WorldWideScience

Sample records for sanctions

  1. Constructing sanctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Mark Daniel

    2016-01-01

    such an effect. This paper explores sanctions conflicts as social constructs. It purports that rally-around-the-flag is all but one part of the discursive dimension of sanctions conflicts. Sanctions are intricately connected with the conflict setting they occur in. The study suggests a dialectical relation...... between how opponents perceive conflicts and the meaning of sanctions therein. This nexus of different constructions of sanctions moreover extends to “targeted” sanctions as well: As restrictive measures against Zimbabwe demonstrate, they are not the kind of minimally-invasive operations with clinical...

  2. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-11

    Mars Co. (candy manufacturer); Kraft Foods; Wrigley’s (gum); and McCormick and Co. ( spices ). Some previously licensed U.S. goods have been sold through...that deliveries had begun. India India is implementing international sanctions against Iran but its cultural , economic, and historic ties—as well...September 2012. • Barring Iran from International Sporting Events. A further option is to limit sports or cultural exchanges with Iran, such as

  3. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    sanctions and human rights-related provisions of CISADA and other laws. For a broader analysis of policy on Iran, see CRS Report RL32048, Iran: U.S...the Treasury Department, saw business opportunity by picking up the transactions business from a competitor who had, in accordance with U.S...and South Korea announced that their automakers Toyota , Hyundai, and Kia Motors would cease selling automobiles to Iran. • Attorneys for BNP

  4. Economic Sanctions Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Dent

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sanctions Seminar held on November 19 was organized by LexisNexis Russia in cooperation with ANO Pericles.The Seminar theme was ‘Economic Sanctions Overview: Due Diligence and AML Procedures.’ In the course of the seminar, practicing lawyers, compliance and AML professionals had the opportunity to interact on the scope of US A and EU Sanctions and their impact on global business transaction, as well as get a better understanding of the due diligence procedures necessary in order to comply with a such complex environment.

  5. When sanctions convey moral norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Laetitia B.

    2018-01-01

    Sanctions not only have the instrumental function of deterring people from undesired behavior but they also have the ability to convey moral norms. As such, they may create a moral motivation not to engage in the sanctioned behavior. This is desirable as this makes the success of a sanctioning

  6. 75 FR 75904 - Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist Organizations Sanctions... Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') of the U.S. Department of the Treasury is amending the Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations (``GTSR'') and the Terrorism Sanctions Regulations (``TSR'') to expand the scope of...

  7. American sanctions. Ones` sorrow,..; Sanctions americaines. Le malheur des uns,..

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-06-01

    Myanmar joined the list of countries concerned by the D`Amato-Kennedy law which imposes economical sanctions from the USA. Total company which is involved in the exploitation of Myanmar gas resources, considered that it is not concerned by this decision while its American partner, Unocal, promised to respect the sanction. Feeling the danger which is going to happen, an `anti-sanctions` coalition was created around 140 big US companies (11 oil-companies, the American Petroleum Institute, IBM, Boeing, Pepsi, etc..) to criticize this policy. The cost of this law for the US economy represents about 19 billions of US Dollars of export dead losses and 200000 employments. Short note. (J.S.)

  8. 19 CFR 210.25 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanctions. 210.25 Section 210.25 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Motions § 210.25 Sanctions. (a)(1) Any party may file a motion for sanctions for...

  9. 6 CFR 13.29 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanctions. 13.29 Section 13.29 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.29 Sanctions. (a) The ALJ may sanction a Person, including any party or Representative, for: (1) Failing to comply with...

  10. 49 CFR 98.12 - Administrative sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an administrative sanction against a former employee who, after a final administrative decision under... imposed under subsection (a) of this section are: (1) Prohibiting the former employee from making, on... ACTIVITIES Administrative Sanctions § 98.12 Administrative sanctions. (a) The Secretary, in decisions under...

  11. The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-04

    billion4 contract (September 1997) for Total SA of France and its partners, Gazprom of Russia and Petronas of Malaysia to develop phases 2 and 3 of the 25...companies. On July 12, 2008, Total and Petronas , the original South Pars investors, pulled out of a deal to develop a liquified natural gas (LNG...do not exceed the $20 million in one year threshold for ISA sanctionability. Since the Total/ Petronas /Gazprom project in 1998, no projects have

  12. U.S. sanctions : a spent force?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the issue of whether unilateral economic sanctions produce desired results. Economic sanctions have been used as a foreign policy tool for a long time by the United States, but a recent study conducted at the Center For Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) in Washington, DC indicates that nearly all such sanctions fail. Another study at CSIS suggests that if forward-looking estimates of world oil demand by the year 2020 are correct, then currently sanctioned oil exporters Iran, Iraq and Libya will have to be producing at or near capacity if that demand is to be fulfilled. The author argued that unilateral economic sanctions are useless in influencing foreign policy behaviour, particularly since the future is shaped by globalization and by instant communications. However, even though other approaches are considered to be more desirable, the United States will continue to look to sanctions as a foreign policy tool in effecting change because it is influenced by special interest groups

  13. Sanctions and moral judgments: The moderating effect of sanction severity and trust in authorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Laetitia; Verboon, Peter; de Cremer, David

    2011-01-01

    In order to induce people to follow rules, sanctions are often introduced. In this paper we argue for the importance of studying the positive influence of sanctioning systems on people’s moral convictions regarding the rule advocated by the sanction and of studying factors that moderate this

  14. Sanctions for doping in sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandarić Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Top-level sport imposes new and more demanding physical and psychological pressures, and the desire for competing, winning and selfassertion leads athletes into temptation to use prohibited substances in order to achieve the best possible results. Regardless of the fact that the adverse consequences of prohibited substances are well-known, prestige and the need to dominate sports arenas have led to their use in sports. Doping is one of the biggest issues in sport today, and the fight against it is a strategic objective on both global and national levels. World Anti-Doping Agency, the International Olympic Committee, international sports federations, national anti-doping agencies, national sports federations, as well as governments and their repressive apparatuses are all involved in the fight against doping in sport. This paper points to a different etymology and phenomenology of doping, the beginnings of doping in sport, sports doping scandals as well as the most important international instruments regulating this issue. Also, there is a special reference in this paper to the criminal and misdemeanor sanctions for doping in sport. In Serbia doping in sport is prohibited by the Law on Prevention of Doping in Sports which came into force in 2005 and which prescribes the measures and activities aimed at prevention of doping in sport. In this context, the law provides for the following three criminal offenses: use of doping substances, facilitating the use of doping substances, and unauthorized production and putting on traffic of doping substances. In addition, aiming at curbing the abuse of doping this law also provides for two violations. More frequent and repetitive doping scandals indicate that doping despite long-standing sanctions is still present in sports, which suggests that sanctions alone have not given satisfactory results so far.

  15. 7 CFR 3052.225 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanctions. 3052.225 Section 3052.225 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Audits § 3052.225 Sanctions. No...

  16. 29 CFR 99.225 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Sanctions. 99.225 Section 99.225 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Audits § 99.225 Sanctions. No audit costs may be charged to Federal awards when audits required by this part have not been...

  17. 19 CFR 354.8 - Interim sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reconsider imposition of interim sanctions on the basis of new and material evidence or other good cause... Secretary may petition a presiding official to impose such sanctions. (b) The presiding official may impose... person to return material previously provided by the Department and all other materials containing the...

  18. Economic Sanctions as Determinants of Health [Abstract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Kokabisaghi (Fatemeh)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ In the recent years economic sanctions have been very often applied in order to force states to change their behavior at international level and conform to the international law. Many studies show that sanctions are associated with deterioration of people’s enjoyment

  19. Who pays for the sanctions on Russia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giumelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The EU’s sanctions on Russia mark the low point in relations between Brussels and Moscow since the end of the Cold War. Though there is a fierce debate over the impact of these sanctions on the Russian economy, much less attention is paid to their cost to EU Europe.

  20. Influence of sanctions on Russian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysylu Ildarovna Bulatova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify the background and nature of the sanctions imposed against Russia and their impact on the economy. Methods the methodological basis of the research consists of general scientific methods of cognition such as analysis and synthesis observation comparison system approach expert evaluation synthesis contributing to the economic justification of the main conclusions and recommendations proposed in the article. Results basing on the analysis of the preconditions for the sanctions imposed against Russia the nature of sanctions is revealed and the definition of this concept is given. The main directions of the impact of sanctions are listed. The damage of the imposed bilateral sanctions to the countryrsquos macroeconomic indicators is assessed. The importance of sanctions is identified and the need for the introduction of countersanctions by Russia is determined. The positive and negative consequences from the sanctions imposition are systematized. The factors are determined that can accelerate the economic recovery of Russia under crisis. Scientific novelty systematization of knowledge about the nature of sanctions determination of the factors and measures that can accelerate the economic recovery of Russia. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and practice when dealing with issues about the nature and trends in economic development and the further development of Russia39s anticrisis program. nbsp

  1. The competitive advantage of sanctioning institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürerk, Ozgür; Irlenbusch, Bernd; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2006-04-07

    Understanding the fundamental patterns and determinants of human cooperation and the maintenance of social order in human societies is a challenge across disciplines. The existing empirical evidence for the higher levels of cooperation when altruistic punishment is present versus when it is absent systematically ignores the institutional competition inherent in human societies. Whether punishment would be deliberately adopted and would similarly enhance cooperation when directly competing with nonpunishment institutions is highly controversial in light of recent findings on the detrimental effects of punishment. We show experimentally that a sanctioning institution is the undisputed winner in a competition with a sanction-free institution. Despite initial aversion, the entire population migrates successively to the sanctioning institution and strongly cooperates, whereas the sanction-free society becomes fully depopulated. The findings demonstrate the competitive advantage of sanctioning institutions and exemplify the emergence and manifestation of social order driven by institutional selection.

  2. Country impacts of multilateral oil sanctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canes, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, economic sanctions have become an important tool in the conduct of U.S. foreign policy. Though usually aimed at a single country, they also can affect the economics of other nations. Knowledge of such impacts would inform U.S. policy-makers as to which other countries might be helped or harmed, and help predict which other nations likely would support or oppose the sanctions. This article presents results relating to the imposition of sanctions in the oil market. These results are obtained from exercising a dynamic computable general equilibrium model built by Charles River Associates under sponsorship of the American Petroleum Institute. The model is used to analyze GDP effects on a number of countries from multilateral oil sanctions against Iraq. The results suggest that it is possible to provide useful information regarding the impact of sanctions as a foreign policy tool. However, they also indicate that sanctions can be expensive, with substantial spillover effects. Though sanctions may be appropriate policy choice in given instances, these effects should be incorporated into foreign policy analyses. (author)

  3. 78 FR 23624 - Removal of Sanctions on Person on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed Under the Iran Sanctions Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: On general issues: Office of Sanctions Policy and Implementation, Department of State..., 2011) --Petro[acute]leos de Venezuela S.A. (see Public Notice 7585, 76 FR 56866, September 14, 2011...

  4. 16 CFR 5.67 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.67 Sanctions. In the case of any...), the Commission may order such disciplinary action as it deems warranted, including: (a) Reprimand; (b...

  5. Criminal sanctions: does imprisonment strategy reduce crimes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What works, in our views, is the delivery of appropriate correctional treatment, and ... adult criminal treatment among both Lagos and Enugu prisoners that summarized ... Keywords: Imprisonment, Sanctions, Crimes, Rehabilitation, Recidivism.

  6. 24 CFR 92.65 - Funding sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula Insular Areas Program § 92.65 Funding sanctions... assistance where any corrective or remedial actions taken under § 92.551 fail to remedy an insular area's...

  7. 42 CFR 1005.14 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hearing. Such sanctions will reasonably relate to the severity and nature of the failure or misconduct... otherwise supporting a particular claim or defense; (3) Striking pleadings, in whole or in part; (4) Staying...

  8. 45 CFR 160.530 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... The sanctions must reasonably relate to the severity and nature of the failure or misconduct. The... otherwise supporting a particular claim or defense; (c) Striking pleadings, in whole or in part; (d) Staying...

  9. 20 CFR 498.214 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to the severity and nature of the failure or misconduct. Such sanction may include— (1) In the case... claim or defense; (3) Striking pleadings, in whole or in part; (4) Staying the proceedings; (5...

  10. 42 CFR 3.530 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... The sanctions must reasonably relate to the severity and nature of the failure or misconduct. The... otherwise supporting a particular claim or defense; (c) Striking pleadings, in whole or in part; (d) Staying...

  11. 45 CFR 150.455 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... severity and nature of the failure or action. (b) A sanction may include any of the following actions: (1... or defense. (3) Striking pleadings, in whole or in part. (4) Staying the case. (5) Dismissing the...

  12. 49 CFR 31.29 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... section. Any such sanction shall reasonably relate to the severity and nature of the failure or misconduct... upon, testimony relating to the information sought; and (4) Strike any part of the pleadings or other...

  13. Coercive Sanctions and International Conflicts: A Sociological Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Mark Daniel

    international sanctions work, and more substantially, what are the social conditions within sanctions conflicts that are conducive to either cooperation or non-cooperation? Arguing that coercive sanctions and international conflicts are socially-constructed facts, the book explores the processes involved......Perhaps the most common question raised in the literature on coercive international sanctions is: "Do sanctions work?" Unsurprisingly, the answer to such a sweeping question remains inconclusive. Instead of asking whether sanctions work, this book addresses a more basic question: How do coercive......, and to its potential transformation. Thus it is premature to ‘predict’ the political effectiveness of sanctions simply on the basis of their economic impact. The book presents analyses of the sanctions conflicts between China and Taiwan and over Iran’s nuclear program, illustrating how negative sanctions...

  14. Detrimental effects of sanctions on human altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Ernst; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2003-03-13

    The existence of cooperation and social order among genetically unrelated individuals is a fundamental problem in the behavioural sciences. The prevailing approaches in biology and economics view cooperation exclusively as self-interested behaviour--unrelated individuals cooperate only if they face economic rewards or sanctions rendering cooperation a self-interested choice. Whether economic incentives are perceived as just or legitimate does not matter in these theories. Fairness-based altruism is, however, a powerful source of human cooperation. Here we show experimentally that the prevailing self-interest approach has serious shortcomings because it overlooks negative effects of sanctions on human altruism. Sanctions revealing selfish or greedy intentions destroy altruistic cooperation almost completely, whereas sanctions perceived as fair leave altruism intact. These findings challenge proximate and ultimate theories of human cooperation that neglect the distinction between fair and unfair sanctions, and they are probably relevant in all domains in which voluntary compliance matters--in relations between spouses, in the education of children, in business relations and organizations as well as in markets.

  15. Economic sanctions and US international business interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic sanctions are seen as a foreign policy instrument less severe than military engagement but more potent than diplomacy. The assessment of the economic impact of sanctions invariably focuses on direct bilateral trade, with little regard to indirect costs. In the case of sanctions on Iran, the real cost to Iran and the U.S. is not so much due to reduced trade but to factors such as missed investment and joint venture opportunities, especially in the energy sector. The significant size of these costs for Iran will make it difficult for Iran to resume business as usual with U.S. companies whensanctions are lifted; and for U.S. energy companies, their long-term competitiveness in Iran and also globally will be reduced.

  16. The Effects of Economic Sanctions on the Informal Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana M. PETRESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Countries often use economic sanctions to coerce other countries to change certain policies of which they do not approve. However, if sanctioned countries smuggle goods over the border, use informal financial intermediaries, and develop black markets to trade sanctioned goods, sanctions end up having a smaller impact, sanctioned countries have little incentive to modify their policies, and sanctions are more likely to fail. This paper is the first study to test empirically whether sanctions affect informality. I compile data from different studies about the size of the informal market for 147 countries over 46 years. I use these data to analyze the relationship between the size of the informal market adjusted by the size of the population and economic sanctions. I also estimate at the impact of economic sanctions on other activities associated with informal activities. I find that informal markets increase when a country is being sanctioned and the effects are larger when the economic sanction has strong international support. I also find that the type of sanction, trade or financial, is not an important determinant of the informal market size and that sanctions also lead to increases in robbery rates and corruption.

  17. Blacklisting and the ban: contesting targeted sanctions in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the practice of targeted sanctions as they are deployed against individuals and groups suspected of financing and facilitating terrorism in Europe. Substantial academic attention and critique has surrounded targeted sanctions and blacklists, as these practices challenge

  18. Experiments on unemployment benefit sanctions and job search behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Sadrieh, A.; van Ours, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study on unemployment benefit sanctions. The experimental set-up allows us to distinguish between the effect of benefit sanctions once they are imposed (the ex post effect) and the threat of getting a benefit sanction imposed (the ex ante effect).

  19. Optimal unemployment insurance with monitoring and sanctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Fredriksson, P.; Holmlund, B.; van Ours, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses the design of optimal unemployment insurance in a search equilibrium framework where search effort among the unemployed is not perfectly observable. We examine to what extent the optimal policy involves monitoring of search effort and benefit sanctions if observed search is

  20. Changes in Incentives, Rewards and Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Alan

    1993-01-01

    A review of the literature over the past decade reflects substantial changes in rewards, incentives, and sanctions used with college faculty. These changes parallel changes in the public sector generally. Increasing emphasis on formal evaluation and on use of money as an incentive and reward for performance is noted. (MSE)

  1. Conflict and normative sanctions among Galapagos fishermen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arren Mendezona Allegretti; Jerry J. Vaske; Ryan. Finchum

    2012-01-01

    At the start of this century, aggressive fishermen retaliated against changes in fishing regulations in the Galapagos. To understand this conflict, we examined fishermen's norms regarding sanctions that the Galapagos National Park Service should use for: (a) fishing regulation violations, and (b) aggressive behavior by fishermen.

  2. 18 CFR 420.22 - Prohibition; sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition; sanctions. 420.22 Section 420.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... established water pricing schedules of the Commission) of any such use, withdrawal or diversion, and invoke...

  3. 10 CFR 26.75 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... area of any nuclear power plant, within a facility that is licensed to possess or use formula... substance abuse. Sanctions for misuse of prescription and over-the-counter drugs must be sufficient to deter... individual has violated the drug and alcohol provisions of an FFD policy. A licensee or other entity may...

  4. Economic Sanctions of the West and Russian Anti-sanctions: Success or a Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem M. Nureev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the work is the analysis of the consequences for Russian economy from the imposition of sanctions by Western countries. The paper discusses issues related to the effectiveness of the sanctions on South Africa, Iraq, and Haiti; the work presents the consequences of imposition of sanctions for Russian economy as a whole, as well as highlight the impact of the introduction of anti-Russian and Russian sanctions on two sectors: banking and food industry. The first was chosen because it is an indicator of what is happening in the economy since a funding stream from the west has been blocked. As for the food industry - it is expected that the introduction of the embargo of the product will allow Russian companies to realize their potential and lead to the development of this sector. The imposition of sanctions, the fall of the ruble, as well as the decline in oil prices had a negative impact on Russian economy and the continuation of the current situation can greatly slow down its development in the future. According to our analysis we can draw the following conclusions: the banking sector came under several attacks at once (the prohibition of monetary financing from the west, the growth of past due accounts, the policy of the Central Bank. The food sector has potential for growth, but there is a lack of clear boundaries for the period of sanctions (which does not allow companies to invest in the development of food industry considerable sums, and declining purchasing power due to a significant increase in inflation for the past 2 years. The imposition of sanctions, the fall of the ruble, as well as the decline in oil prices had a negative impact on the Russian economy and the preservation of the current situation in the international arena can greatly slow down its development in the future.

  5. Detrimental effects of sanctions on human altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst Fehr; Bettina Rockenbach

    2003-01-01

    The existence of cooperation and social order among genetically unrelated individuals is a fundamental problem in the behavioural sciences. The prevailing approaches in biology and economics view cooperation exclusively as self-interested behaviour— unrelated individuals cooperate only if they face economic rewards or sanctions rendering cooperation a self-interested choice. Whether economic incentives are perceived as just or legitimate does not matter in these theories. Fairness-based altru...

  6. THIRD PARTY SANCTIONS IN GAMES WITH COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Obłój Jan; Abramczuk Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the relation between communication and preservation of social norms guarded by third-party sanctions. In 2001 Jonathan Bendor and Piotr Swistak derived deductively the existence of such norms from a simple boundedly rational choice model. Their analysis was based on a perfect public information case. We take into account communication and analyse at the micro level the process of production and interpretation of information on which decisions are based. We show that when ...

  7. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes in relat...... than imprison, individuals with schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that greater alertness is needed in the judicial system for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia....

  8. Organizational Learning in Schools under Sanction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara S. Finnigan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus on “school turnaround” has become central to policy and practice in the United States as a result of school accountability, yet little remains known about school improvement under sanction. This study uses theories of organizational learning to understand the processes through which educators search for and adopt reform strategies, as well as the extent to which these schools’ organizational culture and climate are conducive to this type of learning. Our mixed methods study involves document analysis, intensive case studies, and a survey of teachers in schools under sanction in a large urban school district in the USA. We found limited evidence of organizational learning, and instead evidence suggested superficial use of restructuring planning, rare diagnoses of root causes of low performance, and limited engagement in learning processes of school staff. In addition, schools relied on exploitation resulting in the recycling of previous practices. In part, the limited organizational learning in evidence was the result of structures and climates within these low-performing schools that inhibited a more learning-oriented approach to reform. Our study has implications for school improvement under accountability policies as it uncovers important challenges that limit organizational learning and, as a result, school improvement under sanction.

  9. The Impact of Economic Sanctions on Income Inequality of Target States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku; Mahadevan, Renuka

    that the imposition of sanctions have a deleterious effect on income inequality. Focusing on various sanction instruments, financial and trade sanctions were found to have different impacts on income inequality. Lastly, the adverse effect of the sanctions was more severe when sanctions span longer durations....

  10. Employer Sanctions and the Wages of Mexican Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brownell

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wage differences between authorized and unauthorized Mexican immigrants can be explained by human capital factors prior to the 1986 passage of employer sanctions, which prohibited knowingly hiring unauthorized aliens. However, a significant post-1986 wage differential has been interpreted as employers “passing along” expected costs of sanctions through lower wages for unauthorized immigrants. I test this explanation using administrative data on employer sanctions enforcement, finding employer sanctions enforcement levels are related to Mexican immigrants’ wages but have no statistically significant differential effect based on legal status. Estimated savings to employers due to the pay gap are orders of magnitude larger than actual fines.

  11. Biological and Chemical Weapons: Criminal Sanctions and Federal Regulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    .... In accordance with these obligations, the United States has enacted various federal requirements and criminal sanctions applying to biological and chemical weapons, Re cent anti4errorisrn legislation...

  12. The impact of international economic sanctions on Iranian cancer healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Shohreh; Fazlalizadeh, Hooman; Stedman, Jennifer; Chuang, Linus; Shariftabrizi, Ahmad; Ram, Regina

    2015-10-01

    In 2012, Iranian's economy collapsed under strain from sanctions instituted to stop Iran from violating the International Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Sanctions have indirectly led to serious healthcare concerns, specifically cancer treatment. This is the first report to evaluate Iranian cancer healthcare while under international economic sanctions. Data and information were identified by searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, and references from relevant articles using the search terms: "Iran", "health policy", "sanctions", "ethics", and "cancer". Articles published in the English language between 1966 and present were included, based on relevance to sanctions or the specific case of sanctions in Iran. The Program of Action for Cancer Therapy evaluated Iran's National Cancer Control Program (NCCP), reporting it has substantial deficits, including prevention, diagnosis/treatment, palliative care, monitoring, and technology, with a serious drug shortage for cancer care. Sanctions have exemptions for medicines and food, but lead to disruption of health services through complications in transportation, transferring currencies or lack of money. There is increasing evidence that sanctions harm vulnerable populations, while blocking globalization and not creating political or social change quickly. Improvement of Iran's NCCP is not feasible, and the health of cancer patients will continue to decline while the sanctions are in effect. The solution is complex, but a modern and innovative approach to diplomacy, which includes human rights, is necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Negative Impact of Article 98 Sanctions in the Western Hemisphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruiz, Robert D

    2007-01-01

    ... (SAOs) have been established; countries not signing an Article 98 agreement are subject to security assistance sanctions, to include the loss of International Military Education and Training (IMET...

  14. SANCTIONING DUPLICATION IN ADMINISTRATIVE AND PENAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Cabrera Delgado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a first approach from the point of view of jurisprudence, to the recurring problem of concurrency sanctions in cases where further intervention of the courts has become necessary for administrative action. In this regard, the main judgments of both the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court is, that have shaped the decisions that must be applied from the administrative level, in particular by educational inspectors, when it is foreseeable that it can produce a duplication of disciplinary procedures in the two areas, penal and administrative.

  15. 76 FR 7695 - Iranian Human Rights Abuses Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 562 Iranian Human Rights... Iranian Human Rights Abuses Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR part 562 (the ``Regulations''), to implement E.O...--IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Subpart A--Relation of This Part to Other Laws and...

  16. 32 CFR 1656.11 - Job performance standards and sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Job performance standards and sanctions. 1656.11... ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.11 Job performance standards and sanctions. (a) Standards of Performance. An ASW is..., appearance or performance violates reasonable employer standards; or (4) He quits or leaves his job without...

  17. Alcohol Use and Drinking Motives among Sanctioned and Nonsanctioned Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Diana M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined differences in the relationship of drinking motives to drinking behavior among sanctioned and nonsanctioned 1st-year students (N = 298). Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that for both sanctioned and nonsanctioned students, alcohol use was predicted by social and enhancement motives, and alcohol-related…

  18. On the Sanctioning of Economic Crime in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    present a theoretical framework that allows for a determination of optimal levels of sanctions and enforcement of crime. In the second part, I compare actual levels of sanctions in Denmark for various kinds of crime involving either economic or bodily harm, and discuss whether differences can be explained......This article - written for a symposium on comparative criminal law - discusses whether sanctions for economic crime have become excessive in the Danish context either in absolute terms or in comparison with sanctions for crimes involving physical harm. The text has three parts. In the first part, I...... by the theory. In the third part, I compare a recent increase in the level of the sanction for breach of competition law and for insider trading with the theoretically optimal levels and I tentatively suggest that the increase may well have been warranted from a deterrence perspective. However, I stress...

  19. THIRD PARTY SANCTIONS IN GAMES WITH COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obłój Jan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relation between communication and preservation of social norms guarded by third-party sanctions. In 2001 Jonathan Bendor and Piotr Swistak derived deductively the existence of such norms from a simple boundedly rational choice model. Their analysis was based on a perfect public information case. We take into account communication and analyse at the micro level the process of production and interpretation of information on which decisions are based. We show that when information is fully private and we allow for communication a state of anomie can result. If some social control mechanisms are available, social stability can be maintained. The less efficient the social control mechanisms however, the more restrictive rules will be needed to sustain the social norms. Furthermore not all cognitive strategies for interpreting received messages are equally effective. Strategies based on reputation are better than strategies based on profit analysis.

  20. Socially sanctioned coercion mechanisms for addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Edgar P; Birkmayer, Florian; Sullivan, Maria A; Galanter, Marc; Fromson, John A; Frances, Richard J; Levin, Frances R; Lewis, Collins; Suchinsky, Richard T; Tamerin, John S; Westermeyer, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Coercion as a strategy for treatment of addiction is an effective but often negatively perceived approach. The authors review current policies for involuntary commitments and explore coercive dimensions of treating alcohol and drug dependence in the workplace, sports, and through professional licensure. Gender-specific issues in coercion are considered, including evidence for improved treatment retention among pregnant and parenting women coerced via the criminal justice system. Social security disability benefits represent an area where an opportunity for constructive coercion was missed in the treatment of primary or comorbid substance use disorders. The availability of third-party funding for the voluntary treatment of individuals with substance use disorders has decreased. This unmet need, coupled with the evidence for positive clinical outcomes, highlights the call for implementing socially sanctioned mechanisms of coercion.

  1. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes...... in relation to the different periods in the patients' lives: not yet known to the psychiatric hospital system, known to the system but not yet diagnosed with schizophrenia, and after being diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: Information from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register was correlated...... with data from the Danish National Crime Register. RESULTS: One of the more prominent findings was that 16% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia receive a prison sentence or a suspended prison sentence, despite the fact that Denmark is a co-signatory of the European Prison Rules and should treat, rather...

  2. THE COURT’S COMPETENCE TO DISMISS THE SUPPLEMENTARY SANCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia IOVĂNAȘ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 34 par. 1 from the UGO no. 34/2001, the court settling the complaint against the offence notice, verifying the legality and substantiality of same, decides on the sanction without distinguishing between the main and the supplementary sanctions. From corroborating these legal provisions with the stipulations under art. 5 from the same normative act, according to which the established sanction must be proportional with the degree of social danger of the committed act, without making differences between the types of sanctions, as well as those of art. 5 and art. 6 according to which the supplementary sanctions are to be applied depending on the nature and seriousness of the fact, it results that the law enforcer has also decided on the right of the court to assess inclusively the proportionality of the sanction in case of applying the supplementary measures, not only in applying main sanctions. And this is so because the proportionality of the committed act and its consequences is one of the requirements demanded by the ECHR jurisprudence in the matter of applying any rights restrictive measures.

  3. Public goods and voting on formal sanction schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putterman, Louis; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl; Kamei, Kenju

    2011-01-01

    The burgeoning literature on the use of sanctions to support the provision of public goods has largely neglected the use of formal or centralized sanctions. We let subjects playing a linear public goods game vote on the parameters of a formal sanction scheme capable of either resolving...... or exacerbating the free-rider problem, depending on parameter settings. Most groups quickly learned to choose parameters inducing efficient outcomes. We find that cooperative orientation, political attitude, gender and intelligence have a small but sometimes significant influence on voting....

  4. Public Goods and Voting on Formal Sanction Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putterman, Louis; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Kamei, Kenju

    The burgeoning literature on the use of sanctions to support public goods provision has largely neglected the use of formal or centralized sanctions. We let subjects playing a linear public goods game vote on the parameters of a formal sanction scheme capable both of resolving and of exacerbating...... the free-rider problem, depending on parameter settings. Most groups quickly learned to choose parameters inducing efficient outcomes. But despite uniform money payoffs implying common interest in those parameters, voting patterns suggest significant influence of cooperative orientation, political...

  5. 42 CFR 438.730 - Sanction by CMS: Special rules for MCOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanction by CMS: Special rules for MCOs 438.730... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.730 Sanction by CMS: Special rules for MCOs (a) Basis for sanction. (1) A State agency may recommend that CMS impose the denial of...

  6. Decision-making in the Dark? - Autonomous EU Sanctions and National Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckes, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, the European Union (EU) has taken an active role in counter-terrorism. Amongst the EU’s counter-terrorist policies, sanctions (asset freezing) remain the cornerstone. The EU runs two different regimes of counter-terrorist sanctions: autonomous EU sanctions and EU sanctions

  7. 24 CFR 266.125 - Scope and nature of sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Housing Finance Agency Requirements § 266.125 Scope and nature of sanctions. (a) Actions by Designated...

  8. Achieving compliance when legal sanctions are non-deterrent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyran, Jean-Robert; Feld, Lars P.

    2006-01-01

    Law backed by nondeterrent sanctions (mild law) has been hypothesized to achieve compliance because of norm activation. We experimentally investigate the effects of mild law in the provision of public goods by comparing it to severe law (deterrent sanctions) and no law. The results show that exog......Law backed by nondeterrent sanctions (mild law) has been hypothesized to achieve compliance because of norm activation. We experimentally investigate the effects of mild law in the provision of public goods by comparing it to severe law (deterrent sanctions) and no law. The results show...... that exogenously imposing mild law does not achieve compliance, but compliance is much improved if mild law is endogenously chosen, i.e., selfimposed. We show that voting for mild law induces expectations of cooperation, and that people tend to comply with the law if they expect many others to do so...

  9. 45 CFR 681.31 - Are there sanctions for misconduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conduct of a hearing. (b) Any such sanction shall reasonably relate to the severity and nature of the... upon testimony relating to the information sought; and (4) Strike any part of the pleadings or other...

  10. Impact of US and EU Sanctions on Education and Healthcare

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    The differences in the opinion and perception of the sanctioning party and the ... innocent social groups such as children, women, the elderly and the sick ... However, in October 2016, the Mugabe regime paid off 15 years' worth of loan debt.

  11. Lessons From The EU-Russia Sanctions 2014-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veebel Viljar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes and discusses the objectives of the sanctions implemented by the European Union against Russia and Russian countermeasures against EU member states in 2014-2015, by comparing the official aims with the options expressed in theoretical debates and experiences gained from historical lessons. In principle, the study seeks an answer to the question: what could be realistically achieved as a result of the current form of restricted sanctions and what stays beyond their reach. Methodologically, this article focuses on the evaluation of the ability of theoretical models to explain the logic of anti-Russian sanctions and debates the options of the outcomes of current formation of sanctions in light of theoretical models.

  12. Impacts of international sanctions on Iranian pharmaceutical market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghali, Abdol Majid

    2013-07-31

    Iran in recent decade faced several regional and international sanctions in foreign trade, financial and banking services. Iran national pharmaceutical industry has always played a major role in providing medicines to the Iranian patients. However, following the sanctions it has faced profound difficulties for importing of both finished products and pharmaceutical raw materials. Although medicines are exempted from sanctions, due to restriction on money transaction and proper insurance Iranian pharmaceutical companies have to pay cash in advance for imports of medicines and raw materials or to secure offshore funds at very high risks. Current situation in Iran pharmaceutical market confirms that the sanctions against Iran are affecting ordinary citizens and national health sector which resulted to reduction of availability of lifesaving medicines in the local market and has caused increasing pain and suffering for Iranian patients.

  13. China Sanctions for Missile Proliferation: A Bureaucratic Compromise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    St. Amand, Gerard A

    1994-01-01

    On 12 August 26, 1993, the State Department announced that the United States would impose sanctions against China for transferring missile technology to Pakistan in violation of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR...

  14. Economic Sanctions, Transnational Terrorism, and the Incentive to Misrepresent

    OpenAIRE

    Bapat, NA; De la Calle, L; Hinkkainen, KH; McLean, EV

    2016-01-01

    Can economic sanctions combat transnational terrorism effectively? Policy makers argue that sanctions can deter state sponsorship but are counterproductive against hosts of transnational terrorists. However, recent cases indicate that governments are often uncertain if foreign states are truly sponsors versus hosts and cannot perfectly determine the type of foreign support terrorists are receiving. We argue that this uncertainty, coupled with the proposed strategy of punishing sponsors while ...

  15. Views of coal miners in South Africa on sanctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhe, H.; Schoeppner, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    Presents the results of a survey conducted during 1987, of the attitudes of a sample of black, male coal miners working in 6 export-orientated mines in Transvaal and 3 in Natal. Both mines and miners were selected at random and nearly 1,000 interviews were conducted. The most significant findings are as follows: South African coal miners are largely satisfied with their conditions of work, above all with social benefits, safety standards and the relations amongst the workers themselves. Regarding improvements in their working conditions miners attach by far the greatest importance to the question of wages. Next on the list are improvements in accomodation and the abolition of apartheid. The issue of 'sanctions' is not debated very widely. More than two-thirds of polled miners had not heard of sanctions previously. Nevertheless, after an explanation of what the term means, a large majority of South African coal miners (70%) rejects sanctions. Only one-fifth (21%) is for sanctions. Three-quarters of miners polled believe that sanctions would hit them hard. Above all they mentioned the risk of losing their jobs (79%), life at home (75%) and a decline in wages (74%). 34% of coal miners would support sanctions if they were ultimately to lead to the fall of the South African Government. 26% if sanctions were to lead to the fall of the South African Government, but also to a loss of their own jobs. Most of the miners polled felt that the trade unions were representing them well. However, South African coal miners are insufficiently informed on supposed positions adopted by the trade unions on separate issues and this applies to trade union policy on sanctions as well. 72% of miners polled seek a government that shares power equally between black and white. Moderate means are proposed to attain such a government. Only a minority, the hard core comprising about 25% of the South African miners, seeks violent confrontation.

  16. The Effect of Sanctions on the Job Finding Rate: Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael

    This paper investigates the effect of sanctions of unemployment insurance benefits on the exit rate from unemployment for a sample of Danish unemployed. According to the findings are that even moderate sanctions have rather large effects. For both males and females the exit rate increases by more...... to sanctions than others. Finally, the analysis suggests that men react ex ante to the risk of being sanctioned in the sense that men who face higher sanction risk leave unemployment faster....

  17. Culturally sanctioned suicide: Euthanasia, seppuku, and terrorist martyrdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren’t regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illness is increasingly accepted as a way to preserve autonomy and dignity in the West. Seppuku, the ancient samurai ritual of suicide by self-stabbing, was long considered an honorable act of self-resolve such that despite the removal of cultural sanctioning, the rate of suicide in Japan remains high with suicide masquerading as seppuku still carried out both there and abroad. Suicide as an act of murder and terrorism is a practice currently popular with Islamic militants who regard it as martyrdom in the context of war. The absence of mental illness and the presence of cultural sanctioning do not mean that suicide should not be prevented. Culturally sanctioned suicide must be understood in terms of the specific motivations that underlie the choice of death over life. Efforts to prevent culturally sanctioned suicide must focus on alternatives to achieve similar ends and must ultimately be implemented within cultures to remove the sanctioning of self-destructive acts. PMID:25815251

  18. 77 FR 59034 - Persons on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed Under the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: On general issues: Christopher Backemeyer, Office of Sanction Policy... Venezuela S.A. (see Public Notice 7585, 76 FR 56866, September 14, 2011) --Royal Oyster Group (see Public...

  19. 77 FR 4389 - Persons on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed Under the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Finance and Economic Sanctions Policy, Department of State, Telephone: (202) 647-9183. For U.S. Government... 56866, September 14, 2011) --Petr[oacute]leos de Venezuela S.A. (see Public Notice 7585, 76 FR 56866...

  20. 78 FR 35351 - Persons on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed Pursuant to the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: On general issues: Office of Sanctions Policy and Implementation, Department... Notice 7585, 76 FR 56866, September 14, 2011) --Petro[acute]leos de Venezuela S.A. (see Public Notice...

  1. 78 FR 21183 - Persons on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed Under the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996 and the Iran...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ...: On general issues: Office of Sanctions Policy and Implementation, Department of State, Telephone... FR 56866, September 14, 2011) --Petro[acute]leos de Venezuela S.A. (see Public Notice 7585, 76 FR...

  2. When god sanctions killing: effect of scriptural violence on aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J; Ridge, Robert D; Das, Enny; Key, Colin W; Busath, Gregory L

    2007-03-01

    Violent people often claim that God sanctions their actions. In two studies, participants read a violent passage said to come from either the Bible or an ancient scroll. For half the participants, the passage said that God sanctioned the violence. Next, participants competed with an ostensible partner on a task in which the winner could blast the loser with loud noise through headphones (the aggression measure). Study 1 involved Brigham Young University students; 99% believed in God and in the Bible. Study 2 involved Vrije Universiteit-Amsterdam students; 50% believed in God, and 27% believed in the Bible. In Study 1, aggression increased when the passage was from the Bible or mentioned God. In Study 2, aggression increased when the passage mentioned God, especially among participants who believed in God and in the Bible. These results suggest that scriptural violence sanctioned by God can increase aggression, especially in believers.

  3. Oil and sanctions. Pt.2: How not to do business'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cragg, Chris.

    1997-01-01

    This briefing paper compares the effects of US unilateral sanctions and United Nations mandated sanctions on the economies of Iran and Iraq, and looks at the political implications of these policies, internally and internationally. Some western oil companies are seeking to assist Iran and Iraq to develop their oil reserves, but these breaches of the current embargoes are being vetoed at the highest levels. Initiatives in cooperative petroleum exploitation from Kazakhstan, Afghanistan and Turkey may be more successful as they are being carried out under cover, but even these schemes have complex political implications. The human consequences of sanctions in Iraq are extreme and include severe poverty and much lower levels of health among civilians, particularly women and children. This misery could be changed and wealth restored via exploitation of its petroleum and gas reserves, but no solution seems close as neither the UN nor Saddam Hussein seem able to bend. (UK)

  4. Athletes' perceptions of anti-doping sanctions: the ban from sport versus social, financial and self-imposed sanctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbye, Marie Birch; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Knudsen, Mette Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Today the main doping deterrence strategy is to ban athletes from sport if caught. This study examines whether Danish elite athletes perceive the ban as a deterrent and how they evaluate social, self-imposed and financial sanctions compared with the ban. Questionnaires were emailed to elite...... athletes from 40 sports (N = 645; response rate, 43%). Results showed that 78% of athletes regarded the ban as a deterrent. Older male athletes, however, did so to a lesser degree. Seventy-seven per cent, regardless of gender, age, sport type and previous experience of doping testing, viewed social...... sanctions as a greater deterrent than the ban. Many also considered self-imposed sanctions (54%) and financial consequences (47%) a greater deterrent. Four per cent considered neither the ban nor the presented alternatives a deterrent. The findings indicate that the ban from sport deters doping...

  5. Considerations on replacing and suspending disciplinary sanctions. The issue of granting compensation for ungrounded or unlawful disciplinary sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbu VLAD

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Court's ability to replace the disciplinary sanction imposed by the employer with an easier one is the power to individualize employee's disciplinary sanction imposed by the general statutory criteria – the circumstances of committing the crime, the degree of culpability of the employee consequences of a disciplinary offence, the general behaviour of the employee and any disciplinary sanctions previously incurred. Another issue under discussion and which was not brought about a unified point of view is about the possibility of temporary suspension of disciplinary decision enforcement, pending resolution of the challenge which the court was invested with. This is why it's necessary the intervention of the legislator as statuary express the legal nature of the disciplinary decision. In all cases where the court ordered the annulment of illegality punish the employee who suffered an injury will receive compensation under article 52, paragraph 2, article 78 or, where appropriate, article 269 paragraph 1 of the Labour Code.

  6. Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jurenas, Remy

    2005-01-01

    .... economic sanctions against certain countries. In completing action on the FY2001 agriculture appropriations bill, Congress codified the lifting of unilateral sanctions on commercial sales of food, agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical...

  7. State or nature? Endogenous formal versus informal sanctions in the voluntary provision of public goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamei, Kenju; Putterman, Louis; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the endogenous formation of sanctioning institutions supposed to improve efficiency in the voluntary provision of public goods. Our paper parallels Markussen et al. (Rev Econ Stud 81:301–324, 2014) in that our experimental subjects vote over formal versus informal sanctions......, but it goes beyond that paper by endogenizing the formal sanction scheme. We find that self-determined formal sanctions schemes are popular and efficient when they carry no up-front cost, but as in Markussen et al. informal sanctions are more popular and efficient than formal sanctions when adopting...... the latter entails such a cost. Practice improves the performance of sanction schemes: they become more targeted and deterrent with learning. Voters’ characteristics, including their tendency to engage in perverse informal sanctioning, help to predict individual voting....

  8. What Deters Crime? Comparing the Effectiveness of Legal, Social, and Internal Sanctions Across Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Heather; Garcia-Rada, Ximena; Hornuf, Lars; Tafurt, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The question of what deters crime is of both theoretical and practical interest. The present paper focuses on what factors deter minor, non-violent crimes, i.e. dishonest actions that violate the law. Much research has been devoted to testing the effectiveness of legal sanctions on crime, while newer models also include social sanctions (judgment of friends or family) and internal sanctions (feelings of guilt). Existing research suggests that both internal sanctions and, to a lesser extent...

  9. 42 CFR 460.40 - Violations for which CMS may impose sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Violations for which CMS may impose sanctions. 460... for which CMS may impose sanctions. In addition to other remedies authorized by law, CMS may impose any of the sanctions specified in §§ 460.42 and 460.46 if CMS determines that a PACE organization...

  10. 42 CFR 423.756 - Procedures for imposing intermediate sanctions and civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BENEFIT Intermediate Sanctions § 423.756 Procedures for imposing intermediate sanctions and civil money... civil money penalties. 423.756 Section 423.756 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... sanctions have been imposed, CMS may require a Part D plan sponsor to market or to accept enrollments or...

  11. What Deters Crime? Comparing the Effectiveness of Legal, Social, and Internal Sanctions Across Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Heather; Garcia-Rada, Ximena; Hornuf, Lars; Tafurt, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The question of what deters crime is of both theoretical and practical interest. The present paper focuses on what factors deter minor, non-violent crimes, i.e., dishonest actions that violate the law. Much research has been devoted to testing the effectiveness of legal sanctions on crime, while newer models also include social sanctions (judgment of friends or family) and internal sanctions (feelings of guilt). Existing research suggests that both internal sanctions and, to a lesser extent, legal sanctions deter crime, but it is unclear whether this pattern is unique to Western countries or robust across cultures. We administered a survey study to participants in China, Colombia, Germany, Portugal, and USA, five countries from distinct cultural regions of the world. Participants were asked to report the likelihood of engaging in seven dishonest and illegal actions, and were asked to indicate the probability and severity of consequences for legal, friend, family, and internal sanctions. Results indicated that across countries, internal sanctions had the strongest deterrent effects on crime. The deterrent effects of legal sanctions were weaker and varied across countries. Furthermore, the deterrent effects of legal sanctions were strongest when internal sanctions were lax. Unexpectedly, social sanctions were positively related to likelihood of engaging in crime. Taken together, these results suggest that the relative strengths of legal and internal sanctions are robust across cultures and dishonest actions.

  12. What Deters Crime? Comparing the Effectiveness of Legal, Social, and Internal Sanctions Across Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eMann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The question of what deters crime is of both theoretical and practical interest. The present paper focuses on what factors deter minor, non-violent crimes, i.e. dishonest actions that violate the law. Much research has been devoted to testing the effectiveness of legal sanctions on crime, while newer models also include social sanctions (judgment of friends or family and internal sanctions (feelings of guilt. Existing research suggests that both internal sanctions and, to a lesser extent, legal sanctions deter crime, but it is unclear whether this pattern is unique to Western countries or robust across cultures. We administered a survey study to participants in China, Colombia, Germany, Portugal, and USA, five countries from distinct cultural regions of the world. Participants were asked to report the likelihood of engaging in seven dishonest and illegal actions, and were asked to indicate the probability and severity of consequences for legal, friend, family, and internal sanctions. Results indicated that across countries, internal sanctions had the strongest deterrent effects on crime. The deterrent effects of legal sanctions were weaker and varied across countries. Furthermore, the deterrent effects of legal sanctions were strongest when internal sanctions were lax. Unexpectedly, social sanctions were positively related to likelihood of engaging in crime. Taken together, these results suggest that the relative strengths of legal and internal sanctions are robust across cultures and dishonest actions.

  13. 42 CFR 422.752 - Basis for imposing intermediate sanctions and civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... money penalties. 422.752 Section 422.752 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Sanctions § 422.752 Basis for imposing intermediate sanctions and civil money penalties. (a) All... sanctions at 422.750(a)(1) and (a)(3). (c) Civil Money Penalties. (1) CMS. In addition to, or in place of...

  14. Early phase success and long run failure of economic sanctions. With an application to Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. Dizaji (Sajjad Faraji); P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe develop a model of the dynamics of economic sanctions in conjunction with the response of the sanction target. We apply this model to the case of the EU and US boycott of Iranian oil. Our VAR model finds significant impacts of sanctions both on key economic variables and on the

  15. How effective are unemployment benefit sanctions? Looking beyond unemployment exit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arni, P.; Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of benefit sanctions on post-unemployment outcomes such as post-unemployment employment stability and earnings. We use rich register data which allow us to distinguish between a warning that a benefit reduction may take place in the near

  16. How Effective are Unemployment Benefit Sanctions? Looking Beyond Unemployment Exit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arni, P.; Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of benefit sanctions, i.e. temporary reductions in unemployment benefits as punishment for noncompliance with eligibility requirements. In addition to the effects on unemployment durations, we evaluate the effects on post-unemployment employment

  17. Cohort Default Rates: Predicting the Probability of Federal Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the institutional factors associated with student loan default. When a college has more than 30% of its students default on their loans, then the institution faces federal sanctions that could make them ineligible from participating in the federal student loan program. Using Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System…

  18. 19 CFR 210.4 - Written submissions; representations; sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written submissions; representations; sanctions. 210.4 Section 210.4 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Rules of General Applicability § 210.4...

  19. 16 CFR 1117.9 - Prohibited acts and sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited acts and sanctions. 1117.9 Section 1117.9 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT....C. 1001. (b) A failure to report to the Commission in a timely fashion as required by this part is a...

  20. 24 CFR 92.618 - Performance reviews and sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Performance reviews and sanctions. 92.618 Section 92.618 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92...

  1. 48 CFR 25.703-2 - Iran Sanctions Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Financial Intelligence in the Department of the Treasury, and the Office of Terrorism Finance and Economic Sanctions Policy, Bureau of Economic, Energy, and Business Affairs in the State Department, allowing... committees (Committee on Armed Services of the Senate, Committee on Finance of the Senate, Committee on...

  2. 42 CFR 438.700 - Basis for imposition of sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.700 Basis for imposition of... among enrollees on the basis of their health status or need for health care services. This includes termination of enrollment or refusal to reenroll a recipient, except as permitted under the Medicaid program...

  3. 29 CFR 502.16 - Sanctions and remedies-General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... covered provisions of the work contract as set forth in 29 CFR 501.10(a); the assessment of a civil money... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT (SUSPENDED 6-29-2009) Enforcement of Work Contracts § 502.16 Sanctions and...

  4. Knowledge of Legally Sanctioned Discipline Procedures by School Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Susan J.

    Principals, teachers, and counselors in 15 Indiana high schools were interviewed to determine what procedures they believed were required in various disciplinary actions, and what authority they believed had sanctioned these procedures. The interviewees came from small, medium, and large schools in rural and urban settings. Nearly 71 percent of…

  5. The EU and the International Sanctions against Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In July 2015 an agreement on the so-called Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action regarding Iran’s nuclear program was announced between Iran and the permanent members of the UNSC, Germany and the EU. The Iranian decision to comply with the results of the negotiations attracted much focus, both...... at the policy level and in scholarly debates. However, the foreign and security policy interests and possibilities of Iran in the MENA region have not been discussed very intensively, nor has there been much attention paid to how the international actors and in particular the EU were able to influence...... the Iranian policies and decisions. This article seeks to take up this challenge: firstly by analyzing to what degree the sanctions influenced the Iranian decisions on the nuclear issue; and secondly, by discussing how the sanctions regime affected the relations between Iran and the international actors...

  6. Regulatory Sanctions and Reputational Damage in Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, John; Mayer, Colin; Polo, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of the announcement of enforcement of financial and securities regulation by the UK’s Financial Services Authority and London Stock Exchange on the market price of penalized firms. Since these agencies do not announce enforcement until a penalty is levied, their actions provide a uniquely clean dataset on which to examine reputational effects. We find that reputational sanctions are very real: their stock price impact is on average ten times larger than the financial penal...

  7. Study on Chinese Impact on Economic Sanctions against North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Jinhwan; Ryu, Jiyong

    2011-01-01

    As the U.S. and South Korea expressed solidarity in blaming North Korea for its attack on the South Korean warship Cheonan and in imposing further sanctions on North Korea, global attention is now focused on China with regard to whether it will cooperate in inflicting punitive measures on its ally. Despite the worsening cleavages between China and North Korea since October 2006 when the latter tested its nuclear weapons, this study shows that their relations has remained robust in the economi...

  8. Syria: effects of conflict and sanctions on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kasturi; Al-Faisal, Waleed; AlSaleh, Yaser

    2013-06-01

    The past 18 months have witnessed considerable turmoil in countries of the MENA region. The Syrian Arab Republic (SAR) is one such country, currently in the midst of a civil war. This report draws attention to some of the recent achievements of its health services, where, despite a dearth of published materials, the country achieved remarkable declines in maternal mortality and infant mortality rates. Its health sector now faces destruction from on-going violence compounded by economic sanctions that has affected access to health care, to medicines and to basic essentials as well as the destruction of infrastructure. This paper draws attention to the achievements of the country's health services and explores some of the consequences of conflict and of sanctions on population health. Readers need to be mindful that the situation on the ground in a civil war can alter on a daily basis. This is the case for Syria with much destruction of health facilities and increasing numbers of people killed and injured. We retain however our focus on the core theme of this paper which is on conflict and on sanctions.

  9. Sanctions and the struggle for health in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coovadia, H M

    1999-10-01

    This commentary describes the role of a major antiapartheid health organization, the National Medical and Dental Association (NAMDA), in reinforcing and maintaining international pressure on the racist South African government. NAMDA was a constituent of the Mass Democratic Movement (MDM), which was at the forefront in the struggle for freedom in South Africa. NAMDA endorsed the programs of the banned African National Congress (ANC), which included a range of sanctions. Debates within NAMDA on enlarging sanctions into an academic boycott are summarized. The development of a policy of selective academic support, which approved academic exchanges in accord with the aims of the MDM, is explained. Indirect evidence shows that international pressures created by specific types of economic sanctions and the forms of academic boycott decided on by NAMDA achieved their objectives. I have highlighted the tension between these strategies, which resulted in the isolation of the apartheid regime, as well as the responsibility to protect the most vulnerable from the burdens that resulted from these policies.

  10. Unlearned History: The Ineffectual Application of U.S. Broad Economic Sanctions Against Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    17 Dursun Peksen and A. Cooper Drury , “Coercive or Corrosive: The Negative Impact of Economic Sanctions on Democracy,” International...20 Peksen and Drury , “Coercive or Corrosive,” 244. 21 Hufbauer et all, Economic Sanctions Reconsidered, 67...Summary_Killings.pdf. 28 Dursun Peksen and A. Cooper Drury , "Economic Sanctions and Political Repression: Assessing the Impact of Coercive Diplomacy on

  11. The Size of the Sanction Should Depend on the Weight of the Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The paper argues that society should vary the sanction applied to acriminal defendant with the weight of the evidence against him or her.This is optimal when it is costly for society to apply sanctions, since it canyield the same degree of deterrence while requiring fewer resources to bespent on ...... sanctions on people, who have committed the sameoffense, and that the legal system will lose legitimacy if it allows sanctionsto vary in the way suggested....

  12. G8 Regional Security Governance through Sanctions and Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kirton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Why do the Group of Eight (G8 members approve its members’ use of material sanctions in some regional conflicts but military force in others?2 As an informal security institution composed of major democratic powers from North America, Europe and Asia, the G8 has often chosen sanctions, notably on Iran in 1980, Afghanistan in 1980, Sudan in 2004, North Korea in 2006, and Syria in 2011. It has increasingly chosen military force, notably in Iraq in 1990, Kosovo in 1999, the USSR over Afghanistan in 2001, Libya in 2011, and Mali in 2013. Yet the G8’s choice, initiation, commitment, compliance, implementation and effectiveness of both sanctions and force has varied. Force was chosen and used effectively only in the post cold war period, primarily where the target was close to southern Europe. A high relative-capability predominance of G8 members over the target country strongly produces the G8’s choice of force, but a high, direct, deadly threat from the target state to G8 countries does not. Geographic proximity and the connectivity coming from the former colonial relationship between G8 members and the target country only weakly cause the G8 to choose force. Support from the most relevant regional organization – the North Atlantic Treaty Organization – and support from the United Nations in the form of an authorizing UN Security Council or General Assembly resolution have a strong, positive effect on the G8’s choice of force. Accompanying accountability mechanisms from the G8 itself have a variable impact, as leaders’ iteration of the issue at subsequent summits does not increase compliance with G8 commitments on force-related cases, but their foreign ministers’ follow up does to a substantial degree.

  13. Influence of economic sanctions on the development of Russian tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irek Ilgizarovich Ziganshin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to estimate the influence of economic sanctions on the current state of the Russian tourist market. Methods analysis and synthesis historicallogical and economicstatistical methods. Results the presanction condition of the tourist market is compared with its current condition. The problem aspects of the Russian tourist sector are shown. The complex estimation is given to the tense situation in the Russian tourist market. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used for tourism arrangement and predicting the entrance and exit tourist flow. nbsp

  14. The ordinary consumer: the burden of economic sanctions against Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureev Rustem, M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main thrust of the paper - an attempt to assess how much the sanctions combined with the drop in oil prices hit the consumers. This paper provides an overview of the sanctions imposed by European Union, the United States and other countries (ban largest organizations in Russia to attract foreign capital of the European Union and the United States. The burden of economic sanctions against Russia for the average consumer is shown on the change in prices for food products, electronic products, analyzed Russian car market, the dynamics of small and medium-sized businesses in Russia. The results of import substitution - the balances of trade of consumer goods in Q1 2015 compared to Q1 2014. Dynamics of demand for electronic goods in the paper discusses the example of the effect of price changes in the popular Russian companies (Apple, Sony, etc. to sales. Rising prices for electronic goods has led Apple to a Giffen’s paradox in late 2014, the higher the price - the more sales. Despite the rapid rise in prices for the company's products (price of products apple Nov. 25 rose by 25% on December 22 for another 35%, sales growth was 80%. This is due to the fact that Russian consumers feared further rise in price of goods and the goods were afraid to lose, which has become for many of them a necessity. Car loans in Q1 2015 compared to Q1 2014 decreased by 4 times, car sales fell by 2 times, import cars from abroad fell almost 2-fold. Especially hard hit small businesses. If in 2013 in Russia was opened 490.7 thous. legal entities, and closed 419 thousand. Then for 11 months in 2014 opened 417.5 ths. legal entities and closed down 483.6 thousand. This means that if in 2013 opening of 70 thousand legal persons more, in 2014 almost 70 thousand legal persons shut more than open. Statistics show that the number of people wishing to sell his business in 2014 increased significantly. In Moscow, for example, in 2014, it was filed with the 14.5 times the

  15. An exploratory study of boarding home sanctions and compliance in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf Schaffner, Mindy L

    2011-01-01

    States vary in enforcement systems that monitor the quality of care in residential boarding homes. The growing number of people seeking long-term care services in boarding homes requires regulatory systems that are effective in quality assurance enforcement. This 6 year retrospective study describes the characteristics of 601 sanctioned and nonsanctioned homes in the state of Washington and evaluates the effectiveness of enforcement actions such as intermediate sanctions on future boarding home compliance. The intermediate sanctions evaluated are stop placement of admissions, civil fines, and conditions placed on licenses. Boarding homes that were sanctioned tended to be homes that were for-profit and had governmental contracts for Medicaid services. Homes that remained sanctioned throughout the 6 year study tended to be homes that were individual ownership corporations, had smaller numbers of licensed beds, and did not provide nursing services. Intermediate sanctions were found to vary in effectiveness. Conditions placed on licenses were the most effective intermediate sanction, and civil fines the least effective. Higher citation numbers and the most severe level of complaint types were found to be predictors of becoming a sanctioned boarding home. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. About Sanctions and the Hybrid Nature of Modern Insurance Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Cousy (Herman)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Traditionally, insurance contract law was characterised by radical punitive sanctions, governed by an 'all-or-nothing' logic. This logic has changed as a result of an incorporation of a consumerist approach: more and more, punitive sanctions, have been replaced by

  17. The Sanctioning Dilemma: A Quasi-Experiment on Social Norm Enforcement in the Train

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Przepiorka, W.; Berger, J.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous laboratory experiments have established peer-sanctioning as an important driver of norm compliance and cooperation in human groups. However, systematic evidence of peer-sanctioning occurring in the field is still rare. Here we present results from a quasi-experimental field study

  18. Sanctions as a tactic used in partner conflicts: theoretical, operational, and preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstok, Zeev; Smadar-Dror, Ronit

    2015-07-01

    Partner sanction in this study is a form/tactic of violence, much like verbal and physical violence, which partners use toward each other during their conflicts. The partner sanction embodies a temporary deprivation of a mutually agreed-on right. The purpose of this study is to develop a theoretical and operational framework of sanctions partners use. The study sampled 74 heterosexual couples from the general population (148 male and female participants). The findings support the validity and reliability of the sanction measurement. Furthermore, findings indicate that the use of sanctions between partners is highly prevalent among men and women in the general population; that the more one partner uses sanctions, the more the other partner uses it; and that sanctions are strongly associated with other violent tactics partners use in their conflict (i.e., verbal and physical). Theoretical and empirical implications of the theoretical framework and the findings are discussed, including the role of sanctions in partner conflicts that escalate to severe forms of violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. An expanding culture of control? The municipal administrative sanctions Act in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devroe, E.; Bruinsma, G.; Van, der Beken T.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth study of the Act on Municipal Administrative Sanctions 1999 (MAS), which is the first major piece of legislation regulating antisocial behaviour in Belgium. MAS provides municipalities with an instrument to sanction antisocial behaviour and conduct perceived to

  20. 42 CFR 422.756 - Procedures for imposing intermediate sanctions and civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... civil money penalties. 422.756 Section 422.756 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Sanctions § 422.756 Procedures for imposing intermediate sanctions and civil money penalties. (a) Notice of... money penalties—(1) CMS notice to OIG. If CMS determines that an MA organization has failed to comply...

  1. 42 CFR 422.750 - Types of intermediate sanctions and civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Types of intermediate sanctions and civil money... § 422.750 Types of intermediate sanctions and civil money penalties. (a) The following intermediate... organization. (b) CMS may impose civil money penalties as specified in 422.760. [72 FR 68725, Dec. 5, 2007, as...

  2. 42 CFR 423.752 - Basis for imposing intermediate sanctions and civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... money penalties. 423.752 Section 423.752 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... BENEFIT Intermediate Sanctions § 423.752 Basis for imposing intermediate sanctions and civil money.... (iii) Medical social work. (iv) Administrative services. (b) Suspension of enrollment and marketing. If...

  3. Cuba and Economic Sanctions: A Cold War Strategy in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelley, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    .... These sanctions and U.S. attitudes and perceptions were based on objectives driven by the Cold War and as such are outdated and overtaken by events. The sanctions should be lifted and diplomatic ties once again established both to support United States goals in the region and for quality of life improvements for Cuba.

  4. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Economic Sanctions: The Cases of Iran, North Korea, Myanmar, and Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    1. 32 decreasing GDP and currency value, and increasing inflation, outweigh the benefits of nuclear capability. The sanctions destabilize the...Really Counterproductive?” Democratization 22, no. 6 (2015): 957980. Tabrizi, A., and R. Santini. “EU Sanctions Against Iran: New Wine in Old Bottle

  5. Deterrence's Element of Sanction Certainty: Friendships, Vicarious Experiences, and Underage Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowen, Thomas J; Boman, John H

    2018-01-09

    Underage drinking remains a pressing issue on college campuses across the United States. Though the most common form of addressing underage alcohol use on campuses is through deterrence-based policies, evidence suggests deterrence-based methods are ineffective and may produce negative outcomes. Using dyadic data, the objective of this study is to use a friendship-informed perspective on deterrence theory to examine how an individual's and his/her friend's perceptions of sanction certainty relate to self-reported underage alcohol use. Using multilevel mixed models which fall under the actor-partner interdependence modeling class, results demonstrate that respondents who perceive high levels of sanction certainty drink and heavily use alcohol more frequently than those who perceive low levels of sanction certainty. Additionally, those who have friends who perceive high levels of sanction certainty tend to drink at young ages significantly more frequently and in more dangerous patterns than those who have friends who perceive a low sanction certainty. The dyad members' levels of sanction certainty do not interact in relation to alcohol use. The significant relationships of the friends' sanction certainty support the notion of friendship-based deterrence. However, the consistent positive direction of all sanction certainty measures is the opposite of what deterrence theory hypothesizes. As such, it appears that deterrence is not only ineffective at stopping underage alcohol use on college campuses, but may be harmful due to increased rates of both drinking and high-risk drinking.

  6. Effects of reputational sanctions on the competitive imitation of design innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemser, G.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines whether and under what conditions reputational sanctions are a strong deterrent to imitative firm behaviour. Results indicate that reputational sanctions can be an effective barrier to imitation, in particular when firms perceive a reputation for innovation to be a factor in

  7. School Social Workers Sanctioned by State Departments of Education and State Licensing Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland-Prom, Kim; Alvarez, Michelle E.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the unprofessional conduct of school social workers who have been sanctioned by state regulatory boards (boards of education and licensing boards). The data represent information from 14 states and the District of Columbia. Results indicate that school social workers are rarely sanctioned at the…

  8. The Impact of War and Economic Sanction on the Incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenovich, Derek; Langeggen, Irene

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the distribution of various types of visual impairments among Serbian children who were born prior to the imposed economic sanctions and wars of the 1990s in the former Yugoslavia to that of children who were born during the years of economic sanctions and active war. (Contains 2 tables.)

  9. The Effect of Sanctions and Active Labour Market Programmes on the Exit Rate From Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Svarer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    ). Hence, modeling only one of them as treatment might over or underestimate the true effect. Therefore, by using a multivariate mixed proportional hazard model (MMPH), we model the hazard rate out of unemployment along with the sanction rate and hazard rate into active labour market programmes. We......This paper simultaneously investigates the effectiveness of benefit sanctions and active labour market programmes on the exit rate from unemployment using Danish data. In the data about one third of the individuals who are sanctioned also participate in some active labour market programmes (ALMPs...... optimally select the number of supports point for the distribution of unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that pre-specifying two support points underestimates the effect of sanctions and active labour market programmes. Failing to control for selectivity for sanctions not only underestimates...

  10. The Effect of Sanctions and Active Labour Market Programmes on the Exit Rate From Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Svarer, Michael

    ). Hence, modeling only one of them as treatment might over or underestimate the true effect. Therefore, by using a multivariate mixed proportional hazard model (MMPH), we model the hazard rate out of unemployment along with the sanction rate and hazard rate into active labour market programmes. We......This paper simultaneously investigates the effectiveness of benefit sanctions and active labour market programmes on the exit rate from unemployment using Danish data. In the data about one third of the individuals who are sanctioned also participate in some active labour market programmes (ALMPs...... optimally select the number of supports point for the distribution of unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that pre-specifying two support points underestimates the effect of sanctions and active labour market programmes. Failing to control for selectivity for sanctions not only underestimates...

  11. Criminal sanctions for legal enties: An instrument of crime control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although contemporary criminal law accepts the system of subjective criminal liability for a committed crime, numerous European legal documents as well as criminal laws, especially those that have been adopted lately, envisage exceptions from this system. Thus, a new form of criminal liability is being introduced: objective liability based on the causation. One of the forms of objective liability is the criminal liability of legal entities, which has been considered disputable for a long time. Obviously, legal entities cannot be held accountable for all types of criminal offences. They cannot be held liable on the grounds of legal provisions regarding mental competence and culpability (as the elements of subjective criminal liability, nor can they be imposed all types of criminal sanctions recognized in criminal legislation in general. In their new or revised criminal legislation, many countries have recognized and inagurated the objective criminal liability of legal persons for committed criminal offences alongside with the predominant system of subjective liability (based on the perpetrator's mental competence and culpability. It is indisputable that some legal entities (such as state authorities cannot be prosecuted and held liable in criminal proceedings; consequently, there are some exemptions from criminal liability (particularly when it comes to the state and state bodies, but it does not exclude criminal liability of responsible officials (natural persons for causing the consequences of a criminal offence. Due to the specific character of legal and contractual capacity of legal entities, law in general and criminal legislations in particular prescribe special legal grounds for establishing criminal liability of legal entities, which differ from the subjective liability of a natural person (perceived as a conscious and reasonable human being acting on his/her own free will where the consequence of a criminal offence is a result of one

  12. The Redistributive Impact of Restrictive Measures on EU Members: Winners and Losers from Imposing Sanctions on Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giumelli, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    EU sanctions on Russia created concerns among its members. It is well known that sanctions impose a cost on their targets as well as on the senders, as lamented by European governments, but the costs of EU sanctions on its members have not been fully explored. This article intends to fill this gap

  13. Assessment of the economic sanctions influence on the Russian banking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilyara F. Zakirova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the impact of economic sanctions on the key indicators of the liquidity and financial condition of the sanctioned banks of the Russian Federation by comparing them to the indicators of nonsanctioned credit institutions. Methods logical method method of comparative analysis statistical methods method of graphic images. Results the article examines the impact of economic sanctions on the Russian banking system. The sanctions affecting the Russian banking system are presented in chronological order. It is stated that the negative impact of the Western sanctions on the banking system is not denied. The authors analyze scientific works devoted to the effect of sanctions on Russian banks. The analysis revealed the absence of comprehensive studies of the effect of sanctions on the liquidity and financial condition of the sanctioned banks. For this assessment the authors analyzed the performance indicators of six sanctioned and six nonsanctioned Russian banks with the largest assets. It is proved that economic sanctions led to deterioration of the financial results of the sanctioned banks increased their dependence on the domestic interbank market and the funds from Bank of Russia. Other changes were mainly due to the overall economic situation internal policies of banks and the policy of the Bank of Russia not the sanctions. nbsp Scientific novelty the article for the first time basing on the comparative analysis of the main performance indicators of the sanctioned and nonsanctioned banks proved the impact of economic sanctions on the Russian banking system. However despite the banking sector adaptation to the existing conditions through their reorientation to the domestic market it should be noted that a certain tension ensuring the longterm liquidity is still preserved. The cost of the available longterm resources to be attracted remains relatively high which influences the financial results of the banking sector. Therefore without

  14. The use of administrative sanctions to prevent environmental damage in impact assessment follow-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Luiz Carlos; Fonseca, Alberto

    2018-08-01

    Scholars have long been highlighting the value of administrative sanctions in improving environmental policy enforcement. However, few studies have evaluated how such sanctions are implemented, particularly in the context of environmental impact assessments (EIA) and their respective follow-up programs. The main objective of this article was to evaluate how administrative sanctions have been used in EIA follow-ups, using the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais as the empirical context. More specifically it tried to understand what have been the main triggers, frequency, nature and financial values of the sanctions issued to noncompliant mining projects operating under the conditions of environmental licenses. First, through literature reviews, the study characterized the institutional and regulatory framework in which administrative sanctions are applied. Content analyzes of 29 infraction processes further revealed that lump sum fines are the preferred option of administrative sanction in EIA follow-ups. The analysis also revealed that the fines could be perceived as disproportionally small if one considers the size and financial power of non-compliant companies. The great majority of the fines were paid by developers: a fact that contradicts previous empirical findings and anecdotal evidence in Brazil. Overall, the study suggests that the impact of administrative sanctions in corporate behavior, while unclear, is likely small. The study concludes by discussing practical and academic implications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Economic sanctions as human rights violations: reconciling political and public health imperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, S P

    1999-10-01

    The impact of economic sanctions on civilians has frequently been studied by public health specialists and specialized agencies of the United Nations (UN). This commentary explores some of the difficulties of the claim that sanctions constitute violations of human rights. The deprivation suffered by civilian populations under sanctions regimes often are violations of economic, social, and cultural human rights; however, the attribution of responsibility for those violations to the "senders" of sanctions (the UN Security Council or the US government, for example) is difficult to sustain, particularly in light of the efforts made by these entities to provide for humanitarian exemptions and humanitarian aid. A more productive approach to avoiding civilian harm is to prefer, as a matter of policy, arms embargoes, severing of communications, and international criminal prosecutions over trade embargoes. Promising recommendations have been formulated regarding "smart sanctions," which target regimes rather than people, and "positive sanctions" in the form of incentives. Health and human rights professionals have specific and important tasks in implementing such a restructured approach to sanctions.

  16. Royal-Dutch Shell in Russia and Western Sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Kurilev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on research based on three crucial aspects of the current global economic situation. First is the role of transnational corporations (TNCs in establishing and constructing international cooperation at the supranational level. Second is the policy of sanctions against Russia in connection with the situation in Ukraine. And third is the cooperation of Royal Dutch Shell with Russia’s Gazprom despite the political, economic and technological sanctions imposed on Russian companies and economic sectors.Analyzing Shell’s policy on the Russian energy market should reveal some kind of the managing principle that not only Shell but most TNCs follow in taking the political atmosphere into consideration, while striving to avoid any related restrictions. The research methodology uses analytical, ultimate analysis and functional methods. The analytical method helped to lay the theoretical foundation of the research. Modern TNCs are deeply engaged in the process of economic globalization. To expand their influence, such companies create economic conditions for organizing international production with local markets and for international markets for capital, labour, and scientific and consulting services. The ultimate analysis method revealed the following pattern: in struggling for the global market, TNCs raise the level of competition, which creates a permanent need for technical innovations and scientific progress. The functional analysis method demonstrated a casual relationship in modern economic development: by assisting capital turnover and labour and transport mobility, TNCs contribute significantly to economic growth and development. The first part of the article focuses on the history and methodology of the genesis and development of TNCs as actors in global economic relations. It also reviews the current role of TNCs in the global economy. The second part of the article examines the cooperation between Shell and Gazprom

  17. Starvation of children in Syria--sanctions and the politics of revenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kasturi

    2014-01-01

    As Syria completes two years of western sanctions (2011-13), their dramatic effects on health are being highlighted with first reports of starvation deaths among children in the suburbs of Damascus. Although heavy fighting has taken place in this area, experts had predicted for some time the unworkability of sanctions for regime change, arguing that only civilians would pay the price in a country (Syria in this case) which was once well on the way to meeting the Millennium Development Goals 4 targets on reducing child mortality. In this, as in the case of other "sanctioned" countries, it is not just "civilians" but the most vulnerable among them--children, who are experiencing the tragic consequences of sanctions.

  18. 42 CFR 1001.1001 - Exclusion of entities owned or controlled by a sanctioned person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS Permissive Exclusions § 1001.1001 Exclusion of entities owned or controlled by a sanctioned person... adoptive parent; child or sibling; stepparent, stepchild, stepbrother or stepsister; father-, mother...

  19. 77 FR 47922 - Publication of General Licenses Related to the Burma Sanctions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Publication of General Licenses Related to the Burma Sanctions Program AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice, publication of general licenses. [[Page 47923

  20. 24 CFR 92.552 - Notice and opportunity for hearing; sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Performance Reviews and Sanctions § 92... opportunity for hearing that a participating jurisdiction has failed to comply with any provision of this part...

  1. 78 FR 37719 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... Quality Management District's (SCAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP) published... California submitted the ``South Coast Air Quality Management District Proposed Contingency Measures for the...

  2. Ukrainian defense industry under economic sanctions is within the Russia's interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Andreyevich Mal’gin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze a correlation between the Russian and the Ukrainian militaryindustrial complexes MIC as well as to determine possibilities for product substitution under economic sanctions. nbsp Methods analysis and synthesis statistical abstract logic methods. Results аn interdependence of Ukrainian and Russian militaryindustrial complexes is revealed the role of economic sanctions as one of the important instruments and twoedged instruments of foreign policy is shown the means of acceleration of development of defenseindustrial complex of Russia are proposed. Scientific novelty the article proves that the Ukrainian defenseindustrial complex under economic sanctions represents serious threat to Russian militaryindustrial complex. The most effective ways of substituting the Ukrainian defense production by the Russian production are determined. Practical value the proposed measures for substituting the Ukrainian military production by the Russian production will under economic sanctions contribute to Russia39s further strengthening of militaryindustrial complex and the enhancement of operational capability of its armed forces. nbsp

  3. Non-sanctioning of illegal tackles in South African youth community rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J C; Boucher, S J; Lambert, M; Viljoen, W; Readhead, C; Hendricks, S; Kraak, W J

    2018-06-01

    The tackle event in rugby union ('rugby') contributes to the majority of players' injuries. Referees can reduce this risk by sanctioning dangerous tackles. A study in elite adult rugby suggests that referees only sanction a minority of illegal tackles. The aim of this study was to assess if this finding was similar in youth community rugby. Observational study. Using EncodePro, 99 South African Rugby Union U18 Youth Week tournament matches were coded between 2011 and 2015. All tackles were coded by a researcher and an international referee to ensure that laws were interpreted correctly. The inter- and intra-rater reliabilities were 0.97-1.00. A regression analysis compared the non-sanctioned rates over time. In total, 12 216 tackles were coded, of which less than 1% (n=113) were 'illegal'. The majority of the 113 illegal tackles were front-on (75%), high tackles (72%) and occurred in the 2nd/4th quarters (29% each). Of the illegal tackles, only 59% were sanctioned. The proportions of illegal tackles and sanctioning of these illegal tackles to all tackles improved by 0.2% per year from 2011-2015 (p<0.05). In these youth community rugby players, 59% of illegal tackles were not sanctioned appropriately. This was better than a previous study in elite adult rugby, where only 7% of illegal tackles were penalised. Moreover, the rates of illegal tackles and non-sanctioned illegal tackles both improved over time. However, it is critical that referees consistently enforce all laws to enhance injury prevention efforts. Further studies should investigate the reasons for non-sanctioning. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Regional Investment Policy Under The Impact Of Budget Limitations And Economic Sanctions

    OpenAIRE

    Avramenko, Yelena S.; Vlasov, Semyon V.; Lukyanov, Sergey A.; Temkina, Irina M.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the results of research on the impact which budget limitations and economic sanctions have had on regional investment policy External sanctions and sluggish economic growth have affected the social and economic development of the region. Relying on the results of comparative and statistical analysis, the article demonstrates the need for altering the focus of current investment policy from quantitative growth to qualitative enhancement. The article analyses a new trend i...

  5. Sanctioning international protection applicants for choosing the country of asylum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Mozetič

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Major disparities in the regulation and application of international protection exist among EU member states. Therefore, applicants for international protection want to choose the state where they lodge an application. Instead of harmonizing law on international protection, member states sanction applicants for international protection who lodge an application in the preferred member states and not in the one responsible under the Dublin III Regulation. According to the New International Protection Act, implementing EU procedural directive, it may be assumed that an applicant implicitly withdrew her/his application, if s/he left the asylum home without authorisation, and in that case the procedure is discontinued. If an applicant lodges a subsequent application after more than nine months or more than once, her/his application will possibly not be subject of a substantial examination.In order to prevent ”asylum shopping” EU allows for the possibility that some applicants, who would be entitled to refugee status or subsidiary protection, are never granted such protection. However, this is contrary to the principle of non-refoulement as developed in the case-law of the ECtHR and the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia. Mechanisms that aim to prevent ”asylum shopping” may be contrary to the well-established principles of human rights protection, unfair or unreasonable and affect the most marginalized applicants for international protection.

  6. Legitimacy of anti-Russia sanctions and response measures within the membership in the WTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya Andreyevna Travina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the degree of legitimacy of the imposed antiRussian sanctions and retaliatory measures from the point of view of the World Trade Organization to assess the prospects of a possible recourse to the dispute settlement body. Methods this goal is achieved through both general and special scientific methods. The general scientific methods used by the author include induction deduction systematic method synthesis and generalization. The author uses formal legal method for the interpretation of the law. In addition the historical method is applied to the study of the history of economic sanctions. Results it was concluded that formally the imposed sanctions conform to the right of the World Trade Organization though the provision that stipulates them is very extensive. In addition it is argued that Russia39s response can be justified by the same provision as the antiRussian sanctions but at the same time the Russian position is more advantageous due to a number of other provisions of the World Trade Organization. It is also concluded that the positive prospects of resolving the conflict in the framework of the dispute settlement body are unlikely. Scientific novelty the article studies the law of the World Trade Organization and the national legislation of the parties to the conflict on the research question analyzes a wide range of domestic and foreign scientific works and proposes the author39s definition of economic sanctions which refers to the set of actions of restrictive nature in the framework of economic activities used by one party the subject of sanctions against another the target and aimed at forced correction of their political course. Practical significance the basic provisions of the article can be used in the research activities on the legality of antiRussian economic sanctions and retaliatory measures within the right of the World Trade Organization. In addition the work may be of interest to practitioners and

  7. How banking sanctions influence on performance of foreign currency portfolio management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A good portfolio optimization on banks’ currency holdings not only helps meet their needs but also it increases banks’ total assets. During the past few months, US sanctions against Iran has influenced profitability banking currency portfolio holding. The proposed model of this paper considers the weekly information of two years before and after sanctions occurred in Iranian banking system. Therefore, the study uses 210 weekly data and proposes a method to analyze the data to measure the performance of banking currency portfolio after sanction happens. The proposed model of this paper provides lost profit and unrealized loss and using the idea of Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS we rank the resulted data. Next, we use some parametric and non-parametric methods to see whether there is any change as a result of sanction on the performance of the portfolio. The results indicate that not only the performance of the portfolio was reduced but also the variance of the return after sanction has been increased.

  8. Global oil glut and sanctions: The impact on Putin’s Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuzova, Yelena; Qayum, Faryal

    2016-01-01

    The Russian economy is highly responsive to oil price fluctuations. At the start of 2014, the country was already suffering from the weak economic growth, partly due to the ongoing crisis in Ukraine and Western sanctions. The recent plunge in global oil prices put even further strain on the Russian economy. This paper analyzes the dynamic relationship between oil price shocks, economic sanctions, and leading macroeconomic indicators in Russia. We apply a vector autoregression (VAR) to quantify the effects of oil price shocks as well as western economic sanctions on real GDP, real effective exchange rate, inflation, real fiscal expenditures, real consumption expenditures, and external trade using quarterly data from 1999:1 until 2015:1. Our results show a significant impact of oil prices on the Russian economy. We predict that Russia’s economic outlook is not very optimistic. If sanctions remain until the end of 2017, the quarter-to-quarter real GDP will contract on average by 19 percent over the next two years. - Highlights: • The impact of the recent decline in oil prices and western sanctions is analyzed. • A vector autoregression model is used to do the forecast for Russia. • The real GDP is likely to contract by 19 percent over the next two years.

  9. Economics and militarization in North Korea: is the sanctions policy counterproductive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, Theo

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the author analyzes the efficiency of the international economic sanctions against North Korea. An historical review shows that sanctions against North Korea have never succeeded in impeding this country to pursue its industrial defense policy, at the expense of its economic development. As a result, North Korea is now able (and wishes) to propose, to any clients in the world, efficient technologies in the nuclear or ballistic domain in order to gain the foreign currencies that are essential for the economic development of its people. According to the author (and other experts), such economic sanctions should be replaced by cooperation and development proposals, with the objective to show that if a nuclear program will never be accepted, reforms will be

  10. Banks and Banking Business in Russia in the Face of International Sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina S. Panova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an analysis of the present condition and prospects of development of banks and the banking business in the face of international sanctions. It identifies current trends, problems and the risks of banks and banking in Russia and in the world. Special attention is paid to the analysis of sectoral international sanctions against the Russian banks and the need to minimize negative impact of sanctions on the banking business, both nationally and internationally. Great value in these conditions has the state monetary policy. Anti-crisis policy pursued by the Bank of Russia, in a context of stagnating economy, leads to a reduction in the Russian share in the world economy and increases in the standard of living gap with the developed countries. The article argues that Russia's economic growth opportunities in 2016 are limited by restriction level of bank interest, the high volatility of the exchange rate of the national currency, insufficient development of credit relations, tough, high-budget (at the level of developed Europe tax burden, increasing administrative costs, dramatically increasing the concentration of risks of subjective decisions at the present stage of the electoral cycle. In a situation of uncertainty of predictions regarding the scope and duration of the application of sanctions, the Russian Government and the Central Bank of the Russian Federation had rightly seek to use a combination of anti-sanctions measures of austerity measures on introduction of contra-sanctions to create more comfortable conditions for doing business in Russia and her allies from member countries of Eurasian Economic Union, SCO, BRICS. The article examines the strategic aspects of development banks and banking business in Russia under the new circumstances. Given the practical recommendations on improvement of the development strategy of banks in Russia. The necessity to improve the theoretical, conceptual, methodological, her reasoning

  11. A news media analysis of economic sanction effects on access to medicine in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Bigdeli, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades economic sanctions have been used by different countries or international organizations in order to deprive target countries of some transactions. While the sanctions do not target health care systems or public health structures, they may, in fact, affect the availability of health care in target countries. In this study, we used media analysis to assess the impacts of recent sanctions imposed by the Central Bank of Iran in 2012 on access to medicines in Iran. We searched different sources of written news media including a database of nonspecialized weeklies and magazines, online news sources, web pages of daily newspapers and healthcare oriented weeklies from 2011 to 2013. We searched the sources using the general term "medicine" to reduce the chances of missing relevant items. The identified news media were read, and categorized under three groups of items announcing "shortage of medicines," "medicines related issues" and "no shortage." We conducted trend analyzes to see whether the news media related to access to medicines were affected by the economic sanctions. A total number of 371 relevant news media were collected. The number of news media related to medicines substantially increased in the study period: 30 (8%), 161 (43%) and 180 (49%) were published in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. While 145 (39%) of media items referred to the shortage of medicines, 97 (26%) reported no shortage or alleviating of concerns. Media analysis suggests a clear increase in the number of news media reporting a shortage in Iran after the sanctions. In 2013, there were accompanying increases in the number of news media reporting alleviation of the shortages of medicines. Our analysis provides evidence of negative effects of the sanctions on access to medicines in Iran.

  12. A news media analysis of economic sanction effects on access to medicine in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Bigdeli, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In the past decades economic sanctions have been used by different countries or international organizations in order to deprive target countries of some transactions. While the sanctions do not target health care systems or public health structures, they may, in fact, affect the availability of health care in target countries. In this study, we used media analysis to assess the impacts of recent sanctions imposed by the Central Bank of Iran in 2012 on access to medicines in Iran. Methods: We searched different sources of written news media including a database of nonspecialized weeklies and magazines, online news sources, web pages of daily newspapers and healthcare oriented weeklies from 2011 to 2013. We searched the sources using the general term “medicine” to reduce the chances of missing relevant items. The identified news media were read, and categorized under three groups of items announcing “shortage of medicines,” “medicines related issues” and “no shortage.” We conducted trend analyzes to see whether the news media related to access to medicines were affected by the economic sanctions. Findings: A total number of 371 relevant news media were collected. The number of news media related to medicines substantially increased in the study period: 30 (8%), 161 (43%) and 180 (49%) were published in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. While 145 (39%) of media items referred to the shortage of medicines, 97 (26%) reported no shortage or alleviating of concerns. Conclusion: Media analysis suggests a clear increase in the number of news media reporting a shortage in Iran after the sanctions. In 2013, there were accompanying increases in the number of news media reporting alleviation of the shortages of medicines. Our analysis provides evidence of negative effects of the sanctions on access to medicines in Iran. PMID:26645026

  13. 78 FR 12243 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ...EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset sanctions and to defer the imposition of highway sanctions based on a proposed approval of a revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP) published elsewhere in this Federal Register. The SIP revision concerns two permitting rules submitted by the PCAPCD and FRAQMD, respectively: Rule 502, New Source Review, and Rule 10.1, New Source Review.

  14. Why Targets of Economic Sanctions React Differently: Reference Point Effects on North Korea and Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoun Park

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The international community has frequently introduced economic sanctions to curb the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, to which each target nation has reacted differently. This paper explores the reasons why each target of economic sanctions reacts differently by specif- ically building a model based on reference point effects, and by analyzing the cases of North Korea and Libya. According to the results, when the reference point level increases, as in the case of North Korea, the target resists more firmly; on the other hand, when the reference point decreases, like in the case of Libya, the target resists more subtly.

  15. 31 CFR 585.509 - Trading in certain pre-sanctions obligations of debtors in the Republics of Slovenia, Croatia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading in certain pre-sanctions... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 585.509 Trading in..., and Macedonia authorized. (a) All transactions by U.S. persons involving secondary market trading in...

  16. The color of welfare sanctioning: exploring the individual and contextual roles of race on TANF case closures and benefit reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnat, Shannon M

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the individual and contextual roles of race on welfare sanctions: benefit cuts for failing to comply with work or other behavioral requirements under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program. Using six years of federal administrative data, I advance previous welfare research by providing a nationally representative analysis of participant-, county-, and state-level predictors of welfare sanctioning. Using theories of racial classification, racialized social systems, and racial threat as guiding frameworks, I find that black and Latina women are at a greater risk of being sanctioned than white women. Further, although odds of a sanction are slightly reduced for black women living in counties with greater percentages of blacks, the opposite holds for Latinas, who are at an increased risk of being sanctioned in counties with greater percentages of Latinos.

  17. 78 FR 38782 - Lifting of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ...) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: A... Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended, to lift nonproliferation measures on Chinese entities... the following Chinese entities, their sub-units and successors is important to the national security...

  18. IRAN SANCTIONS: Impact in Furthering U.S. Objectives is Unclear and Should be Reviewed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    three foreign companies—Total (France), Gazprom (Russia), and Petronas (Malaysia)–in the development of Iran’s South Pars gas field were sanctionable...report stated that Petronas had only limited connections to the United States and Total had divested many of its U.S. assets prior to entering into

  19. 24 CFR 266.120 - Actions for which sanctions may be imposed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Housing Finance Agency Requirements § 266.120 Actions for which sanctions may be imposed. Results of... provisions with respect to individual projects; (12) Maintain a default ratio acceptable to HUD relative to...

  20. 77 FR 67726 - Department of State: State Department Sanctions Information and Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... computers Nonconsensual tracking/monitoring technology [cir] Allows persons to cause a mobile or networked... 2012 (TRA) (Pub. L. 112-158), requires that the President impose or waive sanctions on persons, and certain affiliated persons, that are determined to have knowingly engaged in specified activities. The...

  1. 78 FR 38097 - Publication of General License Related to the Syria Sanctions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Publication of General License Related to the Syria Sanctions Program AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice, publication of general license. SUMMARY: The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control...

  2. 78 FR 41192 - Publication of General License Related to the Zimbabwe Sanctions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Publication of General License Related to the Zimbabwe Sanctions Program AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice, publication of general license. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets...

  3. 37 CFR 11.20 - Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.20 Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status. (a) Types...; Transfer to disability inactive status. 11.20 Section 11.20 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED... discipline exist, may impose on a practitioner the following types of discipline: (1) Exclusion from practice...

  4. Enforcement of emissions trading - sanction regimes of greenhouse gas emissions trading in the EU and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Chen, Huizhen; Weishaar, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This chapter aims to further the debate regarding the role of law for establishing an adequate enforcement strategy for an emissions trading scheme. We focus on sanction regimes within the EU ETS and the Chinese emissions trading pilot projects. Section 2 sets the scene by pointing at the need of an

  5. Enforcement of emissions trading: Sanction regimes of greenhouse gas emissions trading in the EU and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.G.W.M.; Chen, Huizhen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This chapter aims to further the debate regarding the role of law for establishing an adequate enforcement strategy for an emissions trading scheme. We focus on sanction regimes within the EU ETS and the Chinese emissions trading pilot projects. Section 2 sets the scene by pointing at the

  6. 19 CFR 210.33 - Failure to make or cooperate in discovery; sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to make or cooperate in discovery; sanctions. 210.33 Section 210.33 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Discovery and Compulsory Process...

  7. 19 CFR 210.34 - Protective orders; reporting requirement; sanctions and other actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; sanctions and other actions. 210.34 Section 210.34 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Discovery and... order of the Commission or the administrative law judge; (7) That a trade secret or other confidential...

  8. 17 CFR 12.407 - Satisfaction of reparation award; enforcement; sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Satisfaction of reparation... Satisfaction of reparation award; enforcement; sanctions. (a) Satisfaction of reparation award—(1) Where... satisfaction of an award (as prescribed in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section) expires, file with the...

  9. 75 FR 40862 - Bureau of Verification, Compliance, and Implementation; Imposition of Sanctions Against Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ...; Imposition of Sanctions Against Foreign Entities, Including a Ban on U.S. Government Procurement AGENCY... and one foreign person have engaged in activities that warrant the imposition of measures pursuant to Section 3 of the Iran, North Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation Act. The Act provides for penalties on...

  10. unilateral trade sanctions as a means to combat human rights abuses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MLR

    Doing Good: Inefficacy of the US Unilateral Sanctions against the Military. Government .... market rather than ensuring human rights were respected. The ITO ... quantitative restriction (both import and export) subject to few exceptions. Article I of ..... case involving Mexico and the United States (Tuna –Dolphin case), Mexico.

  11. 44 CFR 17.635 - Reporting of and employee sanctions for convictions of criminal drug offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of and employee sanctions for convictions of criminal drug offenses. 17.635 Section 17.635 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GOVERNMENTWIDE...

  12. California; Bay Area Air Quality Management District; Determination To Defer Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a proposed determination that CARB submitted rules on behalf of BAAQMD that satisfy part D of the Clean Air Act for areas under the jurisdiction of the BAAQMD.

  13. Leading under Sanction: Principals' Perceptions of Threat Rigidity, Efficacy, and Leadership in Underperforming Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Alan J.; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Ong-Dean, Colin; Park, Vicki; Wishard-Guerra, Alison

    2011-01-01

    No Child Left Behind (NCLB) was passed to ensure that 100 percent of students would be proficient by 2014. Progress toward that goal is measured annually and results suggest that while some schools improve, increasing numbers are identified as in need of improvement (INI) and are subject to sanctions. We examined perceived levels of threat…

  14. Hospitalizations for Students with an Alcohol-Related Sanction: Gender and Pregaming as Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rimsha; Hustad, John T. P.; LaSalle, Linda; Borsari, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether pregaming (ie, drinking prior to a social event) is a risk factor for hospitalization. Participants: Participants (N = 516) were undergraduate students with an alcohol-related sanction. Methods: Participants completed a survey about alcohol use, as well as behaviors and experiences,…

  15. Use of ontology structure and Bayesian models to aid the crowdsourcing of ICD-11 sanctioning rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yun; Tu, Samson W; Nyulas, Csongor; Tudorache, Tania; Chalmers, Robert J G; Musen, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the de facto standard international classification for mortality reporting and for many epidemiological, clinical, and financial use cases. The next version of ICD, ICD-11, will be submitted for approval by the World Health Assembly in 2018. Unlike previous versions of ICD, where coders mostly select single codes from pre-enumerated disease and disorder codes, ICD-11 coding will allow extensive use of multiple codes to give more detailed disease descriptions. For example, "severe malignant neoplasms of left breast" may be coded using the combination of a "stem code" (e.g., code for malignant neoplasms of breast) with a variety of "extension codes" (e.g., codes for laterality and severity). The use of multiple codes (a process called post-coordination), while avoiding the pitfall of having to pre-enumerate vast number of possible disease and qualifier combinations, risks the creation of meaningless expressions that combine stem codes with inappropriate qualifiers. To prevent that from happening, "sanctioning rules" that define legal combinations are necessary. In this work, we developed a crowdsourcing method for obtaining sanctioning rules for the post-coordination of concepts in ICD-11. Our method utilized the hierarchical structures in the domain to improve the accuracy of the sanctioning rules and to lower the crowdsourcing cost. We used Bayesian networks to model crowd workers' skills, the accuracy of their responses, and our confidence in the acquired sanctioning rules. We applied reinforcement learning to develop an agent that constantly adjusted the confidence cutoffs during the crowdsourcing process to maximize the overall quality of sanctioning rules under a fixed budget. Finally, we performed formative evaluations using a skin-disease branch of the draft ICD-11 and demonstrated that the crowd-sourced sanctioning rules replicated those defined by an expert dermatologist with high precision and recall

  16. The Criminal Offense of Credit/Debit Card Fraud and the Implementation of Its Sanction on Indonesian Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Maria Laot Kian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study are to determine the legal arrangements and the application of criminal sanctions against the crime of credit/debit card fraud in Indonesia. The type of study was a normative research by classifying the provisions relevant to the crime of credit/debit card fraud is based on Law No. 11 Year 2008 concerning Information and Electronic Transactions; otherwise it is used also Convention on Cyber crime 2001. Analysis of legal materials made through a law (statue approach to create an ius constituendum regarding the application of criminal sanctions against crime credit/debit card fraud. The results of the research indicated that the legal arrangements and criminal sanctions against the crime of credit/debit card fraud in Indonesia is still relatively minimal. First, not integrated article that directly regulates computer related fraud. Second, not arranged in the form of criminal sanctions for actions that are restitution culprit.

  17. Nuclear Sanctions: Section 102(b) of the Arms Export Control Act and its Application to India and Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Jeanne J

    2001-01-01

    Section 102(b) of the Arms Export Control Act (AECA) requires the President to impose sanctions on any country that he has determined is a "non-nuclear-weapon state" and has received or detonated a "nuclear explosive device...

  18. The relationship between guardian certification requirements and guardian sanctioning: a research issue in elder law and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Winsor C; Akinci, Fevzi; Wagner, Sarah A

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between guardian certification requirements and guardian sanctioning in the state of Washington. A total of 377 files were examined. Findings show that 52.4% of guardians with an undergraduate degree or higher education are likely to be sanctioned compared with 42.2% with an Associate of Arts (AA) or Technical (Tech) degree, and 36.9% with a high school diploma (HS) or equivalency (GED). Guardians with an undergraduate or higher education are 1.88 times more likely to be sanctioned compared with GED or HS graduates (p Guardians with an AA or Tech degree are 0.28 times less likely to have more severe sanctions than guardians with an undergraduate degree or higher education (p guardian registration, licensing, certification and quality; licensing and regulation of other professions; the limitations of the study; and the need for further research. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. 77 FR 24857 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ...EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset sanctions and to defer the imposition of highway sanctions based on a proposed approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP) published elsewhere in this Federal Register. The revisions concern SJVUAPCD Rule 4352, Solid Fuel Fired Boilers, Steam Generators and Process Heaters.

  20. Assessing the Net Effects of Sanctions on the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    the means. Shortly after the transition from apartheid Nelson Mandela appealed to the world that the sanctions be quickly lifted, which for the most...building measures. In the case of South Africa, Mandela was a revered and popular leader on the world stage. With apartheid defeated, the world could...would the case been the same? Would Mandela have retained as much global popularity if he had retained South Africa’s WMD? This counterfactual is

  1. Impact of economic sanctions on access to noncommunicable diseases medicines in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Varahrami, Vida; Kebriaeezade, Abbas; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid

    2018-04-05

    It has been argued that economic sanctions and the economic crisis have adversely affected access to drugs. To assess the impact of economic sanctions on the Iranian banking system in 2011 and Central Bank in 2012 on access to and use of drugs for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). An interrupted time series study assessed the effects of sanctions on drugs for diabetes (5 drug groups), asthma (5 drug groups), cancer (14 drugs) and multiple sclerosis (2 drugs). We extracted data from national reference databases on the list of drugs on the Iranian pharmaceutical market before 2011 for each selected NCD and their monthly sales. For cancer drugs, we used stratified random sampling by volume and value of sales, and source of supply (domestic or imported). Data were analysed monthly from 2008 to 2013. Market availability of 13 of 26 drugs was significantly reduced. Ten other drugs showed nonsignificant reductions in their market availability. Interferon α2b usage reduced from 0.014 defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID) in 2010 to 0.008 in 2013; and cytarabine from 1.40 mg per 1000 population per day in 2010 to 0.96 in 2013. Selective β2-adrenoreceptor agonists usage reduced from 8.4 to 6.8 DID in the same time period. There is strong evidence that sanctions have had a negative effect on access to drugs, particularly those that depended on the import of their raw material or finished products. Copyright © World Health Organization (WHO) 2018. Some rights reserved. This work is available under the CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/igo).

  2. 78 FR 894 - Interim Final Determination To Stay Sanctions, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ...EPA is making an interim final determination to stay imposition of sanctions based on a proposed approval of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP) published elsewhere in this Federal Register. The revisions concern local rules that regulate inhalable particulate matter (PM10) emissions from sources of fugitive dust such as unpaved roads and disturbed soils in open and agricultural areas in Imperial County.

  3. Motives of sanctioning: Equity and emotions in a public good experiment with punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Crosetto, Paolo; Güth, Werner; Mittone, Luigi; Ploner, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    We study conditional cooperation based on a sequential two-person linear public good game in which a trusting first contributor can be exploited by a second contributor. After playing this game the first contributor is allowed to punish the second contributor. The consequences of sanctioning depend on the treatment: whereas punishment can reduce inequality in one treatment, it only creates another inequality in the other. To capture the effect of delay on punishment both treatments are run on...

  4. Politics and application guide of urgency measures and administrative sanctions of the CNSNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa V, J.M.; Cruz R, L.A.; EsquiveI T, J.L.; Nunez C, A.

    2007-01-01

    In use of their attributions, granted by the Regulation Law of the 27 Constitutional Article in Nuclear Matter, the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards (CNSNS) it has taken charge to the authors the Politics' s elaboration and Guide of Application of Urgency measures and Administrative Sanctions (PGAMASA) with the double objective of discouraging the licensees, contractors and employees of incurring in nonfulfillment or violations to the regulator mark and of encouraging them to be attentive to the prompt identification and the immediate and appropriate correction of the violations and nonfulfillment. The present article presents the legal mark that confers the CNSNS the attributions to implant a PGAMASA and it exposes the more important elements that conform it. The urgency measures and administrative sanctions are defined, the approaches to determine the level of graveness of a violation or nonfulfillment and it is related the application process of urgency measures and administrative sanctions are presented. Like this among the urgency measures they stand out figures like the Notifications of Violation and the Regulatory Orders by their versatility and use potentiality. The PGAMASA has a basically dissuasive character and its last purpose it is to strengthen the actions that the CNSNS carries out in the fulfillment of its functions to maintain the safety standards in the operation of the nuclear facilities. (Author)

  5. IMPORT SUBSTITUTION POLICY UNDER ANTI-RUSSIAN SANCTIONS: STATE AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vyacheslavovna Galkina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Western sanctions caused by the events in Ukraine, a sharp drop in oil prices and other commodity prices, Russia is in a difficult political and economic situation. In these conditions, pressing was the question of replacement technologies and products imported from abroad, especially from the European Union, acceding to the anti-Russian sanctions, initiated by the United States. The political leadership of the Russian Federation have repeatedly raised the issue of import substitution, and only the events of recent years have allowed to translate public policy in this area to the actual implementation of programs developed its own production of goods and technology that were previously imported from abroad.Objective: To analyze the current political developments in the modern world and show the pros and cons of the policy of import substitution in Russia in terms of anti-Russian sanctions.Method and methodology of work: Institutional and neo-institutional paradigm, systematic approach.Results: The authors note that the import substitution program in import substitution, in spite of the marked complexity, have a good chance of success, and this is the key to low-cost raw materials, relatively cheap labor, cheap energy sources – natural gas and electricity, as well as carried out in 2014–2015 devaluation of the ruble, which significantly reduce the cost of the potential costs of enterprises.Application of the results: political science and practice, economic policy.

  6. [Sexual child abuse: correlation between medical certificates' conclusions and judiciary sanctions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumah, M M; Bah, H; Mbaye, I; Fall, M C; Yetognon, C; Sow, M L

    2005-01-01

    Sexual child abuse, comprises of indecency attitudes and physical misbehaviours, directed towards children are dominated by rape. The objective of our study was to assess in sexual child abuse the relation between the conclusion of medical certificates and court decision. It is a retrospective study carried out from 1994 to 1998 on the clerk's office correctional repertories in Dakar regional court. An overall number of 79 cases of child abuse were collected in 5 years period. Children under 18 years old of of both sex, were concerned. Data found were correlated with a review of requisition cases received by the of gynaecology and obstetrics clinic of Aristide Dantec Hospital. This facilitates the establishement of the relationship between the offences and the pronounced sanctions, as well as the initial medical certificate and these sanctions. The sanctions were severe whenever rape had been retained. Some cases were disqualified in indecent assault and were judged as such. The judge decision, which follow the medical certificate conclusions in 11 cases out of 14 shows the importance and reliability of this medical document. All files reviewed at the medical and legal level were incomplete. The difficulty of the materiality of the rape and the psychological consequences in the long run and especially HIV infection should invite to a multidisciplinary, specialized and organized management of sexual child abuse. This study has shown the importance of a correct and complete drafting of the medical certificate, to enable the establishment by the judge the materiality of the facts.

  7. Peer pressure on the riverbank: Assessing catch-and-release anglers' willingness to sanction others' (bad) behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guckian, Meaghan L; Danylchuk, Andy J; Cooke, Steven J; Markowitz, Ezra M

    2018-08-01

    Given the well-documented impacts of angler behavior on the biological fitness of angled and released fish, optimizing the conservation value of catch-and-release angling hinges on the extent to which anglers are willing to adopt recommended best practices and refrain from harmful ones. One potentially powerful mechanism underlying adoption of best practices is the social pressure anglers can apply to one another to enforce community norms and values. Past work in other domains demonstrates that forms of interpersonal communication-including social sanctioning-can foster context-appropriate social norms and increase cooperative behavior; yet to date, little research has examined these dynamics in the context of species conservation. We conducted in-person and online surveys to explore the role of social sanctioning in the context of an internationally renowned wild steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fishery in British Columbia, Canada. We investigated how diverse social-psychological and demographic factors influence anglers' past and future sanctioning propensity. Results highlight that perceived capacity to influence the angling practices of others and professed concerns about one's own reputation were strongly predictive of both past and future sanctioning. Furthermore, while anglers reported relatively low-levels of past sanctioning behavior, most anglers simultaneously expressed a strong desire to sanction others in the future. Identifying ways to increase the social desirability and visibility of sanctioning actions could assist resource managers in promoting adoption and maintenance of best practices. More broadly, our findings underscore a significant yet underappreciated role for wildlife users and enthusiasts in cultivating a shared conservation ethic to help ensure biological conservation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Addressing the impact of economic sanctions on Iranian drug shortages in the joint comprehensive plan of action: promoting access to medicines and health diplomacy

    OpenAIRE

    Setayesh, Sogol; Mackey, Tim K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The U.S Congress initiated sanctions against Iran after the 1979 U.S. Embassy hostage crisis in Tehran, and since then the scope of multilateral sanctions imposed by the United States, the European Union, and the United Nations Security Council have progressively expanded throughout the intervening years. Though primarily targeted at Iran?s nuclear proliferation activities, sanctions have nevertheless resulted in negative public health outcomes for ordinary Iranian citizens. This i...

  9. Economic Sanctions as a Factor of Modernizing of Russian Defense Industry Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem M. Nureev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the defense-industrial complex (DIC of Russia in the conditions of economic sanctions. And although the center was the oil and gas industry, as well as the banking sector, economic sanctions against Russia affected the DCI. They touched first of all on such large Russian defense concerns as air defense "Almaz- Antey", "Sirius", "Stankoinstroment", "Kalashnikov", "Tula Arms Factory", NGO "Oriental Complexes", as well as "Dobrolyte". The prohibition of debt financing has affected such major enterprises of the defense industry as "Uralvagonzavod", "Oboronprom", "United Aircraft Corporation". The article shows, in general, the favorable impact of sanctions on the industry. At the end of 2016, Russia took the second place in world arms exports with a share of 23%, the US became the leader – their share was 33%. But the structure of the share capital in the defense industry companies is completely different if we compare these two countries: in the US, private companies dominate the market, in Russia – the largest enterprises are owned by the state. In the course of the analysis, it turned out that Russian defense industry enterprises are unprofitable or unprofitable, they do not have stability in financial performance, since they are highly dependent on government spending. To improve the current situation in this sector, it is advisable for the state to modernize the military-industrial complex companies in order to enhance the role of market mechanisms that will stimulate R & D, as under modern conditions of competition in any market, innovations represent an exclusive advantage for enterprise prosperity.

  10. POST-CRIMEAN TWISTER: RUSSIA, THE EU AND THE LAW OF SANCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL KALINICHENKO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available EU-Russia relations have never been simple. On the one hand, these two international actors have common values and interests. On the other, they have a conflictual relationship, which has become particularly acute after the Ukrainian crisis that started in 2014. After Ukrainian crisis, the EU and Russia have entered a new era. Unfortunately, it is an era of brinkmanship. This brinkmanship is marked, prima facie, by mutual sanctions. After 20 years of partnership and good neighborliness it sounds illogically, but it is a reality. The strategic nature of the EU-Russia partnership has been placed in doubt. The aim of this article is to show that the “war of sanctions,” which has frozen official contacts and negotiations have not achieved anything. This crisis can only be overcome through dialogue. However, at the moment, the main critics of the EU sanctions amongst EU Member States are too weak to convince the other members to lift them. The article concerns the modern legal aspects and modern legal circumstances surrounding EU-Russia relations in the light of recent events and the deterioration of relations between Russia and the EU in general. In this framework, an account is given of the EU’s reaction to the Ukrainian conflict in the context of the EU Common Foreign and Security Policy and of the EU restrictive measures as well as in the context of the Russian countersanctions. A special attention is paid to the EU Court of Justice case-law in the field of the restrictive measures.

  11. Economic Sanctions Against Russia: Short and Medium Term Consequences for the Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem M. Nureev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth in production and exports of oil and gas from the United States and other OECD countries led to pressure on energy prices, and posed the problem of redistribution of the structure of oil and gas market shares. The aggravation of competition contributed to the selection of measures to modernize the industry in Russia as the main measures of economic sanctions, as well as restrictions on the supply of Russian oil and gas to Europe, which jeopardized the implementation of the South Stream and North Stream-2 projects. The oil and gas industry continues to play a significant role in the formation of the revenue base of the federal budget of the Russian Federation. As a result of the imposition of sanctions, the export of Western equipment to Russia was banned, it could be a serious blow to the industry, which potential could be fully realized in the next 3–5 years. Oil and gas companies are most dependent on the pumping equipment (import share is 50%, catalysts (80% share of imports, applied software (the share of imports is more than 80%. Currently, Russian companies purchase equipment in China and South Korea, but the quality is much lower than the US, and the equipment often fails, so it is associated with the high costs of repairs. The import substitution should revive the domestic production of oil and gas equipment, but how this policy is implemented is difficult to predict, as enterprises have to overcome a significant technological gap and lag behind foreign developments. Russia managed to survive the short-term period of economic sanctions with significant, but not extremely large losses. Much more acute consequences can affect in the medium term, unless vigorous steps are taken to import substitution and modernization of oil and gas production and processing.

  12. Sanctioning Large-Scale Domestic Cannabis Production - Potency, Yield and Professionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kim; Lindholst, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Domestically cultivated cannabis, referred to as sinsemilla, constitutes a growing share of the illicit drug markets in the Scandinavian countries. In this study we present forensic evidence of THC content in sinsemilla and resin confiscated by the Danish police from 2008 to 2012. The purpose...... that courts do not apply a yield-percentage estimate. The specificities of domestic cannabis cultivation also relate to the sanction criteria „professionalism”. Firstly, the number of plants found can provide for calculation of an aggregate quantum. Secondly, this can be related to the formal quantum......-scale cannabis cases would improve by applying a 1:1 potency level between sinsemilla and resin....

  13. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-18

    Control does not place a valuation on such real estate holdings, but public sources assess these assets at a value of about $500 million. There have...Development in Iran Completed,” Total/ Bow Valley (Canada)/ENI $300 million 40,000 bpd 97 Khajehpour

  14. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-16

    Transshipment and Brokering. The ITRs prohibit U.S. transshipment of goods across Iran and ban any activities by U.S. persons to broker commercial ...accordance with the JCPOA, the United States has relaxed restrictions on sales of parts for commercial aircraft and licensing of sales of whole commercial ...tuition payments for Iranian students abroad (paid directly to the educational institutions). The waiver of Section 1245(d)(1) of IFCA allowed those

  15. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    their bazaar merchants in June 2012 because of an escalation in the price of baby milk and other staples. • Suggesting Iran’s operating budget is...condition of receiving a U.S. government contract, and providing for penalties for any falsification . The Civilian Agency Acquisition Council issued

  16. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-21

    the Central Bank assets discussed above could be used to pay the terrorism judgements —a decision that resulted in Iranian threats to sue the United...legislation that might affect Iran’s behavior might also be inconsistent with the JCPOA. See also CRS Report R43333, Iran Nuclear Agreement, by Kenneth...against Iran have multiple objectives and address multiple perceived threats from Iran simultaneously. This report analyzes U.S. and international

  17. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-19

    from the international banking system , caused a sharp drop in the value of Iran’s currency, the rial; raised inflation to over 50%; and cut off...Congressional Research Service 8 international banking system . Prior to September 2013, all NGOs that sought to perform relief efforts in Iran... barter arrangements with neighboring countries, virtually all of Iran’s oil exports flow through the Strait of Hormuz, which carries about one-third of

  18. Nonproliferation Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    ILSA). On May 18, 1998, the Administration announced that in- vestment by French, Malaysian , and Russian firms in Iran’s oil and gas industry...for the participation in royalties , earnings, or profits in that development, without regard to the form of the participation. The term "investment

  19. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    increase taxation on the merchants by 70%, but it is likely that the broader adverse business climate contributed to the bazaar stoppages. An agreement...was eventually reached under which taxation only went up 15%. The merchant community could be a potential “swing constituency” if it sides with the...so include Alcatel-Lucent of France; Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ; BNP Paribas of France; Bosch of Germany; Canon of Japan; Fiat SPA of Italy

  20. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-14

    general license. The list was expanded in July and November 2013 to include electrocardiograms, electroencephalograms, dialysis machines, MRI ...accept India’s local currency, the rupee, to settle 45% of its oil sales to India, which Iran mostly used to buy Indian wheat, pharmaceuticals , rice...services for hydroelectric, oil, and gas services. However, GE subsidiary sales of medical diagnostic products such as MRI machines, marketed through

  1. Estimation of Effect of Foreign Direct Investment on the Russian Economy during Sanctions Based on Spillover Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Anatolievna Fedorova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study estimates the effect of foreign direct investments (FDI on the efficiency of enterprises in Russia. The article test the following hypotheses: first – FDI coming from the countries that sanctioned Russia cause larger effect on the efficiency of local companies, unlike China and countries that didn’t impose sanctions, and the effect depends on the share of property of foreign investors in the local companies; second – increasing the volume of investments into research and development of receivers of FDI causes positive effect on the competitiveness of local enterprises; third – FDI into import substituting industries coming from countries that imposed sanctions cause lesser effect on the competitiveness and operational efficiency of Russian companies. The empirical base of the study includes 168 000 observations among 33 606 Russian enterprises during 2011–201. Based on the study, the authors partially confirm the first hypothesis and fully confirm the second and the third hypotheses

  2. The law isn't everything: The impact of legal and non-legal sanctions on motorists' drink driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, James; Szogi, Elizabeth; Truelove, Verity; Vingilis, Evelyn

    2016-12-01

    The effectiveness of drink driving countermeasures (such as sanctions) to deter motorists from driving over the legal limit is extremely important when considering the impact the offending behavior has on the community. However, questions remain regarding the extent that both legal and non-legal factors influence drink driving behaviors. This is of particular concern given that both factors are widely used as either sanctioning outcomes or in media campaigns designed to deter drivers (e.g., highlighting the physical risk of crashing). This paper reports on an examination of 1,253 Queensland motorists' perceptions of legal and non-legal drink driving sanctions and the corresponding deterrent impact of such perceptions on self-reported offending behavior. Participants volunteered to complete either an online or paper version of the questionnaire. Encouragingly, quantitative analysis of the data revealed that participants' perceptions of both legal sanctions (e.g., certainty, severity and swiftness) as well as non-legal sanctions (e.g., fear of social, internal or physical harm) were relatively high, with perceptual certainty being the highest. Despite this, a key theme to emerge from the study was that approximately 25% of the sample admitted to drink driving at some point in time. Multivariate analyses revealed six significant predictors of drink driving, being: males, younger drivers, lower perceptions of the severity of sanctions, and less concern about the social, internal, and physical harms associated with the offense. However, a closer examination of the data revealed that the combined deterrence model was not very accurate at predicting drink driving behaviors (e.g., 21% of variance). A range of non-legal deterrent factors have the potential to reduce the prevalence of drink driving although further research is required to determine how much exposure is required to produce a strong effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights

  3. Treatment of used machine and industrial mineral oil in Republic of Serbia under the sanctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present the only system of collection and recycling of used oil in Serbia, developed by NIS - Refinery, Belgrade. In addition to the discussion about the environmental dangers of used machine oil, we present the advantages of organized collection and its reuse. Our analysis shows steady decline of the collected amount of used oil during the period of economical sanctions. The amount collected by Jugopetrol, NAP and Beopetrol was drastically reduced in 1999 (35%) and 2000 (75%) with respect to 1995 (43%). The Yugoslav Army increased the percentage of collected used oil in the total amount collected from 23% to 33% in 1999 to 53% in 2000. Automechanical services did not participate in the collection of used oil in the last three years. Having all this in mind we might ask ourselves what happened to the used oil that was not collected? We also point out the advantages and disadvantages of the system for collection and recycling in the conditions of ten years of economical sanctions, including old equipment and technology, regulations, price politics and difficult economical conditions. We discuss the reasons for the decline of the collected amount of used oil. The ecological problems of misuse of used oil will only increase, having in mind industrialization and the increase in the number of cars. The solution lies in the introduction of state regulations that will require and reinforce collection and recycling of used oil. (author)

  4. Doping in sport: an analysis of sanctioned UK rugby union players between 2009 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, L; Backhouse, S

    2017-08-01

    To inform anti-doping policy and practice, it is important to understand the complexities of doping. The purpose of this study was to collate and systematically examine the reasoned decisions published by UK Anti-Doping for doping sanctions in rugby union in the UK since the introduction of the 2009 World Anti-Doping Code. Case files were content analysed to extract demographic information and details relating to the anti-doping rule violation (ADRV), including individuals' explanations for how/why the ADRV occurred. Between 2009 and 2015, 49 rugby union players and one coach from across the UK were sanctioned. Over 50% of the cases involved players under the age of 25, competing at sub-elite levels. Reasons in defence of the ADRV focused on functional use and lifestyle factors rather than performance enhancement. An a priori assessment of the "need", "risk" and "consequence" of using a substance was not commonplace; further strengthening calls for increasing the reach of anti-doping education. The findings also deconstruct the view that "doped" athletes are the same. Consequently, deepening understanding of the social and cultural conditions that encourage doping remains a priority.

  5. Analysis of administrative sanctions and criminal prosecutions of doctors in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Etsuji

    2005-11-01

    To illustrate how administrative sanctions (AS) and criminal prosecution (CP) differ with regard to application with doctors' misconducts. A total 465 doctors who were punished twice by AS and CP were analyzed using the proportional distribution method (PDM) to break down into the charge-specific months of suspension or imprisonment. Overall, the Minister of Health, Labor & Welfare (MHLW) sanctioned doctors by suspending their licenses for twice the number of months that the court ordered for imprisonment. Charge-specific analysis of months (suspension or prison terms) revealed a different pattern of judgment. The MHLW judged obscenity more unethical, allocating a larger share of the total months of suspension to punish this misconduct, but judged bribery less unethical allocating a smaller share of the total months of suspension to punish this than the court. For traditional crimes like swindling, murder and psychostimulant abuse, both judgments followed similar patterns allocating the same share of months for punishment of such acts. CP and AS were shown to have different patterns in their judgments of doctors' crimes or misconducts reflecting the different purposes they pursue: justice by CP and ethics by AS. (186 words).

  6. Excusing exclusion: Accounting for rule-breaking and sanctions in a Swedish methadone clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Frida J M

    2013-11-01

    Methadone maintenance treatment has been subjected to much debate and controversy in Sweden during the last decades. Thresholds for getting access are high and control policies strict within the programmes. This article analyses how professionals working in a Swedish methadone clinic discuss and decide on appropriate responses to clients' rule-breaking behaviour. The research data consist of field notes from observations of three interprofessional team meetings where different clients' illicit drug use is discussed. A micro-sociological approach and accounts analysis was applied to the data. During their decision-oriented talk at the meetings, the professionals account for: (1) sanctions, (2) nonsanction, (3) mildness. In accounting for (2) and (3), they also account for clients' rule-breaking behaviour. Analysis shows how these ways of accounting are concerned with locating blame and responsibility for the act in question, as well as with constructing excuses and justifications for the clients and for the professionals themselves. In general, these results demonstrate that maintenance treatment in everyday professional decision-making, far from being a neutral evidence-based practice, involves a substantial amount of professional discretion and moral judgements. Sanctions are chosen according to the way in which a deviance from the rules is explained and, in doing so, a certain behaviour is deemed to be serious, dangerous and unacceptable - or excusable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bureau-repression: Administrative Sanction and Social Control in Modern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Oliver Olmo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the creation of an intelligible suggestion for better understanding the administrative sanction in many disciplines in social sciences: the bureau-repression. The coining of this concept is due especially to the repression to which social protestors and demonstrators have been subject since the birth of the 15-M movement in Spain. However, bureau-repression had already begun being exercised in the years following the Transition, and it has developed in parallel to the stage of Security State that characterizes the state system of social control. A detailed analysis of the administrative sanction is performed for many benefits which such sanction provides for those in power, who use it both to silence voices from the street and to dispose of elements which are harmful for the neoliberal system (disadvantaged groups or immigrants. In short, the reader will find the underlying political and repressive background which, at first glance, is usually a monetary fine, and will discover that there are ways to avoid this dense surveillance exercised over the governed people (bureau-resistance. Este artículo explica la creación de una sugerencia inteligible para una mejor comprensión de la sanción administrativa en muchas disciplinas de las ciencias sociales: la burorrepresión. Este término nació especialmente a raíz de la represión que han sufrido los manifestantes de las protestas sociales desde el nacimiento del movimiento 15-M en España. Sin embargo, la burorrepresión ya había comenzado a ejercerse en los años que siguieron a la Transición, y se ha desarrollado de forma paralela al estado de seguridad que caracteriza el sistema estatal de control social. Se realiza un análisis detallado de la sanción administrativa, desarrollada en beneficio de los que están en el poder, quienes la usan tanto para silenciar las voces de la calle como para deshacerse de elementos que sean perjudiciales para el sistema neoliberal

  8. 78 FR 74218 - Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... sanctions are hereby imposed, subject to partial waivers as noted below: 1. Bank Loans--The United States Government shall prohibit any United States bank from making any loan or providing any credit to the Government of Syria, except for loans or credits for the purpose of purchasing food or other agricultural...

  9. Effectiveness of United StatesLed Economic Sanctions as a Counterproliferation Tool Against Irans Nuclear Weapons Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Science and International Security, Secretaries Hillary Clinton and Condoleezza Rice 89 Wisconsin...17 III. ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AND ENFORCEMENT AGAINST IRAN .......19 A. REAGAN THROUGH CLINTON ...C. U.S. COUNTERPROLIFERATION POLICY The formation of U.S. counterproliferation policy can be traced to the Clinton Administration, largely as a

  10. Announcing economic sanctions against Teheran, the United States forbid to their petroleum societies to buy iranian petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This work summarized the petroleum and natural gas economic sanctions of the United States against Teheran and the different reactions of countries such as : France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Japan, China, Australia, Malaysia, Azerbaijan about the american decisions. (O.L.)

  11. 20 CFR 666.420 - Under what circumstances may a sanction be applied to local areas for poor performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applied to local areas for poor performance? 666.420 Section 666.420 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... sanction be applied to local areas for poor performance? (a) If a local area fails to meet the levels of... achieving poor levels of performance; or (3) Requires other appropriate measures designed to improve the...

  12. 48 CFR 52.225-25 - Prohibition on Engaging in Sanctioned Activities Relating to Iran-Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ENGAGING IN SANCTIONED ACTIVITIES RELATING TO IRAN—CERTIFICATION (SEP 2010) (a) Definition. Person— (1) Means— (i) A natural person; (ii) A corporation, business association, partnership, society, trust...; and (iii) Any successor to any entity described in paragraph (1)(ii) of this definition; and (2) Does...

  13. 76 FR 42159 - Lifting of Sanctions on Person Associated With the A.Q. Khan Nuclear Procurement Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7525] Lifting of Sanctions on Person Associated With the A.Q. Khan Nuclear Procurement Network AGENCY: Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation... the Foreign Relations Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1994-1995 (22 U.S.C. 6301), the Export-Import...

  14. 77 FR 8957 - OFAC Implementation of Certain Sanctions Imposed on Three Persons by the Secretary of State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... programs also is available via facsimile through a 24 hour fax-on-demand service, tel.: (202) 622-0077... credits to a person sanctioned under ISA consistent with section 6(a)(3) of ISA; (ii) with respect to... respect to section 6(a)(7) of ISA, to prohibit any transfers of credit or payments between financial...

  15. Motivations of Russian firms to invest abroad: how do sanctions affect Russia’s outward foreign direct investment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuhto Kari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, Russia’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI soared and the OFDI stock exceeded $ 500 billion. However, a year later, Russia’s OFDI dropped by nearly 15 per cent. Rapid upward and downward swings make it necessary to analyze the motivation of Russian firms to invest abroad as well as to assess the impact of sanctions on Russian OFDI. The author points out that a significant part of Russia’s outward FDI stock is accounted for by the operations of Russian corporations in their home market. It is concluded that although Western sanctions target a relatively small number of Russian citizens and companies, they nevertheless affect some of Russia’s key people, largest banks, and hydrocarbon producers. Therefore, their direct impact could be substantial. Alongside the direct impact, one should consider their indirect impact, such as the tumbling rouble exchange rate and Russian banks’ increasing interest rates, which decrease Russian firms’ capability to invest abroad. Moreover, a less amicable politic al atmosphere in the West may push some Russian corporations out of the Western markets and diminish the enthusiasm of new ones to enter them. Today, Russia’s counter-sanctions do not directly restrict the country’s OFDI, but Russian state-owned enterprises may reach a decision to hold foreign investments to support Russia’s sanction policy.

  16. 29 CFR 471.14 - What sanctions and penalties may be imposed for noncompliance, and what procedures will the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR NOTIFICATION OF EMPLOYEE RIGHTS UNDER FEDERAL LABOR LAWS OBLIGATIONS OF FEDERAL CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS; NOTIFICATION OF EMPLOYEE RIGHTS UNDER FEDERAL LABOR LAWS General Enforcement; Compliance Review... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What sanctions and penalties may be imposed for...

  17. 76 FR 56866 - Bureau of Economic, Energy and Business Affairs; Persons on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ...]leos de Venezuela S.A., Royal Oyster Group, Soci[eacute]t[eacute] Anonyme Mon[eacute]gasque D... International, Petr[oacute]leos de Venezuela S.A., Royal Oyster Group, Speedy Ship, and Tanker Pacific...: Norman Galimba, Office of Terrorism Finance and Economic Sanctions Policy, Department of State, Telephone...

  18. 76 FR 59254 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... on a proposed approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control...

  19. 76 FR 56116 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... on a proposed approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental...

  20. 76 FR 56114 - Interim Final Determination to Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Determination to Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... on a proposed approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental...

  1. Selection for protection in an ant–plant mutualism: host sanctions, host modularity, and the principal–agent game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David P; Hassall, Mark; Sutherland, William J; Yu, Douglas W

    2005-01-01

    Retaliation against cheaters can prevent the breakdown of cooperation. Here we ask whether the ant–plant Cordia nodosa is able to apply retaliatory sanctions against its ant symbiont Allomerus octoarticulatus, which patrols new shoots to prevent herbivory. We test the hypothesis that the modular design of C. nodosa physiologically ties the growth of housing (stem swellings known as domatia) to the successful development of the attached leaves. We experimentally simulated herbivory by cutting leaves from patrolled shoots and found that the domatia on such ‘cheated’ shoots suffered higher mortality and lower growth than did controls, evidence for a host sanction. On the other hand, patrolling is costly to the ant, and experiment shows that non-patrollers run a low risk of being sanctioned because most leaves (and the attached domatia) escape heavy herbivory even when patrollers are absent. This suggests that cheaters might enjoy a higher fitness than do mutualists, despite sanctions, but we find that patrolling provides a net fecundity benefit when the colony and plant exceed a minimum size, which requires sustained ant investment in patrolling. These results map directly onto the principal–agent (P–A) game from economics, which we suggest can be used as a framework for studying stability in mutualisms, where high sampling costs and cheating do not allow market effects to select for mutual benefits. PMID:16537131

  2. EFFECTS OF SECTORAL ANTI-RUSSIAN SANCTIONS ON THE POSSIBILITY OF GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION DRILLING IN THE ARCTIC SEAS

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    I. O. Sochneva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the past and current situation of geological exploration drilling on the Arctic region continental shelf. Along with climate conditions, the strategy of drilling is greatly infl uenced by technical accessibility of licensed sites, the latter depending on achieved level of equipment and technologies. Since 2014 the USA, the European Union countries and a number of other states have imposed sanctions against Russia. Sectoral sanctions, prohibiting access to technologies employed in the Arctic region shelf projects, have become an important part of these sanctions. This research is aimed at assessing the infl uence of sectoral anti-Russian sanctions on geological exploration drilling in the Arctic seas. The choice of geological exploration drilling is not accidental as the majority of Russian Arctic projects are at this particular stage now.Over the recent forty years, the country has accumulated considerable practical experience of conducting geological exploration drilling and the Arctic region field development. Our analysis demonstrates that modern Russia has necessary technologies for exploration and field development in the Arctic region. In fact, Russia is the only country, which actually continues its operations in the Arctic region amid a sharp decline of oil prices. Imposing sectoral sanctions related to equipment and technologies of developing the Russian Arctic shelf is inefficient.It is forecasted that in the coming decade, the continuing global warming process will make the majority of regions of the Barents Sea and the Kara Sea – where a number of large and gigantic fields have already been discovered – more accessible for conducting geological exploration drilling. It is possible to use here the traditional types of off shore drilling units with a low ice rate. This will totally eliminate any technical and technological problems of drilling. The USA are expected to enter the market of arctic hydrocarbons from

  3. Criminal sanctions applicable to Federal water pollution control measures. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.C.

    1991-09-30

    Overkill or not enough: Two decades ago, Congress realized that a system of civil remedies alone, devoid of any lasting punitive consequences, was inadequate to insure compliance with environmental protection statutes. Other than the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, which was designed to protect navigation, Federal criminal sanctions were not applicable to water pollution offenses. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, more commonly known as the Clean Water Act (CWA), was twenty-four years old before Federal criminal enforcement of its provisions was allowed. But since the early 1970's, the criminal provisions of the CWA have been strengthened, the United States Department of Justice has beefed up its environmental enforcement efforts, and environmental polluters have been prosecuted. This Federal effort is now approaching overkill.

  4. System justification, the denial of global warming, and the possibility of "system-sanctioned change".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feygina, Irina; Jost, John T; Goldsmith, Rachel E

    2010-03-01

    Despite extensive evidence of climate change and environmental destruction, polls continue to reveal widespread denial and resistance to helping the environment. It is posited here that these responses are linked to the motivational tendency to defend and justify the societal status quo in the face of the threat posed by environmental problems. The present research finds that system justification tendencies are associated with greater denial of environmental realities and less commitment to pro-environmental action. Moreover, the effects of political conservatism, national identification, and gender on denial of environmental problems are explained by variability in system justification tendencies. However, this research finds that it is possible to eliminate the negative effect of system justification on environmentalism by encouraging people to regard pro-environmental change as patriotic and consistent with protecting the status quo (i.e., as a case of "system-sanctioned change"). Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. The effect of sanctions on the evolution of cooperation in linear division of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamaru, Mayuko; Shimura, Hayato; Kitakaji, Yoko; Ohnuma, Susumu

    2018-01-21

    The evolution of cooperation is an unsolved research topic and has been investigated from the viewpoint of not only biology and other natural sciences but also social sciences. Much extant research has focused on the evolution of cooperation among peers. While, different players belonging to different organizations play different social roles, and players playing different social roles cooperate together to achieve their goals. We focus on the evolution of cooperation in linear division of labor that is defined as follows: a player in the i-th role interacts with a player in the i + 1-th role, and a player in the n-th role achieves their goal (1 ≤ i social dilemma encountered in common-pool resource management contexts. The administrative organ in Japan introduces two sanction systems to address the illegal dumping problem: the actor responsibility system and the producer responsibility system. In the actor responsibility system, if players in any role who choose defection are monitored and discovered, they are penalized via a fine. However, it is difficult to monitor and detect the violators, and this system does not work well. While, in the producer responsibility system, the player in B 1 is fined if the player cannot hand the manifest to the local administrative organ because the players of B i (i = 1-3) who choose defection do not hand the manifest to the player of B 1 . We analyze this situation using the replicator equation. We reveal that (1) the three-role model has more empirical credibility than the two-role model including B 1 and B 3 , and (2) the producer responsibility system promotes the evolution of cooperation more than the system without sanctioning. (3) the actor responsibility system does not promote the evolution of cooperation if monitoring and detecting defectors is unsuccessful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Russian Innovative Potential in the Conditions of Economic Sanctions: Reserves of Grown

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    Rustem M. Nureev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the impact of economic sanctions in general for innovative development of Russia, as well as individual sectors of oil, gas, financial and banking sector. It is shown that the ban on exports to the Russian oil and gas technology has led to the freezing of existing and refusal to enter into new projects. Increased production and export of US oil and gas have led to an increase in excess of the global scope of these types of raw materials and led to long-term downward trend in world energy prices. In recent years there has been a sharp decline in the net inflow of foreign direct investment in Russia, which exacerbates the problem of domestic sources of domestic innovation policy. The effect of sanctions on the development of the Russian economy as a whole and its individual regions is condifered. The paper describes the approaches to the definition of the innovation potential of the Russian region, identified several levels of manifestation of the region's potential and its characteristics, provides a definition of the region's innovation potential, discussed the factors influencing the development of the region's innovative capacity. The current state of the regional innovation system of the Russian Federation is analysed. The paper describes the main tasks of the Russian Federation Innovative Development Strategy for the period up to 2020. The degree of implementation of the Strategy, problems and prospects of realization of the basic provisions of the Strategy, the impact of the implementation of the Strategy on the Russian economy, its position in the index business are analysed in the paper.

  7. Assessment of the Effects of Economic Sanctions on Iranians' Right to Health by Using Human Rights Impact Assessment Tool: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokabisaghi, Fatemeh

    2018-01-20

    Over the years, economic sanctions have contributed to violation of right to health in target countries. Iran has been under comprehensive unilateral economic sanctions by groups of countries (not United Nations [UN]) in recent years. They have been intensified from 2012 because of international community's uncertainty about peaceful purpose of Iran's nuclear program and inadequacy of trust-building actions of this country. This review aimed to identify the humanitarian effects of the sanctions on the right of Iranians to health and the obligations of Iran and international community about it. To assess economic sanction policies and identify violated rights and the obligations of states according to international human rights laws, in this study, Human Rights Impact Assessments (HRIA) tool is used. Applying this tool requires collection of evidences regarding the situation of rights. To provide such evidence, a systematic review of literature which involved 55 papers retrieved from the web-based databases and official webpages of Iran's government and UN' health and human rights committees and organizations was done. All articles about the consequences of economic sanctions related to nuclear activities of Iran on welfare and health of Iranians published from January 2012 till February 2017 in English and Persian languages were included. Search terms were economic sanctions, embargoes, Iran, welfare, health and medicine. Additional studies were identified by cross checking the reference lists of accessed articles. All selected papers were abstracted and entered into a matrix describing study design and findings, and categorized into a framework of themes reflecting the areas covered (health and its determinants). According to HRIA framework, related obligations of Iran and other states about adverse effects of the sanctions on Iranians' right to health were extracted. The sanctions on Iran caused a fall of country's revenues, devaluation of national currency, and

  8. Assessment of the Effects of Economic Sanctions on Iranians’ Right to Health by Using Human Rights Impact Assessment Tool: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokabisaghi, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Background: Over the years, economic sanctions have contributed to violation of right to health in target countries. Iran has been under comprehensive unilateral economic sanctions by groups of countries (not United Nations [UN]) in recent years. They have been intensified from 2012 because of international community’s uncertainty about peaceful purpose of Iran’s nuclear program and inadequacy of trust-building actions of this country. This review aimed to identify the humanitarian effects of the sanctions on the right of Iranians to health and the obligations of Iran and international community about it. Methods: To assess economic sanction policies and identify violated rights and the obligations of states according to international human rights laws, in this study, Human Rights Impact Assessments (HRIA) tool is used. Applying this tool requires collection of evidences regarding the situation of rights. To provide such evidence, a systematic review of literature which involved 55 papers retrieved from the web-based databases and official webpages of Iran’s government and UN’ health and human rights committees and organizations was done. All articles about the consequences of economic sanctions related to nuclear activities of Iran on welfare and health of Iranians published from January 2012 till February 2017 in English and Persian languages were included. Search terms were economic sanctions, embargoes, Iran, welfare, health and medicine. Additional studies were identified by cross checking the reference lists of accessed articles. All selected papers were abstracted and entered into a matrix describing study design and findings, and categorized into a framework of themes reflecting the areas covered (health and its determinants). According to HRIA framework, related obligations of Iran and other states about adverse effects of the sanctions on Iranians’ right to health were extracted. Results: The sanctions on Iran caused a fall of country

  9. The need for the creation in Colombia of a special criminal sanction for imposition on individuals presenting anti-social or other personality disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Margarita Tirado-Álvarez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to focus on analyzing whether or not to create an special sanction for the individual with psychopathy, taking into account their particular characteristics (without cure, no remorse, no fear of punishment, high recidivism, objectification of being human, and the nature of the sanctions contained in the national criminal law, in defense of justice, respect for human rights of victim and victimizer, the security of society and the proper punishment.

  10. The principle of guilt as a basis for criminal sanctions justification review in the Criminal Law in Serbia

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    Ćorović Emir A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of guilt is one of the essential principles of criminal law. However, it is a very complex principle. Its content has been presented in this paper particularly referring to a systematic deviation of it in the criminal legislation of the Republic of Serbia. According to the provisions of the article 2 of the Criminal Code of Serbia the principle of guilt is related to punishments and warning measures, while security and educational measures remained beyond its reach. On the other side, The Criminal Code defining a crime offense in the article 14 demands culpability of perpetrator's behavior. It involves a conceptual problem: a possibility is given for criminal sanctions of the principle of guilt, article 2 of the Criminal Code not referring to security and educational measures could be applied for people acting without culpability. It is paradoxical to accept criminal-justice reaction in the form of criminal sanctions regarding people without guilt. According to author of this paper, such a normative solution brings into issue the relevant principle, more precisely its basis, generality and guidance, the qualities that every legal principle should maintain. Of course, deviations of legal principle and the principle of guilt are possible but they must be kept to a minimum. Otherwise, systematic legal principle deviations, in this case the principle of guilt, are not to be tolerated. Connecting the principle of guilt with the system of criminal sanctions opens the debate on voluntarism embodied in the freedom of will and guilt and positivism/determinism embodied in perpetrator's danger and educational neglect within the criminal law. It is over a century discussion in the science of criminal law. The author of the paper concludes criminal-justice reaction in the form of criminal sanction can be justified only of based on the principle of guilt. Otherwise, such a reaction has no place in the criminal law.

  11. Imprescribility of the action and the disciplinary sanction by violation of human rigths and infractions to the humanitarian international right.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Milena Daza-Márquez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article puts forward an analysis of the problem of the imprescriptibility of action and disciplinary sanctions for grave violations of human rights and international humanitarian law, committed by civil servants, particularly, members of the Military Forces and the National Police. The study deals with the regulation of disciplinary action for grave conduct within the disciplinary regime applicable to the Public Forces over the past thirty years and in the current Code of Practice on Disciplinary and Grievance Proceedures. I also illustrate the legal, political, social and economic consequences—for the Colombian State—of investigation and disciplinary sanctions for crimes against humanity or war crimes being ommitted or delayed through negligence of State offi- cials. The declaration of a prescription may be considered a means to impunity for administrative sanctions and, in turn, provides proof of the State’s failure to comply with International committments that guarantee and protect Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law. Finally, given the controversy regarding diciplinary imprescriptibility, this paper proposes a llegal reform which extends the term of prescription in order to preserve the rights of victims and the disciplined.

  12. Have Sanctions Modified Iran’s Trade Policy? An Evidence of Asianization and De-Europeanization through the Gravity Model

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    Liudmila Popova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is an empirical attempt to find out whether under sanctions Iran’s trade direction has shifted away from Europe (trade policy of de-Europeanization towards Asia (trade policy of Asianization. The analysis is conducted using a panel-gravity trade model to analyze bilateral trade pattern between Iran and 50 countries from the EU and Asia during the period 2006–2013. To this end, the authors use an extended gravity model by adding new variables, including the index of Chinn–Ito (KAOPEN as an indicator of financial openness, and the composite trade intensity (CTI as an indicator of trade openness. Our findings reveal that the gravity equation fits the data reasonably well. The empirical evidence indicates a significant negative effect of sanctions on Iran–EU bilateral trade (by an average of 46.9%, while it has a positive impact on trade between Iran and the Asian countries (by an average of 85.2%. Overall, these findings confirm that the imposition of various sanctions related to Iran’s nuclear program has pushed the country’s foreign trade to reorient away from Europe towards Asia.

  13. Cooperative Networks: Altruism, Group Solidarity, Reciprocity, and Sanctioning in Ugandan Producer Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarri, Delia

    2015-09-01

    Repeated interaction and social networks are commonly considered viable solutions to collective action problems. This article identifies and systematically measures four general mechanisms--that is, generalized altruism, group solidarity, reciprocity, and the threat of sanctioning--and tests which of them brings about cooperation in the context of Ugandan producer organizations. Using an innovative methodological framework that combines "lab-in-the-field" experiments with survey interviews and complete social networks data, the article goes beyond the assessment of a relationship between social networks and collective outcomes to study the mechanisms that favor cooperative behavior. The article first establishes a positive relationship between position in the network structure and propensity to cooperate in the producer organization and then uses farmers' behavior in dictator and public goods games to test different mechanisms that may account for such a relationship. Results show that cooperation is induced by patterns of reciprocity that emerge through repeated interaction rather than other-regarding preferences like altruism or group solidarity.

  14. Remembering the “Embargo Cake”: The Legacy of Hyperinflation and the UN Sanctions in Serbia

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    Ivana Bajić-Hajduković

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The extensive pauperisation of the population in Serbia in the early 1990s, caused by the economic crisis and the UN sanctions, had a tremendous impact on the people’s everyday diet. Many basic, locally produced foods became unavailable as food retailers severely limited their stock to save it from depreciation caused by hyperinflation. Following the introduction of the UN embargo, official trade came to a halt and imported foods disappeared from shops. Limited stock of basic foods, such as flour, sugar, cooking oil, white bread and milk, was supplied through state-owned food retailers, but these were rationed and difficult to obtain. However, food scarcity in early-1990s Serbia boosted the population’s resourcefulness and creativity on various levels, resulting in increased solidarity, support networks, barter, smuggling and a return to cooking recipes from the period of the Second World War. Survival during hyperinflation and the UN embargo was predicated on transmission of knowledge from the preindustrial period, suggesting that this was possible mainly because of the simultaneous coexistence of the pre-industrial and industrial periods in Yugoslavia. This article will analyse strategies and key actors in the process of sourcing, procuring and preparing food under these socio-economic circumstances.

  15. Criminal Sanction for Users of Pornographic Content on Internet Sites: A Pornographic Law Perspecive

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    Ferry Irawan Febriansyah

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Inside the internet, information becomes something very important and really life. Mobility is so fast and can be downloaded, produced, and then uploaded again. The internet network is one of the most popular information sources today. Many internet users access pornographic websites because these pornographic websites supported by the development of rapid internet. The purpose of this study is to review Pornographic Law related to cyberporn.  This criminal act is called Cyberporn. Given the enormous impact that is caused by the act of pornography, especially on the internet site, the government legalized the bill against pornography into pornography law with clear criminal provisions. This research method using normative law research method, with a normative juridical approach related to pornography. In relation to this type of research is a normative legal research, then the source of legal material used is the legislation. In accordance with this type of research, the analysis used is a normative juridical analysis that relies on the ability of legal argumentation, legal interpretation, and legal reasoning related to criminal provisions in pornography law. From the results of research have found that criminal provisions in the law number 44 of 2008 on pornography is quite clear that everyone who access on porn sites on the internet threatened with criminal sanctions. Juridically, criminal provisions in pornography law provide legal certainty is quite clear.

  16. Russian Turn to East on the Back of the New Anti-Russian Sanctions

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    Yu. M. Borisova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been three years since the impose of anti-Russian sanctions and claimed turn to the East. It is possible to sum up some results of this politics already. Top-priority in such circumstances is China, world’s second large economy; Russian-Chinese relations “are now the best ever”. Leaders of both countries have focused on the importance of maintaining strategic partnership multiple times. While Russia turned to The East, China also chose turn to the West by declaring global “One belt — One road” initiative for development of worldwide transport and investment infrastructure in Eurasia. Moscow is the partnership of the Initiative. It was decided to cooperate in frames of Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU and Silk Road Economic Belt. However, such a high level of political communication cannot guarantee the same results in bilateral trade and economic relations. Main projects, which were agreed with the involvement of the top-officials, are in progress. Businessmen mostly have to handle with all the problems to enter new Chinese market by themselves. In addition, despite all the efforts Russia is still not developing the same good connection with other Asian countries, except Japan, South Korea and Vietnam.

  17. Social Media Rhetoric of the Transnational Palestinian-led Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions Movement

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    Jennifer Hitchcock

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article uses rhetorical analysis to determine the effectiveness and characteristics of social media usage by the Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions (BDS movement targeting Israel. Hundreds of local student, community, and religious groups in the United States use social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook to promote BDS discourse and organize local BDS-related events. Even though social media platforms are important for an international movement composed of a very dispersed population, with millions of Palestinians also living under military occupation, the history of traditional media use during the First Intifada also suggests that social media are not necessary for mobilizing Palestinians at the local level. A preliminary rhetorical analysis of several BDS-related Facebook pages and Twitter accounts reveals that the BDS movement’s social media usage functions similarly in some ways to other contemporary mass movements by facilitating on-the-ground actions and delivering useful information to supporters. BDS movement social media discourse, however, does not establish the same level of emotional connection or interactivity with audiences as some other recent movements have, but these limitations can be partly explained by the unique political, material, and rhetorical constraints of the situation.

  18. The Impact of Sanctions and Neo-Liberalism on Women’s Organising in Iran

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    Tara Povey

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As in the case of many contemporary movements, Iranian women’s activism is connected into local, international and transnational politics. However, Iranian women’s views of transnational solidarity and perceptions of foreign support for women’s rights in Iran are complicated by the experience of Western foreign policy of the last three decades. This is perceived to have claimed to support women’s rights and liberalism against what is often described as a “conservative theocratic state” but has, in some ways, made it more difficult for women to organise “on the ground” and strengthened the hand of conservative forces both materially and ideologically. Two facets of Western foreign policy towards Iran will be discussed and analysed in relation to their impact on women; firstly, this article will investigate the impact of sanctions and the international isolation of the country since 1979 on women’s organisations. Secondly, it will analyse neo-liberalism and the changing nature of the Iranian state, as well as political elites. Utilising interviews with Iranian women activists conducted in 2009, in addition to April 2015, the article will discuss views of transnational solidarity and the diverse political strategies utilised by women activists and organisations in Iran today.

  19. REFLECTIONS ON THE CONDUCT OF PEOPLE WHO CHECK AND SANCTION PLAGIARISM

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    Bujorel Florea

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of a general framework for the evaluation of plagiarism, accepted by the majority of those involved in the creation of intellectual works, is the main objective pursued in the present study. Obviously, the author does not propose to definitively outline the limits of such a plagiarism assessment framework, but outlines some criteria and exigencies that characterize it, being aware that only through the contribution of those interested in different spiritual fields can one agree such a standard. The question of the plagiarism, old-fashioned and the punishment of the plagiarists, which is necessary for justice, has a wide range of difficulties of appreciation. That is why the present study was born on the basis of the lack of unanimously accepted criteria for assessing the originality of intellectual creations. The author hopes that his imperfect approach will be welcome and arouse approval and interest. The author believes that in the world of today, the Internet and computer science, where an IT program can show the degree of plagiarism of any literary, artistic or scientific work, the evaluation of the suspect work of plagiarism must be done primarily by man and not by technical equipment, either very sophisticated. The man, endowed with correct thinking, artistic and scientific sense, vocation, modesty, temperament, etc., can control and weigh better than the IT apparatus of plagiarism and especially, can better determine the applicable sanction. This is why the present study is based on the truth that plagiarism judges, specialists dedicated to intellectual creation, are able to value the criteria of the plagiarism authors, correct their flaws and give them the chance to -and develops the natural vocation.

  20. Frustration of contracts, signed in compliance with law of England, as a probable consequence of EU sanctions against Russian companies

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    Aleksandr V. Padiryakov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective comprehensive analysis of the doctrine of the frustration of contracts signed in compliance with law of England and the practice of its application for the Russian companies. Methods dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors that determined the choice of the following research methods systematicstructural formallegal comparativelegal legal modeling method. Results due to the introduction of the EU sanctions there is the risk of foreign counterpartiesrsquo refusal to execute contracts with Russian companies on the legal basis of frustration of treaties. The essence of the frustration doctrine is that the contract obligations may be terminated if after their signing such events occur which make their fulfillment impossible or unlawful. When signing international agreements under English law the lawyers of Russian companies should include provisions governing the relationships of the parties in case of impossibility of the contract execution due to the occurrence of an event that caused the treaty frustration in particular the imposition of sanctions. It is recommended to specify in the contract how the losses arising from the inability to execute the contract will be distributed between the parties. Scientific novelty for the first time basing on court practice review the definition of the frustration of contracts according to the law of England is formulated the legal implications of the recognition of the contract frustrated are discussed and the legal conditions are proposed that should be provided for in the text of a contract to avoid the problem of uncertainty in the allocation of losses of the parties in case of occurrence of external events including sanctions. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and lawenforcement activity

  1. The application of sanctions for violations of the regulatory standards in the industrial uses of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truppa, Walter Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This work describe the mechanisms used for to apply the penalties in industrial uses of radioactive materials, the experience gained in recent years in various administrative steps, as well as relevant aspects of some cases and / or exceptional situations that were detected by the ARN during regulatory inspections by complaints or other means, and that led to the imposition of administrative penalties in such industrial applications. This scheme covers various types of sanctions that depending on the severity of the fault may be: warnings, fines, suspension or cancellation of permits or permissions, and if necessary arrest and / or decommissioning of radioactive material

  2. And They Are Still Targeting: Assessing the Effectiveness of Targeted Sanctions against Zimbabwe Und sie sanktionieren weiter: Zur Wirksamkeit zielgerichteter Sanktionen gegen Simbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grebe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted sanctions have been extensively used by states throughout history to achieve political objectives. This article examines the European Union’s and United States’ targeted sanctions against the Zimbabwean regime, which have been in place for several years. The central thesis of the article is that the sanctions are not effective and thus have failed to achieve the political objectives of both the European Union and the United States. Numerous violations of the travel ban and the financial restrictions have undermined the general effectiveness of the sanctions. A detailed analysis of each individual measure empirically supports the argument that the ineffectiveness of the sanctions has negatively influenced the achievement of the political objectives. In addition, by taking a closer look at Risa Brooks’ theory and discussing it in regards to the Zimbabwean sanctions, attention is drawn to the question of how to target authoritarian regimes. Seit Jahrzehnten sind zielgerichtete Sanktionen ein wichtiges Instrument der internationalen Politik. Der vorliegende Artikel untersucht die von der Europäischen Union und den Vereinigten Staaten verhängten Sanktionen gegen das simbabwische Regime, die seit einigen Jahren wirksam sind. Zentrales Argument des Autors ist, dass diese Sanktionen bislang nicht effektiv waren und die damit verbundenen politischen Ziele daher nicht erreicht werden konnten. Zahlreiche Verstöße gegen das Reiseverbot und die Finanzrestriktionen haben die Wirksamkeit der Sanktionen untergraben. Eine empirische Analyse der einzelnen Sanktionsmaßnahmen unterstützt das Argument, dass die Ineffektivität der Sanktionen die Durchsetzung der politischen Ziele verhindert hat. Mit Blick auf die Theorie von Risa A. Brooks wird zudem der Frage nachgegangen, wie zielgerichtete Sanktionen gegen autoritäre Regime funktionieren können.

  3. Decreasing Deforestation in the Southern Brazilian Amazon—The Role of Administrative Sanctions in Mato Grosso State

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    Paulo Queiroz Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest conservation efforts through regulatory enforcement routinely failed to prevent large scale deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. However, a turning point occurred in 2005, when a combination of unfavorable economic conditions and an unprecedented coordinated effort between governmental institutions resulted in a gradual slowdown in deforestation. The continuation of this deforestation slowdown in an environment of economic recovery and expansion after 2009 suggests that regulatory enforcement achieved a measure of success not experienced before. In this study, the impact of fines, embargoes on rural private properties, and confiscation of means of production and produce on deforestation in the Southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso was considered through regression and GIS-based analyses. It was found that while all three sanctions were negatively correlated with deforestation, there were important differences in their level of enforcement. Embargoes were effectively implemented and showed high deforestation deterrence effectiveness, but the actual collection of the values of fines issued was extremely low, which casts doubts on their actual effectiveness as a deforestation deterrence mechanism. The results suggest that while sanctions for illegal deforestation have played an important role in the slowdown in deforestation, measures to increase the collection of fines issued are urgently needed.

  4. Comparing attitudes about legal sanctions and teratogenic effects for cocaine, alcohol, tobacco and caffeine: A randomized, independent samples design

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    Alanis Kelly L

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing more sensible measures to treat cocaine-addicted mothers and their children is essential for improving U.S. drug policy. Favorable post-natal environments have moderated potential deleterious prenatal effects. However, since cocaine is an illicit substance having long been demonized, we hypothesized that attitudes toward prenatal cocaine exposure would be more negative than for licit substances, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine. Further, media portrayals about long-term outcomes were hypothesized to influence viewers' attitudes, measured immediately post-viewing. Reducing popular crack baby stigmas could influence future policy decisions by legislators. In Study 1, 336 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions describing hypothetical legal sanction scenarios for pregnant women using cocaine, alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. Participants rated legal sanctions against pregnant women who used one of these substances and risk potential for developing children. In Study 2, 139 participants were randomly assigned to positive, neutral and negative media conditions. Immediately post-viewing, participants rated prenatal cocaine-exposed or non-exposed teens for their academic performance and risk for problems at age18. Results Participants in Study 1 imposed significantly greater legal sanctions for cocaine, perceiving prenatal cocaine exposure as more harmful than alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. A one-way ANOVA for independent samples showed significant differences, beyond .0001. Post-hoc Sheffe test illustrated that cocaine was rated differently from other substances. In Study 2, a one-way ANOVA for independent samples was performed on difference scores for the positive, neutral or negative media conditions about prenatal cocaine exposure. Participants in the neutral and negative media conditions estimated significantly lower grade point averages and more problems for the teen with prenatal cocaine exposure

  5. 75 FR 64120 - Technical Amendments to Forms N-CSR and N-SAR in Connection With the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... to make Forms N-CSR and N-SAR consistent with the Iran Divestment Act. Thus, any costs and benefits...] Technical Amendments to Forms N-CSR and N-SAR in Connection With the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions... Forms N-CSR and N-SAR under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and the Investment Company Act of 1940...

  6. 34 CFR 12.14 - What are the sanctions for noncompliance with a term or condition of a transfer or lease of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fair market rental value of the surplus Federal real property for each month during which the program... EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES Enforcement § 12.14 What are the sanctions for noncompliance with a term or condition of... used for purposes other than those in the approved program and plan of use, without the prior written...

  7. Rearrest and Probation Violation Outcomes among Probationers Participating in a Jail-Based Substance-Abuse Treatment Used as an Intermediate Sanction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhorst, Donald M.; Dirks-Linhorst, P. Ann; Groom, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the characteristics of two groups of probationers ordered to jail-based substance-abuse treatment as an intermediate sanction. It further reviews rearrest and probation failure outcomes of the two groups, along with the demographic, clinical, and criminal factors associated with those outcomes. Probationers jailed for probation…

  8. 17 CFR 240.19d-2 - Applications for stays of disciplinary sanctions or summary suspensions by a self-regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disciplinary sanctions or summary suspensions by a self-regulatory organization. 240.19d-2 Section 240.19d-2... summary suspensions by a self-regulatory organization. If any self-regulatory organization imposes any... the appropriate regulatory agency may file with the Commission a written motion for a stay of...

  9. Responsividade do Sistema Sancionatório da Radiodifusão Brasileira / Responsiveness of the Brazilian broadcasting regulatory system of sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Barros da Cunha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the responsiveness of the system of sanctions applicable to broadcasting concessionaires in Brazil. Methodology/approach/design – The research considered the theory of responsive regulation proposed by Ayres and Braithwaite as parameter for the critical analysis of the Brazilian broadcasting regulatory system of sanctions. Findings – The research concluded that the system of sanctions does not encourage concessionaires to comply with its legal, contractual and regulatory obligations, as penalties do not promote dialogue between regulator and regulated firms. There are legal obstacles for the application of the maximum penalty of revocation of concession, and some fines imposed on concessionaires in the past could not be collected as they were barred by statute of limitations. Practical implications – The findings of this research may be considered by Brazilian regulators on the development of a more responsive and effective system of sanctions for broadcasting. Originality/value (optional – The research introduces the discussion on responsiveness regarding the Brazilian broadcasting regulatory model.

  10. Work Environment, Stress, and Driving Anger: A Structural Equation Model for Predicting Traffic Sanctions of Public Transport Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Public transport is an effective and sustainable alternative to private vehicle usage, also helping to reduce the environmental impact of driving. However, the work environment of public transport operators is full of adverse conditions, which, together with their high mileage, may increase the occurrence of negative safety outcomes such as traffic accidents, often preceded by risky road behaviors enhanced by stress, anger, and difficult operating conditions. The aims of this study were, first, to determine the association between work-related psychosocial factors and individual characteristics of public transport drivers and the rate of traffic sanctions they are subject to; and second, to assess the mediation of driving anger in this relationship. A sample of professional drivers (57.4% city bus, 17.6% taxi, and 25% inter-urban bus male operators) was used for this cross-sectional study, responding to a five-section survey including demographic data and driving-related factors, psychosocial work factors including job stress, driving stress, risk predisposition, and driving anger. The results of this study showed significant associations between work-related factors: measures of stress and self-reported rates of traffic fines. Second, it was found that driving anger mediates the associations between driving stress, risk predisposition, and traffic sanctions; and partially mediates the association between driving experience, hourly intensity, and job stress. This study supports the idea that traffic penalties reported by public transport rates are preceded by work-related, personality, and other individual factors that, when combined with driving anger, enhance the occurrence of road misbehavior that may affect overall road safety. PMID:29534530

  11. Diversification of Oil and Gas Companies’ Activities in the Condition of Oil Prices Reduction and Economic Sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V. Sheveleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the influence of the economic sanctions imposed from the USA and the EU and oil prices reduction on the oil and gas companies and the directions of diversification of their activity as a method of management of price risks are considered. In the modern dynamic and quickly developing world, in the conditions of globalization and market economy, the oil and gas companies are affected by various risks which can exert negative impact on production and financial results. Risks can arise in absolutely various spheres, beginning from natural and technological hazards, and finishing with price risks. Sharp reduction of oil prices and decrease in demand for energy resources in the world markets, first of all in the European countries, input of financial or technological sanctions from the USA and Europe against Russia in 2014 has caused necessity of search a new more effective methods of price risks management of the oil and gas company. The methods of price risk management include the creation of commodity reserves, the establishment of a reserve fund, long-term contracts, subsidies from the state and the diversification of activities. The most effective it is possible to offer diversification of oil and gas companies' activity. It is expedient to carry out diversification of oil and gas companies' activity in such directions as geographical diversification of the oil, oil products and gas realization directions, geographical diversification of oil and gas companies' purchasing activity, diversification of oil, oil products and gas transportation ways, diversification of oil and gas companies' business. This approach allows to expand the activities of the oil and gas companies and create additional ways to generate revenue and enhance efficiency of oil and gas companies.

  12. Work Environment, Stress, and Driving Anger: A Structural Equation Model for Predicting Traffic Sanctions of Public Transport Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Montoro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Public transport is an effective and sustainable alternative to private vehicle usage, also helping to reduce the environmental impact of driving. However, the work environment of public transport operators is full of adverse conditions, which, together with their high mileage, may increase the occurrence of negative safety outcomes such as traffic accidents, often preceded by risky road behaviors enhanced by stress, anger, and difficult operating conditions. The aims of this study were, first, to determine the association between work-related psychosocial factors and individual characteristics of public transport drivers and the rate of traffic sanctions they are subject to; and second, to assess the mediation of driving anger in this relationship. A sample of professional drivers (57.4% city bus, 17.6% taxi, and 25% inter-urban bus male operators was used for this cross-sectional study, responding to a five-section survey including demographic data and driving-related factors, psychosocial work factors including job stress, driving stress, risk predisposition, and driving anger. The results of this study showed significant associations between work-related factors: measures of stress and self-reported rates of traffic fines. Second, it was found that driving anger mediates the associations between driving stress, risk predisposition, and traffic sanctions; and partially mediates the association between driving experience, hourly intensity, and job stress. This study supports the idea that traffic penalties reported by public transport rates are preceded by work-related, personality, and other individual factors that, when combined with driving anger, enhance the occurrence of road misbehavior that may affect overall road safety.

  13. Work Environment, Stress, and Driving Anger: A Structural Equation Model for Predicting Traffic Sanctions of Public Transport Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Luis; Useche, Sergio; Alonso, Francisco; Cendales, Boris

    2018-03-12

    Public transport is an effective and sustainable alternative to private vehicle usage, also helping to reduce the environmental impact of driving. However, the work environment of public transport operators is full of adverse conditions, which, together with their high mileage, may increase the occurrence of negative safety outcomes such as traffic accidents, often preceded by risky road behaviors enhanced by stress, anger, and difficult operating conditions. The aims of this study were, first, to determine the association between work-related psychosocial factors and individual characteristics of public transport drivers and the rate of traffic sanctions they are subject to; and second, to assess the mediation of driving anger in this relationship. A sample of professional drivers (57.4% city bus, 17.6% taxi, and 25% inter-urban bus male operators) was used for this cross-sectional study, responding to a five-section survey including demographic data and driving-related factors, psychosocial work factors including job stress, driving stress, risk predisposition, and driving anger. The results of this study showed significant associations between work-related factors: measures of stress and self-reported rates of traffic fines. Second, it was found that driving anger mediates the associations between driving stress, risk predisposition, and traffic sanctions; and partially mediates the association between driving experience, hourly intensity, and job stress. This study supports the idea that traffic penalties reported by public transport rates are preceded by work-related, personality, and other individual factors that, when combined with driving anger, enhance the occurrence of road misbehavior that may affect overall road safety.

  14. Addressing the impact of economic sanctions on Iranian drug shortages in the joint comprehensive plan of action: promoting access to medicines and health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setayesh, Sogol; Mackey, Tim K

    2016-06-08

    The U.S Congress initiated sanctions against Iran after the 1979 U.S. Embassy hostage crisis in Tehran, and since then the scope of multilateral sanctions imposed by the United States, the European Union, and the United Nations Security Council have progressively expanded throughout the intervening years. Though primarily targeted at Iran's nuclear proliferation activities, sanctions have nevertheless resulted in negative public health outcomes for ordinary Iranian citizens. This includes creating vital domestic shortages to life-saving medicines, leaving an estimated 6 million Iranian patients with limited treatment access for a host of diseases. Sanctions have also crippled Iran's domestic pharmaceutical industry, leading to the disruption of generic medicines production and forcing the country to import medicines and raw materials that are of lower or questionable quality. Countries such as the United States have responded to this medical crisis by implementing export control exemptions with the aim of easing the trade of humanitarian goods (including certain pharmaceuticals and medical devices). However, despite these efforts, pharmaceutical firms and international banking institutions remain cautious about doing business with Iran, leaving the country faced with continuing shortages. We conducted a review of key characteristics of the Iranian drug shortage that identified 73 shortage drugs that closely tracked with the disease burden in the country. Additionally, 44 % of these drugs were also classified as essential medicines by the World Health Organization. A vast majority of these drugs were also covered under export control exemptions that theoretically should make them easier to procure, but nevertheless will still in shortage. Based on our review of the sanctions regulatory framework and key characteristics of the Iranian drug shortage, we propose policy intervention leveraging the recently negotiated P5 + 1 agreement that begins the process of

  15. La création d'une culture de controle? Les intentions politiques derrière la genèse des Sanctions Administratives Communales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devroe, E.

    2015-01-01

    C’est le 3 mars 1999, en fin de législature, qu’est introduit par les ministres de la Justice et de l’Intérieur de l’époque Tony Van Parijs et L. Van den Bossche, le projet de loi sur les sanctions administratives communales[1] (connue sous le nom de «Loi SAC). La loi devait être votée et il y avait

  16. The stability and growth pact in European Monetary Union. Institutional and economic foundations and a game-theoretical-experimental contribution to the credibility of sanctioning excessive deficits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, M.

    1999-03-01

    At the summit of the European Union (EU) in Amsterdam in June 1997, the Stability and Growth Pact has been concluded in order to ensure sound public finances in European Monetary Union (EMU). The pact's aim is to safeguard the compliance of EMU-member states with one of the Maastricht Treaty's fiscal convergence criteria, namely the requirement to hold a country's overall net deficit below 3 % of its GDP. Compliance within EMU shall be achieved by monetary sanctions against countries with an excessive deficit. Because the excessive deficit procedure, as laid down in the Maastricht Treaty, was rather loose, the stability and growth pact was formulated to clarify and speed up this procedure. The pact's effectiveness will essentially depend upon how strictly it will be applied. So far, the voting procedures in the EU-Council, which are crucial for sanctioning excessive deficits, has not been the subject of a detailed study in the literature on the pact. An analysis of the distribution of voting power when voting on an excessive deficit reveals that it is rather easy to bloc the imposition of sanctions, especially for relatively large EU-states and for those EMU-members opposing the imposition of sanctions. In addition to the institutional handicaps of the pact one can expect reciprocal voting behavior in the pact, which will further reduce the probability that a country with an excessive deficit in EMU will actually have to pay a fine. An experimental study into voting behavior in relatively small groups confirms this result. (author)

  17. Politics and application guide of urgency measures and administrative sanctions of the CNSNS; Politica y guia de aplicacion de medidas de apremio y sanciones administrativas de la CNSNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa V, J.M.; Cruz R, L.A.; EsquiveI T, J.L.; Nunez C, A. [CNSNS, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: jmespinosa@cnsns.gob.mx

    2007-07-01

    In use of their attributions, granted by the Regulation Law of the 27 Constitutional Article in Nuclear Matter, the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards (CNSNS) it has taken charge to the authors the Politics' s elaboration and Guide of Application of Urgency measures and Administrative Sanctions (PGAMASA) with the double objective of discouraging the licensees, contractors and employees of incurring in nonfulfillment or violations to the regulator mark and of encouraging them to be attentive to the prompt identification and the immediate and appropriate correction of the violations and nonfulfillment. The present article presents the legal mark that confers the CNSNS the attributions to implant a PGAMASA and it exposes the more important elements that conform it. The urgency measures and administrative sanctions are defined, the approaches to determine the level of graveness of a violation or nonfulfillment and it is related the application process of urgency measures and administrative sanctions are presented. Like this among the urgency measures they stand out figures like the Notifications of Violation and the Regulatory Orders by their versatility and use potentiality. The PGAMASA has a basically dissuasive character and its last purpose it is to strengthen the actions that the CNSNS carries out in the fulfillment of its functions to maintain the safety standards in the operation of the nuclear facilities. (Author)

  18. Governmental control of public expenditure in the constitutional State: thoughts regarding General Comptroller sanctioning powers approval on functional administrative responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika García Cobián Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional doctrine has little addressed on the General Comptroller of the Republic and its controlling function of public resources execution and management. Efforts have been made to explain this situation in other realities, regarding high budgetary, accounting and auditing content needed to carry out auditing activities constitutionally assigned to this kind of entities. Nevertheless, identifying competences of the General Comptroller of the Republic and its nature of autonomous constitutional body shapes an important expression of Constitutional State and the principle of powers division. This entity controls State’s Public Budget execution contributing to constitutional property protection, legality of budget implementation and the appropriate management of public resources, also the «efficiency» of social needs, proper functioning of public administration and prevention of corruption, among others duties. This article analyzes the constitutional mission of the General Comptroller in a Constitutional State promoting the process of given a constitutional status to the legal system in its area of influence, also optimizing constitutional properties protected. For such purpose, the 29622 recent law («Law that modifies the 27785 Organic Law of National Control System and the General Comptroller of the Republic extending powers in order to sanction in accordance of functional administrative responsibility» shall be used as object of constitutional analysis.

  19. Sanctions, Smuggling, and the Cigarette: The Granting of Iran Office of Foreign Asset Control's Licenses to Big Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmanghelidj, Esfandyar; Heydari, Gholamreza

    2014-02-01

    Presuming that tobacco taxes, levied both as import duties and ad valorem, would financially benefit the Iranian Government, such the introduction of a highly desired US product to the market would be antithetical to the sanctions regime currently in place. This paper as a systematic review and documents through Pubmed and webs seeks to understand the politician economy implications of nicotine addiction in Iran, focusing on the US office of foreign asset control's (OFAC) awarding of Iran operations licenses to American tobacco companies. By comparing Iran's tobacco industry and the attendant public health crisis that has arisen from high rates of nicotine addiction, to conditions in Turkey, it can be demonstrated that Iran is uniquely unable to extract revenues from the sale of tobacco products. The primary point of comparison between Iran and Turkey is smoking-attributable annual productivity loses of each country as estimated through the use of smoking-attributable mortality, morbidity and economic costs software (SAMMEC) and the available related literature. Based on the calculations derived from the SAMMEC model, Iran is burdened with an incredible cost to the economy borne by a high prevalence of smokers. It is concluded that an awareness of this condition enables OFAC to award licenses to big tobacco without fear of undermining current foreign policy initiatives.

  20. Can centralized sanctioning promote trust in social dilemmas? A two-level trust game with incomplete information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Raymond Yu; Ng, Cho Nam

    2015-01-01

    The problem of trust is a paradigmatic social dilemma. Previous literature has paid much academic attention on effects of peer punishment and altruistic third-party punishment on trust and human cooperation in dyadic interactions. However, the effects of centralized sanctioning institutions on decentralized reciprocity in hierarchical interactions remain to be further explored. This paper presents a formal two-level trust game with incomplete information which adds an authority as a strategic purposive actor into the traditional trust game. This model allows scholars to examine the problem of trust in more complex game theoretic configurations. The analysis demonstrates how the centralized institutions might change the dynamics of reciprocity between the trustor and the trustee. Findings suggest that the sequential equilibria of the newly proposed two-level model simultaneously include the risk of placing trust for the trustor and the temptation of short-term defection for the trustee. Moreover, they have shown that even a slight uncertainty about the type of the newly introduced authority might facilitate the establishment of trust and reciprocity in social dilemmas.

  1. Can centralized sanctioning promote trust in social dilemmas? A two-level trust game with incomplete information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Yu Wang

    Full Text Available The problem of trust is a paradigmatic social dilemma. Previous literature has paid much academic attention on effects of peer punishment and altruistic third-party punishment on trust and human cooperation in dyadic interactions. However, the effects of centralized sanctioning institutions on decentralized reciprocity in hierarchical interactions remain to be further explored. This paper presents a formal two-level trust game with incomplete information which adds an authority as a strategic purposive actor into the traditional trust game. This model allows scholars to examine the problem of trust in more complex game theoretic configurations. The analysis demonstrates how the centralized institutions might change the dynamics of reciprocity between the trustor and the trustee. Findings suggest that the sequential equilibria of the newly proposed two-level model simultaneously include the risk of placing trust for the trustor and the temptation of short-term defection for the trustee. Moreover, they have shown that even a slight uncertainty about the type of the newly introduced authority might facilitate the establishment of trust and reciprocity in social dilemmas.

  2. Criminal Sanctions Against Official Corruption and other Offences Against Official Duty Offenders in Kosovo for the Period 2008-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flutura Tahiraj

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The need to fight corruption, with the focus on official corruption in Kosovo continues to be addressed by both national and international reports. The objective of this paper is to find out the number of the cases and analyse the sactions against official corruption and other offences against official duty delivered by Municipality Courts in Kosovo during the period 2008-2015 with the aim to assess the developments during a period of eight years since most of the other researches are focused on annual performance of the courts. All data presented in this article are taken from the Kosovo Statistical Office and include statistical information on the types and frequency of criminal sanctions to perpetrators of the official corruption and other offences against official duty. Case study is also applied to analyse some court judgments. The study shows there is a slight incresase of the number of convicted perpetrators over years, the number of corruption cases addressed by the courts remained very limited, followed by low sentences or even prescription of cases. The findings will add additional scientific insights to the existing knowledge about preventing and fighting official corruption and it can be useful for scholars, policy makers and practitioners in Kosovo.

  3. Sanctions, Smuggling, and the Cigarette: The granting of Iran office of foreign asset control′s licenses to big tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfandyar Batmanghelidj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Presuming that tobacco taxes, levied both as import duties and ad valorem, would financially benefit the Iranian Government, such the introduction of a highly desired US product to the market would be antithetical to the sanctions regime currently in place. Methods: This paper as a systematic review and documents through Pubmed and webs seeks to understand the politician economy implications of nicotine addiction in Iran, focusing on the US office of foreign asset control′s (OFAC awarding of Iran operations licenses to American tobacco companies. Results: By comparing Iran′s tobacco industry and the attendant public health crisis that has arisen from high rates of nicotine addiction, to conditions in Turkey, it can be demonstrated that Iran is uniquely unable to extract revenues from the sale of tobacco products. The primary point of comparison between Iran and Turkey is smoking-attributable annual productivity loses of each country as estimated through the use of smoking-attributable mortality, morbidity and economic costs software (SAMMEC and the available related literature. Based on the calculations derived from the SAMMEC model, Iran is burdened with an incredible cost to the economy borne by a high prevalence of smokers. Conclusions: It is concluded that an awareness of this condition enables OFAC to award licenses to big tobacco without fear of undermining current foreign policy initiatives.

  4. Strategic Narratives and Alliances: The Cases of Intervention in Libya (2011 and Economic Sanctions against Russia (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Roselle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scholars of international communication recognize that strategic narratives are important for policymaking (Miskimmon, O’Loughlin, & Roselle, 2013 and scholars studying alliances suggest that communication is central to the formation and maintenance of alliances (Weitsman, 2010. This essay addresses how strategic narratives affect US alliance behavior—and hence international order—in two specific ways. First, alliance behavior can be affected by other allies’ narratives as demonstrated in the case of military intervention in Libya in 2011. Here the evidence suggests that the UK and France were able to use strategic narratives to influence the decision of the US to agree to military intervention in Libya by using narratives that could evoke a fear of abandonment. Second, alliance cohesion can be affected by narrative contestation by non-allies as demonstrated in the case of the Ukrainian crisis in 2014. Russia has used strategic narratives in a new media environment in an attempt to elicit a fear of entrapment to counter the US attempts to coordinate alliance support for economic sanctions. In both cases, distinguishing between system, identity, and policy narratives give us a deeper understanding of narrative contestation today. This analysis adds to our understanding of the factors that affect alliances set within a new media environment characterized by a proliferation of sources and outlets and thus a more horizontal structure of information exchange.

  5. SANCTIONS WHICH OCCUR AS A CONSEQUENCE OF NON-COMPLIANCE WITH THE PRINCIPLE OF LEGALITY IN THE PENAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATALIN IONUT ONCESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The legality principle represents a frame principle since its interaction with the other principles exceeds the simple connection with those. The legality represents the frame within and with the compliance with which all the other fundamental principles of the penal trial are realized. No other principle can be placed outside thelegality, in same way in which any principle, no matter how important it may be, does not occur in any other way than according to the forms stipulated by law.Taking into consideration that the enforcement of the law is mandatory in criminal law procedures, as well as the obvious significance of the penal trial’s principle oflegality, it was absolutely necessary for the compliance with this principle to be doubled by numerous guarantees which, in the situations in which this fundamental rule has been violated, would become genuine sanctions referring not only to the procedural acts achieved with the law’s violation, but also to the people who have not complied with the law as far as the procedural penal activities’ unfolding is concerned.

  6. Supervision and sanctions in the new energy legislation. No sinecure; Toezicht en sancties in de nieuwe energiewetgeving: geen sinecure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, J.E. [Allen en Overy LLP, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-09-15

    A brief overview is given of the legal sanctions which the Dutch Office of Energy Regulation (DTe, abbreviated in Dutch) has to enforce the players in the market for energy to fullfil their obligations. [Dutch] Als er een sector in Nederland is geweest die zich de laatste jaren opnieuw heeft moeten uitvinden door grote verandering in de regelgeving, is het wel de energiesector. De regulering van de elektriciteit- en gassector is vormgegeven in de Elektriciteitswet 1998 (de E-wet) en de Gaswet. Deze wetten implementeren de eerste Europese marktrichtlijnen voor elektriciteit (1996) en gas (1998), die de aftrap vormden voor de creatie van een competitieve Europese markt voor elektriciteit en gas. Op grond van de E-wet en de Gaswet is de Nederlandse markt gefaseerd geliberaliseerd. Sinds 1 juli 2004 is sprake van volledige marktopening; alle afnemers in Nederland hebben thans keuzevrijheid van leverancier. Om concurrentie tussen de leveranciers eerlijk te laten verlopen is non-discriminatoire toegang van alle leveranciers tot de netwerken van de voormalige regionale distributiebedrijven (zoals Essent, Nuon en Eneco) essentieel. Daartoe voorzien de E-wet en de Gaswet in een organisatorische scheiding tussen de activiteiten van die spelers (waarvan alle aandelen nog in handen zijn van provincies en gemeenten) op het gebied van de productie en levering van energie enerzijds en het transport anderzijds (unbundling). Voor het transport van elektriciteit en gas hebben de energiebedrijven separate beheerders van de regionale transportnetten moeten aanwijzen. Deze dochterbedrijven, 'netbeheerders' in de terminologie van de wetgever, hebben het exclusieve recht tot het verrichten van het transport over de door hen beheerde netten, maar moeten dit transport verrichten tegen door de toezichthouder vastgestelde tarieven en voorwaarden. De E-wet en de Gaswet bevatten een groot aantal verplichtingen die er voor moeten zorgen dat de netbeheerder zijn beslissingen

  7. Institutional Alternatives of Food Embargo in the Conditions of a New Wave of Anti-Russian Sanctions (Case of Russian’s Meat Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny A. Kapoguzov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the impact of anti-Russian sanctions and response measures on the agro-production in terms of identifying the benefits and costs of imposing a food embargo. It is emphasized that, in the context of the policy of "smart sanctions", the goal of retaliatory measures should be to create conditions for maximizing public welfare. The reality and analysis and calculations carried out, however, show the disaster of the embargo in relation to the consumption of meat and meat processing products for the "ordinary consumer". Based on the dynamics of the caloric index, the socioeconomic consequences of the one-sidedness of autarkic measures are shown. The conditions for ensuring food security under the conditions of the food embargo are schematically presented and the consequences of the existing embargo policy on the basis of statistical data for the consumption of meat products are calculated. It is shown that the growth in prices played a key role in the dynamics of the cost volume, and structural changes were associated with the further growth of large agricultural organizations in the structure of the industry. In conclusion, recommendations are offered in the field of institutional design for the improvement of economic policy.

  8. Possibilities of sanction of the improper behaviour of a power network operator. Instruments of energy economy act, public order law, and criminal law; Sanktionsmoeglichkeiten bei missbraeuchlichem Verhalten eines Energienetzbetreibers. Energiewirtschaftsrechtliche, ordnungsrechtliche und strafrechtliche Instrumentarien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitto, L.

    2007-07-01

    The liberalization of the electric power market and gas market has released a comprehensive reorganisation of the energy branch. Under this aspect, the author of the book under consideration reports on power network operators, their improper behaviour as well as the use of the instruments of energy economy act, public order law, and criminal law in order to sanction power network operators.

  9. Is ‘making work pay’ effective for the ‘unemployable’? The impact of benefit sanctions on social assistance recipients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diop-Christensen, Anna

    2015-01-01

    . This study evaluates how this policy influenced their transitions to employment and other benefit schemes by applying a competing risk duration model on Danish administrative data. The results show that the new rules not only had the anticipated impact on the women concerned, but the policy also had......In spring 2006, the Danish government introduced a policy that required married long-term social assistance recipients to work 300 hours in non-subsidised employment during a 2-year period in order to remain eligible for benefits. The intention was to ‘make work pay’ for unemployed immigrant women...... an unforeseen effect on the work effort of social welfare workers. Many moved their clients to other benefit schemes instead of applying the sanctions. This was particularly the case for the weakest among the unemployed and in municipalities, which were headed by left-wing mayors or that received extra funds...

  10. Between agreements and disagreements. Use of the Pragmatic Sanction to avoid the abuse of unequal marriages in the province of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fuentes-Barragán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the repercussions produced by the implementation of the consecutive versions of the “Real Pragmática de Matrimonios” [Royal sanction for marriage] in the Vice-royalty of Río de la Plata and, more speciically, in the Province of Buenos Aires, since its irst American proclamation in 1778 until the dawn of emancipation. We will analyze both the role of parents, supported by the Crown to decide the matrimonial fate of their children, as well as the reaction of the latter, who saw their rights limited and had to disobey their parents in order to become responsible for their own lives. After analyzing documents from various kinds of Argentinian historical iles, relevant historiographical variations are obtained. Those variations are meaningful, as they help us to explore the fascinating reality typiied by prejudice, family interests and individual feelings in the late colonial period.

  11. Export-import economics of the northern regions of Russia at the crossroad of international sanctions: past and present, geopolitics of compromise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai P. Zalyvsky

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author discussed historical prerequisites for the inclusion of the North in the world economy and analyzed the participation of the Arctic territories of the Russian Federation in international trade 2000–2016. The impact of the Western sanctions and their influence on the dynamics and structure of foreign trade is also in a focus of the present article as well as the political economy provisions that allow overcoming the negative nature of international economic relations between the Russian Federation and Western countries. The author proves the expediency of changing the geopolitical positions of the West and Russia with a view to moving towards a compromise model of economic cooperation between the North of Russia and the EU and other countries.

  12. The application of sanctions for violations of the regulatory standards in the industrial uses of radioactive material; La aplicacion de sanciones por infracciones a las normas regulatorias en los usos industriales de material radiactivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truppa, Walter Adrian, E-mail: wtruppa@arn.gob.ar [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    This work describe the mechanisms used for to apply the penalties in industrial uses of radioactive materials, the experience gained in recent years in various administrative steps, as well as relevant aspects of some cases and / or exceptional situations that were detected by the ARN during regulatory inspections by complaints or other means, and that led to the imposition of administrative penalties in such industrial applications. This scheme covers various types of sanctions that depending on the severity of the fault may be: warnings, fines, suspension or cancellation of permits or permissions, and if necessary arrest and / or decommissioning of radioactive material.

  13. The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    International pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program is increasing the hesitation of many major foreign firms to invest in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production beyond...

  14. Medicare and state health care programs: fraud and abuse, civil money penalties and intermediate sanctions for certain violations by health maintenance organizations and competitive medical plans--HHS. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-15

    This final rule implements sections 9312(c)(2), 9312(f), and 9434(b) of Public Law 99-509, section 7 of Public Law 100-93, section 4014 of Public Law 100-203, sections 224 and 411(k)(12) of Public Law 100-360, and section 6411(d)(3) of Public Law 101-239. These provisions broaden the Secretary's authority to impose intermediate sanctions and civil money penalties on health maintenance organizations (HMOs), competitive medical plans, and other prepaid health plans contracting under Medicare or Medicaid that (1) substantially fail to provide an enrolled individual with required medically necessary items and services; (2) engage in certain marketing, enrollment, reporting, or claims payment abuses; or (3) in the case of Medicare risk-contracting plans, employ or contract with, either directly or indirectly, an individual or entity excluded from participation in Medicare. The provisions also condition Federal financial participation in certain State payments on the State's exclusion of certain prohibited entities from participation in HMO contracts and waiver programs. This final rule is intended to significantly enhance the protections for Medicare beneficiaries and Medicaid recipients enrolled in a HMO, competitive medical plan, or other contracting organization under titles XVIII and XIX of the Social Security Act.

  15. 76 FR 38562 - Libyan Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ..., drafts, bullion, bank deposits, savings accounts, debts, indebtedness, obligations, notes, guarantees... interests in property are blocked pursuant to this order who might have a constitutional presence in the...

  16. 77 FR 67276 - Yemen Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... reference books, photocopies, credit reports, transcripts of statements, registered mail, insurance... authority of, inter alia, the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) and the... International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), in Section 203 (50 U.S.C. 1702), authorizes...

  17. 75 FR 24394 - Somalia Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... reference books, photocopies, credit reports, transcripts of statements, registered mail, insurance... alia, the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701- 1706), the National Emergencies... section. Note 2 to Sec. 551.201: Section 203 of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C...

  18. Iranian Sanctions: An Actor-Centric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    cultivated to counterbalance other actors in the system who opposed Khamenei’s ascension, based on his weak religious credentials.42 These security...trumped up religious infraction.256 The bonyads are the Iranian economy’s dominating revenue generating entity outside the oil sector,257 mushrooming in

  19. 76 FR 76617 - Sudanese Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Darfur Peace and Accountability Act of 2006 (Pub. L. 109-344, 120 Stat. 1869) (the ``DPAA'') and issued... Mountains State, Blue Nile State, Abyei, Darfur, and marginalized areas in and around Khartoum. While E.O... Nile State, Abyei, Darfur, and marginalized areas in and around Khartoum. * * * * * Subpart D...

  20. 77 FR 11723 - Iranian Financial Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Administrative practice and procedure, Banks, Banking, Brokers, Foreign trade, Investments, Loans, Securities... Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (``IRGC'') or any of its agents or affiliates whose property and...) Facilitates the efforts of the Government of Iran (including efforts of Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard...

  1. 75 FR 49836 - Iranian Financial Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (``IRGC'') or certain other blocked persons. Specifically... procedure, Banks, Banking, Brokers, Foreign Trade, Investments, Loans, Securities, Iran. [[Page 49838

  2. 77 FR 66918 - Iranian Financial Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... control number. List of Subjects in 31 CFR Part 561 Administrative practice and procedure, Banking, Banks, Brokers, Electronic funds transfers, Financial institutions, Foreign banking, Foreign trade, International... chapter. Agents or affiliates of Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (``IRGC'') whose property and...

  3. 78 FR 16403 - Iranian Financial Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... designated Iranian financial institution, NIOC, or NICO in a direct customer relationship generally would be... relationship. (e) Impact. The impact of the transaction(s) or financial services on the objectives of the...

  4. 75 FR 44907 - Lebanon Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... security circumstances may result in differing interpretations of similar language among the parts of this... at the date of the transactions, or to the substantive or artistic alteration or enhancement of...

  5. 75 FR 5502 - Belarus Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... interpretations of similar language among the parts of this chapter. No license or authorization contained in or... to the substantive or artistic alteration or enhancement of informational materials, or to the...

  6. Accountability and Sanctions in English Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Anne; Mattei, Paola; Roberts, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on accountability in school-based education in England. It explores notions of accountability and proposes a new framework for its analysis. It then identifies a number of types of accountability which are present in school-based education, and discusses each in terms of who is accountable to whom and for what. It goes on to…

  7. 39 CFR 501.12 - Administrative sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... collected by the Postal Service from the customers) with interest. The demand shall set forth the facts and... receiving written notice, appeal that determination to the Chief Marketing Officer of the Postal Service who...

  8. 19 CFR 356.18 - Interim sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... on the basis of new and material evidence or other good cause shown. The Deputy Under Secretary or a..., including the protection of proprietary information, the Deputy Under Secretary may petition an...) Barring a person from appearing before the Department; and (4) Requiring the person to return material...

  9. Reputational Sanctions in Private and Public Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. van Erp (Judith)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article analyses how reputation functions as a mechanism for social control in private and public regulation. It discusses three cases of private markets where reputation is a powerful and effective mechanism for social control. From the case studies, four characteristics of markets

  10. 34 CFR 33.29 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... relate to the severity and nature of the failure or misconduct. (c) If a party fails to comply with an... (4) Strike any part of the pleadings or other submissions of the party failing to comply with the...

  11. 28 CFR 76.26 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to the severity and nature of the failure or misconduct. (c) When a party fails to comply with an... pleadings or other submissions of the party failing to comply with such order; and (5) Permit the requesting...

  12. 15 CFR 25.29 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...), and (e) of this section, shall reasonably relate to the severity and nature of the failure or... upon, testimony relating to the information sought; and (4) Strike any part of the pleadings or other...

  13. 22 CFR 521.29 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), and (e) of this section, shall reasonably relate to the severity and nature of the failure or... upon, testimony relating to the information sought; and (4) Strike any part of the pleadings or other...

  14. 12 CFR 308.528 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... severity and nature of the failure or misconduct. (c) When a party fails to comply with an order, including... of the related pleading or other submissions of the party failing to comply with such request. (d) If...

  15. 40 CFR 27.29 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...), (d), and (e) of this section, shall reasonably relate to the severity and nature of the failure or... relying upon, testimony relating to the information sought; and (4) Strike any part of the pleadings or...

  16. 28 CFR 71.29 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in paragraphs (c), (d), and (e) of this section, shall reasonably relate to the severity and nature... of the pleadings or other submissions of the party failing to comply with such request. (d) If a...

  17. 5 CFR 185.131 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and nature of the failure or misconduct. (c) When a party fails to comply with an order, including an... of the pleadings or other submissions of the party failing to comply with such request. (d) If a...

  18. 38 CFR 42.29 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... severity and nature of the failure or misconduct. (c) When a party fails to comply with an order, including... of the pleadings or other submissions of the party failing to comply with the request. (d) If a party...

  19. 20 CFR 355.29 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... severity and nature of the failure or misconduct. (c) When a party fails to comply with an order, including... of the pleadings or other submissions of the party failing to comply with such request. (d) If a...

  20. 29 CFR 22.29 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... relate to the severity and nature of the failure or misconduct. (c) When a party fails to comply with an...) Strike any part of the pleadings or other submissions of the party failing to comply with such request...

  1. 10 CFR 13.29 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... severity and nature of the failure or misconduct. (c) When a party fails to comply with an order, including... of the pleadings or other submissions of the party failing to comply with such request. (d) If a...

  2. 39 CFR 962.15 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and nature of the failure or misconduct. (c) Failure to comply with an order. When a party fails to...) Strike any part of the pleadings or other submissions of the party failing to comply with such request... other pleading, report, or response which is not filed in a timely fashion. ...

  3. 21 CFR 17.35 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and nature of the failure or misconduct. (c) When a party fails to comply with a discovery order..., testimony relating to the information sought; and (3) Strike any part of the pleadings or other submissions...

  4. 22 CFR 35.29 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) of this section, shall reasonably relate to the severity and nature of the failure or misconduct. (c... upon, testimony relating to the information sought; and (4) Strike any part of the pleadings or other...

  5. 10 CFR 1013.29 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section, shall reasonably relate to the severity and nature of the failure or misconduct. (c) When a party... relating to the information sought; and (4) Strike any part of the pleadings or other submissions of the...

  6. 14 CFR 1264.128 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... severity and nature of the failure or misconduct. (c) When a party fails to comply with an order, including... (4) Strike any part of the pleadings or other submissions of the party failing to comply with such...

  7. 24 CFR 26.34 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section, shall reasonably relate to the severity and nature of the failure or misconduct. (c) When a party... relying upon, testimony relating to the information sought; or (4) Striking any part of the pleadings or...

  8. 22 CFR 224.29 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), (d), and (e) of this section, shall reasonably relate to the severity and nature of the failure or... upon, testimony relating to the information sought; and (4) Strike any part of the pleadings or other...

  9. 7 CFR 1.328 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... severity and nature of the failure or misconduct. (c) When a party fails to comply with a subpoena or an...) Strike any part of the pleadings or other submissions of the party failing to comply with such request...

  10. 31 CFR 16.29 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nature of the failure or misconduct. (c) When a party fails to comply with an order, including an order... of the pleadings or other submissions of the party failing to comply with such request. (d) If a...

  11. 24 CFR 26.4 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reasonably relate to the severity and nature of the failure or misconduct. (c) If a party refuses or fails to..., testimony relating to the information sought; or (4) Strike any part of the pleadings or other submissions...

  12. 45 CFR 79.29 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...), and (e) of this section, shall reasonably relate to the severity and nature of the failure or... upon, testimony relating to the information sought; and (4) Strike any part of the pleadings or other...

  13. 43 CFR 35.29 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and nature of the failure or misconduct. (c) When a party fails to comply with an order, including an... of the pleadings or other submissions of the party failing to comply with such request. (d) If a...

  14. 39 CFR 958.13 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in paragraphs (c), (d), and (e) of this section, shall reasonably relate to the severity and nature... of the pleadings or other submissions of the party failing to comply with such request. (d) Failure... to file timely. The Presiding Officer may refuse to consider any motion or other pleading, report, or...

  15. 41 CFR 105-70.029 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... relate to the severity and nature of the failure or misconduct. (c) When a party fails to comply with an... (4) Strike any part of the pleadings or other submissions of the party failing to comply with such...

  16. 19 CFR 207.100 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... appropriate circumstances, include such person's partners, associates, employers and employees, for a... facts underlying the prohibited act to the ethics panel or other disciplinary body of the appropriate... partner, associate, employer, and employee described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section is entitled to...

  17. U.S. Sanctions on Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    3)(a)(3)—progress on human rights, release of all political prisoners, freedom of speech and the press, freedom of association, peaceful...release of all political prisoners, freedom of speech and the press, freedom of association, peaceful exercise of religion, democratic governance, not...political prisoners, allowing freedom of speech , the press, and association, permitting the peaceful exercise of religion, and concluding an agreement

  18. 15 CFR 0.735-49 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... influence, any oral or written communication to the Department or any organizational sub-unit thereof on any... all employees to refuse to participate in any such appearance or to accept any such communication. As...

  19. 76 FR 5482 - Belarus Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... crackdown against offices and members of political parties, civil society and independent media. While the... and the announcement by state-run media on election night that President Lukashenko had received... in the vote count undermined any improvements in the electoral process. The post-election violence...

  20. 75 FR 55462 - Iraqi Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... Iraq. Section 207(a) of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (``IEEPA'') (50 U.S.C. 1706(a..., 2010. Stuart A. Levey, Under Secretary, Office of Terrorism and Financial Intelligence, Department of...

  1. 75 FR 67912 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... of UNSCRs 1718 and 1874, including the procurement of luxury goods; and its illicit and deceptive... reexported luxury goods to or into North Korea; (D) To have, directly or indirectly, engaged in money... transactions. 510.202 Effect of transfers violating the provisions of this part. 510.203 Holding of funds in...

  2. 22 CFR 62.50 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... one senior official from an office reporting to him/her, other than from the Bureau of Educational and... legal or financial responsibilities to existing program applicants or participants. (j) Miscellaneous—(1... days. When the period of time prescribed or allowed is fewer than eleven (11) days, intermediate...

  3. Sanctioning Success? Assessing the Role of Sanctions in the Militarization of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    prima facie the previous administration’s policy of keeping U.S. weapons and weapon technology out of the Islamic Republic. The need for war materiel...lifting of Carter’s embargo. In accordance with U.S. obligations in the Algiers Accords, Iran’s release of the American hostages led

  4. Sanctions as honest signals--the evolution of pool punishment by public sanctioning institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, Sarah; Hilbe, Christian; Blasius, Bernd; Traulsen, Arne

    2014-09-07

    In many species, mutual cooperation is stabilized by forms of policing and peer punishment: if cheaters are punished, there is a strong selective pressure to cooperate. Most human societies have complemented, and sometimes even replaced, such peer punishment mechanisms with pool punishment, where punishment is outsourced to central institutions such as the police. Even before free-riding occurs, such institutions require investments, which could serve as costly signals. Here, we show with a game theoretical model that this signaling effect in turn can be crucial for the evolution of punishment institutions: In the absence of such signals, pool punishment is only stable with second-order punishment and can only evolve when individuals have the freedom not to take part in any interaction. With such signals, individuals can opportunistically adjust their behavior, which promotes the evolution of stable pool punishment even in situations where no one can stand aside. Thus, the human propensity to react opportunistically to credible punishment threats is often sufficient to establish stable punishment institutions and to maintain high levels of cooperation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Sanctions as honest signals – The evolution of pool punishment by public sanctioning institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, Sarah; Hilbe, Christian; Blasius, Bernd; Traulsen, Arne

    2014-01-01

    In many species, mutual cooperation is stabilized by forms of policing and peer punishment: if cheaters are punished, there is a strong selective pressure to cooperate. Most human societies have complemented, and sometimes even replaced, such peer punishment mechanisms with pool punishment, where punishment is outsourced to central institutions such as the police. Even before free-riding occurs, such institutions require investments, which could serve as costly signals. Here, we show with a game theoretical model that this signaling effect in turn can be crucial for the evolution of punishment institutions: In the absence of such signals, pool punishment is only stable with second-order punishment and can only evolve when individuals have the freedom not to take part in any interaction. With such signals, individuals can opportunistically adjust their behavior, which promotes the evolution of stable pool punishment even in situations where no one can stand aside. Thus, the human propensity to react opportunistically to credible punishment threats is often sufficient to establish stable punishment institutions and to maintain high levels of cooperation. PMID:24768866

  6. 77 FR 45897 - Authorizing Additional Sanctions With Respect to Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Export-Import Bank shall deny approval of the issuance of any guarantee, insurance, extension of credit... a constitutional presence in the United States, I find that because of the ability to transfer funds...

  7. 12 CFR 1805.802 - Assistance Agreement; sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... internal controls; and/or (4) Achieve specific lending, investment, and development service objectives... TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Terms and Conditions of Assistance § 1805.802... Investment Area(s) includes an Indian Reservation or Targeted Population(s) includes an Indian Tribe, the...

  8. Reinforcing a Regime: Strengthening Clientelism in Iran with Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    bazaari proved incredibly resilient —surviving even the Islamic Revolution—and it still exists in Iranian society to this day. For Iran, the arrival...front- runners emerged from the six contenders in the 2013 presidential election: Mohammad Galibaf and Hassan Rouhani. Considering Galibaf’s poor

  9. The Effects of Benefits, Incentives, and Sanctions on Youth Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Jensen, Peter S.; Nielsen, Michael Svarer

    1999-01-01

    The youth unemployment rate in Denmark has recently been declining dramatically, which is unique among the OECD countries. In 1996, a radical labour market reform was implemented, the Youth Unemployment Programme (YUP), directed towards unemployed, low-educated youth. This paper analyses the effe......The youth unemployment rate in Denmark has recently been declining dramatically, which is unique among the OECD countries. In 1996, a radical labour market reform was implemented, the Youth Unemployment Programme (YUP), directed towards unemployed, low-educated youth. This paper analyses...

  10. Biological and Chemical Weapons: Criminal Sanctions and Federal Regulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    The Biological Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention, both of which have been signed and ratified by the United States, obligate signatory parties to enact legislation or otherwise...

  11. South Africa after sanctions. Reentering the aerospace market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anon

    1994-09-01

    South Africa has reentered the world market with a closely focused, aggressive series of industrial programs. Nowhere is this more evident than in aeronautics and space disciplines, particularly those in which the nation has long experience. The South African Air Force (SAAF), affected by the worldwide defense drawdown, has centered its efforts on bush war-fighting capability, an area where it has unique experience. In the same way Denel, one of South Africa's most secret defense companies, has opened its once classified doors, converted its military satellite program into Greensat, and is now looking for civilian customers.

  12. Proliferation networks at the time of targeted sanctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruselle, Bruno; Nexon, Elisande

    2013-01-01

    After having outlined that nuclear proliferation networks are using the existing international market, the authors present the terminology associated with this field (acquisition transaction, acquisition organization) and outline that these networks are made of natural and legal persons with the objective of acquiring goods related to arm programs. They also notice that these natural and legal persons may intervene in an unwittingly way. They comment the evolution of proliferation networks during the past ten years in relationship with the worldwide development of goods flow and export controls. They outline that control measures and mechanisms must be continuously adapted to the evolution of bypassing methods used by proliferation networks

  13. 75 FR 55463 - Iraq Stabilization and Insurgency Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... spill. See Sec. 576.508. The language in Sec. 576.508 derives from UNSCR 1483, which requires all States... result in differing interpretations of similar language among the parts of this chapter. No license or... transactions, or to the substantive or artistic alteration or enhancement of informational materials, or to the...

  14. 29 CFR 0.737-10 - Administrative sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Labor ETHICS AND CONDUCT OF DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EMPLOYEES Post Employment... regulations at 5 CFR part 737 upon final administrative decisions by: (a) Prohibiting the individual from... before, or, with the intent to influence, any oral or written communication to the Department of Labor on...

  15. US-Cuba Relations: Revisiting the Sanctions Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    had also joined into a number of sub-regional economic trade organizations, such as the Sistema Económico Latinoamericano (SELA), the Organization of... companion bill was introduced in the House by Representative Dan Burton (R-IN), and referred to House committees and subcommittees for review. It was

  16. 76 FR 63191 - Sudanese Sanctions Regulations; Iranian Transactions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Sudan or Iran--including vitamins and minerals, food additives and supplements, and bottled drinking... minerals, food additives and supplements, and bottled drinking water, and seeds that germinate into items... than fish and shrimp roe), dried egg albumin, live animals, Rosary/Jequirity peas, non-food-grade...

  17. 45 CFR 2554.37 - Are there sanctions for misconduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... paragraphs (c), (d), and (e) of this section, shall reasonably relate to the severity and nature of the... pleadings or other submissions of the party failing to comply with such request. (d) If a party fails to...

  18. Academic Dishonesty: Behaviors, Sanctions, and Retention of Adjudicated College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafson, Lori; Schraw, Gregory; Kehrwald, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Academic dishonesty, also known as academic misconduct, includes a variety of actions such as plagiarism, cheating on tests using text messaging or concealed notes, exchanging work with other students, buying essays from students or on the Internet, and having other students write examinations (Diekhoff, LaBeff, Shinohara, & Yasukawa, 1999;…

  19. How Has Saddam Hussein Survived? Economic Sanctions, 1990-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Christy Campbell and Adrian Porter of the Lonmon Sunday Telegraph, Washington Times, 16 March 1992. The issue of who is counterfeiting Iraqi money ...ItkdIi k ( i . I ! T i ’it I ’’ I t\\IIIý, I ), I 11 1 11 r 11 111 i 1 111 1 11 t h~lVHA l uv im lt N \\ iA r~ wA W~lild lt l ’ III\\ ’ I lit’ IN l not...8217 charging high prices at the same time the government increases wages (especially to the military) which it can pay for only by printing money . 30. 1999

  20. 16 CFR 1115.22 - Prohibited acts and sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (15 U.S.C. 2068(a)(4)). (c) Failure to make reports. The failure or refusal to make reports or provide... acts in the circumstances, including knowledge obtainable upon the exercise of due care to ascertain...

  1. Lithuania is cautious regarding sanctions against Minsk / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2011-01-01

    23. mail toimus Valgevenes devalvatsioon. Poola välisminister Radoslaw Sikorski üritab veenda Euroopa Liitu Valgevene suhtes majandussanktsioone rakendama. Läti ja Leedu ei ole sellega nõus. 23. mail toimunud president Dalia Grybauskaite ja peaminister Andrius Kubiliuse kohtumisel räägiti Valgevene teemadel

  2. Education in Disguise: Sanctioning Sexuality in Elementary School Halloween Celebrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Erica Misako

    2016-01-01

    Halloween as celebrated in US elementary schools provides a rare opportunity to explore the more tangible manifestations of sexuality. A time of celebration, Halloween is perceived as a festive event for children, being both "innocent" and fun. Yet, because it is the one school day where sexuality is on display, sexuality becomes a…

  3. 76 FR 63197 - Sudanese Sanctions Regulations; Iranian Transactions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... the processing of funds transfers for the operating expenses or other official business of third... authorized to process funds transfers for the operating expenses or other official business of third-country... consistent with Sec. 560.516, for the operating expenses or other official business of third-country...

  4. Student Rights Associated with Disciplinary and Academic Hearings and Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Roche, Claire R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines whether students have due process rights associated with disciplinary and academic hearings. Constitutional challenges, case law, and the requirements of due process are discussed. Suggestions are made for procedures a school should follow to fulfill the requirements of due process.

  5. Disciplinary sanctions and the procedure of imposing them

    OpenAIRE

    Ramašauskaitė, Justina

    2014-01-01

    Drausminės nuobaudos ir jų skyrimo tvarka Darbo kodekse numatytos darbuotojo pareigos dirbti dorai ir sąžiningai, laikytis darbo drausmės, laiku ir tiksliai vykdyti teisėtus darbdavio ir administracijos nurodymus, darbo normas, laikytis technologinės drausmės, darbuotojų saugos ir sveikatos reikalavimų, tausoti darbdavio turtą. Jei darbuotojas nesilaiko šių pareigų, jam gali būti taikoma drausminio poveikio priemonė – drausminė nuobauda. Darbdavys, norėdamas paskirti drausminę nuobaudą darbuo...

  6. Internal Dynamics in Iran. Iran, between Sanctions, Destruction, and Negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kian-Thiebaut, Azadeh

    2008-01-01

    The Iranian rulers, including reformists and conservatives, are unanimous concerning the priority of obtaining nuclear technology, for the Islamic regime. In this context, the United States wants to contemplate all options, including military action, but they are emphasizing the diplomatic solution, on condition that Iran suspends its uranium enrichment program. Their position does not favor a way out of the Iranian crisis. However, the proposal for an unconditional negotiation between the United States and Iran would enable Iranian rulers not to lose face vis-a-vis Iranian, Arabic, and Muslim public opinion in light of their declaration to stand their ground and not succumb to Western pressure. This would also pave the way for a solution to avoid nuclear proliferation and instability in the Middle East

  7. Transfer of Labour Time on the World Market: Religious Sanctions and Economic Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Sandemose

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the extent to which a term like “globalization”, especially in its sense of implying the existence of a system, or of dominant features favouring development towards some system, is adaptable to a theory of a world economy which is to take due notice of the structure of the exchange value of commodities on the world market. A leading idea is that religious outlooks, in the way they were conceptualized by Karl Marx, have a strong bearing upon the difference in labour intensities in countries contributing to the world market, and thereby upon the differences in international values and prices. These differences are expressed in a scale-based, rigid structure on the world market itself—a structure which gives us the fundamental reason why certain specific countries or areas may get steadily poorer in relative terms, while others may constantly get relatively richer through the same mechanism. Consequently, when (as it is done here religion is taken to express the quintessence of the cultural level of societies, it can be said that the comparative study of religions gives us a key to the understanding of crucial economic differences between nations. The differences in question are primarily those prevailing between capitalist societies on the one hand, and non-capitalist, or what is here called patrimonial societies, on the other.

  8. 24 CFR 941.501 - HUD review of PHA performance; sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... repay HUD for amounts awarded under the development programs that were improperly expended; (e) Types of... it an opportunity, within a prescribed period of time, to present any arguments or additional facts...

  9. 77 FR 1864 - Reporting, Procedures and Penalties Regulations; Transnational Criminal Organizations Sanctions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ..., debts, indebtedness, obligations, notes, guarantees, debentures, stocks, bonds, coupons, any other... property are blocked pursuant to this order who might have a constitutional presence in the United States...

  10. A Neural Mechanism of Strategic Social Choice under Sanction-Induced Norm Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, Aidan; Grön, Georg; Fehr, Ernst; Hare, Todd A

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, much has been learned about the representation of subjective value in simple, nonstrategic choices. However, a large fraction of our daily decisions are embedded in social interactions in which value guided decisions require balancing benefits for self against consequences imposed by others in response to our choices. Yet, despite their ubiquity, much less is known about how value computation takes place in strategic social contexts that include the possibility of retribution for norm violations. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to show that when human subjects face such a context connectivity increases between the temporoparietal junction (TPJ), implicated in the representation of other peoples' thoughts and intentions, and regions of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) that are associated with value computation. In contrast, we find no increase in connectivity between these regions in social nonstrategic cases where decision-makers are immune from retributive monetary punishments from a human partner. Moreover, there was also no increase in TPJ-vmPFC connectivity when the potential punishment was performed by a computer programmed to punish fairness norm violations in the same manner as a human would. Thus, TPJ-vmPFC connectivity is not simply a function of the social or norm enforcing nature of the decision, but rather occurs specifically in situations where subjects make decisions in a social context and strategically consider putative consequences imposed by others.

  11. 76 FR 24410 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... preceding 90 calendar days related to Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (``IRGC'') or any of its..., savings and loan associations, national banks, thrift institutions, credit unions, [[Page 24413

  12. 76 FR 62607 - Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1189(a)) or support for acts of international terrorism (as defined... terrorism. (3) PENALTIES.--The penalties provided for in subsections (b) and (c) of section 206 of the... the concept of ``transactions or other financial services provided'' by a foreign financial...

  13. Reputational risk of banks : a study on the effects of regulatory sanctions for major european banks

    OpenAIRE

    Linder, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Mestrado em Finanças Este estudo propõe-se em analisar o efeito do anuncio de sanções na cotação das ações para os maiores bancos Europeus. No estudo é diferenciado a situação em que (1) não é considerado o impacto da multa na cotação da ação e (2) considerando o impacto financeiro. Na segunda situação o efeito do anuncio na cotação da ação é considerado como efeito reputacional da sanção. Na realização do estudo é elaborada uma metodologia usando Single Index Model (SIM) como modelo esper...

  14. Economic Sanctions: Effectiveness As a Foreign Policy Tool in the Case of the Former Yugoslavia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    ... (Serbia and Montenegro) REFERRED TO AS FRY (S/M) to end the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The breakup of the former Yugoslavia resulted in wars of secession in Slovenia, Croatia, and finally, Bosnia-Herzegovina...

  15. 78 FR 11950 - Identification of Entities and Vessels Pursuant to the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ...; Telephone (356)(21241232) [IRAN] Linked To: NATIONAL IRANIAN TANKER COMPANY. 42. SINA SHIPPING COMPANY...; MMSI 572449210 (vessel) [IRAN] Linked To: NATIONAL IRANIAN TANKER COMPANY. 93. SINA (9HNY9) Crude Oil...

  16. 78 FR 12953 - TRICARE; TRICARE Sanction Authority for Third-Party Billing Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... safeguarding benefit dollars from being expended for fraudulent or abusive charges. The anticipated result of... power and responsibilities among the various levels of government. It has been certified that this final...

  17. 77 FR 48461 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Farm Bill of 2008 Retailer Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Program history, business practices, business ethics, WIC disqualification or authorization status, when... a 6-month disqualification for the sale of ineligibles frequently go out of business because they... duration increase the risk a business may be forced to close, substituting a civil penalty could...

  18. Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jurenas, Remy

    2005-01-01

    Falling agricultural exports and declining commodity prices led farm groups and agribusiness firms to urge the 106th Congress to pass legislation exempting foods and agricultural commodities from U.S...

  19. Sanctions, the South African Coal Industry and the anti-apartheid movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    The report was compiled late last year by two British MPs, a member of the Economic and Social Committee to the European Communities and a representative of the Conservative Research Department. The report records the results of a fact-finding tour undertaken to investigate allegations by the anti-apartheid movement in the UK. The report is not a propaganda exercise, and was not sponsored by the South African Government.

  20. Re-Individualizing the Criminal Sanctions of Deprivation of Liberty in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Rusu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The recognition and subsequently the execution of criminal penalties of deprivation of liberty byanother Member State, other than the one of the conviction, is an act of mutual trust between Member Statesof the European Union. However, the differences between criminal legal norms, particularly regarding theminimum and maximum limits of some punishment prescribed for the same offense, require a differentapproach in the sense that a member can not recognize and then enforce a sentence of deprivation of libertywith the maximum limits greater than its own legislation, for the same offense. This very sensitive issue wasresolved by adopting the Framework Decision 2008/909/JHA of the Council from 27 November 2008, wherethe European legislative act allows the executing Member State the re-individualization of the deprivation ofliberty sentence, the goal being that the penalty imposed is compatible with the internal law of theenforcement state. In the implementation of European legislative act depositions, any member State whichhas recognized such a court order, based on a legal decision ordered by a competent judicial body may stillre-individualize the penalty regarding its maximum limit. The examination of the European legislative acthighlights also some flaws that must be corrected, taking into account the possibility for the executingMember States to fully modify the applied punishment, as regards both its nature and its proportion applied inthe sentencing State.

  1. Monopolizing sanctioning power under noise eliminates perverse punishment but does not increase cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Fischer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We run several experiments which allow us to compare cooperation under perfect and imperfect information in a centralized and decentralized punishment regime. Under perfect and extremely noisy information, aggregate behavior does not differ between institutions. Under intermediate noise, punishment escalates in the decentralized peer-to-peer punishment regime which badly affects efficiency while sustaining cooperation for longer. Only decentralized punishment is often directed at cooperators (perverse punishment. We report several, sometimes subtle, differences in punishment behavior, and how contributions react.

  2. Interdicting an Adversary’s Economy Viewed As a Trade Sanction Inoperability Input Output Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing YES $4,578,424,000 2 TTL_C10T14: Mining and quarrying YES $53,345,194,000 3 TTL_C15T16: Food products, beverages ...22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave...Wei, Dong, and Sun (2009) use the IIM to study supply chain risk management and mitigation strategies. They use a method called the “ordered

  3. A critical review of sanctioned knowledge production concerning abortion in Africa: Implications for feminist health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Catriona; Chiweshe, Malvern; Mavuso, Jabulile

    2016-04-01

    Taking a feminist health psychology approach, we conducted a systematic review of published research on abortion featured in PsycINFO over a 7-year period. We analysed the 39 articles included in the review in terms of countries in which the research was conducted, types of research, issues covered, the way the research was framed and main findings. Despite 97 per cent of abortions performed in Africa being classifiable as unsafe, there has been no engagement in knowledge production about abortion in Africa from psychologists, outside of South Africa. Given this, we outline the implications of the current knowledge base for feminism, psychology and feminist health psychology in Africa.

  4. 78 FR 29813 - Identification of Additional Vessels Pursuant to the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... interests in property of the Government of Iran, including the Central Bank of Iran, that are in the United..., or instrumentality thereof, including the Central Bank of Iran, and any person owned or controlled by... instrumentality thereof, including the Central Bank of Iran; (b) Any person owned or controlled, directly or...

  5. 78 FR 33470 - Identification of Six Individuals Pursuant to the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Government of Iran, including the Central Bank of Iran, that are in the United States, that hereafter come..., including the Central Bank of Iran, and any person owned or controlled by, or acting for or on behalf of... Central Bank of Iran; (b) Any person owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by the foregoing; and (c...

  6. 78 FR 12420 - Identification of Additional Vessels Pursuant to the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Iran, including the Central Bank of Iran, that are in the United States, that hereafter come within the... Central Bank of Iran, and any person owned or controlled by, or acting for or on behalf of, the Government... any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including the Central Bank of Iran; (b...

  7. 78 FR 30397 - Identification of Entity Pursuant to the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions Regulations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ..., including the Central Bank of Iran, that are in the United States, that hereafter come within the United... Government of Iran, any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including the Central Bank... political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including the Central Bank of Iran; (b) Any...

  8. 78 FR 57001 - Identification of Persons Pursuant to the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions Regulations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... in property of the Government of Iran, including the Central Bank of Iran, that are in the United..., or instrumentality thereof, including the Central Bank of Iran, and any person owned or controlled by... instrumentality thereof, including the Central Bank of Iran; (b) Any person owned or controlled, directly or...

  9. 78 FR 21497 - Publication of General Licenses Related to the Burma Sanctions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ..., Ayeyarwady Bank, Myanma Economic Bank, and Myanma Investment and Commercial Bank, subject to certain..., Ayeyarwady Bank, Myanma Economic Bank, and Myanma Investment and Commercial Bank. Among other limitations, GL... Development Bank, Ayeyarwady Bank, Myanma Economic Bank, and Myanma Investment and Commercial Bank (a...

  10. 78 FR 37664 - Identification of Entities Pursuant to the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions Regulations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Khomayen Road, Golpayegan, Iran; Web site http://www.gbpc.net [IRAN]. 8. GOLDEN RESOURCES TRADING COMPANY L...; Oshtorjan Industrial Zone, Zob-e Ahan Highway, Isafahan, Iran; Web site http://www.parsmcs.com [IRAN]. 23... INVESTMENT SERVICE), Assaluyeh, Iran; South Pars Special Economy/Energy Zone, Iran [IRAN]. 32. TADBIR...

  11. Sanctions for unlawful collective action in the Nordic countries and Germany / Niklas Bruun, Caroline Johansson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bruun, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    Terve ajakirja number on pühendatud ebaseadusliku kollektiivse tegutsemise regulatsioonile, töötajate streigiõigusele ning teenuste osutamise vabadusele erinevates riikides. Euroopa Kohtu lahendid Laval (C-341/05) ja Viking (C-438/05)

  12. 28 CFR 68.23 - Motion to compel response to discovery; sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... forth and include: (1) The nature of the questions or request; (2) The response or objections of the..., documents, or other evidence would have shown; (5) Rule that a pleading, or part of a pleading, or a motion...

  13. The EU sanctions operation in Syria: Conflict management by other means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Portela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A partir de mayo de 2011 la Unión Europea ha llevado a cabo una de las operaciones más sofisticadas sobre sanciones en apoyo de las protestas contra el régimen político de Siria. El presente artículo examina las medidas autorizadas por la Unión Europea, su impacto esperado y las implicaciones para sus relaciones con sus socios globales. Aunque hayan quedado seriamente debilitadas por la falta de apoyo de Rusia, las sanciones están teniendo un impacto económico visible. No obstante, las medidas escogidas no son las más adecuadas para detener el derramamiento de sangre. Las sanciones han servido también para redefinir las asociaciones con otras potencias, tanto en Oriente Medio como a nivel global.

  14. 76 FR 38000 - Removal of Certain Sanctions Regulations Relating to the Former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... introduce new measures to support the work of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (``ICTY''), address the illegitimate control over FRY(S&M) political institutions and economic resources...) political processes or institutions or economic resources or enterprises. To implement the new measures...

  15. Oxytocin modulates third-party sanctioning of selfish and generous behavior within and between groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughters, Katie; Manstead, Antony S R; Ten Velden, Femke S; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2017-03-01

    Human groups function because members trust each other and reciprocate cooperative contributions, and reward others' cooperation and punish their non-cooperation. Here we examined the possibility that such third-party punishment and reward of others' trust and reciprocation is modulated by oxytocin, a neuropeptide generally involved in social bonding and in-group (but not out-group) serving behavior. Healthy males and females (N=100) self-administered a placebo or 24 IU of oxytocin in a randomized, double-blind, between-subjects design. Participants were asked to indicate (incentivized, costly) their level of reward or punishment for in-group (outgroup) investors donating generously or fairly to in-group (outgroup) trustees, who back-transferred generously, fairly or selfishly. Punishment (reward) was higher for selfish (generous) investments and back-transfers when (i) investors were in-group rather than outgroup, and (ii) trustees were in-group rather than outgroup, especially when (iii) participants received oxytocin rather than placebo. It follows, first, that oxytocin leads individuals to ignore out-groups as long as out-group behavior is not relevant to the in-group and, second, that oxytocin contributes to creating and enforcing in-group norms of cooperation and trust. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Oxytocin modulates third-party sanctioning of selfish and generous behavior within and between groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daughters, K.; Manstead, A.S.R.; Ten Velden, F.S.; De Dreu, C.K.W.

    Human groups function because members trust each other and reciprocate cooperative contributions, and reward others’ cooperation and punish their non-cooperation. Here we examined the possibility that such third-party punishment and reward of others’ trust and reciprocation is modulated by oxytocin,

  17. 75 FR 10997 - Cuban Assets Control Regulations; Sudanese Sanctions Regulations; Iranian Transactions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... specific license, or otherwise exempt, the exportation of such services and software from the United States... services and software. Paragraph (c) of each of these two sections provides that specific licenses may be... Iranian Transactions Regulations to authorize the exportation of certain services and software incident to...

  18. Monopolizing sanctioning power under noise eliminates perverse punishment but does not increase cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Sven Fischer; Kristoffel Grechenig; Nicolas Meier

    2016-01-01

    We run several experiments which allow us to compare cooperation under perfect and imperfect information in a centralized and decentralized punishment regime. Under perfect and extremely noisy information, aggregate behavior does not differ between institutions. Under intermediate noise, punishment escalates in the decentralized peer-to-peer punishment regime which badly affects efficiency while sustaining cooperation for longer. Only decentralized punishment is often directed at cooperators ...

  19. Monopolizing Sanctioning Power under Noise Eliminates Perverse Punishment But Does Not Increase Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sven; Grechenig, Kristoffel; Meier, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    We run several experiments which allow us to compare cooperation under perfect and imperfect information in a centralized and decentralized punishment regime. Under perfect and extremely noisy information, aggregate behavior does not differ between institutions. Under intermediate noise, punishment escalates in the decentralized peer-to-peer punishment regime which badly affects efficiency while sustaining cooperation for longer. Only decentralized punishment is often directed at cooperators (perverse punishment). We report several, sometimes subtle, differences in punishment behavior, and how contributions react. PMID:27746725

  20. 78 FR 9768 - Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation Imposition of Missile Sanctions on Two...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... U.S.C. 2797b(a)(1)); Section 11B(b)(1) of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. App... ``Export Administration Act of 1979''); and Executive Order 12851 of June 11, 1993; the U.S. Government... (22 U.S.C. 2797b) and Section 11B of the EAA (50 U.S.C. Appx 24710b): Dalian Sunny Industries, (China...

  1. Policing Iranian Sanctions: Trade, Identity, and Smuggling Networks in the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Kegan Paul International, 1994), 9–10. 22 A.W. Stiffe, “Ancient Trading Centres of the Persian Gulf: VII Bahrain,” The Geographical Journal 18, no... Kegan Paul International, 1994. Al Naboodah, H.M. “The Commercial Activity of Bahrain and Oman in the Early Middle Ages.” Proceedings of the...Byman, Daniel and Jerrold Green . Political Violence and Stability in the States of the Northern Persian Gulf. California: RAND, 1999. Castles

  2. Dispositional sources of sanction perceptions: Emotionality, cognitive style, intolerance of ambiguity, and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Justin T; Bushway, Shawn D

    2015-12-01

    This study contributes to efforts to identify the sources of arrest risk perceptions and ambiguity (or lack of confidence) in such perceptions. Drawing on dual-process theories of reasoning, we argue that arrest risk perceptions often represent intuitive judgments that are influenced by cognitive heuristics and dispositional attributes. Multivariate regression models are estimated with data from 3 national surveys to test 6 hypotheses about the relationships between specific dispositional attributes and perceived arrest risk and ambiguity. We find evidence that dispositional positive affect and intolerance of ambiguity are both positively related to perceived arrest risk, and are also both negatively related to ambiguity. We also find evidence that cognitive reflection and general self-efficacy are, respectively, positively and negatively associated with ambiguity. Mixed evidence emerges about whether cognitive reflection is related to risk perceptions, and about whether either dispositional negative affect or thoughtfully reflective decision making correlate with ambiguity. Taken together, the results provide partial support for each of our hypotheses, and suggest that dispositional attributes are important sources of perceptions of arrest risk as well as of ambiguity in such perceptions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. EU Aid Conditionality in ACP Countries: Explaining Inconsistency in EU Sanctions Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Del Biondo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The EU is often criticised for using negative conditionality only in poor, strategically less important countries in the ACP region. However, whether and why there is inconsistency within the group of ACP countries has not been properly investigated. Therefore, this article investigates the reasons for the EU’s non-application of Article 96 of the Cotonou Agreement in five countries that can be considered typical cases where negative conditionality is generally imposed, namely countries that experienced flawed elections over the last ten years: Ethiopia, Rwanda, Nigeria, Kenya and Chad. On the one hand, the study confirms previous findings that security interests tend to trump the EU’s efforts to promote democratisation. On the other hand, the article adds that democratisation might not only conflict with the EU’s interests, but also with its objective to promote development and poverty reduction.

  4. 19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property. 12.150 Section 12.150 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS...; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property. (a) Generally. Merchandise from certain countries... the United States shall be detained until the question of its release, seizure, or other disposition...

  5. INDUSTRY SELF-REGULATION WITHOUT SANCTIONS: THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY'S RESPONSIBLE CARE PROGRAM. (R827918)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. Results from a National Study of Social Workers Sanctioned by State Licensing Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland-Prom, Kim W.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a descriptive study, synthesizing the reports of 27 state regulatory boards about their actions against certified and licensed social workers (N = 874) during the period of 1999 to 2004. The purpose of this study was to examine the unprofessional behavior of certified and licensed social workers, the results of…

  7. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 501 - Economic Sanctions Enforcement Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cooperation with OFAC is an important factor in determining the appropriate enforcement response to an... considers it important to document the occurrence of a violation and, based on an analysis of the General... programs: OFAC Risk Matrix Low Moderate High Stable, well-known customer base in a localized environment...

  8. Avoiding Sanctions at the E-Discovery Meet-And- Confer in Common Law Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Luoma

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The rules of civil procedure in common law countries have been amended to better deal with the requirements of electronic discovery. One of the key changes in case management is the scheduling of a meet-and-confer session where the parties to litigation must meet early in the case before any discovery procedures have begun to exchange information regarding the nature, location, formats, and pertinent facts regarding custody and control of a party’s electronically stored information (ESI. Failure to abide by the rules and participate in good faith at the meet-and-confer session can have dire consequences for the parties and lawyers involved. The authors discuss the importance of creating and maintaining an ESI data map as a means to demonstrate good faith and effectively comply with the requirements of the meet-and-confer.

  9. 77 FR 42973 - Export and Reexport Controls to Rwanda and United Nations Sanctions Under the Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... failure to comply with a collection of information, subject to the requirements of the Paperwork Reduction... extension tubes; complete breech mechanisms; buckshot shotgun shells; except equipment used exclusively to...: 8A918 Marine Boilers. License Requirements Reason for Control: * * * Control(s) Country chart...

  10. La certezza della pena tra lavoro nero e problematiche di integrazione / La certitude de la sanction entre travail au noir et problèmes d'intégration / Sanction Certainty between Illegal Work and Immigration Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisi Roberta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available L’immissione di nuove popolazioni in una società provoca inevitabilmente sfide a carattere sociale. Affrontare i problemi che la popolazione immigrata pone significa, tra l’altro, considerare che si tratta di un attore sociale che, con i propri comportamenti, le proprie scelte, i propri orientamenti mette in continua discussione i meccanismi logici e le politiche presenti nelle società.

  11. A review of the new provisions for sanctioning mentally disordered offenders in China, in a broader historical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Wei; van der Wolf, Michiel

    Reforms of the criminal justice system in China in recent years have included the 2012 Code of Criminal Procedure (CCP), which resulted in new disposals for mentally disordered offenders. From a Western perspective, changes in Chinese criminal law are sometimes clichéd as toothless window dressing, but they may represent a genuine step forward in safeguarding human rights. Taking a historical perspective, this paper reveals that in the East, as much as in the West, there is a 'moral tradition' of not punishing mentally disordered offenders who are not considered responsible for their acts. There are clear differences in disposal for those acquitted having been found 'not guilty by reason of insanity'. Whereas Western jurisdictions have offered (criminal) courts the opportunity for commitment in (forensic) mental hospitals from the early 19th Century, in China, disposal has remained, until the recent changes, the responsibility of the administration (mainly the police) or the family of the offender. A few high profile cases brought to light the inadequacy of these arrangements and the general disregard of obvious mental health issues when sentencing offenders. There was lack of clarity regarding who would take responsibility for treatment and issues of future public protection arising from a mental disorder. The 2012 CCP introduces the power of mental health commitment by the judiciary for those found non-responsible for an offense because of a mental disorder. Similar to provisions in Western jurisdictions there remain human rights concerns regarding aspects of 2012 CCP and the role of 'preventive detention' for mentally disordered offenders on indeterminate secure mental health detention. Nevertheless, the shift to judicial decision making in such cases and the possibility of mental health commitment are welcome steps in improving the human rights of this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 76 FR 72609 - Authorizing the Imposition of Certain Sanctions With Respect to the Provision of Goods, Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Export-Import Bank shall deny approval of the issuance of any guarantee, insurance, extension of credit... property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to this order who might have a constitutional...

  13. "My appointment received the sanction of the Admiralty": why Charles Darwin really was the naturalist on HMS Beagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyhe, John

    2013-09-01

    For decades historians of science and science writers in general have maintained that Charles Darwin was not the 'naturalist' or 'official naturalist' during the 1831-1836 surveying voyage of HMS Beagle but instead Captain Robert FitzRoy's 'companion', 'gentleman companion' or 'dining companion'. That is, Darwin was primarily the captain's social companion and only secondarily and unofficially naturalist. Instead, it is usually maintained, the ship's surgeon Robert McCormick was the official naturalist because this was the default or official practice at the time. Although these views have been repeated in countless accounts of Darwin's life, this essay aims to show that they are incorrect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Perspectives on medicine adherence in service users and carers with experience of legally sanctioned detention and medication: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, Iris; Gallagher, Ann; Chambers, Mary

    2013-01-01

    To explore and analyze perceptions of service users and caregivers on adherence and nonadherence to medication in a mental health care context. Mental health medication adherence is considered problematic and legal coercion exists in many countries. This was a qualitative study aiming to explore perceptions of medication adherence from the perspective of the service user (and their caregiver, where possible). Eighteen mental health service users (and six caregivers) with histories of medication nonadherence and repeated compulsory admission were recruited from voluntary sector support groups in England. Data were collected between 2008 and 2010. Using qualitative coding techniques, the study analyzed interview and focus group data from service users, previously subjected to compulsory medication under mental health law, or their caregivers. The process of medication adherence or nonadherence is encapsulated in an explanatory narrative. This narrative constitutes participants' struggle to negotiate acceptable and effective routes through variable quality of care. Results indicated that service users and caregivers eventually accepted the reality of their own mental illness and their need for safety and treatment. They perceived the behavior of professionals as key in their recovery process. Professionals could be enabling or disabling with regard to adherence to medication. This study investigated service user and caregiver perceptions of medication adherence and compulsory treatment. Participants described a process perceived as variable and potentially doubly faceted. The behavior of professionals was seen as crucial in collaborative decision making on medication adherence.

  15. Has President Obama Chosen the Right Strategic Approach to Iran With the 2013 Dual Track Policy of Diplomacy and Sanctions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    welfare of the mostazafin umma (the oppressed poor) through state intervention. Ansari, 3. 104Ansari, 3. 105Ansari, 2. 27...Fearful of both Iranian and Saudi regional power, the GCC nations have historically outsourced their security to the United States. However, the...quarter to 7.5 million barrels per day. KSA has just increased its defense budget and has an elephantine welfare bill to placate Shia tension in its

  16. 76 FR 70544 - OFAC Implementation of Certain Sanctions Imposed on Seven Persons by the Secretary of State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... LTD; a.k.a. PETROCHEMICAL TRADING COMPANY LIMITED; a.k.a. ``PCCI''), P.O. Box 261539, Jebel Ali, Dubai... Group, ROG Corporate Office, Royal Oyster General Trading LLC, P.O. Box 34299, Dubai, United Arab..., Building W5B, Dubai Airport Free Zone, P.O. Box 54916, Dubai, United Arab Emirates: The Director of OFAC...

  17. 77 FR 62139 - Authorizing the Implementation of Certain Sanctions Set Forth in the Iran Threat Reduction and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the International..., I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, hereby order: Section 1. (a) When the... or at the recommendation of the Secretary of State: (i) to have engaged in censorship or other...

  18. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials...

  19. Perspectives on medicine adherence in service users and carers with experience of legally sanctioned detention and medication: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambers M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Iris Gault,1 Ann Gallagher,2 Mary Chambers31Faculty of Health and Social Care Sciences, Kingston University and St George's University of London, Kingston, Surrey, UK; 2International Centre for Nursing Ethics, School of Health and Social Care, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK; 3Faculty of Health and Social Care Sciences, Kingston University and St George's University of London, St George's University of London, Tooting, London, UKAim: To explore and analyze perceptions of service users and caregivers on adherence and nonadherence to medication in a mental health care context.Background: Mental health medication adherence is considered problematic and legal coercion exists in many countries.Design: This was a qualitative study aiming to explore perceptions of medication adherence from the perspective of the service user (and their caregiver, where possible.Participants: Eighteen mental health service users (and six caregivers with histories of medication nonadherence and repeated compulsory admission were recruited from voluntary sector support groups in England.Methods: Data were collected between 2008 and 2010. Using qualitative coding techniques, the study analyzed interview and focus group data from service users, previously subjected to compulsory medication under mental health law, or their caregivers.Results: The process of medication adherence or nonadherence is encapsulated in an explanatory narrative. This narrative constitutes participants' struggle to negotiate acceptable and effective routes through variable quality of care. Results indicated that service users and caregivers eventually accepted the reality of their own mental illness and their need for safety and treatment. They perceived the behavior of professionals as key in their recovery process. Professionals could be enabling or disabling with regard to adherence to medication.Conclusion: This study investigated service user and caregiver perceptions of medication adherence and compulsory treatment. Participants described a process perceived as variable and potentially doubly faceted. The behavior of professionals was seen as crucial in collaborative decision making on medication adherence.Keywords: medication, mental health service users, medication adherence, service user perspectives, grounded theory

  20. The Burden of Acting Wise: Sanctioned Success and Ambivalence about Hard Work at an Elite School in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijs, Jonathan J. B.; Paulle, Bowen

    2016-01-01

    Sam and his classmates despise "nerds": they say working hard in school makes a student unpopular, and that they purposefully do only the minimum to pass. Research suggests that such "oppositional" attitudes are prevalent among working class students and/or ethnoracial minorities. Like most of his classmates, however, Sam is…

  1. Health Care Fraud: Characteristics, Sanctions, and Prevention. Briefing Report to the Honorable William V. Roth, Jr., U.S. Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Accounting and Financial Management Div.

    At the request of Senator William Roth, Jr., the General Accounting Office (GAO) reviewed Medicare and Medicaid fraud investigations that agency inspectors general referred to the Department of Justice for prosecution to identify characteristics of alleged fraud against the government and to determine actions taken against those caught defrauding…

  2. 78 FR 33945 - Authorizing the Implementation of Certain Sanctions Set Forth in the Iran Freedom and Counter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... facilitating a transaction for the provision of agricultural commodities, food, medicine, or medical devices to... other activities relating to the diversion of goods, including agricultural commodities, food, medicine... Government of Iran claims sovereignty, sovereign rights, or jurisdiction, provided that the Government of...

  3. A NUCLEAR IRAN: DID THE UNITED STATES, UNITED NATIONS AND EUROPEAN UNIONS USE OF SANCTIONS IMPACT THE IRANIAN NUCLEAR PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    both these gentlemen. I would also like to thank Paul Pladson, Major James Moran and Captain Cory Leckrone, who had to endure hours of me...09iran.html 23 Sanger, “Obama Order Sped Up Wave of Cyberattacks Against Iran”, 2013, 206 24 Steven Cherry , interview by Ralph Langer, How Stuxnet is...Sess., Public Law No: 111-195, (1 July 2010): 124 STAT. 1318 33 Paul Kerr, Iran’s Nuclear Program: Status (Washington DC: Congressional Research

  4. Strategic Narratives and Alliances: The Cases of Intervention in Libya (2011) and Economic Sanctions against Russia (2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Roselle, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Scholars of international communication recognize that strategic narratives are important for policymaking (Miskimmon, O’Loughlin, & Roselle, 2013) and scholars studying alliances suggest that communication is central to the formation and maintenance of alliances (Weitsman, 2010). This essay addresses how strategic narratives affect US alliance behavior - and hence international order - in two specific ways. First, alliance behavior can be affected by other allies’ narratives as demonstrated ...

  5. Decreasing Deforestation in the Southern Brazilian Amazon—The Role of Administrative Sanctions in Mato Grosso State

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Queiroz Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Forest conservation efforts through regulatory enforcement routinely failed to prevent large scale deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. However, a turning point occurred in 2005, when a combination of unfavorable economic conditions and an unprecedented coordinated effort between governmental institutions resulted in a gradual slowdown in deforestation. The continuation of this deforestation slowdown in an environment of economic recovery and expansion after 2009 suggests that regulatory en...

  6. 77 FR 6463 - Definition of the Term “Financial, Material, or Technological Support” Under the Côte d'Ivoire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ..., Darfur, and Democratic Republic of the Congo Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets... Control (``OFAC'') is amending the C[ocirc]te d'Ivoire Sanctions Regulations, the Darfur Sanctions... Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR part 543 (the ``CDISR''), the Darfur Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR part 546...

  7. Entrepreneurial Strategies for Advancing Arts-Based Public Engagement as a Form of University-Sanctioned Professional Activity in the New Creative Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacruz, Elizabeth Manley

    2011-01-01

    Written in the first person and drawing from an autoethnographic methodological framework, this essay shares aspirations, experiences, and reflections on a faculty member's professional work in a large U.S. public research-oriented university, focusing specifically on her attempts to reconcile her service-oriented civic engagement work with her…

  8. Intra-articular Autologous Conditioned Plasma Injections Provide Safe and Efficacious Treatment for Knee Osteoarthritis: An FDA-Sanctioned, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick A

    2016-04-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections have become an intriguing treatment option for osteoarthritis (OA), particularly OA of the knee. Despite the plethora of PRP-related citations, there is a paucity of high-level evidence that is comparable, cohort specific, dose controlled, injection protocol controlled, and double-blinded. To determine the safety and efficacy of leukocyte-poor PRP autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) for knee OA treatment through a feasibility trial regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. In accordance with FDA protocol, patient selection was based on strict inclusion/exclusion criteria; 114 patients were screened, and 30 were ultimately included in the study. These patients were randomized to receive either ACP (n = 15) or saline placebo (n = 15) for a series of 3 weekly injections. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores served as the primary efficacy outcome measure. Patients were followed for 1 year. No adverse events were reported for ACP administration. Furthermore, the results demonstrated no statistically significant difference in baseline WOMAC scores between the 2 groups. However, in the ACP group, WOMAC scores at 1 week were significantly decreased compared with baseline scores, and the scores for this group remained significantly lower throughout the study duration. At the study conclusion (12 months), subjects in the ACP group had improved their overall WOMAC scores by 78% from their baseline score, compared with 7% for the placebo group. ACP is safe and provides quantifiable benefits for pain relief and functional improvement with regard to knee OA. No adverse events were reported for ACP administration. After 1 year, WOMAC scores for the ACP subjects had improved by 78% from their baseline score, whereas scores for the placebo control group had improved by only 7%. Other joints affected with OA may also benefit from this treatment. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. The Ironic Hypocrisy of Killing: How Sanctioned Counterinsurgency Policies of the Philippine War Ends in the Court-Martial of Major Littleton Waller

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Hughes whose troops were ordered to kill guerrillas and civilians alike, burn villages, destroy cops and slaughter livestock. 83 Major Littleton... slaughter his entire command. After capturing many of the ring leaders, Maj Waller would have been more than justified in executing them for their

  10. The Kadi Saga as a Tale of 'Strict Observance’ of International Law : Obligations Under the UN Charter, Targeted Sanctions and Judicial Review in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larik, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the question whether the European Union defaulted on the ‘strict observance’ of international law and ‘respect’ for the UN Charter, which are now express objectives of the EU following the Lisbon reform, in the course of the famous Kadi cases. With the final appeals judgment

  11. Sanctioning Memory: Changing Identity - Using 3D laser scanning to identify two 'new' portraits of the Emperor Nero in English antiquarian collections

    OpenAIRE

    Miles Russell; Harry Manley

    2016-01-01

    Using 3D laser scanning, two badly damaged and heavily restored Roman portraits from English country house collections are here identified as originally being representations of the Emperor Nero. The first portrait, from Petworth House, is of Nero at the time of his formal adoption as heir by the Emperor Claudius in AD 51, while the second, from Wilton House, represents a new intermediate portrait type of the fifth emperor, marking his transition from traditional Julio-Claudian prince to more...

  12. Brief Approach to Fundamental Issues Regarding Transitional Justice. Focus on Certain Particularities of Taxable Sanctions within the Special Jurisdiction for Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Caldas Botero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This document exposes different trains of thought regarding legal issues as a result of the peace agreement reached by the National Government and farc-ep (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia-People’s Army. The paper shows a detailed analysis in regards of the punishments applied in transitional justice, the differente theories regarding punishment and their application to the agreement reached by both parties, seeking to establish if the agreed is congruent with international agreements and the Constitution.

  13. National law of the nuclear activity of the Argentine Republic. (Sanctioned on April 2, 1997 and partially promulgated on April 23, 1997; B.O. 25-Apr-1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Argentine National State, will establish the nuclear policy and perform the functions of research, development, regulation and supervision through two organisations, the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN). The National Atomic Energy Commission will continue to function as an autonomous entity, depending from the Ministry of Culture and Education of the Nation. Among the activities under its responsibility it will have to advise the National Executive Power on nuclear policy issues, promote the training of highly-specialised human resources, scientific and technological developments, execute development programs, promote programs for technological innovation, perform the responsibility for radiation waste management, etc. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority will act as an aunotomous entity in the jurisdiction of the Presidency of the Nation and will be responsible for the functions of regulation and control of the nuclear activity in everything which is related to radiological and nuclear safety, physical protection and control of the use of nuclear materials, nuclear facilities, licensing and international safeguards and give advise to the National Executive Power. Both institutions will depend from a Board of Directors composed by six members, one of which will be the Chairman and they will be responsible for the actions to comply with the objectives and functions mentioned above. In its last chapter, the law declares as subject to the privatisation the activities of nuclear energy generation presently developed by Nucleoelectrica Argentina Sociedad Anonima (NASA), as well as the Nuyclear Fuel Cycle used for the nuclear energy generation for industry or research and the Production of Radioisotopes developed by CNEA. This law revokes the articles numbers 2, 5, 9, 11, 16 and 17 of the Decree-Law N' 22.498/56 (B.O. 28-Dec-1956)

  14. Radioactive wastes. Rules governing the management. Modification of Decree No. 1.540/94 (Sanctioned 23-Sep-1998, Passed 19-Oct-1998; B.O. 23-Oct-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This law establishes for the Argentine Republic, the fundamental instruments for an adequate management of radioactive wastes, which guarantee the protection of environment, public health, and the rights of the future generations. The National State, through its National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), is the application authority of this law, and will have to coordinate with the provinces or the city of Buenos Aires everything related to its implementation. Also, it shall have to comply with regulatory rules referring to radiological and nuclear safety, physical and environmental protection and international safeguards set forth by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN). The generators of radioactive waste shall have to provide the necessary resources for its management and shall be responsible for the safe conditioning and storage of the waste generated by the facility operated by them, according to the conditions established by the application authority, until its transfer to the National Atomic Energy Commission. CNEA shall elaborate a Strategic Plan for Radioactive Waste Management that will include the National Programme for Radioactive Waste Management. Through this programme it shall have to: manage radioactive wastes; propose, coordinate and control research projects; promote studies for the establishment of repositories and on safety and preservation of the environment; establish procedures; implement an information and recording system of relevant documentation; inform the community; exercise the responsibility over the repositories; act in case of nuclear emergency; carry out technical and financial studies; etc. Besides, the Fund for the Management and Final Disposal of Radioactive Waste is created, with the finality of financing the above mentioned Programme. Also, it will submit annually to the National Congress a report of the activities performed, of the progress of the Strategic Plan and of its updating if necessary

  15. Self-Organization for Collective Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Putterman, Louis; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2014-01-01

    the surplus it makes possible, as predicted by standard economic theory, or instead opt for the use of informal sanctions or no sanctions. Our subjects choose, and succeed in using, informal sanctions surprisingly often, their voting decisions being responsive to the cost of formal sanctions. Adoption...

  16. Acts Sanctioning Foreign Corrupt Practice as a Legal Instrument for the Control of Corruption : An analysis of the policy implementation process of the OECD Anti-bribery Convention in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Okano, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the lagging implementation of OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in Japan, the first international convention that provides prohibition of foreign corruption as a necessary equipment to control corruption. Currently, there are three approaches to reinforce the implementation and enforcement of OECD Anti-Bribery Convention; a top-down approach, a bottom-up approach, and a voluntary approach. The analysis of the Japanese case of lagging implementation of OECD Anti-Bribery Conventi...

  17. 19 CFR 12.42 - Findings of Commissioner of Customs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... foreign locality with the use of convict labor, forced labor, or indentured labor under penal sanctions, including forced child labor or indentured child labor under penal sanctions, so as to come within the... of forced labor or indentured labor under penal sanctions, such communication shall also contain (4...

  18. 2 CFR 2424.1140 - What is the scope of a limited denial of participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... where the sanction is based on an indictment or conviction, the sanction shall apply to all programs throughout HUD. (b) For purposes of this subpart, participation includes receipt of any benefit or financial... or insurance; and awards of procurement contracts. (c) The sanction may be imposed for a period not...

  19. الجزاءات الإدارية: بين ضرورات الفعالية الإدارية وقيود حماية الحقوق والحريات الأساسية -دراسة مقارنة -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    صلاح الدين بوجلال

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available in each system of law, the administrative sanctions take a distinct place along the criminal and civil sanctions. Administrative sanctions are inflicted by administrative bodies to ensure the fulfillment of certain obligations or restoring some legal conditions, such as withdrawing, suspending or denial of an advantage or facility provided by law. The punitive character of these sanctions required the applicability of some law principles from the criminal law into the administrative law, to ensure the protection against abuse in inflicting a punitive sanction, and also guarantees for each person the right to a fair trial.

  20. State or Nature?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamei, Kenju; Putterman, Louis; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    , not only comes with a danger that punishments will be misapplied, but also should have no efficiency benefit under standard assumptions of self-interested agents. We experimentally investigate the relative effectiveness of formal vs. informal sanctions in the voluntary provision of public goods....... Unsurprisingly, we find that effective formal sanctions are popular and efficient when they are free to impose. Surprisingly, we find that informal sanctions are often more popular and more efficient when effective formal sanctions entail a modest cost. The reason is that informal sanctions achieve more...

  1. The EU Vs. Russia: Legal Nature and Implementation of the Union’s Restrictive Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voinikov Vadim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes his take on the EU sanctions against Russia. He aims to understand the legal nature of the EU restrictions, the exact procedure of their implementation, revision, and repeal, as well as their judicial review. To this end, he proposes a system of sanction classification, analyses current EU legislation on the imposition and implementation of sanctions, as well as the case law on the sanction policy. The author also examines EU sanctions imposed on other countries and compares them to the Russian ones. He thus comes up with the following classification of sanctions against Russia: individual sanctions, those targeted at Crimea and Sevastopol, and anti-Russian economic sanctions. He concludes that the EU sanctions against Russia are inconsistent with the legal nature of restrictive measures, since they are a punishment rather than a policy tool. The author believes that in the current political conditions it may be difficult for the European Union to reach a unanimous agreement to repeal or prolong the sanctions. This article is inspired by the discussions that took place during the international conference “Russia and the EU: the Question of Trust” held in Luxembourg on November, 28—29 (2014.

  2. Ogranichitel'nye mery ES v otnoshenii Rossii: pravovaja priroda i problema implementacii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voinikov V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes his take on the EU sanctions against Russia. He aims to understand the legal nature of the EU restrictions, the exact procedure of their implementation, revision, and repeal, as well as their judicial review. To this end, he proposes a system of sanction classification, analyses current EU legislation on the imposition and implementation of sanctions, as well as the case law on the sanction policy. The author also examines EU sanctions imposed on other countries and compares them to the Russian ones. He thus comes up with the following classification of sanctions against Russia: individual sanctions, those targeted at Crimea and Sevastopol, and anti-Russian economic sanctions. He concludes that the EU sanctions against Russia are inconsistent with the legal nature of restrictive measures, since they are a punishment rather than a policy tool. The author believes that in the current political conditions it may be difficult for the European Union to reach a unanimous agreement to repeal or prolong the sanctions. This article is inspired by the discussions that took place during the international conference “Russia and the EU: the Question of Trust” held in Luxembourg on November, 28—29 (2014.

  3. THE PENALTY FOR THE CORRUPTOR IN THE SOCIOLOGICAL PERSFEKTIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsul Haling

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sociological perfective in the many offer social sanctions can be applied in corrupt behavior result. The idea of social sanctions was proposed as a reaction against the growing number of corrupt behavior difficult resolved only through national and international legal instruments. It is time the exact type of sanctions was found to tackle corrupt behavior that are already classified as extraordinary crimes. Some ideas proposed as social sanctions to eradicate corrupt behavior i.e. criminal sanctions established on the basis of social stratification,  hint herself and family corruptor, no corpse prayer corruptor before is no guarantee of the financial returns of the State by the family of the perpetrator, serving in the corruptor's face television and penalties for disseminating the corruptor after death and as sanctions ultimatum remedied every corruptor will be charged all his deeds before God after death.

  4. Strategy. North-Korean nuclear: endgame?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirandol, Guylain de

    2017-01-01

    As North Korea performed new ballistic missile tests in February 2017, and thus violated UN resolutions, this article proposes an overview of the evolutions from nuclear sanctions to economic sanctions. Initially, UN sanctions aimed at struggling against nuclear programmes and proliferation through embargo on arms and materials. After a nuclear test in 2016, South Korea withdrew from a North Korean industrial complex. International sanctions now aim at economically isolating North Korea, at increasing its trade deficit, and at reducing the sending of currencies by North-Korean expatriates. The author notices that these sanctions do not alter manufacturing activities, and that North Korea thus keeps on developing and being integrated into the international division of labour. The last part briefly discusses how North Korea could be able to get around sanctions

  5. WHAT IS THE PRICE FOR BREAKING EU LAW?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Mihaela DIMITRIU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Financial sanctions, as lump sum and penalty payments, can be imposed to Member States that failed to implement a judgement establishing an infringement. This mechanism was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty and further developed by the Lisbon Treaty. This paper is an analysis of Article 260 TFEU and examines the evolution of the mechanism, the principles for applying sanctions, the method of calculating sanctions, but also the limits of this procedure.

  6. PEMBENTUKAN KARAKTER PADA ANAK: MODEL MEKANISME SANKSI DIRI DARI ALBERT BANDURA SEBAGAI REGULASI PERILAKU MORAL

    OpenAIRE

    Lestari, Sri

    2016-01-01

    Child rearing in family has various purposes, among of them is to build child’s character. The evidence shows that character strengths are positively related to the individual’s well‐ being and happiness. Albert Bandura proposed self‐sanction mechanism model to regulate moral behavior by giving physical sanction and verbal reprimand. As child grows, the child need parental guiding to understand standards of conduct and to learn about social sanction. If child can function s...

  7. The meaning of a legal category of “sanction”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al’bina Sergeyevna Panova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the legal category of sanction. Methods dialectical systematic and logical methods of analysis synthesis. Results the study of the legal category of quotsanctionquot has shown that a sanction can be applied on a regulatory or contractual basis if stipulated by a civil agreement and as the measures of liability and protection. One of the promising directions of its use is the motivating one ndash sanctions can provide the legal consequences favorable for those who observe the behavior stipulated by the law. The following is offered as the direction of development of domestic legislation on sanctions verification of compliance of the sanctions amount and terms with the offences gravity introduction of previously nonexistent sanctions for example speculation on food and currency markets the use of discretionary sanctions as a means of positive legal stimulation of the economy. Scientific novelty the conclusion is made about the nature of the sanctions it is proved that the sanction is a legal means the use of which enables the victim to protect their violated challenged rights provided for by the legislation and or the agreement and implies adverse consequences of property and or organizational nature for the offender. The sanctions application has its own peculiarities. Their use is aimed at curbing the illegal actions of the offender debtor to stimulate them to the proper performance of statutory or contractual duties often sanctions are aimed at compensating for damage caused to the creditor. A peculiar feature of the sanctions is that they are a necessary component of the legal system. Practical value the results obtained can be used to conduct economic and legal research relating to the economics and entrepreneurship in treaty practice in teaching the disciplines of Civil Law Business Law Commercial Law etc. nbsp

  8. PEMBENTUKAN KARAKTER PADA ANAK: MODEL MEKANISME SANKSI DIRI DARI ALBERT BANDURA SEBAGAI REGULASI PERILAKU MORAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Lestari

    2016-06-01

    being and happiness. Albert Bandura proposed self‐sanction mechanism model to regulate moral behavior by giving physical sanction and verbal reprimand. As child grows, the child need parental guiding to understand standards of conduct and to learn about social sanction. If child can function self‐sanction mechanism, child is expected be able to evaluate his conduct right or wrong. The functioning of behavior moral regulation is an important part in developing child’s character. The strength and weakness of model and the application of this model in Indonesian context will be discussed.

  9. 31 CFR 596.309 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.309 Specific license. The term specific license means any license or...

  10. 31 CFR 594.310 - Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.310 Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT. The term specially...

  11. 31 CFR 596.307 - Monetary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.307 Monetary instruments. The term monetary instruments shall have the meaning...

  12. 31 CFR 545.526 - Certain importations for diplomatic or official personnel authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy... ordinarily incident to the importation into the United States of any goods, software, technology or services...

  13. Law 19.126. It dictate Regulatory standards about Mining of great bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    It statute rules for regulating mining projects of great size, ownership, location, related mining activities, mine closure plan, exploitation concession contract, taxation regime, canon, infractions and sanctions

  14. 78 FR 23332 - Unblocking of One Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Executive Order 13224

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... With Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism, from the list of Specially..., imposing economic sanctions on persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support acts of terrorism. The... sanctions. The Order authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary of State...

  15. 42 CFR 438.724 - Notice to CMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice to CMS. 438.724 Section 438.724 Public...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.724 Notice to CMS. (a) The State must give the CMS Regional Office written notice whenever it imposes or lifts a sanction for one of the violations...

  16. 75 FR 13050 - Regulations to Amend the Civil Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... Administrative Law Judge state good reason(s) for departing from the civil penalty or permit sanction assessed by... Administrative Law Judge state good reason(s) for departing from the civil penalty or permit sanction, condition.... 100216090-0123-01] RIN 0648-AY66 Regulations to Amend the Civil Procedures AGENCY: Office of General Counsel...

  17. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources of...

  18. Tough justice for small nations. How strategic behaviour can influence the enforcement of the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallbekken, Steffen; Maestad, Ottar; Westskog, Hege

    2003-07-01

    The paper looks at how strategic considerations may play a role in the decision of whether or not to impose sanctions on Parties who are not in compliance with their commitments to the Kyoto Protocol. A member of the Enforcement Branch might have incentive to vote for sanctions towards one non-compliant country and not another even with the same violation. This implies that a certain composition of the members of the Enforcement Branch could decide to sanction one country and not another for the same relative non-compliance, while another composition might choose differently. We show that the expected effects on world market prices of sanctioning a country is likely to influence the decision of whether to carry out the sanctions or not. We find that it is likely to be easier to sanction countries where sanctions result in minor impacts on world market prices than those where the impacts are larger. Finally we discuss an alternative design of the sanction mechanism in view of our results. (Author)

  19. Mentally disordered non-psychotic criminal offenders--treatment instead of punishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm; Kørner, Ejnar Alex

    2013-01-01

    By including §69 into the Danish Penal Code, it has since 1975 been possible to use psychiatric measures as legal sanctions for even non-psychotic offenders-if the measure is believed to be preventive of future crime. To be able to decide on the applicability of treatment measures as sanctions...

  20. 77 FR 5387 - Amendment to the Export Administration Regulations: Addition of a Reference to a Provision of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... imposition of sanctions under the ISA. There are several possible sanctions that may be imposed under the ISA... three statutory authorities: (1) The Iran-Iraq Arms Nonproliferation Act of 1992 (Pub. L. 102-484); (2) the Iran, North Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation Act (Pub. L. 106-178); or (3) Section 11B(b)(1)(B)(i...

  1. 77 FR 39425 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Louisiana; Regional Haze State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... the LA RH SIP submittal will trigger the ``two year sanction clock'' imposed by the CAA. The State... remainder of LA's RH SIP triggers a two-year FIP clock,\\7\\ but does not start a sanctions clock for... progress calculation, LTS, or RPGs, the EPA has no rational basis to determine that the Transport Rule...

  2. 50 CFR 680.9 - Penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the civil and criminal penalty provisions, permit sanctions, and civil forfeiture provisions of the... applicable law. Penalties include but are not limited to permanent or temporary sanctions to PQS, QS, IPQ... in a proceeding to enforce or review the findings or orders of any Government agency having...

  3. The Use of Social Media Networks and Mobile Phone Applications for Reporting Suspicious and Criminal Activities to Mass Transit Law Enforcement Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Guidelines for acceptable content postings on Departmental sites as well as sanctions for misbehaving or misrepresentation of the department is imperative...videos and pictures on its site as well as sanctions for misbehaving or misrepresentation of the department is imperative. This prevents issues

  4. Ghanaian Craft Exporters in the Global Market: Binding and Missing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strong positions of buyers and export agents in the craft value chain enable them to apply sanctions to extract compliance from the exporters whereas the weak position of the export vendors implies the lack of sanctioning authority over the rogue artisan subcontractors. The government's promotion programmes could ...

  5. Does Wrongful Conviction Lower Deterrence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    lowerthe threat of being sanctioned for a crime one commits, if two sanctions are not twiceas threatening as one. Second, if wrongful conviction halts further investigations thatmay lead to the true offender, and third, if a potential offender thinks that if he or shedoes not take advantage of a crime...

  6. Poisoned Opium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khair, Tabish

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of the murder of a man for what he ate, Tabish Khair looks at how the darker aspects of ideologies and religions end up sanctioning brutality......In the wake of the murder of a man for what he ate, Tabish Khair looks at how the darker aspects of ideologies and religions end up sanctioning brutality...

  7. 78 FR 5213 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... proposes to (1) establish processes for settling disciplinary matters both before and after the issuance of... Investigation, Disciplinary, Sanction, and Other Procedural Rules That Are Modeled on the Rules of the Financial... investigation, disciplinary, sanction, and other procedural rules that are modeled on the rules of the Financial...

  8. Transnational legal assemblages and global security law: topologies and temporalities of the list

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sullivan, G.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the UN 1267 Al-Qaida sanctions regime as a technique of global security listing and form of transnational law with distinct legal ordering processes. Conventional literatures frame these sanctions in formalist terms, flattening their complexity. Understanding their qualities

  9. Tough justice for small nations. How strategic behaviour can influence the enforcement of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallbekken, Steffen; Maestad, Ottar; Westskog, Hege

    2003-01-01

    The paper looks at how strategic considerations may play a role in the decision of whether or not to impose sanctions on Parties who are not in compliance with their commitments to the Kyoto Protocol. A member of the Enforcement Branch might have incentive to vote for sanctions towards one non-compliant country and not another even with the same violation. This implies that a certain composition of the members of the Enforcement Branch could decide to sanction one country and not another for the same relative non-compliance, while another composition might choose differently. We show that the expected effects on world market prices of sanctioning a country is likely to influence the decision of whether to carry out the sanctions or not. We find that it is likely to be easier to sanction countries where sanctions result in minor impacts on world market prices than those where the impacts are larger. Finally we discuss an alternative design of the sanction mechanism in view of our results. (Author)

  10. S.1128: This Act may be cited as the Omnibus Nuclear Proliferation Control Act of 1991, introduced in the United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, May 22, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This bill would impose sanctions against foreign persons and US persons that assist foreign countries in acquiring a nuclear explosive device or unsafeguarded special nuclear material. Sanctions to be imposed shall include a procurement sanction and an importation sanction; namely, the US government will not procure or import any goods or services from the person or any parent, subsidiary, affiliate, or successor entity so sanctioned. Exceptions are allowed in the case of articles or services determined to be defense articles or essential to the national security. The bill describes the role of international financial institutions, the basis for declaration of national emergency, the export-import bank, eligibility for assistance (amendments to the Arms Export Control Act), and amendments to the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961

  11. Educator Sexual Misconduct and Texas Educator Discipline Database Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Catherine E; Thompson, David P

    2018-05-24

    The purpose of this research is to describe Texas educator sexual misconduct (ESM) by examining 8 years of sanctions issued to educators (N = 1415) for either sexual misconduct or inappropriate relationships with students or minors. We first examine Texas ESM from the perspective of quality database construction and then describe the demographic characteristics of educators sanctioned for ESM between 2008 and 2016. Differences in the demographic characteristics of educators sanctioned for ESM vary according to the definition of ESM employed by the state education agency. Younger and early career educators are more likely to engage in inappropriate relationships with students or minors, whereas older and later-career teachers are more likely to engage in sexual misconduct as that term is defined by the state education agency. Over one-third of educators sanctioned for ESM were either new to the profession or new to their school district when sanctioned. Recommendations are offered for database construction, policy, and practice.

  12. Moral emotions as determinants of third-party punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob M. A. Nelissen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Third-party punishment has recently received attention as an explanation for human altruism. Feelings of anger in response to norm violations are assumed to motivate third-party sanctions, yet there is only sparse and indirect support for this idea. We investigated the impact of both anger and guilt feelings on third-party sanctions. In two studies both emotions were independently manipulated. Results show that anger and guilt independently constitute sufficient but not necessary causes of punishment. Low levels of punishment are observed only when neither emotion is elicited. We discuss the implications of these findings for the functions of altruistic sanctions.

  13. PROHIBITION TO ENGAGE IN A DUTY OR PROFESSION IN CROATIAN CRIMINAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Vuletić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with theoretical and practical issues concerning security measure of prohibition to engage in a duty or profession. Author discusses the purpose of this sanction, analyses legal requirements for imposing the sanction and suggests possible changes of the law de lege ferenda. Additionally, the author describes a few controversial questions concerning this sanction, such as the possibility of life imposing, its application in cases of tax evasion, the relationship with prohibition to operate a motor vehicle, and the question of supervision in practice. Finally, the author argues the quality of the existing provision.

  14. 1970’li Yıllar Türkiye Siyasi Tarihinin Kültürel Belleği: 12 Mart Romanı ‘Yaralısın’da Devlet Güdümlü İşkence ve Mahkumiyet Sorunsalı Cultural Memory of 1970s' Turkish Political History: The Question of State-Sanctioned Torture and Imprisonment in the March 12th Novel ‘Yaralısın’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet ALVER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The ‘March 12th Novels’ is a retroactive umbrella term used to describe the works of fiction written between 1971 and 1980 which take as their inspiration the events surrounding the coup d’etat; the military takeover, the battle between revolutionary left wing activists and nationalists, and the political and social fallout of the intervention. Erdal Öz’s Yaralısın (You are Wounded is a direct response to the traumatic and brutal oppression of the political left after the March 12th military intervention of 1971 in Turkey. The novel plays an important role, among others from the March 12th literary corpus, in the collective memory of the violent persecution suffered by left wing activists, intellectuals and writers during this period. Öz’s work, however, devoid as it is of any explicit reference to contemporary politics or events, can also be read on a more universal level, with much of what it reveals about the nature of violence and power applicable to any totalitarian regime. This article uses the philosophical and social theories of Michel Foucault in particular to examine the way in which Öz depicts the relationship between the state and the individual, exploring the protagonist’s internalisation of state power, taking on both the role of accuser and interrogator. Elaine Scarry’s work is also vital in elucidating the psychological effects of torture, in particular the way in which it destroys language and its victim’s capacity for self-expression, twisting the suffering of the prisoner in order to legitimise state control. ‘12 Mart Romanları’, 1971 askeri müdahelesi sonrasındaki zaman diliminde, Türkiye’de yaşanan siyasi kargaşayı, aşırı sol ve sağı temsil eden gençlerin birbirleriyle ve devletin kolluk kuvvetleriyle olan çekişmelerini, kavgalarını ele alan; müdahele sonrası yaşanan ve özellikle de sol ideolojiyi vuran gözaltı, işkence ve mahkumiyet dalgası ile 1970’li yıllar Türk siyasi yaşamının bilinmeyen birçok yanına ışık tutarak bu durumu edebi bir perspektiften değerlendiren ve bu olaylara etkili bir dille ayna tutmaya çalışan eserlere verilen genel bir ifadedir. Bu bağlamda Erdal Öz’ün ‘Yaralısın’ romanı, 12 Mart 1971 askeri müdahelesi sonrası Türkiye’sinde, döneme ait acı gerçeklere doğrudan ışık tutarak, sol ideolojiyi temsil eden bir neslin yaşadığı acıların kültürel belleğini tutar. Roman, 1970 yıllar Türkiye’sinde, sol fikirli yüzlerce, binlerce entellektüel, üniversite öğrencisi ve aktivistin gözaltı süresince zulme ve işkenceye maruz kaldığı; ülkede hakim olan karanlık bir dönemin kültürel hafızasını kaydederek günümüz neslinin yakın tarihini öğrenmelerinde önemli bir rol oynamaktadır. Erdal Öz’ün bu romanı ayrıca, dönemin siyasetine veya siyasi olaylarına herhangi bir isim veya zaman dilimi kullanmadan somut anlamda doğrudan vurgu yapmaması yönüyle de evrensel bir özellik taşımaktadır. Romanda sunulan işkence ve insanlık dışı her türlü uygulama, herhangi bir totaliter rejim tarafından uygulanabilecek şiddetin doğasına işaret etmektedir. Bu çalışmada Michael Foucault’un felsefi ve sosyoloji teorileriyle açıkladığı devlet ile birey arasındaki ilişkiyi, totaliter bir yapıya sahip iktidarın uyguladığı aşırı gücün etkilerini görmekteyiz. Buna ek olarak, iktidarın romanın tutuklu kahramanı üzerinde hem pskikolojik hem de fiziksel anlamda uyguladığı gücün oluşturduğu etkileri, bu güç karşısındaki direnç girişimini ve bir süre sonra bu güce boyun eğmek zorunda kalarak, kendi kendisinin sorgulayıcısı ve suçlayıcısı olma sürecini incelemektedir. Öte yandan, Elaine Scarry tarafından kaleme alınan “ The Body in Pain” adlı kitap da, işkencenin özellikle de şiddete maruz kalan bireyin dış dünyayla iletişime geçip kendini ifade etme yetisini ortadan kaldıran psikolojik etkileri ile devletin mahkum birey üzerinde kurduğu kontrolü ve baskıyı meşrulaştırma amacıyla şiddetin dozunu daha da arttırma gibi çıkarımlarını ele alması yönüyle bu makalede birinci derecede öneme sahiptir.

  15. Rosoboroneksport: Arms Sales and the Structure of Russian Defense Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blank, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    In August 2006, the U.S. Government imposed sanctions on Russian arms sellers and producers, Rosoboroneksport, Russia's main arms-selling agency, and Sukhoi, which manufactures aircraft, because of their arms sales to Iran...

  16. 75 FR 43233 - Designation of ANWAR AL-AULAQI Pursuant to Executive Order 13224 and the Global Terrorism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... pertaining to OFAC's sanctions programs also is available via facsimile through a 24-hour fax-on-demand... loyalty to AQAP emir, Nasir al-Wahishi, and is playing a key role in setting the strategic direction for...

  17. US-Iranian Relations: Prospects for Rapprochement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    .... The United States imposes sanctions against the Islamic Republic, in an effort to isolate the regime and limit its ability to finance terrorist activity or to develop nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons...

  18. Global Administrative Law and Developing Countries | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and influence important developments in global regulatory governance. ... transnational institutions designed to detect and sanction money laundering shape ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.

  19. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran ssssssss economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  20. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  1. 12 CFR 1780.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section, the Director may fashion sanctions in any such amount as deemed to be appropriate taking into... Enterprise; (iii) Any benefits received; (iv) Any attempts at concealment; (v) Any history of prior...

  2. GENERAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE PRIOR DISCIPLINARY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRA PURAN (DASCĂLU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Disciplinary research is the first phase of the disciplinary action. According to art. 251 paragraph 1 of the Labour Code no disciplinary sanction may be ordered before performing the prior disciplinary research.These regulations provide an exception: the sanction of written warning. The current regulations in question, kept from the old regulation, provides a protection for employees against abuses made by employers, since sanctions are affecting the salary or the position held, or even the development of individual employment contract. Thus, prior research of the fact that is a misconduct, before a disciplinary sanction is applied, is an essential condition for the validity of the measure ordered. Through this study we try to highlight some general issues concerning the characteristics, processes and effects of prior disciplinary research.

  3. U.S.-China Military Contacts: Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Shirley A

    2008-01-01

    ... (PRC) and provides a record of major contacts since 1993. The United States suspended military contacts with China and imposed sanctions on arms sales in response to the Tiananmen Crackdown in 1989...

  4. The rise and fall of communal responsibility in ancient law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parisi, F.; Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Miller, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    In ancient societies, rules of communal responsibility permitted the imposition of retaliatory sanctions on a wrongdoer's clan. These rules followed the collective ownership structure of early communities. Over time, notions of personal responsibility emerged, terminating the transfer of

  5. Iran's Nuclear Program: Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerr, Paul K

    2008-01-01

    ... in March 2008, which imposed sanctions on Tehran. Despite this pressure, Iran continues at its Natanz centrifuge facility to enrich uranium, expand the number of operating centrifuges, and conduct research on new types of centrifuges...

  6. 31 CFR 594.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General... constructive notice of such person's designation by the Secretary of State or the Secretary of the Treasury. ...

  7. Constructing female citizenship in transition : Women's activism and education in Myanmar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maber, E.J.T.

    2017-01-01

    Varied education sites, particularly in situations of conflict and transition, can play multiple, and changing, roles, including validating reproductions of state-sanctioned citizenship along exclusive strata, or conversely adopting a more oppositional stance. Such constructions can be highly

  8. 31 CFR 594.509 - Transactions related to mail authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS... communications not involving a transfer of anything of value and not exceeding 12 ounces in weight. ...

  9. 77 FR 11381 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... took extreme measures against the people of Libya, including by using weapons of war, mercenaries, and... the U.N. Security Council's decision to lift sanctions against the Central Bank of Libya and two other...

  10. 29 CFR 2200.120 - Settlement procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or other representative of a party what concessions his or her client should consider and assess... cooperate fully within the spirit of this rule may result in the imposition of sanctions under § 2200.101...

  11. Law project adopted by the National Assembly, after urgency declaration, of the program relative to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes; Projet de loi adopte par l'Assemblee Nationale, apres declaration d'urgence, de programme relatif a la gestion durable des matieres et des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The document presents the different articles of the law project dealing with the terminology, the radioactive wastes storage and disposal, the safety and the transport, the financing, the liabilities, the control and the sanctions. (A.L.B.)

  12. Law project adopted by the National Assembly, after urgency declaration, of the program relative to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The document presents the different articles of the law project dealing with the terminology, the radioactive wastes storage and disposal, the safety and the transport, the financing, the liabilities, the control and the sanctions. (A.L.B.)

  13. U.S.-China Military Contacts: Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Shirley A

    2007-01-01

    ... (PRC) and provides a record of major contacts since 1993. The United States suspended military contacts with China and imposed sanctions on arms sales in response to the Tiananmen Crackdown in 1989...

  14. U.S.-China Military Contacts: Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    ...), and provides a chronology of contacts from 1993 to 2005. The United States suspended military contacts with China and imposed sanctions on arms sales in response to the Tiananmen Crackdown in 1989...

  15. 77 FR 73516 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Iran Threat Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... information provided. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Cecelia L. Davis, Procurement Analyst, at 202-219... sector of Iran and impose sanctions with respect to transport of crude oil from Iran and evasion of...

  16. Colombia : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Discrimination fondée sur l'appartenance ethnique et le sexe dans les ... Sujet: AMERINDIANS, GENDER DISCRIMINATION, RACIAL DISCRIMINATION, PARTICIPATORY ... CRIMINAL LAW, PENAL SANCTIONS, POLICE, CIVIL SOCIETY.

  17. Colombie : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Discrimination fondée sur l'appartenance ethnique et le sexe dans les ... Sujet: AMERINDIANS, GENDER DISCRIMINATION, RACIAL DISCRIMINATION, PARTICIPATORY ... CRIMINAL LAW, PENAL SANCTIONS, POLICE, CIVIL SOCIETY.

  18. colombia : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Discrimination fondée sur l'appartenance ethnique et le sexe dans les ... Sujet: AMERINDIANS, GENDER DISCRIMINATION, RACIAL DISCRIMINATION, PARTICIPATORY ... CRIMINAL LAW, PENAL SANCTIONS, POLICE, CIVIL SOCIETY.

  19. 76 FR 68809 - Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation; Termination of Chemical and Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ..., Office of Missile, Biological, and Chemical Nonproliferation, Bureau of International Security and... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7678] Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation; Termination of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against a Foreign Person AGENCY...

  20. HUD Hearings and Appeals Office Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These all of the Administrative Sanction decisions issued by the Office of Appeals and its predecessor, the HUD Board of Contract Appeals. This Office has included...

  1. 77 FR 72336 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... not violated U.S. export laws; will not divert the property to denied/ sanctioned countries... regulations. Affected Public: Individuals; businesses or other for profit; not- for-profit institutions...

  2. 50 CFR 665.803 - Notifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... notification of the trip type (either deep-setting or shallow-setting). (b) The permit holder, or designated... in processing an application, permit holders failing to receive important notifications, or sanctions...

  3. Sustainable institutionalized punishment requires elimination of second-order free-riders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perc, Matjaž

    2012-03-01

    Although empirical and theoretical studies affirm that punishment can elevate collaborative efforts, its emergence and stability remain elusive. By peer-punishment the sanctioning is something an individual elects to do depending on the strategies in its neighborhood. The consequences of unsustainable efforts are therefore local. By pool-punishment, on the other hand, where resources for sanctioning are committed in advance and at large, the notion of sustainability has greater significance. In a population with free-riders, punishers must be strong in numbers to keep the ``punishment pool'' from emptying. Failure to do so renders the concept of institutionalized sanctioning futile. We show that pool-punishment in structured populations is sustainable, but only if second-order free-riders are sanctioned as well, and to a such degree that they cannot prevail. A discontinuous phase transition leads to an outbreak of sustainability when punishers subvert second-order free-riders in the competition against defectors.

  4. 北朝鮮に対する国連による経済制裁についての一考察

    OpenAIRE

    斎藤, 直樹

    2017-01-01

    This article is designed to examine whether economic sanctions by the United Nations against North Korea have affected North Korean economy by dealing with nuclear and ballistic missile developments by North Korea since the beginning of 2016.

  5. Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J. M.; Tawil, J.

    1980-12-01

    The policy instruments considered include: greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings.

  6. Iran's Economic Conditions: U.S. Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2009-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  7. Microcredit supply under Islamic Banking in Khartoum State, Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    been negatively impacted by the financial sanctions imposed on Sudan since ... to in Arabic language as “Riba”1 is the most significant principle of Islamic finance. ..... of microcredit approval among those who maintain accounting records is ...

  8. Iran's Nuclear Program: Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerr, Paul K

    2008-01-01

    .... Indeed, the UN Security Council has responded to Iran's refusal to suspend work on its uranium enrichment and heavy-water nuclear reactor programs by adopting several resolutions which imposed sanctions on Tehran...

  9. 24 CFR 92.551 - Corrective and remedial actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Performance Reviews and Sanctions § 92.551... substantial facts and data, that it has done so. (2) If the participating jurisdiction fails to demonstrate to...

  10. International Reaction to the Palestinian Unity Government

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morro, Paul

    2007-01-01

    .... The international sanctions have not driven Hamas from power, and instead, some assert they may have provided an opening for Iran to increase its influence among Palestinians by filling the void...

  11. 77 FR 7660 - Information Regarding General Licenses A and B Under the New Executive Order of February 5, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... practices of the Central Bank of Iran and other Iranian banks to conceal transactions of sanctioned parties..., including the Central Bank of Iran, any Iranian financial institution, and any person determined by the...

  12. 75 FR 56423 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions to the New Source Review (NSR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... disapprove the submitted six portions of the State submittals does not trigger a sanctions or Federal..., and this is not a rational basis to justify disapproving the State's rules. Response: EPA disagrees...

  13. 2010 Administrative Law Judge Initial Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Securities and Exchange Commission — The initial decisions issued by administrative law judges in 2010 that contains findings of fact, legal conclusions, and an order that often contains a sanction....

  14. 2009 Administrative Law Judge Initial Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Securities and Exchange Commission — The initial decisions issued by administrative law judges in 2009 that contains findings of fact, legal conclusions, and an order that often contains a sanction....

  15. 31 CFR 594.315 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.315 United States person; U.S. person. The term United States person or...

  16. 31 CFR 595.311 - Specially designated terrorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.311 Specially designated terrorist. (a) The term specially designated terrorist means: (1...

  17. 31 CFR 596.306 - License.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.306 License. Except as otherwise specified, the term license means any license or...

  18. 31 CFR 596.308 - Person; entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.308 Person; entity. (a) The term person means an individual or entity. (b) The...

  19. 31 CFR 595.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked...

  20. 31 CFR 594.316 - Otherwise associated with.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.316 Otherwise associated with. The term “to be otherwise associated with,” as used in § 594...