imposes sanctions on several key sectors of Iran’s economic infrastructure. For a broader analysis of policy on Iran, see CRS Report RL32048, Iran...oil or gas drill rig or motors or other gear that Iran will use to drill for oil or gas were not sanctionable under ISA, unless the sale is...carrying Iranian oil, but they worked around that by setting up new insurance mechanisms. Japan’s exemption has benefitted its banks, such as Mitsubishi UFJ
banking institutions to encourage their re-entry into the Iran market without fear of being sanctioned. And, Iran’s filing of its Action Plan with......investments, shielded from the view of the Iranian entities and international regulators.” In accordance with the JCPOA, EIKO-controlled companies were “ de
it clear that the opposition is motivated by economic factors that are affected by sanctions. Still, the campaign for the March 2, 2012, Majles...plan first went into effect in December 2010, some Iranian truckers simply stopped working on the grounds that their work was no longer profitable
Coca Cola Company, which provides syrup for the U.S.-brand soft drink to an Iranian distributor, Khoshgovar. Local versions of both Coke and of Pepsi...37 China and Russia...as Citgo, were not sanctioned and U.S. purchases of Venezuelan oil were not affected. Jan. 12, 2012 Zhuhai Zhenrong Co. ( China ); Kuo Oil Pte Ltd
nearly complete history of missile nonproliferation sanctions, see D. A. Ozga , "A Chronology of the Missile Technology Control Regime," The...of Congress," Washington, D.C., June 1996. Ozga , D. A., "A Chronology of the Missile Technology Control Regime," The Nonproliferation Review, Winter
activities, including sponsorship of players , coaching, referees, and training. In some cases, such as the earthquake in Bam in 2003 and the earthquake in...Woori Bank, and its main exports to Iran have been iron and steel, as well as consumer electronics and appliances made by companies such as Samsung...and elsewhere to increasing sanctions on Iran. Iran’s only female minister, Minister of Health Marzieh Vahid Dastjerdi, was dismissed in December
reduction was further compounded by a fall in oil prices since mid-2014. Sanctions also made inaccessible about $120 billion in Iranian reserves held in...December 2, 2011, that the provision could lead to a rise in oil prices that would benefit Iran, the Administration accepted the legislation. In the...confirmed. Instead, a portion of the Iranian oil China buys is reportedly sent to North Korea. South Asia: India, Pakistan , and Afghanistan India
Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss stories about rulers and princes of three dynasties - Abbasid, Norman and Timurid – and their narrative representation as prime knowers of the mathematical sciences, geography and history. I argue that they constitute one set of positive forms of sanctioning or contesting knowledge in those societies by prescribing hierarchies of knowledge forms and hierarchies of people and institutions that decide about the veracity of knowledge. I suggest that these stories share their origin and meaning in an environment of legitimizing propaganda for the various rulers and princes. I also claim that the value and position of scientific knowledge in these stories differ, starting from what apparently were personal interests of a ruler and leading to its integration into what was considered necessary for the education of a prince and the cultured behaviour of a ruler. Hence, these stories about knowledge and rulers present images of knowledge that delineate the status of scholars in those three societies and thus define possibilities and set boundaries for learning and practicing scholarly fields.En este artículo se estudian historias sobre gobernantes y príncipes de tres dinastías - ‛abbāsí, normanda y timurí – y su representación narrativa como conocedores de las ciencias matemáticas, la geografía y la historia. Se argumenta que constituyen un conjunto de formas positivas de aprobar o impugnar el conocimiento en esas sociedades, prescribiendo jerarquías de formas de conocimiento y jerarquías de gentes e instituciones que deciden acerca de la veracidad del conocimiento. Se sugiere que esas historias comparten su origen y significado en un contexto de propaganda legitimadora para varios gobernantes y príncipes. También se afirma que el valor y la posición del conocimiento científico en esas historias difieren, empezando por lo que en apariencia eran los intereses personales de un gobernante hasta su integraci
Paolo Buonanno; Giacomo Pasini; Paolo Vanin
Social sanctions may be a strong deterrent of crime. This paper presents a formal model that relates crime and social sanction to social interaction density. We empirically test the theoretical predictions using a provincial level panel dataset on di erent crimes in Italy between 1996 and 2003. We exploit detailed demographic and geo-morphological information to develop exogenous measures of social interaction density. We estimate a spatial panel model by means of a GMM procedure and we nd th...
Cowie, Helen; Colliety, Pat
This paper explores the phenomenon of cyberbullying. The argument here is that, although there is a case for sanctions, schools also have a critical role to play in preventing and reducing cyberbullying through a process of awareness-raising, the education of the emotions and active participation of children and young people themselves.
agricultural cash crops by white commercial farmers, and had achieved self sufficiency in sugar, milk, dairy and was an exporter of corn ( maize ) and cattle...of Cuba, Israel, and Rhodesia (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1978), 124.) David Rowe’s definition of economic sanctions incorporates
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to characterize imprisoned and non- imprisoned women in the State of São Paulo, as well as the realities faced by them while under penal sanctions, searching, to the possible extent, for a comparison with the male population under the same sanctions. In the case of imprisoned women, such exposition is based on data from the Justice Department and SAP (Penitentiary Administration Office, and , in the case of non-imprisoned women, documental research on the Presidente Prudente Center for Penalties and Alternative Measures Monthly Follow-up Reports . Results showed that, when compared with the male population, women have to face extra difficulties when under penal sanctions. They also showed that gender inequalities are also present in the universe of these women, which are materialized in the compliance with the penal conditions and in the maintenance of the female responsibility for care taking, mainly of children.
H. J.G. Zandman
Full Text Available The world has developed into a globe with increasingly inter- twined economic interests, with greater economic interdepen- dence than ever before. This has caused a new weapon to step onto the world scene in the 20th and 21st centuries, applied to bring nations to heel. It is aimed at those nations which do not conform to particular, usually ethically perceived standards. “Economic sanctions” is the name of this new weapon. This article aims to evaluate the wielding of economic sanctions from the perspective of principles based on a Biblical worldview in order to assist Christians in making an informed decision as to what their stance ought to be regarding this phenomenon. Data show that there is an incremental increase of the use of economic sanctions in world politics. At present, sanctions have uncertain grounding in ethics and little or no standing in inter- national law. Their effectiveness is seriously questioned, their economic cost, especially to the implementer(!, is considerable. The question as to whether economic sanctions should be deplored or embraced at times would be helped with further investigation beyond the scope of this article, notably with re- gard to what has been surmised in the context of the sanctions deployed regarding the apartheid regime in South Africa. The results of economic sanctions appear to bear out the Biblical principles in that both, actual results plus Biblical prin- ciples, generally send a discouraging message regarding this approach to political conflict.
... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Parts 594, 595, and 597 Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist Organizations Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of... (``OFAC'') of the U.S. Department of the Treasury is amending the Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations...
... Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION... amending the North Korea Sanctions Regulations to implement Executive Order 13570 of April 18, 2011. OFAC..., the Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control published the North Korea Sanctions...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanctions. 62.79 Section 62.79 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.79 Sanctions. (a) The Department of State shall impose sanctions...
... ARTICLE 1904 OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Violation of a Protective Order or a Disclosure... administrative law judge to impose such sanctions. (b) The administrative law judge may impose interim sanctions... interim sanctions are a reasonable means for protecting the rights of the Department, authorized agency of...
Rustem M. Nureev; Evgeniy G. Busygin
The main objective of the work is the analysis of the consequences for Russian economy from the imposition of sanctions by Western countries. The paper discusses issues related to the effectiveness of the sanctions on South Africa, Iraq, and Haiti; the work presents the consequences of imposition of sanctions for Russian economy as a whole, as well as highlight the impact of the introduction of anti-Russian and Russian sanctions on two sectors: banking and food industry. The first was chosen ...
... on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed Under the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996 and the Iran Threat... persons have engaged in sanctionable activity described in section 5(a)(8) of the Iran Sanctions Act of...''), that the following persons have engaged in sanctionable activity described in section 212 of the Iran...
Full Text Available Top-level sport imposes new and more demanding physical and psychological pressures, and the desire for competing, winning and selfassertion leads athletes into temptation to use prohibited substances in order to achieve the best possible results. Regardless of the fact that the adverse consequences of prohibited substances are well-known, prestige and the need to dominate sports arenas have led to their use in sports. Doping is one of the biggest issues in sport today, and the fight against it is a strategic objective on both global and national levels. World Anti-Doping Agency, the International Olympic Committee, international sports federations, national anti-doping agencies, national sports federations, as well as governments and their repressive apparatuses are all involved in the fight against doping in sport. This paper points to a different etymology and phenomenology of doping, the beginnings of doping in sport, sports doping scandals as well as the most important international instruments regulating this issue. Also, there is a special reference in this paper to the criminal and misdemeanor sanctions for doping in sport. In Serbia doping in sport is prohibited by the Law on Prevention of Doping in Sports which came into force in 2005 and which prescribes the measures and activities aimed at prevention of doping in sport. In this context, the law provides for the following three criminal offenses: use of doping substances, facilitating the use of doping substances, and unauthorized production and putting on traffic of doping substances. In addition, aiming at curbing the abuse of doping this law also provides for two violations. More frequent and repetitive doping scandals indicate that doping despite long-standing sanctions is still present in sports, which suggests that sanctions alone have not given satisfactory results so far.
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Sanctions. 99.225 Section 99.225 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Audits § 99.225 Sanctions. No audit costs may be charged to Federal awards when audits required by this part have not been...
... 31 CFR Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury...'') is issuing regulations with respect to North Korea to implement Executive Order 13466 of June 26... issuing the North Korea Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR part 510 (the ``Regulations''), to implement E.O...
Results of four experiments concerning the way young people interpret an intended or expressed sanction (praise or blame) from a teacher are presented. The intention of the four studies was to expose the flaws in Meyer's 1984 attempted explanations of such interpretation, in which sanctions are paradoxically received by the student as an…
Gürerk, Ozgür; Irlenbusch, Bernd; Rockenbach, Bettina
Understanding the fundamental patterns and determinants of human cooperation and the maintenance of social order in human societies is a challenge across disciplines. The existing empirical evidence for the higher levels of cooperation when altruistic punishment is present versus when it is absent systematically ignores the institutional competition inherent in human societies. Whether punishment would be deliberately adopted and would similarly enhance cooperation when directly competing with nonpunishment institutions is highly controversial in light of recent findings on the detrimental effects of punishment. We show experimentally that a sanctioning institution is the undisputed winner in a competition with a sanction-free institution. Despite initial aversion, the entire population migrates successively to the sanctioning institution and strongly cooperates, whereas the sanction-free society becomes fully depopulated. The findings demonstrate the competitive advantage of sanctioning institutions and exemplify the emergence and manifestation of social order driven by institutional selection.
The thesis, the topic of which is "Sanctions and protective treatment measures" provides an insight into the matter of very narrowly specified branch of administration criminal law as a sub-branch of the administration law, which is traditionally categorized as general administration law. The topic is not elaborated on in its entirety due to a large number of regulations on penalisation in administrative law, the thesis offers a general overview of the sanctions that can be imposed if an offe...
Jaeger, Mark Daniel
international sanctions work, and more substantially, what are the social conditions within sanctions conflicts that are conducive to either cooperation or non-cooperation? Arguing that coercive sanctions and international conflicts are socially-constructed facts, the book explores the processes involved...... in the formation of meaning that sanctions and conflicts acquire. From a sociological perspective, the answer to the question depends on the meaning that sanctions acquire for opponents in on-going conflict. On the other hand, sanctions contribute differently to the way in which opponents construct conflict...
Full Text Available Economic sanctions are seen as a foreign policy instrument less severe than military engagement but more potent than diplomacy. The assessment of the economic impact of sanctions invariably focuses on direct bilateral trade, with little regard to indirect costs. In the case of sanctions on Iran, the real cost to Iran and the U.S. is not so much due to reduced trade but to factors such as missed investment and joint venture opportunities, especially in the energy sector. The significant size of these costs for Iran will make it difficult for Iran to resume business as usual with U.S. companies whensanctions are lifted; and for U.S. energy companies, their long-term competitiveness in Iran and also globally will be reduced.
Jaeger, Mark Daniel
such an effect. This paper explores sanctions conflicts as social constructs. It purports that rally-around-the-flag is all but one part of the discursive dimension of sanctions conflicts. Sanctions are intricately connected with the conflict setting they occur in. The study suggests a dialectical relation...... precision as such reasoning would suggest. Whether sanctions are really “targeted”, sparing the economy and concentrating on the culprits, is as much a question of discourse in the target state....
... OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES APPEALS.... Such sanction may include— (1) In the case of refusal to provide or permit discovery under the terms of this part, drawing negative factual inferences or treating such refusal as an admission by deeming the...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanctions. 224.29 Section 224.29 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 224...) Failing to comply with an order, rule, or procedure governing the proceeding; (2) Failing to prosecute or...
Careful reading of the literature on psychology of criminal conduct and of prior reviews of studies of treatment effects suggested that neither criminal sanctioning without provision of rehabilitative treatment will succeed in reducing recidivism. What works, in our views, is the delivery of appropriate correctional treatment, and ...
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanctions. 200.114 Section 200.114 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Code of Behavior Governing Ex Parte Communications Between Persons...
... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanctions. 18.9 Section 18.9 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN THE STATE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICES § 18.9... appropriate action provided by law. (b) The remedies available to the Secretary under this part, and remedies...
... area of any nuclear power plant, within a facility that is licensed to possess or use formula... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanctions. 26.75 Section 26.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... compensation or benefits to the donor during the period of temporary administrative action; (3) Immediately on...
Arren Mendezona Allegretti; Jerry J. Vaske; Ryan. Finchum
At the start of this century, aggressive fishermen retaliated against changes in fishing regulations in the Galapagos. To understand this conflict, we examined fishermen's norms regarding sanctions that the Galapagos National Park Service should use for: (a) fishing regulation violations, and (b) aggressive behavior by fishermen.
Vyrastekova, J.; Funaki, Y.; Takeuchi, A.
Sanctioning increases cooperation in public goods games, but not indiscriminately under all conditions and in all societies, and the mechanisms by which sanctioning exercises its impact on behavior are yet to be studied in detail. We show experimentally that in the presence of sanctioning, our
Funaki, Y.; Takeuchi, A.; Vyrastekova, J.
Sanctioning increases cooperation in public goods games, but not indiscriminately under all conditions and in all societies, and the mechanisms by which sanctioning exercises its impact on behavior are yet to be studied in detail. We show experimentally that in the presence of sanctioning, our
Full Text Available This piece begins by illustrating the current status of United Nations targeted sanctions regimes, from the formal point of view. It then proceeds to explain the mechanisms of listing and de-listing at the UN level, as well as the means by which UN Member States, and the European Union, implement these sanctions in their national (regional legal orders, and why the chosen means of implementation create potential situations where the states (the EU might find themselves in breach of differing international obligations. In the final part, the article shows how the major international European courts (the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Court of Human Rights have dealt with this potential conflict, and posits that their approaches are very different and will have different consequences: i.e. whereas the CJEU has taken a militant approach, which threatens to damage the unity of international law, the ECtHR has taken an unitary approach, which strengthens the international system, while also promoting human rights over sanctions.
Kara S. Finnigan
Full Text Available The focus on “school turnaround” has become central to policy and practice in the United States as a result of school accountability, yet little remains known about school improvement under sanction. This study uses theories of organizational learning to understand the processes through which educators search for and adopt reform strategies, as well as the extent to which these schools’ organizational culture and climate are conducive to this type of learning. Our mixed methods study involves document analysis, intensive case studies, and a survey of teachers in schools under sanction in a large urban school district in the USA. We found limited evidence of organizational learning, and instead evidence suggested superficial use of restructuring planning, rare diagnoses of root causes of low performance, and limited engagement in learning processes of school staff. In addition, schools relied on exploitation resulting in the recycling of previous practices. In part, the limited organizational learning in evidence was the result of structures and climates within these low-performing schools that inhibited a more learning-oriented approach to reform. Our study has implications for school improvement under accountability policies as it uncovers important challenges that limit organizational learning and, as a result, school improvement under sanction.
Putterman, Louis; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl; Kamei, Kenju
The burgeoning literature on the use of sanctions to support the provision of public goods has largely neglected the use of formal or centralized sanctions. We let subjects playing a linear public goods game vote on the parameters of a formal sanction scheme capable of either resolving or exacerb......The burgeoning literature on the use of sanctions to support the provision of public goods has largely neglected the use of formal or centralized sanctions. We let subjects playing a linear public goods game vote on the parameters of a formal sanction scheme capable of either resolving...... or exacerbating the free-rider problem, depending on parameter settings. Most groups quickly learned to choose parameters inducing efficient outcomes. We find that cooperative orientation, political attitude, gender and intelligence have a small but sometimes significant influence on voting....
Dilemmas of Economic Coercion: Sanctions in World Politics , ed. Miroslav Nincic and Peter Wallensteen, 155-181. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1983...and Peter Wallensteen, “Economic Coercion and Foreign Policy.” In Dilemmas of Economic Coercion: Sanctions in World Politics , ed. Miroslav Nincic...of Economic Coercion: Sanctions in World Politics , ed. Miroslav Nincic and Peter Wallensteen, 87-129. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1983. Weekman
Garcia, Michael J
.... In accordance with these obligations, the United States has enacted various federal requirements and criminal sanctions applying to biological and chemical weapons, Re cent anti4errorisrn legislation...
Full Text Available Wage differences between authorized and unauthorized Mexican immigrants can be explained by human capital factors prior to the 1986 passage of employer sanctions, which prohibited knowingly hiring unauthorized aliens. However, a significant post-1986 wage differential has been interpreted as employers “passing along” expected costs of sanctions through lower wages for unauthorized immigrants. I test this explanation using administrative data on employer sanctions enforcement, finding employer sanctions enforcement levels are related to Mexican immigrants’ wages but have no statistically significant differential effect based on legal status. Estimated savings to employers due to the pay gap are orders of magnitude larger than actual fines.
Shahabi, Shohreh; Fazlalizadeh, Hooman; Stedman, Jennifer; Chuang, Linus; Shariftabrizi, Ahmad; Ram, Regina
In 2012, Iranian's economy collapsed under strain from sanctions instituted to stop Iran from violating the International Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Sanctions have indirectly led to serious healthcare concerns, specifically cancer treatment. This is the first report to evaluate Iranian cancer healthcare while under international economic sanctions. Data and information were identified by searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, and references from relevant articles using the search terms: "Iran", "health policy", "sanctions", "ethics", and "cancer". Articles published in the English language between 1966 and present were included, based on relevance to sanctions or the specific case of sanctions in Iran. The Program of Action for Cancer Therapy evaluated Iran's National Cancer Control Program (NCCP), reporting it has substantial deficits, including prevention, diagnosis/treatment, palliative care, monitoring, and technology, with a serious drug shortage for cancer care. Sanctions have exemptions for medicines and food, but lead to disruption of health services through complications in transportation, transferring currencies or lack of money. There is increasing evidence that sanctions harm vulnerable populations, while blocking globalization and not creating political or social change quickly. Improvement of Iran's NCCP is not feasible, and the health of cancer patients will continue to decline while the sanctions are in effect. The solution is complex, but a modern and innovative approach to diplomacy, which includes human rights, is necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
M. Shahadat Hossain Siddiquee (Muhammad); P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter)
textabstractThis paper analyses two vintages of the key resource for research on economic sanctions: the Peterson Institute database reported in Hufbauer et al. (2nd edition in 1990 and 3rd edition in 2007). The Peterson Institute has not reported transparently on these changes. We provide detailed
Doumas, Diana M.
This study examined differences in the relationship of drinking motives to drinking behavior among sanctioned and nonsanctioned 1st-year students (N = 298). Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that for both sanctioned and nonsanctioned students, alcohol use was predicted by social and enhancement motives, and alcohol-related…
It has been contended that criminalization of commercial wrongs would chill economic activities due to the over-deterrence effect of criminal sanctions. However, a growing amount of legal literature has emerged in this area and it has indicated that deceptive commercial behaviors deserve criminal sanctions since they ...
Some developed countries have used unilateral trade sanctions against governments that have allegedly been engaged in gross violations of human rights as a tool to force such governments to comply with basic human rights standards. Even though unilateral trade sanctions might be targeted against governments that ...
Workman, Jane E.; Freeburg, Elizabeth W.; Lentz-Hees, Elizabeth S.
This study identifies and evaluates sanctions for dress code violations in secondary school handbooks. Sanctions, or consequences for breaking rules, vary along seven interrelated dimensions: source, formality, retribution, obtrusiveness, magnitude, severity, and pervasiveness. A content analysis of handbooks from 155 public secondary schools…
... gas, liquefied natural gas, biofuels, methanol, and other non-petroleum fuels; (m) the term... Government as a condition for the export or reexport of goods or technology to the sanctioned person; (c... of goods, technology, or services, directly or indirectly, into the United States from the sanctioned...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are there sanctions for misconduct? 681.31 Section 681.31 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Procedures § 681.31 Are there sanctions for...
...) As required by the Iran Sanctions Act, unless an exception applies or a waiver is granted in... expansion of Iran's domestic production of refined petroleum products, including any direct and significant... Sanctions Policy, Bureau of Economic, Energy, and Business Affairs in the State Department, allowing...
Jaeger, Mark Daniel
In the conflicts with Russia and Iran, Western countries are using sanctions as a core instrument of international politics. It is still unclear whether sanctions against the finance and energy sector contributed to the diplomatic breakthrough with Iran. However, it is hoped that such measures ca...
This article - written for a symposium on comparative criminal law - discusses whether sanctions for economic crime have become excessive in the Danish context either in absolute terms or in comparison with sanctions for crimes involving physical harm. The text has three parts. In the first part, I...... present a theoretical framework that allows for a determination of optimal levels of sanctions and enforcement of crime. In the second part, I compare actual levels of sanctions in Denmark for various kinds of crime involving either economic or bodily harm, and discuss whether differences can be explained...... by the theory. In the third part, I compare a recent increase in the level of the sanction for breach of competition law and for insider trading with the theoretically optimal levels and I tentatively suggest that the increase may well have been warranted from a deterrence perspective. However, I stress...
Full Text Available This paper discusses the relation between communication and preservation of social norms guarded by third-party sanctions. In 2001 Jonathan Bendor and Piotr Swistak derived deductively the existence of such norms from a simple boundedly rational choice model. Their analysis was based on a perfect public information case. We take into account communication and analyse at the micro level the process of production and interpretation of information on which decisions are based. We show that when information is fully private and we allow for communication a state of anomie can result. If some social control mechanisms are available, social stability can be maintained. The less efficient the social control mechanisms however, the more restrictive rules will be needed to sustain the social norms. Furthermore not all cognitive strategies for interpreting received messages are equally effective. Strategies based on reputation are better than strategies based on profit analysis.
Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben
BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes...... in relation to the different periods in the patients' lives: not yet known to the psychiatric hospital system, known to the system but not yet diagnosed with schizophrenia, and after being diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: Information from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register was correlated...... with data from the Danish National Crime Register. RESULTS: One of the more prominent findings was that 16% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia receive a prison sentence or a suspended prison sentence, despite the fact that Denmark is a co-signatory of the European Prison Rules and should treat, rather...
Full Text Available According to art. 34 par. 1 from the UGO no. 34/2001, the court settling the complaint against the offence notice, verifying the legality and substantiality of same, decides on the sanction without distinguishing between the main and the supplementary sanctions. From corroborating these legal provisions with the stipulations under art. 5 from the same normative act, according to which the established sanction must be proportional with the degree of social danger of the committed act, without making differences between the types of sanctions, as well as those of art. 5 and art. 6 according to which the supplementary sanctions are to be applied depending on the nature and seriousness of the fact, it results that the law enforcer has also decided on the right of the court to assess inclusively the proportionality of the sanction in case of applying the supplementary measures, not only in applying main sanctions. And this is so because the proportionality of the committed act and its consequences is one of the requirements demanded by the ECHR jurisprudence in the matter of applying any rights restrictive measures.
... sanction report; (2) QIOs in adjacent areas; (3) State Medicaid fraud control units and State licensing and...) Medical societies and other professional organizations; and (7) Medicare carriers and fiscal...
Tyran, Jean-Robert; Feld, Lars P.
Law backed by nondeterrent sanctions (mild law) has been hypothesized to achieve compliance because of norm activation. We experimentally investigate the effects of mild law in the provision of public goods by comparing it to severe law (deterrent sanctions) and no law. The results show that exog......Law backed by nondeterrent sanctions (mild law) has been hypothesized to achieve compliance because of norm activation. We experimentally investigate the effects of mild law in the provision of public goods by comparing it to severe law (deterrent sanctions) and no law. The results show...... that exogenously imposing mild law does not achieve compliance, but compliance is much improved if mild law is endogenously chosen, i.e., selfimposed. We show that voting for mild law induces expectations of cooperation, and that people tend to comply with the law if they expect many others to do so...
Cheraghali, Abdol Majid
Iran in recent decade faced several regional and international sanctions in foreign trade, financial and banking services. Iran national pharmaceutical industry has always played a major role in providing medicines to the Iranian patients. However, following the sanctions it has faced profound difficulties for importing of both finished products and pharmaceutical raw materials. Although medicines are exempted from sanctions, due to restriction on money transaction and proper insurance Iranian pharmaceutical companies have to pay cash in advance for imports of medicines and raw materials or to secure offshore funds at very high risks. Current situation in Iran pharmaceutical market confirms that the sanctions against Iran are affecting ordinary citizens and national health sector which resulted to reduction of availability of lifesaving medicines in the local market and has caused increasing pain and suffering for Iranian patients.
Abdol Majid Cheraghali
Full Text Available Iran in recent decade faced several regional and international sanctions in foreign trade, financial and banking services. Iran national pharmaceutical industry has always played a major role in providing medicines to the Iranian patients. However, following the sanctions it has faced profound difficulties for importing of both finished products and pharmaceutical raw materials. Although medicines are exempted from sanctions, due to restriction on money transaction and proper insurance Iranian pharmaceutical companies have to pay cash in advance for imports of medicines and raw materials or to secure offshore funds at very high risks. Current situation in Iran pharmaceutical market confirms that the sanctions against Iran are affecting ordinary citizens and national health sector which resulted to reduction of availability of lifesaving medicines in the local market and has caused increasing pain and suffering for Iranian patients.
The United Nations Sanctions against Iraq from 1990 to 2000 have had little impact on Iraq's weapons of mass destruction capabilities in researching and developing nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons...
This paper investigates the effect of sanctions of unemployment insurance benefits on the exit rate from unemployment for a sample of Danish unemployed. According to the findings are that even moderate sanctions have rather large effects. For both males and females the exit rate increases by more...... to sanctions than others. Finally, the analysis suggests that men react ex ante to the risk of being sanctioned in the sense that men who face higher sanction risk leave unemployment faster....
The present article is a translation—to Farsi—of an article by Dr. Kaveh Madani (lecturer in Environmental Management at the Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London) and Nazanin Soroush (Middle East political analyst), entitled "Every breath you take: the environmental consequences of Iran sanctions", published in The Guardian 21 November 2014. The article discusses how both the imposer and the target of sanctions overlook the environmental consequences. Althoug...
Giscard, John C.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. In October 1960, faced with an increasingly hostile and threatening Marxist dictator, the United States implemented economic sanctions against Cuba. As Cuba aligned itself with the Soviet Union, it became a legitimate threat to U.S. national security interests. During the Cold War period, the sanctions policy was successful in achieving some of its aims; most notably, containing Communism in the hemisphere. However, it clearly failed ...
Baldassarri, Delia; Grossman, Guy
Social sanctioning is widely considered a successful strategy to promote cooperation among humans. In situations in which individual and collective interests are at odds, incentives to free-ride induce individuals to refrain from contributing to public goods provision. Experimental evidence from public goods games shows that when endowed with sanctioning powers, conditional cooperators can discipline defectors, thus leading to greater levels of cooperation. However, extant evidence is based on peer punishment institutions, whereas in complex societies, systems of control are often centralized: for instance, we do not sanction our neighbors for driving too fast, the police do. Here we show the effect of centralized sanctioning and legitimate authority on cooperation. We designed an adaptation of the public goods game in which sanctioning power is given to a single monitor, and we experimentally manipulated the process by which the monitor is chosen. To increase the external validity of the study, we conducted lab-in-the-field experiments involving 1,543 Ugandan farmers from 50 producer cooperatives. This research provides evidence of the effectiveness of centralized sanctioning and demonstrates the causal effect of legitimacy on cooperation: participants are more responsive to the authority of an elected monitor than a randomly chosen monitor. Our essay contributes to the literature on the evolution of cooperation by introducing the idea of role differentiation. In complex societies, cooperative behavior is not only sustained by mechanisms of selection and reciprocity among peers, but also by the legitimacy that certain actors derive from their position in the social hierarchy.
Pierre, Joseph M
Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren't regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illness is increasingly accepted as a way to preserve autonomy and dignity in the West. Seppuku, the ancient samurai ritual of suicide by self-stabbing, was long considered an honorable act of self-resolve such that despite the removal of cultural sanctioning, the rate of suicide in Japan remains high with suicide masquerading as seppuku still carried out both there and abroad. Suicide as an act of murder and terrorism is a practice currently popular with Islamic militants who regard it as martyrdom in the context of war. The absence of mental illness and the presence of cultural sanctioning do not mean that suicide should not be prevented. Culturally sanctioned suicide must be understood in terms of the specific motivations that underlie the choice of death over life. Efforts to prevent culturally sanctioned suicide must focus on alternatives to achieve similar ends and must ultimately be implemented within cultures to remove the sanctioning of self-destructive acts.
Pierre, Joseph M
Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren’t regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illness is increasingly accepted as a way to preserve autonomy and dignity in the West. Seppuku, the ancient samurai ritual of suicide by self-stabbing, was long considered an honorable act of self-resolve such that despite the removal of cultural sanctioning, the rate of suicide in Japan remains high with suicide masquerading as seppuku still carried out both there and abroad. Suicide as an act of murder and terrorism is a practice currently popular with Islamic militants who regard it as martyrdom in the context of war. The absence of mental illness and the presence of cultural sanctioning do not mean that suicide should not be prevented. Culturally sanctioned suicide must be understood in terms of the specific motivations that underlie the choice of death over life. Efforts to prevent culturally sanctioned suicide must focus on alternatives to achieve similar ends and must ultimately be implemented within cultures to remove the sanctioning of self-destructive acts. PMID:25815251
Wouter de Zanger
Full Text Available In this article the question is asked whether asset freezing can be qualified as a criminal charge within the meaning of Article6 ECHR and if yes, what effects this qualification may have on the legislative framework on so called smart sanctions. Byanalysing Community and EU law and case law of the European Court of Human Rights, General Court of Instance andCourt of Justice of the European Communities the authors give an overview of the notion and possible qualification of assetfreezing as a criminal charge. The article further focusses on the consequenses of qualifying asset freezing as a criminal chargeunder ECHR and EC/EU law and concludes by answering the aforementioned question.This article is a rewrite of a research paper written under supervision of prof. dr. J.A.E. Vervaele and prof. dr. C.H. Brants(Willem Pompe Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology, Utrecht University School of Law, whom the authors wouldlike to thank for their useful comments and supervision.
Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of the current Western financial sanctions on the Russian economy. Modeling the capital flow components (accounting for the influence of other factors, including falling oil prices reveals that sanctions have directly affected sanctioned state-controlled banks, oil, gas and arms companies by severely constraining foreign funding and have indirectly affected non-sanctioned companies by reducing inflows of foreign direct investment and causing funding conditions to deteriorate. The overall negative effect on gross capital inflow over 2014–2017 is estimated at approximately $280bn. However, the effect on net capital inflow is significantly lower ($160–170bn due to Russian companies’ self-adjustment, which is evidenced by their utilization of foreign assets accumulated earlier for debt repayment and an overall decrease in gross capital outflow. The sanctions’ estimated effect on GDP is significant (–2.4 p.p. by 2017, compared with a hypothetical scenario with no sanctions but 3.3 times lower than the estimated effects of the oil price shock.
Full Text Available The question at hand is located at the intersection of EU law and national constitutional law, and aims to answer the following problem: namely, how to mitigate federal concerns in the context of infringement procedures and financial sanctions under art. 260 TFEU. This article approaches this question both from the perspective of the Commission and the Court of Justice, as well as from the vantage point of the central and regional governments involved. After analysing the composition of the financial sanctions, we cover the involvement of subnational entities in the infringements proceedings in six tiered Member States (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK and the relevant national provisions for the partition of financial sanctions. The conclusions pertain to both the central and regional level and the EU institutions concerned, adhering to the multi-level relationship subjacent to this article.
Bushman, Brad J; Ridge, Robert D; Das, Enny; Key, Colin W; Busath, Gregory L
Violent people often claim that God sanctions their actions. In two studies, participants read a violent passage said to come from either the Bible or an ancient scroll. For half the participants, the passage said that God sanctioned the violence. Next, participants competed with an ostensible partner on a task in which the winner could blast the loser with loud noise through headphones (the aggression measure). Study 1 involved Brigham Young University students; 99% believed in God and in the Bible. Study 2 involved Vrije Universiteit-Amsterdam students; 50% believed in God, and 27% believed in the Bible. In Study 1, aggression increased when the passage was from the Bible or mentioned God. In Study 2, aggression increased when the passage mentioned God, especially among participants who believed in God and in the Bible. These results suggest that scriptural violence sanctioned by God can increase aggression, especially in believers.
Svyatoslav Anatolyevich Masyutin
Full Text Available Objective to estimate the possible consequences of economic sanctions against Russia for the economy and business basing on the analysis of socialeconomic indicators expert evaluation and the previous experience. Methods general scientific methods summarizing structural logical and comparative analysis economicmathematical modelling methods of sociological and statistical research polling documents analysis. Results the authors have obtained the following results 1 basing on the analysis of socialeconomic indicators of the economic system of the country compared with other countries the authors have studied the potential of economic grow than development of Russia before imposing of the sanctions 2 the authors have studied the experience of counteraction to the western economic sanctions with a view of using it in future 3 the authors have given the characteristics of the main programs of the Russian business support elaborated by the Russian government 4 the authors have analyzed the initial results of economic sanctions against Russia which are reduction of the basic indicators in foreign trade investments capital flow and others defined the main economic threats for the Russian economy 5 basing on the sociological poll it has been found that as early as in OctoberNovember 2014 the majority of enterprises felt the negative consequences of unstable international economic relations 6 the authors have proposed the most efficient managerial decisions for directors of enterprises under economic sanctions. Scientific novelty basing on the statistical data analysis the summarizing and comparing as well as expert evaluation the authors research possibilities and economic threats for the Russian business development in the nearest future. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in the scientific and practical activity when viewing the issues of functioning of business under economic sanctions against Russia. nbsp
.... economic sanctions against certain countries. In completing action on the FY2001 agriculture appropriations bill, Congress codified the lifting of unilateral sanctions on commercial sales of food, agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical...
Cristiane de Andrade Lucena Carneiro
Full Text Available This article addresses the consequences of economic sanctions for the protection of human rights in Latin America. The literature on sanctions and compliance informs three hypotheses, which investigate the relationship between sanctions and the level of rights protection in two groups of countries: those that were targeted by sanctions and those that were not. Using data from the Political Terror Scale (PTS and from Freedom House, I find empirical evidence that sanctions do improve the level of protection in countries that were not targeted. This finding can be explained by the deterrent effect attributed to sanctions by the compliance literature, broadly interpreted. The presence of economic sanctions in a given year increases the probability of observing better human rights practices by almost 50%. These results hold for the 12 Latin American countries that were not subject to economic sanctions for the period 1976-2004.
Full Text Available Court's ability to replace the disciplinary sanction imposed by the employer with an easier one is the power to individualize employee's disciplinary sanction imposed by the general statutory criteria – the circumstances of committing the crime, the degree of culpability of the employee consequences of a disciplinary offence, the general behaviour of the employee and any disciplinary sanctions previously incurred. Another issue under discussion and which was not brought about a unified point of view is about the possibility of temporary suspension of disciplinary decision enforcement, pending resolution of the challenge which the court was invested with. This is why it's necessary the intervention of the legislator as statuary express the legal nature of the disciplinary decision. In all cases where the court ordered the annulment of illegality punish the employee who suffered an injury will receive compensation under article 52, paragraph 2, article 78 or, where appropriate, article 269 paragraph 1 of the Labour Code.
Overbye, Marie Birch; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Knudsen, Mette Lykke
Today the main doping deterrence strategy is to ban athletes from sport if caught. This study examines whether Danish elite athletes perceive the ban as a deterrent and how they evaluate social, self-imposed and financial sanctions compared with the ban. Questionnaires were emailed to elite...... athletes from 40 sports (N = 645; response rate, 43%). Results showed that 78% of athletes regarded the ban as a deterrent. Older male athletes, however, did so to a lesser degree. Seventy-seven per cent, regardless of gender, age, sport type and previous experience of doping testing, viewed social...... sanctions as a greater deterrent than the ban. Many also considered self-imposed sanctions (54%) and financial consequences (47%) a greater deterrent. Four per cent considered neither the ban nor the presented alternatives a deterrent. The findings indicate that the ban from sport deters doping...
Kamei, Kenju; Putterman, Louis; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl
We investigate the endogenous formation of sanctioning institutions supposed to improve efficiency in the voluntary provision of public goods. Our paper parallels Markussen et al. (Rev Econ Stud 81:301–324, 2014) in that our experimental subjects vote over formal versus informal sanctions...... the latter entails such a cost. Practice improves the performance of sanction schemes: they become more targeted and deterrent with learning. Voters’ characteristics, including their tendency to engage in perverse informal sanctioning, help to predict individual voting....
Verboon, Peter; van Dijke, Marius
Building on theoretical notions that severe sanctions (more than mild ones) can communicate that sanctioned behavior is morally unacceptable, we argued that particularly authorities who enact the sanction procedures in a fair manner stimulate compliance with their decisions. This is because such
Mann, Heather; Garcia-Rada, Ximena; Hornuf, Lars; Tafurt, Juan
The question of what deters crime is of both theoretical and practical interest. The present paper focuses on what factors deter minor, non-violent crimes, i.e., dishonest actions that violate the law. Much research has been devoted to testing the effectiveness of legal sanctions on crime, while newer models also include social sanctions (judgment of friends or family) and internal sanctions (feelings of guilt). Existing research suggests that both internal sanctions and, to a lesser extent, legal sanctions deter crime, but it is unclear whether this pattern is unique to Western countries or robust across cultures. We administered a survey study to participants in China, Colombia, Germany, Portugal, and USA, five countries from distinct cultural regions of the world. Participants were asked to report the likelihood of engaging in seven dishonest and illegal actions, and were asked to indicate the probability and severity of consequences for legal, friend, family, and internal sanctions. Results indicated that across countries, internal sanctions had the strongest deterrent effects on crime. The deterrent effects of legal sanctions were weaker and varied across countries. Furthermore, the deterrent effects of legal sanctions were strongest when internal sanctions were lax. Unexpectedly, social sanctions were positively related to likelihood of engaging in crime. Taken together, these results suggest that the relative strengths of legal and internal sanctions are robust across cultures and dishonest actions.
Full Text Available The question of what deters crime is of both theoretical and practical interest. The present paper focuses on what factors deter minor, non-violent crimes, i.e. dishonest actions that violate the law. Much research has been devoted to testing the effectiveness of legal sanctions on crime, while newer models also include social sanctions (judgment of friends or family and internal sanctions (feelings of guilt. Existing research suggests that both internal sanctions and, to a lesser extent, legal sanctions deter crime, but it is unclear whether this pattern is unique to Western countries or robust across cultures. We administered a survey study to participants in China, Colombia, Germany, Portugal, and USA, five countries from distinct cultural regions of the world. Participants were asked to report the likelihood of engaging in seven dishonest and illegal actions, and were asked to indicate the probability and severity of consequences for legal, friend, family, and internal sanctions. Results indicated that across countries, internal sanctions had the strongest deterrent effects on crime. The deterrent effects of legal sanctions were weaker and varied across countries. Furthermore, the deterrent effects of legal sanctions were strongest when internal sanctions were lax. Unexpectedly, social sanctions were positively related to likelihood of engaging in crime. Taken together, these results suggest that the relative strengths of legal and internal sanctions are robust across cultures and dishonest actions.
... authority under 32 CFR 199.9 to invoke sanctions in situations involving fraud or abuse on the part of... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 199 RIN 0720-AB49 TRICARE; TRICARE Sanction Authority for Third-Party... authority to sanction third-party billing agents by invoking the administrative remedy of exclusion or...
.... Sanctions History: the Subject Person's sanctions history, including OFAC's issuance of prior penalties... (including settlements). As a general matter, OFAC will only consider a Subject Person's sanctions history... accounts opened via the Internet). Limited number of funds transfers for customers and non-customers...
On 22nd May, 2014, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC), at the request of Nigeria, imposed sanctions on Boko Haram, an insurgent group operating in Nigeria. This was in response to a spate of attacks, bombings, killings and kidnappings perpetrated by the group. The United Nations is endowed with tools to deal ...
... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.700 Basis for imposition of... among enrollees on the basis of their health status or need for health care services. This includes termination of enrollment or refusal to reenroll a recipient, except as permitted under the Medicaid program...
Arni, P.; Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.
This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of benefit sanctions, i.e. temporary reductions in unemployment benefits as punishment for noncompliance with eligibility requirements. In addition to the effects on unemployment durations, we evaluate the effects on post-unemployment employment
... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 562 Iranian Human Rights Abuses Sanctions Regulations AGENCY.... The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control is issuing the Iranian Human Rights... PROPERTY OF CERTAIN PERSONS WITH RESPECT TO SERIOUS HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES BY THE GOVERNMENT OF IRAN AND...
Arni, P.; Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.
This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of benefit sanctions on post-unemployment outcomes such as post-unemployment employment stability and earnings. We use rich register data which allow us to distinguish between a warning that a benefit reduction may take place in the near
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanctions and remedial actions. 336.8 Section 336.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... terminated consistent with applicable procedures and prohibited from providing future services for or on...
In July 2015 an agreement on the so-called Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action regarding Iran’s nuclear program was announced between Iran and the permanent members of the UNSC, Germany and the EU. The Iranian decision to comply with the results of the negotiations attracted much focus, both...... at the policy level and in scholarly debates. However, the foreign and security policy interests and possibilities of Iran in the MENA region have not been discussed very intensively, nor has there been much attention paid to how the international actors and in particular the EU were able to influence...... the Iranian policies and decisions. This article seeks to take up this challenge: firstly by analyzing to what degree the sanctions influenced the Iranian decisions on the nuclear issue; and secondly, by discussing how the sanctions regime affected the relations between Iran and the international actors...
Makhanko G. V.; Volohatykh A. S.
The article reviews food security issues of Russia under foreign sanctions and the state of food products production and consumption in the Russian Federation. Food security is considered as a major factor of political and socio-economic stability of any country, with Russia a no exception. However, it has become one of the largest net food importers, chiefly due to its agrarian sector weakness. The present paper discusses major challenges of the agricultural industry and necessary conditions...
Lang, Franz Peter
Voluntary export restraints play a substantial part in international trade today. This article compares the effects such restraints have upon certain exporting countries with the effect of sanctions applied under Article XIX of the GATT. It is shown that the microeconomic protectionism analysis used as a basis for the current debate on the reform of the GATT is unable to provide a conclusive answer as to which variant of protectionism would be preferable from the exporting economies' point of...
Sen, Kasturi; Al-Faisal, Waleed; AlSaleh, Yaser
The past 18 months have witnessed considerable turmoil in countries of the MENA region. The Syrian Arab Republic (SAR) is one such country, currently in the midst of a civil war. This report draws attention to some of the recent achievements of its health services, where, despite a dearth of published materials, the country achieved remarkable declines in maternal mortality and infant mortality rates. Its health sector now faces destruction from on-going violence compounded by economic sanctions that has affected access to health care, to medicines and to basic essentials as well as the destruction of infrastructure. This paper draws attention to the achievements of the country's health services and explores some of the consequences of conflict and of sanctions on population health. Readers need to be mindful that the situation on the ground in a civil war can alter on a daily basis. This is the case for Syria with much destruction of health facilities and increasing numbers of people killed and injured. We retain however our focus on the core theme of this paper which is on conflict and on sanctions.
Those who commit fraud should compensate their victims for the damage. Plagiarism and dissemination of faked products could lead to criminal sanctions. Intellectual fraud does not systematically lead to criminal sanctions. Those who commit fraud can be sanctioned by disciplinary committees. When an employee discover a violation of the research standards, he is not obliged to call the prosecutor. Whistleblowers, in the public health field, are not protected by labour law. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
BANSAK, CYNTHIA A; Raphael, Steven
This paper investigates whether employer sanctions for hiring undocumented workers introduced by the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) adversely affected the hourly earnings of Latino workers in the southwestern United States. We exploit the staggering of the sanctions and employee verification requirements across sectors to estimate this effect. In particular, IRCA’s employer-sanctions provisions were not extended to agricultural employers until 2 years after their imposition on...
Logan, Diane E; Lewis, Melissa A; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Kilmer, Jason R; Larimer, Mary E
Prior studies with mandated students (students referred for an intervention following violation of a campus alcohol policy) have suggested that decreases in drinking behaviors may occur before clinical intervention. Others studies have suggested that greater reductions were associated with lower defensiveness and stronger incident reactions, such as responsibility and aversiveness. The current study sought to integrate these findings and examine the influence of pre-sanction drinking and perceptions on mandated students' post-sanction drinking levels prior to attending a brief intervention. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of brief interventions in a mandated student sample (N=61, 43% female, 97% White). Participants completed demographic measures, scales measuring incident reactions and defensiveness, and a Time Line Follow Back assessing drinking quantity and frequency both pre- and post-sanction. Analyses revealed significant post-sanction decreases in quantity (average total drinks per month) and frequency (number of monthly drinking days). Pre-sanction drinking quantity and frequency significantly predicted post-sanction quantity and frequency, respectively. Interaction effects suggest higher post-sanction quantities among moderate and heavier drinkers with higher defensiveness and lower aversiveness perceptions, while perceptions did not influence outcomes among light drinkers. None of the interactions involving blame or responsibility, or predicting post-sanction frequency, were significant. These findings suggest a complex relationship between pre-sanction drinking and student reactions. Implications for mandated student interactions and future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mooijman, Marlon; van Dijk, Wilco W; van Dijk, Eric; Ellemers, Naomi
Authorities frequently justify their sanctions as attempts to deter people from rule breaking. Although providing a sanction justification seems appealing and harmless, we propose that a deterrence justification decreases the extent to which sanctions are effective in promoting rule compliance. We develop a theoretical model that specifies how and why this occurs. Consistent with our model, 5 experiments demonstrated that-compared with sanctions provided without a justification or sanctions provided with a just-deserts justification-sanction effectiveness decreased when sanctions were justified as attempts to deter people from rule breaking. This effect was mediated by people feeling distrusted by the authority. We further demonstrated that (a) the degree to which deterrence fostered distrust was attenuated when the sanction was targeted at others (instead of the participant) and (b) the degree to which distrust undermined rule compliance was attenuated when the authority was perceived as legitimate. We discuss the practical implications for authorities tasked with promoting rule compliance, and the theoretical implications for the literature on sanctions, distrust, and rule compliance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available This article examines Russia's discursive reaction to sanctions imposed by the West during the Ukrainian crisis. By portraying sanctions as a new form of containment, the Kremlin has been able to rally public opinion behind a narrative framing the crisis as the consequence of Western hegemonic ambitions against resurgent Russia. Further, withstanding and countering Western sanctions has been presented as a test of Russia's ability to remain a Great Power. As a consequence, even if sanctions were to be lifted, Moscow's relationship with the West would remain deeply problematic. Russia's foreign policy is therefore likely to remain assertive in the years to come.
Full Text Available Why do the Group of Eight (G8 members approve its members’ use of material sanctions in some regional conflicts but military force in others?2 As an informal security institution composed of major democratic powers from North America, Europe and Asia, the G8 has often chosen sanctions, notably on Iran in 1980, Afghanistan in 1980, Sudan in 2004, North Korea in 2006, and Syria in 2011. It has increasingly chosen military force, notably in Iraq in 1990, Kosovo in 1999, the USSR over Afghanistan in 2001, Libya in 2011, and Mali in 2013. Yet the G8’s choice, initiation, commitment, compliance, implementation and effectiveness of both sanctions and force has varied. Force was chosen and used effectively only in the post cold war period, primarily where the target was close to southern Europe. A high relative-capability predominance of G8 members over the target country strongly produces the G8’s choice of force, but a high, direct, deadly threat from the target state to G8 countries does not. Geographic proximity and the connectivity coming from the former colonial relationship between G8 members and the target country only weakly cause the G8 to choose force. Support from the most relevant regional organization – the North Atlantic Treaty Organization – and support from the United Nations in the form of an authorizing UN Security Council or General Assembly resolution have a strong, positive effect on the G8’s choice of force. Accompanying accountability mechanisms from the G8 itself have a variable impact, as leaders’ iteration of the issue at subsequent summits does not increase compliance with G8 commitments on force-related cases, but their foreign ministers’ follow up does to a substantial degree.
Kernberg, Otto F
This paper is the first of a series of two that present an effort to systematize the application of psychoanalytic theory of group processes to the outbreak of massive violence. It explores the origins and social amplification of primitive aggression by means of group psychology and mass psychology, and the combined influences of the regressive pull of ideologies, the personality features of social and political leadership, and the triggering impact of historical trauma and social crises. The paper describes a spectrum of narcissistic-paranoid mechanisms that provide a common matrix for the analysis of those aspects of social psychology that co-determine socially sanctioned violence.
Nureev Rustem, M.
Full Text Available The main thrust of the paper - an attempt to assess how much the sanctions combined with the drop in oil prices hit the consumers. This paper provides an overview of the sanctions imposed by European Union, the United States and other countries (ban largest organizations in Russia to attract foreign capital of the European Union and the United States. The burden of economic sanctions against Russia for the average consumer is shown on the change in prices for food products, electronic products, analyzed Russian car market, the dynamics of small and medium-sized businesses in Russia. The results of import substitution - the balances of trade of consumer goods in Q1 2015 compared to Q1 2014. Dynamics of demand for electronic goods in the paper discusses the example of the effect of price changes in the popular Russian companies (Apple, Sony, etc. to sales. Rising prices for electronic goods has led Apple to a Giffen’s paradox in late 2014, the higher the price - the more sales. Despite the rapid rise in prices for the company's products (price of products apple Nov. 25 rose by 25% on December 22 for another 35%, sales growth was 80%. This is due to the fact that Russian consumers feared further rise in price of goods and the goods were afraid to lose, which has become for many of them a necessity. Car loans in Q1 2015 compared to Q1 2014 decreased by 4 times, car sales fell by 2 times, import cars from abroad fell almost 2-fold. Especially hard hit small businesses. If in 2013 in Russia was opened 490.7 thous. legal entities, and closed 419 thousand. Then for 11 months in 2014 opened 417.5 ths. legal entities and closed down 483.6 thousand. This means that if in 2013 opening of 70 thousand legal persons more, in 2014 almost 70 thousand legal persons shut more than open. Statistics show that the number of people wishing to sell his business in 2014 increased significantly. In Moscow, for example, in 2014, it was filed with the 14.5 times the
Ghiasi, Golbarg; Rashidian, Arash; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Salamzadeh, Jamshid
The impact of the international sanctions on the Central Bank of Iran in 2013 and also accessibility of medicines in this country have received a lot of media coverage. In this study we used the data collected from a group of pharmacies all located in Tehran to assess the potential effects of the banking sanctions on access to asthma medicines. Data were collected from forty community pharmacies in Tehran, using a standard methodology proposed by the WHO and Health Action International. Data were collected in two stages: first before the sanctions were made against the banking system in the summer of 2012, and second after they were in effect in the summer of 2013, and they were analyzed using univariate analysis techniques. Several imported medicines were already in shortage during 2012. As a result of the sanctions, the availability of both imported and locally manufactured asthma medicines decreased by 19% and 42%, respectively. While before the height of the sanctions 60% of the pharmacies could provide all the essential asthma medicines, this number reduced to 28% after the sanctions (p-value: 0.003). While studies about “access to medicines” in Iran prior to 2011 were indicating appropriate access, our findings suggested that the availability of asthma medicines in community pharmacies was already less than ideal in 2012 and declined dramatically after the latest wave of the sanctions. Our findings show the important effects of the sanctions on availability of asthma medications in community pharmacies. PMID:27980593
Similarly, in 2002, the European Union (EU) imposed sanctions that it officially referred to as restrictive measures against Robert Mugabe and some of his allies. These sanctions were meant to influence a change in the behaviour of the Mugabe regime, particularly in the area of democracy, human rights and the rule of law.
... numbers). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Iranian Financial Sanctions Regulations Report on Closure by U...) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; (d) ways to... Office of Foreign Assets Control Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Iranian Financial Sanctions...
... and 24-hour national ambient air quality standards for fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in the San... business hours with the contact listed in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section. FOR FURTHER... effective on January 9, 2012 and started a sanctions clock for imposition of offset sanctions 18 months...
The use of targeted sanctions has dramatically increased. The EU runs 29 different sanctions regimes, mainly geographically defined but also including two counterterrorist regimes. These measures are under great judicial pressure: more than 250 natural and legal persons have challenged their
Boland-Prom, Kim; Alvarez, Michelle E.
This article presents the results of a study on the unprofessional conduct of school social workers who have been sanctioned by state regulatory boards (boards of education and licensing boards). The data represent information from 14 states and the District of Columbia. Results indicate that school social workers are rarely sanctioned at the…
The costs of military ventures and concern for human rights has increased the importance of international sanctions in the twenty fist century, but our knowledge is still limited in this area. The United Nations sanctions on Libya, Al Qaeda and Rwanda, or the European Union restrictive measures on
... INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Accountability § 39.412 What sanctions apply for failure to comply... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What sanctions apply for failure to comply with this... school board; and (2) Notice of final tribal or school board personnel action to the Director of OIEP. ...
Ellis, Julie M; Howe, Anna
To assess the role of sanctions as the highest level of enforcement in Australia's residential aged care quality assurance (QA) system. of secondary data on accreditation activities and outcomes from 1999-2000 to 2007-08, extracted from the Annual Report on the Aged Care Act 1997. A total of 138 sanctioned homes among all aged care homes in Australia (n = 2830 in 2007-08). Chi-square test of differences between sanctioned and non-sanctioned homes, and z scores to identify variables underlying differences. Sanctions are a rare event as more frequent enforcement actions at lower levels of regulatory action mean that a diminishing number of homes are subject to higher levels of action. Relationships between the risk of sanctions and characteristics of homes (state, size, sector and level of care) were evident. Sanctions provide only limited signals on quality to potential users and do not reflect the full scope of the QA process and the range of quality of care found. The effectiveness of sanctions in contributing to quality improvement has to be seen within the wider regulatory framework, which in turn has to be set in the context of other factors driving quality of care. Quality improvement in Australia and elsewhere will depend on further development of QA systems but will also require attention to wider contextual factors that contribute to quality outcomes, including quality of the aged care workforce.
P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)
textabstractEconomists disagree on the influence of time on the probability of success of economic sanctions. Some argue that it takes time to convince the sanction target. Others stress that economic adjustment will reduce incentives to comply. We seek to reconcile these different literatures,
Ahmad, Nisar; Svarer, Michael
optimally select the number of supports point for the distribution of unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that pre-specifying two support points underestimates the effect of sanctions and active labour market programmes. Failing to control for selectivity for sanctions not only underestimates...
... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 199 RIN 0720-AB49 TRICARE; TRICARE Sanction Authority for Third-Party... final rule will provide the Director, TRICARE Management Activity (TMA), or designee, with the authority... suspension from the TRICARE program. Such sanctions may be invoked in situations involving fraud or abuse on...
...; sanctions. 210.33 Section 210.33 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Discovery and Compulsory Process... other non-monetary sanction available under Rule 37(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Any such...
Ðurić, Predrag; Peek-Asa, Corinne
Objectives Political violence has not been examined as a risk factor for traumatic injuries from road traffic crashes. We identify trends in road traffic crashes related to war-related military activity and international economic sanctions in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia. Methods Overall road traffic crashes and crashes leading to hospitalization and fatality in Vojvodina, Serbia were examined from 1996 through 2001. Rates were calculated per 100,000 population and per 10,000 registered vehicles. Three time periods were examined: years with international sanctions and military activity; years with international sanctions but no military activity; and, years with neither sanctions nor military activity. Results Compared to the period with neither sanctions nor military activity, severe injury crashes were 1.23 times more frequent (95% CI = 1.19 – 1.27) during the period with sanctions and military activity and 1.21 times more frequent (95% CI= 1.16 – 1.27) during the period with sanctions but no military activity. Conclusions Our data suggest that vehicle travel became safer following the end of military action and economic sanctions. Road traffic safety needs to be a priority both during periods of political unrest and its recovery phase. PMID:19074242
Duric, P; Peek-Asa, C
Political violence has not been examined as a risk factor for traumatic injuries from road traffic crashes. To identify trends in road traffic crashes related to war-related military activity and international economic sanctions in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia. Overall road traffic crashes and crashes leading to hospitalization and fatality in Vojvodina, Serbia were examined from 1996 through 2005. Rates were calculated per 100,000 population and per 10,000 registered vehicles. Three time periods were examined: years with international sanctions and military activity (1996-1999); years with international sanctions but no military activity (2000-2001); years with neither sanctions nor military activity (2002-2005). Compared with the period with neither sanctions nor military activity, severe injury crashes were 1.23 times more common (95% CI 1.19 to 1.27) during the period with sanctions and military activity and 1.21 times more common (95% CI 1.16 to 1.27) during the period with sanctions but no military activity. The data suggest that vehicle travel became safer after the end of military action and economic sanctions. Road traffic safety needs to be a priority during both periods of political unrest and its recovery phase.
Mowen, Thomas J; Boman, John H
Underage drinking remains a pressing issue on college campuses across the United States. Though the most common form of addressing underage alcohol use on campuses is through deterrence-based policies, evidence suggests deterrence-based methods are ineffective and may produce negative outcomes. Using dyadic data, the objective of this study is to use a friendship-informed perspective on deterrence theory to examine how an individual's and his/her friend's perceptions of sanction certainty relate to self-reported underage alcohol use. Using multilevel mixed models which fall under the actor-partner interdependence modeling class, results demonstrate that respondents who perceive high levels of sanction certainty drink and heavily use alcohol more frequently than those who perceive low levels of sanction certainty. Additionally, those who have friends who perceive high levels of sanction certainty tend to drink at young ages significantly more frequently and in more dangerous patterns than those who have friends who perceive a low sanction certainty. The dyad members' levels of sanction certainty do not interact in relation to alcohol use. The significant relationships of the friends' sanction certainty support the notion of friendship-based deterrence. However, the consistent positive direction of all sanction certainty measures is the opposite of what deterrence theory hypothesizes. As such, it appears that deterrence is not only ineffective at stopping underage alcohol use on college campuses, but may be harmful due to increased rates of both drinking and high-risk drinking.
Miller, Andy; Ferguson, Eamonn; Simpson, Rachel
Examines parental perspectives on the potency of information being sent home as a powerful reward and sanction for pupils. Surveys inner-city primary school's teachers, pupils, and their parents. Finds parents and children in strong agreement over the effectiveness of school-initiated rewards, but in considerable disagreement over sanctions. (DSK)
Gemser, G.; Wijnberg, N.M.
This study examines whether and under what conditions reputational sanctions are a strong deterrent to imitative firm behaviour. Results indicate that reputational sanctions can be an effective barrier to imitation, in particular when firms perceive a reputation for innovation to be a factor in
M.M. Koevoets (Miranda)
textabstractThe subject of this thesis is misbehaviour of employees. Employers tend to investigate and sanction misbehaviour of employees. This study investigates the question whether there are (sufficient) rules to legitimise investigation and sanctioning by employers (in the Netherlands), and the
Olmedilla, Aurelio; Lozano, Francisco J; Ato, Manuel; Garcés de los Fayos, Enrique; Ortega, Enrique
Reasons and motives for sanctions imposed on players and coaches in youth soccer were examined to evaluate frequency and type of infraction by competition category (Under 12, 13-14, 15-16, and 17-18 years). Analysis of the first 30% of competitions yielded 1,202 sanctions of 340 teams with 6,120 players and 340 coaches. For older groups, the number of sanctions for aggressive conduct by the players was significantly higher; frequency of sanctions imposed on the coaches for disrespect also was significantly higher, and those for aggression were higher although not significantly so; the number of sanctions for disrespect by players was not different. Transgressions of the game rules recorded by officials are a valid representation of a pedagogical factor important for coaches and players. Implementing informative programs for knowledge and conduct of rules is suggested.
Ahmad, Nisar; Svarer, Michael
). Hence, modeling only one of them as treatment might over or underestimate the true effect. Therefore, by using a multivariate mixed proportional hazard model (MMPH), we model the hazard rate out of unemployment along with the sanction rate and hazard rate into active labour market programmes. We......This paper simultaneously investigates the effectiveness of benefit sanctions and active labour market programmes on the exit rate from unemployment using Danish data. In the data about one third of the individuals who are sanctioned also participate in some active labour market programmes (ALMPs...... optimally select the number of supports point for the distribution of unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that pre-specifying two support points underestimates the effect of sanctions and active labour market programmes. Failing to control for selectivity for sanctions not only underestimates...
The paper argues that society should vary the sanction applied to acriminal defendant with the weight of the evidence against him or her.This is optimal when it is costly for society to apply sanctions, since it canyield the same degree of deterrence while requiring fewer resources to bespent on ...... sanctions on people, who have committed the sameoffense, and that the legal system will lose legitimacy if it allows sanctionsto vary in the way suggested.......The paper argues that society should vary the sanction applied to acriminal defendant with the weight of the evidence against him or her.This is optimal when it is costly for society to apply sanctions, since it canyield the same degree of deterrence while requiring fewer resources to bespent...
... of Economic, Energy and Business Affairs; Persons on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed Under the Iran... determined that the following persons have engaged in sanctionable activity described in section 5(a) of the... Memorandum''), the Secretary has determined that the following persons have engaged in sanctionable activity...
Y A Sedlyar
Full Text Available Economic sanctions, an age-old tool of statecraft, are becoming increasingly central to shaping strategic outcomes. In the post-Cold War economic sanctions have become virtually the default option in US foreign policy. They are now employed by American diplomacy for a wide range of purposes and always have consequences. The article focuses in particular on the economic sanctions as a powerful tool to discourage the nuclear proliferation, highlights the key concepts of nonproliferation sanctions policy. The most important nuclear sanctions legislation, like Nuclear Nonproliferation Act, Nuclear Nonproliferation Prevention Act, the Symington, the Pressler and the Glenn amendments is analyzed. A major conclusion made in the article is that in spite of the proliferation of US nonproliferation economic sanctions they rarely work as intended, but often undermine American foreign policy goals. Enhancing our understanding of nonproliferation economic sanctions in US foreign policy, this article will be of interest to policy-makers, diplomats and scholars of international politics, international law, and US foreign policy.
As Syria completes two years of western sanctions (2011-13), their dramatic effects on health are being highlighted with first reports of starvation deaths among children in the suburbs of Damascus. Although heavy fighting has taken place in this area, experts had predicted for some time the unworkability of sanctions for regime change, arguing that only civilians would pay the price in a country (Syria in this case) which was once well on the way to meeting the Millennium Development Goals 4 targets on reducing child mortality. In this, as in the case of other "sanctioned" countries, it is not just "civilians" but the most vulnerable among them--children, who are experiencing the tragic consequences of sanctions.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Lifting of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities AGENCY... Chemical Nonproliferation, Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation, Department of State...
With a separate track of measures of rehabilitation and security, the German system of criminal sanctions provides for a narrow safety valve that very selectively responds to political and public...
Full Text Available Results from three national surveys in Haiti suggest that the prevalence of stunting, underweight, and wasting in children fell considerably between 1978 and 1990. In the following four years, rates of stunting and underweight levelled off, while that of wasting nearly doubled. Child nutrition deteriorated dramatically during a period of intense political crisis and international sanctions that included a strictly enforced trade embargo. Human welfare should be monitored whenever international sanctions are imposed to regulate a country's behavior.
Brown, J C; Boucher, S J; Lambert, M; Viljoen, W; Readhead, C; Hendricks, S; Kraak, W J
The tackle event in rugby union ('rugby') contributes to the majority of players' injuries. Referees can reduce this risk by sanctioning dangerous tackles. A study in elite adult rugby suggests that referees only sanction a minority of illegal tackles. The aim of this study was to assess if this finding was similar in youth community rugby. Observational study. Using EncodePro, 99 South African Rugby Union U18 Youth Week tournament matches were coded between 2011 and 2015. All tackles were coded by a researcher and an international referee to ensure that laws were interpreted correctly. The inter- and intra-rater reliabilities were 0.97-1.00. A regression analysis compared the non-sanctioned rates over time. In total, 12 216 tackles were coded, of which less than 1% (n=113) were 'illegal'. The majority of the 113 illegal tackles were front-on (75%), high tackles (72%) and occurred in the 2nd/4th quarters (29% each). Of the illegal tackles, only 59% were sanctioned. The proportions of illegal tackles and sanctioning of these illegal tackles to all tackles improved by 0.2% per year from 2011-2015 (preferees consistently enforce all laws to enhance injury prevention efforts. Further studies should investigate the reasons for non-sanctioning. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
E. V. Kaigorodova
Full Text Available Analysis of economic and political consequences of the sanctions against Russia, analysis of the dependence of different economy sectors of this country on imports and the possibility of its substitution by domestic products is an important task. In this connection we study the economic situation of the regions of the Russian Federation under the conditions of Western sanctions on the formation import substitution. At present import substitution is the indicator of technological progress in Russia which is one of the priorities of economic development in the near future. The examples of the negative impact of sanctions on the economy of Russia and Western countries are presented. First of all, sanctions imposed limit access of European and American investors to long-term debt instruments. Special attention is given to innovative development of Russia which largely depends on the effective implementation of its infrastructure transformation by establishing a system for the efficient reallocation of financial resources towards innovation programs, as well as the active participation of the credit institutions, investment companies, venture capital funds, mutual insurance companies. The timely measure is linking of innovative and regional policy of the development of the subjects with their own resources and investors, an attractive environment for foreign investment. Directions of the confrontation to sanctions are determined. Issues relating to economic sanctions are of particular importance in the present conditions where the interdependence of national economies is associated with formation of the economic space. The possible scenarios of domestic economic development are formulated. The discussed issues of import substitution at the present stage, including at the stage of the actions of Russian sanctions, should be applied for the reorientation of the regional economy and the restoration of the destroyed production in the 1990s.
In this paper, Japan’s positive and negative aid sanctions policy toward Asian countries since the introduction of new aid guidelines will be examined and discussed. Japan can choose to impose negative aid sanctions (the suspension or a decrease in foreign aid) on recipient countries where undesirable policy changes occur, while positive aid sanctions (an increase in foreign aid) would be applied to aid recipients that conduct desirable polices in the light of Japan’s ODA Charter. The Japanes...
Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard
Full Text Available A good portfolio optimization on banks’ currency holdings not only helps meet their needs but also it increases banks’ total assets. During the past few months, US sanctions against Iran has influenced profitability banking currency portfolio holding. The proposed model of this paper considers the weekly information of two years before and after sanctions occurred in Iranian banking system. Therefore, the study uses 210 weekly data and proposes a method to analyze the data to measure the performance of banking currency portfolio after sanction happens. The proposed model of this paper provides lost profit and unrealized loss and using the idea of Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS we rank the resulted data. Next, we use some parametric and non-parametric methods to see whether there is any change as a result of sanction on the performance of the portfolio. The results indicate that not only the performance of the portfolio was reduced but also the variance of the return after sanction has been increased.
Al-Ani, Zaid R; Al-Hiali, Sahar J; Al-Farraji, Hussain H
To study the infant mortality rate (IMR) trend during wars and sanction periods in Western Iraq. Data collected from the birth and death certificates of Haditha Health Vital Statistics Center, Haditha city (80,000 population), Western Iraq, included name, age, gender, residence, and infant's place and date of births and deaths, in 5 different sanction and war stages of the country from 1987 to 2010, in a study period from July to December, 2010. The IMRs were analyzed and compared between these stages and with other studies. The IMR of last 2 years of the Iraq-Iran war (1980-1988) was 35.6/1000 and 33.8/1000, this decreased in the war free period (1989-1990) to 28.6/1000, then increased during the sanction period (1991-2003) to 46/1000 in 2002, decreased to 16/1000 in 2006 during no sanctions but increased violence, then increased to 24.5/1000 in 2010. Approximately two-thirds of deaths occurred during the neonatal period, and one third in the post neonatal periods. Males had higher IMR than females, and rural residence higher than urban. Economic sanctions increased IMR more than wars or violence in Haditha city. When compared with other parts of Iraq, and despite the different conflicts that faced the country during the 24 studied years, Haditha had a lower IMR, however, this was still higher than developed, and many developing countries.
Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Bigdeli, Maryam
Objective: In the past decades economic sanctions have been used by different countries or international organizations in order to deprive target countries of some transactions. While the sanctions do not target health care systems or public health structures, they may, in fact, affect the availability of health care in target countries. In this study, we used media analysis to assess the impacts of recent sanctions imposed by the Central Bank of Iran in 2012 on access to medicines in Iran. Methods: We searched different sources of written news media including a database of nonspecialized weeklies and magazines, online news sources, web pages of daily newspapers and healthcare oriented weeklies from 2011 to 2013. We searched the sources using the general term “medicine” to reduce the chances of missing relevant items. The identified news media were read, and categorized under three groups of items announcing “shortage of medicines,” “medicines related issues” and “no shortage.” We conducted trend analyzes to see whether the news media related to access to medicines were affected by the economic sanctions. Findings: A total number of 371 relevant news media were collected. The number of news media related to medicines substantially increased in the study period: 30 (8%), 161 (43%) and 180 (49%) were published in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. While 145 (39%) of media items referred to the shortage of medicines, 97 (26%) reported no shortage or alleviating of concerns. Conclusion: Media analysis suggests a clear increase in the number of news media reporting a shortage in Iran after the sanctions. In 2013, there were accompanying increases in the number of news media reporting alleviation of the shortages of medicines. Our analysis provides evidence of negative effects of the sanctions on access to medicines in Iran. PMID:26645026
Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Bigdeli, Maryam
In the past decades economic sanctions have been used by different countries or international organizations in order to deprive target countries of some transactions. While the sanctions do not target health care systems or public health structures, they may, in fact, affect the availability of health care in target countries. In this study, we used media analysis to assess the impacts of recent sanctions imposed by the Central Bank of Iran in 2012 on access to medicines in Iran. We searched different sources of written news media including a database of nonspecialized weeklies and magazines, online news sources, web pages of daily newspapers and healthcare oriented weeklies from 2011 to 2013. We searched the sources using the general term "medicine" to reduce the chances of missing relevant items. The identified news media were read, and categorized under three groups of items announcing "shortage of medicines," "medicines related issues" and "no shortage." We conducted trend analyzes to see whether the news media related to access to medicines were affected by the economic sanctions. A total number of 371 relevant news media were collected. The number of news media related to medicines substantially increased in the study period: 30 (8%), 161 (43%) and 180 (49%) were published in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. While 145 (39%) of media items referred to the shortage of medicines, 97 (26%) reported no shortage or alleviating of concerns. Media analysis suggests a clear increase in the number of news media reporting a shortage in Iran after the sanctions. In 2013, there were accompanying increases in the number of news media reporting alleviation of the shortages of medicines. Our analysis provides evidence of negative effects of the sanctions on access to medicines in Iran.
Galina S. Panova
Full Text Available The article provides an analysis of the present condition and prospects of development of banks and the banking business in the face of international sanctions. It identifies current trends, problems and the risks of banks and banking in Russia and in the world. Special attention is paid to the analysis of sectoral international sanctions against the Russian banks and the need to minimize negative impact of sanctions on the banking business, both nationally and internationally. Great value in these conditions has the state monetary policy. Anti-crisis policy pursued by the Bank of Russia, in a context of stagnating economy, leads to a reduction in the Russian share in the world economy and increases in the standard of living gap with the developed countries. The article argues that Russia's economic growth opportunities in 2016 are limited by restriction level of bank interest, the high volatility of the exchange rate of the national currency, insufficient development of credit relations, tough, high-budget (at the level of developed Europe tax burden, increasing administrative costs, dramatically increasing the concentration of risks of subjective decisions at the present stage of the electoral cycle. In a situation of uncertainty of predictions regarding the scope and duration of the application of sanctions, the Russian Government and the Central Bank of the Russian Federation had rightly seek to use a combination of anti-sanctions measures of austerity measures on introduction of contra-sanctions to create more comfortable conditions for doing business in Russia and her allies from member countries of Eurasian Economic Union, SCO, BRICS. The article examines the strategic aspects of development banks and banking business in Russia under the new circumstances. Given the practical recommendations on improvement of the development strategy of banks in Russia. The necessity to improve the theoretical, conceptual, methodological, her reasoning
... being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention; blocking. 585.215 Section 585.215 Money and... and cargo suspected of being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention; blocking. (a) Except... § 585.201, but which are suspected of a violation of United Nations Security Council Resolutions No. 713...
... materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. Regulations providing for the use of food packaging... packaging materials used for animal feed and pet food. [42 FR 14091, Mar. 15, 1977] ...
The use of systems of rewards and sanctions within behaviour policies has now been adopted formally in UK schools. Such systems potentially represent competing theoretical ideas when considered alongside current approaches to teaching and learning. There is also opportunity for inconsistent use of rewards and sanctions resulting from the absence…
Maritime embargo operations implement economic sanctions adopted by the UNSC by means of naval forces at sea. In order to implement such sanctions in line with international law, it is essential for states that the legal basis in maritime embargo operations is clear. Since the UNSC has authorized
This project examined the deterrent impact of community service as sanction for DWI offenders during a one-year study in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Since 1983, virtually all DWI offenders in Baton Rouge have been given community service as a sanction in...
... Controls to Rwanda and United Nations Sanctions Under the Export Administration Regulations AGENCY: Bureau... Industry and Security (BIS) amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) to implement United Nations... conforming changes in the EAR related to the termination of the United Nations embargo on ``arms and related...
Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku; Mahadevan, Renuka
In this paper, we draw on established theoretical work to analyze empirically which segments of the population in the target states bear the most cost when economic sanctions are imposed. Using a cross-country analysis of 68 target states from 1960 to 2008, we find robust empirical evidence...
Peeters, Marjan; Chen, Huizhen; Weishaar, Stefan
This chapter aims to further the debate regarding the role of law for establishing an adequate enforcement strategy for an emissions trading scheme. We focus on sanction regimes within the EU ETS and the Chinese emissions trading pilot projects. Section 2 sets the scene by pointing at the need of an
This study focuses on the impact of U.S. targeted sanctions and EU restrictive measures on the right ... Zimbabwe started in December 2001, when the United States passed the Zimbabwe. Democracy and Economic ..... Furthermore, the high rate of inflation that engulfed the Zimbabwean economy and currency added to the ...
Ahmed, Rimsha; Hustad, John T. P.; LaSalle, Linda; Borsari, Brian
Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether pregaming (ie, drinking prior to a social event) is a risk factor for hospitalization. Participants: Participants (N = 516) were undergraduate students with an alcohol-related sanction. Methods: Participants completed a survey about alcohol use, as well as behaviors and experiences,…
Political Freedoms," Human Rights Review 10, no. 3 (2009): 399, accessed August 28, 2015, EBSCOhost . 29 Bryan Early, “Why Sanctions Busting Leads to...34 Human Rights Review 10, no. 3 (2009): 393-411. Accessed August 28, 2015. EBSCOhost . Peksen, Dursun, and A. Cooper Drury. “Coercive or Corrosive
Shifman, J C
New regulations from the IRS, called "intermediate sanctions," impose stiff taxes and penalties on members of not-for-profit organizations responsible for "unreasonable" compensation. That means administrators, physicians, trustees, and others must be careful to comply with the letter of the law or risk having the IRS breathing heavily down your neck.
Oswalt, Sara B.; Shutt, Michael D.; English, Erin; Little, Shay Davis
Universities often conduct alcohol interventions for individuals who have violated institutional, local, or state laws. Few of these programs have been evaluated thoroughly. This study examined the impact of a 10-hour alcohol education course on 400 college students whose attendance was required as part of a judicial sanction. The…
... discovery orders. 1025.37 Section 1025.37 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Discovery, Compulsory Process § 1025.37 Sanctions for... decision on the pleadings be rendered against the party, or both; and (g) Exclude the party or...
... weapons of mass destruction, or in connection with Iran's support for international terrorism. In addition... processed one or more transfers of funds within the preceding 90 calendar days related to Iran's Islamic... international terrorism (as defined in section 14 of the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996 (Pub. L. 104-172; 50 U.S.C...
South Africa, and famously forced Coca Cola to sell 62 Hufbauer, et al., Economic Sanctions...inefficiency. Gaddafi’s proliferation ambitions began almost immediately, and he reportedly sought to purchase a nuclear weapon from China in 1970.122...immediate. France, Russian, and China balked at not being consulted before the launch of military operations, and protests over the attack spread
Andeweg, Rudy B.; Thomassen, Jacques J.A.
The study of party unity and its determinants is conceptually confusing, with terms such as ‘party discipline’ and ‘party cohesion’ used to denote both dependent and independent variables. Moreover, while the literature recognizes both anticipated sanctions and homogeneity of preferences as pathways
Button, Mark; Lewis, Chris; Shepherd, David; Brooks, Graham; Wakefield, Alison
Fraud is an extremely diverse problem which presents a huge cost (currently estimated by the National Fraud Authority as £73 billion each year) to society. It is preferable to pre-empt fraud, however part of any strategy to tackle it needs to involve sanctions and punishment.
... approval of revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District's (SCAQMD) portion of the... Quality Management District Proposed Contingency Measures for the 2007 PM 2.5 SIP'' (dated October 2011... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air Quality...
Peeters, M.G.W.M.; Chen, Huizhen
Abstract: This chapter aims to further the debate regarding the role of law for establishing an adequate enforcement strategy for an emissions trading scheme. We focus on sanction regimes within the EU ETS and the Chinese emissions trading pilot projects. Section 2 sets the scene by pointing at the
Lou, Yun; Tu, Samson W; Nyulas, Csongor; Tudorache, Tania; Chalmers, Robert J G; Musen, Mark A
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the de facto standard international classification for mortality reporting and for many epidemiological, clinical, and financial use cases. The next version of ICD, ICD-11, will be submitted for approval by the World Health Assembly in 2018. Unlike previous versions of ICD, where coders mostly select single codes from pre-enumerated disease and disorder codes, ICD-11 coding will allow extensive use of multiple codes to give more detailed disease descriptions. For example, "severe malignant neoplasms of left breast" may be coded using the combination of a "stem code" (e.g., code for malignant neoplasms of breast) with a variety of "extension codes" (e.g., codes for laterality and severity). The use of multiple codes (a process called post-coordination), while avoiding the pitfall of having to pre-enumerate vast number of possible disease and qualifier combinations, risks the creation of meaningless expressions that combine stem codes with inappropriate qualifiers. To prevent that from happening, "sanctioning rules" that define legal combinations are necessary. In this work, we developed a crowdsourcing method for obtaining sanctioning rules for the post-coordination of concepts in ICD-11. Our method utilized the hierarchical structures in the domain to improve the accuracy of the sanctioning rules and to lower the crowdsourcing cost. We used Bayesian networks to model crowd workers' skills, the accuracy of their responses, and our confidence in the acquired sanctioning rules. We applied reinforcement learning to develop an agent that constantly adjusted the confidence cutoffs during the crowdsourcing process to maximize the overall quality of sanctioning rules under a fixed budget. Finally, we performed formative evaluations using a skin-disease branch of the draft ICD-11 and demonstrated that the crowd-sourced sanctioning rules replicated those defined by an expert dermatologist with high precision and recall
Antonius Maria Laot Kian
Full Text Available The aims of the study are to determine the legal arrangements and the application of criminal sanctions against the crime of credit/debit card fraud in Indonesia. The type of study was a normative research by classifying the provisions relevant to the crime of credit/debit card fraud is based on Law No. 11 Year 2008 concerning Information and Electronic Transactions; otherwise it is used also Convention on Cyber crime 2001. Analysis of legal materials made through a law (statue approach to create an ius constituendum regarding the application of criminal sanctions against crime credit/debit card fraud. The results of the research indicated that the legal arrangements and criminal sanctions against the crime of credit/debit card fraud in Indonesia is still relatively minimal. First, not integrated article that directly regulates computer related fraud. Second, not arranged in the form of criminal sanctions for actions that are restitution culprit.
Santisteban, Agustín Velloso De
In August 1990, the United Nations Security Council imposed economic sanctions on Iraq. These ended in May 2003. Ever since that same month, in which the war launched by Coalition Forces against Iraq ended, the country has been under occupation. The education system, one of the best in the Arab world 15 years ago, has been seriously affected by both the sanctions and the war. The present study explores how these factors have reversed previous educational achievements and rendered the education system unable to fulfil its missions. It also shows how continued instability and widespread violence gravely impede the reconstruction of the education system. In sum, while the Iraqis themselves are now responsible, under international law, for deciding on and implementing reconstruction policies, this has still not been taking place under occupation.
Rob M. A. Nelissen; Marcel Zeelenberg
Third-party punishment has recently received attention as an explanation for human altruism. Feelings of anger in response to norm violations are assumed to motivate third-party sanctions, yet there is only sparse and indirect support for this idea. We investigated the impact of both anger and guilt feelings on third-party sanctions. In two studies both emotions were independently manipulated. Results show that anger and guilt independently constitute sufficient but not necessary causes of pu...
Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Kebriaeezade, Abbas; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Soleymani, Fatemeh
An economic crisis has been defined as a situation in which the scale of a country's economy becomes smaller in a period of time. Economic crises happen for various reasons, including economic sanctions. Economic crises in a country may affect national priorities for investment and expenditure and reduce available resources, and hence may affect the health care sector including access to medicines. We reviewed the pharmaceutical policies that the countries adopted in order to mitigate the pot...
Full Text Available High Court of Justice recently ruled that a court has the right to change too drastic punishment inflicted on an employee by another, more appropriate in relation to the offense committed. The Supreme Court ruling clarifies such a legal provision that was applied by different courts: some substituted for disciplinary sanctions if it were disproportionate to the offense employee, while others refused to do so.
Full Text Available This article critically examines a an ongoing review commenced in 2012 by the United Kingdom’s Law Commission into new wildlife laws for England and Wales by considering four interlinked elements of the process. First, it outlines the underlying subject matter and regulatory aims of wildlife law. It then describes the scope of the Law Commission’s Wildlife Law Project, identifying some of the key problem areas it sought to address and referencing its consultation process conducted in the later part of 2012. Next the article summarises the Law Commission’s view for a new wildlife law regime. The fourth element explores the current and potential roles of criminalising and non-criminalising sanctions. With a continued focus on the underlying subject matter and regulatory aims, discussion centres on the greater use of non-criminalising civil sanctions in wildlife law. The paper supports the Law Commission’s argument that the creation of a civil sanctions regime is not tantamount to decriminalisation in its true sense but simply widens the available regulatory enforcement options.
John J.A. Burke
Full Text Available In response to the Russian Federation’s purported ‘annexation’ of Crimea and the conflict between separatists in the Donbass region and the central government of Ukraine, the United States, the European Union, Japan, and Australia, the principal countries, have imposed economic sanctions upon Russian officials, firms, and private individuals. The economic sanctions imposed upon the Russian Federation violate public international law on three grounds: 1 lack of authorisation under the United Nations Charter; 2 inapplicability of Art. XXI GATT (‘Security Exceptions’; and 3 lack of legal authority based on the International Law Commission’s Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts. Fidelity to the ‘rule of law’ requires an immediate withdrawal of all economic sanctions. By contrast, the international community ‘ought to’ condemn Ukraine’s indiscriminate killing of innocent citizens living in the Donbass region and support the efforts of the Russian Federation to provide humanitarian aid to the region.
Chan, Yun-Shan; Chen, Chin-Shyan; Huang, Lanying; Peng, Yu-I
Driving under the influence (DUI) is one of the major causes of traffic accidents in Taiwan. About 5% of injuries involve DUI, and nearly 20% of deaths are due to alcohol-related crashes. During early 2006 to the end of 2014, the authorities in Taiwan increased the severity of fine and jail penalties for DUI offenders three times. At the same time, the monthly drunk-driving injures decreased nearly 40% and the monthly alcohol-related traffic death dropped more than 80%. In this paper, we examine the effects of sanction changes on the reduction of drunk-driving casualties during this period. We find that drunk-driving injuries and deaths significantly dropped after the statutory changes. The reduction was immediate following all sanction changes that raised the maximum fines or jail terms of DUI offenders. Policies that increased the maximum jail terms of DUI offenders seem to have a better gradual effect on the reduction of alcohol-related traffic casualties. Although increased sanctions are found to be effective in reducing drunk-driving casualties, we need more future research to examine the policy-to-perception and the policy-to-behavior links. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Merrill, Jennifer E; Carey, Kate B; Reid, Allecia E; Carey, Michael P
Students mandated for intervention following an alcohol-related sanction event often reduce their drinking prior to intervention. Knowing the determinants of self-initiated change may help identify intervention targets for individuals who do not reduce their drinking. Guided by self-regulation theory, we tested whether fewer past alcohol consequences and higher descriptive and injunctive norms would be associated with higher levels of postsanction drinking. College students referred for a campus alcohol violation (N = 658, 64% male) reported on their drinking during the month before and after their sanction event. Results show that postsanction drinking was significantly lower than presanction drinking across 4 outcomes: (a) drinks per drinking day, (b) drinks per week, (c) peak drinks, and (d) peak blood alcohol concentration. Hypothesized social influence variables (i.e., descriptive and injunctive norms) were consistently associated with all 4 drinking outcomes; that is, students who perceived that their friends drank more and held more accepting views of drinking were less reactive to alcohol-related sanctions. Past consequences of drinking did not consistently predict subsequent drinking. Therefore, we conclude that alcohol interventions for mandated students should target both descriptive and injunctive norms to optimize their efficacy.
Rustem M. Nureev
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the defense-industrial complex (DIC of Russia in the conditions of economic sanctions. And although the center was the oil and gas industry, as well as the banking sector, economic sanctions against Russia affected the DCI. They touched first of all on such large Russian defense concerns as air defense "Almaz- Antey", "Sirius", "Stankoinstroment", "Kalashnikov", "Tula Arms Factory", NGO "Oriental Complexes", as well as "Dobrolyte". The prohibition of debt financing has affected such major enterprises of the defense industry as "Uralvagonzavod", "Oboronprom", "United Aircraft Corporation". The article shows, in general, the favorable impact of sanctions on the industry. At the end of 2016, Russia took the second place in world arms exports with a share of 23%, the US became the leader – their share was 33%. But the structure of the share capital in the defense industry companies is completely different if we compare these two countries: in the US, private companies dominate the market, in Russia – the largest enterprises are owned by the state. In the course of the analysis, it turned out that Russian defense industry enterprises are unprofitable or unprofitable, they do not have stability in financial performance, since they are highly dependent on government spending. To improve the current situation in this sector, it is advisable for the state to modernize the military-industrial complex companies in order to enhance the role of market mechanisms that will stimulate R & D, as under modern conditions of competition in any market, innovations represent an exclusive advantage for enterprise prosperity.
Rustem M. Nureev
Full Text Available The growth in production and exports of oil and gas from the United States and other OECD countries led to pressure on energy prices, and posed the problem of redistribution of the structure of oil and gas market shares. The aggravation of competition contributed to the selection of measures to modernize the industry in Russia as the main measures of economic sanctions, as well as restrictions on the supply of Russian oil and gas to Europe, which jeopardized the implementation of the South Stream and North Stream-2 projects. The oil and gas industry continues to play a significant role in the formation of the revenue base of the federal budget of the Russian Federation. As a result of the imposition of sanctions, the export of Western equipment to Russia was banned, it could be a serious blow to the industry, which potential could be fully realized in the next 3–5 years. Oil and gas companies are most dependent on the pumping equipment (import share is 50%, catalysts (80% share of imports, applied software (the share of imports is more than 80%. Currently, Russian companies purchase equipment in China and South Korea, but the quality is much lower than the US, and the equipment often fails, so it is associated with the high costs of repairs. The import substitution should revive the domestic production of oil and gas equipment, but how this policy is implemented is difficult to predict, as enterprises have to overcome a significant technological gap and lag behind foreign developments. Russia managed to survive the short-term period of economic sanctions with significant, but not extremely large losses. Much more acute consequences can affect in the medium term, unless vigorous steps are taken to import substitution and modernization of oil and gas production and processing.
The general question is considered of the effectiveness of economic sanctions in international politics, in terms of the Arabs' use of oil as a political weapon in 1956, 1967, and 1973. Chapter 3 focuses on the impact of the interruption of oil supplies to Western Europe throughout the 1956 Suez crisis. By 1967, pressure on the conservative governing elites of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Libya, and the Gulf Sheikdoms obliged these states to join Iraq and Algeria in imposing production cutbacks and an embargo. Yet the conservative regimes' ties to the West, and the control exerted by multinational oil corporations over all phases of their oil industry, insured that the embargo was not enforced. Chapter 4 explains historically how, by the late 1960s, relinquishment of old concessions, nationalization acts, and participation agreements had caused a decline in the multinationals' domination of the oil industry. The rise of OPEC and OAPEC, which by 1970 had united and organized the producing governments, channeled their demands, and created an international forum for their political grievances, is discussed. Chapter 5 considers how by 1973 international and Arab political developments had forced states like Saudi Arabia, which had sought to dissociate oil and politics, to unsheathe the oil weapon and wave it in the faces of their Western allies. The author concludes from analysis of these complex cases that scholarship has exaggerated the inefficacy of sanctions. The effectiveness of sanctions is seen to depend upon how the demands are formulated and presented and to what extent they can be negotiated, as well as upon the sociopolitical, cultural, and psychological characteristics of the target population.
Full Text Available EU-Russia relations have never been simple. On the one hand, these two international actors have common values and interests. On the other, they have a conflictual relationship, which has become particularly acute after the Ukrainian crisis that started in 2014. After Ukrainian crisis, the EU and Russia have entered a new era. Unfortunately, it is an era of brinkmanship. This brinkmanship is marked, prima facie, by mutual sanctions. After 20 years of partnership and good neighborliness it sounds illogically, but it is a reality. The strategic nature of the EU-Russia partnership has been placed in doubt. The aim of this article is to show that the “war of sanctions,” which has frozen official contacts and negotiations have not achieved anything. This crisis can only be overcome through dialogue. However, at the moment, the main critics of the EU sanctions amongst EU Member States are too weak to convince the other members to lift them. The article concerns the modern legal aspects and modern legal circumstances surrounding EU-Russia relations in the light of recent events and the deterioration of relations between Russia and the EU in general. In this framework, an account is given of the EU’s reaction to the Ukrainian conflict in the context of the EU Common Foreign and Security Policy and of the EU restrictive measures as well as in the context of the Russian countersanctions. A special attention is paid to the EU Court of Justice case-law in the field of the restrictive measures.
Møller, Kim; Lindholst, Christian
Domestically cultivated cannabis, referred to as sinsemilla, constitutes a growing share of the illicit drug markets in the Scandinavian countries. In this study we present forensic evidence of THC content in sinsemilla and resin confiscated by the Danish police from 2008 to 2012. The purpose...... that courts do not apply a yield-percentage estimate. The specificities of domestic cannabis cultivation also relate to the sanction criteria „professionalism”. Firstly, the number of plants found can provide for calculation of an aggregate quantum. Secondly, this can be related to the formal quantum......-scale cannabis cases would improve by applying a 1:1 potency level between sinsemilla and resin....
supply nuclear technology to Iran and expanding provisions of the USA Patriot Act (P.L. 107-56) to curb money- laundering for use to further WMD programs...a “jurisdiction of primary money laundering concern” 33 under Section 311 of the USA Patriot Act (31 U.S.C. 5318A). The Department of the Treasury...2011, the government has frequently adjusted the official rate to one that is close to the unofficial rate. Inflation . The drop in value of the
increase taxation on the merchants by 70%, but it is likely that the broader adverse business climate contributed to the bazaar stoppages. An agreement...was eventually reached under which taxation only went up 15%. The merchant community could be a potential “swing constituency” if it sides with the...so include Alcatel-Lucent of France; Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ; BNP Paribas of France; Bosch of Germany; Canon of Japan; Fiat SPA of Italy
The ruling incorporated major features of the Iran Digital Empowerment Act (H.R. 4301 in the 111 th Congress). The OFAC determination required a...have long maintained that Iran should build a “resistance economy” – an economy that is self - sufficient and not dependent on imported goods. In...officials who are responsible for depriving Iranian women and other groups of internationally accepted rights. Banning Passenger Flights to and
Melli.24 In late 2009, the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York seized the assets of the Assa Company, a UK-chartered entity. Assa...other evasion methods are discussed further in the sections below. Europe U.S. and European approaches have converged on Iran since 2002, when the...not known to have any involvement in or to supply any GM content to the Peugeot Iran activities. • Attorneys for BNP Paribas of France told the
Freeman, James; Szogi, Elizabeth; Truelove, Verity; Vingilis, Evelyn
The effectiveness of drink driving countermeasures (such as sanctions) to deter motorists from driving over the legal limit is extremely important when considering the impact the offending behavior has on the community. However, questions remain regarding the extent that both legal and non-legal factors influence drink driving behaviors. This is of particular concern given that both factors are widely used as either sanctioning outcomes or in media campaigns designed to deter drivers (e.g., highlighting the physical risk of crashing). This paper reports on an examination of 1,253 Queensland motorists' perceptions of legal and non-legal drink driving sanctions and the corresponding deterrent impact of such perceptions on self-reported offending behavior. Participants volunteered to complete either an online or paper version of the questionnaire. Encouragingly, quantitative analysis of the data revealed that participants' perceptions of both legal sanctions (e.g., certainty, severity and swiftness) as well as non-legal sanctions (e.g., fear of social, internal or physical harm) were relatively high, with perceptual certainty being the highest. Despite this, a key theme to emerge from the study was that approximately 25% of the sample admitted to drink driving at some point in time. Multivariate analyses revealed six significant predictors of drink driving, being: males, younger drivers, lower perceptions of the severity of sanctions, and less concern about the social, internal, and physical harms associated with the offense. However, a closer examination of the data revealed that the combined deterrence model was not very accurate at predicting drink driving behaviors (e.g., 21% of variance). A range of non-legal deterrent factors have the potential to reduce the prevalence of drink driving although further research is required to determine how much exposure is required to produce a strong effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights
Himmelstein, Kathryn E W; Brückner, Hannah
Nonheterosexual adolescents are vulnerable to health risks including addiction, bullying, and familial abuse. We examined whether they also suffer disproportionate school and criminal-justice sanctions. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health followed a nationally representative sample of adolescents who were in grades 7 through 12 in 1994-1995. Data from the 1994-1995 survey and the 2001-2002 follow-up were analyzed. Three measures were used to assess nonheterosexuality: same-sex attraction, same-sex romantic relationships, and lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) self-identification. Six outcomes were assessed: school expulsion; police stops; juvenile arrest; juvenile conviction; adult arrest; and adult conviction. Multivariate analyses controlled for adolescents' sociodemographics and behaviors, including illegal conduct. Nonheterosexuality consistently predicted a higher risk for sanctions. For example, in multivariate analyses, nonheterosexual adolescents had greater odds of being stopped by the police (odds ratio: 1.38 [P educational and criminal-justice punishments that are not explained by greater engagement in illegal or transgressive behaviors. Understanding and addressing these disparities might reduce school expulsions, arrests, and incarceration and their dire social and health consequences.
Home education in Germany is a contravention to the school law, and severe sanctions are applied against it. Despite this, a small home education movement has developed within the last 25 years. This article, after a short overview of home education in Germany, examines the reasons why a policy with sanctions fails to deter homeschooling. Then I…
Pedro Oliver Olmo
Full Text Available This paper explains the creation of an intelligible suggestion for better understanding the administrative sanction in many disciplines in social sciences: the bureau-repression. The coining of this concept is due especially to the repression to which social protestors and demonstrators have been subject since the birth of the 15-M movement in Spain. However, bureau-repression had already begun being exercised in the years following the Transition, and it has developed in parallel to the stage of Security State that characterizes the state system of social control. A detailed analysis of the administrative sanction is performed for many benefits which such sanction provides for those in power, who use it both to silence voices from the street and to dispose of elements which are harmful for the neoliberal system (disadvantaged groups or immigrants. In short, the reader will find the underlying political and repressive background which, at first glance, is usually a monetary fine, and will discover that there are ways to avoid this dense surveillance exercised over the governed people (bureau-resistance. Este artículo explica la creación de una sugerencia inteligible para una mejor comprensión de la sanción administrativa en muchas disciplinas de las ciencias sociales: la burorrepresión. Este término nació especialmente a raíz de la represión que han sufrido los manifestantes de las protestas sociales desde el nacimiento del movimiento 15-M en España. Sin embargo, la burorrepresión ya había comenzado a ejercerse en los años que siguieron a la Transición, y se ha desarrollado de forma paralela al estado de seguridad que caracteriza el sistema estatal de control social. Se realiza un análisis detallado de la sanción administrativa, desarrollada en beneficio de los que están en el poder, quienes la usan tanto para silenciar las voces de la calle como para deshacerse de elementos que sean perjudiciales para el sistema neoliberal
Full Text Available In 2013, Russia’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI soared and the OFDI stock exceeded $ 500 billion. However, a year later, Russia’s OFDI dropped by nearly 15 per cent. Rapid upward and downward swings make it necessary to analyze the motivation of Russian firms to invest abroad as well as to assess the impact of sanctions on Russian OFDI. The author points out that a significant part of Russia’s outward FDI stock is accounted for by the operations of Russian corporations in their home market. It is concluded that although Western sanctions target a relatively small number of Russian citizens and companies, they nevertheless affect some of Russia’s key people, largest banks, and hydrocarbon producers. Therefore, their direct impact could be substantial. Alongside the direct impact, one should consider their indirect impact, such as the tumbling rouble exchange rate and Russian banks’ increasing interest rates, which decrease Russian firms’ capability to invest abroad. Moreover, a less amicable politic al atmosphere in the West may push some Russian corporations out of the Western markets and diminish the enthusiasm of new ones to enter them. Today, Russia’s counter-sanctions do not directly restrict the country’s OFDI, but Russian state-owned enterprises may reach a decision to hold foreign investments to support Russia’s sanction policy.
..., Petrochemical Commercial Company International, Royal Oyster Group, ] Speedy Ship, and Tanker Pacific Management... International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to implement certain of the sanctions imposed... prohibit any United States financial institution from making loans or providing credits to a person...
... Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare... chemical weapons in violation of international law or lethal chemical weapons against its own nationals... the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991, 22 U.S.C. 5604(a) and...
...” of September 20, 1988 (the “NFA”), are authorized, notwithstanding the joint and several liability..., subject to the NFA for which the Pre-sanctions Obligor was the National Bank of Yugoslavia or an entity... “Refinancing Loan Notice” required pursuant to the NFA concerning the debt obligation transferred, and (ii) If...
Pauwels, Lieven; Weerman, Frank; Bruinsma, Gerben; Bernasco, Wim
Deterrence studies have shown that perceived sanction risk is related to delinquent behaviour, independent of other variables, and that this relation may be conditioned by individual propensity towards crime. The principal goal of this study is to assess these findings with data from a sample of 843
I. O. Sochneva
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the past and current situation of geological exploration drilling on the Arctic region continental shelf. Along with climate conditions, the strategy of drilling is greatly infl uenced by technical accessibility of licensed sites, the latter depending on achieved level of equipment and technologies. Since 2014 the USA, the European Union countries and a number of other states have imposed sanctions against Russia. Sectoral sanctions, prohibiting access to technologies employed in the Arctic region shelf projects, have become an important part of these sanctions. This research is aimed at assessing the infl uence of sectoral anti-Russian sanctions on geological exploration drilling in the Arctic seas. The choice of geological exploration drilling is not accidental as the majority of Russian Arctic projects are at this particular stage now.Over the recent forty years, the country has accumulated considerable practical experience of conducting geological exploration drilling and the Arctic region field development. Our analysis demonstrates that modern Russia has necessary technologies for exploration and field development in the Arctic region. In fact, Russia is the only country, which actually continues its operations in the Arctic region amid a sharp decline of oil prices. Imposing sectoral sanctions related to equipment and technologies of developing the Russian Arctic shelf is inefficient.It is forecasted that in the coming decade, the continuing global warming process will make the majority of regions of the Barents Sea and the Kara Sea – where a number of large and gigantic fields have already been discovered – more accessible for conducting geological exploration drilling. It is possible to use here the traditional types of off shore drilling units with a low ice rate. This will totally eliminate any technical and technological problems of drilling. The USA are expected to enter the market of arctic hydrocarbons from
Overkill or not enough: Two decades ago, Congress realized that a system of civil remedies alone, devoid of any lasting punitive consequences, was inadequate to insure compliance with environmental protection statutes. Other than the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, which was designed to protect navigation, Federal criminal sanctions were not applicable to water pollution offenses. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, more commonly known as the Clean Water Act (CWA), was twenty-four years old before Federal criminal enforcement of its provisions was allowed. But since the early 1970's, the criminal provisions of the CWA have been strengthened, the United States Department of Justice has beefed up its environmental enforcement efforts, and environmental polluters have been prosecuted. This Federal effort is now approaching overkill.
Feygina, Irina; Jost, John T; Goldsmith, Rachel E
Despite extensive evidence of climate change and environmental destruction, polls continue to reveal widespread denial and resistance to helping the environment. It is posited here that these responses are linked to the motivational tendency to defend and justify the societal status quo in the face of the threat posed by environmental problems. The present research finds that system justification tendencies are associated with greater denial of environmental realities and less commitment to pro-environmental action. Moreover, the effects of political conservatism, national identification, and gender on denial of environmental problems are explained by variability in system justification tendencies. However, this research finds that it is possible to eliminate the negative effect of system justification on environmentalism by encouraging people to regard pro-environmental change as patriotic and consistent with protecting the status quo (i.e., as a case of "system-sanctioned change"). Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Rustem M. Nureev
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the impact of economic sanctions in general for innovative development of Russia, as well as individual sectors of oil, gas, financial and banking sector. It is shown that the ban on exports to the Russian oil and gas technology has led to the freezing of existing and refusal to enter into new projects. Increased production and export of US oil and gas have led to an increase in excess of the global scope of these types of raw materials and led to long-term downward trend in world energy prices. In recent years there has been a sharp decline in the net inflow of foreign direct investment in Russia, which exacerbates the problem of domestic sources of domestic innovation policy. The effect of sanctions on the development of the Russian economy as a whole and its individual regions is condifered. The paper describes the approaches to the definition of the innovation potential of the Russian region, identified several levels of manifestation of the region's potential and its characteristics, provides a definition of the region's innovation potential, discussed the factors influencing the development of the region's innovative capacity. The current state of the regional innovation system of the Russian Federation is analysed. The paper describes the main tasks of the Russian Federation Innovative Development Strategy for the period up to 2020. The degree of implementation of the Strategy, problems and prospects of realization of the basic provisions of the Strategy, the impact of the implementation of the Strategy on the Russian economy, its position in the index business are analysed in the paper.
Roff, Sue; Chandratilake, Madawa; Mcaleer, Sean; Gibson, John
To investigate the extent of consensus between faculty and students in order to benchmark appropriate sanctions for first-time offences with no mitigating factors in the area of Academic Probity by quota sampling in one cohort of medical, nursing and dental students in a Scottish university. This study reports administration of a web-based preliminary inventory derived from the international research literature to a target population of health professions staff and students. This study was conducted at Scottish University College of Medicine, Dentistry, Nursing and Midwifery. 57 faculty and 689 students in the College in first quarter of 2009 participated in this study. 50% of medical students, 26% of dental students, 22% of nursing students and 27% of midwifery students responded; 22% of faculty responded. Administration of a preliminary 41-item inventory to 57 faculty and 689 students from a Scottish College of Medicine, Dentistry, Nursing and Midwifery has allowed us to preliminarily rank the sanctions that are broadly agreed between the two cohorts as well as to identify a small cluster of behaviours which are viewed less severely by students than by faculty. These data will give guidance to undergraduate Fitness to Practice committees but also guidance to curriculum planners about the areas in which students may need more teaching. The results informed the reduction of the inventory and its refinement in to a 30-item e-learning tool that is being field tested for generalisability within and beyond the UK. The researchers have also been invited to adapt the proposed teaching and learning tools beyond the health professions.
... investigation and resolution of the violations are provided for under the Grant Officer's resolution process at....266(b)(1)). (c) Sanctions and remedies are provided for in WIA section 181(d)(3) for violations of...
Full Text Available Minors represent a special category of offenders, due to the age at the time of commission of a misdemeanor. Hence, the law prescribes special sanctions for them. A special attention has been given to measures that are of medical character. However, the Law on Misdemeanors has contradictory provisions in terms of sanctions for minors by differentiating, in certain provisions, between younger and older minors. In the first part, this paper deals in general with offenders of misdemeanors that are minors, while sanctions are dealt with in the second part of the paper. Central part of the paper deals with the issues surrounding protective measure 'Mandatory treatment of alcohol and psychoactive substance addicts', by pointing to some irrational provisions of the Law. In relations to that issue, the paper discuss whether in certain situations the law is more harsh on minors that commit misdemeanor offences or minors that commit criminal offences, having in mind prescribed sanctions.
Sattar, Kamran; Roff, Sue
Medical Professionalism is recognized as a cultural construct. We explore perceptions of the severity of lapses in professionalism of undergraduate medical students at two medical schools with different cultural contexts. Respondents from two medical schools (Saudi Arabia & UK) recommended sanctions for the first time, unmitigated lapses in academic professionalism, using the Dundee Polyprofessionalism Inventory 1: Academic Integrity. While more than two-thirds of the recommended sanctions for the 30 items of poor professionalism were fully or nearly congruent among the 1125 respondents, there were substantial differences in recommended response for one-third of the items, with a strong tendency for the Saudi students to recommend more lenient sanctions than the Scottish students. The strategy of using recommended sanctions as a proxy for the perception of the severity of different lapses in professionalism may be a useful tool in learning and teaching academic professionalism among medical students in different cultural contexts.
Nakamaru, Mayuko; Shimura, Hayato; Kitakaji, Yoko; Ohnuma, Susumu
The evolution of cooperation is an unsolved research topic and has been investigated from the viewpoint of not only biology and other natural sciences but also social sciences. Much extant research has focused on the evolution of cooperation among peers. While, different players belonging to different organizations play different social roles, and players playing different social roles cooperate together to achieve their goals. We focus on the evolution of cooperation in linear division of labor that is defined as follows: a player in the i-th role interacts with a player in the i + 1-th role, and a player in the n-th role achieves their goal (1 ≤ i dumping, which can be interpreted as cooperation or defection (i = 1-3). With legally required treatment, the player of B j pays a cost to ask the player of B j +1 to treat the waste (j = 1, 2). Then, the cooperator of B j +1 pays a cost to treat the waste properly. With illegal dumping, the player of B i dumps the waste and does not pay any cost (i = 1-3). However, the waste dumped by the defector has negative environmental consequences, which all players in all roles suffer from. This situation is equivalent to a social dilemma encountered in common-pool resource management contexts. The administrative organ in Japan introduces two sanction systems to address the illegal dumping problem: the actor responsibility system and the producer responsibility system. In the actor responsibility system, if players in any role who choose defection are monitored and discovered, they are penalized via a fine. However, it is difficult to monitor and detect the violators, and this system does not work well. While, in the producer responsibility system, the player in B 1 is fined if the player cannot hand the manifest to the local administrative organ because the players of B i (i = 1-3) who choose defection do not hand the manifest to the player of B 1 . We analyze this situation using the replicator equation
Ćorović Emir A.
Full Text Available The principle of guilt is one of the essential principles of criminal law. However, it is a very complex principle. Its content has been presented in this paper particularly referring to a systematic deviation of it in the criminal legislation of the Republic of Serbia. According to the provisions of the article 2 of the Criminal Code of Serbia the principle of guilt is related to punishments and warning measures, while security and educational measures remained beyond its reach. On the other side, The Criminal Code defining a crime offense in the article 14 demands culpability of perpetrator's behavior. It involves a conceptual problem: a possibility is given for criminal sanctions of the principle of guilt, article 2 of the Criminal Code not referring to security and educational measures could be applied for people acting without culpability. It is paradoxical to accept criminal-justice reaction in the form of criminal sanctions regarding people without guilt. According to author of this paper, such a normative solution brings into issue the relevant principle, more precisely its basis, generality and guidance, the qualities that every legal principle should maintain. Of course, deviations of legal principle and the principle of guilt are possible but they must be kept to a minimum. Otherwise, systematic legal principle deviations, in this case the principle of guilt, are not to be tolerated. Connecting the principle of guilt with the system of criminal sanctions opens the debate on voluntarism embodied in the freedom of will and guilt and positivism/determinism embodied in perpetrator's danger and educational neglect within the criminal law. It is over a century discussion in the science of criminal law. The author of the paper concludes criminal-justice reaction in the form of criminal sanction can be justified only of based on the principle of guilt. Otherwise, such a reaction has no place in the criminal law.
Dyson, Tim; Cetorelli, Valeria
In August 1990, Saddam Hussein's army invaded Kuwait and consequently the United Nations imposed economic sanctions on Iraq. In 1991, an international military alliance expelled the Iraqi army from Kuwait during a short war. Nevertheless, the economic sanctions remained in place-their removal required that Iraq should destroy its weapons of mass destruction. Subsequent years saw reports of acute suffering in Iraq. The sanctions undoubtedly greatly reduced the country's ability to import supplies of food and medicine. Particular concerns arose about the state of young children. These concerns crystalised in 1999 when, with cooperation from the Iraqi government, Unicef conducted a major demographic survey. The results of the survey indicated that the under-5 death rate in Iraq had increased hugely between 1990 and 1991 and had then continued at a very high level. The survey results were used both to challenge and support the case for the invasion of Iraq in 2003. And they were cited by Tony Blair in 2010 in his testimony to the Iraq Inquiry established by the British government. Indeed, the results of the 1999 Unicef/Government of Iraq survey are still cited. Since 2003, however, several more surveys dealing with child mortality have been undertaken. Their results show no sign of a huge and enduring rise in the under-5 death rate starting in 1991. It is therefore clear that Saddam Hussein's government successfully manipulated the 1999 survey in order to convey a very false impression-something that is surely deserving of greater recognition.
Full Text Available This study is an empirical attempt to find out whether under sanctions Iran’s trade direction has shifted away from Europe (trade policy of de-Europeanization towards Asia (trade policy of Asianization. The analysis is conducted using a panel-gravity trade model to analyze bilateral trade pattern between Iran and 50 countries from the EU and Asia during the period 2006–2013. To this end, the authors use an extended gravity model by adding new variables, including the index of Chinn–Ito (KAOPEN as an indicator of financial openness, and the composite trade intensity (CTI as an indicator of trade openness. Our findings reveal that the gravity equation fits the data reasonably well. The empirical evidence indicates a significant negative effect of sanctions on Iran–EU bilateral trade (by an average of 46.9%, while it has a positive impact on trade between Iran and the Asian countries (by an average of 85.2%. Overall, these findings confirm that the imposition of various sanctions related to Iran’s nuclear program has pushed the country’s foreign trade to reorient away from Europe towards Asia.
Tania Milena Daza-Márquez
Full Text Available This article puts forward an analysis of the problem of the imprescriptibility of action and disciplinary sanctions for grave violations of human rights and international humanitarian law, committed by civil servants, particularly, members of the Military Forces and the National Police. The study deals with the regulation of disciplinary action for grave conduct within the disciplinary regime applicable to the Public Forces over the past thirty years and in the current Code of Practice on Disciplinary and Grievance Proceedures. I also illustrate the legal, political, social and economic consequences—for the Colombian State—of investigation and disciplinary sanctions for crimes against humanity or war crimes being ommitted or delayed through negligence of State offi- cials. The declaration of a prescription may be considered a means to impunity for administrative sanctions and, in turn, provides proof of the State’s failure to comply with International committments that guarantee and protect Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law. Finally, given the controversy regarding diciplinary imprescriptibility, this paper proposes a llegal reform which extends the term of prescription in order to preserve the rights of victims and the disciplined.
Repeated interaction and social networks are commonly considered viable solutions to collective action problems. This article identifies and systematically measures four general mechanisms--that is, generalized altruism, group solidarity, reciprocity, and the threat of sanctioning--and tests which of them brings about cooperation in the context of Ugandan producer organizations. Using an innovative methodological framework that combines "lab-in-the-field" experiments with survey interviews and complete social networks data, the article goes beyond the assessment of a relationship between social networks and collective outcomes to study the mechanisms that favor cooperative behavior. The article first establishes a positive relationship between position in the network structure and propensity to cooperate in the producer organization and then uses farmers' behavior in dictator and public goods games to test different mechanisms that may account for such a relationship. Results show that cooperation is induced by patterns of reciprocity that emerge through repeated interaction rather than other-regarding preferences like altruism or group solidarity.
Full Text Available This article uses rhetorical analysis to determine the effectiveness and characteristics of social media usage by the Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions (BDS movement targeting Israel. Hundreds of local student, community, and religious groups in the United States use social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook to promote BDS discourse and organize local BDS-related events. Even though social media platforms are important for an international movement composed of a very dispersed population, with millions of Palestinians also living under military occupation, the history of traditional media use during the First Intifada also suggests that social media are not necessary for mobilizing Palestinians at the local level. A preliminary rhetorical analysis of several BDS-related Facebook pages and Twitter accounts reveals that the BDS movement’s social media usage functions similarly in some ways to other contemporary mass movements by facilitating on-the-ground actions and delivering useful information to supporters. BDS movement social media discourse, however, does not establish the same level of emotional connection or interactivity with audiences as some other recent movements have, but these limitations can be partly explained by the unique political, material, and rhetorical constraints of the situation.
Monahan, John; Skeem, Jennifer; Lowenkamp, Christopher
While many extoll the potential contribution of risk assessment to reducing the human and fiscal costs of mass incarceration without increasing crime, others adamantly oppose the incorporation of risk assessment in sanctioning. The principal concern is that any benefits in terms of reduced rates of incarceration achieved through the use of risk assessment will be offset by costs to social justice-which are claimed to be inherent in any risk assessment process that relies on variables for which offenders bear no responsibility, such as race, gender, and age. Previous research has addressed the variables of race and gender. Here, based on a sample of 7,350 federal offenders, we empirically test the predictive fairness of an instrument-the Post Conviction Risk Assessment (PCRA)-that includes the variable of age. We found that the strength of association between PCRA scores and future arrests was similar across younger (i.e., 25 years and younger), middle (i.e., 26-40 years), and older (i.e., 41 years and older) age groups (AUC values .70 or higher). Nevertheless, rates of arrest within each PCRA risk category were consistently lower for older than for younger offenders. Despite its inclusion of age as a risk factor, PCRA scores overestimated rates of recidivism for older offenders and underestimated rates of recidivism for younger offenders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Schwartz, David; Kelly, Brynn M; Duong, Mylien T
Existing theoretical perspectives suggest that adolescents who are characterized by high achievement may experience social sanctions from peers. The central premise is that, in many North American settings, adolescent peer groups are characterized by negative attitudes toward the school environment. To test these hypotheses, we examined associations between indicators of low social power (unpopularity and victimization by peers) and academic competence for 415 adolescents (193 boys; 222 girls) attending an urban high school. This school served neighborhoods that were characterized by a moderate degree of economic distress and the students were predominately of Hispanic American descent. A short-term longitudinal design was used, with two waves of data collected over consecutive school years. The adolescents completed a peer nomination inventory assessing relational and overt victimization by peers, unpopularity, and social rejection. In addition, we obtained math and language arts grades from school records, and we assessed behavioral engagement in school with a self-report inventory. Structural equation models did not reveal a strong pattern of longitudinal change in social standing with peers or academic functioning. However, we found positive correlations between academic achievement and problematic peer relationships in both years of the project. We also found evidence that gender moderates these associations, with the effects reaching significance only for boys. Our results provide evidence that, in some settings, high achieving adolescents can be prone to negative treatment or marginalization by peers.
Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Kebriaeezade, Abbas; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Soleymani, Fatemeh
An economic crisis has been defined as a situation in which the scale of a country's economy becomes smaller in a period of time. Economic crises happen for various reasons, including economic sanctions. Economic crises in a country may affect national priorities for investment and expenditure and reduce available resources, and hence may affect the health care sector including access to medicines. We reviewed the pharmaceutical policies that the countries adopted in order to mitigate the potential negative effects on access to medicines. We reviewed published reports and articles after conducting a comprehensive search of the PubMed and the Google Scholar. After extracting relevant data from the identified articles, we used the World Health Organization (WHO) access to medicines framework as a guide for the categorization of the policies. We identified a total of 40 studies, of which 10 reported the national pharmaceutical policies adopted to reduce the negative impacts of economic crises on access to medicines in high-income and middle-income countries. We identified 89 policies adopted in the 11 countries and categorized them into 12 distinct policy directions. Most of the policies focused on financial aspects of the pharmaceutical sector. In some cases, countries adopted policies that potentially had negative effects on access to medicines. Only Italy had adopted policies encompassing all four accesses to medicine factors recommended by the WHO. While the countries have adopted many seemingly effective policies, little evidence exists on the effectiveness of these policies to improve access to medicines at a time of an economic crisis. PMID:26312250
Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Kebriaeezade, Abbas; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Soleymani, Fatemeh
An economic crisis has been defined as a situation in which the scale of a country's economy becomes smaller in a period of time. Economic crises happen for various reasons, including economic sanctions. Economic crises in a country may affect national priorities for investment and expenditure and reduce available resources, and hence may affect the health care sector including access to medicines. We reviewed the pharmaceutical policies that the countries adopted in order to mitigate the potential negative effects on access to medicines. We reviewed published reports and articles after conducting a comprehensive search of the PubMed and the Google Scholar. After extracting relevant data from the identified articles, we used the World Health Organization (WHO) access to medicines framework as a guide for the categorization of the policies. We identified a total of 40 studies, of which 10 reported the national pharmaceutical policies adopted to reduce the negative impacts of economic crises on access to medicines in high-income and middle-income countries. We identified 89 policies adopted in the 11 countries and categorized them into 12 distinct policy directions. Most of the policies focused on financial aspects of the pharmaceutical sector. In some cases, countries adopted policies that potentially had negative effects on access to medicines. Only Italy had adopted policies encompassing all four accesses to medicine factors recommended by the WHO. While the countries have adopted many seemingly effective policies, little evidence exists on the effectiveness of these policies to improve access to medicines at a time of an economic crisis.
Aleksandr V. Padiryakov
Full Text Available Objective comprehensive analysis of the doctrine of the frustration of contracts signed in compliance with law of England and the practice of its application for the Russian companies. Methods dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors that determined the choice of the following research methods systematicstructural formallegal comparativelegal legal modeling method. Results due to the introduction of the EU sanctions there is the risk of foreign counterpartiesrsquo refusal to execute contracts with Russian companies on the legal basis of frustration of treaties. The essence of the frustration doctrine is that the contract obligations may be terminated if after their signing such events occur which make their fulfillment impossible or unlawful. When signing international agreements under English law the lawyers of Russian companies should include provisions governing the relationships of the parties in case of impossibility of the contract execution due to the occurrence of an event that caused the treaty frustration in particular the imposition of sanctions. It is recommended to specify in the contract how the losses arising from the inability to execute the contract will be distributed between the parties. Scientific novelty for the first time basing on court practice review the definition of the frustration of contracts according to the law of England is formulated the legal implications of the recognition of the contract frustrated are discussed and the legal conditions are proposed that should be provided for in the text of a contract to avoid the problem of uncertainty in the allocation of losses of the parties in case of occurrence of external events including sanctions. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and lawenforcement activity
Full Text Available Targeted sanctions have been extensively used by states throughout history to achieve political objectives. This article examines the European Union’s and United States’ targeted sanctions against the Zimbabwean regime, which have been in place for several years. The central thesis of the article is that the sanctions are not effective and thus have failed to achieve the political objectives of both the European Union and the United States. Numerous violations of the travel ban and the financial restrictions have undermined the general effectiveness of the sanctions. A detailed analysis of each individual measure empirically supports the argument that the ineffectiveness of the sanctions has negatively influenced the achievement of the political objectives. In addition, by taking a closer look at Risa Brooks’ theory and discussing it in regards to the Zimbabwean sanctions, attention is drawn to the question of how to target authoritarian regimes. Seit Jahrzehnten sind zielgerichtete Sanktionen ein wichtiges Instrument der internationalen Politik. Der vorliegende Artikel untersucht die von der Europäischen Union und den Vereinigten Staaten verhängten Sanktionen gegen das simbabwische Regime, die seit einigen Jahren wirksam sind. Zentrales Argument des Autors ist, dass diese Sanktionen bislang nicht effektiv waren und die damit verbundenen politischen Ziele daher nicht erreicht werden konnten. Zahlreiche Verstöße gegen das Reiseverbot und die Finanzrestriktionen haben die Wirksamkeit der Sanktionen untergraben. Eine empirische Analyse der einzelnen Sanktionsmaßnahmen unterstützt das Argument, dass die Ineffektivität der Sanktionen die Durchsetzung der politischen Ziele verhindert hat. Mit Blick auf die Theorie von Risa A. Brooks wird zudem der Frage nachgegangen, wie zielgerichtete Sanktionen gegen autoritäre Regime funktionieren können.
Paulo Queiroz Sousa
Full Text Available Forest conservation efforts through regulatory enforcement routinely failed to prevent large scale deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. However, a turning point occurred in 2005, when a combination of unfavorable economic conditions and an unprecedented coordinated effort between governmental institutions resulted in a gradual slowdown in deforestation. The continuation of this deforestation slowdown in an environment of economic recovery and expansion after 2009 suggests that regulatory enforcement achieved a measure of success not experienced before. In this study, the impact of fines, embargoes on rural private properties, and confiscation of means of production and produce on deforestation in the Southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso was considered through regression and GIS-based analyses. It was found that while all three sanctions were negatively correlated with deforestation, there were important differences in their level of enforcement. Embargoes were effectively implemented and showed high deforestation deterrence effectiveness, but the actual collection of the values of fines issued was extremely low, which casts doubts on their actual effectiveness as a deforestation deterrence mechanism. The results suggest that while sanctions for illegal deforestation have played an important role in the slowdown in deforestation, measures to increase the collection of fines issued are urgently needed.
Alanis Kelly L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing more sensible measures to treat cocaine-addicted mothers and their children is essential for improving U.S. drug policy. Favorable post-natal environments have moderated potential deleterious prenatal effects. However, since cocaine is an illicit substance having long been demonized, we hypothesized that attitudes toward prenatal cocaine exposure would be more negative than for licit substances, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine. Further, media portrayals about long-term outcomes were hypothesized to influence viewers' attitudes, measured immediately post-viewing. Reducing popular crack baby stigmas could influence future policy decisions by legislators. In Study 1, 336 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions describing hypothetical legal sanction scenarios for pregnant women using cocaine, alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. Participants rated legal sanctions against pregnant women who used one of these substances and risk potential for developing children. In Study 2, 139 participants were randomly assigned to positive, neutral and negative media conditions. Immediately post-viewing, participants rated prenatal cocaine-exposed or non-exposed teens for their academic performance and risk for problems at age18. Results Participants in Study 1 imposed significantly greater legal sanctions for cocaine, perceiving prenatal cocaine exposure as more harmful than alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. A one-way ANOVA for independent samples showed significant differences, beyond .0001. Post-hoc Sheffe test illustrated that cocaine was rated differently from other substances. In Study 2, a one-way ANOVA for independent samples was performed on difference scores for the positive, neutral or negative media conditions about prenatal cocaine exposure. Participants in the neutral and negative media conditions estimated significantly lower grade point averages and more problems for the teen with prenatal cocaine exposure
Ginsburg, Harvey J; Raffeld, Paul; Alanis, Kelly L; Boyce, Angela S
Background Establishing more sensible measures to treat cocaine-addicted mothers and their children is essential for improving U.S. drug policy. Favorable post-natal environments have moderated potential deleterious prenatal effects. However, since cocaine is an illicit substance having long been demonized, we hypothesized that attitudes toward prenatal cocaine exposure would be more negative than for licit substances, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine. Further, media portrayals about long-term outcomes were hypothesized to influence viewers' attitudes, measured immediately post-viewing. Reducing popular crack baby stigmas could influence future policy decisions by legislators. In Study 1, 336 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions describing hypothetical legal sanction scenarios for pregnant women using cocaine, alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. Participants rated legal sanctions against pregnant women who used one of these substances and risk potential for developing children. In Study 2, 139 participants were randomly assigned to positive, neutral and negative media conditions. Immediately post-viewing, participants rated prenatal cocaine-exposed or non-exposed teens for their academic performance and risk for problems at age18. Results Participants in Study 1 imposed significantly greater legal sanctions for cocaine, perceiving prenatal cocaine exposure as more harmful than alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. A one-way ANOVA for independent samples showed significant differences, beyond .0001. Post-hoc Sheffe test illustrated that cocaine was rated differently from other substances. In Study 2, a one-way ANOVA for independent samples was performed on difference scores for the positive, neutral or negative media conditions about prenatal cocaine exposure. Participants in the neutral and negative media conditions estimated significantly lower grade point averages and more problems for the teen with prenatal cocaine exposure than for the non-exposed teen
Linhorst, Donald M.; Dirks-Linhorst, P. Ann; Groom, Ralph
This study compares the characteristics of two groups of probationers ordered to jail-based substance-abuse treatment as an intermediate sanction. It further reviews rearrest and probation failure outcomes of the two groups, along with the demographic, clinical, and criminal factors associated with those outcomes. Probationers jailed for probation…
Yang, H.; van de Vliert, Evert; Shi, Kan
Lay third parties sometimes react to an interpersonal dispute by taking sides. In this paper, we investigate the interaction effects of lay third parties' moral and expedient orientations on the relationship between perceived legitimacy (or expected negative sanctions) and their intention of
Yang, H.; Van de Vliert, E.; Shi, K
Lay third parties sometimes react to an interpersonal dispute by taking sides. In this paper, we investigate the interaction effects of lay third parties' moral and expedient orientations on the relationship between perceived legitimacy (or expected negative sanctions) and their intention of
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what circumstances may a sanction be....240 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PERFORMANCE... indicators for the same program in two successive years, the amount of the succeeding year's allocation for...
The study under investigation was the impact of early literacy and behavior sanctions on Black male matriculation towards graduation in a selected South Carolina school district. Attendance and course failure in English strongly predicted whether or not students graduated from high school. Early literacy is the foundation for academic success in…
Henning, April D; Dimeo, Paul
The use of banned substances and techniques in sport is regulated by anti-doping rules co-ordinated by the World Anti-Doping Agency. The purposes of these rules are to protect the health of the athlete, the level playing field and what WADA refers to as the spirit of sport. In this article, we review the known cases of sanctions in USA cycling since 2001. We show that the diversity of cases expands upon the simplistic, one-dimensional understanding of doping as risky and cheating. Contrary to this paradigm, we establish a typology of cases that challenges the one size fits all approach and, more specifically, we argue that WADA should develop new policies with independent standards for amateur and masters athletes.
Full Text Available This study aims to be an interdisciplinary, criminal-criminological approach of the minority institution in terms of criminal liability, with an evolutionary dynamic of the pre-offense and post-offense assumptions. The operative criterion is the notion of juvenile pre-delinquency (pre-deviance or potential deviance, because it refers to all the acts violating the norm of moral behaviour, which in certain circumstances may lead a teenager to appear before the court, and in other circumstances not. The deviant conducts of minors do not necessarily have a criminal nature and not under all circumstances. If these different acts of them do not violate the criminal norms, representing only deviations from ethical rules of behaviour, they are not legally sanctioned, but only in moral forms. Thus, this approach is meant to be a criminological transition from the criminological plan to the criminal illegality.
Anastasia V. Sheveleva
Full Text Available This article analyzes the influence of the economic sanctions imposed from the USA and the EU and oil prices reduction on the oil and gas companies and the directions of diversification of their activity as a method of management of price risks are considered. In the modern dynamic and quickly developing world, in the conditions of globalization and market economy, the oil and gas companies are affected by various risks which can exert negative impact on production and financial results. Risks can arise in absolutely various spheres, beginning from natural and technological hazards, and finishing with price risks. Sharp reduction of oil prices and decrease in demand for energy resources in the world markets, first of all in the European countries, input of financial or technological sanctions from the USA and Europe against Russia in 2014 has caused necessity of search a new more effective methods of price risks management of the oil and gas company. The methods of price risk management include the creation of commodity reserves, the establishment of a reserve fund, long-term contracts, subsidies from the state and the diversification of activities. The most effective it is possible to offer diversification of oil and gas companies' activity. It is expedient to carry out diversification of oil and gas companies' activity in such directions as geographical diversification of the oil, oil products and gas realization directions, geographical diversification of oil and gas companies' purchasing activity, diversification of oil, oil products and gas transportation ways, diversification of oil and gas companies' business. This approach allows to expand the activities of the oil and gas companies and create additional ways to generate revenue and enhance efficiency of oil and gas companies.
C’est le 3 mars 1999, en fin de législature, qu’est introduit par les ministres de la Justice et de l’Intérieur de l’époque Tony Van Parijs et L. Van den Bossche, le projet de loi sur les sanctions administratives communales (connue sous le nom de «Loi SAC). La loi devait être votée et il y avait
Nicolás Espinosa Menéndez
Full Text Available The Local Legal System in La Sierra de la Macarena is facing the challenge of the political transition in the Colombian post war. Since this Legal System integrates insurgent, community, and state practices, after the abandonment of weapons that the insurgency makes, the ability of coercion that integrates the local justice shall cease. This implies that sanctions provided by the Manuals of Coexistence of the communities (fines, confiscations, and community work should strengthen their legitimacy. Likewise, the sanctions imposed by the guerrillas to punish the violation of its regulations and/or to maintain order (forced labor, exile, executions have to be overcome. Since such an improvement implies a territorial transformation, in order to make it, it is necessary to recognize the current social conditions. In this order of ideas, a characterization of the criminal nature of the Local Legal System isprovided and the main elements of its sanctions are set out. The text is supported by a long-standing social and legal ethnography, in the zone.
CATALIN IONUT ONCESCU
Full Text Available The legality principle represents a frame principle since its interaction with the other principles exceeds the simple connection with those. The legality represents the frame within and with the compliance with which all the other fundamental principles of the penal trial are realized. No other principle can be placed outside thelegality, in same way in which any principle, no matter how important it may be, does not occur in any other way than according to the forms stipulated by law.Taking into consideration that the enforcement of the law is mandatory in criminal law procedures, as well as the obvious significance of the penal trial’s principle oflegality, it was absolutely necessary for the compliance with this principle to be doubled by numerous guarantees which, in the situations in which this fundamental rule has been violated, would become genuine sanctions referring not only to the procedural acts achieved with the law’s violation, but also to the people who have not complied with the law as far as the procedural penal activities’ unfolding is concerned.
Full Text Available Scholars of international communication recognize that strategic narratives are important for policymaking (Miskimmon, O’Loughlin, & Roselle, 2013 and scholars studying alliances suggest that communication is central to the formation and maintenance of alliances (Weitsman, 2010. This essay addresses how strategic narratives affect US alliance behavior—and hence international order—in two specific ways. First, alliance behavior can be affected by other allies’ narratives as demonstrated in the case of military intervention in Libya in 2011. Here the evidence suggests that the UK and France were able to use strategic narratives to influence the decision of the US to agree to military intervention in Libya by using narratives that could evoke a fear of abandonment. Second, alliance cohesion can be affected by narrative contestation by non-allies as demonstrated in the case of the Ukrainian crisis in 2014. Russia has used strategic narratives in a new media environment in an attempt to elicit a fear of entrapment to counter the US attempts to coordinate alliance support for economic sanctions. In both cases, distinguishing between system, identity, and policy narratives give us a deeper understanding of narrative contestation today. This analysis adds to our understanding of the factors that affect alliances set within a new media environment characterized by a proliferation of sources and outlets and thus a more horizontal structure of information exchange.
Guenzburger, Gloriam Vanine; Atkinson, Debra Barbiaux
Jail sentences and actual jail times were compared for 2006 California driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs (DUI) offenders from select counties using matched data from Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV), court, and sheriff databases. Additionally, alternative sanctions to jail were investigated. Jail sentences reported by courts were consistently longer than actual jail time. Actual jail time percentages across participating counties ranged from 0 to 67% for 1st DUI offenders, 0 to 20% for 2nd offenders, and 0 to 66% for 3rd(+) offenders. Median percentages of jail sentences actually served across participating counties were 0%, 7%, and 22% for 1st, 2nd, and 3rd(+) DUI offenders, respectively. Alternative sentences were used more often for 1st DUI offenders and less so for 2nd and 3rd(+) offenders. Caution is warranted regarding conclusions about jail ineffectiveness as a DUI deterrent from previous studies given that most were based on jail sentence or statutory lengths, which appear to overestimate actual jail times. © 2013.
Wang, Raymond Yu; Ng, Cho Nam
The problem of trust is a paradigmatic social dilemma. Previous literature has paid much academic attention on effects of peer punishment and altruistic third-party punishment on trust and human cooperation in dyadic interactions. However, the effects of centralized sanctioning institutions on decentralized reciprocity in hierarchical interactions remain to be further explored. This paper presents a formal two-level trust game with incomplete information which adds an authority as a strategic purposive actor into the traditional trust game. This model allows scholars to examine the problem of trust in more complex game theoretic configurations. The analysis demonstrates how the centralized institutions might change the dynamics of reciprocity between the trustor and the trustee. Findings suggest that the sequential equilibria of the newly proposed two-level model simultaneously include the risk of placing trust for the trustor and the temptation of short-term defection for the trustee. Moreover, they have shown that even a slight uncertainty about the type of the newly introduced authority might facilitate the establishment of trust and reciprocity in social dilemmas.
Full Text Available Background: Presuming that tobacco taxes, levied both as import duties and ad valorem, would financially benefit the Iranian Government, such the introduction of a highly desired US product to the market would be antithetical to the sanctions regime currently in place. Methods: This paper as a systematic review and documents through Pubmed and webs seeks to understand the politician economy implications of nicotine addiction in Iran, focusing on the US office of foreign asset control′s (OFAC awarding of Iran operations licenses to American tobacco companies. Results: By comparing Iran′s tobacco industry and the attendant public health crisis that has arisen from high rates of nicotine addiction, to conditions in Turkey, it can be demonstrated that Iran is uniquely unable to extract revenues from the sale of tobacco products. The primary point of comparison between Iran and Turkey is smoking-attributable annual productivity loses of each country as estimated through the use of smoking-attributable mortality, morbidity and economic costs software (SAMMEC and the available related literature. Based on the calculations derived from the SAMMEC model, Iran is burdened with an incredible cost to the economy borne by a high prevalence of smokers. Conclusions: It is concluded that an awareness of this condition enables OFAC to award licenses to big tobacco without fear of undermining current foreign policy initiatives.
Batmanghelidj, Esfandyar; Heydari, Gholamreza
Presuming that tobacco taxes, levied both as import duties and ad valorem, would financially benefit the Iranian Government, such the introduction of a highly desired US product to the market would be antithetical to the sanctions regime currently in place. This paper as a systematic review and documents through Pubmed and webs seeks to understand the politician economy implications of nicotine addiction in Iran, focusing on the US office of foreign asset control's (OFAC) awarding of Iran operations licenses to American tobacco companies. By comparing Iran's tobacco industry and the attendant public health crisis that has arisen from high rates of nicotine addiction, to conditions in Turkey, it can be demonstrated that Iran is uniquely unable to extract revenues from the sale of tobacco products. The primary point of comparison between Iran and Turkey is smoking-attributable annual productivity loses of each country as estimated through the use of smoking-attributable mortality, morbidity and economic costs software (SAMMEC) and the available related literature. Based on the calculations derived from the SAMMEC model, Iran is burdened with an incredible cost to the economy borne by a high prevalence of smokers. It is concluded that an awareness of this condition enables OFAC to award licenses to big tobacco without fear of undermining current foreign policy initiatives.
Erika García Cobián Castro
Full Text Available Constitutional doctrine has little addressed on the General Comptroller of the Republic and its controlling function of public resources execution and management. Efforts have been made to explain this situation in other realities, regarding high budgetary, accounting and auditing content needed to carry out auditing activities constitutionally assigned to this kind of entities. Nevertheless, identifying competences of the General Comptroller of the Republic and its nature of autonomous constitutional body shapes an important expression of Constitutional State and the principle of powers division. This entity controls State’s Public Budget execution contributing to constitutional property protection, legality of budget implementation and the appropriate management of public resources, also the «efficiency» of social needs, proper functioning of public administration and prevention of corruption, among others duties. This article analyzes the constitutional mission of the General Comptroller in a Constitutional State promoting the process of given a constitutional status to the legal system in its area of influence, also optimizing constitutional properties protected. For such purpose, the 29622 recent law («Law that modifies the 27785 Organic Law of National Control System and the General Comptroller of the Republic extending powers in order to sanction in accordance of functional administrative responsibility» shall be used as object of constitutional analysis.
Full Text Available The need to fight corruption, with the focus on official corruption in Kosovo continues to be addressed by both national and international reports. The objective of this paper is to find out the number of the cases and analyse the sactions against official corruption and other offences against official duty delivered by Municipality Courts in Kosovo during the period 2008-2015 with the aim to assess the developments during a period of eight years since most of the other researches are focused on annual performance of the courts. All data presented in this article are taken from the Kosovo Statistical Office and include statistical information on the types and frequency of criminal sanctions to perpetrators of the official corruption and other offences against official duty. Case study is also applied to analyse some court judgments. The study shows there is a slight incresase of the number of convicted perpetrators over years, the number of corruption cases addressed by the courts remained very limited, followed by low sentences or even prescription of cases. The findings will add additional scientific insights to the existing knowledge about preventing and fighting official corruption and it can be useful for scholars, policy makers and practitioners in Kosovo.
In spring 2006, the Danish government introduced a policy that required married long-term social assistance recipients to work 300 hours in non-subsidised employment during a 2-year period in order to remain eligible for benefits. The intention was to ‘make work pay’ for unemployed immigrant women...... an unforeseen effect on the work effort of social welfare workers. Many moved their clients to other benefit schemes instead of applying the sanctions. This was particularly the case for the weakest among the unemployed and in municipalities, which were headed by left-wing mayors or that received extra funds...
Evgeny A. Kapoguzov
Full Text Available The article examines the impact of anti-Russian sanctions and response measures on the agro-production in terms of identifying the benefits and costs of imposing a food embargo. It is emphasized that, in the context of the policy of "smart sanctions", the goal of retaliatory measures should be to create conditions for maximizing public welfare. The reality and analysis and calculations carried out, however, show the disaster of the embargo in relation to the consumption of meat and meat processing products for the "ordinary consumer". Based on the dynamics of the caloric index, the socioeconomic consequences of the one-sidedness of autarkic measures are shown. The conditions for ensuring food security under the conditions of the food embargo are schematically presented and the consequences of the existing embargo policy on the basis of statistical data for the consumption of meat products are calculated. It is shown that the growth in prices played a key role in the dynamics of the cost volume, and structural changes were associated with the further growth of large agricultural organizations in the structure of the industry. In conclusion, recommendations are offered in the field of institutional design for the improvement of economic policy.
Possibilities of sanction of the improper behaviour of a power network operator. Instruments of energy economy act, public order law, and criminal law; Sanktionsmoeglichkeiten bei missbraeuchlichem Verhalten eines Energienetzbetreibers. Energiewirtschaftsrechtliche, ordnungsrechtliche und strafrechtliche Instrumentarien
The liberalization of the electric power market and gas market has released a comprehensive reorganisation of the energy branch. Under this aspect, the author of the book under consideration reports on power network operators, their improper behaviour as well as the use of the instruments of energy economy act, public order law, and criminal law in order to sanction power network operators.
Full Text Available This article deals with the repercussions produced by the implementation of the consecutive versions of the “Real Pragmática de Matrimonios” [Royal sanction for marriage] in the Vice-royalty of Río de la Plata and, more speciically, in the Province of Buenos Aires, since its irst American proclamation in 1778 until the dawn of emancipation. We will analyze both the role of parents, supported by the Crown to decide the matrimonial fate of their children, as well as the reaction of the latter, who saw their rights limited and had to disobey their parents in order to become responsible for their own lives. After analyzing documents from various kinds of Argentinian historical iles, relevant historiographical variations are obtained. Those variations are meaningful, as they help us to explore the fascinating reality typiied by prejudice, family interests and individual feelings in the late colonial period.
Full Text Available Using 3D laser scanning, two badly damaged and heavily restored Roman portraits from English country house collections are here identified as originally being representations of the Emperor Nero. The first portrait, from Petworth House, is of Nero at the time of his formal adoption as heir by the Emperor Claudius in AD 51, while the second, from Wilton House, represents a new intermediate portrait type of the fifth emperor, marking his transition from traditional Julio-Claudian prince to more flamboyant princeps, made between AD 54 and 59. Given that few replicas of Nero exist in anything like their complete state, following the memory sanctions that followed his death in AD 68, any 'new' discovery represents a significant find, to be analysed and cross-compared with established portraits. This article further assesses the importance of recording head dislocation and mutilation in images of Nero while the dangers of over restoration in classical portraiture, in which original identity can be obscured, are also considered.
Full Text Available Le récent déploiement d’un système de contrôle sanction automatisé (CSA de la vitesse constitue l’innovation la plus marquante de la politique de sécurité routière en France et cela d’autant plus que la révolution technologique s’accompagne d’innovations juridiques et administratives conséquentes. Pour autant, l’analyse des modalités de déploiement du CSA met à jour des archaïsmes troublants. Le CSA peut bien incarner le triomphe de la modernité technologique et de l’efficacité politique, y compris par rapport aux autres pays européens, l’analyse établit que sur plusieurs aspects, en recourant au CSA, on invente une machine à remonter le temps politico-administratif. Le CSA prolonge un style de gouvernement qui apparaît dépassé ou en perte de légitimé. Il faut alors faire un détour par les usages locaux et les compromis offerts par le recours au CSA pour comprendre l’acceptation dont bénéficie cet instrument.Since 2003, France implemented a speed cameras system to cover its national road network, that increased surveillance of road users. The deployment of automated enforcement system in France constitutesa major change in road safety-related public action. It is of course a technical revolution with significant juridical and administrative changes. Yet this paper shows that it constitutes also a sort of administrative counter-revolution, which means a re-centralization of state public action in this domain and which grows distance between administrations and users. So it is necessary to study local implementation to understand public and professional acceptance of this new instrument of road
L’influenza delle norme e delle sanzioni sui fenomeni di consumo e dipendenza da droga / L’influence des normes et des sanctions sur les phénomènes de consommation de drogues et de dépendance / The influence of norms and sanctions on drug abuse and addiction
Full Text Available This essay analyzes the relationship between norms and sanctions, on the one hand, and drug addiction, on the other. It highlights three implications for: a the weakness of the deterrent value of the rules prohibiting the use of drugs in the current socio-cultural context; b the therapeutic issue that engages in the framework in the execution of the sentence for the drug addicted offender; c assessment of the effectiveness of rehabilitation of drug addicts in the execution of sentence. Particular attention is given to socio-cultural perspectives and social policy. The importance of evaluation is established in order to implement effective preventive and rehabilitative programs.Questo contributo analizza il rapporto fra norme e sanzioni, da un lato, e stati di tossicodipendenza, dall’altro, cogliendo tre implicazioni concernenti: a la debolezza del valore deterrente delle norme che vietano il consumo di droghe nell’attuale contesto socio-culturale; b la questione terapeutica che si innesta nel quadro coercitivo della privazione della libertà per il tossicodipendente autore di reato; c la valutazione dei differenti percorsi riabilitativi del tossicodipendente che entra nel circuito penale. In chiave critica viene data particolare attenzione agli aspetti socio-culturali e alle prospettive di politica sociale. E’ sottolineata l’importanza della ricerca valutativa al fine di implementare programmi, sia di tipo preventivo che riabilitativo, che possano garantire livelli soddisfacenti di efficienza e di efficacia.Cet article analyse la relation entre les normes et les sanctions, d’un côté, et la toxicomanie, de l’autre. Le texte met en évidence trois implications concernantes : a la faiblesse de la valeur dissuasive des règles qui interdisent la consommation des drogues; b la question thérapeutique qui s'engage pour le délinquant toxicomane dans le contexte de la privation de liberté; c l'évaluation des différentes démarches de r
Gordon, Robert A.
Suggests the use of scenario analysis in assessing some of the options offered as interventions to adolescent crime prevention, including child protection policies and guardianship, and parent licensing. Also explores the problem of racism and other social concerns in implementing some interventions. Finally, the influence of IQ on sociopathy is…
I remain deeply concerned by the situation involving our three student-athletes. I remain concerned with the known behavior regardless of the judicial disposition. All of us in the Athletics Department believe behavior above reproach should be the norm for Virginia Tech student-athletes.
... (the Iran Freedom Support Act, P.L. 109-293) extended it until December 31, 2011, terminated application to Libya, and added provisions, although with substantial Administration flexibility in implementation...
Medicare and state health care programs: fraud and abuse, civil money penalties and intermediate sanctions for certain violations by health maintenance organizations and competitive medical plans--HHS. Final rule.
This final rule implements sections 9312(c)(2), 9312(f), and 9434(b) of Public Law 99-509, section 7 of Public Law 100-93, section 4014 of Public Law 100-203, sections 224 and 411(k)(12) of Public Law 100-360, and section 6411(d)(3) of Public Law 101-239. These provisions broaden the Secretary's authority to impose intermediate sanctions and civil money penalties on health maintenance organizations (HMOs), competitive medical plans, and other prepaid health plans contracting under Medicare or Medicaid that (1) substantially fail to provide an enrolled individual with required medically necessary items and services; (2) engage in certain marketing, enrollment, reporting, or claims payment abuses; or (3) in the case of Medicare risk-contracting plans, employ or contract with, either directly or indirectly, an individual or entity excluded from participation in Medicare. The provisions also condition Federal financial participation in certain State payments on the State's exclusion of certain prohibited entities from participation in HMO contracts and waiver programs. This final rule is intended to significantly enhance the protections for Medicare beneficiaries and Medicaid recipients enrolled in a HMO, competitive medical plan, or other contracting organization under titles XVIII and XIX of the Social Security Act.
did not pass the 2008 JADE Act until the SPDC crushed a nationwide protest initiated by Buddhist monks in the autumn of 2007—the so-called “ Saffron ...and the House and Senate Appropriations Committees on: progress towards democratization in Burma; progress on improving the quality of life of the...House and Senate Appropriations Committees on: progress towards democratization in Burma; progress on improving the quality of life of the Burmese
... one senior official from an office reporting to him/her, other than from the Bureau of Educational and... legal or financial responsibilities to existing program applicants or participants. (j) Miscellaneous—(1... days. When the period of time prescribed or allowed is fewer than eleven (11) days, intermediate...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP...) In the case of failure or refusal to provide or permit discovery, drawing negative fact inferences or treating such failure or refusal as an admission by deeming the matter, or certain facts, to be established...
Manhattan Criminal Court Judge Robert M. Stolz has refused to dismiss charges of marijuana possession and distribution against [name removed] was arrested for selling marijuana to a man with AIDS in a New York City park. [Name removed] claims that he sold marijuana at cost to HIV/AIDS patients with wasting syndrome. [Name removed]'s argument that his actions are justifiable on humanitarian grounds will be decided by a jury. Judge Stolz noted that the therapeutic administration of marijuana demands medical supervision and that [name removed]'s actions were indistinguishable from those of illegal drug dealers.
... the December 19, 2010 presidential elections in Belarus and the announcement by state-run media on... parties, civil society and independent media. While the Organization for Security and Co-operation in... improvements in the electoral process. The post-election violence further marred the presidential elections and...
... nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other..., declaration, deed, deed of trust, power of attorney, power of appointment, bill of sale, mortgage, receipt... U.S. Treasury bills. (2) Funds held or placed in a blocked account pursuant to paragraph (a) of this...
..., liens or other rights in the nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts... receipt of any contribution or provision of funds, goods, or services from any such person. Section 2 of E... interests in property are blocked pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section; and (2) The receipt of any...
..., warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership..., deed of trust, power of attorney, power of appointment, bill of sale, mortgage, receipt, agreement... receipt of any contribution or provision of funds, goods, or services from any such person. Section 2 of E...
..., warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership..., deed of trust, power of attorney, power of appointment, bill of sale, mortgage, receipt, agreement... U.S. Treasury bills. (2) Funds held or placed in a blocked account pursuant to paragraph (a) of this...
... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT... respondent from making, with the intent to influence, any formal or informal appearance before, or any oral or written communication to, the Commission or its staff on any matter or business on behalf of any...
... transactions with or benefitting Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (``IRGC'') or any of its agents or....310 Money laundering. 561.311 Agent. 561.312 Act of international terrorism. 561.313 Financial...) Facilitates the efforts of the Government of Iran (including efforts of Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard...
... development of nuclear weapons and support of terrorism. The President pointed out that the Government of Iran... institutions that facilitate Iran's proliferation-related activities or support for terrorism or that do significant business with Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (``IRGC'') or certain other blocked persons...
... destruction (``WMD'') or delivery systems for WMD or Iran's support for international terrorism. Section 216... destruction or Iran's support for international terrorism; or Note to paragraph (a)(5) of Sec. 561.201: The... pertaining to the SDN List can be found in appendix A to this chapter. Agents or affiliates of Iran's Islamic...
..., artists and entertainers), Q (international cultural exchange visitors), R (religious workers), or S... Security's U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services for the visa categories listed in paragraphs (b) and...
that has a unified political agenda. Its conservative leaders, whose abrasive and controversial comments get the most airplay, appear to represent the...views of the entire polity. By peeling back the layers of rhetoric and the selective sampling of comments by Western media and domestic lobby
Blackburn, Mollie V.
This article reviews literature that portrays lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) students both as victims of heterosexism and homophobia as well as agents, or ones who exert power, for change in schools. It complicates this literature by focusing on three youth who deal with the oppressions they experience in quite…
Australian society continues to support physical punishment of children and is currently conducting a Royal Commission unto violence against children in custody. By contrast, New Zealand has banned physical punishment of children. Australian society needs to address this issue. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
... from Azerbaijan to Europe and Turkey. On August 10, 2012, the President signed into law the Iran Threat...''), which had been signed into law by the President on July 1, 2010. Subsection 104(c) of CISADA required... 2012 (Pub. L. 112-81) (22 U.S.C. 8513a) (``NDAA''), which had been signed into law by the President on...
West, Anne; Mattei, Paola; Roberts, Jonathan
This paper focuses on accountability in school-based education in England. It explores notions of accountability and proposes a new framework for its analysis. It then identifies a number of types of accountability which are present in school-based education, and discusses each in terms of who is accountable to whom and for what. It goes on to…
... General Counsel, Department of the Treasury (not toll free numbers). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Electronic..., and acts of piracy and armed robbery at sea off the coast of Somalia, which have repeatedly been the... to the peace, security, or stability of Somalia, acts of piracy or armed robbery at sea off the coast...
... attorney, accountant, consultant, freight forwarder, or in any other representative capacity for any... section, except that in the case of an evasion of an export control imposed under sections 5 or 6 of the...
Steiner, Benjamin; Travis, Lawrence F., III; Makarios, Matthew D.
There are constant calls for reform in the criminal justice system, but observers have often reported that criminal justice reform is an exceptionally challenging task. As with any organizational change, resistance to new policies, procedures, and practices comes from a variety of sources. The relatively broad discretionary authority vested in…
Because of the substantial number of driving while intoxicated (DWI) offenders driving illegally with suspended : licenses and the limited enforcement resources available to dealwith the problem, many States and the Federal government : have begun to...
of Conflict Resolution 34, no. 1 (Mar 1990): 72. 42Micah Sifry and Christopher Cerf , The Iraq War Reader: History, Documents, Opinions, (Touchstone...75–93. Sifry, Micah and Christopher Cerf . The Iraq War Reader: History, Documents, Opinions (Touchstone, 2003). Smis, Stefaan and van der Borght
universities and cinemas .144 One month after the surprising results of the 1997 presidential election, which resulted in political outsider Mohammad...areas, in accordance with Islamic criteria.”151 “The private sector is the most limited in its definition, focusing on, “agriculture, animal husbandry
an 5 amenity, it is a treasure.’,6 Later, in 1962, Rachel Carson wrote Silent Spring , warning that the activities of man posed a threat to the...1931). 7R. Carson , Silent Spring (1962). 8April 22, 1970, was an unofficial national day of I recognition and concern for the environment. To many it
... fish and shrimp roe), dried egg albumin, live animals, Rosary/Jequirity peas, non-food-grade gelatin... eggs, fertilized eggs (other than fish and shrimp roe), dried egg albumin, live animals, Rosary... than fish and shrimp roe), dried egg albumin, live animals, Rosary/Jequirity peas, non-food-grade...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage servicing generally... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOME EQUITY CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Servicing Responsibilities § 206.201 Mortgage servicing...
... officer may, after notice to the participant or person and an opportunity to be heard, take one or more of... matter to the Commission with a recommendation for dismissal or termination of the proceeding... is an agent, officer, employee, attorney, partner, or director of a participant, the presiding...
... (15 U.S.C. 2068(a)(4)). (c) Failure to make reports. The failure or refusal to make reports or provide... acts in the circumstances, including knowledge obtainable upon the exercise of due care to ascertain...
... 950.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... Director may withdraw federation status with respect to a national, international or local federation that... federation status subject to a hearing on the record. Eligibility decisions shall follow the procedures in...
Boas, Erica Misako
Halloween as celebrated in US elementary schools provides a rare opportunity to explore the more tangible manifestations of sexuality. A time of celebration, Halloween is perceived as a festive event for children, being both "innocent" and fun. Yet, because it is the one school day where sexuality is on display, sexuality becomes a…
Putterman, Louis; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Kamei, Kenju
the free-rider problem, depending on parameter settings. Most groups quickly learned to choose parameters inducing efficient outcomes. But despite uniform money payoffs implying common interest in those parameters, voting patterns suggest significant influence of cooperative orientation, political...
Tracevskis, Rokas M.
23. mail toimus Valgevenes devalvatsioon. Poola välisminister Radoslaw Sikorski üritab veenda Euroopa Liitu Valgevene suhtes majandussanktsioone rakendama. Läti ja Leedu ei ole sellega nõus. 23. mail toimunud president Dalia Grybauskaite ja peaminister Andrius Kubiliuse kohtumisel räägiti Valgevene teemadel
construction equipment and vehicles, and some mineral products. These countries now permit the entry of merchandise worth millions of dollars a week. o...elite. such as the right to shop in the April 2X Supermarkets . In July 1991, prices in those markets were .125 diniars for 301 eggs compared to 12 dinars
Olafson, Lori; Schraw, Gregory; Kehrwald, Nicholas
Academic dishonesty, also known as academic misconduct, includes a variety of actions such as plagiarism, cheating on tests using text messaging or concealed notes, exchanging work with other students, buying essays from students or on the Internet, and having other students write examinations (Diekhoff, LaBeff, Shinohara, & Yasukawa, 1999;…
The typical Akiba festival singer has the opinion that he is performing a social, rather than a religious function. People take the advantage of the festival to socialize and meditate on the socio-economic development of the community. Also, people still recognize the significance of the festival as a means of social control in the ...
Nosenzo, D.; Offerman, T.; Sefton, M.; van der Veen, A.
We experimentally investigate a repeated "inspection game" where, in the stage game, an employee can either work or shirk and an employer simultaneously chooses to inspect or not inspect. The unique equilibrium of the stage game is in mixed strategies with positive probabilities of
... fee; (vii) Charging a coinsurance more than 5 percent for those at or below 100 percent of the poverty line, or 10 percent for those above 100 percent but at or below 135 percent of the poverty line; (viii...) Termination by endorsed sponsor—(1) Cause for termination. The endorsed sponsor may terminate its endorsement...
... for International Trade also will provide such information to the ethics panel or other disciplinary...), the Secretary will not make public the identity of the violator, nor will the Secretary make public the specifics of the violation in a manner that would reveal indirectly the identity of the violator. ...
... means the having of actual knowledge or the presumed having of knowledge deemed to be possessed by a reasonable person who acts in the circumstances, including knowledge obtainable upon the exercise of due care...
... gas from Azerbaijan to Europe and Turkey in furtherance of a production sharing agreement or license... bring gas from Azerbaijan to Europe and Turkey, as described in section 6. Although it is not named in... Caspian Sea and related pipeline projects to bring the gas from Azerbaijan to Europe and Turkey. On August...
hardships. Further, this body of work reveals that inflation, growing unemployment , and expanding debt are making it increasingly difficult for the...political processes. Chief among these sources was the book Going to Tehran, written by Flynt Leverett and Hillary Mann Leverett. These authors provided an...research from RAND suggests that a significant number of the Basij ranks are occupied by “disaffected youths and elderly pensioners,” who cannot be
... the sale or marketing thereof obstructed the orderly reconstruction of Iraq, the restoration and... marketing thereof, and interests therein, in which any foreign country or national thereof has any interest... of ownership or possession of Iraqi cultural property or other items of archeological, historical...
And Others; Taylor, D. Garth
Individuals' fear of crime and actual victimization do not lead to their being more likely to advocate harsh treatment for criminals. Also, environmental areas which differ greatly in level of victimization and level of fear do not differ in their level of support for capital punishment or harsher courts. (Author/MC)
Rosholm, Michael; Jensen, Peter S.; Nielsen, Michael Svarer
The youth unemployment rate in Denmark has recently been declining dramatically, which is unique among the OECD countries. In 1996, a radical labour market reform was implemented, the Youth Unemployment Programme (YUP), directed towards unemployed, low-educated youth. This paper analyses...... the effects of the implementation of the YUP. We investigate the effects on the duration of unemployment spells and on the transition rates from unemployment to schooling and employment. We find that the YUP has been successful through a combination of three effects: an announcement effect, a direct programme...
... AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS... by HUD for purposes of meeting the HFA's risk-sharing obligations; (2) Require the HFA to assume a... Designated Office may take any of the following actions: (1) Require that the HFA execute a trust agreement...
In Nigeria, informal groups are invaluable in providing financial services to small operators in the agricultural sector. Some of these groups are involved in joint liability lending schemes across the country and existing literature reveal that these schemes have not been successful in achieving satisfactory levels of loan ...
Scott Snyder; See-won Byun
North Korea's fourth nuclear test on January 6 and long-range missile launch on February 7 drew global opposition to Pyongyang's actions in the form of UN Security Council Resolution 2270 on March 2...
... constitutional presence in the United States, I find that because of the ability to transfer funds or other..., create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party...
The article deals with secs. 43-46 of the Act on Administrative Procedure, especially regarding the adjusting of procedural defects. The consequences of the 'Muelheim-Kaerlich decision' of the Federal Constitutional Court are described. The author has the opinion that the annulment of an administrative act is obligatory in case of infringement of constitutionally obligatory procedure, even if the decision was without alternative. (CW)
Daughters, Katie; Manstead, Antony S R; Ten Velden, Femke S; De Dreu, Carsten K W
Human groups function because members trust each other and reciprocate cooperative contributions, and reward others' cooperation and punish their non-cooperation. Here we examined the possibility that such third-party punishment and reward of others' trust and reciprocation is modulated by oxytocin, a neuropeptide generally involved in social bonding and in-group (but not out-group) serving behavior. Healthy males and females (N=100) self-administered a placebo or 24 IU of oxytocin in a randomized, double-blind, between-subjects design. Participants were asked to indicate (incentivized, costly) their level of reward or punishment for in-group (outgroup) investors donating generously or fairly to in-group (outgroup) trustees, who back-transferred generously, fairly or selfishly. Punishment (reward) was higher for selfish (generous) investments and back-transfers when (i) investors were in-group rather than outgroup, and (ii) trustees were in-group rather than outgroup, especially when (iii) participants received oxytocin rather than placebo. It follows, first, that oxytocin leads individuals to ignore out-groups as long as out-group behavior is not relevant to the in-group and, second, that oxytocin contributes to creating and enforcing in-group norms of cooperation and trust. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oono, R.; Denison, R.F.; Kiers, E.T.
When a single host plant is infected by more than one strain of rhizobia, they face a tragedy of the commons. Although these rhizobia benefit collectively from nitrogen fixation, which increases host-plant photosynthesis, each strain might nonetheless increase its own reproduction, relative to
The interfaces between national and international law have significantly evolved due to subject-matter overlap between national and international law. The restriction of governmental authority by the ’rule of law’ is no exception in this regard. International scholarship has so far largely examined the national reception of the international rule of law. Much less recognised is the international perspective: namely, as to how the international rule of law understands, accepts, or resists the ...
...; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property. 12.150 Section 12.150 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS...; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property. (a) Generally. Merchandise from certain countries... the United States shall be detained until the question of its release, seizure, or other disposition...
... as instant messaging, chat and e-mail, social networking, sharing of photos and movies, web browsing..., specifically includes services. On April 13, 2009, the President stated that the promotion of democracy and... personal communications ] over the Internet, such as instant messaging, chat and email, social networking...
...: NATIONAL IRANIAN TANKER COMPANY). 8. SUNEAST (f.k.a. AZALEA; f.k.a. SINA) (9HNY9) Crude Oil Tanker... a 24-hour fax-on-demand service, Tel.: 202-622-0077. Background On February 5, 2012, the President... Institutions'' (the ``Order''). Section 1(a) of the Order blocks, with certain exceptions, all property and...
Opara, Augustine Uchenna
Endast sammandrag. Inbundna avhandlingar kan sökas i Helka-databasen (http://www.helsinki.fi/helka). Elektroniska kopior av avhandlingar finns antingen öppet på nätet eller endast tillgängliga i bibliotekets avhandlingsterminaler. Only abstract. Paper copies of master’s theses are listed in the Helka database (http://www.helsinki.fi/helka). Electronic copies of master’s theses are either available as open access or only on thesis terminals in the Helsinki University Library. Vain tiivi...
... activity relating to the mining, production, or transportation of uranium. In addition to expanding the... terephthalate, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, propylene, purified terephthalic acid, pyrolysis...
Pickett, Justin T; Bushway, Shawn D
This study contributes to efforts to identify the sources of arrest risk perceptions and ambiguity (or lack of confidence) in such perceptions. Drawing on dual-process theories of reasoning, we argue that arrest risk perceptions often represent intuitive judgments that are influenced by cognitive heuristics and dispositional attributes. Multivariate regression models are estimated with data from 3 national surveys to test 6 hypotheses about the relationships between specific dispositional attributes and perceived arrest risk and ambiguity. We find evidence that dispositional positive affect and intolerance of ambiguity are both positively related to perceived arrest risk, and are also both negatively related to ambiguity. We also find evidence that cognitive reflection and general self-efficacy are, respectively, positively and negatively associated with ambiguity. Mixed evidence emerges about whether cognitive reflection is related to risk perceptions, and about whether either dispositional negative affect or thoughtfully reflective decision making correlate with ambiguity. Taken together, the results provide partial support for each of our hypotheses, and suggest that dispositional attributes are important sources of perceptions of arrest risk as well as of ambiguity in such perceptions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
... relationship with such entity— (A) Has been convicted of a criminal offense as described in sections 1128(a... mortgage, deed of trust, note or other obligation secured (in whole or in part) by the entity or any of the... ultimately have an ownership interest in the entity in issue. (For example, an individual has a 10 percent...
Karen Del Biondo
Full Text Available The EU is often criticised for using negative conditionality only in poor, strategically less important countries in the ACP region. However, whether and why there is inconsistency within the group of ACP countries has not been properly investigated. Therefore, this article investigates the reasons for the EU’s non-application of Article 96 of the Cotonou Agreement in five countries that can be considered typical cases where negative conditionality is generally imposed, namely countries that experienced flawed elections over the last ten years: Ethiopia, Rwanda, Nigeria, Kenya and Chad. On the one hand, the study confirms previous findings that security interests tend to trump the EU’s efforts to promote democratisation. On the other hand, the article adds that democratisation might not only conflict with the EU’s interests, but also with its objective to promote development and poverty reduction.
the 42 . . . . . . . . . .. . . .---. Queen , Frederika, once commented that "the diplomats are fairies and half wits." 74 As the Greek society and...our international policy undergirded by moral principles. A quotation from the Bible, may be appropriate here ... "be wary and wise as serpents , and be
Pedro Oliver Olmo; Jesús-Carlos Urda Lozano
.... However, bureau-repression had already begun being exercised in the years following the Transition, and it has developed in parallel to the stage of Security State that characterizes the state system of social control...
Watkins, John C., Jr.
Recent literature on the control of white-collar crime has often glossed over the sociolegal effect of the attitudes held by persons charged with the responsibility of determining criminal guilt. On many occasions, the factually guilty white-collar offender is not regarded by trial jurors as an offender. (Author)
... value of commodities on the world market. A leading idea is that religious outlooks, in the way they were conceptualized by Karl Marx, have a strong bearing upon the difference in labour intensities in countries contributing to the world market, and thereby upon the differences in international values and prices. These differences are...
... administrative rights set forth in this subpart separately and apart from rights provided to a person subject to... representation, and right to a hearing, but subject to joinder or consolidation by the administrative law judge... OF COMMERCE PROCEDURES AND RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING ARTICLE 1904 OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE...
Sloan, F A; Reilly, B A; Schenzler, C
Alcohol use has been linked to several causes of death. This study provides an empirical analysis of the effects of various public policies on mortality rates by state and year for the years 1982-88. Causes of death analyzed are: alcohol primary cause; traffic accident; homicides; suicides; falls, fires and other accidents; and contributory cause deaths (cancers of the alimentary tract). We find that increasing the price of alcohol decreases mortality rates for some of the causes, but not for primary cause deaths. Higher excise taxes on cigarettes reduce contributory cause mortality. Dram shop laws have negative and statistically significant effects not only on mortality rates from traffic accidents, but for several of the other causes. There is a need for further analysis to determine how these reductions are achieved. We find no evidence that imposing mandatory minimum jail terms, fines or license revocation for a DUI conviction affects alcohol-related mortality. However, increased police protection decreases mortality rates for several categories, especially homicides and traffic accidents. We find that imposing the death penalty reduces homicide rates. Reductions in alcohol-related mortality may be achieved by implementing a mix of public policies. No single policy is a panacea.
... support the preservation and protection of cultural heritage sites in Syria. General License No. 11A... refugees, internally displaced persons, and conflict victims, food and medicine distribution, and the... assistance; and (5) Activities to support the preservation and protection of cultural heritage sites in Syria...
... 585 Administrative practice and procedure, Banking and finance, Blocking of assets, Exports, Federal..., Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Securities, Services, Shipping, Telecommunications...
... fund reservation if the PHA fails to start (begin construction or rehabilitation), or complete... proposal or HUD requirements, as determined in paragraph (a)(2) of this section; (3) The PHA has failed to... (prior to soliciting bids); (ii) Complete rehabilitation drawings/specifications or work write-ups; (iii...
Full Text Available The rules of civil procedure in common law countries have been amended to better deal with the requirements of electronic discovery. One of the key changes in case management is the scheduling of a meet-and-confer session where the parties to litigation must meet early in the case before any discovery procedures have begun to exchange information regarding the nature, location, formats, and pertinent facts regarding custody and control of a partyâ€™s electronically stored information (ESI. Failure to abide by the rules and participate in good faith at the meet-and-confer session can have dire consequences for the parties and lawyers involved. The authors discuss the importance of creating and maintaining an ESI data map as a means to demonstrate good faith and effectively comply with the requirements of the meet-and-confer.
... list of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons (``SDN List'') to identify this entity... Availability The SDN List and additional information concerning OFAC are available from OFAC's Web site ( www... Order and the ITSR, and updated the SDN List to identify this entity. The listing for this entity is as...
... Assets Control's Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons List (``SDN List'') with the identifier `` .'' The SDN List is accessible through the following page on the Office of Foreign Assets Control's Web site: http://www.treasury.gov/sdn . Additional information pertaining to the SDN List can be...
... that the State of California failed to submit State Implementation Plans (SIPs) to satisfy CAA section... Sacramento Metro Area addressed the Yolo/Solano Air Quality Management District, Feather River Air Quality..., Regional Administrator, Region IX. BILLING CODE 6560-50-P ...
Landis, Matthew J; Peppard, Paul P; Remington, Patrick L
Successful approaches are needed to decrease the burden of obesity on America's youth. Researchers often look to the high school interscholastic sports experience as a promising area for intervention. The purpose of this paper is to examine trends in participation over the course of a 4-year educational period. Two research questions are posed in this study: (1) how does participation in interscholastic sports change over the high school interscholastic sports experience, and (2) how do gender and school size influence these patterns? To answer these questions, a panel study is used to prospectively follow 412 Wisconsin public high schools from freshman year (2000-2001) to senior year (2003-2004). Participation prevalence (percent participation) in freshman year and risk of attrition (defined as a reduction in prevalence) from freshman to senior year are reported for sport, gender, and school size characteristics. Overall sports participation is greatest in smaller schools versus larger schools for both females (36% versus 20%) and males (38% versus 25%). Most high school sports exhibit declines in participation, including those sports with the highest prevalence of freshman participation. Compared to sports participants attending large schools, participants attending small schools have a lower risk of attrition from freshman to senior year. However, female attrition is much higher than male attrition in small schools, whereas this difference is not as apparent in large schools. The results of this research suggest school size and gender play important roles in initial and sustained involvement during high school. Despite the potential immediate and long-term benefits of high school interscholastic sports participation, there is limited research that prospectively examines patterns of participation through high school. Expanding the use of this measurement approach may effectively promote physical activity as youth grow into adults.
only been discussed once by the Dispute Settlement Body in US – Gambling services case.29 Even then, it was not an interpretation of public morals under. Article XX (a) of the GATT but rather was an interpretation of the public morals exception under Article XIV of General Agreement on Trade in Services. (GATS).
2004, 50th Ed (New York: Europa Publications, 2004), 676.; Allan Hill, “The Demography of the Kuwaiti Population of Kuwait,” Demography 12, no. 3...exist solely for Iranian, GCC, and Indian ports. Some criminal networks traffic drugs into the GCC via personal boats that coordinate their movement...1929, Nader Habibi of Brandeis University uses the following International Monetary Fund statistics of the GCC nation with arguably the most
This paper analyzes critically the state of regulated media in developing economies. In order to engender rapid growth and structural change the state is required to control the media to provide the essential conditions of stability and societal change. This media-for-development orthodoxy has held sway for more than six decades now, leading to governments, often authoritarian, utilizing the media to prolong their hegemony over society. Taking the welfare of citizens as the basis of public-pr...
... transfer of funds services to Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (``IRGC'') or any of its agents or... banking system. Another commenter asserted that FinCEN has taken elements of the four options Congress... global financial system with the need to maintain an effectively functioning correspondent banking system...
... history, business practices, business ethics, WIC disqualification or authorization status, when the store... of business because they are located in areas with higher concentration of SNAP recipients. This rule... increase the risk a business may be forced to close, substituting a civil penalty could potentially allow...
The national security exception under Article XXI of GATT is a major exception to Members’ obligations under the WTO. However, it has been claimed to be a loophole to the WTO system, and it goes beyond the principles of general international law on lawful suspension of treaty obligations. Throughout the GATT 1947 and WTO practice, from early cases to the case US – Helms-Burton regarding the U.S. embargo against Cuba, it has not yet been resolved whether Article XXI could be subject to the WTO...
Patient's right to information was explicitly recognised by law No. 2002-303 the 4th of March 2002, relating to patients' rights and to the quality of the health care system. This humanism duty is acknowledged to the article L.llll-2 of the Public Health Code. It guarantees the personal self-determination, as well as the dignity of the human person. It establishes a balance in the relation between the professional care and the patient, by allowing this one to have the adequate level of information to be completely associated with the decisions affecting his body integrity. Before the 3rd of June 2010 decision, the damage compensation was founded by the notion of loss of opportunity to avoid the realisation of the risk. Since then, it appears that the compensation of information deficiency constitutes an autonomous prejudice resulting from the non-compliance with the right to be informed and to consent to a physical injury. However, in the light of the 9'" of February 2012 judgment, it is necessary to consider if for the First Civil Chamber of the Final Court of Appeal, the failure to comply with the obligation of information causes a repairable damage for human dignity respect.
Tallvid, Martin; Lundin, Johan; Svensson, Lars; Lindström, Berner
The research reported in this article explores and discusses students' use of laptops in a 1:1 setting. A problem experienced by teachers is that the laptops are possible distractors and tempt students to engage in use that is not in line with the teacher's idea of what would be suitable in relation to the current assignment. Three annual surveys…
... DEVELOPMENT, 53 Saanee, Jahan-e Koodak, Crossroads Africa St., Tehran, Iran 4. DEY BANK (a.k.a. BANK-E DEY... BANK (a.k.a. BANK-E TAAWON MANTAGHEEY-E ESLAMI; a.k.a. REGIONAL COOPERATION OF THE ISLAMIC BANK FOR DEVELOPMENT & INVESTMENT), Tohid Street, Before Tohid Circle, No. 33, Upper Level of Eghtesad-e Novin Bank...
... CO.; a.k.a. PARS MCS COMPANY), 2nd Floor, No. 4, Sasan Dead End, Afriqa Avenue, After Esfandiar... Industrial Zone, Zob-e Ahan Highway, Isafahan, Iran; Web site http://www.parsmcs.com . 23. PARS OIL CO. (a.k... Economy/Energy Zone, Iran . 32. TADBIR BROKERAGE COMPANY (a.k.a. SHERKAT-E KARGOZARI-E TADBIRGARAN- E...
... River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP... review by the Office of Management and Budget. This action is not subject to Executive Order 13211... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental...
... Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD or District) portion of the California State... review by the Office of Management and Budget. This action is not subject to Executive Order 13211... Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final...
A. N. Rjahovskaja
Full Text Available The article analyzes some problems of the Russian economy, including the problem of import substitution, the possible directions of their solutions, the need to identify priorities and priority sectors in the fi rst place, do not compete on the international market, including the production of construction, housing and agriculture. The analysis of agricultural subsidies in Europe,USA,ChinaandRussia, the necessity of repeated increase in the budget allocated to farmers, reducing the tax burden. Studied some of the features of the investment policy ofRussia, developed areas of its adjustment.
..., goods, wares, merchandise, chattels, stocks on hand, ships, goods on ships, real estate mortgages, deeds..., power of attorney, or other power; or the acquisition, disposition, transportation, importation... sophisticated and dangerous to the United States; they are increasingly entrenched in the operations of foreign...
This book critically examines the UN Al-Qaida counterterrorism listing regime as a novel form of global security law. It shows how the list works as an ordering device to render the uncertain future threats of global terrorism amenable to legal intervention in the present. I argue that the Law of
This book critically examines the UN Al-Qaida counterterrorism listing regime as a novel form of global security law. It shows how the list works as an ordering device to render the uncertain future threats of global terrorism amenable to legal intervention in the present. I argue that the Law of the List is altering the relationship between national and international law and is best understood as a global legal assemblage. It is also generating new knowledge practices, governance techniques ...
Anyon, Yolanda; Gregory, Anne; Stone, Susan; Farrar, Jordan; Jenson, Jeffrey M.; McQueen, Jeanette; Downing, Barbara; Greer, Eldridge; Simmons, John
A large urban district (N = 90,546 students, n = 180 schools) implemented restorative interventions as a response to school discipline incidents. Findings from multilevel modeling of student discipline records (n = 9,921) revealed that youth from groups that tend to be overrepresented in suspensions and expulsions (e.g., Black, Latino, and Native…
Mason, H R; Marks, G; Simoni, J M; Ruiz, M S; Richardson, J L
Spanish-speaking Latino men (n = 107) were more likely than English-speaking Latinos (n = 85) and Whites (n = 206) to withhold their HIV-positive serostatus and their gay or bisexual orientation from significant others, especially family members. Similar effects were observed when Latinos were divided by birthplace and when analyses controlled for sociodemographic and medical factors. Reasons for revealing or concealing an HIV diagnosis varied across targets. Although both Latinos and Whites were more likely to withhold their diagnosis from their parents to prevent worrying them than to avoid personal rejection, this tendency was somewhat stronger among Latinos. Our findings suggest that some traditional values may deter Latinos from seeking HIV-related social support in times of need.
... authorities, provided that the account is not on the books of a financial institution that is a U.S. person...) Educational activities in Burma, including, but not limited to, combating illiteracy; increasing access to... E.O. 13464, provided that the account is not on the books of a financial institution that is a U.S...
Carey, Kate B; DeMartini, Kelly S; Prince, Mark A; Luteran, Carrie; Carey, Michael P
This study tested the hypothesis that client choice influences intervention outcomes. We recruited 288 student drinkers (60% men, 67% freshmen) required to participate in an intervention due to a violation of campus alcohol policy. Participants were randomized either to self-chosen or researcher-assigned interventions. In the choice condition they selected either a brief motivational intervention (BMI) or a computer-delivered educational program. In the assigned condition they received 1 of the 2 interventions, assigned randomly. Follow-up assessments at 1 and 2 months revealed that choice was associated with higher intervention satisfaction. However, the assigned and choice conditions did not differentially change on consumption or consequences across intervention type. Overall, change scores favored the BMI over the computer-delivered intervention on consumption and consequences. Exploratory analyses revealed that given the choice of intervention, heavier-drinking students self-selected into the face-to-face BMI. Furthermore, among the students who received a BMI, the students who chose it (despite their heavier drinking) reduced drinks per drinking day more than did the assigned students. In summary, offering a choice of intervention to students mandated for campus alcohol violations increased the chance that at-risk students will select a more intensive and effective intervention. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
... reference into the Risk-sharing Agreement; (8) Submit financial and other reports required by this part; (9) Comply with any regulatory requirement or with the Risk-Sharing Agreement; (10) Maintain any other... AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS...
heavy water is extracted from regular water by replacing the hydrogen atom with the deuterium isotope. It is used in certain types of nuclear reactors...Contract Norway , Norsk Hydro ASA Exploration and development contract for the Khorramabad Block. If commercial volumes of hydrocarbons are
Martin Tallvid; Johan Lundin; Lars Svensson; Berner Lindström
.... A problem experienced by teachers is that the laptops are possible distractors and tempt students to engage in use that is not in line with the teacher's idea of what would be suitable in relation...
... controlled under multilateral control lists (Missile Technology Control Regime, Australia Group, Chemical... make a material contribution to the development of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) or cruise or... lists but falling below the control list parameters, when it is determined that such items have the...
La certezza della pena tra lavoro nero e problematiche di integrazione / La certitude de la sanction entre travail au noir et problèmes d'intégration / Sanction Certainty between Illegal Work and Immigration Problems
Full Text Available L’immissione di nuove popolazioni in una società provoca inevitabilmente sfide a carattere sociale. Affrontare i problemi che la popolazione immigrata pone significa, tra l’altro, considerare che si tratta di un attore sociale che, con i propri comportamenti, le proprie scelte, i propri orientamenti mette in continua discussione i meccanismi logici e le politiche presenti nelle società.
... does not include natural gas, liquefied natural gas, biofuels, methanol, and other non-petroleum fuels... cars, trucks, buses, minibuses, pick-up trucks, and motorcycles, as well as original equipment... petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type jet...
Makwana, Aidan; Grön, Georg; Fehr, Ernst; Hare, Todd A
In recent years, much has been learned about the representation of subjective value in simple, nonstrategic choices. However, a large fraction of our daily decisions are embedded in social interactions in which value guided decisions require balancing benefits for self against consequences imposed by others in response to our choices. Yet, despite their ubiquity, much less is known about how value computation takes place in strategic social contexts that include the possibility of retribution for norm violations. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to show that when human subjects face such a context connectivity increases between the temporoparietal junction (TPJ), implicated in the representation of other peoples' thoughts and intentions, and regions of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) that are associated with value computation. In contrast, we find no increase in connectivity between these regions in social nonstrategic cases where decision-makers are immune from retributive monetary punishments from a human partner. Moreover, there was also no increase in TPJ-vmPFC connectivity when the potential punishment was performed by a computer programmed to punish fairness norm violations in the same manner as a human would. Thus, TPJ-vmPFC connectivity is not simply a function of the social or norm enforcing nature of the decision, but rather occurs specifically in situations where subjects make decisions in a social context and strategically consider putative consequences imposed by others.
Raymond Yu Wang; Cho Nam Ng
The problem of trust is a paradigmatic social dilemma. Previous literature has paid much academic attention on effects of peer punishment and altruistic third-party punishment on trust and human cooperation in dyadic interactions...
Iranian oilfields in Khuzestan in 1980, Iran fought a long and bloody war for eight years against Iraq, in which it suffered one to two million...elect the Supreme Leader. 85The Guardian Council replaced the Senate or Upper Chamber after the 1979 Revolution. It is a body of 6 Jurists and 6...Michael Doran of the Brookings Institute already sees this “deal as a deceptively pleasant way station on the long and bloody road that is the
... continental shelf, over which the Government of Iran claims sovereignty, sovereign rights, or jurisdiction... a constitutional presence in the United States, I find that because of the ability to transfer funds.... Sec. 8. This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or...
Dwi Asri Julianita
Full Text Available This research was aimed to obtain valid and reliable data about The Relationship Between The Perception of the Tax Penalty and Tax Compliance on Taxpayer Land and Building Tax at Duri Pulo Villages Jakarta. This research was conducted by survey method with correlational approach. This research was conducted on February to December 2014. The population in this research were all taxpayer. Affordable population in this research were taxpayer land and building tax, amount to 71 persons. Total of samples used were 58 persons research. Sampling technique used simple random sampling. The result from this study partial and simultaneous testing of consciousness there significantly influence to tax penalty and Tax Compliance on Taxpayer Land and Building Tax.
Julianita, Dwi Asri; Sumiati, Ati
This research was aimed to obtain valid and reliable data about The Relationship Between The Perception of the Tax Penalty and Tax Compliance on Taxpayer Land and Building Tax at Duri Pulo Villages Jakarta. This research was conducted by survey method with correlational approach. This research was conducted on February to December 2014. The population in this research were all taxpayer. Affordable population in this research were taxpayer land and building tax, amount to 71 persons. Total of ...
I thank my family . To my Mother, who always encouraged me to chase my dreams and to my Father who taught me to continually ask why, I would not be...commodity=crude-oil-west-texas- intermediate&months=120 103 Dominique Guillaume, Roman Zytek and Mohammad Reza Farzin, “Iran-The Chronicles of the...Iranian Disease : Why a Developing Country’s Government did not listen to Economists’ Advices”, American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol 72 (3
Full Text Available Iris Gault,1 Ann Gallagher,2 Mary Chambers31Faculty of Health and Social Care Sciences, Kingston University and St George's University of London, Kingston, Surrey, UK; 2International Centre for Nursing Ethics, School of Health and Social Care, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK; 3Faculty of Health and Social Care Sciences, Kingston University and St George's University of London, St George's University of London, Tooting, London, UKAim: To explore and analyze perceptions of service users and caregivers on adherence and nonadherence to medication in a mental health care context.Background: Mental health medication adherence is considered problematic and legal coercion exists in many countries.Design: This was a qualitative study aiming to explore perceptions of medication adherence from the perspective of the service user (and their caregiver, where possible.Participants: Eighteen mental health service users (and six caregivers with histories of medication nonadherence and repeated compulsory admission were recruited from voluntary sector support groups in England.Methods: Data were collected between 2008 and 2010. Using qualitative coding techniques, the study analyzed interview and focus group data from service users, previously subjected to compulsory medication under mental health law, or their caregivers.Results: The process of medication adherence or nonadherence is encapsulated in an explanatory narrative. This narrative constitutes participants' struggle to negotiate acceptable and effective routes through variable quality of care. Results indicated that service users and caregivers eventually accepted the reality of their own mental illness and their need for safety and treatment. They perceived the behavior of professionals as key in their recovery process. Professionals could be enabling or disabling with regard to adherence to medication.Conclusion: This study investigated service user and caregiver perceptions of medication adherence and compulsory treatment. Participants described a process perceived as variable and potentially doubly faceted. The behavior of professionals was seen as crucial in collaborative decision making on medication adherence.Keywords: medication, mental health service users, medication adherence, service user perspectives, grounded theory
The purpose of this study was to examine the current state of practice related to driver improvement countermeasures : used in the United States and to assess the effectiveness of New Jerseys negligent driver interventions. As part of the : study,...
These revelations exposed the broad reach of the Khan network, which included nations, like Malaysia , which are not normally associated with...Enrichment Plant in two months. Additionally, Iran could speed up the production of a nuclear weapon using 1,000 more advanced IR -2m centrifuges...If Iran feeds its IR -centrifuges with natural uranium and operates: • 9,000 centrifuges (the number now running): 6.8 months • 6,104 centrifuges
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Accounting and Financial Management Div.
At the request of Senator William Roth, Jr., the General Accounting Office (GAO) reviewed Medicare and Medicaid fraud investigations that agency inspectors general referred to the Department of Justice for prosecution to identify characteristics of alleged fraud against the government and to determine actions taken against those caught defrauding…
... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final... Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental...
van Wyhe, John
For decades historians of science and science writers in general have maintained that Charles Darwin was not the 'naturalist' or 'official naturalist' during the 1831-1836 surveying voyage of HMS Beagle but instead Captain Robert FitzRoy's 'companion', 'gentleman companion' or 'dining companion'. That is, Darwin was primarily the captain's social companion and only secondarily and unofficially naturalist. Instead, it is usually maintained, the ship's surgeon Robert McCormick was the official naturalist because this was the default or official practice at the time. Although these views have been repeated in countless accounts of Darwin's life, this essay aims to show that they are incorrect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Professor Ryuichi Ida’s contributions in the study of international law have been guided by his underlying conviction that law, or more precisely, law-makers, will be catching up to a social change. For Professor Ida, the identity of "law" is the "substantive binding force". The substantive
MONICA POCORA; MIHAIL-SILVIU POCORA
This study aims to be an interdisciplinary, criminal-criminological approach of the minority institution in terms of criminal liability, with an evolutionary dynamic of the pre-offense and post-offense assumptions. The operative criterion is the notion of juvenile pre-delinquency (pre-deviance or potential deviance), because it refers to all the acts violating the norm of moral behaviour, which in certain circumstances may lead a teenager to appear before the court, and in other circumstances...
Mijs, Jonathan J. B.; Paulle, Bowen
Sam and his classmates despise "nerds": they say working hard in school makes a student unpopular, and that they purposefully do only the minimum to pass. Research suggests that such "oppositional" attitudes are prevalent among working class students and/or ethnoracial minorities. Like most of his classmates, however, Sam is…
... Change Adopting Investigation, Disciplinary, Sanction, and Other Procedural Rules That Are Modeled on the... Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes to adopt investigation, disciplinary, sanction, and other... The Exchange proposes to adopt investigation, disciplinary, sanction, and other procedural rules that...
... leased surplus Federal real property not due to— (A) Reasonable wear and tear; (B) Acts of God; or (C... condition of a transfer or lease of surplus Federal real property? 12.14 Section 12.14 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS FEDERAL REAL PROPERTY FOR...
India and Iran have had a centuries-long history of close relations. However, in the last decade New Delhi has been looking to develop its relations with Tehran for two main reasons. First, India’s high energy demand to keep the pace of its economic growth, for which Iran could be a reliable supplier; and second, New Delhi’s desire to have Tehran on its side as a strategic partner in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the Persian Gulf and further in Central Asia. Despite its vote against Tehran a...
Since the Federal High Court decided the "Case of Kempten" in 1994, German Law allows discontinuation of life-sustaining treatment even when the patient's life could be extended by a number of months. Unfortunately, the court gives little normative criteria regarding the conditions under which "helping to die" is legal. Instead of such criteria, the will of the patient is underlined as being decisive. Therefore, the legal problems have shifted to the determination of the patient's will and substituted consent; written living will, power of attorney and consent of the court have become more important within the law of euthanasia. Along with a general description of the legal limits of euthanasia, the scope of application of these civil law institutes will be discussed.
... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 249 and 274 Technical Amendments to Forms N-CSR and N-SAR in Connection With the... adopting technical amendments to Forms N-CSR and N-SAR under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and the... Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') is adopting technical amendments to Form N-CSR \\1\\ and...
destroyed humans, crops, food stores, domestic animals , houses and boats. 77 Chaffee also appointed Brigadier General Jacob Smith who would command the...With shocking honesty, Taft conceded that cruelties had been inflicted by U.S. soldiers and that torture and killings were prominent throughout...different; of the completed court-martials reported by Root, all involved certain provisions of GO 100 forbiding “ cruelty , looting, and like crimes
Ehlinger, Sally; Katz, Jennifer L.
Reports a study that analyzed high school girls' experiences as they established ice hockey as a competitive girls' sport. Surveys of the social, psychological, and skill aspects of their experiences indicated high enthusiasm and determination levels, with 80% of them definitely planning to continue playing ice hockey. (SM)
Luisa Fernanda Caldas Botero
Full Text Available This document exposes different trains of thought regarding legal issues as a result of the peace agreement reached by the National Government and farc-ep (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia-People’s Army. The paper shows a detailed analysis in regards of the punishments applied in transitional justice, the differente theories regarding punishment and their application to the agreement reached by both parties, seeking to establish if the agreed is congruent with international agreements and the Constitution.
Full Text Available One of the problems faced by the international community is to find a basis for regulating economic relations between the states. While the third world states still emphasize their economic sovereignty to encounter and maintain their positions against the North States, the analysis of the international legal realities shows that merely relying on the “economic independence” and “permanent sovereignty over natural resources” cannot be a practical way to achieve the ideals of states known as the “South.” Like the Sword of Damocles, sovereignty can pave the way for maintaining the “status quo” or the domination of the premier economic powers in the international equation. Merely relying on international law as a branch based on the states’ sovereignty will be actually misleading to change the status quo. By a realistic analysis of the less positive role of sovereignty in the procedure of regulating the relations between the North and the South, this study seeks to focus on the fact that going out of the impasse of unjust economic relations between the North and the South will be possible only by creating a gap in the traditional concept of economic sovereignty in a sense that has been formed by the third world states in the 60s and 70s of the past century.
Vers une mini-reforme de l'orthographe? A propos d'un arrete officiel sur certaines licences orthographiques (Toward a Mini-Reform of the Orthography? Concerning an Official Decree Regarding Certain Orthographic Sanctions).
Finds that the latest (1976) decree of the French government regarding spelling reform, like previous decrees, is not likely to help much, and laments that a thorough and systematic reform is not undertaken, in order to abolish at least the most illogical and inconsistent rules. (IFS/WGA)
... Proliferators Sanctions Regulations, part 544); and (Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations, part 594). 4. The... IRAN; a.k.a. CENTRAL BANK OF IRAN; a.k.a. CENTRAL BANK OF THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN), 213 Ferdowsi...
... Proliferators Sanctions Regulations, part 544); and (Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations, part 594). 4. The.... CENTRAL BANK OF THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN), 213 Ferdowsi Avenue, Tehran 11365, Iran; PO Box 15875/7177...
B. Kroch Institute, April 2001 http://www.irak.be/ned/archief/ Irak - smart%20sanctions.pdf (accessed November 21, 2005). 68 BBC, “U.S. Fines...infrastructure to produce legitimate biological agents could latently contribute to a humanitarian crisis in the event some type of pandemic. U.S...Smart Sanctions: Restructuring UN Sanctions in Iraq.” http://www.irak.be/ned/archief/ Irak - smart%20sanctions.pdf (accessed June 20, 2006
صلاح الدين بوجلال
in each system of law, the administrative sanctions take a distinct place along the criminal and civil sanctions. Administrative sanctions are inflicted by administrative bodies to ensure the fulfillment of certain obligations or restoring some legal conditions, such as withdrawing, suspending or denial of an advantage or facility provided by law. The punitive character of these sanctions required the applicability of some law principles from the criminal law into the administrative law, to e...
Bouffard, Leana Allen; Piquero, Nicole Leeper
Criminologists have long grappled with the varying effect of sanctions. In an effort to clarify these divergent effects, Sherman (1993) delineated a general theory of sanction effects, termed "defiance theory." Defiance theory anticipates that there are four necessary conditions for defiance to occur: (a) the sanction must be perceived…
صلاح الدين بوجلال
Full Text Available in each system of law, the administrative sanctions take a distinct place along the criminal and civil sanctions. Administrative sanctions are inflicted by administrative bodies to ensure the fulfillment of certain obligations or restoring some legal conditions, such as withdrawing, suspending or denial of an advantage or facility provided by law. The punitive character of these sanctions required the applicability of some law principles from the criminal law into the administrative law, to ensure the protection against abuse in inflicting a punitive sanction, and also guarantees for each person the right to a fair trial.
Full Text Available Sociological perfective in the many offer social sanctions can be applied in corrupt behavior result. The idea of social sanctions was proposed as a reaction against the growing number of corrupt behavior difficult resolved only through national and international legal instruments. It is time the exact type of sanctions was found to tackle corrupt behavior that are already classified as extraordinary crimes. Some ideas proposed as social sanctions to eradicate corrupt behavior i.e. criminal sanctions established on the basis of social stratification, hint herself and family corruptor, no corpse prayer corruptor before is no guarantee of the financial returns of the State by the family of the perpetrator, serving in the corruptor's face television and penalties for disseminating the corruptor after death and as sanctions ultimatum remedied every corruptor will be charged all his deeds before God after death.
Adi Putri, Maria Stefanie
Children must be protected from psychological violence committed by children. Protection can be provided by the law of one of them is a criminal sanction. In the determination of criminal sanctions should be sought suitable for children. Determination of criminal sanctions is also to protect the rights of children as victims. Normative legal was used as research methodology, namely research focuses on norms and required secondary data as main data. The research results identified that a crimi...
Child rearing in family has various purposes, among of them is to build child’s character. The evidence shows that character strengths are positively related to the individual’s well‐ being and happiness. Albert Bandura proposed self‐sanction mechanism model to regulate moral behavior by giving physical sanction and verbal reprimand. As child grows, the child need parental guiding to understand standards of conduct and to learn about social sanction. If child can function s...
Full Text Available Financial sanctions, as lump sum and penalty payments, can be imposed to Member States that failed to implement a judgement establishing an infringement. This mechanism was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty and further developed by the Lisbon Treaty. This paper is an analysis of Article 260 TFEU and examines the evolution of the mechanism, the principles for applying sanctions, the method of calculating sanctions, but also the limits of this procedure.
Stephen J Jackson
This article investigates the evolving conceptions of national identity in Canada and Australia through an analysis of officially sanctioned history textbooks in Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia...
being and happiness. Albert Bandura proposed self‐sanction mechanism model to regulate moral behavior by giving physical sanction and verbal reprimand. As child grows, the child need parental guiding to understand standards of conduct and to learn about social sanction. If child can function self‐sanction mechanism, child is expected be able to evaluate his conduct right or wrong. The functioning of behavior moral regulation is an important part in developing child’s character. The strength and weakness of model and the application of this model in Indonesian context will be discussed.
... multichannel video programming distributor that uses the same distribution technology as the competitor... authority to fashion appropriate sanctions for violations of its protective orders, including but not...
Criminalization of market actor behavior as regulatory tool : the implementation in the Netherlands of EU Directive 2014/57 ("MAD II") on criminal sanctions for market abuse, and its effects on the cooperation between the Dutch Public Prosecutors Office (OM) and The Netherlands Authority for the Financial Markets (AFM)
E.E. van Bemmelen van Gent
Het onderzoek dat ten grondslag ligt aan dit artikel onderzoekt hoe de overheid markten reguleert voor (financiële) producten en diensten teneinde falen van de markt te voorkomen. Het behandelt specifiek EU Richtlijn 2014/57/EU betreffende strafrechtelijke sancties voor marktmisbruik en de
Boone, J.; van Ours, J.
We model how unemployment benefit sanctions - benefit reductions that are imposed if unemployed do not comply with job search guidelines - affect unemployment. We find that benefit sanctions are more effective in reducing unemployment than an across-the-board reduction in the replacement rate, for a
In the wake of the murder of a man for what he ate, Tabish Khair looks at how the darker aspects of ideologies and religions end up sanctioning brutality......In the wake of the murder of a man for what he ate, Tabish Khair looks at how the darker aspects of ideologies and religions end up sanctioning brutality...
... Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR Part 594 AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control... With Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism,'' and the Global Terrorism Sanctions... grave acts of terrorism and threats of terrorism committed by foreign terrorists, including the...
Services, or allows the User to monitor his bill, limit his usage, or limits the liability in connection to unauthorised usage.Infringement of the legislation in question is mainly sanctioned by administrative or civil sanctions. The overall impression is that the Danish telecommunication industry is quite...
... clearance in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13, on or after the date of... currently approved collection. Title: Iranian Financial Sanctions Regulations Report on Closure by U.S...) of the Iranian Financial Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR part 561 (the ``IFSR''), specifies that a U.S...
interior enforcement lack a border component. For example, fugitive taskforces, investigations of alien slavery and sweatshops , and employer sanctions do...Steven Greenhouse, “U.S. Officials Defend Ploys to Catch Immigrants,” New York Times, Feb. 11, 2006, p. A8. Employer Sanctions. Another policy question
Kamei, Kenju; Putterman, Louis; Tyran, Jean-Robert
The sanctioning of norm-violating behavior by an effective formal authority is an efficient solution for social dilemmas. It is in the self-interest of voters and is often favorably contrasted with letting citizens take punishment into their own hands. Allowing informal sanctions, by contrast...
Schram, A.; Charness, G.
Social norms involve observation by others and external sanctions for violations, while moral norms involve introspection and internal sanctions. We develop a simple model of individual preferences that incorporates moral and social norms. We then examine dictator choices, where we create a shared
Schram, A.; Charness, G.
Social norms involve observation by others and external sanctions for violations, while moral norms involve introspection and internal sanctions. To study such norms and their effects, we design a laboratory experiment. We examine dictator choices, where we create a shared understanding by providing
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance. 904.311 Section 904.311 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC... Sanctions and Denials Permit Sanctions for Noncompliance § 904.311 Compliance. If the permit holder pays the...
This article focuses on the role of reputation in consumer communities. Reputation systems can have a sanctioning function (incentive for good conduct) or a signalling function (e.g. signalling competence or trustworthiness). If the sanctioning function is dominant, striving for reputation should be
The strong positions of buyers and export agents in the craft value chain enable them to apply sanctions to extract compliance from the exporters whereas the weak position of the export vendors implies the lack of sanctioning authority over the rogue artisan subcontractors. The government's promotion programmes could ...
Markussen, Thomas; Putterman, Louis; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl
Entrusting the power to punish to a central authority is a hallmark of civilization, yet informal or horizontal sanctions have attracted more attention of late. We study experimentally a collective action dilemma and test whether subjects choose a formal sanction scheme that costs less than...
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources of...
Caswell, Dorte; Høybye-Mortensen, Matilde
Economic sanctions have gained more political legitimacy and are being more widely used as a tool to improve the willingness of unemployed welfare recipients to participate in activities within the framework of active labour market policy (ALMP). The focus of this article is the use of economic...... sanctions on cash benefit recipients in Denmark. Quantitative analyses show a substantial increase in the use of economic sanctions in Denmark, including sanctions on those who are categorised as having problems in addition to unemployment. In this article we will direct our attention to responses from both...... differences in the use of sanctions from one municipality to another.Research on street-level bureaucracy focuses on the role of organisations when analysing street-level behaviour (Brodkin 2011; Soss et al. 2011b). This paper draws on this research, looking at organisational structure and how social workers...
Hashim Çollaku; Mentor Çollaku
In this manuscript we have analyzed the issue of postponement of the commencement of execution of sentence of imprisonment, using theoretical and practical sources. In this perspective the Law on Execution of Criminal Sanction (in continuation LECS), Law no. 04 / L-149, dated 29.7.2013, Law no. 03 / L-191, Regulation 2004/46, Law on Execution of Criminal Sanctions of Kosovo, Law on Execution of Criminal Sanctions in Kosovo and the Law on Execution of sentence imprisonment of Croatia, the Law ...
Rob M. A. Nelissen
Full Text Available Third-party punishment has recently received attention as an explanation for human altruism. Feelings of anger in response to norm violations are assumed to motivate third-party sanctions, yet there is only sparse and indirect support for this idea. We investigated the impact of both anger and guilt feelings on third-party sanctions. In two studies both emotions were independently manipulated. Results show that anger and guilt independently constitute sufficient but not necessary causes of punishment. Low levels of punishment are observed only when neither emotion is elicited. We discuss the implications of these findings for the functions of altruistic sanctions.
Fording, Richard C; Soss, Joe; Schram, Sanford F
To illuminate how race affects the usage of punitive tools in policy implementation settings, we analyze sanctions imposed for noncompliant client behavior under welfare reform. Drawing on a model of racial classification and policy choice, we test four hypotheses regarding client race, local context, and sanctioning. Based on longitudinal and cross-sectional multilevel analyses of individual-level administrative data, we find that race plays a significant role in shaping sanction implementation. Its effects, however, are highly contingent on client characteristics, local political contexts, and the degree to which state governments devolve policy control to local officials.
1970’li Yıllar Türkiye Siyasi Tarihinin Kültürel Belleği: 12 Mart Romanı ‘Yaralısın’da Devlet Güdümlü İşkence ve Mahkumiyet Sorunsalı Cultural Memory of 1970s' Turkish Political History: The Question of State-Sanctioned Torture and Imprisonment in the March 12th Novel ‘Yaralısın’
Full Text Available The ‘March 12th Novels’ is a retroactive umbrella term used to describe the works of fiction written between 1971 and 1980 which take as their inspiration the events surrounding the coup d’etat; the military takeover, the battle between revolutionary left wing activists and nationalists, and the political and social fallout of the intervention. Erdal Öz’s Yaralısın (You are Wounded is a direct response to the traumatic and brutal oppression of the political left after the March 12th military intervention of 1971 in Turkey. The novel plays an important role, among others from the March 12th literary corpus, in the collective memory of the violent persecution suffered by left wing activists, intellectuals and writers during this period. Öz’s work, however, devoid as it is of any explicit reference to contemporary politics or events, can also be read on a more universal level, with much of what it reveals about the nature of violence and power applicable to any totalitarian regime. This article uses the philosophical and social theories of Michel Foucault in particular to examine the way in which Öz depicts the relationship between the state and the individual, exploring the protagonist’s internalisation of state power, taking on both the role of accuser and interrogator. Elaine Scarry’s work is also vital in elucidating the psychological effects of torture, in particular the way in which it destroys language and its victim’s capacity for self-expression, twisting the suffering of the prisoner in order to legitimise state control. ‘12 Mart Romanları’, 1971 askeri müdahelesi sonrasındaki zaman diliminde, Türkiye’de yaşanan siyasi kargaşayı, aşırı sol ve sağı temsil eden gençlerin birbirleriyle ve devletin kolluk kuvvetleriyle olan çekişmelerini, kavgalarını ele alan; müdahele sonrası yaşanan ve özellikle de sol ideolojiyi vuran gözaltı, işkence ve mahkumiyet dalgası ile 1970’li yıllar Türk siyasi yaşamının bilinmeyen birçok yanına ışık tutarak bu durumu edebi bir perspektiften değerlendiren ve bu olaylara etkili bir dille ayna tutmaya çalışan eserlere verilen genel bir ifadedir. Bu bağlamda Erdal Öz’ün ‘Yaralısın’ romanı, 12 Mart 1971 askeri müdahelesi sonrası Türkiye’sinde, döneme ait acı gerçeklere doğrudan ışık tutarak, sol ideolojiyi temsil eden bir neslin yaşadığı acıların kültürel belleğini tutar. Roman, 1970 yıllar Türkiye’sinde, sol fikirli yüzlerce, binlerce entellektüel, üniversite öğrencisi ve aktivistin gözaltı süresince zulme ve işkenceye maruz kaldığı; ülkede hakim olan karanlık bir dönemin kültürel hafızasını kaydederek günümüz neslinin yakın tarihini öğrenmelerinde önemli bir rol oynamaktadır. Erdal Öz’ün bu romanı ayrıca, dönemin siyasetine veya siyasi olaylarına herhangi bir isim veya zaman dilimi kullanmadan somut anlamda doğrudan vurgu yapmaması yönüyle de evrensel bir özellik taşımaktadır. Romanda sunulan işkence ve insanlık dışı her türlü uygulama, herhangi bir totaliter rejim tarafından uygulanabilecek şiddetin doğasına işaret etmektedir. Bu çalışmada Michael Foucault’un felsefi ve sosyoloji teorileriyle açıkladığı devlet ile birey arasındaki ilişkiyi, totaliter bir yapıya sahip iktidarın uyguladığı aşırı gücün etkilerini görmekteyiz. Buna ek olarak, iktidarın romanın tutuklu kahramanı üzerinde hem pskikolojik hem de fiziksel anlamda uyguladığı gücün oluşturduğu etkileri, bu güç karşısındaki direnç girişimini ve bir süre sonra bu güce boyun eğmek zorunda kalarak, kendi kendisinin sorgulayıcısı ve suçlayıcısı olma sürecini incelemektedir. Öte yandan, Elaine Scarry tarafından kaleme alınan “ The Body in Pain” adlı kitap da, işkencenin özellikle de şiddete maruz kalan bireyin dış dünyayla iletişime geçip kendini ifade etme yetisini ortadan kaldıran psikolojik etkileri ile devletin mahkum birey üzerinde kurduğu kontrolü ve baskıyı meşrulaştırma amacıyla şiddetin dozunu daha da arttırma gibi çıkarımlarını ele alması yönüyle bu makalede birinci derecede öneme sahiptir.
The Syrian crisis has from May 2011 and onwards been met by the EU with rounds of tightening sanctions attempting to put pressure on the Syrian regime and the elites surrounding it. Based on a typology for the sanctions and a periodization showing how the measures have proceeded, the article...... discusses the EU sanctions and to what degree they have influenced the situation in Syria. Furthermore, the article sheds light on regional and international dimensions of EU policies towards Syria and demonstrates how the policies are met with the Syrian regime's ability to adapt to conditions related...... to changing internal and external challenges. The article concludes that what in the first phases of the EU sanctions against Syria represented a deviation from the traditional pragmatic EU policies vis-à-vis the Middle East, seems during the latest phase to be followed by a more cautious approach, which also...
Jul 7, 1990 ... statutory sanctions) to any third party information which he has learnt in his ... Litigation and medicolegal problems are on the increase in South .... different accounting procedures the comparison of costs between different ...
Securities and Exchange Commission — The initial decisions issued by administrative law judges in 2009 that contains findings of fact, legal conclusions, and an order that often contains a sanction....
.... Views about the propriety of such sanctions vary, but some believe such punishments are unwarranted by the crime and that too much public money is being spent incarcerating what they see as minor...
Geissler, Elaine M.
Points out the inadequacies of the nursing diagnoses officially sanctioned by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association for use with culturally diverse patients. Looks at the changes needed to make the defining characteristics more congruent with transcultural nursing. (JOW)
... implements 5 U.S.C. 8902a, as amended by Public Law 105-266 (October 19, 1998). It establishes a system of... certain violations. The sanctions include debarment, suspension, civil monetary penalties, and financial...
... AGRICULTURE CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Enhancement, Protection, and Management of the Cultural... antiquity on Federal lands; establishes criminal sanctions for unauthorized destruction or appropriation of..., intergovernmental, and interdisciplinary efforts for the preservation of cultural resources; and other provisions...
...; and prescribe sanctions and rewards as appropriate in collaboration with prosecutors, defense attorneys, treatment providers, and others. While some basic requirements are set at the federal level, most decisions about how a drug court operates are left to local jurisdictions.
, please click the link below. You may also login to the system and click the 'View. Attachments' link in the Action column. Additional Information: Question .... financial support via Sanction Order Number SR/FST/MSI-107/2015. References.
.... This Article tackles perhaps the most exigent question in U.S. cybercrime law—the scope of activities that should be subject to criminal sanction under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA...
... Government sanctions or endorses his personal activities or those of another. When teaching, speaking, or... Spanish officials and explain the advantages of procurement from the United States company. Example 3: The...
Varied education sites, particularly in situations of conflict and transition, can play multiple, and changing, roles, including validating reproductions of state-sanctioned citizenship along exclusive strata, or conversely adopting a more oppositional stance. Such constructions can be highly
Carmen Adriana Gheorghe
... and sanctions, quartered obviously in risk area. We mention that risk, as related to surveillance and caution, represents the possibility of potential, expected or unexpected events to have a negative impact on the bank capital or the bank revenue...
... synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with...(n)(43) of this chapter. (e) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established...
Boone, J.; Bovenberg, A.L.
In order to investigate the interaction between tax policy, welfare benefits, the government technology for monitoring and sanctioning inadequate search, workfare, and externalities from work, we incorporate endogenous job search and involuntary unemployment into a model of optimal nonlinear income
Securities and Exchange Commission — The initial decisions issued by administrative law judges in 2010 that contains findings of fact, legal conclusions, and an order that often contains a sanction....
Department of Housing and Urban Development — These all of the Administrative Sanction decisions issued by the Office of Appeals and its predecessor, the HUD Board of Contract Appeals. This Office has included...
Impaired driving continues to cause hundreds of thousands of alcohol-related crashes each year, many resulting in serious injury or death. Many offenders are repeat offenders despite sanctions and court processes that attempt to dissuade offenders fr...
Full Text Available This article aims at a topical and of great interest issue for the specialists working in the Reinstatement Service and also for those who are dealing with criminally sanctioned citizens. The current system of non-custodial sanctions existing in Romania is still in its beginning, providing few alternatives for obeying this type of punishments in a non-custodial framework but which is yet well organized and supervised. The intimation of this aspect and the desire to promote the non-custodial sanctions among the persons who have violated the criminal law, in 2009, led to the establishment of the first workshop of unpaid work in Romania. The interviews, with the specialists directly involved in this project, show that a sustained effort from the public and private community institutions, the community service workshops can be efficient and viable methods of social reintegration for the criminally sanctioned citizens.
Fang, J. M.; Tawil, J.
The policy instruments considered include: greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings.
Full Text Available Sociological persfektif in many social sanctions bid can be applied in corruptbehavior pananggulangan. The idea of social sanctions were proposed as a reactionagainst the growing number of corrupt behavior difficult resolved only throughnational and international legal instruments. It is time the exact type of sanctions werefound to tackle corrupt behaviour that are already classified as extraordinary crimes.Some ideas proposed as social sanctions to eradicate corrupt behavior i.e. criminalsanctions established on the basis of social stratification, pencemohan self and familycorruptor, no corpse mensholatkan corruptor before is no guarantee of the financialreturns of the State by the family of the perpetrator, serving in the corruptor's facetelivisi and penalties for disseminating the corruptor after death and as sanctionsultimium remidium every corruptor will be charged all his deeds before God afterdeath.
ANDRA PURAN (DASCĂLU
Full Text Available Disciplinary research is the first phase of the disciplinary action. According to art. 251 paragraph 1 of the Labour Code no disciplinary sanction may be ordered before performing the prior disciplinary research.These regulations provide an exception: the sanction of written warning. The current regulations in question, kept from the old regulation, provides a protection for employees against abuses made by employers, since sanctions are affecting the salary or the position held, or even the development of individual employment contract. Thus, prior research of the fact that is a misconduct, before a disciplinary sanction is applied, is an essential condition for the validity of the measure ordered. Through this study we try to highlight some general issues concerning the characteristics, processes and effects of prior disciplinary research.
Blank, Stephen J
In August 2006, the U.S. Government imposed sanctions on Russian arms sellers and producers, Rosoboroneksport, Russia's main arms-selling agency, and Sukhoi, which manufactures aircraft, because of their arms sales to Iran...
..., and the importance of the issues at stake in the litigation. If a request, response, or objection is..., response, or objection was made, or both. (4) An appropriate sanction may include an order to pay to the...
Ana Paula ROCHA
Full Text Available Despite relevant insights from socio-economics, little research in multi-agent systems has addressed the interconnections between trust and normative notions such as contracts and sanctions. Focusing our attention on scenarios of betrayal, in this paper we combine the use of trust and sanctions in a negotiation process. We describe a scenario of dyadic relationships between truster agents, which make use of trust and/or sanctions, and trustee agents, characterized by their ability and integrity, which may influence their attitude toward betrayal. Both agent behavior models are inspired in socio-economics literature. Through simulation, we show the virtues and shortcomings of using trust, sanctions, and a combination of both in processes of selection of partners.
Scott Snyder; See-Won Byun
North Korea's fifth nuclear test on Sept. 9 and the intensified test-firing of a range of missile types throughout 2016 underscored existing weaknesses in using dialogue and sanctions as a response...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The relations between the living and the dead are sanctioned by specific departure ceremonies and a series of maintenance operations that vary in their elaboration...
... section, the Director may fashion sanctions in any such amount as deemed to be appropriate taking into... part, control means the ability to exercise a controlling influence over the management and policies of...
Under what conditions are foreign aid donors willing to suspend foreign aid to punish political transgressions, such as election fraud, corruption scandals or political repression? Prior scholarship has emphasized that political sanctions, including foreign aid suspensions, are constrained by the
Sullivan, Mark P
Since the early 1960s, U.S. policy toward Cuba under Fidel Castro has consisted largely of isolating the communist nation through comprehensive economic sanctions, which have been significantly tightened by the Bush Administration...
.... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...
.... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran ssssssss economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...
Law project adopted by the National Assembly, after urgency declaration, of the program relative to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes; Projet de loi adopte par l'Assemblee Nationale, apres declaration d'urgence, de programme relatif a la gestion durable des matieres et des dechets radioactifs
The document presents the different articles of the law project dealing with the terminology, the radioactive wastes storage and disposal, the safety and the transport, the financing, the liabilities, the control and the sanctions. (A.L.B.)
Law project modified by the Senate of the program relative to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes; Projet de loi, Modifie par le Senat, de programme relatif a la gestion durable des matieres et des dechets radioactifs
The document presents the different articles of the law project dealing with the terminology, the radioactive wastes storage and disposal, the safety and the transport, the financing, the liabilities, the control and the sanctions. (A.L.B.)
Kropacheva A. V.
Full Text Available The author estimates administrative freezing of capital construction as a type of punishment for violating laws in this sphere. The article provides the mechanism of freezing of capital construction as a serious alternative for fine sanctions
Blanchard, Christopher M
.... sanctions were gradually removed, and, on May 15, 2006, the Bush Administration announced its intention to restore fill diplomatic relations with Libya and to rescind Libya's listing as a state sponsor of terrorism...
.... Pressured by international sanctions and isolation, Sudan and Libya appear to have sharply reduced their support for international terrorist groups, and Sudan has told the United States it wants to work to achieve removal from the terrorism list.
... has prompted most governments in the region to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). Start Date: December 19, 2008. End Date: August 31, 2010. Topic: TOBACCO, SMOKING, ADVERTISING, ADVOCACY, POLICY MAKING, LEGISLATION, PENAL SANCTIONS.
Altangerel, K. (Khulan); J.C. van Ours (Jan)
textabstractThe 1986 US Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) was directed at tackling the problem of growing unauthorized migration through legalization of unauthorized immigrants, increasing border security and sanctioning employers who hired unauthorized immigrants. Our paper investigates how
Altangerel, Khulan; van Ours, Jan
The 1986 US Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) was directed at tackling the problem of growing unauthorized migration through legalization of unauthorized immigrants, increasing border security and sanctioning employers who hired unauthorized immigrants. Our paper investigates how the IRCA
... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ELECTRONIC RECORDS; ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES Electronic Signatures § 11.100 General requirements. (a) Each electronic...) Before an organization establishes, assigns, certifies, or otherwise sanctions an individual's electronic...
Elena Nikolaevna Zakharova; Elena Evgenyevna Kardava; Rita Rafaelovna Avanesova; Elena Petrovna Avramenko
In connection with the aggravation of crisis phenomena in the economy of Russia caused by the events in Ukraine, the sanctions of the West, oil prices reduction and a decline in the ruble, a new...
Press, 2009), 41, 43. 12 Elena Bratanova, "Terrorist Financing and EU Sanctions List: Is the Court’s Annulment of a Council Decision a Lasting...as a terrorist suspect were annulled three times. 27 Each time the Council changed the procedure slightly and then relisted the applicant as a...115 Stat. 224 (2001). Bratanova, Elena. "Terrorist financing and EU Sanctions List: Is the Court’s Annulment of a Council Decision a Lasting
Tologana, Evalin Yuanita
This study aim to determine the effect of sanctions, motivation and level of education on tax compliance. Population in this study is the taxpayer listed in KPP Pratama Manado. Samples used were 100 taxpayer who are determine using a formula slovin. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression followed by normality test, multicolinearity test, heterocedasticity test and autocorrelation test. The result showed the tax motivation sanctions and positive effect on tax compliance while educ...
Gambelli, Danilo; Solfanelli, Francesco; Zanoli, Raffaele; Zorn, Alexander; Lippert, Christian; Dabbert, Stephan
This paper describes the Italian and German organic certification systems, including the institutions involved and the definitions of non-compliance and sanctions. Although they are both implementations of the same EU regulatory framework, these systems differ in many respects. Case study data from control bodies on non-compliance and sanctions are presented and analysed using binary choice models. This analysis shows that the occurrence of slight non-compliance and greater farm acreage are s...
www.washingtoninstitute.org/uploads/Documents/pubs/PolicyFocus56.pdf. 13 Jay Loschky, “Most Iranians Say Sanctions Hurting Their Livelihoods ,” Gallup World... diversification , technological advancement, and a must have for “any self-respecting country.”247 As the Global War on Terror spread throughout the...Loschky, Jay. “Most Iranians Say Sanctions Hurt Their Livelihoods .” Gallup World, November 6, 2013. http://www.gallup.com/poll/165743/iranians-say
Amaya ANGULO GARZARO
Full Text Available Competition law seeks to foster competition and innovation through the sanctioning of antitrust behavior, and it especially seeks to discourage the creation of hardcore cartels. To that effect, the European Union imposes administrative sanctions to cartels, whereas the United States use their penal system against them. This paper will analyze the advantages and limitations of each option, and will determine whether it would be more effective for the European Union to also use its penal system against cartels.
Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn
<> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....
Khalmetski, Kiryl; Rockenbach, Bettina; Werner, Peter
In a sender-receiver game we investigate if sanctions for lying induce more truth-telling. Senders may not only choose between truth-telling and (explicit) lying, but may also engage in evasive lying by credibly pretending not to know. Sanctions promote truth-telling if senders cannot engage in evasive lying. If evasive lying is possible, explicit lying is largely substituted by evasive lying, in line with the notion that evasive lying is perceived as sufficiently less psychologically costly.
Rob M. A. Nelissen; Marcel Zeelenberg
Third-party punishment has recently received attention as an explanation for human altruism. Feelings of anger in response to norm violations are assumed to motivate third-party sanctions, yet there is only sparse and indirect support for this idea. We investigated the impact of both anger and guilt feelings on third-party sanctions. In two studies both emotions were independently manipulated. Results show that anger and guilt independently constitute sufficient but not necessary causes of pu...
Ravindran, Madhu Sudan
"With tensions rising in the South China Sea, China’s use of its economic leverage over Southeast Asian countries has recently come into focus. With increasing economic and trade ties between China and Southeast Asia, the question being asked is whether China can successfully impose economic sanctions to gain policy concessions in the South China Sea disputes. This paper examines China's relations with the Philippines and Vietnam and analyses the possibility of a successful economic sanction ...
Noto, L.A. [Mobil Corporation, (United States)
The present paper deals with different aspects connected to the global petroleum industry by discussing the way of heading. The aspects cover themes like new frontiers, new relationships, sanctions, global climate change, new alliances and new technology. New frontiers and relationships concern domestic policy affecting the industry, and sanctions are discussed in connection with trade. The author discusses the industry`s participation in the global environmental policy and new alliances to provide greater opportunity for developing new technology
87 Execution of alternative punishments - Resumé The purpose of my thesis is to describe a process of an execution of alternative sanctions and the biggest problems in this part of criminal proceeding. This thesis is divided into seven chapters: Term of punishment and its purpose, Execution of punishments as a specific part of criminal proceeding, Alternative sanctions, Community service, Suspended sentence, Pecuniary punishment and House arrest. The first two chapters deal with the term of p...
Full Text Available This article discusses the nature of “house demolitions” as used by the State of Israel in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. In our opinion, and in contrast to the view of Israel’s Supreme Court, such demolition orders constitute a penal sanction. As a penal sanction, we argue that this measure violates the basic principles of criminal liability. Even if this conclusion is not accepted, it will be argued that making innocent people homeless is an illegal collective measure. Even if assuming arguendo that it is not an illegal collective measure, it violates the basic principle of personal responsibility. The general conclusion of the article is that the examination of the nature of sanctions should go beyond the labels that are attached to them. Labeling sanctions as either penal or civil may not always reflect its true nature, and labels are sometimes deliberately used or rather misused in order to escape from the requirements stemming from the true essence of a sanction.
Sattar, Kamran; Roff, Sue; Meo, Sultan Ayoub
Medical professionalism is an essential aspect of medical education and practice worldwide and it must be adopted according to different social and cultural contexts. We examined the current congruence and variance in the perception of professionalism in undergraduate medical students and faculty members in one medical school in Saudi Arabia. The target population was first year to final year medical students of College of Medicine, King Saud University. Out of a total of 1431 students at College of Medicine 750 students (52 %) participated in the study. Fifty faculty members from clinical and non-clinical departments of the College of Medicine were randomly selected for this study and all participated in the study. The respondents recorded their responses through the Bristol online survey system, using a bilingual (English and Arabic) version of the Dundee Polyprofessionalism Inventory I: Academic integrity, which has 34 items. There are 17 lapses (50 % of the total) in professional behaviour where none of the faculty recommend the ignore sanction while students recommended a variable ignore sanction in a range of 6-29 % for different behaviours. Students and faculty recommended similar sanctions for 5 lapses (14.7 % of the total) in professional behaviours. Furthermore, there is statistically significant two level difference between the sanctions approved by faculty and students in the recommended sanctions for 12 lapses (35 % of the total (p professionalism. It is therefore, important to enhance their learning around the attributes of medical professionalism.
Feighery, E C; Schleicher, N C; Ribisl, K M; Rogers, T
The purpose of this study was to assess the potential impact of public policies to regulate price discounting strategies on retail cigarette prices and advertising. Philip Morris USA (PM USA) has a policy designed to sanction stores violating state laws banning illegal tobacco sales to minors by temporarily suspending price discounting incentives. This study examined the impact of those sanctions on retail cigarette prices and sales promotion advertising. In November 2006, the California Attorney General's Office informed PM USA that 196 stores were found guilty of illegal underage sales. Of these, 109 stores that participated in the PM USA Retail Leaders Program were notified that their merchandising and/or promotional resources would be suspended for the month of April 2007. The remaining 87 stores were not sanctioned and served as a comparison group. Trained raters assessed advertising and prices of selected PM USA brands in these stores pre-penalty and during the penalty phase. There were no significant differences between sanctioned and non-sanctioned stores on median changes in price and sales promotion advertising from the pre-penalty to the penalty phase. The lack of impact on cigarette prices and advertising indicate that the PM USA policy may be flawed in its design or execution. If public policies are developed to restrain cigarette price discounting strategies, they should be crafted to ensure compliance and preclude possible compensatory actions by retailers.
Full Text Available Legal protection for well-known mark owner is important to study because many well-known mark have been infringed domestically and internationaly causing damage to the well-known mark owner. This research discusses 2 (two main issues namely the legal protection for well-known mark owner and legal action and sanctions imposed against to the infringer by the Paris Convention, TRIPs Agreement and Indonesia Trademark Law. This research applies normative research method. Meanwhile the approach method use statute approach method and comparative approach method which is compares The Paris Convention, TRIPs Agreement and Indonesia Trademark Law regarding the protection of well-known mark. Analysis technique use qualitative analysis. The study shows, from the perspective of the Paris Convention, TRIPs Agreement and Indonesia Trademark Law, well-known mark owner have legal protection in the form of exclusive rights through registration process to obtain legal certainty. When well-known mark infringement occured, the legal action can be done are litigation and non litigation process. The form of legal sanction are payment of compensation and criminal sanction, determined by each member state but still refer to the provisions of the Paris Convention and TRIPs Agreement. However, Indonesia set up more details about the sanctions that can be imposed for the infringemer in the form of penalties or criminal sanction ranging from 4 (four to 5(five years and a fine of Rp. 800.000.000 up to Rp. 1.000.000.000
Full Text Available The provisions included into law, in order to force the implemantation of and the obedience to the rules and regulations are called sanctions. These sanc-tions are named as penal or civil sanctions in terms of their compositionsEx-amined in the criminal law chapters of fiqh, Diyah (blood Money is a civil sanc-tion that aims to compensate the loss of the victim or his/her relatives to an ex-tent. Diyah can be levied either alone or together with a penal sanction de-pending on the severity of action.Although there are differences, diyah is similar to the material and moral in-demnities determined by the court in case of homicide and physical violence in today's law system. As, the determination of the quantitiy of diyah is a deci-sional one, it would be convenient to ascertain a value by considering local customs and the country's circumstances, protecting the rights of both parties.
Die Wirtschaftssanktionen als die Mittel der internationalen Druck während der russisch-ukrainischen Krise. Majandussanktsioonid kui rahvusvaheline survemeede: kui suured on eduvõimalused Venemaa-Ukraina kriisi puhul
Full Text Available To stop the conflict in Ukraine, in 2014 the European Union (EU, the United States and others western countries have introduced targeted sanctions against Russia, which where followed by countermeasures imposed by Russia. While the USA and the EU (including Estonia are expecting that Russia will be unable to adapt to the pressure of sanctions at least in mid-term, Russia expects to last longer than Ukraine to get tactical advantage. The aim of the research is to analyse whether sanctions against Russia have the economic potential to work. The authors suggest that based both on theory and previous practical experience, the direct economic impact of the EU-sanctions is relatively modest. However, the indirect pressure on the Russian economy exercised by the decrease in oil prices in the world market and the reaction of the financial markets, combined with the sanctions have at least potential to lead to the acceptable political solution from the perspective of the EU and the USA
ANALISIS KEBIJAKAN KRIMINAL PENANGGULANGAN KEJAHATAN TERHADAPKEAMANANNEGARA BERDASARKAN UNDANG-UNDANG NOMOR 27 TAHUN 1999 TENTANG PERUBAHAN KITAB UNDANG-UNDANG HUKUM PIDANA YANG BERKAITAN DENGAN KEJAHATAN TERHADAP KEAMANAN NEGARA
Full Text Available criminal policy to eradicate crimes against state security in Indonesia by Law Law Number 27 of 1999 include: (1 the criminalization of acts specified as criminal offenses security of the state, namely the spread of the ideology of communism, founded the organization which is based on communism and the efforts to replace Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution against the law, (2 policy change in the system of sanctions of imprisonment , Criminalization policy has not been able to overcome the forms of crimes against state security, especially with regard to the modus operandi of the crime of spying in the current era of globalization, while the policy of using sanctions pidama prison a single 20-year conflict with the sanctions system imprisonment adopted Criminal Code therefore, the provisions of Article 107 letter d of Law Number 27 of 1999 became null and void so it does not have the force of law Keywords: Criminal Policy, the State Security Crimes
Full Text Available New criminal legislation got into force in Serbia at the beginning of 2006. In that way, Serbia got unique Criminal Code which includes all provisions of material criminal law except provisions related to the criminal position of juveniles. System of criminal sanctions for juvenile off enders, procedure for their imposition and the way, procedure and terms for their execution are regulated by the provisions of the separate law - the Law on juvenile off enders and criminal protection of juveniles. Some of the most important novelties introduced by new juvenile criminal law are system of diversion, i.e. system of diversion orders, which aim at excluding the imposition of criminal sanctions in the cases when criminal sanction is not necessary from the perspective of crime suppression. Bearing that in mind, this paper is dedicated to forms of diversion orders as a form of measures that lead to more efficient system of restorative justice within our new juvenile criminal legislation. .
Madhu Sudan Ravindran
Full Text Available With tensions rising in the South China Sea, China’s use of its economic leverage over Southeast Asian countries has recently come into focus. With increasing economic and trade ties between China and Southeast Asia, the question being asked is whether China can successfully impose economic sanctions to gain policy concessions in the South China Sea disputes. This paper examines China’s relations with the Philippines and Vietnam and analyses the possibility of a successful economic sanction by China against these two countries in future disputes. The article concludes that Vietnam may be more vulnerable economically to Chinese sanctions than the Philippines. However, political factors would offset that vulnerability in the case of Vietnam and amplify it in the case of the Philippines, making the Philippines more likely to concede to modest political demands.
Full Text Available The scope of this investigation consists in closing the jurisdictional circle initiated in 2010 and analysing the national and European procedural, jurisdictional-administrative issues, in case of notifying some institutions related to certain discriminatory assertions. The investigation relies on assertions made during a radio show. On 12 October 2011 the Bucharest Court of Appeal ruled the notification of the Court of Justice of European Union related to preliminary questions formulated and ordered the suspension of the case until the settlement of the procedure. In 2013, the Bucharest Court of Appeal, although initially accepting the preliminary application of ACCEPT, submitting the case to the Court of Justice of European Union in order to determine the manner of interpretation of communitarian legislation related to the claims of plaintiff, eventually all arguments of CNCD have been accepted that is the warning is an effective, reasonable, dissuasive and (contextual proportional sanction, and such declaration cannot be understood as a discrimination in the labour field. De facto, the assertions of CNCD were in full agreement with the resolution of the Court of Justice of European Union, that is the communitarian legislation does not exclude the application of some sanctions without pecuniary character, such as the sanction with warning, since this kind of sanction does not have only a symbolic character, being a contraventional legal sanction, mainly when associated a relevant degree of advertising (such in the case, and the addressee is addressed, with arguments, directly and expressly the recommendation of meeting the non-discrimination principle, under the implicit effect of a more drastic sanction in case of relapse (discrimination in the same field.
“The inclusion of article 260(3) TFEU adopted as part of the Lisbon Treaty changed the landscape of infringement proceedings. The provision grants the Commission the power to propose monetary sanctions already during the initial Court litigation against a Member State that ‘failed to notify...... the internal Commission bureaucracy. It would have been advisable to create a system where the Commission was empowered to propose sanctions during the initial Court proceedings, regardless of the grounds for launching infringement proceedings.”...
Gottlieb, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm; Kørner, Ejnar Alex
By including §69 into the Danish Penal Code, it has since 1975 been possible to use psychiatric measures as legal sanctions for even non-psychotic offenders-if the measure is believed to be preventive of future crime. To be able to decide on the applicability of treatment measures as sanctions...... in criminal cases, the court will request a psychiatric report. They may furthermore ask a medical expert consultation board, the Danish Medico-Legal Council, for an opinion on the mental status of the defendant....
Full Text Available In the near future, imprisonment may no longer be the ultimate sanction. Imprisonment may be part of sanctions combined in an offender’s trajectory. These trajectories will become more and more personalized and tailor-made. A trajectory consists of different options: pre-trial options; front-door options; options during stay in prison; pre-release options; and aftercare options. With regard to future prisons, five basic principles can be recognized: human dignity; the avoidance of further damage or harm; the right to develop the self; the right to be important to other people; and a stable and professional organization.
Full Text Available The disseminator and participant of deviant’s sects can be accused as an “apostate” or “murtad”. They have committed “hudud crime” or “jarimah hudud” and can be punished by death sentence or subsidiary sanction. Nevertheless, the sanctions cannot be implemented because Indonesia is not Islamic state. There is no law enforcement towards the participant of deviant sects. But, they are only requested to be mass repented. The argumentation is that the participants of deviant’s sects are only a victim, so the process of law enforcement must be adjusted to the leader or disseminator of deviant sects.
Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Walzl, Markus
. In contrast to existing models of reciprocity, we find that agents tend to sanction whenever the feedback of principals is below their subjective self-evaluations even if agents' pay-offs are independent of it. In turn, principals provide more positive feedback (relative to their actual performance assessment......We conduct a laboratory experiment with agents working on, and principals benefiting from, a real effort task in which the agents' performance can only be evaluated subjectively. Principals give subjective performance feedback to agents, and agents have an opportunity to sanction principals...
The aim of this Bachelor thesis is to describe and compare the Czech and French system of criminal sanctions and then the analysis of appropriate legal French terminology. The thesis is divided into four big chapters whose first two are theoretical and the next two are practical. In the first two chapters the reader will be introduced into the criminal law in both countries and after that there will be enumerated the criminal sanctions in the Czech Republic and in France. The third and fourth...
The sources of political attitudes are among the most studied phenomena of modern politics. Moving away from the traditional focus on party systems, the demographic characteristics of voters, or political socialization, I consider instead how memory and narrative shape political consciousness. Specifically, I focus on how culturally sanctioned memories of warfare...
... Democratic Processes or Institutions in Belarus.'' DATES: The designation by the Director of OFAC of the four... repression, electoral fraud, and public corruption in Belarus. The Order imposes economic sanctions on persons responsible for actions or policies that undermine democratic processes or institutions in Belarus...
Although research has traditionally discussed the ways in which societies in conflict develop educational practices, only recently have scholars begun to examine the role of education in creating or sustaining conflict. In Afghanistan, changing regimes have had an impact on state-sanctioned curricula over the past fifty years, drastically altering…
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New investment. 586.312 Section 586.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.312 New investment. The term new investment means...
... New Investment in Burma AGENCY: Bureau of Economic & Business Affairs, Office of Sanctions Policy and....S. persons from making new investment in Burma, if the President makes certain determinations and... prohibition on new investment in Executive Order 13047 (May 20, 1997). He subsequently delegated the waiver...
in 2003. While one can argue about the ethics behind the use of sanctions in influencing internal and political change, what is evident is the ease...Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, Elting E. Morison, ed., (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1954), vol. VIII, 824-5; quoted in Henry A. Kissinger
Results 961 - 970 of 6371 ... Visit the IDRC Digital Library now. ... Evolution and effects assessment of China's minimum wage policy (restricted access). China has formulated and ... However, piracy rates alone within a country are not a good indicator for liability of exposure to competition acts and the threat of sanctions.
Dec 4, 2010 ... to HIV and AIDS, or not, is the industry/sector in which a company operates. This study ..... 1 - 4 is classified as micro, 5 - 20 is classified as small, 21 - 100 is ..... that sanction the adoption of a particular innovation render the.
understanding of inflationary cosmology in Einstein–Rosen space-time. Acknowledgements. The authors are thankful to UGC, New Delhi, for sanctioning project and financial support. Also the authors express their sincere gratitude to the anonymous referee for the constructive comments to improve this paper. References.
de Bordes, E.C.
In 1886 the Criminal Code first came into effect. It stipulated, in article 254, that maltreatment of an animal was a crime. Sanctions could be imprisonment for a period of up to three months, or a fine of 120 guilders at most. Maltreatment was not defined. The basic principle underlying the penal
... requirement. II. Discussion and Analysis This interim rule amends the FAR to address the new sanctions and... contracts in amounts not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold (SAT), contracts for the.... 1905 governs the applicability of laws to contracts or subcontracts in amounts not greater than the SAT...
Foulger, Teresa S.; Ewbank, Ann Dutton; Kay, Adam; Popp, Sharon Osborn; Carter, Heather Lynn
MySpace and Facebook are innovative digital communication tools that surpass traditional means of social interaction. However, in some instances in which educators have used these tools, public reactions to them have resulted in sanctions. With the notion that traditional ideas of privacy and teacher conduct are not yet defined in online worlds,…
Finances (for debt figures). a. Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos – Argentina’s official government statistical office, which has come...repayment. For the United States, neither sanctions nor legislative proposals have had any noticeable influence on Argentina, and actually may have
Tense contact between the police and migrants in Western societies remains to be an important topic in police scholarship. In sociological studies of the police, this matter is ascribed to the discretionary authority of individual officers that is sanctioned by their departments—not to official
Hazing, associated with initiation, aims at taking newcomers from novice status to a status of functional and acknowledged members of a new group. However, the process is often dangerous, injurious, and usually secretive. Hazing may occur as an unauthorised component of institutionally sanctioned orientation ...
multilateral sanctions, i.e. a two-step approach. These default security approaches are strategically weak and potentially dysfunctional for security policy purposes. The article’s core argument is that a successful resolution of Iran nuclearization requires effective balancing and a containment strategy...
Martínez-Bello, Vladimir E.; Martínez-Bello, Daniel A.
In many Ibero-American countries children in the early childhood education (ECE) system have the opportunity to interact with textbooks on a regular basis. The powerful social function of textbooks in socializing children in primary and secondary school, and in legitimizing what counts as cultural norms and officially sanctioned values and…
... certain market participants may be placing excessive burdens on the systems of BX and its members and may.... FINRA Sanctions Trillium Brokerage Services, LLC, Director of Trading, Chief Compliance Officer, and... improvements in the quality of displayed liquidity and market data that will benefit all market participants...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trade in United Nations Protected... HERZEGOVINA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 585.218 Trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia... importation from, exportation to, or transshipment of goods through the United Nations Protected Areas in the...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terrorism. 594.311 Section 594.311... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.311 Terrorism. The term terrorism means an activity that: (a) Involves a violent act or an act...
In spite of very enlightened constitutions, armed forces in all South Asian countries receive legislative sanction for their actions in the name of sovereignty, security, public order or counter-terrorism. Compensation to the victims of human rights abuses remains arbitrary. This project aims to understand both the effects of state ...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terrorism List Government. 596.310... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.310 Terrorism List Government. The term Terrorism List Government...
A LEGAL APPROACH TO COMBATING TERRORISM: MODERN DIMENSION*. Abstract. Terrorism is a behavioural flu plaguing the entire world at an alarming rate. Legal prescriptions based on legal prognosis have been in the form of application of sanctions directed against terrorists. Additionally, a hostile attitude to ...
... through a bank of a Terrorism List Government. 596.404 Section 596.404 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 596.404 Financial transactions transferred through a bank of a Terrorism List Government. For the purposes of this part only, a financial...
and Forces in the National Security Decision Making Department at the USNWC, who explains, Sanctions are often popular with policy makers who see...the Joint Multinational Readiness Center), where he served as an Observer/Controller on the Vampire Fire Support Team. Upon graduation from the Joint
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 544.308... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits, savings...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 593.308... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits, savings...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 586.314... & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.314 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 587.308... MONTENEGRO) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion...
Simon, Christopher A.; Carr, Jim R.; McCullough, Sesi M.; Morgan, Sally J.; Oleson, Ted; Ressel, Maggie
The academic dishonesty literature generally focuses on the causes of academic dishonesty, and outlines deterrence strategies, as well as the punishment methods used in formal sanction. Student self-monitoring techniques are becoming a more visible alternative that places greater emphasis on proactive prevention methods as opposed to reactive…
Continuing medical education (CME) has long been recognized as the key to updating and maintaining the knowledge and skill of health professionals.CME activities are well advocated, accepted and regulated in the developed world with sanctions for non-participation. In developing countries, including West Africa ...
Donato, Ruben; Hanson, Jarrod S.
The history of Mexican American school segregation is complex, often misunderstood, and currently unresolved. The literature suggests that Mexican Americans experienced de facto segregation because it was local custom and never sanctioned at the state level in the American Southwest. However, the same literature suggests that Mexican Americans…