; Pegtel, DM


    Restoration of wet grassland communities on peat soils involves management of nutrient supply and hydrology. The concept of nutrient limitation was discussed as well as its interaction with drainage and rewetting of severely drained peat soils. Different methods of assessing nutrient limitation were

  7. Brain drain as a clog in the wheel of Nigeria's development: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study critically examines the brain drain phenomenon and its causes in Nigeria. These causes range from lack of employment, poor remuneration for top flight intellectuals and professionals, political instability, security risks to lack of research and other facilities (including inadequacy of research funds and professional ...

  8. External ventricular drain as a nontraumatic suction device in carotid endarterectomy


    Jukes, Alistair; Allan, Rodney


    Carotid endarterectomy is a commonly performed operation to remove plaque at the region of the carotid bifurcation. We present our technique to keep the field clear and to minimize potential trauma to the carotid using a neurosurgical external ventricular drain passed behind the common carotid and placed in the dependent position under the arteriotomy.

  9. External ventricular drain as a nontraumatic suction device in carotid endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Jukes, MBBS(Hons, BLibStud


    Full Text Available Carotid endarterectomy is a commonly performed operation to remove plaque at the region of the carotid bifurcation. We present our technique to keep the field clear and to minimize potential trauma to the carotid using a neurosurgical external ventricular drain passed behind the common carotid and placed in the dependent position under the arteriotomy.

  10. Academic Brain Drain: Impact and Implications for Public Higher Education Quality in Kenya (United States)

    Odhiambo, George O.


    The flight of human capital is a phenomenon that has been of concern to academics and development practitioners for decades. Unfortunately, there is no systematic record of the number of skilled professionals that many African countries have continued to lose to the developed world. Termed the "brain drain", it represents the loss of…

  11. The Brain Drain in Mexico--A Subject for Research...or Agenda? (United States)

    Aupetit, Sylvie Didou


    The purpose of this article is to analyse the present state of the discussion and data regarding the brain drain in Mexico. From current data, recent trends show certain peculiarities in the national picture, pointing to an increase in the number of free movers, and a decrease in the number of young people who obtain Mexican government…

  12. Restructuring brain drain: strengthening governance and financing for health worker migration. (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A


    Health worker migration from resource-poor countries to developed countries, also known as ''brain drain'', represents a serious global health crisis and a significant barrier to achieving global health equity. Resource-poor countries are unable to recruit and retain health workers for domestic health systems, resulting in inadequate health infrastructure and millions of dollars in healthcare investment losses. Using acceptable methods of policy analysis, we first assess current strategies aimed at alleviating brain drain and then propose our own global health policy based solution to address current policy limitations. Although governments and private organizations have tried to address this policy challenge, brain drain continues to destabilise public health systems and their populations globally. Most importantly, lack of adequate financing and binding governance solutions continue to fail to prevent health worker brain drain. In response to these challenges, the establishment of a Global Health Resource Fund in conjunction with an international framework for health worker migration could create global governance for stable funding mechanisms encourage equitable migration pathways, and provide data collection that is desperately needed.

  13. Reverse Brain Drain of South Asian IT Professionals: A Quantitative Repatriation Study (United States)

    Suppiah, Nithiyananthan


    The purpose of the present quantitative correlational study was to examine if a relationship existed between the RBD phenomenon and cultural, economic, or political factors of the native countries of South Asian IT professionals living in the United States. The study on reverse brain drain was conducted to explore a growing phenomenon in the…

  14. Brain drain of brain gain? Hoger opgeleiden in grote steden in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhorst, V.A; Edzes, A.J.E.; Broersma, L.; Dijk, J. van


    Voor u ligt de eindrapportage van het Nicis onderzoeksproject ‘Hoger opgeleiden in grote steden in Nederland; Brain drain of brain gain?’. Gemeenten in Nederland maken zich zorgen over de mate waarin ze afgestudeerden voor de eigen arbeids- en woningmarkt kunnen behouden. Er is zowel vanuit de

  15. Stopping the Brain Drain of Skilled Veteran Teachers: Retaining and Valuing Their Hard-Won Experience (United States)

    Fibkins, William L.


    Veteran educators are being encouraged to take early retirement in order to create jobs for less-experienced, lower-paid novices. Veteran educators are not alone: early retirement promotions have become the norm for aging workers in America. Consequently, there is a brain-drain of skilled workers at the national, state, and local levels. The early…

  16. Impact of drain water on water quality and eutrophication status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecological and biological status of Lake Burullus was examined in 2006 to determine its water quality and eutrophication status in response to the quality and quantity of drain water entering it. The lake suffers from excessive nutrient concentrations. Chlorophyll a showed wide variations over the sampling period with ...

  17. The routine use of post-operative drains in thyroid surgery: an outdated concept.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Prichard, R S


    The use of surgical drains in patients undergoing thyroid surgery is standard surgical teaching. Life-threatening complications, arising from post-operative haematomas, mandates their utilization. There is increasing evidence to suggest that this is an outdated practice. This paper determines whether thyroid surgery can be safely performed without the routine use of drains. A retrospective review of patients undergoing thyroid surgery, over a three year period was performed and post-operative complications documented. One hundred and four thyroidectomies were performed. 63 (60.6%) patients had a partial thyroidectomy, 27 (25.9%) had a total thyroidectomy and 14 (13.5%) had a sub-total thyroidectomy. Suction drains were not inserted in any patient. A cervical haematoma did not develop in any patient in this series and no patient required re-operation. There is no evidence to suggest the routine use of surgical drains following uncomplicated thyroid surgery reduces the rate of haematoma formation or re-operation rates and indeed is now unwarranted.

  18. Long-term hydrology and water quality of a drained pine plantation in North Carolina (United States)

    D.M. Amatya; R.W. Skaggs


    Long-term data provide a basis for understanding natural variability, reducing uncertainty in model inputs and parameter estimation, and developing new hypotheses. This article evaluates 21 years (1988-2008) of hydrologic data and 17 years (1988-2005) of water quality data from a drained pine plantation in eastern North Carolina. The plantation age was 14 years at the...

  19. Addressing agricultural phosphorus loss in artificially drained landscapes with 4R nutrient management practices (United States)

    Agricultural phosphorus (P) loss has been linked to the eutrophication of surface water bodies throughout the world and minimizing offsite P transport continues to be a priority in many watersheds. In the U.S. Midwest and other tile-drained regions, there is a critical need to identify nutrient mana...

  20. 76 FR 62605 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain (United States)


    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1450 Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable... ``unblockable drain'' as used in the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act (``VGB Act'').\\1\\ \\1\\ The... pools and spas be in compliance with the VGB Act, which became effective December 19, 2008. Any public...

  1. Quality Education Improvement: Yemen and the Problem of the "Brain Drain" (United States)

    Muthanna, Abdulghani


    This paper presents an overview of the problems that hinder improvement of the quality of education in Yemen, with a particular focus on higher education institutions. It discusses in particular the problem of the brain drain and why this phenomenon is occurring in Yemen. Semi-structured interviews with three professors at higher education…

  2. Drainage Water Salinity of Tubewells and Pipe Drains: A Case Study from Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelleners, T.J.; Chaudhry, M.R.


    Drainage water salinity data from 71 public deep tubewells and 79 pipe drainage units near Faisalabad, Pakistan, were studied. Drainage water salinity of the tubewells and the pipe drains remained approximately constant with time. This was attributed to the deep, highly conductive, unconfined

  3. Corn stover harvest increases herbicide movement to subsurface drains – Root Zone Water Quality Model simulations (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Removal of crop residues for bioenergy production can alter soil hydrologic properties, but there is little information on its impact on transport of herbicides and their degradation products to subsurface drains. The Root Zone Water Quality Model, previously calibrated using measured fl...

  4. 40 CFR 63.136 - Process wastewater provisions-individual drain systems. (United States)


    ... carrying Group 1 wastewater are not required to have a flexible cap or extended subsurface discharging pipe..., the owner or operator shall either extend the pipe discharging the wastewater below the liquid surface in the water seal of the receiving drain, or install a flexible shield (or other enclosure which...

  5. Enterococcus faecalis surface proteins determine its adhesion mechanism to bile drain materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waar, K; van der Mei, HC; Harmsen, HJM; Degener, JE; Busscher, HJ

    An important step in infections associated with biliary drains is adhesion of micro-organisms to the surface. In this study the role of three surface proteins of Enterococcus faecalis (enterococcal surface protein, aggregation substances 1 and 373) in the adhesion to silicone rubber,

  6. Analytical Solution for Transient Water Table Heights and Outflows from Inclined Ditch-Drained Terrains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoest, N.E.C.; Pauwels, V.R.N.; Troch, P.A.; Troch, De F.P.


    This paper presents two analytical solutions of the linearized Boussinesq equation for an inclined aquifer, drained by ditches, subjected to a constant recharge rate. These solutions are based on different initial conditions. First, the transient solution is obtained for an initially fully saturated

  7. Impacts of fertilization on water quality of a drained pine plantation: a worse case scenario (United States)

    Bray J. Beltran; Devendra M. Amatya; Mohamed Youssef; Martin Jones; Timothy J. Skaggs Callahan


    Intensive plantation forestry will be increasingly important in the next 50 yr to meet the high demand for domestic wood in the United States. However, forest management practices can substantially infl uence downstream water quality and ecology. Th is study analyses, the eff ect of fertilization on effl uent water quality of a low gradient drained coastal pine...

  8. Performance Evaluation and Design Considerations of Electrically Activated Drain Extension Tunneling GNRFET: A Quantum Simulation Study (United States)

    Ghoreishi, Seyed Saleh; Yousefi, Reza; Taghavi, Neda


    In this paper, a tunneling graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor with electrically activated drain extension, namely, EA-T-GNRFET, is proposed. The proposed structure includes a side gate at the drain side with a constant voltage and length of 0.4 V and 15 nm, respectively. Simulations are performed based on the non-equilibrium Green's function method coupled with the Poisson equation in the mode space representation. This side gate creates an additional step in potential profile at the drain side, which increases and decreases the width of tunneling barrier and leakage current, respectively. Furthermore, the proposed structure has lower drain induced barrier thinning, lower sub-threshold swing (SS) and higher I ON/ I OFF ratio than the conventional structure. Also, other characteristics of the device such as switching delay ( τ ), power delay product (PDP) and unity-gain frequency ( f t) are improved in the proposed device. These advantages make EA-T-GNRFET more suitable for digital and analog applications.

  9. Structure of a steady drain-hole vortex in a viscous fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøhling, Lasse; Andersen, Anders Peter; Fabre, D.


    We use direct numerical simulations to study a steady bathtub vortex in a cylindrical tank with a central drain-hole, a fiat stress-free surface and velocity prescribed at the inlet. We find that the qualitative structure of the meridional flow does not depend on the radial Reynolds number, where...

  10. Phosphorus dynamics in long-term flooded, drained and reflooded soils (United States)

    In flooded areas, soils are often exposed to standing water and subsequent drainage, thus over fertilization can release excess phosphorus (P) into surface water and groundwater. To investigate P release and transformation processes in flooded alkaline soils, we flooded-drained-reflooded two soils f...

  11. The fluctuation property of blown sand particles and the wind-sand flow evolution studied by numerical method. (United States)

    Ma, G S; Zheng, X J


    Sand particles blown by wind cause serious environmental problems and many researchers are trying to understand the dynamic properties of blown sand better. But the existing numerical approaches have not been able to simulate many important characteristics of wind-sand flow. In this paper, the evolution and fluctuation properties of blown sand at a dynamic steady state are investigated by using a more effective method. Using the LES (large eddy simulation) method for air phase movement and the DEM (discrete element method) for solid phase movement along with the existing particle-bed splashing function, we have characterized the whole movement property of the wind-sand system. The results indicate that the saturation time decreases with the inlet friction velocity, and it gradually reaches the shortest saturation time of about 1s; the saturation length, which is about 14 m at the usual wind velocity, first increases with wind velocity and then reaches a plateau; within the saturation length, the sand transport rate at different positions varies with time; the sand transport rate of the stable wind-sand flow is non-uniform with distance downwind and time, and has a notable correlation with the inflow friction velocity.

  12. How do peat type, sand addition and soil moisture influence the soil organic matter mineralization in anthropogenically disturbed organic soils? (United States)

    Säurich, Annelie; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Don, Axel; Burkart, Stefan


    Drained peatlands are hotspots of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from agriculture. As a consequence of both drainage induced mineralization and anthropogenic sand mixing, large areas of former peatlands under agricultural use contain soil organic carbon (SOC) at the boundary between mineral and organic soils. Studies on SOC dynamics of such "low carbon organic soils" are rare as the focus of previous studies was mainly either on mineral soils or "true" peat soil. However, the variability of CO2 emissions increases with disturbance and therefore, we have yet to understand the reasons behind the relatively high CO2 emissions of these soils. Peat properties, soil organic matter (SOM) quality and water content are obviously influencing the rate of CO2 emissions, but a systematic evaluation of the hydrological and biogeochemical drivers for mineralization of disturbed peatlands is missing. With this incubation experiment, we aim at assessing the drivers of the high variability of CO2 emissions from strongly anthropogenically disturbed organic soil by systematically comparing strongly degraded peat with and without addition of sand under different moisture conditions and for different peat types. The selection of samples was based on results of a previous incubation study, using disturbed samples from the German Agricultural Soil Inventory. We sampled undisturbed soil columns from topsoil and subsoil (three replicates of each) of ten peatland sites all used as grassland. Peat types comprise six fens (sedge, Phragmites and wood peat) and four bogs (Sphagnum peat). All sites have an intact peat horizon that is permanently below groundwater level and a strongly disturbed topsoil horizon. Three of the fen and two of the bog sites have a topsoil horizon altered by sand-mixing. In addition the soil profile was mapped and samples for the determination of soil hydraulic properties were collected. All 64 soil columns (including four additional reference samples) will be installed

  13. The Geodiversity in Drift Sand Landscapes of The Netherlands (United States)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Riksen, Michel


    The authors carried out detailed field studies of more than twelve drift sand landscapes in The Netherlands. The objective of these studies was to restore Natura-2000 values by restoring the wind activity. Active drift sands occur almost exclusively in The Netherlands, Natura 2000 habitat 2330 'Inland dunes with open Corynephorus and Agrostis grasslands', for which reason our country is largely responsible for this European landscape. Active drift sands had almost disappeared for two reasons: first, the stabilization of the drift sands by air pollution, mainly nitrogen, which stimulates the growth of algae and grasses that initiate soil formation, and second, by the growth of forests surrounding the sands, which decreases the wind force. The restoration studies revealed differences in the geodiversity between and within the drift sand areas. Whereas the drift sands on geological and soil maps show as almost homogenous areas, they have in fact highly variable geo-conditions of which examples will be given. These geodiversity aspects concern differences in geomorphological structure, origin, sediments and age of the drift sands. Differences in wind and water erosion, trampling and soil formation add to the geodiversity within the drift sand areas. Especially in the primary stages of succession the differences in geodiversity are relevant for the Natura-2000 values. We discerned three main types of active sands. Firstly, the impressive drift sands with large parabolic dune structures, often consisting of series of interlocking parabolic dunes. They developed from the northeast towards the southwest, against the direction of the dominant wind, and must have taken centuries to develop. Small parts of these systems are still active, other parts show different degrees of soil formation. Their origin is still unclear but probably dates from medieval times (Heidinga, 1985, Jungerius & Riksen, 2008). Second are the drift sand areas with irregular hills from 0.5 to about 2

  14. Effect of One versus Two Drain Insertion on Postoperative Seroma Formation after Modified Radical Mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farzaneh ebrahimifard


    Full Text Available Background: Modified radical mastectomy (MRM is still one of globally accepted surgical techniques for breast cancer and in some selected patient is the gold standard type of surgery. The most frequent complication of this procedure is seroma under skin flaps or in the axilla as reported as much as 30% in some studies. The use of closed suction drainage system to reduce the incidence of this complication has been routinely accepted by surgeons; however, length of catheter stay and the number of catheters inserted in the wound are still controversial. The present study compares the results of single versus double drain insertion in patients undergoing MRM for breast cancer.Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 women with breast cancer who were candidate for MRM surgery during 2007-2010 referred to Modarres hospital, Tehran, Iran as a randomized group matched controlled trial.Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, BMI, and tumor weight (P=0.406 (Table 1. Similarly, the difference between the two groups was insignificant in tumor size (T and number of lymph nodes involved (P=0.145. There was no significant difference between the two groups in timing of axillary drain removal (P=0.064. No significant differences were observed between the two groups in mean aspirated fluid (P=0.071 and mean aspirated sera (P=0.484 after removal of drains.Conclusion: This study revealed one drain insertion in MRM surgery is as effective as two drain and probably less morbidity and cost.

  15. Continuous high-pressure negative suction drain: new powerful tool for closed wound management: clinical experience. (United States)

    Shin, Seung Jun; Han, DaeHee; Song, Hyunsuk; Jang, Yu Jin; Park, Dong Ha; Park, Myong Chul


    Although various reconstructive flap surgeries have been successfully performed, there still are difficult wound complications, such as seroma formation, wound margin necrosis, delayed wound healing, and even flap failures. The negative-pressure wound therapy has been described in detail in the literature to assist open chronic/complex wound closure in reconstructive surgery. However, the negative-pressure wound therapy was difficult to be applied under the incisional closed wounds. A total of 23 patients underwent the various reconstructive flap surgeries with continuous high-pressure negative suction drain. Instead of using regular suction units, Barovac (50-90 mm Hg, Sewoon Medical, Seoul, Republic of Korea) drainage tubes were connected to the wall suction unit, providing continuous high-powered negative pressure. In addition, continuous subatmospheric suction pressure (100-300 mm Hg) was applied. Outcome of the measures was obtained from the incidence of seroma, volume of postoperative drainage, hospitalization period, and incidence of other typical wound complications. Dead space was evaluated postoperatively with ultrasonography. Using continuous high-pressure negative suction drain, successful management of seroma was obtained without any major complication such as wound infection, flap loss, and wound margin necrosis, except for only 1 case of seroma after discharge from the hospital. The indwelling time of the drain in the latissimus dorsi donor site was significantly reduced in comparison with the authors' previous data (P = 0.047). The volume of drainage and hospitalization period were also reduced; however, these were not statistically significant. The dead space with continuous high-pressure negative suction drain was more reduced than in the control group in the immediate postoperative period and confirmed with ultrasonography. Continuous high-pressure negative suction drain might be the simple and powerful solution in the management of challenging

  16. Beyond Brain Drain: The Dynamics of Geographic Mobility and Educational Attainment of B.C. Young Women and Men (United States)

    Andres, Lesley; Licker, Aaron


    In recent years, the topic of "brain drain" has gained considerable attention, both in public and intellectual spheres. Despite the media frenzy, few data sets and related studies exist to examine the nature and extent to which brain drain occurs. The purpose of this study is to extend the scope of the way we think about "brain…

  17. Novel pod for chlorine dioxide generation and delivery to control aerobic bacteria on the inner surface of floor drains (United States)

    Floor drains in poultry processing and further processing plants are a harborage site for bacteria both free swimming and in biofilms. This population can include Listeria monocytogenes which has been shown to have potential for airborne spreading from mishandled open drains. Chlorine dioxide (ClO...

  18. Viscosity-dependent drain current noise of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor in polar liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J. Y.; Hsu, C. P.; Kang, Y. W.; Fang, K. C.; Kao, W. L.; Yao, D. J.; Chen, C. C.; Li, S. S.; Yeh, J. A.; Wang, Y. L. [Institute of Nanoengineering and Microsystems, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Lee, G. Y.; Chyi, J. I. [Department of Electrical engineering, National Central University, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan (China); Hsu, C. H. [Division of Medical Engineering, National Health Research Institutes, MiaoLi, Taiwan (China); Huang, Y. F. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Ren, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)


    The drain current fluctuation of ungated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) measured in different fluids at a drain-source voltage of 0.5 V was investigated. The HEMTs with metal on the gate region showed good current stability in deionized water, while a large fluctuation in drain current was observed for HEMTs without gate metal. The fluctuation in drain current for the HEMTs without gate metal was observed and calculated as standard deviation from a real-time measurement in air, deionized water, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol, 1,2-butanediol, and glycerol. At room temperature, the fluctuation in drain current for the HEMTs without gate metal was found to be relevant to the dipole moment and the viscosity of the liquids. A liquid with a larger viscosity showed a smaller fluctuation in drain current. The viscosity-dependent fluctuation of the drain current was ascribed to the Brownian motions of the liquid molecules, which induced a variation in the surface dipole of the gate region. This study uncovers the causes of the fluctuation in drain current of HEMTs in fluids. The results show that the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs may be used as sensors to measure the viscosity of liquids within a certain range of viscosity.

  19. Recurrence after gallbladder-preserving cholecystolithotomy for sand-like and non-sand-like gallstones: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Zhi


    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the recurrence at 1-3 years after laparoscopic cholecystolithotomy in patients with sand-like and non-sand-like gallstones. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 155 patients with gallstones who underwent gallbladder-preserving cholecystolithotomy in Air Force General Hospital, PLA from October 2012 to December 2014, and these patients were divided into sand-like stone group (29 patients and non-sand-like stone group (126 patients. The recurrence of stones was observed at 1-3 years after surgery. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. ResultsThe time of operation showed a significant difference between the sand-like stone group and the non-sand-like stone group (126.13±20.52 min vs 75.64±16.58 min, t=7.709, P<0.001. At 1-3 years after surgery, 6 patients in the sand-like stone group and 8 in the non-sand-like stone group experienced recurrence, and the 2- and 3-year recurrence rates showed significant differences between the two groups (2-year recurrence rate: 20.69% vs 6.35%, χ2=4.284, P=0.038; 3-year recurrence rate: 20.69% vs 6.35%, χ2=4.284, P=0.038. ConclusionThe patients with sand-like gallstones have a significantly higher recurrence rate and a significantly longer time of operation than those with non-sand-like gallstones, and therefore, they should avoid gallbladder-preserving cholecystolithotomy.

  20. Sediment Analysis Network for Decision Support (SANDS) (United States)

    Hardin, D. M.; Keiser, K.; Graves, S. J.; Conover, H.; Ebersole, S.


    Since the year 2000, Eastern Louisiana, coastal Mississippi, Alabama, and the western Florida panhandle have been affected by 28 tropical storms, seven of which were hurricanes. These tropical cyclones have significantly altered normal coastal processes and characteristics in the Gulf region through sediment disturbance. Although tides, seasonality, and agricultural development influence suspended sediment and sediment deposition over periods of time, tropical storm activity has the capability of moving the largest sediment loads in the shortest periods of time for coastal areas. The importance of sediments upon water quality, coastal erosion, habitats and nutrients has made their study and monitoring vital to decision makers in the region. Currently agencies such as United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), NASA, and Geological Survey of Alabama (GSA) are employing a variety of in-situ and airborne based measurements to assess and monitor sediment loading and deposition. These methods provide highly accurate information but are limited in geographic range, are not continuous over a region and, in the case of airborne LIDAR are expensive and do not recur on a regular basis. Multi-temporal and multi-spectral satellite imagery that shows tropical-storm-induced suspended sediment and storm-surge sediment deposits can provide decision makers with immediate and long-term information about the impacts of tropical storms and hurricanes. It can also be valuable for those conducting research and for projects related to coastal issues such as recovery, planning, management, and mitigation. The recently awarded Sediment Analysis Network for Decision Support will generate decision support products using NASA satellite observations from MODIS, Landsat and SeaWiFS instruments to support resource management, planning, and decision making activities in the Gulf of Mexico. Specifically, SANDS will generate decision support products that address the impacts of tropical storms