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Sample records for san salvador volcanic

  1. Monitoring and behavior of unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, José Alexander; Landaverde, José; Landaverde, Reynaldo López; Tejnecký, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Field monitoring and laboratory results are presented for an unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic. The pyroclastic belongs to the latest plinian eruption of the Ilopango Caldera in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, and is constantly affected by intense erosion, collapse, slab failure, sand/silt/debris flowslide and debris avalanche during the rainy season or earthquakes. Being the flowslides more common but with smaller volume. During the research, preliminary results of rain threshold were obtained of flowslides, this was recorded with the TMS3 (a moisture sensor device using time domain transmission) installed in some slopes. TMS3 has been used before in biology, ecology and soil sciences, and for the first time was used for engineering geology in this research. This device uses electromagnetic waves to obtain moisture content of the soil and a calibration curve is necessary. With the behavior observed during this project is possible to conclude that not only climatic factors as rain quantity, temperature and evaporation are important into landslide susceptibility but also information of suction-moisture content, seepage, topography, weathering, ground deformation, vibrations, cracks, vegetation/roots and the presence of crust covering the surface are necessary to research in each site. Results of the field monitoring indicates that the presence of biological soil crusts a complex mosaic of soil, green algae, lichens, mosses, micro-fungi, cyanobacteria and other bacteria covering the slopes surface can protect somehow the steep slopes reducing the runoff process and mass wasting processes. The results obtained during the assessment will help explaining the mass wasting problems occurring in some pyroclastic soils and its possible use in mitigation works and early warning system.

  2. Explosive and Phreatomagmatic Activity from San Salvador Volcanic Complex (El Salvador) and Their Effects on El Cambio Archaeological Site: a Review of the Last 3000 yrs. Based on Volcanic Stratigraphy Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrés, D.; Delgado, H.; Pullinger, C.; Castillo, R.; Chávez, H. I.

    2007-05-01

    El Cambio archeological site (ECAS; Zapotitán Valley), 4 km NW from the San Salvador Volcanic Complex comprises 3000 yrs. of pyroclastic record. Sheets (1983) identified different levels rich in cultural remains intercalated within the volcanic deposits, indicating that different prehistoric settings were affected by San Salvador volcano eruptions, and giving information on the reoccupation frequency in the area. Accordingly, ECAS was occupied since the Late Pre-Classic period until before the last plinian eruption of Ilopango Caldera (425AD) reference, that originated the Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ), pyroclastic deposits generally used as key-layer in stratigraphic reconstructions. Within the next two centuries, there is no evidence of human occupation at ECAS until the end of Late Classic which was a period of maximum splendor in the valley. During this time the area was affected by at least 3 eruptions from the San Salvador volcanic complex that produced the: Laguna Caldera volcanic fall deposits (which affected Joya de Cerén archeological site in 625AD), "Talpetate" surge deposits or Toba de San Andrés (600-900AD), and fall deposits of El Playón volcano (1658). We report new data on volcanic stratigraphy and archeological history including the following: a) the phreatomagmatic nature of eruptions that affected the area, the new excavations allowed the detailed study of surge deposits indicating magma-water interaction at Laguna Caldera and El Playón, previously considered strombolian eruptions; b)document the occupation of ECAS during Middle Pre-Classic period, new surge deposits below TBJ have been identified (with Middle Pre-Classic artifacts and pottery), that had not been documented before, extending the historic record up to 3000 yrs. BP. and c) detailed study of the "Talpetate" deposits, this sequence consists of fall, pyroclastic flow and surge deposits, present in the rim and slopes of San Salvador Volcano, which can be correlated with surge deposits

  3. 1986 San Salvador, El Salvador Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — At least 1,000 people killed, 10,000 injured, 200,000 homeless and severe damage in the San Salvador area. About 50 fatalities were the result of landslides in the...

  4. Three thousand years of flank and central vent eruptions of the San Salvador volcanic complex (El Salvador) and their effects on El Cambio archeological site: a review based on tephrostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrés, D.; Delgado Granados, H.; Hernández, W.; Pullinger, C.; Chávez, H.; Castillo Taracena, C. R.; Cañas-Dinarte, C.

    2011-09-01

    The volcanic events of the last 3,000 years at San Salvador volcanic complex are reviewed using detailed stratigraphic records exposed in new excavations between 2005 and 2007, at El Cambio archeological site (Zapotitán Valley, El Salvador), and in other outcrops on the northern and northwestern sectors of the complex. The sequences that overlie Tierra Blanca Joven (cal. 429 ± 107 ad), from the Ilopango caldera, comprise the Loma Caldera (cal. 590 ± 90 ad) and El Playón (1658-1671) deposits and the San Andrés Tuff (cal. 1031 ± 29 ad), related to El Boquerón Volcano. The surge deposits within the El Playón, San Andrés Tuff and overlying Talpetate II sequences indicate the significance of phreatomagmatic phases in both central vent and flank eruptions during the last 1,600 years. Newly identified volcanic deposits underlying Tierra Blanca Joven at El Cambio extend the stratigraphic record of the area to 3,000 years bp. Paleosols interstratified with those deposits contain cultural artifacts which could be associated with the Middle Preclassic period (900-400 bc). If correct, human occupation of the site during the Preclassic period was more intense than previously known and volcanic eruptions must have affected prehistoric settlements. The archeological findings provide information on how prehistoric populations dealt with volcanic hazards, thousands of years ago in the eastern Zapotitán Valley, where several housing projects are currently being developed. The new stratigraphic and volcanological data can be used as a basis for local and regional hazard assessment related to future secondary vent activity in the San Salvador Volcanic Complex.

  5. Downtown revitalization in San Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Ejeborn, Elisabet; Nedersjö, Julia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this master’s thesis in spatial planning is to research the conditions in the historic city centre of San Salvador and make a strategy and urban design proposal for the area, but also to investigate the relationship between economic development, public institutions and the public space in this area. The research has been done through literature studies on El Salvador and formal/informal economy, onsite inventory, studies of good examples and interviews with people in the area. In t...

  6. Downtown revitalization in San Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Ejeborn, Elisabet; Nedersjö, Julia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this master’s thesis in spatial planning is to research the conditions in the historic city centre of San Salvador and make a strategy and urban design proposal for the area, but also to investigate the relationship between economic development, public institutions and the public space in this area. The research has been done through literature studies on El Salvador and formal/informal economy, onsite inventory, studies of good examples and interviews with people in the area. In t...

  7. Lahar-hazard zonation for San Miguel volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Pullinger, C.R.; Escobar, C.D.; Chesner, C.A.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    San Miguel volcano, also known as Chaparrastique, is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador. The volcano, located in the eastern part of the country, rises to an altitude of about 2130 meters and towers above the communities of San Miguel, El Transito, San Rafael Oriente, and San Jorge. In addition to the larger communities that surround the volcano, several smaller communities and coffee plantations are located on or around the flanks of the volcano, and the PanAmerican and coastal highways cross the lowermost northern and southern flanks of the volcano. The population density around San Miguel volcano coupled with the proximity of major transportation routes increases the risk that even small volcano-related events, like landslides or eruptions, may have significant impact on people and infrastructure. San Miguel volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in El Salvador; it has erupted at least 29 times since 1699. Historical eruptions of the volcano consisted mainly of relatively quiescent emplacement of lava flows or minor explosions that generated modest tephra falls (erupted fragments of microscopic ash to meter sized blocks that are dispersed into the atmosphere and fall to the ground). Little is known, however, about prehistoric eruptions of the volcano. Chemical analyses of prehistoric lava flows and thin tephra falls from San Miguel volcano indicate that the volcano is composed dominantly of basalt (rock having silica content

  8. Volcano-hazard zonation for San Vicente volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Pullinger, C.R.; Escobar, C.D.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    San Vicente volcano, also known as Chichontepec, is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador. This composite volcano, located about 50 kilometers east of the capital city San Salvador, has a volume of about 130 cubic kilometers, rises to an altitude of about 2180 meters, and towers above major communities such as San Vicente, Tepetitan, Guadalupe, Zacatecoluca, and Tecoluca. In addition to the larger communities that surround the volcano, several smaller communities and coffee plantations are located on or around the flanks of the volcano, and major transportation routes are located near the lowermost southern and eastern flanks of the volcano. The population density and proximity around San Vicente volcano, as well as the proximity of major transportation routes, increase the risk that even small landslides or eruptions, likely to occur again, can have serious societal consequences. The eruptive history of San Vicente volcano is not well known, and there is no definitive record of historical eruptive activity. The last significant eruption occurred more than 1700 years ago, and perhaps long before permanent human habitation of the area. Nevertheless, this volcano has a very long history of repeated, and sometimes violent, eruptions, and at least once a large section of the volcano collapsed in a massive landslide. The oldest rocks associated with a volcanic center at San Vicente are more than 2 million years old. The volcano is composed of remnants of multiple eruptive centers that have migrated roughly eastward with time. Future eruptions of this volcano will pose substantial risk to surrounding communities.

  9. Actitudes lingüísticas de los hablantes de San Salvador, El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Erick Rivera Orellana

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de hablantes nativos de español de la ciudad de San Salvador hacia al español de El Salvador y el de los otros países hispanohablantes. El artículo es parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America), financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigación (RCN). La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando a una muest...

  10. COMBINING NEURAL NETWORKS AND GEOSTATISTICS FOR LANDSLIDE HAZARD ASSESSMENT OF SAN SALVADOR METROPOLITAN AREA, EL SALVADOR

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    Ricardo Ríos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes the creation of a landslide hazard assessment model for San Salvador, a department in El Salvador. The analysis started with an aerial photointerpretation from Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of El Salvador (MARN Spanish acronym, where 4792 landslides were identified and georeferenced along with 7 conditioning factors including: geomorphology, geology, rainfall intensity, peak ground acceleration, slope angle, distance to road, and distance to geological fault. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN were utilized to assess the susceptibility to landslides, achieving results where more than 80% of landslide were properly classified using in-sample and out of sample criteria. Logistic regression was used as base of comparison. Logistic regression obtained a lower performance. To complete the analysis we have performed interpolation of the points using the kriging method from geostatistical approach. Finally, the results show that is possible to derive a landslide hazard map, making use of a combination of ANNs and geostatistical techniques, thus the present study can help landslide mitigation in El Salvador.

  11. Chaparrastique (San Mighel) Volcano Eruptions since Dec. 29th, 2013, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hackert, B.; Bajo, J. V.; Escobar, D.; Gutierrez, E.

    2015-12-01

    The December 29th, 2013 eruption of Chaparrastique (San Miguel) volcano in El Salvador came as a surprise and was the first of several small eruptions in the past two years. They came after many years of preceeding earthquake swarms and significant degassing. Being the second volcano to erupt in El Salvador in less than ten years, it caused grave concern for the population of the country. Although they were not large eruptions (VEI 2), the materials were widespread and caused deposits of volcanic tephra as far at the capital San Salvador and closed the airports in the vecinity for a couple of days. This is a summary of the research, mitigation and services that were done days after the first eruption on December 29, 2013 and the follwing months. In conjunction with the team of the Direccion General del Observatorio Ambiental from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales possible first response strategies were discussed and decided to obtain results that could be quickly put in place to mitigate and decide on actions such as evacuations or relocations of people living in volcano related high-risk hazard areas. Collection of samples, mapping and measurements of the volcanic tephra in the field together with Digital Globe and areal photography after the event, allowed identification of four different volcanic products that can be correlated to the opening of the vent and ending in the eruption of juvenile materials of basaltic to trachybasaltic composition, and the production of a lahar hazard map based on LaharZ.

  12. Actitudes lingüísticas de los hablantes de San Salvador, El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Rivera Orellana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de hablantes nativos de español de la ciudad de San Salvador hacia al español de El Salvador y el de los otros países hispanohablantes. El artículo es parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigación (RCN. La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando a una muestra de 400 personas estratificada con las variables de edad, sexo y nivel socioeconómico. Los estudios sobre actitudes lingüísticas en el país son escasos y este es el estudio que más dimensiones abarca respecto de cómo los salvadoreños que habitan en la capital se identifican con el idioma que hablan, cómo valoran o califican las formas de hablar de los habitantes de su entorno y cómo reaccionan ante formas de hablar el español en otros países, tanto de aquellos que conocen directamente como de otros con los cuales tienen una relación indirecta, principalmente a través de los medios de comunicación. Abstract This article analyzes the linguistic attitudes of native Spanish speakers from San Salvador towards Spanish spoken in El Salvador and in the other Spanish-speaking countries. It is a result of the LIAS-Project (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, funded by The Research Council of Norway (RCN. The data were gathered in the capital of the country, interviewing a stratified sample of 400 respondents, based on the variables of age, sex and socioeconomic status. Studies of linguistic attitudes are scarce in the country and this research study is the first one with a broad scope regarding how people living in the capital identify themselves with the way they speak; how they value or characterize the way people around them speak, and how they react to the way people speak Spanish in other countries that they know personally or through

  13. The relationship between community structural characteristics, the context of crack use, and HIV risk behaviors in San Salvador, El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; McAuliffe, Timothy; Rivas de Mendoza, Lorena; Glasman, Laura; Gaborit, Mauricio

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores community structural factors in different low-income communities in the San Salvador, El Salvador, that account for differences in the social context in which crack is used and HIV risk behaviors among crack users. Results suggest that both more distal (type of low-income community, level of violent crime, and poverty) and proximate structural factors (type of site where drugs are used, and whether drugs are used within or outside of community of residence) influence HIV risk behaviors among drug users. Additionally, our results suggest that community structural factors influence the historical and geographic variation in drug use sites.

  14. Comparisons of the 1995 and 1998 coral bleaching events on the patch reefs of San Salvador Island, Bahamas

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Thomas A.; Smith, Garriet W.

    2016-01-01

    Coral patch reefs around San Salvador Island, Bahamas have been monitored with the aid of Earthwatch volunteers three times a year since 1992. During that period two significant mass bleaching events occurred: autumn 1995, and late summer 1998. Elsewhere in 1995, bleaching was caused by higher-than-normal summer sea tempera-tures; in San Salvador, however, temperatures were normal. In 1998 a prolonged period of higher-than-normal sea temperatures preceded bleaching on San Salvador and worldwi...

  15. Religious coping, spirituality, and substance use and abuse among youth in high-risk communities in San Salvador, El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Olate, Rene; Vaughn, Michael G

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the relationship between religious coping, spirituality, and substance use in developing nations such as El Salvador. Collected in 2011, the sample consists of 290 high-risk and gang-involved adolescents (11-17 years) and young adults (18-25 years) in San Salvador, El Salvador. Structural equation modeling and logistic regression are employed to examine the associations between the Measure of Religious Coping (RCOPE), the Intrinsic Spirituality Scale, and substance use and abuse. Results suggest that spirituality and, to a far lesser degree, religious coping may serve to protect for substance use and abuse among this high-risk population of Salvadoran youth.

  16. San Salvador (1880-1930): La lenta Consolidación de la capital Salvadoreña

    OpenAIRE

    Baires, Sonia; Lungo, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo hace un análisis histórico del uso y la renta de la tierra urbana en el caso de San Salvador. Se plantea la necesidad de hacer una periodización de las diferentes fases del proceso a estudiar, pero sin establecer o utilizar una periodización que obedeciera a otros objetos de investigación o a otros criterios teorico-metodológicos. Así, aunque es claro que el desarrollo urbano en general (es decir, tanto el llamado proceso de urbanización como la estructuración interna de l...

  17. Emission of gas and atmospheric dispersion of SO2 during the December 2013 eruption at San Miguel volcano (El Salvador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Giuseppe G.; Granieri, Domenico; Liuzzo, Marco; La Spina, Alessandro; Giuffrida, Giovanni B.; Caltabiano, Tommaso; Giudice, Gaetano; Gutierrez, Eduardo; Montalvo, Francisco; Burton, Michael; Papale, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    San Miguel volcano, also known as Chaparrastique, is a basaltic volcano along the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). Volcanism is induced by the convergence of the Cocos Plate underneath the Caribbean Plate, along a 1200-km arc, extending from Guatemala to Costa Rica and parallel to the Central American Trench. The volcano is located in the eastern part of El Salvador, in proximity to the large communities of San Miguel, San Rafael Oriente, and San Jorge. Approximately 70,000 residents, mostly farmers, live around the crater and the city of San Miguel, the second largest city of El Salvador, ten km from the summit, has a population of ~180,000 inhabitants. The Pan-American and Coastal highways cross the north and south flanks of the volcano.San Miguel volcano has produced modest eruptions, with at least 28 VEI 1-2 events between 1699 and 1967 (datafrom Smithsonian Institution http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=343100). It is characterized by visible milddegassing from a summit vent and fumarole field, and by intermittent lava flows and Strombolian activity. Since the last vigorous fire fountaining of 1976, San Miguel has only experienced small steam explosions and gas emissions, minor ash fall and rock avalanches. On 29 December 2013 the volcano erupted producing an eruption that has been classified as VEI 2. While eruptions tend to be low-VEI, the presence of major routes and the dense population in the surrounding of the volcano increases the risk that weak explosions with gas and/or ash emission may pose. In this study, we present the first inventory of SO2, CO2, HCl, and HF emission rates on San Miguel volcano, and an analysis of the hazard from volcanogenic SO2 discharged before, during, and after the December 2013 eruption. SO2 was chosen as it is amongst the most critical volcanogenic pollutants, which may cause acute and chronicle disease to humans. Data were gathered by the geochemical monitoring network managed by the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente

  18. Problemática y conocimiento actual de Las tefras tierra blanca joven en el área Metropolitana de San Salvador, El Salvador Problematic and current knowledge of the tierra blanca joven tephras in the metropolitan area of San Salvador, El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Chávez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad el Área Metropolitana de San Salvador experimenta problemas graves de movimientos de ladera, erosión, colapso o asentamientos del terreno; fenómenos que son englobados popularmente en El Salvador por el término “cárcavas”. Esta problemática se presenta principalmente en las tefras volcánicas llamadas Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ producto de la última erupción pliniana de la Caldera de Ilopango, cuyos productos son una intercalación de estratos de piroclastos de caída, flujos y oleadas piroclásticos. Las tefras son parcialmente saturadas y la información geotécnica muestra la disminución de resistencia al corte y colapso al ser saturadas. Para caracterizar adecuadamente este material es necesario conocer la relación del contenido de humedad con los cambios de volumen y la cohesión aparente, que puede estar relacionada a la succión y a cementación. El entendimiento del comportamiento de los materiales geológicos puede ayudar en la simulación de estabilidad de taludes y diseño geotécnico en general.Currently the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador (AMSS is experimenting serious problems of mass movements, erosion, collapse or settlements, phenomena that in El Salvador are popularly encompassed by the term “carcavas”. This problematic is presented mainly in the volcanic tephras Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ, product of the last plinian eruption of Ilopango Caldera, whose products are an intercalation of pyroclastic fall, flows and surge. The tephras are unsaturated and the geotechnical information shows a decrease of shear strength and collapse when saturated. To characterize properly this material is important to know the relationship of moisture content with the volume changes and apparent cohesion, which are related to suction and cementation. The understanding of the behavior of the geological materials can help in running slope stability simulations and geotechnical design in general.

  19. Resources and obstacles to developing and implementing a structural intervention to prevent HIV in San Salvador, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, A. Michelle; Bodnar, Gloria; Rodriguez, Karla; Guevara, Carmen E

    2009-01-01

    HIV prevention researchers have increasingly advocated structural interventions that address factors in the social, political and economic context to reduce disparities of HIV/AIDS among disadvantaged populations. This paper draws on data collected in three different types of low-income communities (n=6) in the San Salvador metropolitan area in El Salvador. Nine focus group discussions were conducted between January 2006 - July 2007, six with community leaders, and three with crack cocaine users, as well as in-depth interviews with 20 crack users and crack dealers. We explore opportunities and barriers to the implementation of a community-level, structural intervention. We first analyze the different forms of leadership, and other community resources including existing HIV prevention activities that could potentially be used to address the related problems of crack use and HIV in the communities, and the structural factors that may act as barriers to capitalizing on communities’ strengths in interventions. Each of the communities studied demonstrated different resources that stem from each community's unique history and geographic location. HIV testing and prevention resources varied widely among the communities, with resources concentrated in one Older Central community despite a strong need in all communities. In many communities, fear of gang violence and non-responsiveness by government agencies to communities’ needs have discouraged community organizing. In the discussion, we offer concrete suggestions for developing and implementing structural interventions to reduce HIV risks that use communities’ different but complementary resources. PMID:19910099

  20. Resources and obstacles to developing and implementing a structural intervention to prevent HIV in San Salvador, El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Corbett, A Michelle; Bodnar, Gloria; Rodriguez, Karla; Guevara, Carmen E

    2010-02-01

    HIV prevention researchers have increasingly advocated structural interventions that address factors in the social, political and economic context to reduce disparities of HIV/AIDS among disadvantaged populations. This paper draws on data collected in three different types of low-income communities (n=6) in the San Salvador metropolitan area in El Salvador. Nine focus group discussions were conducted between January 2006 and July 2007, 6 with community leaders, and 3 with crack cocaine users, as well as in-depth interviews with 20 crack users and crack dealers. We explore opportunities and barriers to the implementation of a community-level, structural intervention. We first analyze the different forms of leadership, and other community resources including existing HIV prevention activities that could potentially be used to address the related problems of crack use and HIV in the communities, and the structural factors that may act as barriers to capitalizing on communities' strengths in interventions. Each of the communities studied demonstrated different resources that stem from each community's unique history and geographic location. HIV testing and prevention resources varied widely among the communities, with resources concentrated in one Older Central community despite a strong need in all communities. In many communities, fear of gang violence and non-responsiveness by government agencies to communities' needs have discouraged community organizing. In the discussion, we offer concrete suggestions for developing and implementing structural interventions to reduce HIV risks that use communities' different but complementary resources.

  1. Testing cosmic dose rate models for ESR: Dating corals and molluscs on San Salvador, Bahamas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deely, A.E. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Blackwell, B.A.B., E-mail: bonnie.a.b.blackwell@williams.edu [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Dept. of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown MA, 01267-2692 (United States); Mylroie, J.E. [Dept. of Geosciences, Mississippi State University, MS, 39762-5448 (United States); Carew, J.L. [Dept. of Geology and Environmental Geosciences, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Blickstein, J.I.B. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Skinner, A.R. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Dept. of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown MA, 01267-2692 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Sealevel curves are best developed on tectonically stable coastlines, like San Salvador, where eolianites preserve transgressive and regressive phases associated with Quaternary high seastands, while reef facies mark the highstands. At 11 locations around San Salvador, terrestrial molluscs (Cerion) from the eolianites, lagoonal bivalves (Codakia), and corals from the highstand deposits were dated by ESR. Volumetrically averaged sedimentary dose rates were calculated from sedimentary geochemistry and time-averaged cosmic dose rates from each sample's current and past geologic contexts. Rice Bay Formation corals dated at 3.9 {+-} 0.3 to 7.1 {+-} 0.4 ka (OIS 1). Minimum ages for the Cockburn Town Member's regressive phase ranged from 49 {+-} 6 to 75 {+-} 8 ka, correlating with OIS 3-4. Codakia dates showed that an OIS 5a sealevel approached modern levels at 91-78 ka. In situ corals from the Cockburn Town Reef averaged from 127 {+-} 6 to 138 {+-} 10 ka, correlating well with OIS 5e. Ages from the Reef's rubble zones hint that some coral reefs grew as early as OIS 7, but were likely reworked during OIS 5. San Salvador preserves deposits from three mid to late Quaternary highstands above, and as many as three that closely approach, modern sealevel.

  2. Red Lionfish (Pterois volitans Invade San Salvador, Bahamas: No Early Effects on Coral and Fish Communities

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    Alexander, Amanda K.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological invaders are a leading contributor to global losses of biodiversity. A recent invader to the waters surrounding San Salvador, Bahamas, the red lionfish, Pterois volitans, was first reported in 2006; by 2009 they were common in waters 2-40 m deep around the island. Our study collected data on coral communities and fish assemblages at three patch reef complexes (Rice Bay, Rocky Point, Lindsay Reef in 2007, during the initial phase of the invasion, and compared the results to a nearly identical study done in 2001 before P. volitans colonized San Salvador. Prey selection and quantity of consumption by P. volitans were also examined. Coral and fish species richness, diversity, percent cover (corals and abundance (fish were similar in 2001 and 2007. Of the 5,078 fish recorded during our study on shallow patch reefs, only two were P. volitans, but they were more prevalent in deeper water along San Salvador’s “wall.” Captured P. volitans ranged in size from 19-32 cm, all longer than maturity length. Pallid goby (Coryphopterus eidolon, black cap basslet (Gramma melacara and red night shrimp (Rynchocienetes rigens were the most commonly identified stomach contents. The effects of the successful invasion and increasing population of P. volitans on San Salvador’s reef ecosystem are uncertain at this time; future monitoring of potential changes in coral and fish communities on the patch reefs of San Salvador is recommended to determine if population control measures need to be considered. Initial post-invasion data (2007, along with pre-invasion data (2001, are valuable benchmarks for future studies.

  3. Evolving Hazard Monitoring and Communication at San Vicente Volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, L. J.; Gierke, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    El Salvador has 20 potentially active volcanoes, four of which have erupted in the last 100 years. Since San Vicente Volcano has had no historic eruptions, monitoring is not a high priority; especially given the current eruptive crisis at San Miguel Volcano. Though probability of eruptive hazards remains low at San Vicente, it is arguably one of the most hazardous volcanoes in the country due to rainfall-induced landslides and debris-flow risk. At least 250 deaths occurred in November 2009 from landslides and debris flows triggered by Hurricane Ida. This disaster caused the Universidad de El Salvador - Facultad Multidisciplinaria Paracentral (UES-FMP, San Vicente, El Salvador) to partner with governmental and nongovernmental organizations (including the U.S. Peace Corps, U.S. Fulbright Program, Korean International Cooperation Agency, Protección Civil and the Centro de Protección para Desastres (CEPRODE)) to focus its faculty and student research toward hazard monitoring and risk studies. Newly established monitoring efforts include: measurement of surface cracks and localized rainfall by Protección Civil and local residents using crude extensometers and rain gauges; installation of six weather stations that operate within the most at-risk municipalities; seismic refraction surveys to better characterize stratigraphy and seasonal water table changes; and most recently, a USAID/NSF-funded initiative partnered with the UES-FMP to monitor seasonal hydrologic conditions related to flooding and groundwater recharge. The information from these initiatives is now used to communicate current conditions and warnings through a network of two-way radios established by CEPRODE and Protección Civil. Representatives from the multi-institutional team also communicate the data to authorities who make better-informed decisions regarding warnings and evacuations, as well as determine suitable areas for population relocation in the event of a crisis. Data will eventually be used

  4. Potential of Pigeon Creek, San Salvador, Bahamas, as Nursery Habitat for Juvenile Reef Fish

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    Conboy, Ian Christopher

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This project assessed the significance of Pigeon Creek, San Salvador, Bahamas as a nursery habitat for coral reef fishes. Pigeon Creek’s perimeter is lined with mangrove and limestone bedrock. The bottom is sand or seagrass and ranges in depth from exposed at low tide to a 3-m deep, tide-scoured channel. In June 2006 and January 2007, fish were counted and their maturity was recorded while sampling 112 of 309 possible 50-m transects along the perimeter of the Pigeon Creek. Excluding silversides (Atherinidae, 52% of fish counted, six families each comprised >1% of the total abundance (Scaridae/parrotfishes, 35.3%; Lutjanidae/snappers, 23.9%; Haemulidae/grunts, 21.0%; Gerreidae/mojarras, 8.5%; Pomacentridae/damselfishes, 6.1%; Labridae/wrasses, 2.4%. There were few differences in effort-adjusted counts among habitats (mangrove, bedrock, mixed, sections (north, middle, southwest and seasons (summer 2006 and winter 2007. Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle, covering 68% of the perimeter was where 62% of the fish were counted. Snappers, grunts and parrotfishes are important food fishes and significant families in terms of reef ecology around San Salvador. Mangrove was the most important habitat for snappers and grunts; bedrock was most important for parrotfishes. The southwest section was important for snappers, grunts and parrotfishes, the north section for grunts and parrotfishes, and the middle section for snappers. Among the non-silverside fish counted, 91.2% were juveniles. These results suggest that Pigeon Creek is an important nursery for the coral reefs surrounding San Salvador and should be protected from potential disturbances.

  5. El obispado de San Salvador: foco de desavenencia político-religiosa

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez T., Muricio

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo realiza un análisis histórico del problema del Obispado de San Salvador en los primeros años de la vida independiente de Centroamérica. Se toman en cuenta diferentes factores que pudieron influir en este hecho tales como la turbulencia económica, política y social que vivió esta república durante sus primeros años de independencia, la intervención del imperio mexicano, entre otros.

  6. Late Pennsylvanian and early permian chondrichthyan microremains from San Salvador Patlanoaya (Puebla, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derycke-Khatir, C.; Vachard, D.; Degardin, J.-M.; Flores de Dios, A.; Buitron, B.; Hansen, M.

    2005-01-01

    The San Salvador Patlanoaya section (Puebla State, Mexico) is known for its richness of many fossil groups. Among them, the calcareous shells have been principally investigated. This paper deals with Missourian-Virgilian (Late Pennsylvanian) and Leonardian (late Early Permian) Mexican fish remains. A discussion about Helicoprion and related genera, is followed by the systematic description of the revised or discovered taxa: Cooperella typicalis, Moreyella cf. M. typicalis, M. (?) sp., "Sturgeonella" quinqueloba, Hybodontidae gen. sp. 1 and 2, scale indet. Palaeobiogeographic implications are suggested. ?? 2005 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of the microbial population found in water sources in and around San Salvador Island, Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelletier, Michel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available San Salvador Island in The Bahamas is home to approximately 1,200 people, and a popular vacation destination. In order to expand our knowledge of the bacterial population found on and around the island, and to assess possible health risks, we analyzed and identified the cultivable bacterial population found in several lakes and ponds throughout the island. The sites tested were located on the northern, north-eastern, eastern, and western districts, as well as one lake located inland. Ten sites with varying salinity, levels of oxygen, visibility, and distance from the ocean were analyzed. The nature of the bacteria present in these sites was identified by microscopy, as well as a series of biochemical tests based on bacterial metabolism. Seven bacterial species, predominantly from the genera Staphylococcus and Klebsiella were identified. Most bacteria identified are part of the normal microbiota of the skin and the gastro-intestinal tract of human and mammals, and should not be considered a danger for the health of the majority of the population and tourists of the island. We also isolated bacteria capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, a hallmark of marine bacterial populations. Overall, this study enabled us to add to the repertoire of bacterial species isolated and identified in the diverse marine environments found on San Salvador Island.

  8. LA LOCALIDAD HISTÓRICO ARQUEOLÓGICA DEL RÍO SAN SALVADOR (SORIANO, URUGUAY The historical archaeological town of Rio San Salvador (Soriano, Uruguay

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    José López Mazz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los primeros cronistas de la conquista del Río de la Plata expusieron la diversidad cultural reinante en el área en el siglo XVI. Las investigaciones arqueológicas de los años 60 y 70 confirman, a nivel arqueológico, la intensa ocupación de la que fue objeto esta zona próxima a la confluencia del río Paraná con el río Uruguay. Este trabajo presenta información producida durante un trabajo de diagnóstico realizado en el marco de la llamada Arqueología Pública, en un sitio de ocupación española del siglo XVI ubicado al oriente de dicha confluencia. Los resultados muestran que la ocupación del sitio desde el año 1000 AP está caracterizada por una amplia diversidad de estilos cerámicos. El área constituyó un lugar estratégico para los asentamientos europeos en función de la presencia de redes de intercambio pre existente. La información producida permite afinar la secuencia cronológica prehistórica para el bajo río Uruguay, al tiempo que abre el debate  respecto de la dinámica etnohistórica regional y del rol jugado por este particular asentamiento humano.   Palabras claves: asentamientos europeos, Uruguay, río San Salvador, siglo XVI.    Abstract Early chroniclers of the conquest of the Río de la Plata exposed the cultural diversity prevailing in the area in the sixteenth century. Archaeological research during the 60’s and 70’s confirm an intense occupation of the confluence of the Paraná river and the Uruguay river area. This paper presents information recovered during a diagnostic fieldwork developed on a Spanish settlement from the sixteenth century. The results show an intense occupation of the site since 1000 AP, characterized by a wide variety of ceramic styles. The area was a strategic location for European occupation due to the presence of preexisting exchange networks. Information produced refines prehistoric chronological sequence for lower Uruguay river while opening the discussion about regional

  9. Amsterdam Expeditions to the West Indian Islands, Report 13. Marine sponges from an island cave on San Salvador Island, Bahamas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.; Sass, B. Daniel

    1981-01-01

    Dixon Hill Lighthouse Cave, about 800 m (0.5 miles) inshore on San Salvador Island, Bahamas, was found to hold populations of three sponge species new to science, viz. Pellina penicilliformis n. sp., Prosuberites geracei n. sp., and Cinachyra subterranea n. sp. The new species are described and figu

  10. Bahalana geracei n. gen., n. sp., a troglobitic marine cirolanid isopod from Lighthouse Cave, San Salvador Island, Bahamas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpenter, Jerry H.

    1981-01-01

    Bahalana geracei is described from Lighthouse Cave on San Salvador Island, Bahamas. It is the first subterranean cirolanid from the Bahamas, and the first to be found in waters of full marine salinity. Its most distinguishing characteristic is that its first three pairs of pereiopods are prehensile

  11. La “Doctrina Iturbide” y la resistencia al imperio mexicano en la Provincia de San Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Fernando López de la Torre

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses San Salvador’s history of resistance to Mexico’s efforts, as headed by Agustin de Iturbide, to annex the province it to its Central American territory as part of the First Mexican Empire (1822-1823). The following is presented: the context that framed Mexico’s expansionist project, the so-called “Iturbide Doctrine”, the various positions Central American provinces took regarding annexation and the motives that led San Salvador to oppose said...

  12. MAX-DOAS measurements of tropospheric NO2 over San Salvador: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Carlos; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    We present the first Multi-AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements at San Salvador. MAX-DOAS observes spectra of scattered sun light taken at different elevation angles. From the spectra the so called slant column density (SCD, the integrated trace gas concentration along the atmospheric light path) is derived. We quantify the dSCD of NO2 at different measurement conditions. From the measured NO2 SCDs we calculate the tropospheric vertical column density using the so called geometric approximation. The preliminary results of this MAX DOAS observations and the diurnal variation of the retrieved trace gas dSCDs will be presented. We also use the MAX-DOAS results for the validation of satellite observations.

  13. Isotopic Analysis of Source Waters Contributing to a Submarine Spring in San Salvador, Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVivero, A. E.; Stalker, J. C.; Swart, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge supplies coastlines with a source of fresh, nutrient-rich water. The connection between inland fresh/brackish waters and submarine springs is unknown on San Salvador, Bahamas. A submarine spring within the Cockburntown formation outcrop at Grotto Beach has been identified. In May 2014, a Hobo sonde was placed within the vent for 24 hours collecting conductivity and temperature data. Analysis concluded the springs salinity was at its lowest of 23.9 psu (practical salinity units) at low tide and highest of 29.4 psu at high tide. During May 2015, multiple water samples were collected from the spring vent and 9 surrounding inland water sources. These water sources include fresh and brackish blue holes, and preexisting man-made wells. Analysis of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes gives insight to the conduit connections and source waters of the submarine spring.

  14. Sociocultural construction of San Salvador de Jujuy, the symbolic border between Argentina and Bolivia

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    Melina Gaona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The city of San Salvador de Jujuy is analyzed both as a border space and as a city space. Through the systematization of local studies, the aim is to consider the historical, political, socioeconomic, migratory and symbolic elements that create the urban border experience. This contribution focuses on reconstructing the city as a network of senses. It deepens our understanding of migratory flows, the recent political situation, the impact of economic inequality on urbanisms, and the relevance of media and ritual acts in the configuration of dominant senses in cities. In addition, the factors that demarcate the difference and local inequality and the process of peripheralization and impoverishment of the soil are examined. Both the recent political conflicts that affect regional disarticulation and the symbolic disputes that cause tension in national belonging against a strong Andean influence are outlined.

  15. Comparison of flank margin cave development on San Salvador island, Bahamas, and Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylroie, J.; Carew, J.L.; Frank, E.F.; Larsen, Matthew C.; Boardman, M.

    1995-01-01

    San Salvador Island, Bahamas is a 161 Km2 tectonically stable late Quaternary carbonate island located 600 km east-southeast of Miami FL. San Salvador contains numerous flank margin caves (phreatic karst features) that developed primarily in late Pleistocene eolianites. These caves developed during a short time in versy small fresh-water lenses. Cave elevations and Uranium-series ages from stalagmites indicate that all currently subaerial flank margin caves developed during the last interglacial seal-level highstand that was 6 m above current mean seal level 125,000 years ago (oxygen isotope substage 5e), which lasted no more than 14,000 years. The caves were formed by dissolution in the mixing zone at the margin of a freshwater lens that was elevated by the substage 5e highstand, and which resided within the small emergent portions of eolianite ridges. The flank margin caves have chambers with volumes greater than 1000 m3 on San Salvador; on other Bahamian islands, chambers as large as 14,000 m3 are known.

  16. Policonsumo simultáneo de drogas en estudiantes de pregrado del área de la salud de una universidad, San Salvador - El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bautista Pérez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue describir los patrones de policonsumo simultáneo de drogas en estudiantes de pregrado de una universidad de la ciudad de San Salvador, El Salvador. Estudio de diseño transversal y análisis descriptivo, con un tamaño de la muestra de 309 estudiantes. Un 5.18% de los estudiantes reporto policonsumo simultaneo en los últimos 12 meses, cifra que se reduce a 4.21% para los últimos 30 días. La edad promedio de inicio del policonsumo fue 16.9 años. En los últimos 12 meses y 30 días, la combinación más usada entre los estudiantes fue alcohol + tabaco con 2.3%. Las características de consumo más referidas fueron: el aprendizaje individual/por sí mismo, el consumo en grupos mixtos, fuera de la universidad/en clubes nocturnos y el hacerlo para la relajación.

  17. GPS-derived coupling estimates for the Central America subduction zone and volcanic arc faults: El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Mora, F.; DeMets, C.; Alvarado, D.; Turner, H. L.; Mattioli, G.; Hernandez, D.; Pullinger, C.; Rodriguez, M.; Tenorio, C.

    2009-12-01

    We invert GPS velocities from 32 sites in El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua to estimate the rate of long-term forearc motion and distributions of interseismic coupling across the Middle America subduction zone offshore from these countries and faults in the Salvadoran and Nicaraguan volcanic arcs. A 3-D finite element model is used to approximate the geometries of the subduction interface and strike-slip faults in the volcanic arc and determine the elastic response to coupling across these faults. The GPS velocities are best fit by a model in which the forearc moves 14-16 mmyr-1 and has coupling of 85-100 per cent across faults in the volcanic arc, in agreement with the high level of historic and recent earthquake activity in the volcanic arc. Our velocity inversion indicates that coupling across the potentially seismogenic areas of the subduction interface is remarkably weak, averaging no more than 3 per cent of the plate convergence rate and with only two poorly resolved patches where coupling might be higher along the 550-km-long segment we modelled. Our geodetic evidence for weak subduction coupling disagrees with a seismically derived coupling estimate of 60 +/- 10 per cent from a published analysis of earthquake damage back to 1690, but agrees with three other seismologic studies that infer weak subduction coupling from 20th century earthquakes. Most large historical earthquakes offshore from El Salvador and western Nicaragua may therefore have been intraslab normal faulting events similar to the Mw 7.3 1982 and Mw 7.7 2001 earthquakes offshore from El Salvador. Alternatively, the degree of coupling might vary with time. The evidence for weak coupling indirectly supports a recently published hypothesis that much of the Middle American forearc is escaping to the west or northwest away from the Cocos Ridge collision zone in Costa Rica. Such a hypothesis is particularly attractive for El Salvador, where there is little or no convergence obliquity to drive the

  18. Social network characteristics and HIV vulnerability among transgender persons in San Salvador: identifying opportunities for HIV prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Clare; Wejnert, Cyprian; Guardado, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Bailey, Gabriela Paz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve understanding of HIV vulnerability and opportunities for HIV prevention within the social networks of male-to-female transgender persons in San Salvador, El Salvador. We compare HIV prevalence and behavioral data from a sample of gay-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) (n = 279), heterosexual or bisexual identified MSM (n = 229) and transgender persons (n = 67) recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling. Transgender persons consistently reported higher rates of HIV risk behavior than the rest of the study population and were significantly more likely to be involved in sex work. While transgender persons reported the highest rates of exposure to HIV educational activities they had the lowest levels of HIV-related knowledge. Transgender respondents' social networks were homophilous and efficient at recruiting other transgender persons. Findings suggest that transgender social networks could provide an effective and culturally relevant opportunity for HIV prevention efforts in this vulnerable population.

  19. Diffusive Soil Degassing of Radon and Carbon Dioxide at San Miguel Volcano, El Salvador, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, D. L.; Olmos, R.; Cartagena, R.; Soriano, T.; Barahona, F.

    2001-12-01

    San Miguel volcano is located 15 km to the Southwest of San Miguel City (population ~300,000) and lies on the southern fault of the Central American graben at an intersection with NW-SE faults. The composition of San Miguel lavas varies from olivine-pyroxene basalts for the older lava flows to more andesitic compositions for the more recent products. This volcano have been degassing and having small ash emission since the late nineteen eighties. During December 1999 and January 2000, radon gas concentrations (pCi/l) in soils were measured using a Pylon AB5 radon monitor, and flux of CO2 (g/m2/day) was determined using the accumulation chamber method at 205 sampling stations. High gas emission inside the crater did not allow measurements to be taken in that region. CO2 fluxes throughout the soils of the volcanic edifice show low values compared to other active volcanoes of the world, suggesting that San Miguel is degassing preferentially throughout the summit region. CO2 fluxes range from less than 1 to 14 g/m2/day, with an average value of 5.6 g/m2/day. Radon concentrations range from 2 to 833 pCi/l with an average value of 110 pCi/l. Thoron concentrations range from 20 to 2178 pCi/l with an average value of 362 pCi/l. These values are comparable to radon concentrations found in other active volcanoes (e.g. Cerro Negro, Connor et al., 1996). CO2 flux, radon and thoron concentrations show higher values to the northwest and northeast faulted regions. Some anomalies seem to be related to the contact region between the older and more recent lava flows. Thoron/radon ratios show high anomalies aligning in the NW-SE direction where faulting also occurs. These results suggests that low permeability rocks forming the volcanic edifice of San Miguel volcano do not allow large fluxes of magmatic CO2 to be discharged throughout the soils. Higher permeability at faults and contacts allow slightly larger fluxes of CO2 and radon and thoron concentrations.

  20. Social vulnerability as a contributing factor to disasters in Central America: A case study at San Vicente volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, L. J.; Henquinet, K. B.; Gierke, J. S.; Rose, W. I.

    2012-12-01

    El Salvador's geographic location on the Pacific Ring of Fire at the juncture of the Caribbean and Cocos plates exposes its population to various natural hazards, including volcanic eruptions (e.g., Santa Ana in 2005), earthquakes (e.g., January 13 and February 13, 2001), and landslides and flooding due to tropical rainfall events (e.g., Hurricane Mitch in 1998, Hurricane Stan in 2005). Such hazards can be devastating anywhere, but the condition of social vulnerability in which many Salvadorans currently live exacerbates the impacts of these hazards. Aspects contributing to most rural Salvadorans being marginalized include a colonial history marked by ethnic discrimination and laws prohibiting land ownership, lack of access to desirable land in an agrarian society, a poor education system, global economic policies that foster inequality, political marginalization, a bloody civil conflict, and rampant criminality and violence. In November 2009, an extreme rainfall event triggered landslides and lahars killing over 200 people at San Vicente volcano. This disaster brought to light weaknesses in disaster preparedness and response plans. Despite the existence of recent hazard maps and lahar inundation models (2001), and the occurrence of a similar, deadly event in 1934, the population appeared to be unaware of the risk, and lacked the organization and decision-making protocols to adequately deal with the emergency. Therefore, in the aftermath of the 2009 lahars, much of the focus on disaster risk reduction (DRR) initiatives has been aimed at the communities affected by this most recent event. Our study examines root causes of social vulnerability and assesses the apparent impacts of these interventions on the population, including individual's perceptions regarding these risk-reducing interventions. Two years after the event, though aid abounds, many people remain vulnerable to hazards in this area. Semi-structured interviews were completed with survivors of the 2009

  1. Comparisons of the 1995 and 1998 coral bleaching events on the patch reefs of San Salvador Island, Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Thomas A; Smith, Garriet W

    2003-06-01

    Coral patch reefs around San Salvador Island, Bahamas have been monitored with the aid of Earthwatch volunteers three times a year since 1992. During that period two significant mass bleaching events occurred: autumn 1995, and late summer 1998. Elsewhere in 1995, bleaching was caused by higher-than-normal summer sea temperatures; in San Salvador, however, temperatures were normal. In 1998 a prolonged period of higher-than-normal sea temperatures preceded bleaching on San Salvador and worldwide. During the 1995 event, one of the monitored reefs had twice the percentage of coral colonies bleached as the other two. Bleaching was more evenly distributed among the reefs during the 1998 event. In 1995 Agaricia agaricites was significantly more affected than other coral species, with almost 50% of all its colonies showing bleaching. Bleaching was more evenly spread among coral species in 1998, with five species showing bleaching on more than 40% of their colonies. Bleaching began on Millepora as early as August during the 1998 event and progressed to other species through the remainder of the autumn. In 1995 bleaching was not seen until late autumn and appeared to impact all affected species at about the same time. Recovery from the 1995 event was complete: no coral death or damage above normal background levels were seen. In the 1998 event, all Acropora cervicornis on the monitored reefs died and A. palmata was severely damaged. Millepora sp. lost almost half of their live tissue, and Montastraea sp. showed significant tissue damage following this event. Phototransect analysis suggests that more than 20% of total live tissue on affected species died during the 1998 event. A. cervicornis has demonstrated no re-growth from 1998 to 2000 on monitored reefs. Monitoring has suggested significant differences in causes and courses in these two events.

  2. La “Doctrina Iturbide” y la resistencia al imperio mexicano en la Provincia de San Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando López de la Torre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses San Salvador’s history of resistance to Mexico’s efforts, as headed by Agustin de Iturbide, to annex the province it to its Central American territory as part of the First Mexican Empire (1822-1823. The following is presented: the context that framed Mexico’s expansionist project, the so-called “Iturbide Doctrine”, the various positions Central American provinces took regarding annexation and the motives that led San Salvador to oppose said annexation, a decision that led to an armed struggle against, first, Guatemala and finally, against Mexican troops, in what constituted the first war in the region’s history since its independence.

  3. Central San Juan caldera cluster: regional volcanic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Peter W.

    2000-01-01

    Eruption of at least 8800 km3 of dacitic-rhyolitic magma as 9 major ash-slow sheets (individually 150-5000 km3) was accompanied by recurrent caldera subsidence between 28.3 and about 26.5 Ma in the central San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Voluminous andesitic-decitic lavas and breccias were erupted from central volcanoes prior to the ash-flow eruptions, and similar lava eruptions continued within and adjacent to the calderas during the period of explosive volcanism, making the central San Juan caldera cluster an exceptional site for study of caldera-related volcanic processes. Exposed calderas vary in size from 10 to 75 km in maximum diameter, the largest calderas being associated with the most voluminous eruptions. After collapse of the giant La Garita caldera during eruption if the Fish Canyon Tuff at 17.6 Ma, seven additional explosive eruptions and calderas formed inside the La Garita depression within about 1 m.y. Because of the nested geometry, maximum loci of recurrently overlapping collapse events are inferred to have subsided as much as 10-17 km, far deeper than the roof of the composite subvolcanic batholith defined by gravity data, which represents solidified caldera-related magma bodies. Erosional dissection to depths of as much as 1.5 km, although insufficient to reach the subvolcanic batholith, has exposed diverse features of intracaldera ash-flow tuff and interleaved caldera-collapse landslide deposits that accumulated to multikilometer thickness within concurrently subsiding caldera structures. The calderas display a variety of postcollapse resurgent uplift structures, and caldera-forming events produced complex fault geometries that localized late mineralization, including the epithermal base- and precious-metal veins of the well-known Creede mining district. Most of the central San Juan calderas have been deeply eroded, and their identification is dependent on detailed geologic mapping. In contrast, the primary volcanic morphology of the

  4. Mapeo de ingeniería geológica en parte sur del área metropolitana de San Salvador Engineering geology mapping in the southern part of the metropolitan area of San Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Chávez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El uso de mapas geológicos clásicos que agrupan los estratos por edad u origen, dificulta la interpretación y uso para diseños de ingeniería civil o planificación urbana, para las personas sin conocimientos profundos en geología. Debido a esto se ha llevado a cabo mapeo de ingeniería geológica en sector sur del Área Metropolitana de San Salvador, haciendo uso de la metodología de bandas. El objetivo de la metodología es que la información geológica, peligrosidad geológica y recomendaciones geotécnicas puedan representarse y agruparse dependiendo de las características intrínsecas de cada zona. Esta información puede ser fácilmente interpretada por los planificadores urbanos, constructores privados y agencias gubernamentales. La debilidad en la recopilación e investigación de información geológica y geotécnica en El Salvador, son unas de las razones de la problemática que experimenta la región, indicando la importancia de mejorar el manejo del riesgo, así como la mecánica de suelos y de rocasThe use of classic geologic maps, where geological layers are grouped according to their age or origin, makes difficult the interpretation and use for civil engineer design or urban planning to people without deep knowledge in geology. Due to this reason engineering geological mapping has been carried out in the southern part of the Metro- politan Area of San Salvador using the stripe method. The objective of the methodology is that geological information, geological hazards and geotechnical recommendations as well, can be represented and grouped depending on the intrinsic characteristics of each zone. This information can be easily interpreted for urban planners, private builders and government agencies. The weakness in the compilation and research of geological and geotechnical information in El Salvador, are some of the reasons for the current problems that experiment the region, indicating the importance of improving risk

  5. Emission of gas and atmospheric dispersion of SO2 during the December 2013 eruption at San Miguel volcano (El Salvador, Central America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granieri, Domenico; Salerno, Giuseppe; Liuzzo, Marco; La Spina, Alessandro; Giuffrida, Giovanni; Caltabiano, Tommaso; Giudice, Gaetano; Gutierrez, Eduardo; Montalvo, Francisco; Burton, Michael R.; Papale, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    San Miguel volcano, El Salvador, erupted on 29 December 2013, after a 46 year period characterized by weak activity. Prior to the eruption a trend of increasing SO2 emission rate was observed, with all values measured after mid-November greater than the average value of the previous year (~310 t d-1). During the eruption, SO2 emissions increased from the level of ~330 t d-1 to 2200 t d-1, dropping after the eruption to an average level of 680 t d-1. Wind measurements and SO2 emission rates during the preeruptive, syneruptive, and posteruptive stages were used to model SO2 dispersion around the volcano. Atmospheric SO2 concentration exceeded the dangerous threshold of 5 ppm in the crater region and in some sectors with medium elevation of the highly visited volcanic cone. Combining the SO2 emission rate with measured CO2/SO2, HCl/SO2, and HF/SO2 plume gas ratios, we estimate the CO2, HCl, and HF outputs for the first time on this volcano.

  6. Evidence of the negative effect of sexual minority stigma on HIV testing among MSM and transgender women in San Salvador, El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Hembling, John; Guardado, Maria Elena; de Maria Hernández, Flor; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Melendez, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    A cross sectional survey was administered to 670 men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in San Salvador through respondent driven sampling to identify determinants of ever testing for HIV using a minority stress framework. A positive association was found between ever testing and older age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.10], past experience of sexual assault (aOR 2.92), perceiving that most social acquaintances had tested (aOR 1.81), and knowing a PLHIV (aOR 1.94). A negative association was found between homelessness and ever testing (aOR 0.43). Among the MSM sub-sample (n = 506), similar results were found for older age (aOR 2.63), and past experience of sexual assault (aOR 2.56). Internalized homonegativity was negatively associated with ever testing for HIV among MSM (aOR 0.46), and HIV testing stigma and experienced provider discrimination further strengthened this relationship. It is important to mitigate sexual minority stigma in order to increase HIV testing among MSM. Future research should explore this construct among TW.

  7. Los cumpleaños de San Simón. Etnografías salvadoreñas

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    Antonio García Espada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos una serie de trabajos de campo, hechos desde la metodología de la observación participante, sobre fiestas y celebraciones relacionadas con el culto a San Simón en El Salvador entre los años 2011 y 2014. Nos ocuparemos, de la forma más descriptiva posible, de seis casos que mantienen entre sí sustanciales diferencias de forma y fondo y que, en su conjunto, prueban la extraordinaria maleabilidad de este culto, así como la imposibilidad de reducir su existencia y el extraordinario éxito de difusión experimentado en los últimos años a razonamientos simplistas y paternalistas como la pobreza, la ignorancia o la marginalidad.

  8. Structural factors influencing patterns of drug selling and use and HIV risk in the San Salvador metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2010-06-01

    This article explores differences in the social context in which crack sales and use and HIV risk take place in seven low-income communities in San Salvador, and structural factors that may influence these differences. The organization of drug selling varied among the communities on a number of dimensions including: whether drug sales were open or closed systems; the type of drug-selling site; and the participation of drug users in drug-distribution roles. Drug-use sites also varied according to whether crack was used in private, semiprivate, or public spaces, and whether individuals used drugs alone or with other drug users. Three patterns of drug use and selling were identified based on the dimensions outlined above. Structural factors that influenced these patterns included the geographic location of the communities, their physical layout, gang involvement in drug sales, and police surveillance. Implications for HIV risk and prevention are explored for each pattern.

  9. Uso de drogas en estudiantes universitarios y su relación con el maltrato durante la niñez en una universidad de San Salvador, El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alfredo Martínez Díaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue examinar la relación entre el uso de drogas en estudiantes universitarios de una universidad en San Salvador y su relación con el maltrato durante la niñez. Este estudio fue de corte transversal, siendo el tamaño de la muestra de 272 estudiantes, con un error muestral del 5%. Los resultados más importantes fueron: el 6.6% de los estudiantes manifestó haber sufrido abuso sexual, el 24.6% abuso físico y el mismo porcentaje fue reportado para el abuso verbal mientras que el 12.9% reportó negligencia emocional o física. El 55.1% reportó distress psicológico mínimo. El 43% ha consumido drogas alguna vez en su vida. El 58.45% tiene amigos que usan drogas. El alcohol, el cannabis y el tabaco son las drogas más usadas. El 70% de los estudiantes que usan drogas sufrieron algún tipo de maltrato. En cuanto a las asociaciones, sólo en el abuso físico se encontró una asociación estadísticamente significativa con una probabilidad de error menor al 0.05. Los datos no pueden ser generalizados a los estudiantes universitarios de San Salvador, El Salvador.

  10. Habitat use patterns of the invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans: a comparison between mangrove and reef systems in San Salvador, Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimiento, Catalina; Nifong, James C.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Monaco, Eric; Silliman, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific red lionfish Pterois volitans is widespread both in its native and its non-native habitats. The rapid invasion of this top predator has had a marked negative effect on fish populations in the Western Atlantic and the Caribbean. It is now well documented that lionfish are invading many tropical and sub-tropical habitats. However, there are fewer data available on the change in lionfish abundance over time and the variation of body size and diet across habitats. A recent study in San Salvador, Bahamas, found body size differences between individuals from mangrove and reef systems. That study further suggested that ontogenetic investigation of habitat use patterns could help clarify whether lionfish are using the mangrove areas of San Salvador as nurseries. The aim of the present study is to determine temporal trends in lionfish relative abundance in mangrove and reef systems in San Salvador, and to further assess whether there is evidence suggesting an ontogenetic shift from mangroves to reef areas. Accordingly, we collected lionfish from mangrove and reef habitats and calculated catch per unit effort (a proxy for relative abundance), compared body size distributions across these two systems, and employed a combination of stable isotope, stomach content, and genetic analyses of prey, to evaluate differences in lionfish trophic interactions and habitat use patterns. Our results show that populations may have increased in San Salvador during the last 4 years, and that there is a strong similarity in body size between habitats, stark differences in prey items, and no apparent overlap in the use of habitat and/or food resources. These results suggest that there is not evidence an for ontogenetic shift from mangroves to reefs, and support other studies that propose lionfish are opportunistic forages with little movement across habitats.

  11. El obispado de Burgos en la Baja Edad Media. Formas de fortalecer su jurisdicción frente al monasterio de San Salvador de Oña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díez Herrera, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The bishopric of Burgos employed different procedures in the late Middle Ages in an attempt to impose its jurisdiction on the churches of its diocese and against the power that monasteries like San Salvador de Oña held over their dependent churches and monasteries. A lawsuit between the abbey of San Salvador de Oña and the priests of Santa Eulalia in Liencres (Cantabria is described to highlight some of the procedures used by the bishopric of Burgos to try to impose its authority over a monastic parish church, by favouring, at the villagers’ request, its transformation into a difusa parish church. This paper helps to define the concept of a difusa church, whilst demonstrating the difficult path the episcopal institution had to take in order to achieve the effective recognition of its rights.Se consideran los diferentes procedimientos que desarrolló el obispado de Burgos en la Baja Edad Media para intentar implantar su jurisdicción en las iglesias de su diócesis frente a las competencias desempeñadas por monasterios como San Salvador de Oña en sus iglesias y monasterios dependientes. Un pleito establecido entre la abadía de San Salvador de Oña y los clérigos de la iglesia de Santa Eulalia de Liencres (Cantabria sirve para poner de relieve alguno de esos procedimientos utilizados por el obispado de Burgos para intentar imponer su autoridad en una iglesia monasterial parroquial al favorecer, a petición de los hijos de la villa, su transformación en iglesia parroquial difusa. Este artículo ayuda a definir el concepto de iglesia difusa a la vez que revela el conflictivo camino que tuvo que recorrer la institución episcopal hasta conseguir el reconocimiento efectivo de sus derechos.

  12. Comportamientos matrimoniales en migrantes bolivianos residentes en San Salvador de Jujuy : un análisis exploratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintana, Sonia B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde la Biodemografía, los datos relativos a las uniones conyugales son importantes, en razón de su influencia en la estructura genética de las poblaciones. En el estudio de las migraciones de origen boliviano hacia Argentina -desde diferentes disciplinas- se han caracterizado a aquéllas como altamente endogámicas. De allí que nuestro objetivo fue explorar -desde una perspectiva antropológica- las prácticas matrimoniales de bolivianos residentes en la ciudad de San Salvador de Jujuy; para lo cual recurrimos a entrevistas en profundidad realizadas en el marco del proyecto "Los procesos de construcción/reconstrucción de identidades sociales y culturales en espacios fronterizos". Encontramos 46% de uniones exógamas y 54% endógamas (24% constituidas en Argentina y 30 % en Bolivia; situación que no se correspondería con lo reportado para otras ciudades argentinas. Dinámica migratoria en espacios de frontera -como lo es Jujuy-, podría contribuir a la comprensión de lo hasta aquí observado.

  13. Plio-Pleistocene volcanic history of the Ahuachapan geothermal system, El Salvador: the Concepcion de Ataco caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partida, Eduardo Gonzalez; Rodriguez, Vicente Torres; Birkle, Peter [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), Dept. de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    1997-12-01

    The Concepcion de Ataco caldera in the Ahuachapan-Chipilapa region is part of the southern, Plio-Pleistocene volcanic belt that borders the Central Graben of El Salvador. About 17 km{sup 3} of primitive lavas erupted between 1.7 and 0.77 Ma, covering basaltic-andesitic lavas and older agglomerates forming the Cuyanausul, Apaneca and Empalizada volcanoes. These lavas preceded the evacuation of 63 km{sup 3} of silicic pyroclastics (i.e. breccias, surge deposits, and ignimbrites) associated with the main caldera cycle. The eruption of this pyroclastic material led to the collapse of a 5 km by 3.5 km caldera between the times of the youngest pre-caldera eruptions (0.77 Ma) and the intrusion of the Himalaya dome (0.28 Ma). The caldera collapse was reactivated at its north eastern flank by a new eruption of pyroclastics of limited areal distribution. These distinctive pyroclastics correspond to laminated tuffs (Cebra tuffs). Domes of dacitic-to-andesitic composition erupted along the caldera border as well as within it. Their magmatism is calc-alkaline; their ages vary between 0.28 and 0.1 Ma. Three phreatic explosions, whose craters are in the eastern part of the Concepcion de Ataco caldera structure, only deposited debris locally. A hydrothermal systems was emplaced during the final stage of the post-magmatic activity, evidenced by areas of hydrothermal alteration and surface manifestations. Four main fault systems, oriented NE-SW, NW-SE, NNW-SSE, and semicircular, have been identified. These faults created relatively high-permeability regions within the caldera and nearby grabens, that are favorable for the development of geothermal systems. (Author)

  14. Oil-bearing sediments beneath San Juan volcanics - Colorado's newest frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gries, R.R.

    1985-05-01

    During the Tertiary, the western part of the northern Sange de Cristo Range dropped 16,000 ft (4877 m) to become what is now known as the San Luis basin. The foreland basin formerly adjacent to and west of the range remained intact but was subsequently concealed by 10,000 ft (3048 m) of volcanic deposits. The existence of this concealed basin, a northeastern arm of the San Juan basin, was first suggested by Vincent Kelly who named it the San Juan sag. Oil, which was generated in the underlying Mancos Shale, migrated upward into vesicles and fractures in volcanic rocks. In at least two places, oil is currently seeping onto the volcanic surface or into overlying soil. These oil occurrences encouraged geologic and geophysical exploration and have led to confirmation by drilling that the basin exists. Porous reservoirs in both tertiary sedimentary rocks and volcanic rocks overlie a 2000 ft (610 m) Cretaceous Mancos Shale source rock. Within the Mancos Shale are fractured reservoirs, volcanic sills that have reservoir potential where fractured or porous, and stray sandstones. The Dakota Formation underlies the Mancos Shale and is about 200 ft (61 m) thick in this area. In addition, the Jurassic section has potential for source rocks in the Todilto Formation and reservoir rocks in the Entrada and Junction Creek Sandstones. The San Juan sag, a newly discovered basin of 2600 miS (6734 kmS) is a frontier for Colorado oil and gas exploration.

  15. Revised volcanic history of the San Juan, Uncompahgre, Silverton, and Lake City calderas in the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Peter W.; Steven, Thomas A.; Luedke, Robert G.; Burbank, Wilbur

    1973-01-01

    The sequence of mid-Cenozoic volcanic events in the western San Juan Mountains is closely analogous to that elsewhere in the San Juan volcanic field. The Lake Fork, Picayune, and San Juan Formations were erupted from a cluster of central volcanoes from 35 to 30 m.y. ago, when dominant activity shifted to more silicic ash-flow eruptions with accompanying caldera collapses. The Uncompahgre and San Juan calderas, each about 20 km across, formed mainly from eruption of the 28-m.y.-old Sapinero Mesa Tuff. Collapse occurred concurrently with eruption, and intracaldera tuffs accumulated to a thickness of more than 700 m. Both calderas were resurgently domed together; the northeast-trending Eureka graben formed along the distended crest of that dome. The Uncompahgre caldera was then flooded by several 27- to 28-m.y.-old ash-flow sheets from easterly sources, and also by one apparently erupted from the Silverton caldera nested within the older San Juan caldera. The Lake City caldera, located within the older Uncompahgre caldera, formed about 22.5 m.y. ago in response to eruption of the Sunshine Peak Tuff.

  16. Binge Drinking among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in San Salvador: Correlates and Sexual Health Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Erin; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Hembling, John

    2015-08-01

    High rates of heavy alcohol use among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) have been linked to increased vulnerability for HIV and poor mental health. While theories explaining elevated drinking levels among sexual minorities have been forwarded, few investigations have assessed the potential pathways using empirical data, particularly with an explicit focus on self-stigma and among MSM and TW in low- and middle-income countries. This study examined the relationship between stigma-related stress (specifically, self-stigma and concealment of one's sexual orientation) and binge drinking in a sample of MSM and TW (n = 670) in San Salvador, El Salvador, recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Levels of alcohol consumption among participants were high: only 39 % of the sample did not drink alcohol or did not binge drink, while 34 % engaged in binge drinking at least weekly. Among MSM, high self-stigma was associated with binge drinking at least weekly (adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) = 2.1, p sexual orientation to multiple types of people was associated with binge drinking less than weekly (aRRR = 2.9 for disclosure to one-two types of people, p types of people, p sexual health outcomes, including high number of lifetime partners (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.7, p sexual risk behavior and was actually associated with increased intention to test for HIV in the next 12 months (aOR = 2.8, p sexual orientation to multiple types of people may be more engaged with the sexual minority community, likely in bars and other venues where permissive norms for alcohol use prevail. That this frequency of binge drinking does not appear to be associated with increased sexual risk behavior (and may even be associated with increased intention to test for HIV in the next 12 months) lends further support to the suggestion that these individuals with healthy concepts of the self (as indicated by high levels of disclosure and low

  17. National Agenda 2025 of El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-07

    programs of social investment; research and achievement of the national identity; strengthening moral and spiritual values; demographic control ...Uribe, Antonio. "A Nation Project to El Salvador", Book 02-96. Colegio de Altos Estudios Estrategicos (CAEE), San Salvador, El Salvador, 1996. 26

  18. Importancia social, económica y ecológica de la producción en traspatio, en la comunidad de San Salvador Xiutetelco, Puebla.

    OpenAIRE

    González Ortiz, Floriberto

    2013-01-01

    El traspatio es considerado un agroecosistema y ha sido incluido en programas gubernamentales para tratar de reducir la pobreza e inseguridad alimentaria. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue analizar la importancia social, económica y ecológica que generan los traspatios que cultivan los Grupos Domésticos Campesinos (GDC) de San Salvador Xiutetelco, Puebla. Para generar información, se utilizó la técnica de la encuesta a 63 GDC, resultado de un muestreo probabilístico aleatorio de l...

  19. Contemporaneous trachyandesitic and calc-alkaline volcanism of the Huerto Andesite, San Juan Volcanic Field, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parat, F.; Dungan, M.A.; Lipman, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    Locally, voluminous andesitic volcanism both preceded and followed large eruptions of silicic ash-flow tuff from many calderas in the San Juan volcanic field. The most voluminous post-collapse lava suite of the central San Juan caldera cluster is the 28 Ma Huerto Andesite, a diverse assemblage erupted from at least 5-6 volcanic centres that were active around the southern margins of the La Garita caldera shortly after eruption of the Fish Canyon Tuff. These andesitic centres are inferred, in part, to represent eruptions of magma that ponded and differentiated within the crust below the La Garita caldera, thereby providing the thermal energy necessary for rejuvenation and remobilization of the Fish Canyon magma body. The multiple Huerto eruptive centres produced two magmatic series that differ in phenocryst mineralogy (hydrous vs anhydrous assemblages), whole-rock major and trace element chemistry and isotopic compositions. Hornblende-bearing lavas from three volcanic centres located close to the southeastern margin of the La Garita caldera (Eagle Mountain - Fourmile Creek, West Fork of the San Juan River, Table Mountain) define a high-K calc-alkaline series (57-65 wt % SiO2) that is oxidized, hydrous and sulphur rich. Trachyandesitic lavas from widely separated centres at Baldy Mountain-Red Lake (western margin), Sugarloaf Mountain (southern margin) and Ribbon Mesa (20 km east of the La Garita caldera) are mutually indistinguishable (55-61 wt % SiO2); they are characterized by higher and more variable concentrations of alkalis and many incompatible trace elements (e.g. Zr, Nb, heavy rare earth elements), and they contain anhydrous phenocryst assemblages (including olivine). These mildly alkaline magmas were less water rich and oxidized than the hornblende-bearing calc-alkaline suite. The same distinctions characterize the voluminous precaldera andesitic lavas of the Conejos Formation, indicating that these contrasting suites are long-term manifestations of San Juan

  20. Proyectos, debates y críticas en torno a la vivienda obrera en el Noroeste argentino. San Salvador de Jujuy (1930-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerez, Marcelo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El presente artículo se inserta dentro del conjunto de estudios que analizan a la vivienda obrera en la Argentina. Tiene como objetivo examinar los diseños y programas habitacionales elaborados durante los años previos a la irrupción del primer peronismo en la ciudad capital de la provincia de Jujuy: San Salvador de Jujuy. En esta tarea se presta atención a los debates, críticas y revisiones en torno a los diversos proyectos de vivienda obrera en un distrito del Noroeste argentino. Asimismo se pretende destacar las líneas de encuentro y particularidades de estos programas en relación a lo acontecido en otros puntos del país. Abstract This article is inserted into a set of studies that analyze the workers' housing in Argentina. It aims to examine the designs and housing programs developed during the years before the emergence of the Peronismo in the capital city of the province of Jujuy: San Salvador de Jujuy. The attention is focused in the discussions and reviews around the different projects of working class houses in a district of the Northwestern Argentina. It also pretends to give importance to similar lines and particularities of these programs related to other areas of the country.

  1. Eruptive Productivity of the Ceboruco-San Pedro Volcanic Field, Nayarit, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H. M.; Lange, R. A.; Hall, C. M.; Delgado-Granados, H.

    2002-12-01

    High-precision 40Ar/39Ar geochronology coupled with GIS spatial analysis provides constraints on magma eruption rates over the past 1 Myr of the Ceboruco-San Pedro volcanic field (1870 km2), located in the Tepic-Zacoalco rift in western Mexico. The volcanic field is part of the Trans Mexican Volcanic arc and is dominated by the andesitic-dacitic stratocone of Volcan Ceboruco and includes peripheral fissure-fed flows, domes, and monogenetic cinder cones. The ages of these volcanic features were determined using 40Ar/39Ar laser step-heating techniques on groundmass or mineral separates, with 78% of the 52 analyses yielding plateau ages with a 2 sigma error < 50 kyrs. The volumes were determined using high resolution (1:50,000) digital elevation models, orthophotos, and GIS software, which allowed for the delineation of individual volcanic features, reconstruction of the pre-eruptive topography, and volume calculations by linear interpolation. The relative proportions of the 80 km3 erupted over the past 1 Myr are 14.5% basaltic andesite, 64.5% andesite, 20% dacite, and 1% rhyolite, demonstrating the dominance of intermediate magma types (in terms of silica content). Overall, there appears to be no systematic progression in the eruption of different magma types (e.g., basalt, andesite, dacite, etc.) with time. However, more than 75% of the total volume of lava within the Ceboruco-San Pedro volcanic field erupted in the last 100 kyrs. This reflects the youthfulness of Volcan Ceboruco, which was constructed during the last 50 kyrs and has a present day volume of 50 +/- 2.5 km3, accounting for 81% of the andesite and 50% of the dacite within the volcanic field. Eleven cinder cones, ranging from the Holocene to 0.37 Ma, display a narrow compositional range, with 52-58 wt% SiO2, 3-5.5 wt% MgO, and relatively high TiO2 concentrations (0.9-1.8 wt%). The total volume of the cinder cones is 0.83 km3. No lavas with < 51 wt% SiO2 have erupted in the past 1 Myr. Peripheral

  2. Lessons from El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Presidente , San Salvador. 5. Lee Hockstader, "US Envoy, Colonel Meet Salvadoran Rebels," The Washington Post, 13 September 1991, p. A33. It was during...of 1984 the plan was already dead, After the National Plan came Unidos Para Reconstruir (UPR) in 1988. In essence this operational concept gave each

  3. Using Peer-Referral Chains with Incentives to Promote HIV Testing and Identify Undiagnosed HIV Infections Among Crack Users in San Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasman, Laura R; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Lechuga, Julia; Tarima, Sergey; Bodnar, Gloria; de Mendoza, Lorena Rivas

    2016-06-01

    In El Salvador, crack users are at high risk for HIV but they are not targeted by efforts to promote early HIV diagnosis. We evaluated the promise of peer-referral chains with incentives to increase HIV testing and identify undiagnosed HIV infections among networks of crack users in San Salvador. For 14 months, we offered HIV testing in communities with a high prevalence of crack use. For the following 14 months, we promoted chains in which crack users from these communities referred their peers to HIV testing and received a small monetary incentive. We recorded the monthly numbers of HIV testers, and their crack use, sexual risk behaviors and test results. After launching the referral chains, the monthly numbers of HIV testers increased significantly (Z = 6.90, p < .001) and decayed more slowly (Z = 5.93, p < .001), and the total number of crack-using testers increased nearly fourfold. Testers in the peer-referral period reported fewer HIV risk behaviors, but a similar percentage (~5 %) tested HIV positive in both periods. More women than men received an HIV-positive diagnosis throughout the study (χ(2)(1, N = 799) = 4.23, p = .040). Peer-referral chains with incentives can potentially increase HIV testing among networks of crack users while retaining a focus on high-risk individuals.

  4. Neotectonic development of the El Salvador Fault Zone and implications for deformation in the Central America Volcanic Arc: Insights from 4-D analog modeling experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Schreurs, Guido; Martinez-Díaz, José Jesús; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio; Villamor, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ) is an active, approximately 150 km long and 20 km wide, segmented, dextral strike-slip fault zone within the Central American Volcanic Arc striking N100°E. Although several studies have investigated the surface expression of the ESFZ, little is known about its structure at depth and its kinematic evolution. Structural field data and mapping suggest a phase of extension, at some stage during the evolution of the ESFZ. This phase would explain dip-slip movements on structures that are currently associated with the active, dominantly strike slip and that do not fit with the current tectonic regime. Field observations suggest trenchward migration of the arc. Such an extension and trenchward migration of the volcanic arc could be related to slab rollback of the Cocos plate beneath the Chortis Block during the Miocene/Pliocene. We carried out 4-D analog model experiments to test whether an early phase of extension is required to form the present-day fault pattern in the ESFZ. Our experiments suggest that a two-phase tectonic evolution best explains the ESFZ: an early pure extensional phase linked to a segmented volcanic arc is necessary to form the main structures. This extensional phase is followed by a strike-slip dominated regime, which results in intersegment areas with local transtension and segments with almost pure strike-slip motion. The results of our experiments combined with field data along the Central American Volcanic Arc indicate that the slab rollback intensity beneath the Chortis Block is greater in Nicaragua and decreases westward to Guatemala.

  5. Paisaje forestal y representación social en Castilla (siglos XIV-XVI. Los montes de San Salvador de Oña (Burgos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco REYES TÉLLEZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este artículo es tratar de analizar la representación social del paisaje forestal perteneciente al señorío del monasterio de San Salvador de Oña (Burgos, durante los siglos XIV-XVI, a partir de las descripciones que se realizan del mismo en la documentación judicial relacionada con pleitos, pesquisas, etc. por el uso y aprovechamiento de los bosques y montes, para procurar conocer cuál era la construcción simbólica de esos paisajes de los distintos agentes sociales, e intentar valorar si esa forma de aproximarnos al territorio nos puede aportar nuevos enfoques o posibilidades de interpretación en el estudio de esa realidad.

  6. Probing The Buried Remains of The Todos los Santos, City of San Salvador in Hoping Island with Shallow Subsurface Geophysics Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-fan; Chang, Pin-yu; Eugenio Borao Mateo, José

    2013-04-01

    The study in ancient sites with GPR is widely documented over several decades. This non-invasive geophysical method provides a rapid measure for anthropogenic objects and therefore serves as a guide for possible excavation for the next stage of archaeological surveys. City of San Salvador, which is a Dutch colonial city consisted of fortress, hospitals and churches in 17 century, is located in the Hoping Island in Keelung, Taiwan. The fortress and its affiliated structures were abandoned and left collapsing since the mid-17th century. Some relics of the fortress wall were still remained until the early 20th century but the fast development projects in the island has caused the relics demolished or buried under building or road pavements. Many wells and bones have been found around the area belong to over three hundred years ago. As a consequence, the government initiated a new excavation project at the parking lot where the ancient convent of Todos los Santos is believed since 2011 in order to find the remains of the convent in city of San Salvador. Meanwhile we have surveyed with GPR to help guiding the excavation location. In this case, we surveyed with wide-angle-refraction/reflection (WARR) of GPR as well as common-offset array, to compensate the defect of traditional common-offset of lack of longitudinal resolution with velocity profile, and the combination of velocity profile and common-offset data helped distinguish the signals from other noises and further located the position of subsurface structures. After data analysis and numerical modeling of the buried materials, we have located the possible remains of walls of the convent or other structures around 0.9 to 1.3 meters in depth that can offer useful information to better plan the archaeological excavations.

  7. Geology, geochronology, and paleogeography of the southern Sonoma volcanic field and adjacent areas, northern San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, D.L.; Saucedo, G.J.; Clahan, K.B.; Fleck, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Allen, J.R.; Deino, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping in the northern San Francisco Bay region (California, USA) supported by radiometric dating and tephrochronologic correlations, provides insights into the framework geology, stratigraphy, tectonic evolution, and geologic history of this part of the San Andreas transform plate boundary. There are 25 new and existing radiometric dates that define three temporally distinct volcanic packages along the north margin of San Pablo Bay, i.e., the Burdell Mountain Volcanics (11.1 Ma), the Tolay Volcanics (ca. 10-8 Ma), and the Sonoma Volcanics (ca. 8-2.5 Ma). The Burdell Mountain and the Tolay Volcanics are allochthonous, having been displaced from the Quien Sabe Volcanics and the Berkeley Hills Volcanics, respectively. Two samples from a core of the Tolay Volcanics taken from the Murphy #1 well in the Petaluma oilfield yielded ages of 8.99 ?? 0.06 and 9.13 ?? 0.06 Ma, demonstrating that volcanic rocks exposed along Tolay Creek near Sears Point previously thought to be a separate unit, the Donnell Ranch volcanics, are part of the Tolay Volcanics. Other new dates reported herein show that volcanic rocks in the Meacham Hill area and extending southwest to the Burdell Mountain fault are also part of the Tolay Volcanics. In the Sonoma volcanic field, strongly bimodal volcanic sequences are intercalated with sediments. In the Mayacmas Mountains a belt of eruptive centers youngs to the north. The youngest of these volcanic centers at Sugarloaf Ridge, which lithologically, chemically, and temporally matches the Napa Valley eruptive center, was apparently displaced 30 km to the northwest by movement along the Carneros and West Napa faults. The older parts of the Sonoma Volcanics have been displaced at least 28 km along the RodgersCreek fault since ca. 7 Ma. The Petaluma Formation also youngs to the north along the Rodgers Creek-Hayward fault and the Bennett Valley fault. The Petaluma basin formed as part of the Contra Costa basin in the Late Miocene and was

  8. Arc-rift transition volcanism in the Volcanic Hills, Jacumba and Coyote Mountains, San Diego and Imperial Counties, california

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, Gregory Zane

    Neogene volcanism associated with the subduction of the Farallon-Pacific spreading center and the transition from a subduction zone to a rift zone has been studied extensively in Baja, California, Mexico. One of the main goals of these studies was to find a geochemical correlation with slab windows that may have formed during that complicated transition. While workers have been able to find distinct geochemical signatures in samples from Baja California, none have shown statistically significant correlation with samples from southern California that are thought to be related to the same arc-rift transition events. All of the basaltic samples from this study of southern California rocks have prominent Nb depletions typical of island-arc subduction-related volcanism, in contrast to the chemistry of Baja California volcanics that have trace element patterns typical of synrift related volcanism. The work done by previous investigators has been additionally complicated due to each investigator's choice of important ratios or patterns, which bears little, if any, correlation with work done by others working in the same area. For example, Martin-Barajas et al. (1995) use K/Rb ratios in their study of the Puertocitos Volcanic Province, while Castillo (2008) argues that Sr/Y vs. Y is a better indicator of petrogenetic processes. Little petrologic work has been done on Neogene volcanic rocks in the Imperial Valley and eastern San Diego County region of Southern California. This thesis combines new research with that of previous workers and attempts to establish a better understanding of the processes involved with the transition volcanism. Prior work documents significant differences in the geochemistry between some of these areas, especially those in close proximity to each other (e.g. the Volcanic Hills and Coyote Mountains). These differences were thought to be largely the result different magmatic sources. The potential of finding two differing magma types in close

  9. De la parte de dentro o de la parte de fuera: la capilla paralela de San Salvador de Sevilla a comienzos del siglo XVII (From the part of inside or the part of outside: the parallel music chapel of San Salvador of Seville in XVIIth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejarano Pellicer, Clara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este trabajo aborda el estudio de los orígenes de la capilla musical de la iglesia colegial de San Salvador de Sevilla, en relación con una capilla musical preexistente del mismo nombre, formada por músicos independientes, que continuó a su sombra y servicio hasta finales de siglo como mínimo. Para ello, se ha realizado una colaboración entre las fuentes institucionales y las notariales. Las preguntas giran en torno a su razón de ser, su relación con la capilla oficial y con el cabildo colegial, la medida en que se nutrió de sus miembros, la auxilió y le otorgó un acceso al mercado de los servicios musicales ocasionales, en el contexto de un período de apogeo de la demanda musical en Sevilla y su área de influencia. Abstract: This paper deals with the study of the origins of the music chapel of the collegiate church of San Salvador of Seville, in relation to a pre-existent music chapel, consisted of independent musicians, which continued in its shadow and service at least until the end of the century. With this purpose, a collaboration between institutional and notarial sources has been done. Questions revolve around its reason why, its relationship with the official chapel and the collegiate council, the extend that one nourished on the other ones members, one helped the other one and gave it an access to the market of occasional musical services, in the context of a period of high point of musical demand in Seville and its influence area.

  10. De la parte de dentro o de la parte de fuera”: la capilla paralela de San Salvador de Sevilla a comienzos del siglo XVII (“From the part of inside or the part of outside”: the parallel music chapel of San Salvador of Seville in XVIIth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Bejarano Pellicer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este trabajo aborda el estudio de los orígenes de la capilla musical de la iglesia colegial de San Salvador de Sevilla, en relación con una capilla musical preexistente del mismo nombre, formada por músicos independientes, que continuó a su sombra y servicio hasta finales de siglo como mínimo. Para ello, se ha realizado una colaboración entre las fuentes institucionales y las notariales. Las preguntas giran en torno a su razón de ser, su relación con la capilla oficial y con el cabildo colegial, la medida en que se nutrió de sus miembros, la auxilió y le otorgó un acceso al mercado de los servicios musicales ocasionales, en el contexto de un período de apogeo de la demanda musical en Sevilla y su área de influencia.Abstract: This paper deals with the study of the origins of the music chapel of the collegiate church of San Salvador of Seville, in relation to a pre-existent music chapel, consisted of independent musicians, which continued in its shadow and service at least until the end of the century. With this purpose, a collaboration between institutional and notarial sources has been done. Questions revolve around its reason why, its relationship with the official chapel and the collegiate council, the extend that one nourished on the other one’s members, one helped the other one and gave it an access to the market of occasional musical services, in the context of a period of high point of musical demand in Seville and its influence area.

  11. Adolescentes en situación de calle: el uso del espacio urbano y sus apropiaciones en la ciudad de San Salvador de Jujuy (Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Civila Orellana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se busca dar a conocer las vivencias de un grupo de adolescentes en situación de calle de la ciudad argentina de San Salvador de Jujuy. El acercamiento a esta problemática fue a partir de la participación como voluntario en una Fundación que brinda asistencia a estos niños y adolescentes que atraviesan estas condiciones de vida, lindando entre la exclusión/inclusión. Esta iniciativa surgió con el objetivo de proporcionar visibilización a una temática referida como resulta ser la segregación urbana que en innumerables ocasiones es invisibilizada por el resto de la sociedad y cómo estos grupos realizan diversas acciones. El acercamiento a estos jóvenes que habitan en tales condiciones permitió conocer e interactuar directamente con ellos, desde un enfoque etnográfico, pudiendo comprender desde su lugar, las apropiaciones que hacen del espacio urbano y de esta manera poder articular las prácticas y trayectorias personales.

  12. Fidelity of rocky intertidal mollusks in subtidal death assemblages to their counterpart life assemblages: a case study in San Salvador Island, Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Diego A.

    2016-04-01

    Rocky shores preserved in the geological record were rarely reported until a couple of decades ago. Even today, most of the literature focuses on bioerosional features in these high-energy environments due to their higher fossilization potential relative to shell material. Hard parts of taxa adapted to intertidal rocky shores may be preserved as allochthonous material in death assemblages (DAs) formed in adjacent shallow subtidal habitats due to lateral mixing. To test if life assemblages (LAs) of rocky intertidal mollusks (RIM) are faithfully recorded in shallow subtidal DAs, two ~30 m long transects across a proximal-distal gradient were studied on San Salvador Island, Bahamas. These transects encompass a proximal ripple field which grades into a facies dominated by green algae, and a distal ripple field. A total of 22 bulk samples, representing 155 liters of sediment, were wet-sieved with a 2-mm mesh. The samples yielded 528 RIM shells representing 15 species. Unexpectedly, abundance and compositional similarity of RIM shells to counterpart LAs sharply peaks along a belt of lag deposits of coarse sands fringing proximal ripple fields, in transition to green algae communities. These results suggest that, although a substantial transport of intertidal shells takes place in shallow subtidal environments, the signal is diluted in background sediment composition even in close proximity to the shore (30 m), and significant concentrations (loosely packed) of RIM shells in subtidal DAs might be used as a proxy to pinpoint past rocky intertidal environments.

  13. Sociodemographic and clinical profiles in leprosy patients in the Hospital San Salvador de Chiquinquirá, Boyacá, during 1951-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Buitrago

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to describe the sociodemographicand clinic profile of Hansen diseasecases attended at the Dermatologic outpatient’sdepartment of San Salvador Hospital from 1951to 1999 on the purpose of drawing up recommendationsto eliminate Leprosy as a publichealth problem in the country.A longitudinal descriptive study revieweda total amount of 302 clinic dossiers covering43 years of the programme.It was established that the patients’ profileregistered men, 39 average age, married, mostof them from rural areas of Boyacá, workingin agricultural tasks.The average time between the symptomsand the diagnostic was 5.4 years. 98.2% of thepatients showed prymary leprosy symptoms,most of them, neurologic and dermatologic.Multibacilar forms predominated in 15 yearsold patients with a diagnosis by baciloscopy andin the paucibacilar ones, by clinics. Monotherapywas the most used scheme, taken regularly.Men showed more disability in hands, –bothat the beginning and at the end of the treatment–,than the women. (Ji: 14.23 p: 0.0000.The average time between the diagnostic andthe treatment beginning was 9 days, while thetotal treatment average time spent 12.7 years.In 40% of the cases the denouement wasunknown, 26.8% were reported as healed and19.5% died.A young peasant with lepratosomic leprosytreated with monotherapy in long periods andhigher disability in hands is the profile of patientsin concordance with the sickness’ behaviorthroughout the world.

  14. The unrest of the San Miguel volcano (El Salvador, Central America): installation of the monitoring network and observed volcano-tectonic ground deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Hernandez, Douglas Antonio; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Handal, Louis; Polío, Cecilia; Rapisarda, Salvatore; Scarlato, Piergiorgio

    2016-08-01

    On 29 December 2013, the Chaparrastique volcano in El Salvador, close to the town of San Miguel, erupted suddenly with explosive force, forming a column more than 9 km high and projecting ballistic projectiles as far as 3 km away. Pyroclastic density currents flowed to the north-northwest side of the volcano, while tephras were dispersed northwest and north-northeast. This sudden eruption prompted the local Ministry of Environment to request cooperation with Italian scientists in order to improve the monitoring of the volcano during this unrest. A joint force, made up of an Italian team from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and a local team from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, was organized to enhance the volcanological, geophysical and geochemical monitoring system to study the evolution of the phenomenon during the crisis. The joint team quickly installed a multiparametric mobile network comprising seismic, geodetic and geochemical sensors (designed to cover all the volcano flanks from the lowest to the highest possible altitudes) and a thermal camera. To simplify the logistics for a rapid installation and for security reasons, some sensors were colocated into multiparametric stations. Here, we describe the prompt design and installation of the geodetic monitoring network, the processing and results. The installation of a new ground deformation network can be considered an important result by itself, while the detection of some crucial deforming areas is very significant information, useful for dealing with future threats and for further studies on this poorly monitored volcano.

  15. The relationship between carbonate facies, volcanic rocks and plant remains in a late Palaeozoic lacustrine system (San Ignacio Fm, Frontal Cordillera, San Juan province, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, P.; Méndez-Bedia, I.; Gallastegui, G.; Colombo, F.; Cardó, R.; Limarino, O.; Heredia, N.; Césari, S. N.

    2013-07-01

    The San Ignacio Fm, a late Palaeozoic foreland basin succession that crops out in the Frontal Cordillera (Argentinean Andes), contains lacustrine microbial carbonates and volcanic rocks. Modification by extensive pedogenic processes contributed to the massive aspect of the calcareous beds. Most of the volcanic deposits in the San Ignacio Fm consist of pyroclastic rocks and resedimented volcaniclastic deposits. Less frequent lava flows produced during effusive eruptions led to the generation of tabular layers of fine-grained, greenish or grey andesites, trachytes and dacites. Pyroclastic flow deposits correspond mainly to welded ignimbrites made up of former glassy pyroclasts devitrified to microcrystalline groundmass, scarce crystals of euhedral plagioclase, quartz and K-feldspar, opaque minerals, aggregates of fine-grained phyllosilicates and fiammes defining a bedding-parallel foliation generated by welding or diagenetic compaction. Widespread silicified and silica-permineralized plant remains and carbonate mud clasts are found, usually embedded within the ignimbrites. The carbonate sequences are underlain and overlain by volcanic rocks. The carbonate sequence bottoms are mostly gradational, while their tops are usually sharp. The lower part of the carbonate sequences is made up of mud which appear progressively, filling interstices in the top of the underlying volcanic rocks. They gradually become more abundant until they form the whole of the rock fabric. Carbonate on volcanic sandstones and pyroclastic deposits occur, with the nucleation of micritic carbonate and associated production of pyrite. Cyanobacteria, which formed the locus of mineral precipitation, were related with this nucleation. The growth of some of the algal mounds was halted by the progressive accumulation of volcanic ash particles, but in most cases the upper boundary is sharp and suddenly truncated by pyroclastic flows or volcanic avalanches. These pyroclastic flows partially destroyed the

  16. Precaldera lavas of the southeast San Juan Volcanic Field: Parent magmas and crustal interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, M. T.; Dungan, M. A.; Ferguson, K. M.; Lipman, P. W.; Moorbath, S.

    1991-07-01

    Early intermediate composition volcanic rocks of the Oligocene (circa 34-29 Ma) southeast San Juan volcanic field, southern Colorado, comprise the Conejos Formation. Conejos lavas include both high-K calc-alkaline and alkaline magma series (54-69% SiO2) ranging in composition from basaltic andesite (basaltic trachyandesite) to dacite (trachydacite). The subsequent Platoro caldera complex (29-27 Ma) was superimposed on a cluster of broadly precursory Conejos stratocones. Precaldera volcanism occurred in three pulses corresponding to three time-stratigraphic members: (1) the Horseshoe Mountain member, (2) the Rock Creek member, and (3) the Willow Mountain member. Each member exhibits distinctive phenocryst modes and incompatible trace element contents. Horseshoe Mountain lavas (hornblende-phyric) have relatively low alkali and incompatible element abundances, Rock Creek lavas (anhydrous phenocrysts) and ash-flow tuffs have the highest abundances, and Willow Mountain lavas (diverse mineralogy) are intermediate. All Conejos lavas exhibit low ratios of lead (206Pb/204Pb = 17.5 to 18.2) and neodymium (ɛNd = -8 to -4) isotopes and high 87Sr/86Sr (0.7045 to 0.7056) compared to depleted asthenospheric mantle. These values lie between those of likely mantle compositions and the isotopic composition of Proterozoic crust of the southern Rocky Mountains. Mafic lavas of the Horseshoe Mountain member have the lowest Pb and Nd isotope ratios among Conejos members but trend toward higher isotopic values with increasing degrees of differentiation. Compositions within the Rock Creek series trend toward higher Pb and lower Nd isotope ratios with increasing SiO2. Willow mountain volcanic sequences define diverse chemical-isotopic correlations. We interpret the chemical and isotopic differences observed between mafic lavas of each member to reflect derivation from compositionally distinct mantle derived parent magmas that have experienced extensive deep level crustal contamination

  17. A geologic and anthropogenic journey from the Precambrian to the new energy economy through the San Juan volcanic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Douglas B.; Burchell,; Johnson, Raymond H.

    2010-01-01

    The San Juan volcanic field comprises 25,000 km2 of intermediate composition mid-Tertiary volcanic rocks and dacitic to rhyolitic calderas including the San Juan–Uncompahgre and La Garita caldera-forming super-volcanoes. The region is famous for the geological, ecological, hydrological, archeological, and climatological diversity. These characteristics supported ancestral Puebloan populations. The area is also important for its mineral wealth that once fueled local economic vitality. Today, mitigating and/or investigating the impacts of mining and establishing the region as a climate base station are the focuses of ongoing research. Studies include advanced water treatment, the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of propylitic bedrock for use in mine-lands cleanup, and the use of soil amendments including biochar from beetle-kill pines. Biochar aids soil productivity and revegetation by incorporation into soils to improve moisture retention, reduce erosion, and support the natural terrestrial carbon sequestration (NTS) potential of volcanic soils to help offset atmospheric CO2 emissions. This field trip will examine the volcano-tectonic and cultural history of the San Juan volcanic field as well as its geologic structures, economic mineral deposits and impacts, recent mitigation measures, and associated climate research. Field trip stops will include a visit to (1) the Summitville Superfund site to explore quartz alunite-Au mineralization, and associated alteration and new water-quality mitigation strategies; (2) the historic Creede epithermal-polymetallic–vein district with remarkably preserved resurgent calderas, keystone-graben, and moat sediments; (3) the historic mining town of Silverton located in the nested San Juan–Silverton caldera complex that exhibits base-metal Au-Ag mineralization; and (4) the site of ANC and NTS studies. En route back to Denver, we will traverse Grand Mesa, a high NTS area with Neogene basalt-derived soils and will enjoy a soak

  18. El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Many El Salvador refugees who have sought asylum in the United States have been sent back, only to succumb to violence. Justice demands that the United States deal with the unfortunate consequences of violence by exercising such policy options as providing extended voluntary departure status to refugees or suspending military aid to the junta.…

  19. El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Many El Salvador refugees who have sought asylum in the United States have been sent back, only to succumb to violence. Justice demands that the United States deal with the unfortunate consequences of violence by exercising such policy options as providing extended voluntary departure status to refugees or suspending military aid to the junta.…

  20. Seismic sources in El Salvador. A geological and geodetic contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Henar, J.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Benito, B.; Alvarez-Gomez, J. A.; Canora, C.; Capote, R.; Staller, A.; Tectónica Activa, Paleosismicidad y. Riesgos Asociados UCM-910368

    2013-05-01

    El Salvador Fault Zone is a deformation band of 150 km long and 20 km wide within the Salvadorian volcanic arc. This shear band distributes the deformation between main strike-slip faults trending N90°-100°E and around 30 km long, and secondary normal faults trending between N120°E and N170°E. The ESFZ continues westward and is relieved by the Jalpatagua Fault. Eastward ESFZ becomes less clear disappearing at Golfo de Fonseca. The ESFZ deforms and offsets quaternary deposits with a right lateral movement in its main segments. Five segments have been proposed for the whole fault zone, from the Jalpatagua Fault to the Golfo de Fonseca. Paleoseismic studies in the Berlin and San Vicente Segments reveal an important amount of quaternary deformation. In fact, the San Vicente Segment was the source of the February 13, 2001 destructive earthquake. In this work we propose 18 capable seismic sources within El Salvador. The slip rate of each source has been obtained through out the combination of GPS data and paleoseismic data when it has been possible. We also have calculated maximum theoretical intensities produced by the maximum earthquakes related with each fault. We have taken into account several scenarios considering different possible surface rupture lengths up to 50 km and Mw 7.6 in some of the strike slip faults within ESFZ.

  1. La efectiva integración de los padres de familia al proceso educativo de escuelas públicas del primer ciclo de educación básica en zonas de educación en riesgo (ZER) en el área metropolitana de San Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    López Rivera, Lílian Carolina; Rodríguez Arévalo, Flor América

    2010-01-01

    Investigar en que medida la escuela pública en las Zonas de educación en riesgo (ZER) hace esfuerzos para integrar a los padres y madres de familia en el proceso educativo de los alumnos/as del promer ciclo de educación básica en el área metropolitano de San Salvador.

  2. Rickettsia bellii infecting Amblyomma sabanerae ticks in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Amália R M; Romero, Luis; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2012-07-01

    Four Amblyomma sabanerae ticks collected from a turtle (Kinosternon sp.) in San Miguel, El Salvador, were found by molecular analysis to be infected by Rickettsia bellii. We provide the first report of Rickettsia bellii in Central America, and the first report of a Rickettsia species in El Salvador.

  3. Geology, thermal maturation, and source rock geochemistry in a volcanic covered basin: San Juan sag, south-central Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gries, R.R. [Priority Oil & Gas, Denver, CO (United States); Clayton, J.L. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Leonard, C. [Platte River Associates, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The San Juan sag, concealed by the vast San Juan volcanic field of south-central Colorado, has only recently benefited from oil and gas wildcat drilling and evaluations. Sound geochemical analyses and maturation modeling are essential elements for successful exploration and development. Oil has been produced in minor quantities from an Oligocene sill in the Mancos Shale within the sag, and major oil and gas production occurs from stratigraphically equivalent rocks in the San Juan basin to the southwest and in the Denver basin to the northeast. The objectives of this study were to identify potential source rocks, assess thermal maturity, and determine hydrocarbon-source bed relationships. Source rocks are present in the San Juan sag in the upper and lower Mancos Shale (including the Niobrara Member), which consists of about 666 m (2184 ft) of marine shale with from 0.5 to 3.1 wt. % organic carbon. Pyrolysis yields (S{sub 1} + S{sub 2} = 2000-6000 ppm) and solvent extraction yields (1000-4000 ppm) indicate that some intervals within the Mancos Shale are good potential source rocks for oil, containing type II organic matter, according to Rock-Eval pyrolysis assay.

  4. El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Asger Nørregaard; Brabæk, Line; Jakobsen, Sofie Damgaard; Ahlbom, Anna Lohmann

    2013-01-01

    This project contains an analysis of the conflict in El Salvador between the gangs, pandillas, and the government. The object of analysis is the documentary La Vida Loca from 2008 by Christian Poveda. The project includes a discussion of whether the government truly intended to solve the conflict with their law of Mano Dura or whether it was a symbolic tool for gaining the support of the top part of society as well as using the pandilla as a scapegoat, allowing them to ignore the actual issue...

  5. New Contributions to the Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale: Paleomagnetic study of Tequila and Ceboruco-San Pedro-Amado Nervo Volcanic Fields (Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Ceja, M.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Alva-Valdivia, L.; Rosas Elguera, J.; Calvo, M.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2005-05-01

    The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is one of the largest continental volcanic arcs of the North American plate. It spans about 1000 km from the Pacific to the Gulf of Mexico. Despite the abundance of thick lava sequences with quite high extrusion rates, the TMVB have been relatively little studied from a paleomagnetic point of view. Previous studies were aimed for tectonic evolution of the region rather than documenting fluctuations of Earth's magnetic field in terms of both directions and intensity. We report a detailed paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic study of Tequila and Ceboruco-San Pedro-Amado Nervo volcanic fields. 350 oriented samples belonging to 31 independent cooling units were collected. All these sites were previously dated by means of the state-of-the-art 40Ar-39Ar geochronological method and span from 1.1 Ma to 2 Ky. Rock-magnetic experiments which included continuous susceptibility, isothermal remanence acquisition and hysteresis measurements point to simple magnetic mineralogy. In most of cases, the remanence is carried by Ti-poor titanomagnetite of pseudo-single-domain magnetic structure. The paleodirections of the flow dated as 819±25 ka correspond to a VGP latitude of 18° N. This anomalous field behaviour apparently recorded prior to the Matuyama-Brunhes reversal may coincide with the geomagnetic event, defined as M-B precursor. Two independent lava flows, dated as 623±91 and 614±16 ka respectively, yield reverse paleodirections and one lava flow dated as 690±29 yields transitional paleodirections. It is possible that these lavas erupted during the worldwide observable Big Lost or Delta events.

  6. Neogene Tiporco Volcanic Complex, San Luis, Argentina: An explosive event in a regional transpressive - local transtensive setting in the pampean flat slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañes, Oscar Damián; Sruoga, Patricia; Japas, María Silvia; Urbina, y. Nilda Esther

    2017-07-01

    The Neogene Tiporco Volcanic Complex (TVC) is located in the Sierras Pampeanas of San Luis, Argentina, at the southeast of the Pampean flat-slab segment. Based on the comprehensive study of lithofacies and structures, the reconstruction of the volcanic architecture has been carried out. The TVC has been modeled in three subsequent stages: 1) initial updoming, 2) ignimbritic eruptive activity and 3) lava dome emplacement. Interplay of magma injection and transtensional tectonic deformation has been invoked to reproduce TVC evolution.

  7. Geochronology and geology of late Oligocene through Miocene volcanism and mineralization in the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, D.J.; Hon, Ken; Budding, K.E.; Slack, J.F.; Snee, L.W.; Yeoman, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-five new 40Ar/39Ar ages from volcanic rocks and veins in the western San Juan Mountains clarify relationships between volcanism and mineralization in this classic area. Five calc-alkaline ash-flow sheets erupted from caldera sources (Ute Ridge, Blue Mesa, Dillon Mesa, Sapinero Mesa, and Crystal Lake Tuffs) from 28.6 to 27.6 Ma. This is a much more restricted time interval than previously thought and indicates that the underlying batholith rose and evolved very rapidly beneath the western San Juan Mountains. The new ages and geologic relations constrain the timing of joint resurgence of the Uncompahgre and San Juan calderas to between 28.2 and 27.6 Ma. The collapse of the Silverton caldera produced a set of strong ring fractures that intersected with graben faults on the earlier resurgent dome to produce the complex set of structures that localized the mid-Miocene epithermal gold veins. Later calc-alkaline monzonitic to quartz monzontic plutons solidified at 26.5-26.0 Ma as the underlying batholith rose through its volcanic cover. A new age from lavas near Uncompahgre Peak supports earlier interpretations that these lavas were fed by nearby 26 Ma monzonite intrusions. Nearly all of these intrusions are associated with subeconomic Mo and Cu mineralization and associated alteration, and new ages of 26.40 and 25.29 Ma from the Ute-Ulay and Lilly veins in the Lake City region show that some of the most important silver and base-metal veins were temporally and possibly genetically connected to these plutons. In addition, the Golden Fleece telluride vein cuts all of the post-Uncompahgre caldera volcanics in the area and is probably temporally related to this cycle, though its age of 27.5 ? 0.3 Ma was determined by less precise U/Pb methods. The 22.9 Ma Lake City caldera collapsed within the older Uncompahgre caldera structure but is petrologically unrelated to the older calc-alkaline activity. The distinctive suite of high-silica rhyolite tuff and alkaline

  8. New seismic sources parameterization in El Salvador. Implications to seismic hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Staller, Alejandra; Jesús Martínez-Díaz, José; Benito, Belén; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio; Canora, Carolina

    2014-05-01

    El Salvador is located at the pacific active margin of Central America, here, the subduction of the Cocos Plate under the Caribbean Plate at a rate of ~80 mm/yr is the main seismic source. Although the seismic sources located in the Central American Volcanic Arc have been responsible for some of the most damaging earthquakes in El Salvador. The El Salvador Fault Zone is the main geological structure in El Salvador and accommodates 14 mm/yr of horizontal displacement between the Caribbean Plate and the forearc sliver. The ESFZ is a right lateral strike-slip fault zone c. 150 km long and 20 km wide .This shear band distributes the deformation among strike-slip faults trending N90º-100ºE and secondary normal faults trending N120º- N170º. The ESFZ is relieved westward by the Jalpatagua Fault and becomes less clear eastward disappearing at Golfo de Fonseca. Five sections have been proposed for the whole fault zone. These fault sections are (from west to east): ESFZ Western Section, San Vicente Section, Lempa Section, Berlin Section and San Miguel Section. Paleoseismic studies carried out in the Berlin and San Vicente Segments reveal an important amount of quaternary deformation and paleoearthquakes up to Mw 7.6. In this study we present 45 capable seismic sources in El Salvador and their preliminary slip-rate from geological and GPS data. The GPS data detailled results are presented by Staller et al., 2014 in a complimentary communication. The calculated preliminary slip-rates range from 0.5 to 8 mm/yr for individualized faults within the ESFZ. We calculated maximum magnitudes from the mapped lengths and paleoseismic observations.We propose different earthquakes scenario including the potential combined rupture of different fault sections of the ESFZ, resulting in maximum earthquake magnitudes of Mw 7.6. We used deterministic models to calculate acceleration distribution related with maximum earthquakes of the different proposed scenario. The spatial distribution of

  9. Evidences of volcanic unrest on high-temperature fumaroles by satellite thermal monitoring: The case of Santa Ana volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, M.; Coppola, D.; Barahona, F.; Benítez, J. E.; Cigolini, C.; Escobar, D.; Funes, R.; Gutierrez, E.; Henriquez, B.; Hernandez, A.; Montalvo, F.; Olmos, R.; Ripepe, M.; Finizola, A.

    2017-06-01

    On October 1st, 2005, Santa Ana volcano (El Salvador) underwent a VEI 3 phreatomagmatic eruption after approximately one century of rest. Casualties and damages to some of the local infrastructures and surrounding plantations were followed by the evacuation of the nearby communities. The analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) infrared data reveals that the main explosion was preceded by a one-year-long thermal unrest, associated to the development of a fumaroles field, located at the western rim of the summit crater lake. By combining space-based thermal flux and ground-based measurements (seismicity, sulfur emissions and lake temperatures), we suggest that the activity observed at Santa Ana between 2004 and 2005 was driven by the gradual intrusion of an undegassed magma body at a very shallow depth. Magma injection induced thermal anomalies associated with sustained degassing from the fumaroles field and promoted the interaction between the magmatic-hydrothermal system and the overlying water table. This process culminated into the VEI 3 phreatomagmatic eruption of October 2005 that strongly modified the shallow structure of the crater area. The subsequent three-years-long activity resulted from self-sealing of the fracture system and by the opening of a new fracture network directly connecting the deeper hydrothermal system with the crater lake. Our results show that satellite-based thermal data allow us to detect the expansion of the high-temperature fumarolic field. This may precede an explosive eruption and/or a lava dome extrusion. In particular, we show that thermal records can be analyzed with other geochemical (i.e. SO2 emissions) and geophysical (seismicity) data to track a shallow magmatic intrusion interacting with the surrounding hydrothermal system. This provides a remarkable support for volcano monitoring and eruption forecasting, particularly in remote areas where permanent ground data acquisition is hazardous, expensive

  10. Locating non-volcanic tremor along the San Andreas Fault using a multiple array source imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, T.; Haberland, C.H.; Fuis, G.S.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Shelly, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    Non-volcanic tremor (NVT) has been observed at several subduction zones and at the San Andreas Fault (SAF). Tremor locations are commonly derived by cross-correlating envelope-transformed seismic traces in combination with source-scanning techniques. Recently, they have also been located by using relative relocations with master events, that is low-frequency earthquakes that are part of the tremor; locations are derived by conventional traveltime-based methods. Here we present a method to locate the sources of NVT using an imaging approach for multiple array data. The performance of the method is checked with synthetic tests and the relocation of earthquakes. We also applied the method to tremor occurring near Cholame, California. A set of small-aperture arrays (i.e. an array consisting of arrays) installed around Cholame provided the data set for this study. We observed several tremor episodes and located tremor sources in the vicinity of SAF. During individual tremor episodes, we observed a systematic change of source location, indicating rapid migration of the tremor source along SAF. ?? 2010 The Authors Geophysical Journal International ?? 2010 RAS.

  11. Counterinsurgency Strategies for Effective Conflict Termination: U.S. Strategies in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Leonel Gonzalez /Salvador Cayetano Carpio Armed Forces of National Resistance (FARN) - Ferman Cienfuegos Armed Forces of Liberation/Salvador Communist...the Defense Minister, General Vides Casanova (at the FMLN’s request), and four FMLN-FDR representatives, including Ungo and Zamora. Salvadoran...Marlene and Susanne Jonas, Revolution and Intervention in Central America, San Francisco : Synthesis Publication. 1983. Dominguez, Jorge and Marc

  12. Geology and geochemistry of volcanic centers within the eastern half of the Sonoma volcanic field, northern San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Rytuba, James J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic rocks in the Sonoma volcanic field in the northern California Coast Ranges contain heterogeneous assemblages of a variety of compositionally diverse volcanic rocks. We have used field mapping, new and existing age determinations, and 343 new major and trace element analyses of whole-rock samples from lavas and tuff to define for the first time volcanic source areas for many parts of the Sonoma volcanic field. Geophysical data and models have helped to define the thickness of the volcanic pile and the location of caldera structures. Volcanic rocks of the Sonoma volcanic field show a broad range in eruptive style that is spatially variable and specific to an individual eruptive center. Major, minor, and trace-element geochemical data for intracaldera and outflow tuffs and their distal fall equivalents suggest caldera-related sources for the Pinole and Lawlor Tuffs in southern Napa Valley and for the tuff of Franz Valley in northern Napa Valley. Stratigraphic correlations based on similarity in eruptive sequence and style coupled with geochemical data allow an estimate of 30 km of right-lateral offset across the West Napa-Carneros fault zones since ~5 Ma.

  13. Elastic stress interaction between faulting and volcanism in the Olacapato-San Antonio de Los Cobres area (NW Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonali, F. L.; Tibaldi, A.; Corazzato, C.; Lanza, F.; Cavallo, A.; Nardin, A.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the relationships between Plio-Quaternary tectonics, palaeoseismicity and volcanism along the NW-trending Calama-Olacapato-El Toro (COT) lineament that crosses the Andean chain and the Puna Plateau and continues within the eastern Cordillera at about 24° S. Field and satellite data have been collected from the Chile-Argentina border to a few km east of the San Antonio del Los Cobres village. These data revealed the presence of seven Quaternary NW-striking normal left-lateral fault segments in the southeastern part of the studied area and of a Plio-Quaternary N-S-striking graben structure in the northwestern part. The NW-striking Chorrillos fault (CF) segment shows the youngest motions, of late Pleistocene age, being marked by several fault scarps, sag-ponds and offset Quaternary deposits and landforms. Offset lavas of 0.78±0.1 Ma to 0.2±0.08 Ma indicate fault kinematics characterized by a pitch angle of 20° to 27° SE, a total net displacement that ranges from 31 to 63.8 m, and a slip-rate of 0.16 to 0.08 mm/yr. This fault segment is 32 km long and terminates to the northwest near a set of ESE-dipping thrust faults affecting Tertiary strata, while to the southeast it terminates 10 km further from San Antonio. In the westernmost part of the examined area, in Chile at altitudes of 4000 m, recent N-S-striking normal fault scarps depict the 5-km-wide and 10-km-long graben structure. Locally, fault pitches indicate left-lateral normal kinematics. These faults affect deposits up to ignimbrites of Plio-Quaternary age. Scarp heights are from a few metres to 24 m. Despite this area is located along the trace of the COT strike-slip fault system, which is reported as a continuous structure from Chile to Argentina in the literature, no evidence of NW-striking Plio-Quaternary strike-slip structures is present here. A series of numerical models were developed in an elastic half-space with uniform isotropic elastic properties using the

  14. Elastic stress interaction between faulting and volcanism in the Olacapato-San Antonio de Los Cobres area (Puna plateau, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonali, F. L.; Corazzato, C.; Tibaldi, A.

    2012-06-01

    We describe the relationships between Plio-Quaternary tectonics, palaeoseismicity and volcanism along the NW-trending Calama-Olacapato-El Toro (COT) lineament that crosses the Andean chain and the Puna Plateau and continues within the eastern Cordillera at about 24° S. We studied in detail the area from the Chile-Argentina border to a few km east of the San Antonio del Los Cobres village. Satellite and field data revealed the presence of seven Quaternary NW-striking normal left-lateral fault segments in the southeastern part of the studied area and of a Plio-Quaternary N-S-striking graben structure in the northwestern part. The NW-striking Chorrillos fault (CF) segment shows the youngest motions, of late Pleistocene age, being marked by several fault scarps, sag ponds and offset Quaternary deposits and landforms. Offset lavas of 0.78 ± 0.1 Ma to 0.2 ± 0.08 Ma indicate fault kinematics characterised by a pitch angle of 20° to 27° SE, a total net displacement of 31 to 63.8 m, and a slip-rate of 0.16 to 0.08 mm/yr. This fault segment is 32 km long and terminates to the northwest near a set of ESE-dipping thrust faults affecting Tertiary strata, while to the southeast it terminates 10 km further from San Antonio. In the westernmost part of the examined area, in Chile at altitudes > 4000 m, recent N-S-striking normal fault scarps depict the 5-km-wide and 10-km-long graben structure. Locally, fault pitches indicate left-lateral normal kinematics. These faults affect deposits up to ignimbrites of Plio-Quaternary age. Scarp heights are from a few metres to 24 m. Despite that this area is located along the trace of the COT strike-slip fault system, which is reported as a continuous structure from Chile to Argentina in the literature, no evidence of NW-striking Plio-Quaternary strike-slip structures is present here. A series of numerical models were also developed in an elastic half-space with uniform isotropic elastic properties using the Coulomb 3.1 code. We studied

  15. Geologic Investigations Spurred by Analog Testing at the 7504 Cone-Sp Mountain Area of the San Francisco Volcanic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Eppler, D. B.; Needham, D. H.; Evans, C. A.; Skinner, J. A.; Feng, W.

    2015-12-01

    The SP Mountain area of the San Francisco Volcanic Field, AZ, has been used as an analog mission development site for NASA since 1998. This area consists of basaltic cinder cones, lava flows and maar craters that have been active since mid-Miocene, with the youngest events occurring within the last 10,000 years. The area has been used because its geologic and topographic resemblance to lunar and Martian terrains provides an ideal venue for testing hardware and science operations practices that might be employed on planetary surfaces, as well as training astronauts in field geology. Analog operations have often led to insights that spurred new scientific investigations. Most recently, an investigation of the 7504 cone was initiated due to perceptions that Apollo-style traverse plans executed during the Desert RATS 2010 mission had characterized the area incorrectly, leading to concerns that the Apollo traverse planning process was scientifically flawed. This investigation revealed a complex history of fissure eruptions of lava and cinders, cinder cone development, a cone-fill-and-spill episode, extensive rheomorphic lava flow initiation and emplacement, and cone sector collapse that led to a final lava flow. This history was not discernible on pre-RATS mission photogeology, although independent analysis of RATS 2010 data and samples develped a "75% complete solution" that validated the pre-RATS mission planning and Apollo traverse planning and execution. The study also pointed out that the development of scientific knowledge with time in a given field area is not linear, but may follow a functional form that rises steeply in the early period of an investigation but flattens out in the later period, asymptotically approaching a theoretical "complete knowledge" point that probably cannot be achieved. This implies that future human missions must be prepared to shift geographic areas of investigation regularly if significant science returns are to be forthcoming.

  16. Geologic Investigations Spurred by Analog Testing at the 7504 Cone-SP Mountain Area of the San Francisco Volcanic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    2015-01-01

    The SP Mountain area of the San Francisco Volcanic Field, AZ, has been used as an analog mission development site for NASA since 1998. This area consists of basaltic cinder cones, lava flows and maar craters that have been active since mid-Miocene, with the youngest events occurring within the last 10,000 years. The area has been used because its geologic and topographic resemblance to lunar and Martian terrains provides an ideal venue for testing hardware and science operations practices that might be employed on planetary surfaces, as well as training astronauts in field geology. Analog operations have often led to insights that spurred new scientific investigations. Most recently, an investigation of the 7504 cone was initiated due to perceptions that Apollo-style traverse plans executed during the Desert RATS 2010 mission had characterized the area incorrectly, leading to concerns that the Apollo traverse planning process was scientifically flawed. This investigation revealed a complex history of fissure eruptions of lava and cinders, cinder cone development, a cone-fill-and-spill episode, extensive rheomorphic lava flow initiation and emplacement, and cone sector collapse that led to a final lava flow. This history was not discernible on pre-RATS mission photogeology, although independent analysis of RATS 2010 data and samples develped a "75% complete solution" that validated the pre-RATS mission planning and Apollo traverse planning and execution. The study also pointed out that the development of scientific knowledge with time in a given field area is not linear, but may follow a functional form that rises steeply in the early period of an investigation but flattens out in the later period, asymptotically approaching a theoretical "complete knowledge" point that probably cannot be achieved. This implies that future human missions must be prepared to shift geographic areas of investigation regularly if significant science returns are to be forthcoming.

  17. Probabilities of future VEI ≥ 2 eruptions at the Central American Volcanic Arc: a statistical perspective based on the past centuries' eruption record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierma, Yvonne; Wehrmann, Heidi

    2014-10-01

    A probabilistic eruption forecast is provided for seven historically active volcanoes along the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA), as a pivotal empirical contribution to multi-disciplinary volcanic hazards assessment. The eruption probabilities are determined with a Kaplan-Meier estimator of survival functions, and parametric time series models are applied to describe the historical eruption records. Aside from the volcanoes that are currently in a state of eruptive activity (Santa María, Fuego, and Arenal), the highest probabilities for eruptions of VEI ≥ 2 occur at Concepción and Cerro Negro in Nicaragua, which are likely to erupt to 70-85 % within the next 10 years. Poás and Irazú in Costa Rica show a medium to high eruption probability, followed by San Miguel (El Salvador), Rincón de la Vieja (Costa Rica), and Izalco (El Salvador; 24 % within the next 10 years).

  18. War in El Salvador; The Policies of President Reagan and The Lessons Learned for Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    military and most government positions.2 With an enormous gap between these two classes, peasant revolt was inevitable. In 1925, Agustin Farabundo...election. ARENA won 200 of 262 mayoral posts including San Salvador and won 31 of 60 National Assembly seats. The Christian Democrats controlled...with Salvadoran leaders in San Salvador to re-affirm 10 American commitment to assist in the defeat of the leftist insurgency. In addition, he

  19. Progress of the seismological program in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M. A.

    1982-01-01

     El Salvador is located in Central America at the axis of geographical coordinates 14° north latitude and 89° west longitude. Situated inside the circumpacific "ring of fire" it is thus vulnerable to sudden earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. 

  20. Mining in El Salvador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country.......In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country....

  1. Violence in Counterinsurgency - The Case of El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    over time. , A little girl is crying . .. "They’re burning my dress. They’re burning my dress." Nine villagers, one a fifteen year old boy , are...34The high command, afraid that units might crack under the pressure, relied on the air force to strafe and rocket the barrios of San Salvador-a tactic

  2. Isotope and trace element systematics in a spinel-lherzolite-bearing suite of basanitic volcanic rocks from San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, J.E.G.

    1989-01-01

    Lherzolite-bearing basanitic magmas of Quaternary age have erupted to form maars, lava/cinder cones and lava flows in two volcanic fields (Ventura and Santo Domingo) in the central Mexican state of San Luis Potosi. The systematics of the radiogenic isotopes of Sr, Nd, and Pb and the relationship between these parameters and elemental compositions are used to investigate the petrogenesis of the volcanic rocks and the nature of their mantle sources. Sr and Nd isotopic data are presented for 19 basanitic rocks, 5 kaersutites, and 6 lherzolitic xenoliths; Pb data presented for the same 19 volcanic rocks and 4 of the 5 kaersutites. The isotopic compositions for all of these samples fall within the mantle range defined by MORBs and OIBs. The basanites generally plot within the OIB field on isotopic diagrams; most of the kaersutites are displaced to slightly more-depleted (i.e. MORB-like) values than the volcanic samples and the xenoliths, with one exception, are significantly more-depleted than either of these sample-types. As crustal contamination is considered unlikely for most of the volcanic samples, these trends are thought to arise from mixing multiple mantle components. The absence of similar isotopic elemental relationships for Epsilon Nd and the lack of correlation between {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb and the other Pb isotopes require a mixture of at least three mantle reservoirs: a depleted reservoir analogous to that of the MORBs, a St. Helena-type component, and a third component, which primarily affects Sr and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb composition. This third component carries relatively radiogenic Sr and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb and appears to be correlated with the degree of melting.

  3. Geologic Model of a Non-Volcanic Hydrothermal System: San Bartolome de Los Banos, Guanajuato, Mexico; Modelo geologico de un sistema hidrotermal no volcanico: San Bartolome de Los Banos, Guanajuato, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Hernandez, Aida [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1996-01-01

    The San Bartolome de Los Banos area is associated with a steeped hydraulic interconnected basins system, limited by regional Pliocene faults. The depressions are filled by sedimentary and volcanic products. The thermal manifestations, with temperatures over 90 degrees celsius, are associated to the main faults. The thermal anomaly is not related to recent volcanic activity, probably it is due to deep circulating water, moved by the hydraulic regional gradient. The thermal springs are discharges from the hydraulic system produced when the fluids are forced to flow up owing to hydraulic constrictions, that set up forced convection phenomena. [Espanol] La zona hidrotermal de San Bartolome de Los Banos esta formada por un sistema de cuencas escalonadas e interconectadas hidrologicamente, limitadas por fallas regionales originadas durante el Plioceno. Las estructuras afectaron a una secuencia de rocas volcanicas cuyas edades oscilan entre el Terciario Inferior y el Plioceno. Las depresiones estan rellenas por sedimentos y productos volcanicos. Existen manifestaciones termales asociadas a las zonas de debilidad, generadas por las fallas principales; las temperaturas superficiales son superiores a los 90 grados celsius. El termalismo en esta zona no esta asociado con actividad volcanica reciente, en apariencia se debe a la circulacion profunda de los fluidos, movidos por el gradiente hidraulico regional. Las manifestaciones termales corresponden a las zonas de descarga del sistema y se originan porque los fluidos son forzados a ascender al encontrar constricciones, produciendose una conveccion forzada.

  4. "Contra Viento y Marea" (Against Wind and Tide): Building Civic Identity among Children of Emigration in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrness, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article examines contrasting approaches to citizenship education in two schools in San Salvador, El Salvador, in the face of highly visible transnational migration. I argue that while transnational realities challenge education for democratic citizenship, educational processes that enable students to interrogate their own transnational…

  5. "Contra Viento y Marea" (Against Wind and Tide): Building Civic Identity among Children of Emigration in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrness, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article examines contrasting approaches to citizenship education in two schools in San Salvador, El Salvador, in the face of highly visible transnational migration. I argue that while transnational realities challenge education for democratic citizenship, educational processes that enable students to interrogate their own transnational…

  6. Neotectonic deformation within an extensional stepover in El Salvador magmatic arc, Central America: Implication for the interaction of arc magmatism and deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibaldi, Nicolás; Tikoff, Basil; Hernández, Walter

    2016-12-01

    Dominantly westward movement of the El Salvador forearc at rates of 11 mm/yr is accommodated by a series of E-W to WNW oriented, dextral, strike-slip fault zones herein referred to as the El Salvador Fault System (ESFS). The geometry of the ESFS defines a series of extensional step-overs. Along the arc, basaltic volcanism in the stepovers is associated with NNW-oriented normal faults, whereas rhyolitic volcanism is associated with strike-slip fault zones of the ESFS. On the ESFS, the San Salvador Extensional Stepover (SSES) is bound to the south by the San Vicente fault zone, where the rhyolitic Ilopango caldera is located. In the SSES, tephras from Ilopango -the Tierra Blanca (TB) sequence- track long-term elongation. Older TB units (TB5-8) contain abundant normal faults; lying unconformably above these older TB units, younger TB members (TBJ, TB2-4) are generally unfaulted. Analyses of faults in TB5-8 indicate NE- to ENE-oriented elongation in the SSES. Deformation occurred between deposition of the TB4 and TB5 units, during quiescence of the Ilopango eruptive center. Using this temporal constraint, minimum elongation rates of 3.50 × 10- 15 s- 1, 2.06 × 10- 14 s- 1 and 4.42 × 10- 14 s- 1 were calculated for three traverses. From regional geodetic data and fault kinematics throughout El Salvador, we interpret the SSES as part of a series of pull-apart structures along the arc axis. The calculated paleostress orientations are consistent with a pull-apart geometry resulting from forearc movement. The extensional deformation occurs during a 50 k.y. lull in rhyolitic activity, suggesting an interplay between magmatism and deformation within the arc. During significant rhyolitic volcanic activity, only minor elongation is observed in the SSES, despite ongoing translation of the Salvadoran forearc. We speculate that rhyolitic magmatism along upper crustal faults may facilitate strike-slip movement on the ESFS, rather than distributing deformation throughout the

  7. Altered volcanic ash layers of the Late Cretaceous San Felipe Formation, Sierra Madre Oriental (Northeastern Mexico): Usbnd Pb geochronology, provenance and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Tapia, Fernando; Martínez-Paco, Margarita; Iriondo, Alexander; Ocampo-Díaz, Yam Zul Ernesto; Cruz-Gámez, Esther María; Ramos-Ledezma, Andrés; Andaverde, Jorge Alberto; Ostrooumov, Mikhail; Masuch, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    A detailed petrographic, geochemical, and Usbnd Pb geochronological study of altered volcanic ash layers, collected in eight outcrops of the Late Cretaceous San Felipe Formation (Sierra Madre Oriental, Northeastern Mexico), has been carried out. The main objectives have been: (1) to establish a deposit period, and (2) to propose a reliable provenance-transport-deposit-diagenetic model. These volcano-sedimentary strata represent the altered remains of vitreous-crystalline ash (main grains: quartz + K-feldspar (sanidine) + Na-plagioclase + zircon + biotite; groundmass: glass + calcite + clinochlore + illite) deposited and preserved in a shallow, relatively large in area, open platform environment. Major and trace element geochemistry indicate that parent volcanism was mainly rhyodacitic to rhyolitic in composition. Discrimination diagrams suggest a link to continental arc transitional to extension tectonic setting. Usbnd Pb geochronology in zircon has revealed that the volcanic ash was released from their sources approximately during the range 84.6 ± 0.8 to 73.7 ± 0.3 Ma, being transported to the depocenters. Burial diagenesis process was marked by: (a) a limited recycling, (b) the partial loss of original components (mainly K-feldspar, plagioclase, biotite and glass), and (c) the addition of quartz, calcite, illite and clinochlore. The location of the source area remains uncertain, although the lack of enrichment in Zr/Sc ratio suggests that ashes were subjected to relatively fast and short-distance transport process. El Peñuelo intrusive complex, at 130-170 km west of the depocenters, is the nearest known zone of active magmatism during the Upper Cretaceous. This intermediate to felsic pluton, characterized by a geochemical affinity to post-orogenic tectonic setting, could be linked to the volcanic sources.

  8. The Choiyoi volcanic province at 34°S-36°S (San Rafael, Mendoza, Argentina): Implications for the Late Palaeozoic evolution of the southwestern margin of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Laura E.; Japas, María S.

    2009-08-01

    The Choiyoi rhyolitic province of Chile and Argentina (23°S-42°S) was emplaced at the SW margin of Gondwana during the Permian. The San Rafael Massif (Mendoza, Argentina, 34°-36°S), is a key area to analyse the relative timing of Choyoi magmatism and related deformation as it bears one of the most complete and well exposed succession. Stratigraphic, structural and magmatic studies indicate that major changes of geodynamic conditions occurred during the Permian since arc-related sequences syntectonic with transpression (lower Choiyoi) were followed by transitional to intraplate, postorogenic suites coeval with transtension (upper Choiyoi). During the Early Permian, a major event of N-NNW dextral transpressional motions deformed the Carboniferous foreland basin in the San Rafael Massif. This event is attributed to the first episode of the San Rafael orogeny and can be related to oblique subduction (Az. 30°) of the Palaeo-Pacific plate. Ca. 280 Ma the inception of voluminous calc-alkaline volcanism (lower Choiyoi) syntectonic with WNW sinistral transpression of the second episode of the San Rafael orogeny, is associated with an eastward migration of the magmatic arc at this latitude. To the southeast of San Rafael, magmatism and transpression continued to migrate inland suggesting that a progressively younger, WNW, sinistral, thick skinned deformation belt broadens into the foreland and can be traced from San Rafael to Sierra de la Ventana, linking the San Rafael orogeny with the Gondwanide orogeny of the Cape Fold Belt in South Africa. This distribution of magmatism and deformation is interpreted as being the consequence of a progressive shallowing of the Palaeo-Pacific plate starting to the north of San Rafael, and culminating with a flat-slab region south of 36°S. Ca. 265 Ma the onset of predominantly felsic volcanism (upper Choiyoi) in San Rafael occurred in a Post-San Rafael extensional setting. Kinematic indicators and strain fabric analyses of San Rafael

  9. On Writing "Salvador."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Suzanne

    1998-01-01

    Discusses, in poetic form, the writing of the play "Salvador" from the perspective of the author. Explains her thoughts about writing for children, including didactic relationships with children, didactic functions of art, and how adults teachers try to create a sterilized, lifeless, good-thinking, and artificial world for children when they are…

  10. Mechanisms of aggradation in fluvial systems influenced by explosive volcanism: An example from the Upper Cretaceous Bajo Barreal Formation, San Jorge Basin, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umazano, Aldo M.; Bellosi, Eduardo S.; Visconti, Graciela; Melchor, Ricardo N.

    2008-01-01

    The Late Cretaceous succession of the San Jorge Basin (Patagonia, Argentina) records different continental settings that interacted with explosive volcanism derived from a volcanic arc located in the western part of Patagonia. This paper discusses the contrasting aggradational mechanisms in fluvial systems strongly influenced by explosive volcanism which took place during sedimentation of the Bajo Barreal Formation. During deposition of the lower member of the unit, common ash-fall events and scarce sandy debris-flows occurred, indicating syn-eruptive conditions. However, the record of primary pyroclastic deposits is scarce because they were reworked by river flows. The sandy fluvial channels were braided and show evidence of important variations in water discharge. The overbank flows (sheet-floods) represent the main aggradational mechanism of the floodplain. In places, subordinate crevasse-splays and shallow lakes also contributed to the floodplain aggradation. In contrast, deposition of the upper member occurred in a fluvial-aeolian setting without input of primary volcaniclastic detritus, indicating inter-eruptive conditions. The fluvial channels were also braided and flowed across low-relief floodplains that mainly aggraded by deposition of silt-sized sediments of aeolian origin (loess) and, secondarily by sheet-floods. The Bajo Barreal Formation differs from the classic model of syn-eruptive and inter-eruptive depositional conditions in the presence of a braided fluvial pattern during inter-eruptive periods, at least at one locality. This braided fluvial pattern is attributed to the high input of fine-grained pyroclastic material that composes the loessic sediments.

  11. Assessment of planetary geologic mapping techniques for Mars using terrestrial analogs: The SP Mountain area of the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.L.; Skinner, J.A.; Crumpler, L.S.; Dohm, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    We photogeologically mapped the SP Mountain region of the San Francisco Volcanic Field in northern Arizona, USA to evaluate and improve the fidelity of approaches used in geologic mapping of Mars. This test site, which was previously mapped in the field, is chiefly composed of Late Cenozoic cinder cones, lava flows, and alluvium perched on Permian limestone of the Kaibab Formation. Faulting and folding has deformed the older rocks and some of the volcanic materials, and fluvial erosion has carved drainage systems and deposited alluvium. These geologic materials and their formational and modificational histories are similar to those for regions of the Martian surface. We independently prepared four geologic maps using topographic and image data at resolutions that mimic those that are commonly used to map the geology of Mars (where consideration was included for the fact that Martian features such as lava flows are commonly much larger than their terrestrial counterparts). We primarily based our map units and stratigraphic relations on geomorphology, color contrasts, and cross-cutting relationships. Afterward, we compared our results with previously published field-based mapping results, including detailed analyses of the stratigraphy and of the spatial overlap and proximity of the field-based vs. remote-based (photogeologic) map units, contacts, and structures. Results of these analyses provide insights into how to optimize the photogeologic mapping of Mars (and, by extension, other remotely observed planetary surfaces). We recommend the following: (1) photogeologic mapping as an excellent approach to recovering the general geology of a region, along with examination of local, high-resolution datasets to gain insights into the complexity of the geology at outcrop scales; (2) delineating volcanic vents and lava-flow sequences conservatively and understanding that flow abutment and flow overlap are difficult to distinguish in remote data sets; (3) taking care to

  12. HIV and STI control in El Salvador: results from an integrated behavioural survey among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Jacob; Guardado, Maria Elena; Lee, Janet; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Kim, Andrea A; Monterroso, Edgar; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2012-12-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STI), and risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM) in two cities in El Salvador. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to recruit MSM in the cities of San Salvador and San Miguel, El Salvador. Participants responded to questions about HIV risk behaviours; and blood, urine and anal swabs were collected. Blood samples were tested for herpes simplex type 2, syphilis and HIV infection. Urine and anal samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Mycoplasma genitalium. HIV-positive samples were tested with the BED capture enzyme immunoassay to distinguish recent from longstanding HIV infection. We estimated population-adjusted prevalence of behavioural variables, STI and HIV, and identified risk factors for HIV. The final sample included 596 and 195 MSM in San Salvador and San Miguel, respectively. Consistent condom use was low across all partner types as was recent HIV testing. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence was 10.8% (95% CI 7.4% to 14.7%) in San Salvador, and 8.8% (95% CI 4.2% to 14.5%) in San Miguel. The proportion of recent testing among HIV-positive samples was 20%. Prevalence of any bacterial STI by PRC testing was 12.7% (95% CI 8.2% to 17.5%) in San Salvador, and 9.6% (95% CI 4.9% to 15.4%) in San Miguel. We found a high prevalence of HIV, high levels of recent infection, and low condom usage. In El Salvador, targeted interventions towards MSM are needed to promote condom use, as well as to diagnose, treat and prevent HIV and other STIs.

  13. Sr- and Nd- isotope variations along the Pleistocene San Pedro - Linzor volcanic chain, N. Chile: Tracking the influence of the upper crustal Altiplano-Puna Magma Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Benigno; Wörner, Gerhard; Le Roux, Petrus; de Silva, Shanaka; Parada, Miguel Ángel; Kojima, Shoji; González-Maurel, Osvaldo; Morata, Diego; Polanco, Edmundo; Martínez, Paula

    2017-07-01

    Subduction-related magmas that erupted in the Central Andes during the past 10 Ma are strongly affected by crustal assimilation as revealed by an increase in 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios with time that in turn are correlated with increased crustal thickening during the Andean orogeny. However, contamination is not uniform and can be strongly influenced locally by crustal composition, structure and thermal condition. This appears to be the case along the NW-SE San Pedro - Linzor volcanic chain (SPLVC) in northern Chile, which straddles the boundary of a major zone of partial melt, the Altiplano_Puna Magma Body (APMB). Herein we report 40Ar/39Ar ages, compositional and isotope data on lavas from the SPLVC that track the influence of this zone of partial melting on erupted lavas with geochronological and geochemical data. Ages reported here indicate that SPLVC has evolved in the last 2 M.y., similar to other volcanoes of the Western Cordillera (e.g. Lascar, Uturuncu, Putana). 87Sr/86Sr ratios increase systematically along the chain from a minimum value of 0.7057 in San Pedro dacites to a maximum of 0.7093-0.7095 for the Toconce and Cerro de Leon dacites in the SE. These changes are interpreted to reflect the increasing interaction of SPLVC parental magmas with partial melt within the APMB eastwards across the chain. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio and an antithetic trend in 143Nd/144Nd is therefore a proxy for the contribution of melt from the APMB beneath this volcanic chain. Similar 87Sr/86Sr increases and 143Nd/144Nd decreases are observed in other transects crossing the boundary of the APMB. Such trends can be recognized from NW to SE between Aucanquilcha, Ollagüe, and Uturuncu volcanoes, and from Lascar volcano to the N-S-trending Putana-Sairecabur-Licancabur volcanic chain to the north. We interpret these isotopic trends as reflecting different degrees of interaction of mafic parental melts with the APMB. High 87Sr/86Sr, and low 143Nd/144Nd reveal zones where the APMB is

  14. /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios and their source materials of the volcanic rocks from the Pliocene Misasa Group in San-in district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, T.; Nishikawa, J. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1980-10-01

    /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of the volcanic rocks from the Pliocene Misasa Group and the andesite from the Quaternary Daisen volcano in San'in district were determined. The alkaline basalt and the calc-alkaline andesite from the Misasa Group have a restricted range of /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios (basalt 0.7051 -- 0.7052; andesite 0.7052) and Rb/Sr ratios (basalt 0.03 -- 0.04; andesite 0.04) with low Rb (basalt 19.4 -- 34.5 ppm; andesite 29.2 ppm) and Sr (basalt 631 -- 851 ppm; andesite 729 ppm) contents. These results may indicate that the calc-alkaline andesite may not have been derived from the alkaline basaltic magma by fractional crystallization or assimilation of older sialic materials. An analysis of the Daisen andesite yields a /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratio 0f 0.7050, which is almost identical with that of the Misasa andesite. In /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios, the Misasa alkaline basalt, calc-alkaline andesite and the Daisen calc-alkaline andesite are very similar to the Oki-Dogo alkaline basalt (0.7048) which carries ultramafic inclusions and is possibly of the upper mantle origin (Kaneoka et al., 1978). This similarity in Sr isotopic ratios suggests that both the Misasa and Daisen volcanic rocks may have been derived from the upper mantle similar to the source material of the Oki-Dogo alkaline basalt.

  15. Acción colectiva, visibilidad y espacio público en la construcción de la ciudadanía. Los cortes de puentes de mayo del 97 en San Salvador de Jujuy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Alejandra García Vargas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Salvador de Jujuy es la ciudad capital de la provincia de Jujuy, Argentina. En mayo de 1997, y paralelamente a cortes de rutas en todo el territorio provincial, parte de sus habitantes interrumpieron el tránsito sobre los puentes del río Chico o Xibi Xibi, que atraviesa la ciudad. Este trabajo propone analizar, a partir de entrevistas a participantes de los cortes y artículos de la prensa gráfica local, las características de esta acción colectiva y su vinculación con la construcción de la ciudadanía.

  16. Magmatic evolution of the Ilopango Caldera, El Salvador, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zezin, D.; Mann, C. P.; Hernández, W.; Stix, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Ilopango caldera (16 x 13 km) is an active, long-lived magmatic system, erupting voluminous amounts of pyroclastic material numerous times over the course of its evolution. The caldera is presently water filled and the most recent activity is a dome growth event in 1880. Established age constraints from extracaldera pyroclastic sequences, indicate caldera forming events occur ~ every 10,000 years over the last 40,000 years. The most recent pyroclastic eruption (TBJ) is constrained to A.D. 429 erupting 70 km3 DRE of pyroclastic material. We combine major element and trace element chemistry with 40Ar/39Ar age constraints of the intracaldera domes and intracaldera pyroclastic deposits to extent the caldera history. The intracaldera domes are andesitic to rhyolitic in composition (57 - 76 wt. % SiO2), some with basaltic enclaves (54 wt. % SiO2) and pyroclastic units observed inside the caldera (San Agustín Pumice Breccia) are dacitic to rhyolitic in composition (69 -75 wt. % SiO2). Formation of an intracaldera andesitic dome at 359±7.9 ka provides a minimum age of caldera formation and extends the caldera history back ~ 320 ka years. The variable composition of the intracaldera domes, the presence of mafic enclaves in the dome lavas, mafic clasts in the TB4 plinian fall, mafic banding in the TB3 and TB2, attest to the obvious involvement of a more mafic magma The highly evolved compositions of the pyroclastic units and the volume of erupted material, point towards a large evolving magma reservoir at depth. The mafic magma may replenish the subsurface reservoir and act as a catalyst for volcanic eruption. The presence of an intracaldera lake, the regularity with which the volcano erupts and the presence of a more mafic magma are the ingredients for a catastrophic disaster. The Ilopango caldera, located 10 km to the east of the capital city of San Salvador (~ 1.5 million people) poses a threat both locally and globally as demonstrated 1600 years ago as it

  17. Estratigrafía y facies volcánicas y volcaniclásticas de la Formación Valle del Cura: magmatismo paleógeno en la Cordillera Frontal de San Juan Stratigraphy and volcanic facies of the of the Valle del Cura Formation: Paleogene volcanism in the Frontal Cordillera of San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Litvak

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available En la región del Valle del Cura, Cordillera Frontal de San Juan, aflora una espesa secuencia de rocas volcánicas y volcaniclásticas, en facies piroclásticas y epiclásticas, que representa el desarrollo de un importante episodio volcano-sedimentario eoceno-oligoceno inferior. Esta unidad, la Formación Valle del Cura, incluye espesos paquetes de tobas, conglomerados gruesos, areniscas líticas medianas a gruesas, areniscas volcánicas y escasas pelitas. Los niveles volcánicos están formados por flujos lávicos e ignimbritas de alto grado de composiciones riolíticas, las cuales representan flujos piroclásticos de alta temperatura y alto grado de soldadura. La Formación Valle del Cura también incluye espesos niveles de flujos piroclásticos primarios formados por tobas cristalinas, líticas y/o vítreas, tobas lapillíticas e inclusive facies gruesas como aglomerados y brechas volcánicas. Vinculados a estos depósitos piroclásticos se interdigitan facies epiclásticas de composición dominante volcánica, que representan el retrabajo del material piroclástico primario. Los depósitos ignimbríticos muestran evidencias que indican su proximidad respecto al centro de emisión, el cual se encontraría en el extremo sur de la cordillera de la Brea. Esta secuencia se puede correlacionar con secuencias equivalentes que afloran hacia el norte en el río de la Sal y en las nacientes del río Blanco, en Macho Muerto, y cronológicamente, con los intrusivos mesosilíceos de la Unidad Bocatoma que afloran en territorio chileno -a la misma latitud- y que están emplazados a lo largo del frente magmático eoceno. En constraste, la Formación Valle del Cura representa una intensa actividad volcanodesimentaria sinorogénica depositada en una cuenca de retroarco.A thick volcanic and volcaniclastic sequence, which includes epiclastic and pyroclastic facies, was recognized in the Valle del Cura region in the Frontal Cordillera of San Juan. The Valle

  18. null Izalco, El Salvador Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Izalco is a young stratovolcano on the south flank of Santa Ana Volcano in western El Salvador. Its continuous small explosive eruptions (beginning in 1770) caused...

  19. 75 FR 39556 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... Maternity Hospital in San Salvador, apparently has yet to begin. More recent natural disasters have delayed... status granted to eligible nationals of a country designated for TPS under the Act (or to persons without nationality who last habitually resided in the designated country). During the period for which the...

  20. On a collection of Decapod Crustacea from the Republic of El Salvador (Central America)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1954-01-01

    For about half a year (February-July, 1953) Dr. M. Boeseman, curator of Fishes of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, was the guest of the Instituto Tropical de Investigaciones Científicas at San Salvador. During this time Dr. Boeseman made extensive collections in numerous localities

  1. The Impact of the Vietnam Analogy on American Policy in El Salvador from 1979 to 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-03

    Story. Duarte states: The first guerrilla attack came the day after La Palma and confirmed my suspicions that Villalobos intended to exert influence...down the side of San Salvador Volcano . This was just the first hour after the polls were open! The FMLN committed many atrocities that day, such as the

  2. Nuevas obras de Luis y José Salvador Carmona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro, Juan Nicolau

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Hace unos años publicábamos un artículo sobre un grupo de esculturas de José Salvador Carmona aún existentes o procedentes del convento de San Miguel de las Victorias de la villa de Priego en la provincia de Cuenca. Del conjunto existía una descripción del Padre Pedro Cruz Ocaña redactada antes de su dispersión y en el momento de realizar el trabajo nos encontramos con el hecho de que dos de las figuras del inventario no estaban en el pueblo y nada nos supieron decir sobre su paradero. En una visita a la Catedral de Cuenca tuvimos la sorpresa de encontrarlas en las dependencias del museo catedralicio. Las esculturas localizadas ahora son un San Pascual Bailón y un San Francisco de Asís recibiendo los estigmas....

  3. El Salvador: Limited Intervention Equals Limited Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    military intervention in El Salvador in the 1980s, this monograph points to the evidence collected that underscores the results of a policy employing...effort required to quell the violence in El Salvador and prevent the spread of Soviet Communism. This monograph analyzes the El Salvador crisis from...beginning to end. The origins of the Salvadoran civil war help explain why a country as small and seemingly as insignificant as El Salvador actually

  4. Obituary -- Salvador González Bedolla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, H. José

    1997-04-01

    It is with great sadness that I must communicate the passing of our colleague Salvador Félix González Bedolla. The observational astronomers of the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional owe much to his pioneering effort at San Pedro Mártir, work that formed him as an astronomer, and helped him become one of the best photometric observers in México and, at the Instituto de Astronomóa of the UNAM, the academic technician with the highest productivity of articles derived from observations at the OAN. Salvador was an excellent student. He obtained the highest achievement award (Gabino Barreda) in high school, studied physics at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) and also finished the credits for his Master's degree in Physics with only his thesis separating him from his degree, an act which was constantly put off until his death. He began his career in Astronomy in 1973 under Dr. Eugenio Mendoza. Later he worked with Josef Warman in the observation of short period stars in the Observatorio `José Arbol y Bonilla'' in Zacatecas, México. I then began working continuously with him in this field of research which, thanks to his great work capacity, produced very good results. He continued in these fields of research not only within the Institute of Astronomy, but also in other research facilities, especially two: With the variable group from the Observatory at Nice, France, beginning in 1985, specializing in the pulsation of early stars. His main interest was in the β Cep stars and in the possibility of relating these stars to the new types of variables (such as the OB stars, the `53 Per' variables, the `ultrashort' period and the ``slow'' and Be variables) discovered near this zone. Hence, in view of this, his efforts were aimed at monitoring the stars that belong to these new groups in order to discover if they are really different from the classical β Cep stars. Moreover, beginning in 1984, Salvador began working with a group of astronomers from

  5. Magmatic controls on eruption dynamics of the 1950 yr B.P. eruption of San Antonio Volcano, Tacaná Volcanic Complex, Mexico-Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Juan Carlos; Gardner, James Edward; Macías, José Luis; Meriggi, Lorenzo; Santo, Alba Patrizia

    2013-07-01

    San Antonio Volcano, in the Tacaná Volcanic Complex, erupted ~ 1950 yr. B.P., with a Pelean type eruption that produced andesitic pyroclastic surges and block-and-ash flows destroying part of the volcano summit and producing a horse-shoe shaped crater open to the SW. Between 1950 and 800 yr B.P. the eruption continued with effusive andesites followed by a dacite lava flow and a summit dome, all from a single magma batch. All products consist of phenocrysts and microphenocrysts of zoned plagioclase, amphibole, pyroxene, magnetite ± ilmenite, set in partially crystallized groundmass of glass and microlites of the same mineral phases, except for the lack of amphibole. Included in the andesitic blocks of the block-and-ash flow deposit are basaltic andesite enclaves with elongated and ellipsoidal forms and chilled margins. The enclaves have intersertal textures with brown glass between microphenocrysts of plagioclase, hornblende, pyroxene, and olivine, and minor proportions of phenocrysts of plagioclase, hornblende, and pyroxene. A compositional range obtained of blocks and enclaves resulted from mixing between andesite (866 °C ± 22) and basaltic andesite (enclaves, 932 °C ± 22), which may have triggered the explosive Pelean eruption. Vestiges of that mixing are preserved as complex compositional zones in plagioclase and clinopyroxene-rich reaction rims in amphibole in the andesite. Whole-rock chemistry, geothermometry, experimental petrology and modeling results suggest that after the mixing event the eruption tapped hybrid andesitic magma (≤ 900 °C) and ended with effusive dacitic magma (~ 825 °C), all of which were stored at ~ 200 MPa water pressure. A complex open-system evolution that involved crustal end-members best explains the generation of effusive dacite from the hybrid andesite. Amphibole in the dacite is rimmed by reaction products of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, and Fe-Ti oxides produced by decompression during ascent. Amphibole in the andesite

  6. Assessment of landslide hazards resulting from the February 13, 2001, El Salvador earthquake; a report to the government of El Salvador and the U. S. Agency for International Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rex L.; Crone, Anthony J.; Escobar, Demetreo; Harp, Edwin L.; Major, Jon J.; Martinez, Mauricio; Pullinger, Carlos; Smith, Mark E.

    2001-01-01

    On February 13, 2001, a magnitude 6.5 earthquake occurred about 40 km eastsoutheast of the capital city of San Salvador in central El Salvador and triggered thousands of landslides in the area east of Lago de Ilopango. The landslides are concentrated in a 2,500-km2 area and are particularly abundant in areas underlain by thick deposits of poorly consolidated, late Pleistocene and Holocene Tierra Blanca rhyolitic tephras that were erupted from Ilopango caldera. Drainages in the tephra deposits are deeply incised, and steep valley walls failed during the strong shaking. Many drainages are clogged with landslide debris that locally buries the adjacent valley floor. The fine grain-size of the tephra facilitates its easy mobilization by rainfall runoff. The potential for remobilizing the landslide debris as debris flows and in floods is significant as this sediment is transported through the drainage systems during the upcoming rainy season. In addition to thousands of shallow failures, two very large landslides occurred that blocked the Rio El Desague and the Rio Jiboa. The Rio El Desague landslide has an estimated volume of 1.5 million m3, and the Rio Jiboa landslide has an estimated volume of 12 million m3. Field studies indicate that catastrophic draining of the Rio El Desague landslide-dammed lake would pose a minimal flooding hazard, whereas catastrophic draining of the Rio Jiboa lake would pose a serious hazard and warrants immediate action. Construction of a spillway across part of the dam could moderate the impact of catastrophic lake draining and the associated flood. Two major slope failures on the northern side of Volcan San Vicente occurred in the upper reaches of Quebrada Del Muerto and the Quebrada El Blanco. The landslide debris in the Quebrada Del Muerto consists dominantly of blocks of well-lithified andesite, whereas the debris in the Quebrada El Blanco consists of poorly consolidated pyroclastic sediment. The large blocks of lithified rock in

  7. Salvador Dali : 1904-1989

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Sürrealismi joonte levimine mööblikujundusse - Salvador Dali Edvard Jamesile kavandatud diivan "Mae Westi huuled". Diivani ideeks Dali maal "Mae Westi nägu, mida võiks kasutada sürrealistliku ruumina", mille järgi on sisustatud üks ruum 1973. a. Hispaanias Figuerases avatud Dali majamuuseumis. 2 ill

  8. Childhood cancer in El Salvador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossell, Nuria; Gigengack, Roy; Blume, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In El Salvador, children under 12 diagnosed with cancer have access to free treatment at a specialized national facility. Until recently, 13 percent of patients annually abandoned therapy-a serious loss of lives and scarce resources. This qualitative study explores how some parents perce

  9. Childhood cancer in El Salvador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossell, Nuria; Gigengack, Roy; Blume, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In El Salvador, children under 12 diagnosed with cancer have access to free treatment at a specialized national facility. Until recently, 13 percent of patients annually abandoned therapy-a serious loss of lives and scarce resources. This qualitative study explores how some parents

  10. Salvador Dali : 1904-1989

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Sürrealismi joonte levimine mööblikujundusse - Salvador Dali Edvard Jamesile kavandatud diivan "Mae Westi huuled". Diivani ideeks Dali maal "Mae Westi nägu, mida võiks kasutada sürrealistliku ruumina", mille järgi on sisustatud üks ruum 1973. a. Hispaanias Figuerases avatud Dali majamuuseumis. 2 ill

  11. Correlates of bisexual behaviors among men who have sex with men in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Evelyn J; Creswell, Jacob; Guardado, Maria Elena; Shah, Neha; Kim, Andrea A; Nieto, Ana Isabel; de Maria Hernandez-Ayala, Flor; Monterroso, Edgar; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2013-05-01

    Bisexual behaviors may increase transmission pathways of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from a higher prevalence group to lower prevalence groups in El Salvador. In 2008, men who have sex with men (MSM) were recruited in San Salvador and San Miguel using respondent driven sampling. Participants were interviewed and tested for HIV and STIs. Sixteen seeds and 797 MSM participated; 34.9% in San Salvador and 58.8% in San Miguel reported bisexual behavior. Bisexual behavior was associated with drug use (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.57, 95% CI: 1.30-5.06) and insertive anal sex (AOR = 5.45, 95% CI: 3.01-9.87), and inversely associated with having a stable male partner (AOR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.26-0.84) and disclosing MSM behavior to family (AOR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22-0.75). Bisexual behavior was associated with risk behaviors with male and female partners that may be associated with HIV and STI transmission. Bisexual men displayed a distinct identity calling for tailored interventions.

  12. Control estructural en el emplazamiento del volcanismo y mineralizaciones neógenas, distrito Cañada Honda, San Luis Structural control on Neogene volcanism and related ore deposits at Cañada Honda district, San Luis province

    OpenAIRE

    María Silvia Japas; Nilda Esther Urbina; Patricia Sruoga

    2010-01-01

    Emplazada en la zona de transición sur del segmento de flat-slab pampeano y directamente vinculada a la horizontalización de la placa de Nazca, la faja volcánica terciaria de San Luis delata la migración que experimentó el arco magmático andino a la latitud de los 33º S en tiempos mio-pliocenos. Esta faja volcánica comprende una serie de distritos metalogenéticos de gran importancia en las Sierras Pampeanas de San Luis. Las rocas volcánicas y mineralizaciones de la faja volcánica terciaria se...

  13. Salvador Dali Kopenhaagenis / Ave Räkk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Räkk, Ave

    1999-01-01

    Salvador Dalí näitus Kopenhaageni moodsa kunsti muuseumis Arkenis kuni 2. I 2000. Eksponeeritud 119 originaaljoonistust autobiograafilisest raamatust 'The secret life of Salvador Dali', umbes 300 illustratsiooni, graafikat, skulptuure, kuld ja klaasehistöid, mööblit ja üks maal: 1944. a. valminud, esmakordselt avalikkuse ees olev 'Papillion'.

  14. Salvador Dali Kopenhaagenis / Ave Räkk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Räkk, Ave

    1999-01-01

    Salvador Dalí näitus Kopenhaageni moodsa kunsti muuseumis Arkenis kuni 2. I 2000. Eksponeeritud 119 originaaljoonistust autobiograafilisest raamatust 'The secret life of Salvador Dali', umbes 300 illustratsiooni, graafikat, skulptuure, kuld ja klaasehistöid, mööblit ja üks maal: 1944. a. valminud, esmakordselt avalikkuse ees olev 'Papillion'.

  15. El Salvador: Conflict and Change: A Secondary Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, Craig, Ed.

    This curriculum emphasizes El Salvador's physical and human geography and involves students in active learning situations using critical and creative thinking skills. The seven lessons include: (1) "Why Study El Salvador?"; (2) "Where in the World Is El Salvador?"; (3) "Picturing El Salvador: Looking Beyond the Numbers"; (4) "Life and Land in El…

  16. El Salvador: Conflict and Change: A Secondary Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, Craig, Ed.

    This curriculum emphasizes El Salvador's physical and human geography and involves students in active learning situations using critical and creative thinking skills. The seven lessons include: (1) "Why Study El Salvador?"; (2) "Where in the World Is El Salvador?"; (3) "Picturing El Salvador: Looking Beyond the…

  17. La maquila en El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Accepter ou mourir, tels sont les enjeux pour les femmes des maquilas. Voilà ce que nous avons hélas entendu de nos collègues d'Amérique centrale. Nous ne saurions passer sous silence cette autre facette perverse du grand Commerce international. Ainsi dans les zones franches fleurissent, un peu partout dans le monde mais plus particulièrement en Amérique centrale (Mexique, Honduras, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Salvador, Nicaragua entre autres), le maquila business pratique ouvertement une forme d'...

  18. Role of Temperature, Humidity and Rainfall on Influenza Transmission in Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Bonilla, Luis; Jara, Jorge; McCracken, John; Azziz?-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kiang, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, seasonal influenza causes about 500,000 deaths and 5 million severe illnesses per year. The environmental drivers of influenza transmission are poorly understood especially in the tropics. We aimed to identify meteorological factors for influenza transmission in tropical Central America. We gathered laboratory-confirmed influenza case-counts by week from Guatemala City, San Salvador Department (El Salvador) and Panama Province from 2006 to 2010. The average total cases per year were: 390 (Guatemala), 99 (San Salvador) and 129 (Panama). Meteorological factors including daily air temperature, rainfall, relative and absolute humidity (RH, AH) were obtained from ground stations, NASA satellites and land models. For these factors, we computed weekly averages and their deviation from the 5-yr means. We assessed the relationship between the number of influenza case-counts and the meteorological factors, including effects lagged by 1 to 4 weeks, using Poisson regression for each site. Our results showed influenza in San Salvador would increase by 1 case within a week of every 1 day with RH>75% (Relative Risk (RR)= 1.32, p=.001) and every 1C increase in minimum temperature (RR=1.29, p=.007) but it would decrease by 1 case for every 1mm-above mean weekly rainfall (RR=0.93,pGuatemala had 1 case increase for every 1C increase in minimum temperature in the previous week (RR=1.21, p<.001), and for every 1mm/day-above normal increase of rainfall rate (RR=1.03, p=.03) (model pseudo-R2=0.54). Our findings that cases increase with temperature and humidity differ from some temperate-zone studies. But they indicate that climate parameters such as humidity and temperature could be predictive of influenza activity and should be incorporated into country-specific influenza transmission models

  19. Morphometric analysis of El Salvador Fault Zone. Implications to the tectonic evolution. Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Jesús Martínez-Díaz, José; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio

    2013-04-01

    It is considered that the study of the recent topography development, and the use of geomorphological indexes are good tools for the quantification of the active tectonics. We have used quantitative geomorphology in order to improve our understanding of the recent activity and tectonic evolution of the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ); an E-W oriented strike-slip fault zone that extends 150 km through El Salvador (Martínez-Díaz et al. 2004). Previous studies propose a transtensive tectonic regime at the Central America Volcanic Arc in El Salvador, which induces relative vertical motions on the faults within El Salvador Fault Zone (i.e. Álvarez-Gómez et al., 2008, Cáceres et al. 2005,). This relative vertical displacement can be quantified with the use of hypsometry as a geomorphological character. The morphometric analysis done contributes to a better understanding of the ESFZ. We have defined km scale tectonic block relative displacements that may be useful to constrain the strain distribution along the ESFZ, length of segments with homogeneous vertical movements and lateral relay of active structures. This study supports the hypothesis of a recent migration in the maximum shortening direction, and the accomodation of the current deformation through the reactivation of pre-existing structures inherited from a previous tectonic frame. A similar tectonic evolution as described Weinberg (1992) in Nicaragua, is interpreted from the results of this study.

  20. [Assessing the insecticide resistance of an Aedes aegypti strain in El Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano, Juan A Bisset; Rodríguez, María M; San Martín, José L; Romero, José E; Montoya, Romeo

    2009-09-01

    To assess the level of insecticide susceptibility of a certain Aedes aegypti strain found in El Salvador and to explain the mechanisms for its resistance to temephos. An A. aegypti strain from the municipality of Soyapango, Department of San Salvador, El Salvador, was studied. Bioassays were used to determine the susceptibility of the larvae to the organophosphate insecticide temephos and to three pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cypermethrin); and of adults to an organophosphate insecticide (chlorpyrifos). The resistance factor (RF50) with determined with respect to a reference susceptible strain (Rockefeller). The mechanism of temephos resistance was determined through the use of synergistic substances, biochemical assays for enzymatic activity, and polyacrylamide gel zymograms. The larvae of the strain studied proved highly resistant to temephos (RF50 = 24.16). Of the enzyme samples analyzed, only the esterase A4 was linked to the mechanism of temephos resistance. The adult mosquitoes were susceptible to lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos; and resistance to deltamethrin and cypermethrin fell into the category needing further verification. Temephos resistance could reduce the efficiency of chemical control of the A. aegypti mosquito in El Salvador study area. Chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cypermethrin are good alternative insecticides for use in new efforts to control this vector.

  1. U.S. Migrant Networks and Adult Cardiometabolic Health in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michelle Y; Francis, Lori A

    2016-12-01

    Heightened prevalence of cardiometabolic health conditions in areas where infectious disease remains a major public health concern has created an especially challenging situation for developing countries, like El Salvador. Individuals living within migrant households where migrant networks are present may be at a greater risk for the development of cardiometabolic health conditions. Using data from the 2007 El Salvador database of the Latin American Migration Project (LAMP-ESLS4), this study investigates relations between financial remittances, familial U.S. migration history and cardiometabolic health conditions (overweight status, diabetes, hypertension, heart disease and stroke) among 534 individuals within 351 households from four different communities within the departments of La Unión, Cabañas, and San Miguel in El Salvador. Adults living in households that had close primary kin with U.S. migration history were almost two times less likely to be overweight (OR 0.456, p education and economic well-being. This study highlights the importance of exploring the potential role of U.S. migrant ties in the epidemiologic transition present within developing countries, like El Salvador.

  2. Voto preferente en El Salvador: Lecciones aprendidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cristina Araujo Serrano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la implementación del voto preferente en El Salvador por medio de una resolución de la Sala Constitucional salvadoreña. Asimismo, se estudian las consecuencias de esta disposición en el ordenamiento jurídico salvadoreño, la percepción de la opinión pública y en el sistema de partidos de ese país centroamericano. Finalmente, se exponen algunas de las discusiones que en torno a este tema se han generado en el ámbito costarricense.

  3. Arreteeriti Salvador Dali võltsija

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Hispaania politsei arreteeris Cadaquesis Salvador Dali endise sekretäri, ameeriklase John Peter Moore'i, kes tabati Dali võltslitograafiate müümiselt. Läbiotsimisel leiti Moore'i majast sadu võltsinguid

  4. Arreteeriti Salvador Dali võltsija

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Hispaania politsei arreteeris Cadaquesis Salvador Dali endise sekretäri, ameeriklase John Peter Moore'i, kes tabati Dali võltslitograafiate müümiselt. Läbiotsimisel leiti Moore'i majast sadu võltsinguid

  5. Lenini ilmumine Salvador Dalile / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-2016

    2007-01-01

    Salvador Dali maali "Osaline kangastus. Kuus Lenini ilmumist tiibklaveril" ("Hallucination partielle. Six apparitions de Lénine sur un piano") verbaalsest interpretatsioonist Harkovi ülikooli uurija Oleg Zaslavski teooria alusel

  6. Lenini ilmumine Salvador Dalile / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-

    2007-01-01

    Salvador Dali maali "Osaline kangastus. Kuus Lenini ilmumist tiibklaveril" ("Hallucination partielle. Six apparitions de Lénine sur un piano") verbaalsest interpretatsioonist Harkovi ülikooli uurija Oleg Zaslavski teooria alusel

  7. A Lesson Plan on El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interracial Books for Children Bulletin, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information on Salvadoran history, politics, and religion. Provides a model lesson plan designed to help high school students to understand events leading to the current conflict in El Salvador and the rest of Central America. (Author/GC)

  8. El Salvador - Non-Formal Skills Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Non-Formal Skills Development Sub-Activity had a budget of $5 million (USD) to provide short-term training to vulnerable populations in El Salvador's Northern...

  9. First known fossil bird tracks on San Salvador island, Bahamas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, A.J; Whitten, M.J

    2015-01-01

    ...) are the first known vertebrate trace fossils on this well-studied island. The trace fossils, preserved as bedding-plane impressions in an oolitic-bioclastic grainstone, match the size and form of tracks made by modern gulls...

  10. Geological and geochemical studies of the Sierra del Morro-Oeste (San Luis Province, Argentina): Meta-sediments and meta-volcanics from a probable back-arc setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delakowitz, B.; Höll, R.; Hack, M.; de Brodtkorb, M. K.; Stärk, H.

    The Sierra del Morro-Oeste covers an area of some 40 km 2 in the northeastern part of San Luis Province, Argentina. This area is an integral part of the scheelite- and wolframite-bearing crystalline basement of the Sierras Pampeanas. A "characteristic rock sequence"—several tens of meters thick—is concordantly embedded between uniform country rocks (quartz-oligoclase/andesine micaschists and gneises); it includes layered alternations of banded amphibolites, hornblende-epidote schists, scheelite-bearing calc-silicate rocks, lenses of barren marble, and, locally, tourmaline-bearing micaschists. Chemical analyses of amphibolite samples allow these metamorphic rocks to be interpreted as derivatives of a tholeiite-basaltic volcanism. The amphibolites are subdivided into two groups (A and B) because of significant differences in their chemical composition. These differences are related to hydrothermal seafloor alteration. This sea-water alteration has been most effective in the youngest tholeiite-basaltic lava extrusions. The derivatives of the submarine altered tholeiite-basaltic lavas (amphibolites of Group B) can therefore be interpreted as younger in comparison with the primary lavas of the non-altered amphibolites of Group A. The extrusion of the tholeiite-basaltic lavas obviously took place during an initial stage of back-arc basin rifting on continental crust.

  11. Collaborative studies target volcanic hazards in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, Gregg J. S.; Rose, William I.

    Central America is the second-most consistently active volcanic zone on Earth, after Indonesia. Centuries of volcanic activity have produced a spectacular landscape of collapsed calderas, debris flows, and thick blankets of pyroclastic materials. Volcanic activity dominates the history, culture, and daily life of Central American countries.January 2002 marked the third consecutive year in which a diverse group of volcanologists and geophysicists conducted focused field studies in Central America. This type of multi-institutional collaboration reflects the growing involvement of a number of U.S. and non-U.S. universities, and of other organizations, in Guatemala and El Salvador (Table 1).

  12. Catastrophic volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Peter W.

    1988-01-01

    Since primitive times, catastrophes due to volcanic activity have been vivid in the mind of man, who knew that his activities in many parts of the world were threatened by lava flows, mudflows, and ash falls. Within the present century, increasingly complex interactions between volcanism and the environment, on scales not previously experienced historically, have been detected or suspected from geologic observations. These include enormous hot pyroclastic flows associated with collapse at source calderas and fed by eruption columns that reached the stratosphere, relations between huge flood basalt eruptions at hotspots and the rifting of continents, devastating laterally-directed volcanic blasts and pyroclastic surges, great volcanic-generated tsunamis, climate modification from volcanic release of ash and sulfur aerosols into the upper atmosphere, modification of ocean circulation by volcanic constructs and attendent climatic implications, global pulsations in intensity of volcanic activity, and perhaps triggering of some intense terrestrial volcanism by planetary impacts. Complex feedback between volcanic activity and additional seemingly unrelated terrestrial processes likely remains unrecognized. Only recently has it become possible to begin to evaluate the degree to which such large-scale volcanic processes may have been important in triggering or modulating the tempo of faunal extinctions and other evolutionary events. In this overview, such processes are examined from the viewpoint of a field volcanologist, rather than as a previous participant in controversies concerning the interrelations between extinctions, impacts, and volcanism.

  13. Women in physics in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, T.; de Contreras, D.; Rivera, W.

    2013-03-01

    Current conditions impose serious limitations on admission to careers and specialization for physicists in general and especially for women in physics. This is a critical issue in a country where political instability, a civil war, and postwar conditions have limited the development of science and technology, and where there are just a few masters in science in the whole university and even fewer professionals with a PhD degree. In the past three years, El Salvador has defined clear lines of work that involve female physicists at the University of El Salvador. These lines are seismology, meteorology, climatology, and physics education.

  14. Shadowing: pediatric heart surgery in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Caleb

    2012-01-01

    In September 2009, the year before the author began medical school, he accompanied a team of doctors, nurses, and technicians from the nonprofit organization Heart Care International (HCI) on a trip to El Salvador. Founded in 1994 by the heart surgeon Robert Michler, HCI strives to provide care to children with congenital heart disease in developing countries. In addition to El Salvador, HCI has worked in Guatemala and the Dominican Republic, leaving behind lasting local programs and always looking to the future for new opportunities.

  15. Geological control of earthquake induced landslide in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsige Aga, Meaza

    2010-05-01

    Geological control of earthquake induced landslides in El Salvador. M., Tsige(1), I., Garcia-Flórez(1), R., Mateos(2) (1)Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Geología, Madrid, Spain, (meaza@geo.ucm.es) (2)IGME, Mallorca El Salvador is located at one of the most seismically active areas en Central America, and suffered severe damage and loss of life in historical and recent earthquakes, as a consequence of earthquake induced landslides. The most common landslides were shallow disrupted soil-slides on steep slopes and were particularly dense in the central part of the country. Most of them are cited in the recent mechanically weak volcanic pyroclastic deposits known as "Tierra Blanca" and "Tierra Color Café" which are prone to seismic wave amplification and are supposed to have contributed to the triggering of some of the hundreds of landslides related to the 2001 (Mw = 7.6 and Mw = 6.7), seismic events. The earthquakes also triggered numerous deep large scale landslides responsible for the enormous devastation of villages and towns and are the source for the current high seismic hazard as well. Many of these landslides are located at distances more than 50 and 100 km from the focal distance, although some of them occurred at near field. Until now there has been little effort to explain the causes and concentration of the deep large-scale landslides especially their distribution, failure mechanism and post-rapture behavior of the landslide mass (long run-out). It has been done a field investigation of landslides, geological materiales and interpretation of aerial photographs taken before and after the two 2001 (Mw= 7.6 and Mw= 6.7) El Salvador earthquakes. The result of the study showed that most of the large-scale landslides occured as coherent block slides with the sliding surface parallel to a pre-existing fractures and fault planes (La Leona, Barriolera, El Desague, Jiboa landslides). Besides that the pre-existing fractures are weak zones controlling

  16. Prevalence and predictors of abandonment of therapy among children with cancer in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Miguel; Rossell, Nuria; Salaverria, Carmen; Gupta, Sumit; Barr, Ronald; Sala, Alessandra; Metzger, Monika L; Sung, Lillian

    2009-11-01

    Abandonment of therapy is one of the most common causes of treatment failure among children with cancer in low-income countries. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence and predictors of abandonment among such children with cancer in El Salvador. We analyzed data on patients younger than 16 years, diagnosed with any malignancy between January 2001 and December 2003 at the Benjamin Bloom National Children's Hospital, San Salvador. Among 612 patients, 353 were male (58%); the median age at diagnosis was 5.1 years; 59% of patients were diagnosed with leukemia/lymphoma, 28% with solid tumors and 13% with brain tumors. The prevalence of abandonment was 13%. Median time to abandonment was 2.0 (range 0-36) months. In univariate analyses, paternal illiteracy [odds ratio (OR) 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-7.2; p = 0.001]; maternal illiteracy (OR = 5.1, 95% CI 2.5-10; p El Salvador, despite the provision of free treatment, socioeconomic variables significantly predict increased risk of abandonment of therapy. Understanding the pathways through which socioeconomic status affects abandonment may allow the design of effective interventions. (c) 2009 UICC.

  17. Estratigrafía y facies volcánicas y volcaniclásticas de la Formación Valle del Cura: magmatismo paleógeno en la Cordillera Frontal de San Juan Stratigraphy and volcanic facies of the of the Valle del Cura Formation: Paleogene volcanism in the Frontal Cordillera of San Juan

    OpenAIRE

    V. D. Litvak; S. Poma

    2005-01-01

    En la región del Valle del Cura, Cordillera Frontal de San Juan, aflora una espesa secuencia de rocas volcánicas y volcaniclásticas, en facies piroclásticas y epiclásticas, que representa el desarrollo de un importante episodio volcano-sedimentario eoceno-oligoceno inferior. Esta unidad, la Formación Valle del Cura, incluye espesos paquetes de tobas, conglomerados gruesos, areniscas líticas medianas a gruesas, areniscas volcánicas y escasas pelitas. Los niveles volcánicos están formados por f...

  18. [The echinoderms (Echinodermata) from El Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enrique Barraza, José; Roberto Hasbún, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    A list of echinoderms from El Salvador (tropical eastern Pacific) is presented. The results were obtained from field surveys (between the years 2000 and 2004), the scarce literature sources, and Internet information. A total of 37 species and six genera are reported. The most abundant echinoderms in rocky shores were: Phataria unifascialis, Echinometra vanbrunti, Holothuria kefersteini, as well as Astropecten armatus in soft bottoms.

  19. Carles Salvador, l'autoritat gramatical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent Pitarch

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Carles Salvador had strong nationalistic convictions and was very active in promoting the Catalan language in several areas, specifically in developing treatises on spelling, grammar and lexicography. His work would help consolidate the standardization of Catalan in the Valencian Country and would make him an unquestionable authority on Catalan grammar.

  20. Probable flood predictions in ungauged coastal basins of El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, M.J.; Smith, M.E.; Chica, A.M.E.; Litke, D.

    2008-01-01

    A regionalization procedure is presented and used to predict probable flooding in four ungauged coastal river basins of El Salvador: Paz, Jiboa, Grande de San Miguel, and Goascoran. The flood-prediction problem is sequentially solved for two regions: upstream mountains and downstream alluvial plains. In the upstream mountains, a set of rainfall-runoff parameter values and recurrent peak-flow discharge hydrographs are simultaneously estimated for 20 tributary-basin models. Application of dissimilarity equations among tributary basins (soft prior information) permitted development of a parsimonious parameter structure subject to information content in the recurrent peak-flow discharge values derived using regression equations based on measurements recorded outside the ungauged study basins. The estimated joint set of parameter values formed the basis from which probable minimum and maximum peak-flow discharge limits were then estimated revealing that prediction uncertainty increases with basin size. In the downstream alluvial plain, model application of the estimated minimum and maximum peak-flow hydrographs facilitated simulation of probable 100-year flood-flow depths in confined canyons and across unconfined coastal alluvial plains. The regionalization procedure provides a tool for hydrologic risk assessment and flood protection planning that is not restricted to the case presented herein. ?? 2008 ASCE.

  1. Flows correlation of the Tuxtlas, Veracruz volcanic field. Dating by TL of ceramics found in leakages of the San Martin volcano; Correlacion de flujos del campovolcanico de los Tuxtlas, Veracruz. Fechamiento por TL de ceramicas encontradas en derrames del volcan San Martin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A.; Schaaf, P.; Espindola, J.M. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Zamora, A. [Posgrado en Ciencias de la Tierra, UNAM (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In this work the age estimation carried out to archaeological ceramics found inside the spills and one ash deposit both of the San Martin volcano. The technique used for its processing was that of fine grain (4-11 {mu}m). The paleodosis it was calculated using the additive method for the determination of the equivalent dose (Q) and the regenerative method for the determination of the factor by supralineality (l). The samples of ceramic were processed like total sample. In the case of the geologic sample (ash sample) one carries out the separation of minerals in particular glasses at 95% of purity. For the determination of the annual dose rate its were carried out in the place of sampling measurements with a gamma spectrometry equipment, with it the determinations of Uranium, thorium and potassium were obtained, besides the cosmic contribution. Once having both elements (paleodosis and annual dose rate) it was calculated the age of the samples and consequently of the flows, which were stratigraphically correlated. (Author)

  2. Tectonic evolution of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Insights from analogue experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Schreurs, Guido; Jesús Martínez-Díaz, José; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ) is an active, c. 150 km long and 20 km wide segmented, dextral strike-slip fault zone within the El Salvador Volcanic Arc striking N90°-100°E. Although several studies have investigated the surface expression of the ESFZ, little is known about its structure at depth and its kinematic evolution. Our analysis of structural field data, remote sensing images and morphometric indices reveals a trenchward migration of the volcanic arc and furthermore suggests that not all structures within the ESFZ can be explained within the current tectonic context, but require a phase of extension or an extensional component of deformation at some stage in the evolution of the ESFZ. Such an extension and trenchward migration of the volcanic arc could be related to subduction roll-back of the Cocos Plate beneath the Chortis Block in Mio-Pliocene times. Such a possible evolution leads to open questions that we address in our research: Is the ESFZ a neo-formed fault zone, i.e. did it form during one phase of strike-slip or transtensional deformation, or do the structures in the ESFZ reflect a two-phase evolution, i.e. an early phase of extension overprinted by a later phase of strike-slip or transtension? Did subduction roll-back occur beneath El Salvador? We carried out analogue model experiments to test whether or not an early phase of extension is required to form the present-day fault pattern in the ESFZ. Analogue modeling is an effective tool in testing various hypotheses, as it allows the experimenter to control specific parameters and to test their influence on the resulting structures. Our experiments suggest that a two-phase tectonic evolution best explains the ESFZ: an early pure extensional phase linked to a segmented volcanic arc is necessary to form the main structures of the ESFZ and can explain the shallow geometry of the fault zone. This extensional phase is followed by a strike-slip dominated regime, which results in inter

  3. Assessment of earthquake-induced landslides hazard in El Salvador after the 2001 earthquakes using macroseismic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Eliana; Violante, Crescenzo; Giunta, Giuseppe; Ángel Hernández, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Two strong earthquakes and a number of smaller aftershocks struck El Salvador in the year 2001. The January 13 2001 earthquake, Mw 7.7, occurred along the Cocos plate, 40 km off El Salvador southern coast. It resulted in about 1300 deaths and widespread damage, mainly due to massive landsliding. Two of the largest earthquake-induced landslides, Las Barioleras and Las Colinas (about 2x105 m3) produced major damage to buildings and infrastructures and 500 fatalities. A neighborhood in Santa Tecla, west of San Salvador, was destroyed. The February 13 2001 earthquake, Mw 6.5, occurred 40 km east-southeast of San Salvador. This earthquake caused over 300 fatalities and triggered several landslides over an area of 2,500 km2 mostly in poorly consolidated volcaniclastic deposits. The La Leona landslide (5-7x105 m3) caused 12 fatalities and extensive damage to the Panamerican Highway. Two very large landslides of 1.5 km3 and 12 km3 produced hazardous barrier lakes at Rio El Desague and Rio Jiboa, respectively. More than 16.000 landslides occurred throughout the country after both quakes; most of them occurred in pyroclastic deposits, with a volume less than 1x103m3. The present work aims to define the relationship between the above described earthquake intensity, size and areal distribution of induced landslides, as well as to refine the earthquake intensity in sparsely populated zones by using landslide effects. Landslides triggered by the 2001 seismic sequences provided useful indication for a realistic seismic hazard assessment, providing a basis for understanding, evaluating, and mapping the hazard and risk associated with earthquake-induced landslides.

  4. El Salvador en tiempos de Monseñor Romero. El camino hacia la guerra civil (1978-1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Grenni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente escrito presenta las contradicciones que se dieron en uno de los periodos de mayor efervescencia social en El Salvador: los años 1978 a 1981. La situación derivó con frecuencia en violencia y hacia la radicalización de las propuestas, lo que hizo que el camino hacia la guerra civil que probablemente nadie quería, y que estalló entre 1980 y 1992, se transformase en la única posibilidad. Esta efervescencia, que tuvo varios actores principales, dio paso a la violencia, que terminó con la vida del arzobispo de San Salvador. Se propone en este artículo que el asesinato del arzobispo Óscar Romero fue un acontecimiento decisivo en la radicalización definitiva de las posturas y en el estallido de la guerra.   This paper looks at the contradictions that took place in one of the periods of greatest social upheaval in El Salvador: the years between 1978 and 1981. The situation derived more than often in violence and leaned towards the radicalization of proposals, which made civil war seem like the only possible solution. Although in all probability nobody wanted this war, it erupted between 1980 and 1992. This upheaval, along with its numerous actors, led to a scenario marked by violence, which ended with the life of the Archbishop of San Salvador. In view of this, this article argues that the assassination of Archbishop Óscar Romero was a decisive event in the definite radicalization of the political positions as well as in the eruption of the war.

  5. A new medical mission to El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, J; Eisenberg, C; Gloyd, S; Quiroga, J; Schlenker, T; Scrimshaw, N; Devin, J

    1989-10-19

    El Salvador has a long history of human right abuses and a record of violations of medical neutrality and international humanitarian law. A civil war broke out between the Salvadorian armed forces and a guerrilla opposition, the Farabundo Marti Liberacion Nacional (FMLN) in 1979. To investigate and report on specific allegations of abuses of human rights and medical neutrality by both sides in the conflict, a medical mission visited El Salvador in early June, 1989. It was sponsored by Physicians for Human Rights. The delegation consisted of 5 physicians, an attorney, and an observer from the staff of the Select Committee on Hunger of the US House of Representatives. The mission explored violations of medical neutrality. It investigated the reported obstruction of civil health personnel and of the delivery of supplies to people living in congested rural areas, refugees, and displaced persons, allegations of assault, intimidation, harassment, and torture of health workers; reports of attacks on hospitals and clinics; and the impact of 19 years civil war on El Salvador's medical institutions. The Salvadorian public health system has been seriously damaged by the civil war. A network of "community health promoters"--Salvadorians trained to give simple prevention and curative care--has begun. This network serves primarily those in contested areas. Nearly all roads in rural areas are controlled by military road blocks. Health workers have reported military interference with vaccination campaigns. The Salvadorian army harasses people they believe support the FMLN and obstructs their access to the communities. In February, 1989, the Atlacatl Battalion of the Salvadorian army attacked FMLN medical personnel. The Nongovernmental Human Rights Commission of El Salvador claims to have identified 40 different kinds of torture. Medical education has suffered from budgetary restrictions and from the hostility of the Salvadorian government.

  6. Hydrocarbon market in El Salvador; Mercado de hidrocarburos en El Salvador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava de Hernandez, Gina Mercedes [Ministerio de Economia, Direccion de Energia, Minas e Hidrocarburos (El Salvador)

    1997-07-01

    This document presents a summary of the present situation of the market of hydrocarbons in El Salvador, doing a synthesis of the conformation of the industry, of the demand of the country, the prices and others. In addition, it shows the situation before and after the deregulation, making emphasis in the changes originated by such a measure. [Spanish] El presente documento presenta un resumen de la situacion actual del mercado de los hidrocarburos en El Salvador, haciendo una sintesis de la conformacion de la industria, de la demanda del pais, los precios y otros. Ademas muestra la situacion antes y despues de la desregulacion, haciendo enfasis en los cambios ocurridos por tal medida.

  7. Salvador na "Globalização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Porto

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available El texto sitúa la ciudad de Salvador-Bahía, tercera en población de Brasil, en el contexto de los impactos de la globalización. Desde la década de 1950 hasta la de 1970, Salvador se destacó de las demás ciudades del Nordeste de Brasil experimentando un rápido crecimento gracias a los incentivos y subsidios fiscales y financieros del gobierno federal. El crecimiento de la Región y ciudades fue desigual y abrupto, sobre todo Salvador, que abrió espacios internos para expandir y descentralizarse. Todavía, a partir de los años 80 y 90, con la reestruturación productiva y el neoliberalismo, que definen los terminos de la globalización, el proceso se invirtió. El espacio metropolitano se contrajo, económica y socialmente, con un aumento desmesurado de desempleados y sub-empreados, intensificando de esa forma el proceso de segregación y exclusión social. En contraposición, algunas «islas de modernidad» pasaron a conectarse, a partir de sus cada vez más reducidas y cada vez más ricas actividades económicas -el turismo, antes y encima de todo-, a puntos y espacios nacionales y, mayoritariamente, internacionales, mucho más de que a espacios y flujos internosThe following paper sets the city of Salvador-Bahía, Brazil´s third most populated city, in context with the effects of globalization. Between the 1950’s and 1970’s, Brazil’s northeastern region experienced fast economic growth due to federal financial and fiscal incentives. This sudden process occurred unevenly at regional and city levels, especially for Salvador that released internal areas to expand and decentralize itself. However, during the 1980’s and 1990’s this process was reversed due to neoliberalism and productive restructuring. These are the elements that define in what terms globalization sets in. Consequently, the economic and social spaces of the metropolitan area contracted, increasing the number of unemployed and under-employed people, and

  8. Educational Reform with Television: The El Salvador Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, John K.; And Others

    A detailed report describes the planning, development, operation, results, and problems of an experiment in instructional television in El Salvador. Unlike other developing countries, El Salvador conceived of educational television as an integral component of national educational reform, embracing curriculum revision, teacher training, and new…

  9. Educational Reform with Television: The El Salvador Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, John K.; And Others

    A detailed report describes the planning, development, operation, results, and problems of an experiment in instructional television in El Salvador. Unlike other developing countries, El Salvador conceived of educational television as an integral component of national educational reform, embracing curriculum revision, teacher training, and new…

  10. Television and Educational Reform in El Salvador. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornik, Robert C.; And Others

    Standord University's Institute for Communication Research was asked in 1968 to conduct an evaluation of a new instructional television (ITV) system in El Salvador: to study the effects of ITV on El Salvador's school system; to derive conclusions from the experience that might help guide other nations interested in applying instructional…

  11. Elimination of Rhodnius prolixus in El Salvador, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillos, Rafael Antonio; Romero, José Eduardo; Sasagawa, Emi

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiological studies performed in El Salvador between 1955-1972 demonstrated a high frequency of two triatomine vectors (Triatoma dimidiata and Rhodnius prolixus). However, the frequency of R. prolixus decreased by 1976 and this species has not been found since 1995. The main factors influencing the elimination of R. prolixus in El Salvador are discussed in this paper.

  12. San Francisco District Laboratory (SAN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program Capabilities Food Analysis SAN-DO Laboratory has an expert in elemental analysis who frequently performs field inspections of materials. A recently acquired...

  13. Living with floods in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, T.

    2014-12-01

    Water issues impact all aspects of life. This is especially true for a rural community in El Salvador, which has developed an interesting relationship with almost annually recurring floods. What most would consider a natural disaster has been embraced by the majority of these community members; many even rely on it. This presentation aims to provide a realistic assessment of how some communities are interacting with and using natural disasters to their advantage, and discuss the implications for natural disaster preparedness planning, public policy, and scientist/government officials' sometimes inappropriate strategies.

  14. EL SALVADOR: ENTRE EL CONTINUISMO Y LA DESILUSIÓN El Salvador: Between Continuity and Disappointement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROODY RÉSERVE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 2010 y 2011 han sido particularmente convulsivos para El Salvador. En 2010 Ia crisis institucional y el enfrentamiento entre los poderes Legislativo y Judicial marcaron la agenda. Cuatro magistrados de la Corte Suprema de Justicia fueron considerados en desacato con lo que se considera como el primer órgano del Estado en El Salvador. De no haber sido por fuertes presiones de la sociedad civil, los diputados habrían destituido a los magistrados por haber intervenido en materia electoral, que ellos consideran de su estricta incumbencia. 2011 terminó con la decisión del Presidente de militarizar la seguridad pública. Esto desencadenó una avalancha de renuncias de los miembros de su gabinete de seguridad y enfrentamiento con organismos de derechos humanos locales. Así, se abortó el experimento de impulsar una concepción de izquierda, novedosa para El Salvador, en materia de enfrentamiento de la violencia. De paso, durante estos dos años el desencuentro político entre el presidente Mauricio Funes y su partido el Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional (FMLN también ha marcado el ritmo de la vida política.2010 and 2011 have been two convulsive years for El Salvador. In 2010 the institutional crisis and confrontation between the Legislative and Judicial Organs were the most salient political events. Four Judgesfrom the Constitutional Court were considered in contempt with the Legislative, which is considered in El Salvador as thefirst Organ of the State. Had it not beenfor intense pressures from organized actors in the Civil Society, the deputies would have dismissed the judges, for having dared to decide in electoral matters, consider to be the sole responsibility ofthe legislators. 2011 ended with the president's decision to put the military in charge ofpublic security. This decision triggered an avalanche of resignationfrom members of his security cabinet and harsh criticism of the local human rights organizations. In 2011

  15. Volcanic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Kenneth A.; Gerlach, Terrance M.

    1995-01-01

    In Roman mythology, Vulcan, the god of fire, was said to have made tools and weapons for the other gods in his workshop at Olympus. Throughout history, volcanoes have frequently been identified with Vulcan and other mythological figures. Scientists now know that the “smoke" from volcanoes, once attributed by poets to be from Vulcan’s forge, is actually volcanic gas naturally released from both active and many inactive volcanoes. The molten rock, or magma, that lies beneath volcanoes and fuels eruptions, contains abundant gases that are released to the surface before, during, and after eruptions. These gases range from relatively benign low-temperature steam to thick hot clouds of choking sulfurous fume jetting from the earth. Water vapor is typically the most abundant volcanic gas, followed by carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Other volcanic gases are hydrogen sulfide, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrofluoric acid, and other trace gases and volatile metals. The concentrations of these gas species can vary considerably from one volcano to the next.

  16. Sistema de salud de El Salvador The health system of El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describen las condiciones de salud de la población salvadoreña y, con mayor detalle, el sistema de salud de El Salvador, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos con los que cuenta, las actividades de rectoría que desarrolla el Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social, y la participación de los usuarios de los servicios de salud en la evaluación del sistema. Asimismo se discuten las más recientes innovaciones implantadas por el sistema salvadoreño de salud, dentro de las que destacan la aprobación de la Ley de Creación del Sistema Nacional de Salud que busca ampliar la cobertura, disminuir las desigualdades y mejorar la coordinación de las instituciones públicas de salud.This paper describes the health conditions in El Salvador and the main característics of the Salvadoran health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the physical, material and human resources available, the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Public Health, and the participation of health care users in the evaluation of the system. It also discusses the most recent policy innovations including the approval of the Law for the Creation of the National Health System, which intends to expand coverage, reduce health inequalities and improve the coordination of public health institutions.

  17. San Francisco District Laboratory (SAN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesFood Analysis SAN-DO Laboratory has an expert in elemental analysis who frequently performs field inspections of materials. A recently acquired...

  18. Active crustal deformation of the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ) using GPS data: Implications in seismic hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staller, Alejandra; Benito, Belen; Jesús Martínez-Díaz, José; Hernández, Douglas; Hernández-Rey, Román; Alonso-Henar, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    El Salvador, Central America, is part of the Chortis block in the northwestern boundary of the Caribbean plate. This block is interacting with a diffuse triple junction point with the Cocos and North American plates. Among the structures that cut the Miocene to Pleistocene volcanic deposits stands out the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ): It is oriented in N90º-100ºE direction, and it is composed of several structural segments that deform Quaternary deposits with right-lateral and oblique slip motions. The ESFZ is seismically active and capable of producing earthquakes such as the February 13, 2001 with Mw 6.6 (Martínez-Díaz et al., 2004), that seriously affected the population, leaving many casualties. This structure plays an important role in the tectonics of the Chortis block, since its motion is directly related to the drift of the Caribbean plate to the east and not with the partitioning of the deformation of the Cocos subduction (here not coupled) (Álvarez-Gómez et al., 2008). Together with the volcanic arc of El Salvador, this zone constitutes a weakness area that allows the motion of forearc block toward the NW. The geometry and the degree of activity of the ESFZ are not studied enough. However their knowledge is essential to understand the seismic hazard associated to this important seismogenic structure. For this reason, since 2007 a GPS dense network was established along the ESFZ (ZFESNet) in order to obtain GPS velocity measurements which are later used to explain the nature of strain accumulation on major faults along the ESFZ. The current work aims at understanding active crustal deformation of the ESFZ through kinematic model. The results provide significant information to be included in a new estimation of seismic hazard taking into account the major structures in ESFZ.

  19. Volcanic Catastrophes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.

    2003-12-01

    The big news from 20th century geophysics may not be plate tectonics but rather the surprise return of catastrophism, following its apparent 19th century defeat to uniformitarianism. Divine miracles and plagues had yielded to the logic of integrating observations of everyday change over time. Yet the brilliant interpretation of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary iridium anomaly introduced an empirically based catastrophism. Undoubtedly, decades of contemplating our own nuclear self-destruction played a role in this. Concepts of nuclear winter, volcanic winter, and meteor impact winter are closely allied. And once the veil of threat of all-out nuclear exchange began to lift, we could begin to imagine slower routes to destruction as "global change". As a way to end our world, fire is a good one. Three-dimensional magma chambers do not have as severe a magnitude limitation as essentially two-dimensional faults. Thus, while we have experienced earthquakes that are as big as they get, we have not experienced volcanic eruptions nearly as great as those preserved in the geologic record. The range extends to events almost three orders of magnitude greater than any eruptions of the 20th century. Such a calamity now would at the very least bring society to a temporary halt globally, and cause death and destruction on a continental scale. At maximum, there is the possibility of hindering photosynthesis and threatening life more generally. It has even been speculated that the relative genetic homogeneity of humankind derives from an evolutionary "bottleneck" from near-extinction in a volcanic cataclysm. This is somewhat more palatable to contemplate than a return to a form of Original Sin, in which we arrived at homogeneity by a sort of "ethnic cleansing". Lacking a written record of truly great eruptions, our sense of human impact must necessarily be aided by archeological and anthropological investigations. For example, there is much to be learned about the influence of

  20. Zentralamerikas Jugendbanden: "Maras" in Honduras, El Salvador und Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Peetz, Peter

    2004-01-01

    "In El Salvador hat das Parlament Ende letzten Jahres ein neues Gesetz verabschiedet, nach dem die Mitgliedschaft in einer mara (Jugendbande, Streetgang) mit zwei bis fünf Jahren Gefängnis bestraft wird. Dem oder der Beschuldigten muss keine konkrete Straftat nachgewiesen werden. Einige Monate zuvor hatte der honduranische Kongress einstimmig eine ähnliche Regelung beschlossen. Mitte Januar 2004 unterzeichneten die Präsidenten von Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras und Nikaragua ein Abkommen, i...

  1. Evolution of Geochemical Variations Along the Central American Volcanic Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saginor, I. S.; Gazel, E.; Condie, C.; Carr, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    New geochemical analyses of volcanic rocks in El Salvador add to existing data from Nicaragua and Costa Rica to create a comprehensive set of geochemical data for Central American volcanics. These data coupled with previously published 40Ar/39Ar ages covering the past 30 Ma shows that Costa Rica and Nicaragua had similar U/Th and Ba/La values until 10 Ma when the region developed the distinctive along arc variations that made this margin famous. U/Th values increased in Nicaragua since the Miocene, while remaining unchanged along the rest of the volcanic front. This coincides temporally with the Carbonate Crash, which caused a transition in Cocos plate sediments from low-U carbonates to high-U, organic rich hemipelagic muds. Increases in uranium are not observed in Costa Rica because its lower slab dip produces a more diffuse zone of partial melting and because of the contribution from Galapagos-derived tracks dilutes this signal. Ba/La has been used as a geochemical proxy for contributions from the subducting slab, however our analyses indicate that the Ba concentrations do not vary significantly along strike either in the subducting sediment or the volcanic front. Along-arc variation is controlled by changes in La, an indicator of the degree of partial melting or source enrichment. Trace element models of five segments of the volcanic front suggest that a subducting sediment component is more important to magmas produced in El Salvador and Nicaragua than in Costa Rica, where the geochemistry is controlled by recent (<10 Ma) recycling of Galapagos tracks.

  2. San Marino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    San Marino, an independent republic located in north central Italy, in 1983 had a population of 22,206 growing at an annual rate of .9%. The literacy rate is 97% and the infant mortality rate is 9.6/1000. The terrain is mountainous and the climate is moderate. According to local tradition, San Marino was founded by a Christian stonecutter in the 4th century A.D. as a refuge against religious persecution. Its recorded history began in the 9th century, and it has survived assaults on its independence by the papacy, the Malatesta lords of Rimini, Cesare Borgia, Napoleon, and Mussolini. An 1862 treaty with the newly formed Kingdom of Italy has been periodically renewed and amended. The present government is an alliance between the socialists and communists. San Marino has had its own statutes and governmental institutions since the 11th century. Legislative authority at present is vested in a 60-member unicameral parliament. Executive authority is exercised by the 11-member Congress of State, the members of which head the various administrative departments of the goverment. The posts are divided among the parties which form the coalition government. Judicial authority is partly exercised by Italian magistrates in civil and criminal cases. San Marino's policies are tied to Italy's and political organizations and labor unions active in Italy are also active in San Marino. Since World War II, there has been intense rivalry between 2 political coalitions, the Popular Alliance composed of the Christian Democratic Party and the Independent Social Democratic Party, and the Liberty Committee, coalition of the Communist Party and the Socialist Party. San Marino's gross domestic product was $137 million and its per capita income was $6290 in 1980. The principal economic activities are farming and livestock raising, along with some light manufacturing. Foreign transactions are dominated by tourism. The government derives most of its revenue from the sale of postage stamps to

  3. 75 FR 38589 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Salvador Dali: The Late...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Salvador Dali: The Late Work... that the objects to be ] included in the exhibition ``Salvador Dali: The Late Work,'' imported...

  4. Poverty-associated risk factors for wheezing in the first year of life in Honduras and El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueso, A; Figueroa, M; Cousin, L; Hoyos, W; Martínez-Torres, A E; Mallol, J; Garcia-Marcos, L

    2010-01-01

    Risk factors for wheezing specifically during the first year of life have been studied in well-developed countries, but the information from developing countries is very scarce. There are no such studies focusing on factors derived from poverty. The aim of the present study was to determine if risk factors related to poverty are associated to wheezing during the first year of life in infants from Honduras and El Salvador. A survey, using a validated questionnaire, was carried out in the metropolitan area of San Pedro Sula (Honduras) and in La Libertad (El Salvador) in centres where infants attended for a scheduled vaccination shot or a healthy child visit at 12 months of age. Fieldworkers offered questionnaires to parents and helped the illiterate when necessary. The main outcome variable was wheezing during the first year of life, as reported by parents. A total of 1047 infants in El Salvador and 780 in Honduras were included in the analysis. The prevalence of wheeze in the first year was higher in El Salvador (41.2%) than in Honduras (27.7%), as was recurrent wheezing defined as three or more episodes (18.4% vs. 11.7%). Wheezing and recurrent wheezing was associated to unpaved floor in the household (summary odds ratios for both countries 1.55, p=0.036 and 1.72, p=0.054 for any wheeze and recurrent wheezing, respectively); dust entering from streets (1.30, p=0.052 and 1.67, p=0.008); living in a heavily polluted area (1.33, p=0.037 and 1.52, p=0.033); and having mould stains on the household walls (1.36, p=0.072 and 1.76, p=0.007). Furthermore, marginal associations were found for additional person at home and use of kerosene as cooking fuel. University studies in the mother (0.34, p=0.046 and 0.32, p=0.022) and a professional occupation in the father (0.34, p=0.046 and 0.26, p=0.047) were associated to a lower risk. The prevalence of wheezing and recurrent wheezing is notoriously high in El Salvador and Honduras. In those populations factors related to poverty

  5. Spatial patterns of preventable perinatal mortality in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia de Sousa Nascimento

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the spatial distribution patterns and areas of higher risk of preventable perinatal mortality in the city of Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil. METHODS We carried out a spatial aggregated study in 2007, considering the weighting areas (census tracts contiguous sets of Salvador, of which the center and north present low life conditions. Data were obtained from national vital statistics systems and the 2010 Census. Addresses of live births and stillbirths were geocoded by weighting area. The spatial distribution of the perinatal mortality rate was analyzed from thematic maps. Spatial dependence was evaluated by the Global and Local Geary’s and Moran’s Indexes. RESULTS Crude and smoothed perinatal mortality rates were high in areas situated to the north, west, and in center of Salvador. The smoothed rates in weighting areas ranged from 4.9/1,000 to 22.3/1,000 births. Of all perinatal deaths, 92.1% could have been prevented. We identified spatial dependence for preventable perinatal mortality for care in pregnancy, with neighboring areas with high risk in the north of the city. CONCLUSIONS The preventability potential of perinatal mortality was high in Salvador, in 2007. The spatial distribution pattern with higher rates in disadvantaged areas of the city suggests the existence of social inequalities in health. The characteristics of the process of urban development of Salvador, which has inadequate prenatal care, possibly influenced the magnitude and spatial distribution pattern of this mortality.

  6. Volcanic hazard management in dispersed volcanism areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Jose Manuel; Garcia, Alicia; Ortiz, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    Traditional volcanic hazard methodologies were developed mainly to deal with the big stratovolcanoes. In such type of volcanoes, the hazard map is an important tool for decision-makers not only during a volcanic crisis but also for territorial planning. According to the past and recent eruptions of a volcano, all possible volcanic hazards are modelled and included in the hazard map. Combining the hazard map with the Event Tree the impact area can be zoned and defining the likely eruptive scenarios that will be used during a real volcanic crisis. But in areas of disperse volcanism is very complex to apply the same volcanic hazard methodologies. The event tree do not take into account unknown vents, because the spatial concepts included in it are only related with the distance reached by volcanic hazards. The volcanic hazard simulation is also difficult because the vent scatter modifies the results. The volcanic susceptibility try to solve this problem, calculating the most likely areas to have an eruption, but the differences between low and large values obtained are often very small. In these conditions the traditional hazard map effectiveness could be questioned, making necessary a change in the concept of hazard map. Instead to delimit the potential impact areas, the hazard map should show the expected behaviour of the volcanic activity and how the differences in the landscape and internal geo-structures could condition such behaviour. This approach has been carried out in La Palma (Canary Islands), combining the concept of long-term hazard map with the short-term volcanic scenario to show the expected volcanic activity behaviour. The objective is the decision-makers understand how a volcanic crisis could be and what kind of mitigation measurement and strategy could be used.

  7. Subsurface architecture of a strike-slip collapse structure: insights from Ilopango caldera, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxby, Jennifer; Gottsmann, Joachim; Cashman, Katherine; Gutierrez, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    While most calderas are created by roof collapse along ring-like faults into an emptying magma reservoir during a large and violent explosive eruption, an additional condition for caldera formation may be tectonically induced extensional stresses. Here we provide geophysical insights into the shallow sub-volcanic plumbing system of a collapse caldera in a major strike-slip tectonic setting by inverting Bouguer gravity data from the Ilopango caldera in El Salvador. Despite a long history of catastrophic eruptions with the most recent in 500 A.D., the internal architecture of the caldera has not been investigated, although studies of the most recent eruption have not identified the ring faults commonly associated with caldera collapse. The gravity data show that low-density material aligned along the principal stress orientations of the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ) forms a pronounced gravity low beneath the caldera. Extending to around 6 km depth, the low density structure likely maps a complex stacked shallow plumbing system composed of magmatic and fractured hydrothermal reservoirs. A substantial volume of the plumbing system must be composed of a vapour phase to explain the modeled negative density contrasts. We use these constraints to map the possible multi-phase parameter space contributing to the subsurface architecture of the caldera and propose that the local extension along the complex ESFZ controls accumulation, ascent and eruption of magma at Ilopango. The data further suggest that future eruptions at Ilopango could be facilitated by rapid rise of magma along conjugate fault damage zones through a mechanically weak crust under tension. This may explain the absence of clear ring fault structures at the caldera.

  8. Has El Salvador Fault Zone produced M ≥ 7.0 earthquakes? The 1719 El Salvador earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canora, C.; Martínez-Díaz, J.; Álvarez-Gómez, J.; Villamor, P.; Ínsua-Arévalo, J.; Alonso-Henar, J.; Capote, R.

    2013-05-01

    Historically, large earthquakes, Mw ≥ 7.0, in the Εl Salvador area have been attributed to activity in the Cocos-Caribbean subduction zone. Τhis is correct for most of the earthquakes of magnitude greater than 6.5. However, recent paleoseismic evidence points to the existence of large earthquakes associated with rupture of the Εl Salvador Fault Ζone, an Ε-W oriented strike slip fault system that extends for 150 km through central Εl Salvador. Τo calibrate our results from paleoseismic studies, we have analyzed the historical seismicity of the area. In particular, we suggest that the 1719 earthquake can be associated with paleoseismic activity evidenced in the Εl Salvador Fault Ζone. Α reinterpreted isoseismal map for this event suggests that the damage reported could have been a consequence of the rupture of Εl Salvador Fault Ζone, rather than rupture of the subduction zone. Τhe isoseismal is not different to other upper crustal earthquakes in similar tectonovolcanic environments. We thus challenge the traditional assumption that only the subduction zone is capable of generating earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7.0 in this region. Τhis result has broad implications for future risk management in the region. Τhe potential occurrence of strong ground motion, significantly higher and closer to the Salvadorian populations that those assumed to date, must be considered in seismic hazard assessment studies in this area.

  9. Direct and mediated associations between religious coping, spirituality, and youth violence in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wrigh, Christopher P; Olate, Rene; Vaughn, Michael G; Tran, Thanh V

    2013-09-01

    To examine the direct and mediated relationships between religious coping, spirituality, social developmental factors, and violence among high-risk and gang-involved youth in a high-crime, Latin American country. Using a community sample of 290 high-risk and gang-involved youth in San Salvador, El Salvador, structural equation modeling was employed to examine the relationships between religious coping, spirituality, social developmental factors (e.g., antisocial bond and antisocial beliefs), and violence. Religious coping (β = - 0.14, P < 0.05) and spirituality (β = - 0.20, P < 0.01) were both significantly associated with antisocial bond. Antisocial bond, in turn, was directly associated with violence (β = 0.70, P < 0.001) and was associated with antisocial beliefs (β = 0.54, P < 0.001); however, the path from antisocial beliefs to violence was not statistically significant. No direct paths were identified from religiosity and spirituality to violence. The goodness-of-fit statistics (root mean square error of approximation, 0.034; comparative fit index, 0.974; and Tucker-Lewis index, 0.966) suggest that the final model had acceptable fit. This study is among the first to shed light on the relationship between religiosity, spirituality, and youth violence in the Latin American context. Elevated levels of religious coping and spirituality are associated with less antisocial bonding, which, in turn, is associated with lower levels of violent behavior among high-risk and gang-involved Salvadoran youth. Study findings suggest that religious coping and spirituality are indirectly protective for youth violence among this high-risk population.

  10. Volcanic hazard assessment in monogenetic volcanic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolini, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    [eng] One of the most important tasks of modern volcanology, which represents a significant socio-economic implication, is to conduct hazard assessment in active volcanic systems. These volcanological studies are aimed at hazard that allows to constructing hazard maps and simulating different eruptive scenarios, and are mainly addressed to contribute to territorial planning, definition of emergency plans or managing volcanic crisis. The impact of a natural event, as a volcanic eruption, can s...

  11. Episodic Volcanism and Geochemistry in Western Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saginor, I.; Carr, M. J.; Gazel, E.; Swisher, C.; Turrin, B.

    2007-12-01

    The active volcanic arc in western Nicaragua is separated from the Miocene arc by a temporal gap in the volcanic record, during which little volcanic material was erupted. Previous work suggested that this gap lasted from 7 to 1.6 Ma, during which volcanic production in Nicaragua was limited or nonexistent. Because the precise timing and duration of this gap has been poorly constrained, recent fieldwork has focused on locating samples that may have erupted close to or even during this apparent hiatus in activity. Recent 40Ar/39Ar dates reveal pulses of low- level episodic volcanism at 7 Ma and 1 Ma between the active and Miocene arcs with current volcanism beginning ~350 ka. In addition, sampling from an inactive area between Coseguina and San Cristobal yielded two distinct groupings of ages; one of Tamarindo age (13 Ma) and the other around 3.5 Ma-the only samples of that age collected on-strike with the active arc. This raises the possibility the bases of the other active volcanoes contain lavas that are older than expected, but have been covered by subsequent eruptions. The Miocene arc differs from the active arc in Central America in several ways, with the latter having higher Ba/La and U/Th values due to increased slab input and changes in subducted sediment composition. Analysis of sample C-51 and others taken from the same area may shed light on the timing of this shift from high to low Ba/La and U/Th values. More importantly, it may help explain why the arc experienced such a dramatic downturn in volcanic production during this time. We also report 25 new major and trace element analyses that shed some light on the origins of these minor episodes of Nicaraguan volcanism. These samples are currently awaiting Sr and Nd isotopic analyses.

  12. Herbolaria y pintura mural: plantas medicinales en los murales del convento del Divino Salvador de Malinalco, Estado de México

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Zepeda G.; Laura White O.

    2008-01-01

    En la época prehispánica Malinalco fue un centro ceremonial importante, probablemente de control ideológico y económico. Para reforzar el proceso de evangelización después de la conquista, se fundó en 1540 el convento agustino de San Cristóbal ahora conocido como del Divino Salvador. Poco después de su edifi cación, sus paredes y bóvedas fueron decoradas por artistas nativos con pasajes bíblicos, exuberantes plantas y diferentes especies de animales. Los análisis que se han realizado de estos...

  13. Palabras de la Primera Dama de El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Aguirre de Calderón Sol

    1998-01-01

    Este documento incluye las palabras de la Primera Dama de El Salvador Elizabeth de Calderón Sol en la clausura del Foro "Convivencia y seguridad ciudadana en el Istmo Centroamericano y la Isla Española". La conferencia se centra en la violencia doméstica, un tema de particular interés para el gobierno y el instituto salvadoreño para el desarrollo de la mujer que preside. Se presenta el "Programa de saneamiento de la relación familiar", el esfuerzo del gobierno para abordar el problema de la v...

  14. Minera Australiana adquiere proyecto cuestionado en El Salvador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at the environmental risks of gold mining in El Salvador in general and specifically at the risks associated with OceanaGold's project. The article also examines the stiff opposition to the project presented by an alliance of local and international organisations.......This article looks at the environmental risks of gold mining in El Salvador in general and specifically at the risks associated with OceanaGold's project. The article also examines the stiff opposition to the project presented by an alliance of local and international organisations....

  15. El gasto público en El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es hacer un estudio del gasto público en El Salvador que, junto con otros estudios sobre tributación ya realizados, darán forma a propuestas integrales de reforma fiscal en el marco del proyecto regional del BID, "Construyendo capital social por medio de la reforma fiscal en Centroamérica y República Dominicana". Los objetivos específicos son: evaluar la política de gasto público en El Salvador en sus aspectos macroeconómicos, microeconómicos e institucionales, tan...

  16. El futuro de El Salvador de cara al siglo XXI

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Peñate, Oscar

    2000-01-01

    El Salvador entra al siglo XXI, en convalecencia de las heridas causadas por el reciente conflicto armado, éste fue el resultado dela falta de democracia en el país, la que se materializaba en el terrorismo de Estado ejecutado por los gobiernos de derecha a través dela Fuerza Armada de El-Salvador (FAS) . La persecución, encarcelamientos, torturas, asesinatos y masacres se pusieron a la orden del día, con el propósito de tratar de destruir la lucha por la democracia.

  17. Echinodermata das praias de Salvador (Bahia, Brasil The Echinoderms of Salvador beaches (Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orane Falcão de Souza Alves

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 28 species of Echinoderms collected on 5 beaches of Salvador (12º54' to 13º01' S and 38º26' to 38º33' W, Brazil, which are distributed in 19 families. Ophiuroidea represented 53,6% of the collected species, followed by Echinoidea (28,6%, Asteroidea (7,1%, Holothuroidea (7,1%, and Crinoidea (3,6%. Ophiuroidea and Echinoidea were the most frequent groups, occurring at all the studied beaches while Crinoidea occurred only on 20% of them. Most of the species are characterized as belonging to the tropical warm waters, some to the shallow coastal areas and some having a broad bathymetric distribution. The richness of species values on beaches ranged from 7 to 24, at Itapua Beach, and from 2 to 14 among different kinds of habitats, where protected ones showed higher values.

  18. EL SALVADOR: ELECCIONES Y MOVIMIENTOS SOCIALES El Salvador: Elections and Popular Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL ALMEIDA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se enfoca en las elecciones presidenciales e históricas en El Salvador en 2009. Hay un énfasis dado a la transformación del partido político FMLN en la era después de la guerra civil y la alianza entre el partido y los movimientos sociales en la sociedad civil. La combinación de los procesos de la democratización y las políticas de liberalizacion económica en los 1990 y 2000 aportó al reforzamiento de la coalición entre el partido de la izquierda y los movimientos populares. Gradualmente el FMLN se podía canalizar la energía de las campañas de los movimientos sociales contra las políticas neoliberales y opinión pública en triunfos electorales al nivel local, parlamentario y Ejecutivo.This article examines the historic presidential elections in El Salvador in 2009. Special attention is given to the evolution of the FMLN political party in the post-civil war era and its relationship with social movements in civil society. The combined forces of democratization and neoliberal policy implementation in the 1990s and early 2000s assisted in strengthening the alliance between the leftwing political party and popular movements. The FMLN was able to gradually channel the momentum of social movement campaigns against economic liberalization policies and public opinion into electoral gains at the local, parliamentary and executive levels of government.

  19. Revolution and Accommodation. Post-Insurgency in El Salvador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenkels, R.

    2014-01-01

    In 1980, El Salvador fragmented revolutionary movement united to form the Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional (FMLN). This Front subsequently fought a war against the U.S. backed Salvadoran military which culminated in military stalemate. After the 1992 Peace Accords, the guerrilla

  20. An Introduction to the Psychedelic Psychotherapy of Salvador Roquet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villoldo, Alberto

    1977-01-01

    Psychosynthesis as developed by Salvador Roquet presents a new method combining Freudian, Frommian, and transpersonal therapies. Its immediate result is to obtain results expected from long-term psychoanalysis in an abbreviated period of time. It also helps the individual take responsibility for his own development. (Author/RK)

  1. The Hippo-Salvador signaling pathway regulates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eunjeong; Kim, Wan-Young; Hur, Jeongmi; Kim, Hanbyul; Nam, Sun Ah; Choi, Arum; Kim, Yu-Mi; Park, Sang Hee; Chung, Chaeuk; Kim, Jin; Min, Soohong; Myung, Seung-Jae; Lim, Dae-Sik; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is the final pathway of various renal injuries that result in chronic kidney disease. The mammalian Hippo-Salvador signaling pathway has been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, cell death, tissue regeneration, and tumorigenesis. Here, we report that the Hippo-Salvador pathway plays a role in disease development in patients with TIF and in a mouse model of TIF. Mice with tubular epithelial cell (TEC)-specific deletions of Sav1 (Salvador homolog 1) exhibited aggravated renal TIF, enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like phenotypic changes, apoptosis, and proliferation after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Moreover, Sav1 depletion in TECs increased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and activated β-catenin expression after UUO, which likely accounts for the abovementioned enhanced TEC fibrotic phenotype. In addition, TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif), a major downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, was significantly activated in Sav1-knockout mice in vivo. An in vitro study showed that TAZ directly regulates TGF-β and TGF-β receptor II expression. Collectively, our data indicate that the Hippo-Salvador pathway plays a role in the pathogenesis of TIF and that regulating this pathway may be a therapeutic strategy for reducing TIF. PMID:27550469

  2. Education and the Production of Diasporic Citizens in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrness, Andrea; Sepúlveda, Enrique, III

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Dyrness and Sepúlveda argue that in El Salvador, young people are participants in a diasporic social imaginary that connects them with Salvadorans and other Latinos in the United States--before they have ever left the country. The authors explore how this transnational relationship manifests in two school communities in San…

  3. The Hippo-Salvador signaling pathway regulates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eunjeong; Kim, Wan-Young; Hur, Jeongmi; Kim, Hanbyul; Nam, Sun Ah; Choi, Arum; Kim, Yu-Mi; Park, Sang Hee; Chung, Chaeuk; Kim, Jin; Min, Soohong; Myung, Seung-Jae; Lim, Dae-Sik; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2016-08-23

    Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is the final pathway of various renal injuries that result in chronic kidney disease. The mammalian Hippo-Salvador signaling pathway has been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, cell death, tissue regeneration, and tumorigenesis. Here, we report that the Hippo-Salvador pathway plays a role in disease development in patients with TIF and in a mouse model of TIF. Mice with tubular epithelial cell (TEC)-specific deletions of Sav1 (Salvador homolog 1) exhibited aggravated renal TIF, enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like phenotypic changes, apoptosis, and proliferation after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Moreover, Sav1 depletion in TECs increased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and activated β-catenin expression after UUO, which likely accounts for the abovementioned enhanced TEC fibrotic phenotype. In addition, TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif), a major downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, was significantly activated in Sav1-knockout mice in vivo. An in vitro study showed that TAZ directly regulates TGF-β and TGF-β receptor II expression. Collectively, our data indicate that the Hippo-Salvador pathway plays a role in the pathogenesis of TIF and that regulating this pathway may be a therapeutic strategy for reducing TIF.

  4. Scarcity and Survival in El Salvador. Grades Six to Twelve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit, designed for use with students in grades 6-12, has two purposes: (1) to inform teachers and students about social and economic conditions in rural El Salvador; and (2) to teach students how to analyze the indicators of such social and economic conditions. The six included lessons incorporate reading, graphing, and critical thinking…

  5. Distinct Zika Virus Lineage in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccache, Samia N; Thézé, Julien; Sardi, Silvia I; Somasekar, Sneha; Greninger, Alexander L; Bandeira, Antonio C; Campos, Gubio S; Tauro, Laura B; Faria, Nuno R; Pybus, Oliver G; Chiu, Charles Y

    2016-10-01

    Sequencing of isolates from patients in Bahia, Brazil, where most Zika virus cases in Brazil have been reported, resulted in 11 whole and partial Zika virus genomes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a well-supported Bahia-specific Zika virus lineage, which indicates sustained Zika virus circulation in Salvador, Bahia's capital city, since mid-2014.

  6. Education and the Production of Diasporic Citizens in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrness, Andrea; Sepúlveda, Enrique, III

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Dyrness and Sepúlveda argue that in El Salvador, young people are participants in a diasporic social imaginary that connects them with Salvadorans and other Latinos in the United States--before they have ever left the country. The authors explore how this transnational relationship manifests in two school communities in San…

  7. Checklist of the inland fishes of El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Caleb D; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Álvarez Calderón, Francisco S; Henríquez, Wendy Yamileth; Recinos, H Michelle; Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Barraza, Enrique; Herrera, Néstor

    2013-01-23

    The inland fish fauna of El Salvador and its distribution was originally described in 1925 by Samuel Hildebrand. That work has been the main source of information for freshwater fishes of El Salvador up to today. Based on the combination of an intensive literature review, electronic database searches, re-identification of museum specimens, and fieldwork, we hereby provide an updated checklist of the inland fishes of El Salvador. This checklist provides distributional data at the Salvadoran hydrographical and political (by department) levels. The checklist is systematically arranged at the ordinal and familial level and then alphabetically therein. The freshwater fish fauna of El Salvador includes 101 species divided into 64 genera, 29 families, and 14 orders. According to their supposed tolerance to salinity, 73% of these species are peripheral, 23% secondary, and only 4% are primary freshwater fishes. One species is endemic to the country, Amatitlania coatepeque. The low number of primary freshwater fishes and endemics is comparable to the Central American Pacific slope in particular, as well as northern Central America in general.

  8. Educational Opportunity: El Salvador's Barriers to Achieving Equality Persist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekrans, Kristin

    This paper analyzes barriers to educational equality in El Salvador, using a multi-layered framework of educational opportunity. To improve educational opportunity and give the most marginalized sectors of society the possibility of changing their life circumstances requires policies that go beyond mere access to formal schooling. The model…

  9. Distinct Zika Virus Lineage in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccache, Samia N.; Thézé, Julien; Sardi, Silvia I.; Somasekar, Sneha; Greninger, Alexander L.; Bandeira, Antonio C.; Campos, Gubio S.; Tauro, Laura B.; Faria, Nuno R.; Pybus, Oliver G.

    2016-01-01

    Sequencing of isolates from patients in Bahia, Brazil, where most Zika virus cases in Brazil have been reported, resulted in 11 whole and partial Zika virus genomes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a well-supported Bahia-specific Zika virus lineage, which indicates sustained Zika virus circulation in Salvador, Bahia’s capital city, since mid-2014. PMID:27448188

  10. Minera Australiana adquiere proyecto cuestionado en El Salvador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at the environmental risks of gold mining in El Salvador in general and specifically at the risks associated with OceanaGold's project. The article also examines the stiff opposition to the project presented by an alliance of local and international organisations....

  11. Revolution and Accommodation. Post-Insurgency in El Salvador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenkels, R.

    2014-01-01

    In 1980, El Salvador fragmented revolutionary movement united to form the Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional (FMLN). This Front subsequently fought a war against the U.S. backed Salvadoran military which culminated in military stalemate. After the 1992 Peace Accords, the guerrilla ar

  12. [Prevalence and intensity of infection by soil-transmitted helminths and prevalence of malaria among schoolchildren in El Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorto, Óscar René; Portillo, Alexandra Manoella; Aragón, Miguel Ángel; Saboyá, Martha Idalí; Ade, María Paz; Minero, Miguel Ángel; Hernández, Marta Alicia; Mena, Amada Gloria; Peña, Rodolfo; Mejía, Victor Manuel; Carter, Keith

    2015-01-01

    El Salvador does not have recent data on the prevalence of infection with soil-transmitted helminths among children aged under 15 years of age. As one of the countries in the Americas that reports few malaria cases, eradication of this disease from El Salvador is considered to be feasible. To determine the prevalence and intensity of infection by soil-transmitted helminths, as well as the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. in schoolchildren aged 8-10. A cross-sectional study was carried out in each of the five eco-epidemiological zones of the country (coastal plain, central basin, volcanic range, coastal range and mountain zone). In all 1,325 students we studied the presence of geohelminthiasis, with 152 of them also being tested for malaria. The Kato-Katz technique was used to detect geohelminths while diagnosis of malaria was performed using the rapid diagnostic test, microscopy and polymerase chain reaction. The overall prevalence of geohelminthiasis was 7.9% (95%CI 6.6-9.5%). Values for the five eco-epidemiological zones were as follows: coastal plain, 14.9% (95%CI 10.9-19.7%); central plateau, 9.4% (95%CI 6.5-13.3%); volcanic range, 6.6% (95%CI 4.2-10.5%); coastal range, 5.9% (95%CI 3.8-9.4%), and mountain zone, 2.6% (95%CI 1.4-5.7%). The overall rate of high intensity infection with any of the geohelminth species was 0.3%. No schoolchildren were found infected with Plasmodium spp. by any of the three diagnostic techniques used. Prevalence of geohelminths was low and Trichuris trichiura was the predominant species. Intensity of infection with any of the species of geohelminths was light (<1%). The risk factors associated with infection by soil-transmitted helminths were defecation in the open air, being barefoot and living in coastal areas.

  13. Market research completed in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Intensive market research, completed in El Salvador for the contraceptive social marketing project of the Asociacion Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), was designed to obtain a better understanding of Salvadoran usage of and attitudes toward contraceptives in general and ADS products in particular. The research results are being used to develop a new marketing plan for the Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) program as it works to increase the program's effectiveness in reaching consumers. Points-of-purchase (retail outlets) were surveyed in November 1982 to study brand presence and vendor perceptions of consumer behavior in order to define the market in terms of products, prices, and distribution. Focus groups were conducted during November and December 1982 to probe consumer awareness and attitudes regarding methods, brands, and purchasing behavior. The results of the focus groups helped guide the development of a door-to-door consumer survey conducted from December 1982 through February 1983 to further define the market in terms of consumer size and characteristics. Personal interviews were conducted with the owner or manager of each of 247 pharmacies selected at random but in proportion to their distributional weight as to location. Aragon and Associates found that standard-dose orals and condoms were sold in 86% of the outlets surveyed and foaming tablets and low-dose pills in 37%. In terms of brand presence in outlets, the CSM products Perla (orals) and Condor (condom) both led their respective categories. In the foaming tablet category Suave had the lowest presence and Neo Sampoon the highest. The difference between reported and actual presence of contraceptives in the outlets was significant: 32% of the sellers of Perla, 18% of the sellers of Condor, and 26% of the sellers of Suave were out of stock at the time of the survey. The difference in average CSM product prices and the next lowest priced brands is very large. Dealers reported that their contraceptive

  14. El Salvador, Chile porphyry copper deposit revisited: Geologic and geochronologic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, P.; Tosdal, R.M.; Mpodozis, C.; Tomlinson, A.J.; Rivera, O.; Fanning, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Eocene (42 to 41 Ma) El Salvador porphyry copper deposit in the Indio Muerto district, northern Chile (26?? 15??? S Lat.), formerly thought to have formed at the culmination of a 9-m.y. period of episodic magmatism, is shown by new mapping, U-Pb and K-Ar geochronology, and petrologic data to have formed during the younger of two distinct but superposed magmatic events - a Paleocene (???63 to 58 Ma) and an Eocene (44 to 41 Ma) event. In the district, high-K Paleocene volcano-plutonic activity was characterized by a variety of eruptive styles and magmatic compositions, including a collapse caldera associated with explosive rhyolitic magmatism (El Salvador trap-door caldera), a post-collapse rhyolite dome field (Cerro Indio Muerto), and andesitic-trachyandesitic stratovolcanos (Kilo??metro Catorce-Los Amarillos sequence). Precaldera basement faults were reactivated during Paleocene volcanism as part of the collapse margin of the caldera. Beneath Cerro Indio Muerto, where the porphyry Cu deposit subsequently formed, the intersection of two major basement faults and the NNE-striking rotational axis of tilted ignimbrites of the Paleocene El Salvador caldera localized emplacement of post-collapse rhyolite domes and peripheral dikes and sills. Subsequent Eocene rhyolitic and granodioritic-dacitic porphyries intruded ???14 m.y. after cessation of Paleocene magmatism along the same NNE-striking structural belt through Cerro Indio Muerto as did the post-collapse Paleocene rhyolite domes. Eocene plutonism over a 3-m.y. period was contemporaneous with NW-SE-directed shortening associated with regional sinistral transpression along the Sierra Castillo fault, lying ???10 km to the east. Older Eocene rhyolitic porphyries in the Indio Muerto district were emplaced between 44 and 43 Ma, and have a small uneconomic Cu center associated with a porphyry at Old Camp. The oldest granodioritic-dacitic porphyries also were emplaced at ???44 to 43 Ma, but their petrogenetic relation to

  15. Active crustal deformation of the El Salvador Fault Zone by integrating geodetic, seismological and geological data: application in seismic hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staller, A.; Benito, B.; Martínez-Díaz, J.; Hernández, D.; Hernández-Rey, R.

    2013-05-01

    El Salvador, Central America, is part of the Chortis block in the northwestern boundary of the Caribbean plate. This block is interacting with a diffuse triple junction point with the Cocos and North American plates. Among the structures that cut the Miocene to Pleistocene volcanic deposits stands out the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ): It is oriented in N90-100E direction, and it is composed of several structural segments that deform Quaternary deposits with right-lateral and oblique slip motions. The ESFZ is seismically active and capable of producing earthquakes such as the February 13, 2001 with Mw 6.6 (Martínez-Díaz et al., 2004), that seriously affected the population, leaving many casualties. This structure plays an important role in the tectonics of the Chortis block, since its motion is directly related to the drift of the Caribbean plate to the east and not with the partitioning of the deformation of the Cocos subduction (here not coupled) (Álvarez-Gómez et al., 2008). Together with the volcanic arc of El Salvador, this zone constitutes a weakness area that allows the motion of forearc block toward the NW. The geometry and the degree of activity of the ESFZ are not studied enough. However their knowledge is essential to understand the seismic hazard associated to this important seismogenic structure. For this reason, since 2007 a GPS dense network was established along the ESFZ (ZFESNet) in order to obtain GPS velocity measurements which are later used to explain the nature of strain accumulation on major faults along the ESFZ. The current work aims at understanding active crustal deformation of the ESFZ through kinematic model. The results provide significant information to be included in a new estimation of seismic hazard taking into account the major structures in ESFZ.

  16. Informe Especial de la Procuraduria para la Defensa de los Derechos Humanos sobre el legado de la Mina San Sebastian y sus impactos en la vida de las poblaciones afectadas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir; Quiñonez Basagoitia, Julio Cesar; Van Ho, Tara

    This reports is the result of a study carried out to analyse the socio-economic impacts of the San Sebastian Mine in eastern El Salvador. The impacts are divided into 3 areas: land ownership, water resources and artisanal miner's livelihoods. The report contains 20 recommendations for the Salvado...

  17. Colecta de frutales tropicales en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cruz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tuvo como objetivo recolectar, caracterizar y establecer colecciones de frutales de: Pouteria sapota (zapote, Manilkara zapota (níspero, Psidium sp. (guayaba, Spondia sp. (jocote, Mammea americana (mamey. Se realizaron giras de exploración y recolección a las diferentes zonas del país, con mayor potencial para el cultivo de los frutales. Las características evaluadas fueron: peso, longitud, diámetro, porcentaje de germinación, número de semillas, sabor y color de pulpa, forma del fruto, color de cáscara, presencia de plagas y enfermedades, y análisis bromatológico. Los datos fueron analizados por estadística descriptiva para mínimo, máximo y media. Se distribuyeron árboles frutales para el establecimiento de las colecciones en los Centros de Innovación Tecnológica San Andrés, Izalco y Morazán. El zapote Magaña presentó frutos de mayor peso, longitud y diámetro, textura de pulpa bastante fibrosa. El Zapote Valiente presentó frutos con mayor contenido proteína y grasa de 2,65% y 0,77%. El Zapote Rivera presentó frutos con mayor contenido de carbohidratos, 32,15%. La Guayaba Miami roja, presentó mayor fibra cruda 3,72%. En jocote, las principales plagas y enfermedades fueron trips, mosca de la fruta y antracnosis. Se estableció una colección de jocote del tipo azucarón, verano, pitarrillo, chapín, invierno, iguana y tronador; el Centro Innovación Tecnológica de San Andrés, La Libertad

  18. Integrating Community Volcanic Hazard Mapping, Geographic Information Systems, and Modeling to Reduce Volcanic Hazard Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajo Sanchez, Jorge V.

    This dissertation is composed of an introductory chapter and three papers about vulnerability and volcanic hazard maps with emphasis on lahars. The introductory chapter reviews definitions of the term vulnerability by the social and natural hazard community and it provides a new definition of hazard vulnerability that includes social and natural hazard factors. The first paper explains how the Community Volcanic Hazard Map (CVHM) is used for vulnerability analysis and explains in detail a new methodology to obtain valuable information about ethnophysiographic differences, hazards, and landscape knowledge of communities in the area of interest: the Canton Buenos Aires situated on the northern flank of the Santa Ana (Ilamatepec) Volcano, El Salvador. The second paper is about creating a lahar hazard map in data poor environments by generating a landslide inventory and obtaining potential volumes of dry material that can potentially be carried by lahars. The third paper introduces an innovative lahar hazard map integrating information generated by the previous two papers. It shows the differences in hazard maps created by the communities and experts both visually as well as quantitatively. This new, integrated hazard map was presented to the community with positive feedback and acceptance. The dissertation concludes with a summary chapter on the results and recommendations.

  19. Teachers' knowledge, attitudes and experience in sexual abuse prevention education in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Alicia; Katz, Craig; Ciro, Dianne; Guttfreund, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Research on how to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) in developing nations is practically non-existent. We sought to determine Salvadoran teachers' knowledge, attitudes, experience and barriers to CSA detection and reporting to assess the need for a CSA prevention programme and to assess barriers in conducting such a programme. One hundred teachers completed a questionnaire while they visited the Tin Marin Children's Museum in San Salvador. Nineteen of these teachers also participated in a focus group. We found that 89% of teachers reported at least two signs and symptoms of child abuse. One hundred per cent of teachers agreed that it is their responsibility to teach students about sexual abuse. Unusual for a study of this kind, parental migration was mentioned as making children vulnerable to CSA, and fear of gang violence and retribution was identified as interfering with teachers' ability to protect children. We conclude that Salvadoran teachers were knowledgeable about CSA detection and reporting and would support a programme in which they are trained to speak to their students about this topic. Barriers to reporting child abuse, such as teachers' safety and fear, need to be addressed in future CSA prevention programmes.

  20. Women in physics in El Salvador: Historical perspectives and current challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Telma; Jiménez, Diana; Larios, Gloria

    2015-12-01

    Physics as a discipline in El Salvador's higher education system has struggled historically; however, since 1991, it has enjoyed a growth-friendly environment. While there are few female physicists in El Salvador, they are employed in various organizations and educational institutions, demonstrating that physics is a viable career path. El Salvador currently offers a range of opportunities for women in physics. With the support of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, we will both meet the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities that face female physicists in El Salvador.

  1. L’éros photographique de Salvador Elizondo

    OpenAIRE

    Camenen, Gersende

    2015-01-01

    Dans son roman Farabœuf, Salvador Elizondo cristallise les liens énigmatiques entre érotisme, mort et écriture que lui inspire la lecture de G. Bataille : à travers l’érotisme, l’écriture cherche à fixer l’instant présent. Cette chimérique opération suit les codes de la photographie qui permet de dépasser l’instant de l’extase (du coït et de la mort) en le figeant dans sa plénitude.L’écriture autobiographique de Salvador Elizondo jette une autre lumière sur son œuvre. À la différence de Farab...

  2. Volcanism/tectonics working group summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, L.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Young, S.R. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of the impacts of earthquakes, fault rupture, and volcanic eruption on the underground repository disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The tectonics and seismic history of the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is discussed and geologic analogs to that site are described.

  3. É hora da Marta parir novamente: Villa San Luis, o ocaso de um sonho de igualdade / It’s time for Marta to give birth again: Villa San Luis, the demise of an equality dream

    OpenAIRE

    Diligenti, Marcos Pereira; Dias, Maria Alice Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    Trabalho enviado em 30 de setembro de 2015. Aceito em 22 de outubro de 2015.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/rdc.2015 Resumo Originária do Fundo San Luis, a Villa San Luis, localizada na Comuna de Las Condes, Santiago do Chile, teve como marco inicial de sua urbanização o projeto elaborado pelo Arquiteto Miguel Eyquem, realizado na década de 1960, na gestão do Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva. Posteriormente, já sob a administração da Unidade Popular, do então Presidente Salvador Allende, s...

  4. Police, Prevention, Social Capital and Communities in El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Antonio Argueta Hernández

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between police and the community. In El Salvador, the role traditionally played by police has been that of the repressor of crime, with no concern for community outreach. However, over the last two years, the law enforcement agency has had an about face in terms of its attention to the problem of violence and crime. As a result, it has introduced the community police philosophy. That is, a law enforcement agency that empowers active participation in the ...

  5. Dollarization In El Salvador And Ecuador: A Model Worth Following

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Implications of Dollarization in El Salvador,” 36. 41 “Interactive Rankings,” Global Edge: Your Source for Global Business Knowledge , Michigan State...a blessing for the floundering Ecuadorian economy, it would also prove to be a long term curse due to the reliance on world oil prices and the need... Knowledge , Michigan State University Broad College of Business, accessed March 9, 2016, http://globaledge.msu.edu/tools-and-data/ interactive

  6. Sociedad civil y movimientos sociales en El Salvador de postguerra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Martín Álvarez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo ofrece un acercamiento de carácter descriptivo y preliminar a algunas de las principales transformaciones experimentadas por la sociedad civil salvadoreña en el periodo de postguerra.  Dos rasgos fundamentales sobresalen al analizar la dinámica de la sociedad civil de este país en las últimas dos décadas. De una parte, la emergencia de nuevas identidades políticas que habían sido opacadas por la preminencia del discurso de clase del movimiento revolucionario. De otra, la emergencia de amplias movilizaciones estructuradas en base a coaliciones multisectoriales de organizaciones de la sociedad civil, como respuesta a la implementación de políticas neoliberales.Palabras Clave: Sociedad civil, movimientos sociales, El Salvador, postguerra._____________________Abstract:This paper offers a descriptive and preliminary approach to some of the major changes experienced by Salvadoran civil society in the postwar period. Two main features stand out when analyzing the dynamics of civil society in this country in the last two decades. On one hand, the emergence of new political identities that had been overshadowed by the prominence of the classist discourse of the revolutionary movement. On the other, the emergence of large mobilizations structured around multisectoral coalitions of civil society organizations, in response to the implementation of neoliberal policies.Keywords: Civil society, social movements, El Salvador, postwar

  7. Tuberculosis and living conditions in Salvador, Brazil: a spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erazo, Carlos; Pereira, Susan M; Costa, Maria da Conceição N; Evangelista-Filho, Delsuc; Braga, José Ueleres; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2014-07-01

    To investigate spatial tuberculosis (TB) distribution patterns and the association between living conditions and incidence of the disease in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. An ecological study with neighborhood as the unit of analysis. Data was collected from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, SINAN) and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, IBGE). Rates of TB incidence were transformed and smoothed. Spatial analysis was applied to identify spatial auto-correlation and "hotspot" areas of high and low risk. The relationship between TB and living conditions was confirmed by spatial linear regression. The incidence of TB in Salvador displayed heterogeneous patterns, with higher rates occurring in neighborhoods with poor living conditions in 1995 - 1996. Over the study period, disease occurrence declined, particularly in less-privileged strata. In 2004 - 2005, the association between living conditions and TB was no longer observed. The heterogeneous spatial distribution of TB in Salvador previously reflected inequalities related to living conditions. Improvements in such conditions and health care for the less privileged may have contributed to observed changes.

  8. Tabagismo em amostra de adolescentes escolares de Salvador-Bahia Smoking among school adolescents in Salvador (BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelmo Souza Machado Neto

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O hábito de fumar em geral se inicia na adolescência. No Brasil, as estimativas da freqüência deste hábito entre adolescentes variam de 1% até 35%. OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência do tabagismo entre os adolescentes da oitava série do ensino fundamental à terceira série do curso médio, em escolas de Salvador - Bahia, Brasil. MÉTODO: Feito um estudo do tipo corte transversal de caráter exploratório. Foram aplicados 3.500 questionários a alunos matriculados entre a 8ª série do ensino fundamental e a 3ª série do ensino médio, em cinco escolas da região metropolitana de Salvador (BA. Análise estatística: medidas descritivas e de associação (razão de prevalência e o teste t de Student e o do qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: A prevalência do tabagismo entre adolescentes de Salvador (BA foi de 9,6%, considerando-se os 3.180 questionários válidos, sendo maior no sexo masculino (14% que no feminino (6%. À medida que aumentava a idade, elevava-se essa prevalência. A média de idade do início do tabagismo foi de 14 ± 2 anos. Dentre adolescentes, 46% experimentaram o cigarro e 20% destes continuaram fumando. Entre filhos de fumantes a freqüência foi maior. O número médio de cigarros consumidos por dia pelos adolescentes que fumavam diariamente (n = 132 foi de 7 ± 6, sendo maior no sexo masculino. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência do tabagismo em uma amostra selecionada de adolescentes escolares de Salvador (BA foi de 9,6%, sendo maior entre os indivíduos do sexo masculino. A experimentação e a influência dos pais foram associadas ao tabagismo nos adolescentes.BACKGROUND: Most tobacco users become addicted during adolescence. In Brazil, smoking prevalence among teenagers varies from 1% to 35%. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of smoking among teenagers, aged from 13 to 20, in fundamental and high school in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. METHOD: Cross-sectional exploratory study. Thirty five hundred questionnaires were

  9. 78 FR 70092 - 2013 Special 301 Out-of-Cycle Review of El Salvador: Identification of Countries Under Section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE 2013 Special 301 Out-of-Cycle Review of El Salvador: Identification of...-Cycle Reviews would be conducted for El Salvador and Spain. At this time, USTR requests written... whether El Salvador should be identified under Section 182 of the Trade Act. Requests for...

  10. El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    He also announced an “Anti-Crisis” plan focused on boosting social spending, constructing new housing, and improving public utilities and road...31 Grupo de Trabajo Binacional El Salvador - Estados Unidos Verifica Proceso de Deportacion," Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de El Salvador

  11. 77 FR 2990 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... a notice in the Federal Register at 77 FR 1710, extending the designation of El Salvador for TPS and... notice published in the Federal Register on January 11, 2012, at 77 FR 1710. We are correcting the dates... Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension of Employment Authorization...

  12. Acute Chagas disease in El Salvador 2000-2012 - Need for surveillance and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Sasagawa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several parasitological studies carried out in El Salvador between 2000-2012 showed a higher frequency of acute cases of Chagas disease than that in other Central American countries. There is an urgent need for improved Chagas disease surveillance and vector control programs in the provinces where acute Chagas disease occurs and throughout El Salvador as a whole.

  13. Acute Chagas disease in El Salvador 2000-2012 - need for surveillance and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasagawa, Emi; Aguilar, Ana Vilma Guevara de; Ramírez, Marta Alicia Hernández de; Chévez, José Eduardo Romero; Nakagawa, Jun; Cedillos, Rafael Antonio; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-01

    Several parasitological studies carried out in El Salvador between 2000-2012 showed a higher frequency of acute cases of Chagas disease than that in other Central American countries. There is an urgent need for improved Chagas disease surveillance and vector control programs in the provinces where acute Chagas disease occurs and throughout El Salvador as a whole.

  14. A Living Lab for optimising the health, socio-economic and environmental situation in El Salvador

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Platz, M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to address chronic renal failure as a critical health problem in El Salvador (Central America) a Living Lab (LL) methodology was applied to assist El Salvador to carry out research on low-cost techniques to mitigate exposure to pesticides...

  15. Acute Chagas disease in El Salvador 2000-2012 - Need for surveillance and control

    OpenAIRE

    Emi Sasagawa; Ana Vilma Guevara de Aguilar; Marta Alicia Hernández de Ramírez; José Eduardo Romero Chévez; Jun Nakagawa; Rafael Antonio Cedillos; Kiyoshi Kita

    2014-01-01

    Several parasitological studies carried out in El Salvador between 2000-2012 showed a higher frequency of acute cases of Chagas disease than that in other Central American countries. There is an urgent need for improved Chagas disease surveillance and vector control programs in the provinces where acute Chagas disease occurs and throughout El Salvador as a whole.

  16. Detailed Seismic Reflection Images of the Central American Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, K. D.; Fulthorpe, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    New high-resolution seismic reflection profiles across the Central American volcanic arc (CAVA) reveal an asymmetric deformation pattern with large-scale folding and uplift of basinal strata in the forearc contrasted by intrusive bodies, normal faults, and possible strikes-slip faults in the backarc. Since Miocene times the CAVA has migrated seaward, apparently impinging on the Sandino forearc basin and creating or modifying the low-lying Nicaragua depression, which contains the backarc and much of the arc. However the structural nature of the depression and its possible relationship to forearc sliver movement is poorly known. In November-December 2004 we recorded a large, high-resolution, seismic reflection dataset largely on the Pacific shelf (forearc) area of Central America, extending from NW Costa Rica to the SE edge of El Salvador's territorial waters. We seized an opportunity to study the nature of the CAVA by recording data into the Gulf of Fonseca, a large embayment at the intersection of Nicaragua, Honduras, and El Salvador. With 3 GI airguns and a 2100 m streamer we recorded data with typical penetration of 2-3 seconds in the Sandino basin and frequency content of ~10-250 Hz (at shallow levels). Penetration was limited over the arc summit with high velocity volcanic rocks encountered at depths as shallow as a few hundred meters. To the NE the edge of the Nicaragua depression occurs abruptly; our data show a well-developed sedimentary basin 1.5-3 km thick separated by numerous steeply-dipping faults. The broadband signal and good penetration of this dataset will help us determine the chronology of arc development in this position and the styles of deformation in the forearc, arc, and backarc areas. In turn, this will help us understand the regional tectonic and stratigraphic development of this margin due to the profound affects of the arc.

  17. 77 FR 54811 - Safety Zone; TriRock San Diego, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; TriRock San Diego, San Diego Bay, San Diego... safety zone upon the navigable waters of the San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA, in support of a bay swim in San Diego Harbor. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of the participants, crew...

  18. 78 FR 58878 - Safety Zone; San Diego Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a safety zone upon the navigable waters of the San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA, in support of San...

  19. 78 FR 53243 - Safety Zone; TriRock San Diego, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; TriRock San Diego, San Diego Bay, San Diego... temporary safety zone upon the navigable waters of the San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA, in support of a... Bryan Gollogly, Waterways Management, U.S. Coast Guard Sector San Diego; telephone (619) 278-7656, email...

  20. Timing and sources of neogene and quaternary volcanism in South-Central Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, James H.

    1987-08-01

    Five new and six existing radiometric age dates place constraints on the timing of volcanic episodes in a 1400-km 2 area east of Guatemala City. The source of the voluminous Miocene rhyolitic welded tuffs was the newly discovered Santa Rosa de Lima caldera, in the northern part of the area, not fissure eruptions as was previously believed. Resurgence during the Pliocene included the eruption of more silicic tuffs, followed by post-collapse volcanism around the perimeter. Volcanism in the southern part of the area occurred along the Neogene volcanic front. The sources for these Late Miocene and Pliocene andesitic lavas were not fissure eruptions, as was once believed, but were four large volcanic centers, Cerro Pinula, Ixhuatán, Teanzul, and Cerro La Gabia. The Santa Rosa de Lima caldera structure deflects the Jalpatagua Fault forming tensional fractures along which eruptions in the Quaternary Cuilapa-Barbarena cinder cone field took place. Pleistocene ash flows were erupted from Ixhuatán and Tecuamburro volcanoes in the southern part of the area. Tephras from Ayarza, Amatitlán, and Atitlán blanket the northern and central portions. Present-day activity is restricted to hot springs around the northern and eastern base of Tecuamburro volcano. Based on the work in this area it is proposed that rocks of the Miocene Chalatenango Formation throughout northern Central America were erupted from calderas behind the Neogene volcanic front. Rocks of the Mio-Pliocene Bálsamo Formation in Guatemala and El Salvador were erupted from discrete volcanic centers along the Neogene volcanic front. Pliocene rocks of the Cuscatlán Formation probably represent post-collapse volcanism around earlier caldera structures.

  1. Climate Change, Adaptation, and Formal Education: the Role of Schooling for Increasing Societies' Adaptive Capacities in El Salvador and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wamsler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With a worldwide increase in disasters, the effects of climate change are already being felt, and it is the urban poor in developing countries who are most at risk. There is an urgent need to better understand the factors that determine people's capacity to cope with and adapt to adverse climate conditions. This paper examines the influence of formal education in determining the adaptive capacity of the residents of two low-income settlements: Los Manantiales in San Salvador (El Salvador and Rocinha in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, where climate-related disasters are recurrent. In both case study areas, it was found that the average levels of education were lower for households living at high risk, as opposed to residents of lower risk areas. In this context, the influence of people's level of education was identified to be twofold due to (a its direct effect on aspects that reduce risk, and (b its mitigating effect on aspects that increase risk. The results further suggest that education plays a more determinant role for women than for men in relation to their capacity to adapt. In light of these results, the limited effectiveness of institutional support identified by this study might also relate to the fact that the role of formal education has so far not been sufficiently explored. Promoting (improved access to and quality of formal education as a way to increase people's adaptive capacity is further supported with respect to the negative effects of disasters on people's level of education, which in turn reduce their adaptive capacity, resulting in a vicious circle of increasing risk.

  2. Epidemiological characteristics of chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes in women of agricultural communities of El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orantes Navarro, Carlos M; Herrera Valdés, Raúl; López, Miguel Almaguer; Calero, Denis J; Fuentes de Morales, Jackeline; Alvarado Ascencio, Nelly P; Vela Parada, Xavier F; Zelaya Quezada, Susana M; Granados Castro, Delmy V; Orellana de Figueroa, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    In El Salvador end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was the first cause of hospital mortality overall, the first cause of hospital deaths in men, and the fifth cause of hospital mortality in women in 2013. In agricultural communities, chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs predominantly in male agricultural workers, but it also affects women to a lesser degree, even those who are not involved in agricultural work. Internationally, most epidemiological CKD studies emphasize men and no epidemiological studies focused exclusively on women. To describe the epidemiological characteristics of CKD in females in agricultural communities of El Salvador. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out in 2009 - 2011 based on active screening for CKD and risk factors in women aged ≥ 18 years in 3 disadvantaged populations of El Salvador: Bajo Lempa (Usulután Department), Guayapa Abajo (Ahuachapán Department), and Las Brisas (San Miguel Department). Epidemiological and clinical data were gathered through personal history, as well as urinalysis for renal damage markers, determinations of serum creatinine and glucose, and estimation of glomerular filtration rates. CKD cases were confirmed at 3 months. Prevalence of CKD was 13.9% in 1,412 women from 1,306 families studied. Chronic kidney disease of nontraditional causes (CKDu), not attributed to diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or proteinuric primary glomerulopathy (proteinuria > 1 g/L) was 6.6%. Prevalence of chronic renal failure was 6.8%. Prevalence of renal damage markers was 9.8% (microalbuminuria (30 - 300 mg/L) 5.7%; macroalbuminuria (> 300 mg/L) 2%; and hematuria, 2.1%. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease risk factors was: diabetes mellitus, 9.3%; hypertension, 23%; family history of CKD, 16%; family history of diabetes mellitus (DM), 18.7%; family history of hypertension (HT), 31.9%; obesity, 21%; central obesity, 30.7%; NSAID use, 84.3%; agricultural occupation, 15.2%; and contact with agrochemicals, 33.1%. CKD in

  3. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2009-08-22

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  4. California's Vulnerability to Volcanic Hazards: What's at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, M.; Wood, N. J.; Dinitz, L.

    2015-12-01

    California is a leader in comprehensive planning for devastating earthquakes, landslides, floods, and tsunamis. Far less attention, however, has focused on the potentially devastating impact of volcanic eruptions, despite the fact that they occur in the State about as frequently as the largest earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault Zone. At least 10 eruptions have occurred in the past 1,000 years—most recently in northern California (Lassen Peak 1914 to 1917)—and future volcanic eruptions are inevitable. The likelihood of renewed volcanism in California is about one in a few hundred to one in a few thousand annually. Eight young volcanoes, ranked as Moderate to Very High Threat [1] are dispersed throughout the State. Partially molten rock (magma) resides beneath at least seven of these—Medicine Lake Volcano, Mount Shasta, Lassen Volcanic Center, Clear Lake Volcanic Field, Long Valley Volcanic Region, Coso Volcanic Field, and Salton Buttes— causing earthquakes, toxic gas emissions, hydrothermal activity, and (or) ground deformation. Understanding the hazards and identifying what is at risk are the first steps in building community resilience to volcanic disasters. This study, prepared in collaboration with the State of California Governor's Office of Emergency Management and the California Geological Survey, provides a broad perspective on the State's exposure to volcano hazards by integrating mapped volcano hazard zones with geospatial data on at-risk populations, infrastructure, and resources. The study reveals that ~ 16 million acres fall within California's volcano hazard zones, along with ~ 190 thousand permanent and 22 million transitory populations. Additionally, far-field disruption to key water delivery systems, agriculture, utilities, and air traffic is likely. Further site- and sector-specific analyses will lead to improved hazard mitigation efforts and more effective disaster response and recovery. [1] "Volcanic Threat and Monitoring Capabilities

  5. [Heart failure mortality trend in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latado, Adriana Lopes; Passos, Luiz Carlos Santana; Guedes, Rodrigo; Santos, Alessandra B; Andrade, Marianna; Moura, Simone

    2005-11-01

    To assess mortality trend due to heart failure (HF) in Salvador--Bahia, from 1979 to 1995. HF was defined by notations from the 9th Review of International Disease Code (IDC9) 428.0, 428.1 and 428.9. HF death and population data (metropolitan area of Salvador) were obtained by means of Secretaria de Saúde da Bahia (Bahia State Health Secretariat) and Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). Mortality rates (/100,000) were total or per gender and age, and gross or adapted per age (straight standardization). Mortality rates due to HF had a progressive reduction in the period of time assessed, for both genders, especially up to 1992. From then and up to 1995, there was an apparent stabilization of the curves. Gross mortality rate went from 25.0/10(5), in 1979, to 16.4/10(5) inhabitants, in 1995 (a decrease of 34.4%). The reduction was 34.0% (23.3/10(5), in 1979, to 15.4/10(5) inhabitants, in 1995) for male sex and 35.2% (26.7/10(5), in 1979, to 17.3/10(5) inhabitants, in 1995), for female sex. The same trend took place in several age ranges, including the population > or = 40 years old, which has a greater risk for HF. After adaptation per age (standard population of 1979), it is observed that relative reductions in the rates were even greater. Mortality due to HF, in Salvador-Bahia, decreased from 1979 to 1992, becoming stable from then to 1995.

  6. Joan Oliver i Salvador Espriu en el teatre de postguerra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Maria Gibert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The author sets out the dramatic production of Joan Oliver and Salvador Espriu, two different ways of understanding the concept of theatrical literary creation and of interpreting projection requirements. Oliver, in general, presents the angle of the bourgeois comedy; the critical tone of the drama he produced before the Civil War either disappears or is considerably tempered. Espriu applies himself to a theatre with tragic roots, embellished with the combination of diverse elements, without taking the possibilities of immediate premiere performances into consideration.

  7. Sociedad civil y movimientos sociales en El Salvador de postguerra

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Martín Álvarez

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo ofrece un acercamiento de carácter descriptivo y preliminar a algunas de las principales transformaciones experimentadas por la sociedad civil salvadoreña en el periodo de postguerra.  Dos rasgos fundamentales sobresalen al analizar la dinámica de la sociedad civil de este país en las últimas dos décadas. De una parte, la emergencia de nuevas identidades políticas que habían sido opacadas por la preminencia del discurso de clase del movimiento revolucionario. De otra, la emergenc...

  8. Genetic polymorphism of 15 STR loci in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Pablo; Pinto de Erazo, Eugenia Leticia; Baeza, Carlos; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; López-Parra, Ana Maria

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the allelic frequencies of the 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in AmpFlSTRIdentifiler PCR Amplification Kit. Biological samples were obtained from 109 unrelated individuals from El Salvador. Allelic frequencies and forensic parameters were calculated. All loci showed no departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. The obtained frequencies were compared with other previously reported population data. The multidimensional scaling plot and the neighbor-joining phylogeny supported a high native Mesoamerican contribution.

  9. Teaching Disaster Preparedness to Rural Communities in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, T.

    2014-12-01

    Natural disasters are becoming more common around the world, and it is widely accepted that developing nations show the highest rates of vulnerability. It makes sense to focus preparedness and mitigation efforts in these countries. However, it is important to realize that different teaching styles are required for different cultures with varying education systems and classroom atmospheres. The pedagogical models we use in the US can't be directly exported. A realistic assessment of the situation seen during two years living and working in rural El Salvador is presented, along with methods used and lessons learned.

  10. Carta de Gaspar Salvador a Miguel de Unamuno

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador, Gaspar

    2009-01-01

    Carta de Gaspar Salvador, Presidente del Consejo General de Educación de Tucumán, a Miguel de Unamuno en la que le envía sus libros “Legislación escolar de la provincia de Tucumán”, “Censo escolar de la provincia”, “Las asociaciones vecinales protectoras de la escuela” y cuatro folletos más; en los que podrá apreciar los adelantos que Argentina ha alcanzado en la instrucción pública bajo la administración de Ernesto Padilla.

  11. Perspectivas de la diarrea por rotavirus en El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Arturo Zablah

    2005-01-01

    Materiales y métodos: En diciembre del año 2000, un brote epidémico de gastroenteritis ocurrió en El Salvador que se asoció con numerosas hospitalizaciones y muertes de niños en todo el país. El Ministerio de Salud Pública se mostró preocupado, pues se ignoraba su etiología y las medidas de control usuales fueron ineficaces. El brote lo produjo un rotavirus, y las medidas de control fueron rediseñadas para mejorar el tratamiento con rehidratación oral e iniciar un sistema de vigilancia para c...

  12. De las pasiones al conocimiento en Farabeuf, de Salvador Elizondo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Carmen Esquivel-Colín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se exploraron las diferencias entre filosofía y literatura como modos de razonamiento presentes en la novela de Salvador Elizondo: Farabeuf , y se analizó la manera en que ambas disciplinas se acercan al cuerpo y las pasiones. Se encontró que el erotismo aparece en esa novela como un modo de acceder al conocimiento del alma humana. Así entendida, la verdad que la literatura propone es interior, se aparta del mero razonamiento y exige de su lector la experiencia para ser aprehendida; también ofrece la oportunidad de imaginar la muerte y el erotismo como escapes del mundo.

  13. Volcanic Rocks and Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanoes have contributed significantly to the formation of the surface of our planet. Volcanism produced the crust we live on and most of the air we breathe. The...

  14. Patrimonio, religiosidad popular e identidades a través de la acción colectiva: el caso del municipio de Huizúcar en El Salvador, Centroamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Heriberto Erquicia Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En El Salvador del siglo XXI, existe un interés de las localidades por conocer sus orígenes, sus historias, sus patrimonios y otros elementos que constituyen y conforman sus identidades. El municipio de Huizúcar, ubicado al sur de la ciudad d e San Salvador, se ha sido identificado a tr avés de su historia como uno de los lugares con población de ascendencia indígena de habla nahua - pipil , junto con otros municipios localizados en la misma cordillera. Dicha población, guarda dentro de su territorio y entre cada uno de sus habitantes un eno rme capital de tradiciones, relatos y memorias, entre ellos la historia, patrimonio, identidades y religiosidad popular, que conforman l a diversidad de universos históricos en dicha localidad . Con ello, l os elementos patrimoniales de la cultura material y las manifestaciones vivas de sus habitantes , conforman elementos esenciales en la construcción de la s historia s locales de El Salvador.

  15. De la migración económica a la migración forzada por el incremento de la violencia en El Salvador y México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gómez-Johnson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se propone determinar el impacto del incremento de la violencia en las movilizaciones actuales desde el estado de Guerrero en México y en la zona conurbada de San Salvador y La Libertad en El Salvador, durante la década del 2000. Los migrantes aquí estudiados no forman parte de los flujos tradicionales, comúnmente relacionados con precariedad laboral y económica, sino que se ven obligados a salir por la inseguridad. Se utilizó el enfoque cualitativo, aunque las cuestiones de seguridad constituyeron un reto para la construcción del instrumento y para el contacto con los sujetos de estudio. Se optó por entrevistas semiestructuradas a personas afectadas por la violencia y a personal que trabaja y ayuda a esta población. Para esto se contó con apoyo del Comité de Familiares de Desaparecidos en México (Cofamide, la Procuraduría de Derechos Humanos de El Salvador y la Universidad José Simeón Cañas (UCA, y con el Centro Regional de Defensa de Derechos Humanos José María Morelos y Pavón y Médicos Sin Fronteras, en México.

  16. Regularized joint inverse estimation of extreme rainfall amounts in ungauged coastal basins of El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    A regularized joint inverse procedure is presented and used to estimate the magnitude of extreme rainfall events in ungauged coastal river basins of El Salvador: Paz, Jiboa, Grande de San Miguel, and Goascoran. Since streamflow measurements reflect temporal and spatial rainfall information, peak-flow discharge is hypothesized to represent a similarity measure suitable for regionalization. To test this hypothesis, peak-flow discharge values determined from streamflow recurrence information (10-year, 25-year, and 100-year) collected outside the study basins are used to develop regional (country-wide) regression equations. Peak-flow discharge derived from these equations together with preferred spatial parameter relations as soft prior information are used to constrain the simultaneous calibration of 20 tributary basin models. The nonlinear range of uncertainty in estimated parameter values (1 curve number and 3 recurrent rainfall amounts for each model) is determined using an inverse calibration-constrained Monte Carlo approach. Cumulative probability distributions for rainfall amounts indicate differences among basins for a given return period and an increase in magnitude and range among basins with increasing return interval. Comparison of the estimated median rainfall amounts for all return periods were reasonable but larger (3.2-26%) than rainfall estimates computed using the frequency-duration (traditional) approach and individual rain gauge data. The observed 25-year recurrence rainfall amount at La Hachadura in the Paz River basin during Hurricane Mitch (1998) is similar in value to, but outside and slightly less than, the estimated rainfall confidence limits. The similarity in joint inverse and traditionally computed rainfall events, however, suggests that the rainfall observation may likely be due to under-catch and not model bias. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  17. Diarrhea outbreak during U.S. military training in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Matthew R; Lescano, Andres G; Lucas, Carmen; Gilles, Duncan; Biese, Brian J; Stolovitz, Gary; Reaves, Erik J

    2012-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea remains a major risk to deployed military units worldwide in addition to their impact on travelers and populations living in the developing world. This report describes an outbreak of diarrheal illness in the U.S. military's 130(th) Maneuver Enhancement Brigade deployed in San Vicente, El Salvador during a training and humanitarian assistance mission. An outbreak investigation team from U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit-Six conducted an epidemiologic survey and environmental assessment, patient interviews, and collected stool samples for analysis in an at risk population of 287 personnel from May 31(st) to June 3(rd), 2011. Personnel (n = 241) completed an epidemiological survey (87% response rate) and 67 (27%) reported diarrhea and/or vomiting during the past two weeks. The median duration of illness was reported to be 3 days (IQR 2-4 days) and abdominal pain was reported among 30 (49%) individuals. Presentation to the medical aid station was sought by (62%) individuals and 9 (15%) had to stop or significantly reduce work for at least one day. Microscopy and PCR analysis of 14 stool samples collected from previously symptomatic patients, Shigella (7), Cryptosporidium (5), and Cyclospora (4) were the most prevalent pathogens detected. Consumption of food from on-base local vendors (RR = 4.01, 95% CI = 1.53-10.5, p-value <0.001) and arriving on base within the past two weeks (RR = 2.79, 95% confidence [CI] = 1.35-5.76, p-value = 0.001) were associated with increased risk of developing diarrheal disease. The risk of infectious diarrhea is great among reserve military personnel during two week training exercises. The consumption of local food, prepared without proper monitoring, is a risk factor for deployed personnel developing diarrheal illness. Additional information is needed to better understand disease risks to personnel conducting humanitarian assistance activities in the Latin America Region.

  18. Tectonic interpretation of the 13 february 2001, mw 6.6, El Salvador Earthquake: New evidences of coseismic surface rupture and paleoseismic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Diaz, J. J.; Canora, C.; Villamor, P.; Capote, R.; Alvarez-Gomez, J. A.; Berryman, K.; Bejar, M.; Tsige, M.

    2009-04-01

    In February 2001 a major strike slip earthquake stroke the central part of El Salvador causing hundreds of people killed, thousands injured and extensive damage. After this event the scientific effort was mainly focused on the study of the enormous and catastrophic landslides triggered by this event and no evidences of surface faulting were detected. This earthquake was produced by the reactivation of the Ilopango-San Vicente segment of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Recently, a surface rupture displacement on the ground was identified. The analysis of aerial and field photographs taken few hours after the event and the mapping of the conserved ground structures shows a pure strike-slip displacement ranging from 20 to 50 cm, with secondary features indicating dextral shearing. The paleoseismic analysis made through the excavation of six trenches and Radiocarbon dating indicate a minimum slip rate of 2.0 mm/yr and a recurrence of major ruptures (Mw > 6.5) lower than 500 yr. These evidences give interesting local data to increase our understanding about the tectonic behavior and the way how active deformation develops along the northern limit of the forearc sliver related to the Centroamerican subduction area.

  19. Numerical modelling of rapid, flow-like landslides across 3-D terrains: a Tsunami Squares approach to El Picacho landslide, El Salvador, September 19, 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajia; Ward, Steven N.; Xiao, Lili

    2015-06-01

    Flow-like landslides are rapidly moving fluid-solid mixtures that can cause significant destruction along paths that run far from their original sources. Existing models for run out prediction and motion simulation of flow-like landslides have many limitations. In this paper, we develop a new method named `Tsunami Squares' to simulate the generation, propagation and stoppage of flow-like landslides based on conservation of volume and momentum. Landslide materials in the new method form divisible squares that are displaced, then further fractured. The squares move under the influence of gravity-driven acceleration and suffer decelerations due to basal and dynamic frictions. Distinctively, this method takes into account solid and fluid mechanics, particle interactions and flow regime transitions. We apply this approach to simulate the 1982 El Picacho landslide in San Salvador, capital city of El Salvador. Landslide products from Tsunami Squares such as run out distance, velocities, erosion and deposition depths and impacted area agree well with field investigated and eyewitness data.

  20. Uso de drogas en estudiantes de una universidad de El Salvador y su relación con el maltrato durante la niñez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Amaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue examinar la relación entre el uso y abuso de drogas y maltrato durante la niñez en estudiantes de una universidad de la ciudad de San Salvador, El Salvador. La investigación fue exploratoria, con un diseño transversal, siendo la muestra de 272 estudiantes. Como resultado se obtuvo que el 43% (118 de los estudiantes afirmaron haber consumido drogas alguna vez en su vida; las drogas de mayor consumo en los últimos 12 meses fueron el alcohol, el cannabis y el tabaco, con prevalencias del 14% (38, 9.3% (26 y 7% (19 respectivamente. El abuso físico y el abuso verbal fueron los dos tipos de maltrato más frecuentes; el tener amigos que consuman drogas es un factor de riesgo. Adicionalmente existe una relación directa y significativa (< 0.005 entre el uso y abuso de drogas y maltrato físico durante la niñez.

  1. Arsenic in volcanic geothermal fluids of Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Dina L; Bundschuh, Jochen; Birkle, Peter; Armienta, Maria Aurora; Cumbal, Luis; Sracek, Ondra; Cornejo, Lorena; Ormachea, Mauricio

    2012-07-01

    Numerous volcanoes, hot springs, fumaroles, and geothermal wells occur in the Pacific region of Latin America. These systems are characterized by high As concentrations and other typical geothermal elements such as Li and B. This paper presents a review of the available data on As concentrations in geothermal systems and their surficial discharges and As data on volcanic gases of Latin America. Data for geothermal systems in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile are presented. Two sources of As can be recognized in the investigated sites: Arsenic partitioned into volcanic gases and emitted in plumes and fumaroles, and arsenic in rocks of volcanic edifices that are leached by groundwaters enriched in volcanic gases. Water containing the most elevated concentrations of As are mature Na-Cl fluids with relatively low sulfate content and As concentrations reaching up to 73.6 mg L⁻¹ (Los Humeros geothermal field in Mexico), but more commonly ranging from a few mg L⁻¹ to tens of mg L⁻¹. Fluids derived from Na-Cl enriched waters formed through evaporation and condensation at shallower depths have As levels of only a few μg L⁻¹. Mixing of Na-Cl waters with shallower meteoric waters results in low to intermediate As concentrations (up to a few mg L⁻¹). After the waters are discharged at the ground surface, As(III) oxidizes to As(V) and attenuation of As concentration can occur due to sorption and co-precipitation processes with iron minerals and organic matter present in sediments. Understanding the mechanisms of As enrichment in geothermal waters and their fate upon mixing with shallower groundwater and surface waters is important for the protection of water resources in Latin America.

  2. Para una lectura iconotextual de Farabeuf de Salvador Elizondo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Reveles

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de ce travail est de montrer comment Farabeuf, roman du mexicain Salvador Elizondo,invite à réaliser une lecture à partir aussi bien des éléments visuels intégrés dans le texte, que de ceux auxquels le texte fait référence. Divisé en trois parties, l’article repère les éléments paratextuels et intertextuels présents dans l’oeuvre, afin de souligner l’importance des relations intermédiaires et iconotextuelles en tant que point de départ pour une lecture spécifique.El objetivo del presente trabajo es mostrar cómo en Farabeuf, el novelista mexicano Salvador Elizondo invita a realizar una lectura a partir tanto de los elementos visuales que lo integran, como a los que se hace referencia dentro del mismo texto. Dividido en tres partes, el ensayo indica algunos elementos paratextuales e intertextuales de la obra, con la finalidad de subrayar la importancia de las relaciones intermediales o iconotextuales como punto de referencia para hacer una lectura especifica.

  3. La prensa en El Salvador: tolerancia al mejor postor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Eric Lemus

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El periodismo salvadoreño en el año 2002 estuvo marcado por la presión política, empresarial y las agresiones a la prensa de parte de distintos actores. Una característica que parece afincarse en el trabajo de campo es el riesgo a reportear cualquier evento público. Sufrir el impacto de una bolsa con agua o un empellón puede suceder en cualquier evento público, desde una huelga de médicos hasta en una pelea de vendedores callejeros que protestan por su desalojo.¿La prensa salvadoreña sufre un problema de credibilidad o el respeto al derecho a informar no existe? Las encuestan todavía registran a los medios de comunicación, después de la Iglesia Católica, como uno de los sectores con mayor credibilidad en el país.

  4. La memoria nacional puertorriqueña en Salvador Brau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés Zavala, María Teresa

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This articles studies some aspects of Santiago Brau's historiographical works, namely his ideas about the social and economic development of l9th Century Puerto Rico. It also analyzes Brau's considerations about the bases of the Portorrican indentity. Finally, it deals with the ideological trends that paved the way for Portorrican colective configuration, in which Brau was both part —as a member of the Autonomist Party— and ideological leader.

    Ensayo que a partir de la obra historiográfica de Salvador Brau, visualiza algunos de los elementos que reflejan su concepción respecto del desarrollo económico, político y social del Puerto Rico decimonónico. Igualmente analiza aquellos fundamentos que conforman o definen la identidad puertorriqueña y las consideraciones que al respecto presenta el autor. Mismos que interrelaciona en el marco de la discusión del modelo económico y político de "modernización" y "progreso" más ponderado en la época. Asimismo llama la atención en la obra de Salvador Brau, al apuntar hacia algunas de las corrientes de pensamiento que conformaron ese largo y cambiante proceso de formación colectiva en las que el propio Brau, como militante autonomista, además de tomar partido, marcó caminos.

  5. Formación de formadores. Experiencia en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma González Aguado

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 3 de noviembre de 2006 • Aprobado 30 de noviembre de 2006  Resumen. El siguiente artículo presenta una síntesis de las actividades realizadas dentro del Convenio Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM, la Universidad Nacional de El Salvador (UES y la Universidad Centroamericana (UCA, cuya intención era buscar la transformación de los y las docentes en ejercicio. Las redes de conocimiento y relación generadas entre los docentes participantes y su impregnación de estas modalidades de trabajo han motivado cambios institucionales.    Abstract. The present article is a synthesis of activities developed as a part of the agreement between Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM, Universidad Nacional de El Salvador (UES and Universidad Centroamericana (UCA, which goal was to favor active teacher's transformation. As a result of the activities and the relation generated between participants, knowledge networks were developed and institutional changes have occurred.

  6. Volcanic hazards to airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  7. Calderas and mineralization: volcanic geology and mineralization in the Chianti caldera complex, Trans-Pecos Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duex, T.W.; Henry, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes preliminary results of an ongoing study of the volcanic stratigraphy, caldera activity, and known and potential mineralization of the Chinati Mountains area of Trans-Pecos Texas. Many ore deposits are spatially associated with calderas and other volcanic centers. A genetic relationship between calderas and base and precious metal mineralization has been proposed by some and denied by others. Steven and others have demonstrated that calderas provide an important setting for mineralization in the San Juan volcanic field of Colorado. Mineralization is not found in all calderas but is apparently restricted to calderas that had complex, postsubsidence igneous activity. A comparison of volcanic setting, volcanic history, caldera evolution, and evidence of mineralization in Trans-Pecos to those of the San Juan volcanic field, a major mineral producer, indicates that Trans-Pecos Texas also could be an important mineralized region. The Chianti caldera complex in Trans-Pecos Texas contains at least two calderas that have had considerable postsubsidence activity and that display large areas of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization. Abundant prospects in Trans-Pecos and numerous producing mines immediately south of the Trans-Pecos volcanic field in Mexico are additional evidence that ore-grade deposits could occur in Texas.

  8. SAN CARLOS APACHE PAPERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROESSEL, ROBERT A., JR.

    THE FIRST SECTION OF THIS BOOK COVERS THE HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE INDIANS, AS WELL AS AN HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM. THE SECOND SECTION IS DEVOTED TO THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHERS OF THE INDIAN CHILDREN IN GLOBE AND SAN CARLOS, ARIZONA. IT IS DIVIDED INTO THREE PARTS--(1)…

  9. San Carlo Operaen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bent

    2005-01-01

    En indplacering af operahuset San Carlo i en kulturhistorisk repræsentationskontekst med særligt henblik på begrebet napolalità.......En indplacering af operahuset San Carlo i en kulturhistorisk repræsentationskontekst med særligt henblik på begrebet napolalità....

  10. Salvador Allende, por la democracia y el socialismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto de la Fuente A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ¿Habrá algo más obvio que preguntarse quién fue Salvador Allende? ¿Es reflejo, la definición o la interpretación de la historia de la que formó parte, entre 1927 y 1973? ¿Qué grado de sensibilidad y sentido de trascendencia había en él, cuando le habla al mundo desde el Palacio de Gobierno bombardeado e incendiándose, esa mañana del 11 de septiembre de 1973. El propósito de esta comunicación es sistematizar las experiencias, ideas y pensamientos de quien fuera el "Compañero Presidente de Chile". De paso, rendirle un homenaje a quien dejara una lección de entusiasmo, perseverancia y coherencia. Salvador Allende (1908-1973, quiso hacer concordar sus ideales con la conciencia crítica del político que fue madurando en su práctica y concepción revolucionaria. Mi hipótesis es la siguiente: en la biografía de Salvador Allende, en sus vínculos con las luchas sociales, políticas, culturales y controversias con el partido socialista, subyace una idea de América Latina y de socialismo a la chilena, donde él sitúa su praxis como médico, militante socialista, dirigente político, parlamentario y luego como Presidente de la República. La síntesis de su concepción política y programática, entre otros documentos, se encuentra en el diálogo que sostiene con Régis Debray en 1971 y que queda plasmada en el libro Conversaciones: a la realidad de un país subdesarrollado le aplica las concepciones teóricas de un marxismo enriquecido con los aportes científicos del devenir social. Su tesis es la transformación del país al socialismo por la vía pacífica-electoral, con respeto a las demás concepciones políticas, ideológicas y religiosas. Concibe América Latina ¿en la unidad de los pueblos en su lucha emancipatoria como base esencial de la victoria definitiva, (1966, Conferencia Tricontinental de La Habana.

  11. Prevalence of patients receiving renal replacement therapy in El Salvador in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Trabanino, Ramón; Trujillo, Zulma; Colorado, Ana Verónica; Magaña Mercado, Salvador; Henríquez, Carlos Atilio

    El Salvador has the highest renal failure mortality rate in the Americas. Five healthcare providers offer renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the country. The national RRT prevalence has never been reported.

  12. Geodetically resolved slip distribution of the 27 August 2012 Mw=7.3 El Salvador earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsson, H.; La Femina, P. C.; DeMets, C.; Hernandez, D. A.; Mattioli, G. S.; Rogers, R.; Rodriguez, M.

    2013-12-01

    On 27 August 2012 a Mw=7.3 earthquake occurred offshore of Central America causing a small tsunami in El Salvador and Nicaragua but little damage otherwise. This is the largest magnitude earthquake in this area since 2001. We use co-seismic displacements estimated from episodic and continuous GPS station time series to model the magnitude and spatial variability of slip for this event. The estimated surface displacements are small (El Salvador. Additionally, we observe a deeper region of slip to the east, that reaches towards the Gulf of Fonseca between El Salvador and Nicaragua. The observed tsunami additionally indicates near-trench rupture off the coast of El Salvador. The duration of the rupturing is estimated from seismic data to be 70 s, which indicates a slow rupture process. Since the geodetic moment we obtain agrees with the seismic moment, this indicates that the earthquake was not associated with aseismic slip.

  13. Precambrian Lunar Volcanic Protolife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Green

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Five representative terrestrial analogs of lunar craters are detailed relevant to Precambrian fumarolic activity. Fumarolic fluids contain the ingredients for protolife. Energy sources to derive formaldehyde, amino acids and related compounds could be by flow charging, charge separation and volcanic shock. With no photodecomposition in shadow, most fumarolic fluids at 40 K would persist over geologically long time periods. Relatively abundant tungsten would permit creation of critical enzymes, Fischer-Tropsch reactions could form polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soluble volcanic polyphosphates would enable assembly of nucleic acids. Fumarolic stimuli factors are described. Orbital and lander sensors specific to protolife exploration including combined Raman/laser-induced breakdown spectrocsopy are evaluated.

  14. The peace processes of Colombia and El Salvador : a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Gantiva Arias, Diego A.; Palacios Luna, Marco A.

    1997-01-01

    Colombia and El Salvador, two Latin American countries, have developed similar counterinsurgency processes and started similar processes of peace negotiations between the insurgent armies and the forces of order. One peace process was concluded in 1992, when El Salvador ended the war through a political solution (Peace Accords). Salvadoran insurgent forces agreed to demobilize its army and to become a legal political party, while the government agreed to make changes in the social and politic...

  15. State Capacity and Effectiveness in Combating Crime: A Comparative Study of El Salvador and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    massacres took place on Mayan villages. He has remained in Guatemalan politics since the civil war, and because he was a congressman, he has been...decades after the conclusion of brutal civil wars, El Salvador and Guatemala are once again faced with high levels of violence stemming from drug...PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT Less than two decades after the conclusion of brutal civil wars, El Salvador and Guatemala are once again

  16. Bacterial contamination in milk kitchens in pediatric hospitals in Salvador, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Romilda Castro Cairo; Luciana Rodrigues Silva; Carol Ferreira de Andrade; Maria Goreth de Andrade Barberino; Antônio Carlos Bandeira; Kleber Pimentel Santos; Diniz-Santos,Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Milk may represent an important source of infectious agents to hospitalized pediatric patients. To describe the bacterial microflora isolated from the hands, stools, pharynx of all workers at milk kitchens in pediatric hospitals in the city of Salvador, Brazil, as well as in the formulas prepared by them, we carried out this cross-sectional study with all 91 workers from the 20 milk kitchens of all the public and private hospitals in Salvador, Brazil. Hand and pharynx swabs and stool samples ...

  17. Sinopsis del género Meliosma (Sabiaceae) en El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Menjívar C., Jenny; Cerén, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    A synopsis of the genus Meliosma (Sabiaceae) in El Salvador is presented, with a key, descriptions, illustrations, distributional data, phenology, and citation of all specimens examined. Two species are reported, including a new taxon, Meliosma echeverriae.Se presenta una sinopsis del género Meliosma (Sabiaceae) en El Salvador, incluyendo una clave, descripciones, ilustraciones, datos de distribución, fenología y una lista de los especímenes examinados. Se describen un total de dos especies, ...

  18. La poètica de Carles Salvador i la generació de 1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís B. Meseguer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Meseguer situates Carles Salvador within the literary trends of his contemporaries. He deals with Salvador's implicit and explicit ideological influences, focusing on the poetics of various texts: El jazz, el maquinisme i la poesia pura (1928, Colps d'escut i de sageta (1929, Significado de Avantguardisme, his declaration in La poesia valenciana en 1930, and his unpublished paper El meu concepte de la poesia.

  19. PARANOÏA: la vie secrète de Salvador Dali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Buuren, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    En 1942, Salvador Dali, âgé de trente-huit ans, termine son autobiographie La vie secrète de Salvador Dali. Il prétend s’y livrer au lecteur en toute candeur. Mais c’est un leurre. Dali construit l’histoire de sa vie sur ce qu’il considère comme sa trouvaille capitale : la méthode

  20. Lung problems and volcanic smog

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... releases gases into the atmosphere. Volcanic smog can irritate the lungs and make existing lung problems worse. ... deep into the lungs. Breathing in volcanic smog irritates the lungs and mucus membranes. It can affect ...

  1. REDES DO COMÉRCIO DE RUA DE SALVADOR, BAHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Nogueira Maia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo representa un estudio de caso de comercio de la calle que se produce en la Centralización Iguatemi y Avenida Lima e Silva, en Salvador, Bahia. Al caminar por las calles es la diversidad notable que esta actividad presenta son bienes de todo tipo, ropa, electrónica, productos alimenticios y los que están diseñados para satisfacer una necesidad momentánea. Buscamos entender el camino que lleva a la diversidad bienes desde la producción hasta el consumo, se analizan los productos de “extranjero” en un intento de controlar todo el trayecto del camino para ellos. Por lo tanto, desarrollamos un entendimiento en torno a redes posibles formados detrás de la venta ambulante, es decir, las redes de suministro de este comercio.

  2. Salvador 08概念摩托车

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Salvador Gonazalez为YAMAHA公司设计了一款入门级电动三轮概念摩托车。这是一款专为那些既想要享受驾驶机车的超快感,又想要保证自身行车安全的人而设计的概念产品。尤其对于那些生手来说,保证安全与舒适驾驶是首要的,在机身两侧设计的双“翅”不仅能为造型的新颖美观加分,同时也为驾驶者增添了一份安全感。此外,该车采用新型环保燃料,非常符合目前的绿色环保概念。

  3. Emergence and proliferation of private security companies in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Saavedra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El Salvador has been impacted by political instability and socioeconomic turmoil in a perfect environment for organized crime amidst the pacification and democratization of the country after a bloody internal conflict. This essay focuses on private security through a descriptive analysis of the factors that influence its development and implications for governance and governability in the country. Analysis of security as a common good, factors that influence the use of private security, and inter-institutional relations of private security and police require appropriate regulation in accordance with the factors mentioned above. When considering security as a common good, observance of fundamental rights is mandatory and forms the basis of legitimacy of government action.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v4i2.1765

  4. Cultivating men's interest in family planning in rural El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Rebecka I; Gribble, James N; Greene, Margaret E; Emrick, Gail E; de Monroy, Margarita

    2005-09-01

    A pilot project in rural El Salvador tested the integration of family planning into a water and sanitation program as a strategy for increasing male involvement in family planning decison making and use. The organizations involved posited that integrating family planning into a resource management and community development project would facilitate male involvement by diffusing information, by referring men and women to services, and by expanding method choice to include the new Standard Days Method through networks established around issues men cared about and were already involved in. This article examines data from a community-based household survey to assess the impact of the intervention and finds significant changes in contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior from baseline to endline. Because the differences between baseline and endline are greater than the differences between participants and nonparticipants at endline, the study demonstrates the power of informal networks for spreading information.

  5. Children's knowledge of sexual abuse prevention in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Alicia; Katz, Craig L; Ciro, Dianne; Guttfreund, Daniel; Nosike, Digna

    2014-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) remains a global health problem that must be addressed. In a country with limited resources such as El Salvador, we sought an alternative way to disseminate CSA prevention information to elementary school children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention exhibit at a children's museum. We asked 189 children to answer a questionnaire about CSA prevention before entering a museum exhibit on the subject and then asked 59 different children to answer the questionnaire after visiting the exhibit. Children's knowledge scores on CSA prevention significantly improved after visiting the exhibit (P < .012). A museum exhibit that addresses CSA prevention is an effective way of communicating CSA prevention to children. Copyright © 2014 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A respeito das torres de defesa na cidade do Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago, Cybèle Celestino

    1989-01-01

    p. 99-115 As torres foram construções de defesa de grande importância no período medieval. O presente artigo faz um rebatimento entre os elementos que eram utilizados naquela época em outras partes do mundo e os que para cá foram transportados por ocasião da colonização do Brasil, dando ênfase ao antigo Forte de São Tiago de Água de Meninos, em Salvador, cujas prospecções arqueológicas poderão evidenciar concretamente, pela primeira vez em nosso País, a existência do elemento de defesa com...

  7. Volcanism and Oil & Gas In Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Xuanlong

    2000-01-01

    Based on study on the relation with volcanic rock and oil & gas in Songliao Basin and Liaohe Basin in northeast China, author proposes that material from deep by volcanism enrichs the resources in basins, that heat by volcanism promotes organic matter transforming to oil and gas, that volcanic reservoir is fracture, vesicular, solution pore, intercrystal pore.Lava facies and pyroclastic facies are favourable reservoir. Mesozoic volcanic reservoir is majority of intermediate, acid rock,but Cenozoic volcanic reservoir is majority of basalt. Types of oil and gas pool relating to volcanic rock include volcanic fracture pool, volcanic unconformity pool, volcanic rock - screened pool, volcanic darpe structural pool.

  8. La experiencia migratoria según género: salvadoreños y salvadoreñas en el Estado de Maryland Migratory experiences according gender: salvadoreños y salvadoreñas in Maryland state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Poggio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo discuto primero la importancia de la incorporación de la perspectiva de género en el análisis de las migraciones internacionales, como única manera de obtener conocimiento acabado sobre el fenómeno. A partir del análisis de dos muestras de mujeres y una de hombres inmigrantes Salvadoreños en el área denominada "El corredor Washington-Baltimore", intento demostrar que la estructura de género existente en el país de origen así como la que hay en el país de destino son determinantes en la formación de una corriente migratoria. En un segundo momento comparo las experiencias migratorias de hombres y mujeres de la misma corriente con el propósito de contrastar las percepciones de ambos géneros en lo que se relaciona a los efectos de la migración a nivel individual y a las relaciones familiares de género y generaciones.In this article, I first, discuss the importance of the incorporation of gender's perspective in the analysis of the international migrations as the unique manner to obtain complete knowledge from the phenomenon. Since the analysis of two samples of women and one of men immigrant salvadoreños in the designate area "The runner Washington-Baltimore", I attempt to prove the determinacy of the existent gender's structure in the origin country ant in the destiny country to form a migration stream. Second, I compare the migration experiences of women and men from the same stream to check the two gender's perceptions of the migration's results in the individual level as in the family's relations and generations.

  9. Extreme Weather Risk Assessment: The Case of Jiquilisco, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Karla; Ceppi, Claudia; Molero, Juanjo; Rios Insua, David

    2014-05-01

    All major climate models predict increases in both global and regional mean temperatures throughout this century, under different scenarios concerning future trends in population growth or economic and technological development. This consistency of results across models has strengthened the evidence about global warming. Despite the convincing facts and findings of climate researchers, there is still a great deal of skepticism around climate change. There is somewhat less consensus about some of the consequences of climate change, for example in reference to extreme weather changes, in particular as regards more local scales. However, such changes seem to have already considerable impact in many regions across the world in terms of lives, economic losses, and required changes in lifestyles. This may demand appropriate policy responses both at national and local levels. Our work provides a framework for extreme weather multithreat risk management, based on probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This may be useful in comparing the effectiveness of different actions to manage risks and inform judgment concerning the appropriate resource allocation to mitigate the risks. The methodology has been applied to the case study of the "El Marillo II" community, located in the municipality of Jiquilisco in El Salvador. There, the main problem related with extreme weather conditions are the frequent floods caused by rainfall, hurricanes , and water increases in the Lempa river nearby located. However, droughts are also very relevant. Based on several sources like SNET, newspapers, field visits to the region and interviews, we have built a detailed database that comprises extreme weather daily data from January 1971 until December 2011. Forecasting models for floods and droughts were built suggesting the need to properly manage the risks. We subsequently obtained the optimal portfolio of countermeasures, given the budget constraints. KEYWORDS: CLIMATE CHANGE, EXTREME WEATHER, RISK

  10. Microbiology and mortality of pediatric febrile neutropenia in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sumit; Bonilla, Miguel; Gamero, Mario; Fuentes, Soad L; Caniza, Miguela; Sung, Lillian

    2011-05-01

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) and infection-related mortality are major problems for children with cancer in low-income countries. Identifying predictors for adverse outcome of FN in low-income countries permits targeted interventions. We describe the nature and predictors of microbiologically documented infection (MDI) and mortality of FN in children with cancer in El Salvador. We examined Salvadoran pediatric oncology patients admitted with FN over a 1-year period. Data were collected prospectively. Demographic, treatment, and admission-related variables were examined as predictors of outcomes. Hundred six FN episodes among 85 patients were included. Twenty-three of 106 episodes (22%) were microbiologically documented; 13 of 106 episodes (12%) resulted in death. Gram-positive and gram-negative organisms were isolated in 14 of 23 and 11 of 23 specimens; polymicrobial infections were common (11 of 23 episodes of MDI). Older age decreased the MDI risk [odds ratio (OR) per year=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-0.99; P=0.04] while increasing number of days since the last chemotherapy increased the risk (OR=1.03 per day, 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; P=0.002). Pneumonia diagnosed either clinically (OR=6.6, 95% CI, 1.8-30.0; P=0.005) or radiographically (OR=5.5, 95% CI, 1.7-18.1; P=0.005) was the only predictor of mortality. In El Salvador, polymicrobial infections were common. Pneumonia at admission identified children with FN at high risk of death; these children may benefit from targeted interventions.

  11. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard...

  12. Quaternary volcanism in the Acambay graben, Mexican Volcanic Belt: Re-evaluation for potential volcanic danger in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.; Pedrazzi, D.; Lacan, P.; Roldan-Quintana, J.; Ortuňo, M.; Zuniga, R. R.; Laurence, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB) is best known for the major active stratovolcanoes, such as Popocatépetl, Citlaltépetl and Colima. The most common stratovolcanoes in this province are modest-size cones with heights of 800 to 1000 m. Examples are Tequila, Sangangüey, Las Navajas, Culiacán, La Joya, El Zamorano, Temascalcingo and Altamirano; these last two were formed within the Acambay Graben in central MVB. The Acambay graben (20 x 70 km) is 100 km to the NW of Mexico City, with E-W trending seismically active normal faults; in particular the Acambay-Tixmadejé fault related to a mB =7 earthquake in 1912. Within the graben there are many volcanic structures, including calderas, domes, cinder cones and stratovolcanoes; Temascalcingo and Altamirano are the largest, with about 800 and 900 m heights, respectively. Temascalcingo is mostly composed of dacitic lavas and block and ash flow deposits. Includes a 3 x 2.5 km summit caldera and a magmatic sector collapse event with the associated debris avalanche deposit. 14C ages of 37-12 ka correspond to the volcano's latest phases that produced pyroclastic deposits. A major plinian eruption formed the San Mateo Pumice with an age of <20 Ka. Altamirano volcano is poorly studied; it is andesitic-dacitic, composed of lavas, pyroclastic flow deposits, and pumice fallouts. Morphologically is better preserved than Temascalcingo, and it should be younger. 14C ages of 4.0-2.5 ka were performed in charcoal within pyroclastic flow deposits that apparently were erupted from Altamirano. An undated 3 m thick pumice fallout on the flanks of Altamirano volcano could be also Holocene. It represents a major explosive event. The relatively young ages found in volcanic deposits within the Acambay graben raise the volcanic danger level in this area, originally thought as an inactive volcanic zone. The two major volcanoes, Temascalcingo and Altamirano, should be considered as dormant volcanoes that could restart activity at any time. We

  13. “Masones salvadoreños e instrucción intelectual femenina: El Salvador, 1875-1887”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Carolina Vásquez Monzón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza la influencia política que tuvieron masones como Baltasar Estupinián, Rafael Reyes, RafaelZaldívar, Antonio J. Castro, Manuel Delgado y Rafael Meza en la promoción de la instrucción intelectual paralas mujeres en El Salvador, durante el último tercio del siglo XIX. A través de la revisión de impresos de laépoca, el estudio recoge discursos de opinión, decretos, reglamentos y noticias que vinculan a estos masones conactividades de fomento a la educación femenina, lacreación de institutos de enseñanza para mujeres, laampliación del plan de estudios, el otorgamiento debecas o la exoneración de pagos para aquellas quequisierancontinuar sus estudios secundarios y de educación superior.

  14. Tendência de mortalidade infantil na cidade do Salvador (Bahia Infant mortality trends in Salvador (Bahia

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    Celia Guimarães Netto Dias

    1975-03-01

    Full Text Available Revisão das causas de óbito de crianças com menos de um ano de idade no município de Salvador Bahia (Brasil no período de 1962 a 1971, tendo sido investigada do ponto de vista estatístico, a tendência secular da mortalidade infantil. Para alguns dos dados foi ajustada uma reta pela equação matemática da forma Y = a + bx através do método dos mínimos quadrados, enquanto que para outros ajustou-se uma exponencial modificada do tipo Y = k + ab x. A tendência global da mortalidade infantil no período de 1962 a 1970 é descendente, tendo no entanto se elevado em 1971 atingindo um coeficiente praticamente igual ao alcançado no ano de 1964. Fato semelhante ocorreu com a mortalidade por enterite e outras doenças diarréicas.The death causes of children under one year of age in the city of Salvador, Brazil, between 1962 and 1971, including a statistical investigation of the secular tendency of the infant mortality rate, were reviewed. For some data a straight line was adjusted with a mathematical equation of the type Y = a + bx (method of the least squares. For other a modified exponential curve of the type Y = k + ab x was used. The general tendency of the infant mortality rate was descendent throughout the period 1962 to 1970, arising in 1971 to levels observed in 1964. A similar fact was encountered when neonatal mortality and mortality rates by gastroenteritis and other diarrheal diseases were studied.

  15. Evidence for Late Oligocene-Early Miocene episode of transtension along San Andreas Fault system in central California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, R.G.

    1986-04-01

    The San Andreas is one of the most intensely studied fault systems in the world, but many aspects of its kinematic history remain controversial. For example, the period from the late Eocene to early Miocene is widely believed to have been a time of negligible strike-slip movement along the San Andreas fault proper, based on the rough similarity of offset of the Eocene Butano-Point of rocks Submarine Fan, the early Miocene Pinnacles-Neenach volcanic center, and an early Miocene shoreline in the northern Gabilan Range and San Emigdio Mountains. Nonetheless, evidence indicates that a late Oligocene-early Miocene episode of transtension, or strike-slip motion with a component of extension, occurred within the San Andreas fault system. The evidence includes: (1) about 22-24 Ma, widespread, synchronous volcanic activity occurred at about 12 volcanic centers along a 400-km long segment of the central California coast; (2) most of these volcanic centers are located along faults of the San Andreas system, including the San Andreas fault proper, the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault, and the Zayante-Vergeles fault, suggesting that these and other faults were active and served as conduits for magmas rising from below; (3) during the late Oligocene and early Miocene, a pull-apart basin developed adjacent to the San Andreas fault proper in the La Honda basin near Santa Cruz; and (4) during the late Oligocene and early Miocene, active faulting, rapid subsidence, and marine transgression occurred in the La Honda and other sedimentary basins in central California. The amount of right-lateral displacement along the San Andreas fault proper during this transtentional episode is unknown but was probably about 7.5-35 km, based on model studies of pull-apart basin formation. This small amount of movement is well within the range of error in published estimates of the offset of the Eocene to early Miocene geologic features noted.

  16. Que Viva San Simón: An Annual Central American Holiday in Los Angeles%"万岁圣·西蒙":洛杉矶一年一度的中美洲节日

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迈克尔·欧文·琼斯; 巴莫曲布嫫

    2005-01-01

    @@ 每年十月下旬,洛杉矶的许多拉丁美洲(裔)人都要参加纪念一位民间圣徒的聚会和游行.这位圣徒名叫圣·西蒙(San Simon),他在中美洲各地,尤其是在危地马拉(Guatemala)和萨尔瓦多(EI Salvador)可谓闻名遐迩.

  17. La ciencia política en El Salvador: sus primeros pasos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Artiga-González

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En este trabajo se hace una descripción del más reciente desarrollo de la ciencia política en El Salvador. Se presentan sus orígenes, evolución, influencias académicas recibidas, desafíos, fortalezas, salidas laborales de los egresados de esta disciplina, su valoración social y su impacto. Al año 2005, en El Salvador solamente existe un programa académico de ciencia política. Éste funciona a nivel de estudios de maestría. Por esta razón la perspectiva adoptada para la descripción es más específica que general. Por otra parte, la investigación todavía es incipiente. La comunidad de politólogos salvadoreños tiene pocos miembros, todos con formación en el extranjero y representan, en cierta forma, una generación de relevo en las ciencias sociales salvadoreñas.Abstract In this paper, a description of the most recent development of political science in El Salvador is drawn. Its origins, evolution, academic influences, challenges, strengths, social appraisal, impacts and the job opportunities for the new professionals graduated from this discipline are briefly described. The paper emphasizes three points: First, the fact that only one Political Science Academic Program exists in El Salvador, a Master's Degree Program. This article mostly refers to this Program and, therefore, has a specific focus rather than a general one. Second, political science research is also still at its beginning stages. Finally, the Community of Salvadoran scholars in political science is small. In fact, it only has a few members, less than ten. They all graduated from foreign universities, and represent in someway a generational chance for the social sciences in El Salvador.

  18. Exploring Hawaiian Volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Okubo, Paul G.; Hon, Ken

    2013-02-01

    In 1912 the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established by Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Thomas A. Jaggar Jr. on the island of Hawaii. Driven by the devastation he observed while investigating the volcanic disasters of 1902 at Montagne Pelée in the Caribbean, Jaggar conducted a worldwide search and decided that Hawai`i provided an excellent natural laboratory for systematic study of earthquake and volcano processes toward better understanding of seismic and volcanic hazards. In the 100 years since HVO's founding, surveillance and investigation of Hawaiian volcanoes have spurred advances in volcano and seismic monitoring techniques, extended scientists' understanding of eruptive activity and processes, and contributed to development of global theories about hot spots and mantle plumes.

  19. Exploring Hawaiian volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Okubo, Paul G.; Hon, Ken

    2013-01-01

    In 1912 the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established by Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Thomas A. Jaggar Jr. on the island of Hawaii. Driven by the devastation he observed while investigating the volcanic disasters of 1902 at Montagne Pelée in the Caribbean, Jaggar conducted a worldwide search and decided that Hawai‘i provided an excellent natural laboratory for systematic study of earthquake and volcano processes toward better understanding of seismic and volcanic hazards. In the 100 years since HVO’s founding, surveillance and investigation of Hawaiian volcanoes have spurred advances in volcano and seismic monitoring techniques, extended scientists’ understanding of eruptive activity and processes, and contributed to development of global theories about hot spots and mantle plumes.

  20. Bimodal volcanism in a tectonic transfer zone: Evidence for tectonically controlled magmatism in the southern Central Andes, NW Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrinovic, I. A.; Riller, U.; Brod, J. A.; Alvarado, G.; Arnosio, M.

    2006-04-01

    This field-based and analytical laboratory study focuses on the genetic relationship between bimodal volcanic centres and fault types of an important tectonic transfer zone in the southern Central Andes, the NW-SE striking Calama-Olacapato-Toro (COT) volcanic belt. More specifically, tectono-magmatic relationships are examined for the 0.55 Ma Tocomar, the 0.78 Ma San Jerónimo and the 0.45 Ma Negro de Chorrillos volcanic centres in the Tocomar area (66°30 W-24°15 S). Structures of the COT volcanic belt, notably NW-SE striking strike-slip faults and NE-SW trending normal faults, accommodated differential shortening between major N-S striking thrust faults on the Puna Plateau. We present evidence that bimodal volcanism was contemporaneous with activity of these fault types in the COT volcanic belt, whereby eruption and composition of the volcanic rocks in the Tocomar and San Jerónimo-Negro de Chorrillos areas appear to have been controlled by the kinematics of individual faults. More specifically, rhyolitic centres such as the Tocomar are associated with normal faults, whereas shoshonitic-andesitic monogenetic volcanoes, e.g., the San Jerónimo and Negro de Chorrillos centres, formed at strike-slip dominated faults. Thus, the eruption of higher viscous rhyolite magmas appears to have been facilitated in tectonic settings characterized by horizontal dilation whereas ascent and effusive volcanic activity of less viscous and hot basaltic andesites to shoshonites were controlled by subvertical strike-slip faults. While the Tocomar rhyolites are interpreted to be derived from an anatectic crustal source, geochemical characteristics of the San Jerónimo and Negro de Chorrillos shoshonitic andesites are in agreement with a deeper source. This suggests that the composition of erupted volcanic rocks as well as their spatial distribution in the Tocomar area is controlled by the activity of specific fault types. Such volcano-tectonic relationships are also evident from older

  1. Perspectivas de la diarrea por rotavirus en El Salvador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Arturo Zablah

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Materiales y métodos: En diciembre del año 2000, un brote epidémico de gastroenteritis ocurrió en El Salvador que se asoció con numerosas hospitalizaciones y muertes de niños en todo el país. El Ministerio de Salud Pública se mostró preocupado, pues se ignoraba su etiología y las medidas de control usuales fueron ineficaces. El brote lo produjo un rotavirus, y las medidas de control fueron rediseñadas para mejorar el tratamiento con rehidratación oral e iniciar un sistema de vigilancia para conocer los agentes etiológicos de la gastroenteritis. Se colectaron datos clínicos, demográficos y también muestras de heces en niños menores de 5 años que presentaron gastroenteritis aguda. A las muestras de heces se les realizó exámenes para determinar la presencia de rotavirus, parásitos y bacterias. El sistema revigilancia se extrapoló con los datos nacionales para estimar el impacto nacional de la enfermedad por rotavirus. Resultados: La vigilancia epidemiológica entre mayo 2001 y abril 2002 demostró que el rotavirus tuvo predominio en la estación de invierno, y se asoció con la presencia de vómitos que se informaron en 27% de 12,083 consultas por diarrea. Los niños con gastroenteritis por rotavirus eran lactantes con un promedio de edad de 9 meses en comparación con las diarreas causadas por otros agentes (13 meses para bacterias y 16 meses para parásitos. Al extrapolar los datos nacionales, se estimó que el riesgo de un niño que consultaba por diarrea por rotavirus, que se hospitalizaba, y riesgo de muerte antes de los 5 años fue 1:7, 1:56, y 1:531, respectivamente. Conclusiones: El brote de gastroenteritis en niños menores de 5 años entre diciembre 2000 y febrero 2001 representó un exagerado predominio estacional de la infección por rotavirus. La actividad de vigilancia epidemiológica después del brote sugiere que el rotavirus es la causa mas frecuente de diarrea en El Salvador. Un seguimiento en la vigilancia

  2. Tsunami hazard and risk assessment in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M.; González-Riancho, P.; Gutiérrez, O. Q.; García-Aguilar, O.; Aniel-Quiroga, I.; Aguirre, I.; Alvarez, J. A.; Gavidia, F.; Jaimes, I.; Larreynaga, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Tsunamis are relatively infrequent phenomena representing a greater threat than earthquakes, hurricanes and tornadoes, causing the loss of thousands of human lives and extensive damage to coastal infrastructure around the world. Several works have attempted to study these phenomena in order to understand their origin, causes, evolution, consequences, and magnitude of their damages, to finally propose mechanisms to protect coastal societies. Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow the development of adaptation and mitigation strategies to reduce risk on coastal areas. This work -Tsunami Hazard and Risk Assessment in El Salvador-, funded by AECID during the period 2009-12, examines the state of the art and presents a comprehensive methodology for assessing the risk of tsunamis at any coastal area worldwide and applying it to the coast of El Salvador. The conceptual framework is based on the definition of Risk as the probability of harmful consequences or expected losses resulting from a given hazard to a given element at danger or peril, over a specified time period (European Commission, Schneiderbauer et al., 2004). The HAZARD assessment (Phase I of the project) is based on propagation models for earthquake-generated tsunamis, developed through the characterization of tsunamigenic sources -sismotectonic faults- and other dynamics under study -tsunami waves, sea level, etc.-. The study area is located in a high seismic activity area and has been hit by 11 tsunamis between 1859 and 1997, nine of them recorded in the twentieth century and all generated by earthquakes. Simulations of historical and potential tsunamis with greater or lesser affection to the country's coast have been performed, including distant sources, intermediate and close. Deterministic analyses of the threats under study -coastal flooding- have been carried out, resulting in different hazard maps (maximum wave height elevation, maximum water depth, minimum tsunami

  3. A gripe espanhola em Salvador, 1918: cidade de becos e cortiços The Spanish flu in Salvador, 1918: city of alleys and tenements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Maria Cruz de Souza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo investigar o episódio da epidemia de gripe espanhola que atingiu a cidade de Salvador e outras áreas da Bahia, tendo seu ápice entre setembro e dezembro de 1918. Utilizando como fonte privilegiada a imprensa local, analiso o jogo do poder, a condição sanitária da capital, alguns aspectos da economia, as condições materiais de sobrevivência dos moradores de Salvador, a fragilidade das políticas de saúde e assistência pública e outros aspectos de uma sociedade complexa e desigual evidenciados pela epidemia.The article investigates the Spanish flu epidemic that hit the city of Salvador and the state of Bahia, reaching its height between September and December of 1918. The local press is a primary source in this analysis of power politics, sanitary conditions in the state capital, some economic issues, the material conditions for survival in Salvador, and the fragility of public health and assistance policies - all features of a complex, unequal society made visible by the epidemic.

  4. Subdiffusion of volcanic earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Sumiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study is performed on volcanic seismicities at Mt.Eyjafjallajokull in Iceland and Mt. Etna in Sicily, Italy, from the viewpoint of science of complex systems, and the discovery of remarkable similarities between them regarding their exotic spatio-temporal properties is reported. In both of the volcanic seismicities as point processes, the jump probability distributions of earthquakes are found to obey the exponential law, whereas the waiting-time distributions follow the power law. In particular, a careful analysis is made about the finite size effects on the waiting-time distributions, and accordingly, the previously reported results for Mt. Etna [S. Abe and N. Suzuki, EPL 110, 59001 (2015)] are reinterpreted. It is shown that spreads of the volcanic earthquakes are subdiffusive at both of the volcanoes. The aging phenomenon is observed in the "event-time-averaged" mean-squared displacements of the hypocenters. A comment is also made on presence/absence of long term memories in the context of t...

  5. Diarrhea outbreak during U.S. military training in El Salvador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Kasper

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhea remains a major risk to deployed military units worldwide in addition to their impact on travelers and populations living in the developing world. This report describes an outbreak of diarrheal illness in the U.S. military's 130(th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade deployed in San Vicente, El Salvador during a training and humanitarian assistance mission. An outbreak investigation team from U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit-Six conducted an epidemiologic survey and environmental assessment, patient interviews, and collected stool samples for analysis in an at risk population of 287 personnel from May 31(st to June 3(rd, 2011. Personnel (n = 241 completed an epidemiological survey (87% response rate and 67 (27% reported diarrhea and/or vomiting during the past two weeks. The median duration of illness was reported to be 3 days (IQR 2-4 days and abdominal pain was reported among 30 (49% individuals. Presentation to the medical aid station was sought by (62% individuals and 9 (15% had to stop or significantly reduce work for at least one day. Microscopy and PCR analysis of 14 stool samples collected from previously symptomatic patients, Shigella (7, Cryptosporidium (5, and Cyclospora (4 were the most prevalent pathogens detected. Consumption of food from on-base local vendors (RR = 4.01, 95% CI = 1.53-10.5, p-value <0.001 and arriving on base within the past two weeks (RR = 2.79, 95% confidence [CI] = 1.35-5.76, p-value = 0.001 were associated with increased risk of developing diarrheal disease. The risk of infectious diarrhea is great among reserve military personnel during two week training exercises. The consumption of local food, prepared without proper monitoring, is a risk factor for deployed personnel developing diarrheal illness. Additional information is needed to better understand disease risks to personnel conducting humanitarian assistance activities in the Latin America Region.

  6. Diarrhea Outbreak during U.S. Military Training in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Matthew R.; Lescano, Andres G.; Lucas, Carmen; Gilles, Duncan; Biese, Brian J.; Stolovitz, Gary; Reaves, Erik J.

    2012-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea remains a major risk to deployed military units worldwide in addition to their impact on travelers and populations living in the developing world. This report describes an outbreak of diarrheal illness in the U.S. military’s 130th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade deployed in San Vicente, El Salvador during a training and humanitarian assistance mission. An outbreak investigation team from U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit – Six conducted an epidemiologic survey and environmental assessment, patient interviews, and collected stool samples for analysis in an at risk population of 287 personnel from May 31st to June 3rd, 2011. Personnel (n = 241) completed an epidemiological survey (87% response rate) and 67 (27%) reported diarrhea and/or vomiting during the past two weeks. The median duration of illness was reported to be 3 days (IQR 2–4 days) and abdominal pain was reported among 30 (49%) individuals. Presentation to the medical aid station was sought by (62%) individuals and 9 (15%) had to stop or significantly reduce work for at least one day. Microscopy and PCR analysis of 14 stool samples collected from previously symptomatic patients, Shigella (7), Cryptosporidium (5), and Cyclospora (4) were the most prevalent pathogens detected. Consumption of food from on-base local vendors (RR = 4.01, 95% CI = 1.53–10.5, p-value <0.001) and arriving on base within the past two weeks (RR = 2.79, 95% confidence [CI] = 1.35–5.76, p-value = 0.001) were associated with increased risk of developing diarrheal disease. The risk of infectious diarrhea is great among reserve military personnel during two week training exercises. The consumption of local food, prepared without proper monitoring, is a risk factor for deployed personnel developing diarrheal illness. Additional information is needed to better understand disease risks to personnel conducting humanitarian assistance activities in the Latin America Region. PMID:22815747

  7. Prenatal care quality indexes of public health services in Salvador, Bahia Indicadores de calidad de la asistencia prenatal en Salvador, Bahia Indicadores de qualidade da assistência pré-natal em Salvador - Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enilda Rosendo do Nascimento

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze prenatal care quality indexes of public health services in Salvador, Bahia following the implementation of the Prenatal and Birth Humanization Program (PBHB. METHODS: This quantitative descriptive study was conducted in primary care units in Salvador that adopted the Prenatal and Birth Humanization Program. RESULTS: Few pregnant women registered in the Prenatal and Birth Humanization Program had the benchmark of six prenatal consultations (9.76%. More than half of these registered pregnant women received all basic exams. However, only few women received puerperal consultations (5.66%, which conclude their maternal care. CONCLUSION: Prenatal care in Salvador, carried out through the Prenatal and Birth Humanization Program in 2002, had a low performance in basic exams, and in prenatal and puerperal consultations.OBJETIVO: Analizar indicadores de calidad de la asistencia prenatal prestada por servicios públicos de salud de Salvador/Bahia, después de la implantación del Programa de Humanización en el Prenatal y Nacimiento. MÉTODOS: Estudio cuantitativo realizado en las unidades básicas de salud de Salvador que se adhirieron al Programa de Humanización en el Prenatal y Nacimiento. RESULTADOS: Bajo porcentaje de gestantes inscritas en el Programa de Humanización en el Prenatal y Nacimiento realizaron seis consultas de prenatal (9,76%; más de la mitad de esas mujeres realizaron todos los exámenes básicos y hubo bajo porcentaje de las que se presentaron a la consulta de puerperio (5,66%. Además, apenas el 5,66% concluyeron la asistencia prenatal. CONCLUSIÓN: La asistencia prenatal en Salvador, prestada a través del Programa de Humanización en el Prenatal y Nacimiento en el año 2002, se caracteriza por la baja cobertura realizada por las unidades de salud tanto de consultas prenatales como de exámenes básicos y consulta puerperal.OBJETIVO: Analisar indicadores de qualidade da assistência pré-natal prestada por

  8. A spatio-temporal analysis of suicide in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcach, Carlos

    2017-04-20

    In 2012, international statistics showed El Salvador's suicide rate as 40th in the world and the highest in Latin America. Over the last 15 years, national statistics show the suicide death rate declining as opposed to an increasing rate of homicide. Though completed suicide is an important social and health issue, little is known about its prevalence, incidence, etiology and spatio-temporal behavior. The primary objective of this study was to examine completed suicide and homicide using the stream analogy to lethal violence within a spatio-temporal framework. A Bayesian model was applied to examine the spatio-temporal evolution of the tendency of completed suicide over homicide in El Salvador. Data on numbers of suicides and homicides at the municipal level were obtained from the Instituto de Medicina Legal (IML) and population counts, from the Dirección General de Estadística y Censos (DIGESTYC), for the period of 2002 to 2012. Data on migration were derived from the 2007 Population Census, and inequality data were obtained from a study by Damianović, Valenzuela and Vera. The data reveal a stable standardized rate of total lethal violence (completed suicide plus homicide) across municipalities over time; a decline in suicide; and a standardized suicide rate decreasing with income inequality but increasing with social isolation. Municipalities clustered in terms of both total lethal violence and suicide standardized rates. Spatial effects for suicide were stronger among municipalities located in the north-east and center-south sides of the country. New clusters of municipalities with large suicide standardized rates were detected in the north-west, south-west and center-south regions, all of which are part of time-stable clusters of homicide. Prevention efforts to reduce income inequality and mitigate the negative effects of weak relational systems should focus upon municipalities forming time-persistent clusters with a large rate of death by suicide. In

  9. en El Salvador, una intervención de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Larissa Centeno Monge

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe algunas de las fortalezas y debilidades encontradas en el Proyecto de Atención a Poblaciones Móviles y sectores que las atienden directamente: personal de salud, migración, aduanas, cuerpos uniformados -recién instalados en las fronteras a nivel nacional- y que se encuentra plasmado en el Plan Estratégico Nacional para la Prevención, Atención y Control del VIH-SIDA e ITS / El Salvador 2005 –2010. El propósito de la intervención fue desarrollar la capacidad, mejorar los conocimientos y habilidades para realizar actividades de educación e información continuas que generen percepción de riesgo y un cambio de comportamiento para tener relaciones sexuales seguras o de menor riesgo ante las Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual y el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana-SIDA (ITS/VIH-SIDA que al final incidan en la disminución de la transmisión. La metodología incluyó tres momentos claves: la construcción de una línea de base, la implementación de talleres educativos y de información y una evaluación final. Logró captar un total de 380 individuos a nivel nacional. De los resultados mas significativos se pueden mencionar los alcanzados por los participantes que no pertenecían al sector salud, en los cuales hubo un aumento de conocimientos básicos –transmisión y prevención del VIH- y adquisición de habilidades de un 40% hasta un 60% más de lo encontrado en la línea basal, situación que no resultó ser la misma en los profesionales de salud, en quienes la tendencia fue similar en la línea basal y en la evaluación final. Se concluye que los esfuerzos realizados desde el año 2001 en que dan inicio las intervenciones en poblaciones móviles y que tienen como fin frenar el avance del SIDA en El Salvador no han sido suficientes hasta el momento pues sus estrategias carecen de participación activa de todos los sectores que atienden a dichas poblaciones vulnerables y expuestas a riesgo.

  10. Decreased kidney function among agricultural workers in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraza, Sandra; Wesseling, Catharina; Aragon, Aurora; Leiva, Ricardo; García-Trabanino, Ramón Antonio; Torres, Cecilia; Jakobsson, Kristina; Elinder, Carl Gustaf; Hogstedt, Christer

    2012-04-01

    An epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown cause has emerged along the Pacific coast of Central America, particularly in relatively young male sugarcane workers. In El Salvador, we examined residence and occupations at different altitudes as surrogate risk factors for heat stress. Cross-sectional population-based survey. Populations aged 20-60 years of 5 communities in El Salvador, 256 men and 408 women (participation, 73%): 2 coastal communities with current sugarcane and past cotton production and 3 communities above 500 m with sugarcane, coffee, and service-oriented economies. Participant sex, age, residence, occupation, agricultural history by crop and altitude, and traditional risk factors for CKD. Serum creatinine (SCr) level greater than the normal laboratory range for sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and proteinuria categorized as low (protein excretion ≥ 30-< 300 mg/dL) and high grade (≥ 300 mg/dL). Of the men in the coastal communities, 30% had elevated SCr levels and 18% had eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 compared with 4% and 1%, respectively, in the communities above 500 m. For agricultural workers, prevalences of elevated SCr levels and eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were highest for coastal sugarcane and cotton plantation workers, but were not increased in sugarcane workers at 500 m or subsistence farmers. Women followed a weaker but similar pattern. Proteinuria was infrequent, of low grade, and not different among communities, occupations, or sexes. The adjusted ORs of decreased kidney function for 10-year increments of coastal sugarcane or cotton plantation work were 3.1 (95% CI, 2.0-5.0) in men and 2.3 (95% CI, 1.4-3.7) in women. The cross-sectional nature of the study limits etiologic interpretations. Agricultural work on lowland sugarcane and cotton plantations was associated with decreased kidney function in men and women, possibly related to strenuous work in hot environments with repeated volume depletion

  11. Tectonic lineaments in the cenozoic volcanics of southern Guatemala: Evidence for a broad continental plate boundary zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltuck, M.; Dixon, T. H.

    1984-01-01

    The northern Caribbean plate boundary has been undergoing left lateral strike slip motion since middle Tertiary time. The western part of the boundary occurs in a complex tectonic zone in the continental crust of Guatemala and southernmost Mexico, along the Chixoy-Polochic, Motogua and possibly Jocotan-Chamelecon faults. Prominent lineaments visible in radar imagery in the Neogene volcanic belt of southern Guatemala and western El Salvador were mapped and interpreted to suggest southwest extensions of this already broad plate boundary zone. Because these extensions can be traced beneath Quaternary volcanic cover, it is thought that this newly mapped fault zone is active and is accommodating some of the strain related to motion between the North American and Caribbean plates. Onshore exposures of the Motoqua-Polochic fault systems are characterized by abundant, tectonically emplaced ultramafic rocks. A similar mode of emplacement for these off shore ultramafics, is suggested.

  12. Population data for 12 Y-chromosome STR loci in a sample from El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrosa, Juan Carlos; Morales, Josefina A; Yurrebaso, Iñaki; Gusmão, Leonor; García, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    Haplotype, allele frequencies and population data of 12 Y-chromosome STR loci DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 were determined from a sample of 150 unrelated male individuals from El Salvador, Central America. A total of 131 haplotypes were identified by the 12 Y-STR loci of which 118 were unique. The haplotype diversity (99.08%) and the proportion of different haplotypes (87.33%) were estimated. R(ST) genetic distances were calculated between El Salvador and other populations from Southern and Central America, Europe and Africa. The highest R(ST) genetic distances were found when comparing El Salvador with African populations (0.334 El Salvador and Southern and Central Native groups presented a wide range of values (from 0.024 to 0.210) that can be explained by the differences in the proportion of European versus Amerindian contributions in these population groups. The Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) plot analysis, based on pairwise R(ST) values, showed that the general population of El Salvador is closer to the European cluster (composed by European and South American general population samples from Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela) than to the Southern/Central American cluster of Native and Mestizo populations.

  13. Application of MODIS-ASTER (MASTER) simulator data to geological mapping of young volcanic regions in Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, Jane Ellen

    Visible, near infrared, short-wave infrared, and thermal infrared multi-channel remote sensing data, MODIS-ASTER (MASTER), are used to extract geologic information from two volcanic regions in Baja California, Mexico: Tres Virgenes-La Reforma Volcanic Region and the volcanic island of Isla San Luis. The visible and near infrared and short-wave infrared data were atmospherically corrected and classified. The resulting classification roughly delineates surfaces that vary in their secondary minerals. Attempts to identify these minerals using ENVI's Spectral Analyst(TM) were moderately successful. The analysis of the thermal infrared data utilizes the shift to longer wavelengths in the Reststrahlen band as the mineralogy changes from felsic to mafic to translate the data into values of weight percent SiO2. The results indicate that the general approach tends to underestimate the weight percent SiO2 in the image. This discrepancy is removed with a "site calibration," which provides good results in the calculated weight percent SiO2 with errors of a few percent. However, errors become larger with rugged topography or low solar angle at the time of image acquisition. Analysis of bathymetric data around Isla San Luis, and consideration of the island's alignment with the Ballenas transform fault zone to the south and volcanic seamounts nearby, suggest Isla San Luis is potentially volcanically active and could be the product of a "leaky" transform fault. The results from the image analysis in the Tres Virgenes-La Reforma Volcanic Region show the La Reforma and El Aguajito volcanic centers to be bimodal in composition and verify the most recent volcanism in the Tres Virgenes region to be basaltic-andesite. The results of fieldwork and image analysis indicate that the volcanic products of the central dome of La Reforma are likely a sequence of welded ash flow tuffs and lavas of varied composition, evidence of its origin as a caldera.

  14. ANÁLISE PRELIMINAR DA CONTROLADORIA DA CIDADE DE SALVADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Pitiá Barreto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Controllership has been the subject of studies and analyzes and reflections of prominentresearchers of the sciences that focus on the field management of organizations such as theAdministration and Accounting. It is important to note the contribution of the Controllershipof public governance, the foundation of a democratic and participative management. In this context, it fits the purpose of this study, reflect on public performance of the comptroller of the city of Salvador, noting the contribution that effective governance in the municipality. The studies were developed in the Department of Finance (SEFAZ Controllership of the municipality who is linked to. With exploratory, descriptive investigation that involved field research, analysis of documents and reports issued by SEFAZ and the Court of the City(TCM. It is the chart of SEFAZ, your budget and the opinions of TCM. The results show the importance of the Comptroller and denote the impression that the institution studied, this area is not performing their role well.

  15. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Reservoir analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Steingrimsson, B.; Truesdell, A.H.; Witherspoon, P.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland); Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA); Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is conducting a reservoir evaluation study of the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador. This work is being performed in cooperation with the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report describes the work done during the first year of the study (FY 1988--89), and includes the (1) development of geological and conceptual models of the field, (2) evaluation of the initial thermodynamic and chemical conditions and their changes during exploitation, (3) evaluation of interference test data and the observed reservoir pressure decline, and (4) the development of a natural state model for the field. The geological model of the field indicates that there are seven (7) major and five (5) minor faults that control the fluid movement in the Ahuachapan area. Some of the faults act as a barrier to flow as indicated by large temperature declines towards the north and west. Other faults act as preferential pathways to flow. The Ahuachapan Andesites provide good horizontal permeability to flow and provide most of the fluids to the wells. The underlying Older Agglomerates also contribute to well production, but considerably less than the Andesites. 84 refs.

  16. Financiamiento de la seguridad pública en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfredo Molina Batlle

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available El artículo describe y analiza el comportamiento de las principales variables que afectan la seguridad pública, tomando como referencia los homicidios, extorsiones y delitos al patrimonio, además de variables en el ámbito económico y que mantienen una relación con el tema de estudio; utilizando métodos comparativos, tendenciasy modelos econométricos, con el propósito de concluir sobre los datos históricos y situar al lector en el contexto salvadoreño. Con ello se crea un modelo de seguridad pública que permite definir escenarios financieros, concluyendo en ideas y propuesta de fuentes de financiamiento para obtenerlos recursos que fortalezcan las institucionesy programas que afectan la seguridad pública en el país, analizándolas bajo perspectivas e impactos macroeconómicos, procurando que estas no afecten las principales variables económicas.Revista Policía y Seguridad Pública 5(1 2015: 31-74

  17. Police, Prevention, Social Capital and Communities in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Argueta Hernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between police and the community. In El Salvador, the role traditionally played by police has been that of the repressor of crime, with no concern for community outreach. However, over the last two years, the law enforcement agency has had an about face in terms of its attention to the problem of violence and crime. As a result, it has introduced the community police philosophy. That is, a law enforcement agency that empowers active participation in the community in identifying and preventing problems that affect it, meaning that community participation is promoted in terms of tasks tied to citizen security. Currently, what is under consideration is the degree to which there is a process of strengthening the bonds of solidarity, constructive relationships between neighbors, and the existence of social capital that contributes to cooperation between law enforcement and community in preventing violence and crime. Evidently the results of this new form of taking on public security will not be obtained immediately. It requires both the agents and commanders to be convinced that this philosophy can yield good results in crime prevention. However, the community must also become an active player in co-producing security.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i1.1391

  18. Hemoglobinopathies in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, Elisângela Vitória; Couto, Fábio David; Moura Neto, José Pereira de; Menezes, Joelma Figueiredo; Rêgo, Marco; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão dos; Gonçalves, Marilda Souza

    2005-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary disorders of the hemoglobin molecule with a high prevalence worldwide. Brazil has a prevalence of 0.1 to 0.3% of newborns with sickle cell anemia and 20.0 to 25.0% of heterozygous alpha2 thalassemia among African Brazilians. In the present study, we investigated the presence of variant hemoglobins and alpha2(3.7 Kb) and alpha2 (4.2 Kb) thalassemia in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Samples of umbilical cord blood from a total of 590 newborns were analyzed, of which 57 (9.8%) were FAS; 36 (6.5%) FAC; one (0.2%) SF; and five (0.9%) FSC. One hundred fourteen (22.2%) newborns had alpha2(3.7 Kb) thalassemia, of whom 101 (19.7%) were heterozygous and 13 (2.5%) homozygous, showing statistical significance for hematological data between newborns with normal alpha genes and alpha2(3.7 Kb) thalassemia carriers. The alpha2(4.2 Kb) thalassemia was not found. Frequencies found in the present study confirm that hemoglobinopathies are a public health problem in Brazil, emphasizing the need for neonatal screening and genetic counseling programs.

  19. Hemoglobinopathies in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adorno Elisângela Vitória

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary disorders of the hemoglobin molecule with a high prevalence worldwide. Brazil has a prevalence of 0.1 to 0.3% of newborns with sickle cell anemia and 20.0 to 25.0% of heterozygous alpha2 thalassemia among African Brazilians. In the present study, we investigated the presence of variant hemoglobins and alpha2(3.7 Kb and alpha2(4.2 Kb thalassemia in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Samples of umbilical cord blood from a total of 590 newborns were analyzed, of which 57 (9.8% were FAS; 36 (6.5% FAC; one (0.2% SF; and five (0.9% FSC. One hundred fourteen (22.2% newborns had alpha2(3.7 Kb thalassemia, of whom 101 (19.7% were heterozygous and 13 (2.5% homozygous, showing statistical significance for hematological data between newborns with normal alpha genes and alpha2(3.7 Kb thalassemia carriers. The alpha2(4.2 Kb thalassemia was not found. Frequencies found in the present study confirm that hemoglobinopathies are a public health problem in Brazil, emphasizing the need for neonatal screening and genetic counseling programs.

  20. Volcanism on Mars. Chapter 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbelman, J. R.; Garry, W. B.; Bleacher, J. E.; Crown, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft exploration has revealed abundant evidence that Mars possesses some of the most dramatic volcanic landforms found anywhere within the solar system. How did a planet half the size of Earth produce volcanoes like Olympus Mons, which is several times the size of the largest volcanoes on Earth? This question is an example of the kinds of issues currently being investigated as part of the space-age scientific endeavor called "comparative planetology." This chapter summarizes the basic information currently known about volcanism on Mars. The volcanoes on Mars appear to be broadly similar in overall morphology (although, often quite different in scale) to volcanic features on Earth, which suggests that Martian eruptive processes are not significantly different from the volcanic styles and processes on Earth. Martian volcanoes are found on terrains of different age, and Martian volcanic rocks are estimated to comprise more than 50% of the Martian surface. This is in contrast to volcanism on smaller bodies such as Earth's Moon, where volcanic activity was mainly confined to the first half of lunar history (see "Volcanism on the Moon"). Comparative planetology supports the concept that volcanism is the primary mechanism for a planetary body to get rid of its internal heat; smaller bodies tend to lose their internal heat more rapidly than larger bodies (although, Jupiter's moon Io appears to contradict this trend; Io's intense volcanic activity is powered by unique gravitational tidal forces within the Jovian system; see "Volcanism on Io"), so that volcanic activity on Mars would be expected to differ considerably from that found on Earth and the Moon.

  1. Geologic map of the Cochetopa Park and North Pass Calderas, northeastern San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    The San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado have long been known as a site of exceptionally voluminous mid-Tertiary volcanism, including at least 22 major ignimbrite sheets (each 150-5,000 km3) and associated caldera structures active at 33-23 Ma. Recent volcanologic and petrologic studies in the San Juan region have focused mainly on several ignimbrite-caldera systems: the southeastern area (Platoro complex), western calderas (Uncompahgre-Silverton-Lake City), and the central cluster (La Garita-Creede calderas). Far less studied has been the northeastern San Juan region, which occupies a transition between earlier volcanism in central Colorado and large-volume younger ignimbrite-caldera foci farther south and west. The present map is based on new field coverage of volcanic rocks in seventeen 7.5' quadrangles in northeastern parts of the volcanic field, high-resolution age determinations for 120 new sites, and petrologic studies involving several hundred new chemical analyses. This mapping and the accompanying lab results (1) document volcanic evolution of the previously unrecognized North Pass caldera and the morphologically beautifully preserved but enigmatic Cochetopa basin, including unique features not previously described from ignimbrite calderas elsewhere; (2) provide evidence for a more rapid recurrence of large ignimbrite eruptions than previously known elsewhere; (3) quantify the regional time-space-volume progression from the earlier Sawatch magmatic trend southward into the San Juan region; and (4) permit more rigorous comparison between the broad mid-Tertiary magmatic belt in the western U.S. Cordillera and the type continental-margin arc volcanism in the central Andes.

  2. Volcanic Ash Nephelometer Probe Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced dropsondes that could effectively be guided through atmospheric regions of interest such as volcanic plumes may enable unprecedented observations of...

  3. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2012-12-01

    Large volcanic eruptions inject sulfur gases into the stratosphere, which convert to sulfate aerosols with an e-folding residence time of about one year. The radiative and chemical effects of these aerosol clouds produce responses in the climate system. Observations and numerical models of the climate system show that volcanic eruptions produce global cooling and were the dominant natural cause of climate change for the past millennium, on timescales from annual to century. Major tropical eruptions produce winter warming of Northern Hemisphere continents for one or two years, while high latitude eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere weaken the Asian and African summer monsoon. The Toba supereruption 74,000 years ago caused very large climate changes, affecting human evolution. However, the effects did not last long enough to produce widespread glaciation. An episode of four large decadally-spaced eruptions at the end of the 13th century C.E. started the Little Ice Age. Since the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines in 1991, there have been no large eruptions that affected climate, but the cumulative effects of small eruptions over the past decade had a small effect on global temperature trends. The June 13, 2011 Nabro eruption in Eritrea produced the largest stratospheric aerosol cloud since Pinatubo, and the most of the sulfur entered the stratosphere not by direct injection, but by slow lofting in the Asian summer monsoon circulation. Volcanic eruptions warn us that while stratospheric geoengineering could cool the surface, reducing ice melt and sea level rise, producing pretty sunsets, and increasing the CO2 sink, it could also reduce summer monsoon precipitation, destroy ozone, allowing more harmful UV at the surface, produce rapid warming when stopped, make the sky white, reduce solar power, perturb the ecology with more diffuse radiation, damage airplanes flying in the stratosphere, degrade astronomical observations, affect remote sensing, and affect

  4. Observations and Modeling of the August 27, 2012 Earthquake and Tsunami affecting El Salvador and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Jose C.; Kalligeris, Nikos; Lynett, Patrick J.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Newman, Andrew V.; Convers, Jaime A.

    2014-12-01

    On 27 August 2012 (04:37 UTC, 26 August 10:37 p.m. local time) a magnitude M w = 7.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of El Salvador and generated surprisingly large local tsunami. Following the event, local and international tsunami teams surveyed the tsunami effects in El Salvador and northern Nicaragua. The tsunami reached a maximum height of ~6 m with inundation of up to 340 m inland along a 25 km section of coastline in eastern El Salvador. Less severe inundation was reported in northern Nicaragua. In the far-field, the tsunami was recorded by a DART buoy and tide gauges in several locations of the eastern Pacific Ocean but did not cause any damage. The field measurements and recordings are compared to numerical modeling results using initial conditions of tsunami generation based on finite-fault earthquake and tsunami inversions and a uniform slip model.

  5. El Salvador en transición: el proceso de paz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo CÓRDOVA MACÍAS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El artículo hace un balance de la transición política salvadoreña, centrándose en el proceso de cumplimiento de los acuerdos de paz y las modificaciones sufridas por el sistema político entre 1992 y 1994. Asimismo se plantean algunos desafíos para la gobernabilidad democrática de El Salvador en los próximos años.ABSTRACT: The article makes a balance of the Salvadorian political transition, dealing with the process of implementation of peace agreements and the modifications of the political system between 1992 and 1994. Therefore some challenges for the future democratic governability of El Salvador are suggested in the next pages.

  6. System of Volcanic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. HÉDERVARI

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparison is made among the systems of B. G.
    Escher (3, of R. W. van Bemmelen (1 and that of the author (4. In this
    connection, on the basis of Esclier's classification, the terms of "constructiv
    e " and "destructive" eruptions are introduced into the author's system and
    at the same time Escher's concept on the possible relation between the depth
    of magma-chamber and the measure of the gas-pressure is discussed briefly.
    Three complementary remarks to the first paper (4 011 the subject of system
    of volcanic activity are added.

  7. Gravity survey in the San Luis Valley area, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaca, J. Robert; Karig, Daniel E.

    1965-01-01

    During the summers of 1963 and 1964, a regional gravity survey covering 6,000 square miles of the San Luis Valley and surrounding areas was made to determine subsurface basement configurations and to guide future crustal studies. The San Luis Valley, a large intermontane basin, is a segment of the Rio Grande trough, a reef system characterized by volcanism, normal faulting, and tilted fault blocks. The gravity data, accurate to about 0.5 mgal, were reduced to complete-Bouguer anomaly values. The Bouguer-anomaly gravity map delineates a series of en-echelon gravity highs in the central and western San Luis Valley. These gravity highs are interpreted as horsts of Precambrian rock buried by basin fill. A series of en-echelon gravity lows along the eastern edge of the Valley is interpreted as a graben filled with sedimentary and igneous rock estimated to be up to 30,000 ft thick. The relatively high regional gravity over the Sangre de Cristo Mountains suggests that these mountains are locally uncompensated. A subcircular gravity low in the Bonanza area is interpreted as an indication of low-density volcanic rocks within a caldera structure.

  8. Distúrbio Ondulatório de Leste e seus impactos na cidade de Salvador Wavelike easterly disturbance and its impacts on Salvador city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Helena Machado dos Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Um evento extremo de chuva registrado na cidade de Salvador, Bahia, é investigado neste trabalho. Dados observacionais de superfície e altitude, dados em pontos de grade, imagens de satélite meteorológico e informações de desastres fornecidas pela Defesa Civil de Salvador (CODESAL foram utilizados na análise. No período entre a meia noite e 3 horas da madrugada do dia 12 de junho de 2006, a precipitação acumulada foi de 51 mm. Um número elevado de ocorrências foi registrado pela CODESAL, notadamente deslizamentos de encosta. Ventos fracos em toda a troposfera e energia potencial convectiva disponível máxima de 3.233 J kg-1 foram diagnosticados em Salvador no dia 11 de junho, quinze horas antes do período de chuva forte. Áreas de convecção profunda caracterizaram esse evento provocado por uma onda que chegou à costa leste do Nordeste do Brasil, após se propagar para oeste sobre o Atlântico Sul com velocidade de fase estimada de 10 m s-1, conforme evidenciado no campo da componente meridional do vento no nível de 700 hPa e em imagens de satélite meteorológico.An extreme rainfall event registered in the city of Salvador, Bahia, is investigated in this work. Observational surface and upper air data, gridpoint data, meteorological satellite images and disasters information provided by the Civil Defense of Salvador (CODESAL were used in the analysis. During the period from midnight to 3 A.M. on 12 June 2006 51 mm accumulated rainfall was registered. A high number of disasters were registered by CODESAL, particularly landslides. Weak winds throughout the troposphere and maximum convective available potential energy of 3,233 J kg-1 were identified in Salvador on June 11th, fifteen hours before the heavy rainfall. Areas of deep convection characterized this event, favored by a wave that reached the eastern coast of Northeast Brazil after moving westward over the South Atlantic with an estimated phase speed of 10 m s-1, as seen on

  9. Area Handbook Series: El Salvador: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    the National Directorate of Intelligence (Direcci6n Nacional de Inteligencia -DNI) under the Ministry of Defense and Public Security; and the EMC’s C-2...Operaciones Conjuntos de Inteligencia -COCI), with a mission to collect, integrate, and analyze incelligence relating to terrorist activities in the San... Inteligencia : COCI), 232 tribution of, 62-63, 67-68, 74-76, 83, Jovel, Francisco ("Roberto Roca"), xxv, 88, 101, 118-19; early pattern for, 6; 238

  10. El Salvador: The Prospects for a Successful Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    Organization of American States (OAS). Airicas en cifras (Washington, DC: Instituto Interamericano de Estadistica , 1963, 1970, 1974). (a) Agricultural...Comercio, 1963 censo de poblaci6n (San Jos6, Costa Rica: Direcci6n General de Estadistica y Censo, 1978), p. 94. (c) Secretariado Tecnico de la Presidencia...Tecnico de la Presidencia, Republica Dominicana en cifras 1980 (Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: Oficina Nacional de Estadistica , 1980), p. 365. (e

  11. Social cohesion and peace education: Alternatives for preventing child-youth violence in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhina Cabezas Valencia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a general overview of the current situation of the phenomenon of childyouth violence in El Salvador. It describes some of the measures, both governmental and those deriving from international cooperation, that have been implemented to date, in order to seek a solution to the problem. The authors also explore more deeply the new trends in preventing the phenomenon. In this sense, the article is aimed at the prevention of violence through twospecific mechanisms: peace education and social cohesion. As the authors demonstrate, both mechanisms are potentially adaptable to the reality of El Salvador.

  12. Bacterial contamination in milk kitchens in pediatric hospitals in Salvador, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cairo, Romilda Castro; Silva,Luciana Rodrigues; Andrade, Carol Ferreira de; Barberino,Maria Goreth de Andrade; Bandeira,Antônio Carlos; Santos, Kleber Pimentel; Santos, Daniel Rui Diniz

    2008-01-01

    p. 217-221 Milk may represent an important source of infectious agents to hospitalized pediatric patients. To describe the bacterial microflora isolated from the hands, stools, pharynx of all workers at milk kitchens in pediatric hospitals in the city of Salvador, Brazil, as well as in the formulas prepared by them, we carried out this cross-sectional study with all 91 workers from the 20 milk kitchens of all the public and private hospitals in Salvador, Brazil. Hand and pharynx swabs and ...

  13. Sinopsis del género Meliosma (Sabiaceae en El Salvador

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    Menjívar C., Jenny

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A synopsis of the genus Meliosma (Sabiaceae in El Salvador is presented, with a key, descriptions, illustrations, distributional data, phenology, and citation of all specimens examined. Two species are reported, including a new taxon, Meliosma echeverriae.Se presenta una sinopsis del género Meliosma (Sabiaceae en El Salvador, incluyendo una clave, descripciones, ilustraciones, datos de distribución, fenología y una lista de los especímenes examinados. Se describen un total de dos especies, incluyendo un nuevo taxón, Meliosma echeverriae.

  14. Channeling Remittances to Education: A Field Experiment Among Migrants from El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Kate; Aycinena, Diego; Yang, Dean

    2015-04-01

    We implement a randomized experiment offering Salvadoran migrants matching funds for educational remittances, which are channeled directly to a beneficiary student in El Salvador chosen by the migrant. The matches lead to increased educational expenditures, higher private school attendance, and lower labor supply of youths in El Salvador households connected to migrant study participants. We find substantial "crowd-in" of educational investments: for each $1 received by beneficiaries, educational expenditures increase by $3.72. We find no shifting of expenditures away from other students, and no effect on remittances.

  15. Volcan Reventador's Unusual Umbrella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, P.; Gioia, G.; Kieffer, S. W.

    2005-12-01

    In the past two decades, field observations of the deposits of volcanoes have been supplemented by systemmatic, and sometimes, opportunistic photographic documentation. Two photographs of the umbrella of the December 3, 2002 eruption of Volcan Reventador, Ecuador, reveal a prominently scalloped umbrella that is unlike any umbrella previously documented on a volcanic column. The material in the umbrella was being swept off a descending pyroclastic flow, and was, therefore, a co-ignimbrite cloud. We propose that the scallops are the result of a turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability with no precedents in volcanology. We ascribe the rare loss of buoyancy that drives this instability to the fact that the Reventador column fed on a cool co-ignimbrite cloud. On the basis of the observed wavelength of the scallops, we estimate a value for the eddy viscosity of the umbrella of 4000 ~m2/s. This value is consistent with a previously obtained lower bound (200 ~m2/s, K. Wohletz, priv. comm., 2005). We do not know the fate of the material in the umbrella subsequent to the photos. The analysis suggests that the umbrella was negatively buoyant. Field work on the co-ignimbrite deposits might reveal whether or not the material reimpacted, and if so, where and whether or not this material was involved in the hazardous flows that affected the main oil pipeline across Ecuador.

  16. Uranium series, volcanic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    Application of U-series dating to volcanic rocks provides unique and valuable information about the absolute timing of crystallization and differentiation of magmas prior to eruption. The 238U–230Th and 230Th-226Ra methods are the most commonly employed for dating the crystallization of mafic to silicic magmas that erupt at volcanoes. Dates derived from the U–Th and Ra–Th methods reflect crystallization because diffusion of these elements at magmatic temperatures is sluggish (Cherniak 2010) and diffusive re-equilibration is insignificant over the timescales (less than or equal to 10^5 years) typically associated with pre-eruptive storage of nearly all magma compositions (Cooper and Reid 2008). Other dating methods based on elements that diffuse rapidly at magmatic temperatures, such as the 40Ar/39Ar and (U–Th)/He methods, yield dates for the cooling of magma at the time of eruption. Disequilibrium of some short-lived daughters of the uranium series such as 210Po may be fractionated by saturation of a volatile phase and can be employed to date magmatic gas loss that is synchronous with volcanic eruption (e.g., Rubin et al. 1994).

  17. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrande, Allegra N.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions represent some of the most climatically important and societally disruptive short-term events in human history. Large eruptions inject ash, dust, sulfurous gases (e.g. SO2, H2S), halogens (e.g. Hcl and Hbr), and water vapor into the Earth's atmosphere. Sulfurous emissions principally interact with the climate by converting into sulfate aerosols that reduce incoming solar radiation, warming the stratosphere and altering ozone creation, reducing global mean surface temperature, and suppressing the hydrological cycle. In this issue, we focus on the history, processes, and consequences of these large eruptions that inject enough material into the stratosphere to significantly affect the climate system. In terms of the changes wrought on the energy balance of the Earth System, these transient events can temporarily have a radiative forcing magnitude larger than the range of solar, greenhouse gas, and land use variability over the last millennium. In simulations as well as modern and paleoclimate observations, volcanic eruptions cause large inter-annual to decadal-scale changes in climate. Active debates persist concerning their role in longer-term (multi-decadal to centennial) modification of the Earth System, however.

  18. San Pascual (1989) n. 272

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, María Dolores, O.S.C. (Directora)

    1989-01-01

    Editorial. Entrevista madre abadesa. Ofrenda. San Pascual tercer centenario de la canonizacion y cuarto de su muerte. San Pascual, un Santo universal. Pascual Baylón, poeta. grupo Scout Sant Pasqual. Aportaciones, donativos, limosnas, benefactores. Boletin informativo del templo de San Pascual de villareal.

  19. A baixa qualidade do soro caseiro em Salvador, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martins Carvalho

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante o ano de 1988 foi realizada uma campanha de âmbito nacional com o objetivo de informar a população brasileira sobre o preparo e utilização do soro caseiro (solução sal/açúcar para reidratação oral. A campanha foi intensivamente divulgada pelos meios de comunicação de massa. Este estudo preliminar avaliou a qualidade do soro caseiro preparado por 23 mães de crianças internadas num hospital pediátrico de Salvador, Bahia. Catorze (60,9% dentre as 23 mães prepararam soluções, contendo concentrações de Na na faixa de 30-80mmol/L, recomendada pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Onze (47,8% soluções continham glicose dentro da faixa recomendada, de 30-112 mmol/L. Apenas seis (26% das 23 mães prepararam soluções com concentrações adequadas de Na e glicose simultaneamente e, destas, somente três (13% apresentavam, também, balanço adequado das concentrações dos eletrólitos. Características potencialmente iatrogênicas devido a elevadas concentrações de Na e glicose foram encontradas em 30,4% e em 43,5% das soluções, respectivamente. Os resultados revelam grande dificuldade das mães em preparar o soro caseiro com características adequadas para sua utilização numa campanha de controle da diarréia.In 1988 a nation-wide campaign aiming to inform the Brazilian population about preparation and use of simple sugar/salt oral rehydration solution (ORS was carried out. The campaign was massively shown by the media. This preliminary study assessed the quality of ORS prepared by 23 mothers of in-patient children from a pediatric hospital in Salvador, State of Bahia. Fourteen (60.9% among the 23 mothers prepared solutions containing Na concentrations ranging from 30 to 80 mmol/L which is recommended by the World Health Organization. Eleven (47.8% solutions contained glucose within the recommended range of 30 to 112 mmoI/L Only 6 (26% out of the 23 mothers prepared ORS with simultaneously adequate Na and glucose

  20. Soil chemical fertility in dairy farms of the Guanacaste volcanic mountain range, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Saborío-Montero, Alejandro; Marín-Taylor, Osvaldo; Arguedas-Sánchez, Randall; Ramírez-Fallas, Sinaí

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the fertility of soils of dairy farms at four zones of the Guanacaste volcanic mountain range. The study was conducted during a two-year period (2009-2010) in farms of Guayabo (Bagaces) and Nubes, San Ramón and Florida (Quebrada Grande, Tilarán). A total of 40 soil samples were collected, each one was composed by 20 sub- samples. The results revealed that soil pH in Guayabo tended to be lower (p=0.0539) than in Nubes, San Ramón and Florida. Guayabo so...

  1. Friction in volcanic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lavallée, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic landscapes are amongst the most dynamic on Earth and, as such, are particularly susceptible to failure and frictional processes. In rocks, damage accumulation is frequently accompanied by the release of seismic energy, which has been shown to accelerate in the approach to failure on both a field and laboratory scale. The point at which failure occurs is highly dependent upon strain-rate, which also dictates the slip-zone properties that pertain beyond failure, in scenarios such as sector collapse and pyroclastic flows as well as the ascent of viscous magma. High-velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments have provided new opportunities to overcome the grand challenge of understanding faulting processes during volcanic phenomena. Work on granular ash material demonstrates that at ambient temperatures, ash gouge behaves according to Byerlee's rule at low slip velocities, but is slip-weakening, becoming increasingly lubricating as slip ensues. In absence of ash along a slip plane, rock-rock friction induces cataclasis and heating which, if sufficient, may induce melting (producing pseudotachylyte) and importantly, vesiculation. The viscosity of the melt, so generated, controls the subsequent lubrication or resistance to slip along the fault plane thanks to non-Newtonian suspension rheology. The shear-thinning behaviour and viscoelasticity of frictional melts yield a tendency for extremely unstable slip, and occurrence of frictional melt fragmentation. This velocity-dependence acts as an important feedback mechanism on the slip plane, in addition to the bulk composition, mineralogy and glass content of the magma, that all influence frictional behaviour. During sector collapse events and in pyroclastic density currents it is the frictional properties of the rocks and ash that, in-part, control the run-out distance and associated risk. In addition, friction plays an important role in the eruption of viscous magmas: In the conduit, the rheology of magma is integral

  2. AN EARLY POSTCLASSIC ROUND STRUCTURE AT CIHUATÁN, EL SALVADOR (Una estructura circular del Posclásico Temprano en Cihuatán, El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paúl E. Amaroli Bertolucci

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Round temples in Mesoamerica have been commonly ascribed to Ehécatl-Quetzalcóatl, the God of Wind and Air, on the basis of conquest period chronicles referring to such buildings. Round structures have been rarely reported on the southeastern frontier of Mesoamerica and none has previously been adequately documented or published. A recently excavated round structure at the Early Postclassic site of Cihuatán in western El Salvador raises questions concerning its possible use. The platform, unfinished at the time Cihuatán was burned and abandoned, could have been intended to be either a temple to Ehécatl or a gladiatorial platform for sacrifices to Xipe Tótec, two Mexican deities whose presence in El Salvador is attested to by archaeological evidence from other sites. ESPAÑOL: Los templos circulares mesoamericanos por lo común se relacionan con el culto a Ehécatl-Quetzalcóatl, el dios del Viento y del Aire, en base a las crónicas coloniales. En la frontera sureste de Mesoamérica apenas se ha documentado o publicado en detalle ninguno de ellos. Aquí informamos sobre nuestra excavación de una plataforma circular en el sitio de Cihuatán, un centro urbano del Posclásico Temprano de El Salvador occidental, que plantea cuestiones sobre su posible uso. La plataforma, sin terminar en el momento de la destrucción y abandono de Cihuatán, podría haber sido un templo dedicado a Ehécatl o una plataforma de gladiadores relacionada con los sacrificios al dios Xipe Tótec, dos deidades mexicanas cuya presencia en El Salvador está confirmada por la evidencia arqueológica de otros sitios.

  3. A "espanhola" em Salvador: o cotidiano da cidade doente The Spanish flu in Salvador: the everyday life in the sick city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Maria Cruz de Souza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesse artigo apresentamos a trajetória da epidemia de gripe espanhola em Salvador, analisando as condições que favoreceram a sua erupção e propagação. Dessa maneira, destacamos os indivíduos ou grupos sociais atingidos pela doença, inserindo-os nos espaços sociais e geoeconômicos da cidade. Interessou-nos, também, discutir o modo pelo qual a doença se infiltrou nas vidas das pessoas, e sua repercussão no cotidiano da cidade. Nesse sentido, buscamos analisar as atitudes dos habitantes de Salvador em face da invasão da doença e da ameaça da morte, bem como a sua reação diante das medidas sanitárias adotadas.In this paper we present the trajectory of the Spanish flu epidemic in Salvador (Bahia, Brazil, and we analyze the conditions that contributed to its eruption and propagation. We also highlight the individuals or social groups affected by the disease, and we show their context in the social and geoeconomic spaces of the city. We are interested to discuss how the disease infiltrates people lives and its repercussion in the everyday of the city. In this sense, we intend to analyze the attitudes of the inhabitants of Salvador faced with the invasion by the disease and the threat of the death, and their reaction to sanitary measures adopted.

  4. AN EARLY POSTCLASSIC ROUND STRUCTURE AT CIHUATÁN, EL SALVADOR (Una estructura circular del Posclásico Temprano en Cihuatán, El Salvador)

    OpenAIRE

    Paúl E. Amaroli Bertolucci; Karen Olsen Bruhns

    2009-01-01

    Round temples in Mesoamerica have been commonly ascribed to Ehécatl-Quetzalcóatl, the God of Wind and Air, on the basis of conquest period chronicles referring to such buildings. Round structures have been rarely reported on the southeastern frontier of Mesoamerica and none has previously been adequately documented or published. A recently excavated round structure at the Early Postclassic site of Cihuatán in western El Salvador raises questions concerning its possible use. The platform, unfi...

  5. Volcanic hazards at Atitlan volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, J.M.; Escobar Wolf, R.; Vallance, James W.; Rose, William I.; Griswold, J.P.; Schilling, S.P.; Ewert, J.W.; Mota, M.

    2006-01-01

    Atitlan Volcano is in the Guatemalan Highlands, along a west-northwest trending chain of volcanoes parallel to the mid-American trench. The volcano perches on the southern rim of the Atitlan caldera, which contains Lake Atitlan. Since the major caldera-forming eruption 85 thousand years ago (ka), three stratovolcanoes--San Pedro, Toliman, and Atitlan--have formed in and around the caldera. Atitlan is the youngest and most active of the three volcanoes. Atitlan Volcano is a composite volcano, with a steep-sided, symmetrical cone comprising alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash, cinders, blocks, and bombs. Eruptions of Atitlan began more than 10 ka [1] and, since the arrival of the Spanish in the mid-1400's, eruptions have occurred in six eruptive clusters (1469, 1505, 1579, 1663, 1717, 1826-1856). Owing to its distance from population centers and the limited written record from 200 to 500 years ago, only an incomplete sample of the volcano's behavior is documented prior to the 1800's. The geologic record provides a more complete sample of the volcano's behavior since the 19th century. Geologic and historical data suggest that the intensity and pattern of activity at Atitlan Volcano is similar to that of Fuego Volcano, 44 km to the east, where active eruptions have been observed throughout the historical period. Because of Atitlan's moderately explosive nature and frequency of eruptions, there is a need for local and regional hazard planning and mitigation efforts. Tourism has flourished in the area; economic pressure has pushed agricultural activity higher up the slopes of Atitlan and closer to the source of possible future volcanic activity. This report summarizes the hazards posed by Atitlan Volcano in the event of renewed activity but does not imply that an eruption is imminent. However, the recognition of potential activity will facilitate hazard and emergency preparedness.

  6. Volcanic studies at Katmai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) is a national effort supported by the Department of Energy, the US Geological Survey, and the National Science Foundation. One of the projects proposed for the CSDP consists of drilling a series of holes in Katmai National Park in Alaska to give a third dimension to the model of the 1912 eruption of Novarupta, and to investigate the processes of explosive volcanism and hydrothermal transport of metals (Eichelberger et al., 1988). The proposal for research drilling at Katmai states that ``the size, youth, elevated temperature, and simplicity of the Novarupta vent make it a truly unique scientific target.`` The National Park Service (NPS), which has jurisdiction, is sympathetic to aims of the study. However, NPS wishes to know whether Katmai is indeed uniquely suited to the research, and has asked the Interagency Coordinating Group to support an independent assessment of this claim. NPS suggested the National Academy of Sciences as an appropriate organization to conduct the assessment. In response, the National Research Council -- the working arm of the Academy -- established, under the aegis of its US Geodynamics Committee, a panel whose specific charge states: ``The proposed investigation at Katmai has been extensively reviewed for scientific merit by the three sponsoring and participating agencies. Thus, the scientific merit of the proposed drilling at Katmai is not at issue. The panel will review the proposal for scientific drilling at Katmai and prepare a short report addressing the specific question of the degree to which it is essential that the drilling be conducted at Katmai as opposed to volcanic areas elsewhere in the world.``

  7. Quaternary basaltic volcanism in the Payenia volcanic province, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina

    The extensive Quaternary volcanism in the Payenia volcanic province, Mendoza, Argentina, is investigated in this study by major and trace element analyses, Sr, Nd, Hf and Pb-isotopic analyses and Zr-Hf isotope dilution data on samples from almost the entire province. The samples are mainly...... in basalts from all the studied volcanic fields in Payenia is signs of lower crustal contamination indicating assimilation of, in some cases, large amounts of trace element depleted, mafic, plagioclase-bearing rocks. The northern Payenia is dominated by backarc basalts erupted between late Pliocene to late...

  8. Spatio-temporal evolution of the Tuxtla Volcanic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobs Nawotniak, S. E.; Espindola, J.; Godinez, L.

    2010-12-01

    Mapping of the Tuxtla Volcanic Field (TVF), located in Veracruz, Mexico, through the use of digital elevation models, aerial photography, and field confirmation has found 353 distinct cones, 4 large composite volcanoes, and 42 maars. Eruptive activity in the TVF began in the late Miocene, underwent a quiescent period approximately 2.6-0.8 Ma, and continues into historic times with the most recent eruption occurring at San Martín Tuxtla volcano in 1793. The covariance of the minimum cone separation in the TVF indicates that, despite the influence of clear vent alignments following regional faulting trends, the field as a whole is anticlustered. Dividing the cones by morphometric age shows that while the older cones have an anti-clustered distribution, the younger cones (Catemaco. These areas of concentrated volcanism roughly correspond to the locations of two gravity anomalies previously identified in the area. While the average height/width ratio is equal between the two clusters, the cones in the eastern group are significantly smaller than their counterparts in the western group. The maars of the TVF are mostly located within the younger volcanic series, west of Laguna Catemaco, and have an anticlustered distribution; many of the maars are evenly spaced along curved lines, where they are weakly grouped according to crater diameter. Results indicate volcanism TVF has undergone continued spatial restriction over time, concentrating in the western half of the TVF with the onset of the eruption of the younger volcanic series 0.8 Ma and further contracting along the principle fault system within the last 50 Ka.

  9. Implications of different digital elevation models and preprocessing techniques to delineate debris flow inundation hazard zones in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E. R.; Griffin, R.; Irwin, D.

    2013-12-01

    Heavy rains and steep, volcanic slopes in El Salvador cause numerous landslides every year, posing a persistent threat to the population, economy and environment. Although potential debris inundation hazard zones have been delineated using digital elevation models (DEMs), some disparities exist between the simulated zones and actual affected areas. Moreover, these hazard zones have only been identified for volcanic lahars and not the shallow landslides that occur nearly every year. This is despite the availability of tools to delineate a variety of landslide types (e.g., the USGS-developed LAHARZ software). Limitations in DEM spatial resolution, age of the data, and hydrological preprocessing techniques can contribute to inaccurate hazard zone definitions. This study investigates the impacts of using different elevation models and pit filling techniques in the final debris hazard zone delineations, in an effort to determine which combination of methods most closely agrees with observed landslide events. In particular, a national DEM digitized from topographic sheets from the 1970s and 1980s provide an elevation product at a 10 meter resolution. Both natural and anthropogenic modifications of the terrain limit the accuracy of current landslide hazard assessments derived from this source. Global products from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global DEM (ASTER GDEM) offer more recent data but at the cost of spatial resolution. New data derived from the NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) in 2013 provides the opportunity to update hazard zones at a higher spatial resolution (approximately 6 meters). Hydrological filling of sinks or pits for current hazard zone simulation has previously been achieved through ArcInfo spatial analyst. Such hydrological processing typically only fills pits and can lead to drastic modifications of original elevation values

  10. Chupar frutas in Salvador da Bahia: a case of practice-specific alterities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Port, M.; Mol, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we interfere with the naturalization of ‘eating’ by comparing two modes of engaging with fruits in Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. One of these is comer, which translates as ‘to eat’. The other is chupar, ‘to suck’. In comer, a piece of fruit crosses distinct bodily boundaries and gets sw

  11. Evaluación del Proceso Consultivo Ciudadano en Villa el Salvador, Lima, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Calderon (Julio); L. Marulanda (Liliana)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractEl presente informe contiene un estudio de caso sobre “Evaluación del Proceso Consultivo Ciudadano en Villa el Salvador, Lima, Perú” realizado para el Instituto de Estudios de Vivienda y Desarrollo Urbano - IHS (Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies) y el Programa SINPA (Su

  12. EDUCO Schools in El Salvador: A Democratic Tree in a Globalized Forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Cheryl T.

    2009-01-01

    This research on the Educacion con Participacion de Communidad (EDUCO) rural schools in El Salvador examined the nature of the reform and its impact on parent involvement and engagement for the local community; the underlying economic and political ideologies of EDUCO; and interpreted these findings to uncover the implications of the reform for…

  13. Fighting Narcotraffic in Latin America: Mexico and El Salvador - A Comparative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    sicariato, contract killing, and the trafficking of drugs, weapons, and humans .”10 The two main gangs, Mara Salvatrucha and Calle 18, control many... human trafficking , and smuggling. Criminal activity in El Salvador has undermined economic growth, impaired external investment, and created fear...for-hire, sexual violence, assault, carjacking, drug trafficking , and human trafficking .105 The high crime rate has forced the Salvadoran

  14. Evaluación del Proceso Consultivo Ciudadano en Villa el Salvador, Lima, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Calderon (Julio); L. Marulanda (Liliana)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractEl presente informe contiene un estudio de caso sobre “Evaluación del Proceso Consultivo Ciudadano en Villa el Salvador, Lima, Perú” realizado para el Instituto de Estudios de Vivienda y Desarrollo Urbano - IHS (Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies) y el Programa SINPA

  15. UNA NUEVA COMBINACIÓN Y NUEVOS REGISTROS EN LAS BROMELIACEAE DE EL SALVADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Francisco Morales

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone una nueva combinación, Werauhia montana y se discuten sus relaciones con W. nephrolepis. Además se registra por primera vez, la presencia de Aechmea bromeliifolia, Pitcairnia maidifolia y Tillandsia balbisiana para El Salvador.

  16. Los costos económicos de la violencia en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos ACEVEDO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este trabajo efectúa un ejercicio de cuantificación de los costos económicos asociados a las diversas manifestaciones y consecuencias de la situación de violencia prevaleciente en El Salvador, utilizando información para 2007. Tales costos son clasificados en cuatro grandes categorías: i costos en salud; ii costos institucionales (legales, judiciales y policiales; iii costos preventivos en seguridad privada; y iv pérdidas materiales. Los resultados de las estimaciones efectuadas indican que, en dicho año, la violencia impuso sobre El Salvador un costo económico equivalente a 10,9% del Producto Interno Bruto (PIB y a más del doble de las asignaciones presupuestarias para Educación y Salud. ABSTRACT: This essay carries out an accounting exercise on the economic costs derived from the violence situation which prevails in El Salvador, using information for 2007. Those costs are classified into four main categories: i costs on health; ii institutional costs (legal, judiciary and police; iii preventive costs for private security; and iv material losses. The results from the estimations performed indicate that, in 2007, the different expressions and consequences derived from the violence situation imponed on El Salvador an economic cost which was equivalent to 10,9% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP and more than twice the combined budget allocations to Education and Health.

  17. EDUCO Schools in El Salvador: A Democratic Tree in a Globalized Forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Cheryl T.

    2009-01-01

    This research on the Educacion con Participacion de Communidad (EDUCO) rural schools in El Salvador examined the nature of the reform and its impact on parent involvement and engagement for the local community; the underlying economic and political ideologies of EDUCO; and interpreted these findings to uncover the implications of the reform for…

  18. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' on tomato in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    In April of 2012, tomato plants grown near the town of Yuroconte in the municipality of La Palma in El Salvador, were observed with symptoms resembling those of “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” (Lso) infection. Disease incidence in several fields in the area ranged from 40 to 60%. Heavy infes...

  19. Agricultural Elites; Economic Structure; and the Transition Towards Democracy in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofía Cardenal

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the process of democratization in El Salvador. More particularly, it attempts to explain a political outcome: the Peace Accords that were achieved in this country in January of 1992. Despite the attention recent theories about democracy have placed on political variables and strategic behavior, this study focusses mainly on structural factors emphasizing the role that such variables played in explaining democratic change in El Salvador. The argument lay down here rests on Barrington Moore’s thesis regarding the role of agrarian elites in democratic transitions. Based on his seminal comparative study, he established that no democratic result could possibly emerge without an erosion of the agrarian elite’s power base. As this article discloses, the Moore Condition was fullfiled for El Salvador in the 80s, rendering possible the peace accords. One of the most important consequences of the war -and the political and social processes that accompanied it- concerned the changes that took place in the economy. Those transformations moved El Salvador away from an agro-export economy to place it into a commercial and moreindustrialized one, leading in turn to a weakening of the traditional agrarian elite.

  20. Small States and Big Institutions: USAID and Education Policy Formation in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the institutional power of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in the process of education policy formation in El Salvador during 2003-2005. The results show how bi- and multi-lateral institutions are able to leverage financial and intellectual capital to guide the policymaking process and sway…

  1. Dimensions of child punishment in two Central American countries: Guatemala and El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Goodwin, Mary M; Samandari, Ghazaleh; Kim, Shin Y; Clyde, Maureen

    2008-04-01

    Severe physical punishment of children is an important issue in international child health and welfare. This study examines such punishment in Guatemala and El Salvador. Data came from nationally representative surveys of women aged 15-49 and men aged 15-59 residing in Guatemala (2002) and El Salvador (2002-2003). The surveys included questions about punishment experienced during childhood, with response options ranging from verbal scolding to beating. In Guatemala, parents were asked how they disciplined their children; questions allowed them to compare how they were punished in their childhood with how they punished their own children. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are presented. In Guatemala, 35% of women and 46% of men reported being beaten as punishment in childhood; in El Salvador, the figures were 42% and 62%, respectively. In both countries, older participants were relatively more likely than younger participants to have been beaten as children. Witnessing familial violence was associated with an increased risk of being beaten in childhood. In Guatemala, having experienced physical punishment as a child increased the chance that parents would use physical punishment on their own children. Multivariate analyses revealed that women who were beaten in childhood were significantly more likely in both countries to be in a violent relationship. The use of beating to physically punish children is a common problem in Guatemala and El Salvador, with generational and intergenerational effects. Its negative and lingering effects necessitate the introduction of policies and programs to decrease this behavior.

  2. [Vagotonía. The medical thesis of Salvador Zubirán].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Guillermo; Estañol-Vidal, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Salvador Zubirán submitted his thesis for his MD degree in 1923. This thesis falls within the context of the new Mexican physiological medicine and denotes the visionary character of its author. Zubirán appears here as the introducer in Mexico of the physiopharmacological approach in autonomic nervous system disorders.

  3. The Durability of Cultural Influences: How American Foreign Policy Reinforced Historical Biases in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    73 William Bollinger, " Villalobos on "Popular Insurrection"." Latin American Perspectives 16, no. 3...Conflict: The Case of Ronald Reagan and El Salvador." International Studies Quarterly 40, no. 1 (Mar. 1996): 23-44. Bollinger, William. " Villalobos on

  4. The Rule of Law and the U.S. Quest for Security in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-12

    prostitution, underage prostitution, pornography, and organized vice; gang activity; narcotics trafficking ; identity fraud; document fraud; fraudulent...the criminal organizations involved in human smuggling, arms trafficking , and narcotics trafficking . Salvadoran law enforcement organizations are...Separate case studies examine U.S. efforts to promote the rule of law in El Salvador in response to security threats ranging from human rights violations

  5. Feedback on Student Learning for Instructional Television in El Salvador. Research Report Number 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino de Manzano, Ana Maria; And Others

    Conventional achievement measurement instruments were not adequate for optimum coordination between classroom and television studio personnel in El Salvador. A more rapid feedback system was tried in 14 seventh grade classrooms. The key factor of this feedback system was that the test results be compiled quickly, preferably within three days, and…

  6. 77 FR 1710 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... vulnerable to adverse climatic conditions. Of the approximately 276,000 homes destroyed, only about half have... S. Dearborn--3rd Floor South Carolina, Vermont, Virginia, Chicago, IL 60603-5517. Washington DC... Service: USCIS Attn: TPS El Salvador 131 S. Dearborn--3rd Floor Chicago, IL 60603-5517. If you...

  7. Evaluación del Proceso Consultivo Ciudadano en Villa el Salvador, Lima, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Calderon (Julio); L. Marulanda (Liliana)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractEl presente informe contiene un estudio de caso sobre “Evaluación del Proceso Consultivo Ciudadano en Villa el Salvador, Lima, Perú” realizado para el Instituto de Estudios de Vivienda y Desarrollo Urbano - IHS (Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies) y el Programa SINPA (Su

  8. Mitochondrial echoes of first settlement and genetic continuity in El Salvador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Salas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From Paleo-Indian times to recent historical episodes, the Mesoamerican isthmus played an important role in the distribution and patterns of variability all around the double American continent. However, the amount of genetic information currently available on Central American continental populations is very scarce. In order to shed light on the role of Mesoamerica in the peopling of the New World, the present study focuses on the analysis of the mtDNA variation in a population sample from El Salvador. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have carried out DNA sequencing of the entire control region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genome in 90 individuals from El Salvador. We have also compiled more than 3,985 control region profiles from the public domain and the literature in order to carry out inter-population comparisons. The results reveal a predominant Native American component in this region: by far, the most prevalent mtDNA haplogroup in this country (at approximately 90% is A2, in contrast with other North, Meso- and South American populations. Haplogroup A2 shows a star-like phylogeny and is very diverse with a substantial proportion of mtDNAs (45%; sequence range 16090-16365 still unobserved in other American populations. Two different Bayesian approaches used to estimate admixture proportions in El Salvador shows that the majority of the mtDNAs observed come from North America. A preliminary founder analysis indicates that the settlement of El Salvador occurred about 13,400+/-5,200 Y.B.P.. The founder age of A2 in El Salvador is close to the overall age of A2 in America, which suggests that the colonization of this region occurred within a few thousand years of the initial expansion into the Americas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As a whole, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that today's A2 variability in El Salvador represents to a large extent the indigenous component of the region. Concordant with this

  9. Mitochondrial echoes of first settlement and genetic continuity in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Antonio; Lovo-Gómez, José; Alvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Cerezo, María; Lareu, María Victoria; Macaulay, Vincent; Richards, Martin B; Carracedo, Angel

    2009-09-02

    From Paleo-Indian times to recent historical episodes, the Mesoamerican isthmus played an important role in the distribution and patterns of variability all around the double American continent. However, the amount of genetic information currently available on Central American continental populations is very scarce. In order to shed light on the role of Mesoamerica in the peopling of the New World, the present study focuses on the analysis of the mtDNA variation in a population sample from El Salvador. We have carried out DNA sequencing of the entire control region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome in 90 individuals from El Salvador. We have also compiled more than 3,985 control region profiles from the public domain and the literature in order to carry out inter-population comparisons. The results reveal a predominant Native American component in this region: by far, the most prevalent mtDNA haplogroup in this country (at approximately 90%) is A2, in contrast with other North, Meso- and South American populations. Haplogroup A2 shows a star-like phylogeny and is very diverse with a substantial proportion of mtDNAs (45%; sequence range 16090-16365) still unobserved in other American populations. Two different Bayesian approaches used to estimate admixture proportions in El Salvador shows that the majority of the mtDNAs observed come from North America. A preliminary founder analysis indicates that the settlement of El Salvador occurred about 13,400+/-5,200 Y.B.P.. The founder age of A2 in El Salvador is close to the overall age of A2 in America, which suggests that the colonization of this region occurred within a few thousand years of the initial expansion into the Americas. As a whole, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that today's A2 variability in El Salvador represents to a large extent the indigenous component of the region. Concordant with this hypothesis is also the observation of a very limited contribution from European and African

  10. Mitochondrial Echoes of First Settlement and Genetic Continuity in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Antonio; Lovo-Gómez, José; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Cerezo, María; Lareu, María Victoria; Macaulay, Vincent; Richards, Martin B.; Carracedo, Ángel

    2009-01-01

    Background From Paleo-Indian times to recent historical episodes, the Mesoamerican isthmus played an important role in the distribution and patterns of variability all around the double American continent. However, the amount of genetic information currently available on Central American continental populations is very scarce. In order to shed light on the role of Mesoamerica in the peopling of the New World, the present study focuses on the analysis of the mtDNA variation in a population sample from El Salvador. Methodology/Principal Findings We have carried out DNA sequencing of the entire control region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome in 90 individuals from El Salvador. We have also compiled more than 3,985 control region profiles from the public domain and the literature in order to carry out inter-population comparisons. The results reveal a predominant Native American component in this region: by far, the most prevalent mtDNA haplogroup in this country (at ∼90%) is A2, in contrast with other North, Meso- and South American populations. Haplogroup A2 shows a star-like phylogeny and is very diverse with a substantial proportion of mtDNAs (45%; sequence range 16090–16365) still unobserved in other American populations. Two different Bayesian approaches used to estimate admixture proportions in El Salvador shows that the majority of the mtDNAs observed come from North America. A preliminary founder analysis indicates that the settlement of El Salvador occurred about 13,400±5,200 Y.B.P.. The founder age of A2 in El Salvador is close to the overall age of A2 in America, which suggests that the colonization of this region occurred within a few thousand years of the initial expansion into the Americas. Conclusions/Significance As a whole, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that today's A2 variability in El Salvador represents to a large extent the indigenous component of the region. Concordant with this hypothesis is also the observation of a

  11. The cost of solidarity: the salvadoran labor movement in Puerto el Triunfo and Greater San Salvador in 1979 and 1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Gould

    2015-11-01

    the militant rise and expansion of the labor movement. The essay will trace this broader transformation while presenting a detailed examination of the political and social changes in Puerto El Triunfo, a quite distinct history that nevertheless reflected, influenced and paralleled the labor movement as a whole. I will make use of the concept of “desencuentro”.

  12. Characterization of atrial fibrillation in the Department of Internal Medicine at “Hospital Nacional San Rafael” (El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel I. Merino Barrera

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: The lower ejection fraction and increased left ventricular diastolic diameter were associated with atrial fibrillation. Most patients have a high risk of stroke; variables associated are older age, female gender and increased thickness of the interventricular septum.

  13. Io. [theories concerning volcanic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. V.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    A report on the continuing investigation of Io is presented. Gravitational resonance is discussed as the cause of Io's volcanism, and the volcanic activity is explained in terms of sulfur chemistry. Theories concerning the reasons for the two main types of volcanic eruptions on Io are advanced and correlated with geographical features of the satellite. The sulfur and silicate models of the calderas are presented, citing the strengths and weaknesses of each. Problems of the gravitational resonance theory of Io's heat source are then described. Finally, observations of Io planned for the Galileo mission are summarized.

  14. 75 FR 55975 - Safety Zone; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone upon the navigable waters of the San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA, in support...

  15. Great efforts for photovoltaic conversion. El Salvador opts for solar energy in an attempt to get out of its dependence on fossil fuels; Viel Herzblut fuer Photovoltaik. Mit Solarenergie will sich El Salvador aus seiner Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Energiequellen loesen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosell, Alejandro Diego

    2011-08-15

    El Salvador wants better growth rates, but the small country in central America is dependent on imported energy, especially petroleum products. The political focus is now on renewable energy sources, and photovoltaic conversion may play a key role. The El Salvador government intends to initiate a programme of financial incentives for solar power generation, and public utilities are already inviting tenders for solar power plants.

  16. Volcanic eruptions observed with infrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Aster, Richard C.; Kyle, Philip R.

    2004-07-01

    Infrasonic airwaves produced by active volcanoes provide valuable insight into the eruption dynamics. Because the infrasonic pressure field may be directly associated with the flux rate of gas released at a volcanic vent, infrasound also enhances the efficacy of volcanic hazard monitoring and continuous studies of conduit processes. Here we present new results from Erebus, Fuego, and Villarrica volcanoes highlighting uses of infrasound for constraining quantitative eruption parameters, such as eruption duration, source mechanism, and explosive gas flux.

  17. Los volcanes y los hombres

    OpenAIRE

    García, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Desde las entrañas de la tierra, los volcanes han creado la atmósfera, el agua de los océanos, y esculpido los relieves del planeta: son, pues, los zahoríes de la vida. Existen volcanes que los hombres explotan o cultivan, y otros sobre los cuales se han construido observatorios en los que se llevan a cabo avanzadas investigaciones científicas.

  18. Volcanic hazards and aviation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Thomas J.; Thompson, Theodore B.; Ewert, John W.; ,

    1996-01-01

    An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and aviation operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves aviation safety.

  19. Magnetotelluric data, Taos Plateau Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailes, Chad E.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    The population of the San Luis Basin region of northern New Mexico is growing. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region's groundwater resources. An important issue in managing the groundwater resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal groundwater aquifers. The shallow unconfined aquifer and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin are the main sources of municipal water for the region. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey called magnetotellurics (MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifers. This report describes a regional east-west MT sounding profile acquired in late July 2009 across the Taos Plateau Volcanic Field where drillhole data are sparse. Resistivity modeling of the MT data can be used to help map changes in electrical resistivity with depths that are related to differences in rock types. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data collected along the east-west profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

  20. Structure and mechanics of the San Andreas-San Gregorio fault junction, San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom; Bruns, Terry R.; Sliter, Ray

    2005-01-01

    The right-lateral San Gregorio and San Andreas faults meet west of the Golden Gate near San Francisco. Coincident seismic reflection and refraction profiling across the San Gregorio and San Andreas faults south of their junction shows the crust between them to have formed shallow extensional basins that are dissected by parallel strike-slip faults. We employ a regional finite element model to investigate the long-term consequences of the fault geometry. Over the course of 2-3 m.y. of slip on the San Andreas-San Gregorio fault system, elongated extensional basins are predicted to form between the two faults. An additional consequence of the fault geometry is that the San Andreas fault is expected to have migrated eastward relative to the San Gregorio fault. We thus propose a model of eastward stepping right-lateral fault formation to explain the observed multiple fault strands and depositional basins. The current manifestation of this process might be the observed transfer of slip from the San Andreas fault east to the Golden Gate fault.

  1. Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J. Weir

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual model of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ is developed, to a depth of 25 km, formed from three constant density layers. The upper layer is formed from eruption products. A constant rate of eruption is assumed, which eventually implies a constant rate of extension, and a constant rate of volumetric creation in the middle and bottom layers. Tectonic extension creates volume which can accomodate magmatic intrusions. Spreading models assume this volume is distributed throughout the whole region, perhaps in vertical dykes, whereas rifting models assume the upper crust is thinned and the volume created lies under this upper crust. Bounds on the heat flow from such magmatic intrusions are calculated. Heat flow calculations are performed and some examples are provided which match the present total heat output from the TVZ of about 4200 MW, but these either have extension rates greater than the low values of about 8 ± 4 mm/a being reported from GPS measurements, or else consider extension rates in the TVZ to have varied over time.

  2. The Relationship Between the Signature of Subducted Sediments in Volcanic Gases and Volatile Flux along the Central American Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T. P.; Zimmer, M. M.; Hilton, D. R.; Shaw, A. M.; Cameron, B. I.; Walker, J. A.; Molina C., E.

    2002-05-01

    Volcanic arcs are locations where elements are recycled from the Earth's surface into the mantle. Fluxes of volcanic volatile emissions can vary significantly along a single arc and a fundamental aim of arc-related studies is to quantify these variations and compare them to subduction zone parameters. As part of the Central American arc study, we report N2, He and Ar abundance relationships and N-isotope ratios for 7 volcanic centers in Guatemala to complement on-going studies in Costa Rica. In Guatemala, the arc crust is thicker and older than in Costa Rica and the entire sediment sequence on the down-going plate is likely to contribute to the slab flux. Sulfur dioxide fluxes vary significantly along the arc (2001 measurements): in the Guatemala segment, Fuego and Pacaya emit a total of ~1500 t/day whereas in Costa Rica, Arenal and Poas are emitting only ~190 t/day. The Guatemalan volcanic centers of Amatitlan-Pacaya, Fuego, Moyuta, Tecuamburro, Amatitlan, Zunil and San Marcos have N2/He ratios ranging from 2200 - 8100, typical for arc-related fluids. N2/Ar ratios (40-500) and the high N2/He indicate addition of N2 from subducted sediments or arc crust to a mantle derived component (N2/He Guatemala are in contrast to typical mantle-derived N2/He ratios (160 - 600) measured at Poas and Turialba, Costa Rica. Nitrogen isotope ratios for the Guatemalan volcanic centers range from δ 15N = + 1.0‰ for San Marcos to + 5.8‰ for Fuego (δ 15N air = 0.0‰ ), indicating a sedimentary nitrogen component. The mantle-derived N2/He ratios for Poas (- 3.0‰ ) are consistent with a more mantle-like δ 15N. In Guatemala, the highest 3He/4He ratios (7.6 for Pacaya and 7.3 Ra for Fuego) correlate with the lowest N2/He ratios (1500 and 2100) and high δ 15N values (+3.8‰ and +5.8‰ ). Mixing relationships (3He/4He and δ 15N) suggest that at Fuego and Pacaya up to 20% of the nitrogen is of subducted sedimentary origin, contrary to Poas and Turialba where the slab derived

  3. Storm drains as larval development and adult resting sites for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Salvador, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Paploski, Igor Adolfo Dexheimer; Moreno S Rodrigues; Mugabe, Vánio André; Kikuti,Mariana; Tavares, Aline S.; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro, Guilherme Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue (DENV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), Zika (ZIKV), as well as yellow fever (YFV) viruses are transmitted to humans by Aedes spp. females. In Salvador, the largest urban center in north-eastern Brazil, the four DENV types have been circulating, and more recently, CHIKV and ZIKV have also become common. We studied the role of storm drains as Aedes larval development and adult resting sites in four neighbourhoods of Salvador, representing different socioeconomic, infrastructure and topo...

  4. San Cástulo

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo, Tania

    2014-01-01

    Porque no te acercas y nos entendemos, nos vamos cayendo por el lucro de la colonia, nos perdemos en la esquina de san Cástulo y nos vamos volando a Eleuterio, en una noche, que la luna nos vigile, que nos aguarde, que retrase el día, y la gente permanezca dormida o despierta pero temerosa de la noche, de los policías y los delincuentes, de los violadores y de nosotros, de la vida nocturna, de ese lugar oscuro en alguna parte, donde nos convertimos y aullamos.

  5. San Cástulo

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo, Tania

    2014-01-01

    Porque no te acercas y nos entendemos, nos vamos cayendo por el lucro de la colonia, nos perdemos en la esquina de san Cástulo y nos vamos volando a Eleuterio, en una noche, que la luna nos vigile, que nos aguarde, que retrase el día, y la gente permanezca dormida o despierta pero temerosa de la noche, de los policías y los delincuentes, de los violadores y de nosotros, de la vida nocturna, de ese lugar oscuro en alguna parte, donde nos convertimos y aullamos.

  6. Coma blisters sans coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinisch, Silke; Loosemore, Michael; Cusack, Carrie A; Allen, Herbert B

    2012-09-01

    Coma blisters (CBs) are self-limited lesions that occur in regions of pressure during unconscious states classically induced by barbiturates. We report a case of CBs sans coma that were histologically confirmed in a 41-year-old woman who developed multiple tense abdominal bullae with surrounding erythema following a transatlantic flight. Interestingly, the patient was fully conscious and denied medication use or history of medical conditions. A clinical diagnosis of CBs was confirmed by histopathologic findings of eccrine gland necrosis, a hallmark of these bulIous lesions.

  7. Tendência da mortalidade por insuficiência cardíaca em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Heart failure mortality trend in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Lopes Latado

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a tendência da mortalidade por insuficiência cardíaca (IC em Salvador - Bahia, no período de 1979-1995. MÉTODOS: A IC foi definida pelas notações da 9ª Revisão do Código Internacional de Doenças (CID9 428.0, 428.1 e 428.9. Dados de óbitos por IC e populacionais (região metropolitana de Salvador foram obtidos por meio da Secretaria de Saúde da Bahia e do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. As taxas de mortalidade (/100.000 foram totais ou por gênero e idade, e brutas ou ajustadas por idade (padronização direta. RESULTADOS: As taxas de mortalidade por IC sofreram redução progressiva no período de tempo avaliado, para ambos os gêneros, especialmente até o ano de 1992. A partir daí e até 1995, ocorreu uma aparente estabilização das curvas. A taxa de mortalidade bruta passou de 25,0/10(5, em 1979, para 16,4/10(5 habitantes, em 1995 (queda de 34,4%. A redução foi de 34,0% (23,3/10(5, em 1979, para 15,4/10(5 habitantes, em 1995 para o sexo masculino e de 35,2% (26,7/10(5, em 1979, para 17,3/10(5 habitantes, em 1995, para o sexo feminino. A mesma tendência ocorreu nas diversas faixas etárias, inclusive para a população > 40 anos, de maior risco para IC. Após o ajuste por idade (população padrão de 1979, observa-se que as reduções relativas nas taxas foram ainda maiores. CONCLUSÃO: A mortalidade por IC, em Salvador-Bahia, declinou de 1979 a 1992, estabilizando-se a partir de então até 1995.OBJECTIVE: To assess mortality trend due to heart failure (HF in Salvador - Bahia, from 1979 to 1995. METHODS: HF was defined by notations from the 9th Review of International Disease Code (IDC9 428.0, 428.1 and 428.9. HF death and population data (metropolitan area of Salvador were obtained by means of Secretaria de Saúde da Bahia (Bahia State Health Secretariat and Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Mortality rates (/100,000 were

  8. Arquivos secretos eclesiásticos em Salvador Archivos secretos eclesiásticos en Salvador de Bahía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Aparecida Gonzaga da Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo investiga os critérios empregados por arquivos de ordens religiosas e pelo Arquivo da Cúria de Salvador para identificar o teor secreto de seus documentos. Consideram-se as relações históricas entre a Igreja Católica e o poder civil para compreender o porquê de muitos documentos depositados nos arquivos eclesiásticos brasileiros serem identificados como de interesse público e social pela lei nacional. O trabalho também destaca as disposições normativas existentes nas legislações civil e canônica relacionadas aos arquivos secretos. Apresenta ainda uma breve discussão sobre a questão do acesso e sigilo da informação, bem como sobre o direito à informação. Quanto aos procedimentos de pesquisa, utilizou-se o sítio eletrônico da Arquidiocese de Salvador na seleção das ordens masculinas e femininas estudadas; em seguida, foi aplicada entrevista com questões semi-estruturadas com a finalidade de coletar dados para os resultados empíricos desta pesquisa. Conclui-se que não existem critérios explícitos para a classificação dos documentos considerados secretos nos arquivos eclesiásticos católicos de Salvador, o que leva à utilização de critérios aleatórios e que seus responsáveis não demonstraram possuir domínio do significado de documentos secretos, já que entram em contradição em suas afirmações.

  9. Quaternary basaltic volcanism in the Payenia volcanic province, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina

    primitive basalts and trachybasalts but also more evolved samples from the retroarc region and the larger volcanoes Payún Matrú and Payún Liso are presented. The samples cover a broad range of compositions from intraplate lavas similar to ocean island basalts to arc andesites. A common feature found...... Pleistocene times. These basalts mark the end of a period of shallow subduction of the Nazca slab beneath the Payenia province and volcanism in the Nevado volcanic field apparently followed the downwarping slab in a north-northwest direction ending in the Northern Segment. The northern Payenia basalts...... the literature. The Nevado basalts have been modelled by 4-10 % melting of a primitive mantle added 1-5 % upper continental crust. In the southern Payenia province, intraplate basalts dominate. The samples from the Payún Matrú and Río Colorado volcanic fields are apparently unaffected by the subducting slab...

  10. Algumas características do setor privado de saúde de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Characteristics of private health care services in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Maria Vieira da Silva

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de descrever algumas características dos serviços de saúde privados do Município de Salvador, foi realizado inquérito envolvendo 174 estabelecimentos cadastrados no IBGE. Foram investigados a natureza jurídica, a capacidade instalada ambulatorial e hospitalar, a produção e o custo das consultas médicas segundo modalidades de financiamento público e privado. As diferentes formas de assistência médica supletiva são a principal fonte de financiamento da assistência ambulatorial, e 51,1% das unidades investigadas são independentes dos recursos públicos oriundos do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. Os convênios-empresa e o seguro saúde stricto sensu participaram de forma moderada e elevada do financiamento das consultas médicas, em 54% e 41,9% dos serviços respectivamente. Os autores discutem o significado das modificações verificadas no segmento privado da atenção à saúde de Salvador, bem como as implicações desses achados no que diz respeito ao redimensionamento das estratégias de reorganização das práticas e serviços de saúde no País e de relacionamento entre o público e o privado.To study the organization of private health services in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, a survey was carried out in 1994 involving 174 facilities registered at the Brazilian Institute of Statistics and Geography ­ IBGE. Health services characteristics studied were the following: number of physicians, hospital beds, production and cost of outpatient services, and legislative aspects. Health services were classified according to the amount of resources each type of granting agency contributed to support outpatient care. We found that the majority (51.1% of private health care services in Salvador do not depend on public funds. The main sources of revenue for health services are private health insurance (41.9% and other kinds of private health plans (54%. These changes in the organization of health services challenge

  11. Comida de rua: um estudo crítico e multirreferencial em Salvador, BA − Brasil / Street food: A critical and multifaceted study in Salvador, BA, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Oliveira Benevides Sanches Leal; Carmen Fontes Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é descrever e analisar a situação da comida de rua em Salvador, BA – Brasil, compreendendo suas especificidades em diferentes contextos da cidade. Trata-se de estudo de caso único, cujas técnicas de coleta de dados foram a observação de cunho etnográfico, entrevistas semiestruturadas, uso de imagens e leitura de jornal local ao logo de um ano em três aspectos relacionados ao segmento: riscos relacionados aos alimentos e ao ambiente onde são comercializados e riscos rel...

  12. El Salvador educación, enfermedad holandesa y crecimiento América Latina crecimiento y mercados laborales en los 2000 algunas lecciones para El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    González Orellana, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Esta es la primera parte del estudio titulado El Salvador: Educación, Enfermedad Holandesa y Crecimiento. En esta se consigna una serie de resultados de la investigación que el Banco Mundial ha llevado a cabo en relación con los temas de educación, Enfermedad Holandesa y crecimiento. Se destacan, entre otros, los siguientes aspectos: 1) los resultados en términos de crecimiento, educación y empleo, especialmente para los países más grandes de la región, han sido por lo menos notab...

  13. Características da assistência ao parto na cidade do Salvador (Bahia, Brasil Characteristics of the maternity care in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Guimarães Neto Dias

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Levou-se a efeito estudo para analisar a disponibilidade de serviços de maternidade na cidade do Salvador, Brasil. Foi elaborado questionário destinado à obtenção de informações sobre o tipo de hospital, meios de manutenção, número de leitos obstétricos existentes, tempo e percentual de ocupação de leitos hospitalares. Informações sobre o tipo de assistência fornecida por ocasião da admissão, foram obtidas a partir do livro de ocorrências de cada instituição. Os dados referentes a mortalidade para o período 1961-1970 foram obtidos de duas fontes diferentes. No primeiro período de 1971, o estudo assim conduzido, demonstrou elevada demanda para leitos hospitalares mantidos pelo Governo estadual e período de permanência muito curto na maioria dos hospitais. As taxas de abortos e de mortalidade materna, em 1970, revelaram-se muito elevadas. Ambos os aspectos da assistência à maternidade apresentam-se como problemas importantes de Saúde Pública na cidade do Salvador.A study was made attempting to analyse the availability of maternity services in the City of Salvador, Brazil. A questionaire was designed aiming at to obtain information on the type of the hospital, owner ship, number of existing lying-beds, length of stay and percentage of occupation of hospital beds. The kind of natal care delivered by the time of the admission, was obtained from the book of ocurrences of each institution, while the mortality data to the period 1961-1970 were derived from two different sources. The study was conducted in the first period of 1971 and has indicated: a high demand for the hospital beds maintained by the state government and a very low length of stay in most of the lying in hospitals. The abortion rate observed in 1970 as well as the maternal mortality rates were found extremelly high, and both aspects of maternity care appeared as important public health problems in the City of Salvador.

  14. San Diego's Capital Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytton, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article describes San Diego's capital planning process. As part of its capital planning process, the San Diego Unified School District has developed a systematic analysis of functional quality at each of its school sites. The advantage of this approach is that it seeks to develop and apply quantifiable metrics and standards for the more…

  15. Los Angeles og San Francisco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    1998-01-01

    Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Los Angeles og San Francisco april-maj 1998 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Institut 3H......Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Los Angeles og San Francisco april-maj 1998 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Institut 3H...

  16. Atmospheric chemistry in volcanic plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Glasow, Roland

    2010-04-13

    Recent field observations have shown that the atmospheric plumes of quiescently degassing volcanoes are chemically very active, pointing to the role of chemical cycles involving halogen species and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol particles that have previously been unexplored for this type of volcanic plumes. Key features of these measurements can be reproduced by numerical models such as the one employed in this study. The model shows sustained high levels of reactive bromine in the plume, leading to extensive ozone destruction, that, depending on plume dispersal, can be maintained for several days. The very high concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the volcanic plume reduces the lifetime of the OH radical drastically, so that it is virtually absent in the volcanic plume. This would imply an increased lifetime of methane in volcanic plumes, unless reactive chlorine chemistry in the plume is strong enough to offset the lack of OH chemistry. A further effect of bromine chemistry in addition to ozone destruction shown by the model studies presented here, is the oxidation of mercury. This relates to mercury that has been coemitted with bromine from the volcano but also to background atmospheric mercury. The rapid oxidation of mercury implies a drastically reduced atmospheric lifetime of mercury so that the contribution of volcanic mercury to the atmospheric background might be less than previously thought. However, the implications, especially health and environmental effects due to deposition, might be substantial and warrant further studies, especially field measurements to test this hypothesis.

  17. Climatic impact of volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R.

    1991-01-01

    Studies have attempted to 'isolate' the volcanic signal in noisy temperature data. This assumes that it is possible to isolate a distinct volcanic signal in a record that may have a combination of forcings (ENSO, solar variability, random fluctuations, volcanism) that all interact. The key to discovering the greatest effects of volcanoes on short-term climate may be to concentrate on temperatures in regions where the effects of aerosol clouds may be amplified by perturbed atmospheric circulation patterns. This is especially true in subpolar and midlatitude areas affected by changes in the position of the polar front. Such climatic perturbation can be detected in proxy evidence such as decrease in tree-ring widths and frost rings, changes in the treeline, weather anomalies, severity of sea-ice in polar and subpolar regions, and poor grain yields and crop failures. In low latitudes, sudden temperature drops were correlated with the passage overhead of the volcanic dust cloud (Stothers, 1984). For some eruptions, such as Tambora, 1815, these kinds of proxy and anectdotal information were summarized in great detail in a number of papers and books (e.g., Post, 1978; Stothers, 1984; Stommel and Stommel, 1986; C. R. Harrington, in press). These studies lead to the general conclusion that regional effects on climate, sometimes quite severe, may be the major impact of large historical volcanic aerosol clouds.

  18. TURISMO EN EL SALVADOR: EL RETO DE LA CONSOLIDACIÓN DE UN DESTINO EMERGENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Jover Martí

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La actividad turística en El Salvador se encuentra en una fase emergente de desarrollo. El rápido incremento que han experimentado las cifras de llegadas de turistas internacionales durante estos últimos años ha despertado cierto optimismo en la sociedad salvadoreña. Los esfuerzos realizados desde los ámbitos público y privado han contribuido a impulsar este sector, cuya capacidad para dinamizar la economía nacional permite ofrecer varias opciones para el desarrollo del país. Ahí reside la importancia de la consolidación de este sector que está condicionado por varios factores.

  19. [An information system for injuries from external causes (SILEX): a successful project in El Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Oscar; de Cosío, Gerardo; Clavel-Arcas, Carme; Montoya, Jeannette; Serpas, Mario; Morán de García, Silvia; Concha-Eastman, Alberto

    2008-12-01

    This article examines the stages in developing an information system for injuries from external causes (Sistema de Información de Lesiones de Causa Externa-SILEX), as well as its limitations and achievements. SILEX is a Web-based application for collection, quality control, presentation, and analysis of data available from the hospital system for surveillance of injuries from external causes created by Ministry of Health of El Salvador with data from the hospital emergency services. This system maintains comprehensive information on the injured person-type of injury, intention, injury site, activity being performed at the time of injury, risk factors, etc.-in the form of tables, graphs, and maps, which streamlines the development of intervention plans and prevention initiatives for these types of injuries in El Salvador. This experience is an example of what can be done to close the information gap on injuries by external causes in the Region of the Americas.

  20. Association between nutritional status and severity of dengue infection in children in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marón, Gabriela M; Clará, A Wilfrido; Diddle, John Wesley; Pleités, Ernesto B; Miller, Laura; Macdonald, Gene; Adderson, Elisabeth E

    2010-02-01

    Clinical observations and some studies suggest that dengue virus infection is more severe among children with better nutritional status. We examined the nutritional status of children in El Salvador and its relationship between this and the severity of dengue infection. Z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age of children with dengue fever (66), dengue hemorrhagic fever (62), and healthy controls (74) were compared. There were no differences in weight-for-age or BMI-for-age Z-scores between the three groups. Children with dengue fever had a greater height-for-age than healthy controls but no significant differences in rates of stunting. There was no difference in height between children with dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Excess nutrition does not appear to be a risk factor for severe forms of dengue infection in El Salvador, nor does malnutrition appear to be predictive of good outcomes.

  1. Ethnographies of the Brau: body, masculinity and race in the reafricanization in Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmundo Pinho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author aims to explore the developments in the process known as "cultural and political reafricanization in Salvador," embodied in the transitory crystallization of a specific social figure known as the brau. This refers to an inflection of masculinity informed by the racial and gender tensions in Salvador, as well as a local re-appropriation of cultural themes in the African diaspora. The Braus were (are Negro youths, in the periphery, who re-invent a Negro visualness/bodiliness from re-readings of the North American soul 'culture' and are at the same time stigmatized by the middle class as violent, of "bad taste" and hyper-sexualized, that is, excessively 'Negro' and excessively 'masculinized,' in a hyperbolization, which, in a sense, contradicts the stigmatization.

  2. Petrologic and petrographic variation of youthful eruptive products in the Tuxtla Volcanic Field, Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, C. B.; Kobs Nawotniak, S. E.; Fredrick, K. C.; Espindola, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Tuxtla Volcanic Field (TVF) is located near the Gulf of Mexico in the southern part of the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Volcanism in the region began around 7 Ma and has continued until recent times with the volcano San Martín Tuxtla’s latest eruptions in AD 1664 and 1793. The TVF rocks are mainly of alkaline composition and have been divided into two separate volcanic series, an older and younger. The TVF is a structural high located between the Veracruz Basin to the southwest and the Gulf of Mexico to the northeast, characterized by relatively thin crust with the depth to the Moho around 28 to 34 km. The TVF is unique because it is isolated from the nearest volcanic fields (the Mexican Volcanic Belt, Central American Volcanic Belt and the Eastern Alkaline Province) by at least 230km and because of the on-going debate over its magmatic origin. Many models have been proposed to explain the TVF’s alkaline nature in a unique location with most linking it either to the subduction of the Cocos plate to the west of Mexico and/or to extensional faulting in the region. The purpose of our study was to determine systematic changes in the youthful volcanic deposits across the TVF. Regional and local mapping was conducted and lava and scoria samples were collected from seven sites associated with two vent clusters in the TVF. Mapping of the easternmost cluster of deposits suggests chronological emplacement of the deposits through superposition and vent location and morphology. The petrography of lava and tephra deposits may further indicate magmatic origins and other factors influencing the development of the field, including chronology and possible mixing and/or differentiation. Previous published studies analyzed samples near the San Martin Tuxtla volcanic center. Their data is used as a comparative reference for these samples, most of which were collected from another, younger cluster east of Laguna Catemaco. From this study, a better understanding of past eruptive

  3. Modernização e concentração do transporte urbano em Salvador (1849-1930 Tramway modernization and concentration in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil (1849-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Macchione Saes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo recupera a história da formação das empresas de transporte urbano da cidade de Salvador entre os anos de 1849 e 1930. A proclamação da República marcou a fase inicial de modernização das empresas de transporte, em que a fusão de companhias e a incorporação de capitais estrangeiros possibilitaram a introdução dos bondes elétricos na capital baiana. Foi nesse contexto que dois grupos rivais iniciaram mais uma batalha no Brasil, agora pelos mercados de Salvador: de um lado, o grupo nacional da Companhia Brasileira de Energia Elétrica, e de outro lado, o grupo estrangeiro Light, liderado em Salvador pelo empresário norte-americano Percival Farquhar. Diante desse cenário de concorrência, o artigo analisa a relação entre as empresas e a Câmara Municipal de Salvador, instituição responsável por distribuir as concessões de transporte na cidade.This paper draws on the history of the formation of Salvador's city tramways between 1849 and 1930. The Proclamation of the Republic in Brazil (1889 started the modernization of the tramway companies which, through the merger of enterprises and the arrival of foreign capital, was responsible for the introduction of the electric tramways in Bahia's capital. Two rival groups, in this context, competed in the Brazilian market, now in Salvador: on the one hand, the national enterprise Companhia Brasileira de Energia Elétrica, and on the other, the foreign company Light, led by the North-American entrepreneur Percival Farquhar. In this context of competition, the paper analyses the relation between the enterprises and Salvador's Town Council, the institution responsible for tramway concessions in the city.

  4. El Salvador’s crime prevention policies—from Mano Dura to El Salvador Seguro

    OpenAIRE

    Carballo, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines Salvadoran policies that addressed the rise in violent crime by gangs. These gangs have posed the biggest security risk to El Salvador since the end of the civil war in 1992. The two biggest gangs are the Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) and 18th Street, both originating in Los Angeles, CA, and which have proliferated throughout the Americas since the 1990s. Salvadoran administrations have tried to solve the issue in diffe...

  5. Transitions to Peace: Effects on Internal Security Forces in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    the outset. Initially, the military refused to give up a suitable site for the new Academia Nacional de Seguridad Publica (ANSP), and when they...Latinoamericana de Seguridad Ciudadana, no. 2 (September 2007): 139. See also: Edgardo Amaya Cóbar y Oswaldo Feusier, Relación Entre la Fiscalia General...Edgardo A. “Quince años de reforma policial en El Salvador: avances y desafíos.” Urvio, Revista Latinoamericana de Seguridad Ciudadana, no. 2

  6. Crónica de la prensa salvadoreña: imaginarios que migran

    OpenAIRE

    Amparo Marroquín Parducci

    2008-01-01

    EL ARTÍCULO PRESENTA UN ESTUDIO DE LAS NARRATIVAS QUE LA PRENSA escrita ha venido construyendo en El Salvador en torno al fenómeno de la migración. Se argumenta que a través del tema de la migración se construye una poética de nación imaginada, y conjuntamente, se da la construcción de las alteridades que desde el discurso oficial se han mantenido vigentes.

  7. First person: a mental health mission to post-earthquake El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Craig L

    2013-09-01

    In this article the author excerpts and discusses salient quotes or moments from the journal he compiled while visiting El Salvador in February 2001 as head of Disaster Psychiatry Outreach (DPO) to assist survivors of a major earthquake. This case discussion of a single disaster mental health response exemplifies key issues related to both short and long term mental health service delivery to disaster affected communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-08

    9 Mauricio Funes, “Discurso Toma de Posesión,” June 1, 2009; “Normalizan El Salvador y Cuba relaciones ...CRS Report R40135, Mérida Initiative for Mexico and Central America: Funding and Policy Issues, by Clare Ribando Seelke and June S. Beittel; and CRS...already reestablished diplomatic relations with Cuba .9 Challenges for the Funes Administration Opposition Legislature Although the FMLN increased its

  9. An interpretive study of food, snack and beverage advertisements in rural and urban El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Amanzadeh, Baharak; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Barker, Judith C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Globalization and increased marketing of non-nutritious foods and beverages are driving a nutrition transition in developing countries, adversely affecting the health of vulnerable populations. This is a visual interpretive study of food, snack, and beverage advertisements (ads) in rural and urban El Salvador to discern the strategies and messages used to promote consumption of highly processed, commercialized products. Methods Digital photographs of billboard and wall advertisemen...

  10. Las migraciones internacionales y sus efectos económicos en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Funes, Oscar Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se plantearán aspectos relacionados a los flujos migratorios sucedidos en El Salvador, desde la década de los años setentas y cómo se intensificó en el decenio de 1980, como consecuencia del guerra interna. Se utilizaron algunos estudios realizados por el Dr. Segundo Montes de la Universidad Centroamericana Simeón Cañas (UCA, y se determinará hacia donde migraron principalmente esos grupos de población. Luego se tomará de referencia los datos del Banco Central de Reserva de El Salvador (BCR, para conocer cómo han crecido los montos en dólares recibidos a través de las remesas familiares y el impacto que tienen en la economía, comparándolo con otros ingresos que percibe el país como son las exportaciones. Finalmente se plantearán los resultados obtenidos en un estudio realizado por la Asociación Salvadoreña de Investigación y Promoción Económica y Social (ASIPES que tenía como objetivo evaluar el monto de las remesas recibidas por los miembros de las familia salvadoreña e identificar los usos y destinos de esas remesas, sus características y sus alternativas productivas. Cabe mencionar que este estudio se realizó a través de encuestas ejecutadas en los municipios que de acuerdo a la Encuesta de hogares de propósitos múltiples reciben mayores cantidades de remesas familiar. También se evaluará el impacto que tienen las remesas familiares, principalmente en los hogares pobres.

  11. ISO/TC33 Meeting Held in Salvador,Brasil,October 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ ISO/TC33 Meeting was held in Salvador Brasil on 12-13 October 2009.Delegates from UK,USA,Germany,Australia,Japan and China attended the meeting.Two Chinese delegates,the new chairman of ISO/TC33 Li Hongxia fthe committee chaiman of SAC/TC193 and the president of Sinosteel Luoyang Institute of Refractories Research Co.,Ltd.)and Zhang Yongfhng(vice general secretary of SAC/TC193),were present.

  12. Aurorae and Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Thermal-IR Observations of Jupiter and Io with ISAAC at the VLT Summary Impressive thermal-infrared images have been obtained of the giant planet Jupiter during tests of a new detector in the ISAAC instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). . They show in particular the full extent of the northern auroral ring and part of the southern aurora. A volcanic eruption was also imaged on Io , the very active inner Jovian moon. Although these observations are of an experimental nature, they demonstrate a great potential for regular monitoring of the Jovian magnetosphere by ground-based telescopes together with space-based facilities. They also provide the added benefit of direct comparison with the terrestrial magnetosphere. PR Photo 21a/01 : ISAAC image of Jupiter (L-band: 3.5-4.0 µm) . PR Photo 21b/01 : ISAAC image of Jupiter (Narrow-band 4.07 µm) . PR Photo 21c/01 : ISAAC image of Jupiter (Narrow-band 3.28 µm) . PR Photo 21d/01 : ISAAC image of Jupiter (Narrow-band 3.21 µm) . PR Photo 21e/01 : ISAAC image of the Jovian aurorae (false-colour). PR Photo 21f/01 : ISAAC image of volcanic activity on Io . Addendum : The Jovian aurorae and polar haze. Aladdin Meets Jupiter Thermal-infrared images of Jupiter and its volcanic moon Io have been obtained during a series of system tests with the new Aladdin detector in the Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (ISAAC) , in combination with an upgrade of the ESO-developed detector control electronics IRACE. This state-of-the-art instrument is attached to the 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. The observations were made on November 14, 2000, through various filters that isolate selected wavebands in the thermal-infrared spectral region [1]. They include a broad-band L-filter (wavelength interval 3.5 - 4.0 µm) as well as several narrow-band filters (3.21, 3.28 and 4.07 µm). The filters allow to record the light from different components of the Jovian atmosphere

  13. Results of investigations at the Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, B.; Goff, F.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Hanold, B. (comps.)

    1990-04-01

    Well logging operations were performed in eight of the geothermal wells at Ahuachapan. High-temperature downhole instruments, including a temperature/rabbit, caliper, fluid velocity spinner/temperature/pressure (STP), and fluid sampler, were deployed in each well. The caliper tool was used primarily to determine if chemical deposits were present in well casings or liners and to investigate a suspected break in the casing in one well. STP logs were obtained from six of the eight wells at various flow rates ranging from 30 to 80 kg/s. A static STP log was also run with the wells shut-in to provide data to be used in the thermodynamic analysis of several production wells. The geochemical data obtained show a system configuration like that proposed by C. Laky and associates in 1989. Our data indicate recharge to the system from the volcanic highlands south of the field. Additionally, our data indicate encroachment of dilute fluids into deeper production zones because of overproduction. 17 refs., 50 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Geopulsation, Volcanism and Astronomical Periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xuexiang; Chen Dianyou; Yang Xiaoying; Yang Shuchen

    2000-01-01

    Volcanism is mainly controlled by the intermittent release of energy in the earth. As far as the differential rotation of the earth's inner core is concerned, the Galactic Year may change the gravitational constant G, the solar radiative quantity and the moving speed of the solar system and affect the exchange of angular momentum between core and mantle as well as the energy exchange between crust and mantle. As a result, this leads to eruptions of superplumes and magma, and controls the energy flow from core - mantle boundary (CMB) to crust. When the earth' s speed decreases, it will release a huge amount of energy. They are the reason of the correspondence of the volcanic cycles one by one with the astronomical periods one by one. According to the astronomical periods, volcanic eruptions may possibly be predicted in the future.

  15. Volcanic eruptions and solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    The historical record of large volcanic eruptions from 1500 to 1980 is subjected to detailed time series analysis. In two weak but probably statistically significant periodicities of about 11 and 80 yr, the frequency of volcanic eruptions increases (decreases) slightly around the times of solar minimum (maximum). Time series analysis of the volcanogenic acidities in a deep ice core from Greenland reveals several very long periods ranging from about 80 to about 350 yr which are similar to the very slow solar cycles previously detected in auroral and C-14 records. Solar flares may cause changes in atmospheric circulation patterns that abruptly alter the earth's spin. The resulting jolt probably triggers small earthquakes which affect volcanism.

  16. Geochemical study for volcanic surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panichi, C.; La Ruffa, G. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, International Institute for Geothermal Research Ghezzano, PI (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    For years, geologists have been striving to reconstruct volcanic eruptions from the analysis of pyroclastic deposits and lava flows on the surface of the earth and in the oceans. This effort has produced valuable information on volcanic petrology and magma generation, separation, mixing, crystallisation, and interaction with water in phreatomagmatic and submarine eruptions. The volcanological process are tied to the dynamics of the earth's crust and lithosphere. The mantle, subducted oceanic crust, and continental crust contain different rock types and are sources of different magmas. Magmas consist primarily of completely or partially molten silicates containing volatile materials either dissolved in the melt or as bubbles of gas. The silicate and volatile portions affect the physical properties of magma and, therefore, the nature of a volcanic eruption.

  17. Models of volcanic eruption hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohletz, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions pose an ever present but poorly constrained hazard to life and property for geothermal installations in volcanic areas. Because eruptions occur sporadically and may limit field access, quantitative and systematic field studies of eruptions are difficult to complete. Circumventing this difficulty, laboratory models and numerical simulations are pivotal in building our understanding of eruptions. For example, the results of fuel-coolant interaction experiments show that magma-water interaction controls many eruption styles. Applying these results, increasing numbers of field studies now document and interpret the role of external water eruptions. Similarly, numerical simulations solve the fundamental physics of high-speed fluid flow and give quantitative predictions that elucidate the complexities of pyroclastic flows and surges. A primary goal of these models is to guide geologists in searching for critical field relationships and making their interpretations. Coupled with field work, modeling is beginning to allow more quantitative and predictive volcanic hazard assessments.

  18. Disparities in HIV screening among pregnant women--El Salvador, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Nieto Gómez, Ana I; Dubón Abrego, María A; Gagnier, Marielle C; Sutton, Madeline Y; Mokdad, Ali H

    2013-01-01

    To provide an accurate estimate of antenatal HIV screening and its determinants among pregnant women in El Salvador and help local authorities make informed decisions for targeted interventions around mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). A total sample of 4,730 women aged 15-49 years were interviewed from a random sample of 3,625 households. We collected data on antenatal care services, including HIV screening, during last pregnancy through a pre-established questionnaire. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to examine the association between HIV screening and sociodemographic and health care-related factors. A total of 2,929 women were included in this analysis. About 98% of participants reported receiving antenatal care, but only 83% of these reported being screened for HIV. Screening was lower in geographic areas with higher HIV incidence and ranged from 69.1% among women who were not seen by a physician during antenatal care, to 93.7% among those who attended or completed college. Odds for screening varied also by age, employment status, household economic expenditure, possession of health care coverage, health care settings, and number of antenatal care visits. We found disparities in HIV screening during antenatal care at the environmental, social, demographic, and structural levels despite a high uptake of antenatal care in El Salvador. Our findings should urge health authorities to tailor and enhance current strategies implemented to eliminate MTCT and reduce inequities and HIV morbidity among women in El Salvador.

  19. Risk Behaviors and STI Prevalence Among People with HIV in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Bailey, G; Shah, N; Creswell, J; Guardado, ME; Nieto, AI; Estrada, MC; Cedillos, R; Pascale, JM; Monterroso, E

    2012-01-01

    To date, there are no studies from El Salvador among people with HIV to inform prevention programs. We conducted a study in El Salvador in 2008 among people with HIV using audio computer-assisted interviews on risk behaviors and access to health care. Blood was tested for syphilis and herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2). Active syphilis was defined as RPR titer ≥1:8. Genital specimens were tested for other sexually transmitted infections (STI) by PCR. We evaluated factors associated with unprotected sex with last stable partner of HIV-negative or unknown status among those reporting a stable partner. A total of 811 HIV-positive individuals participated: 413 men and 398 women. Prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea was low (≤1%), while prevalence of other STI was high: Mycoplasma genitalium (14%), syphilis (15% seropositivity, active syphilis 3%) and HSV-2 (85%). In multivariate analysis, disclosing HIV status to partner (OR 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1-0.3, pEl Salvador should focus on increasing condom access, promoting HIV disclosure and couples testing and reducing the number of partners. The positive role of support groups should be used to enhance behavioral change. PMID:23049671

  20. Predictive Upper Cretaceous to Early Miocene Paleogeography of the San Andreas Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, K.

    2006-12-01

    Paleogeographic reconstruction of the region of the San Andreas fault was hampered for more than twenty years by the apparent incompatibility of authoritative lithologic correlations. These led to disparate estimates of dextral strike-slip offsets, notably 315 km between Pinnacles and Neenach Volcanics (Matthews, 1976), versus 563 km between Anchor Bay and Eagle Rest Peak (Ross et al., 1973). In addition, estimates of total dextral slip on the San Gregorio fault have ranged from 5 km to 185 km. Sixteen upper Cretaceous and Paleogene conglomerates of the California Coast Ranges, from Anchor Bay to Simi Valley, have been included in a multidisciplinary study. Detailed analysis, including microscopic petrography and microprobe geochemistry, verified Seiders and Cox's (1992) and Wentworth's (1996) correlation of the upper Cretaceous Strata of Anchor Bay with an unnamed conglomerate east of Half Moon Bay. Similar detailed study, with the addition of SHRIMP U/Pb zircon dating, verified that the Paleocene or Eocene Point Reyes Conglomerate at Point Reyes is a tectonically displaced segment of the Carmelo Formation of Point Lobos. These studies centered on identification of matching unique clast varieties, rather than on simply counting general clast types, and included analyses of matrices, fossils, paleocurrents, diagenesis, adjacent rocks, and stratigraphy. The work also led to three new correlations: the Point Reyes Conglomerate with granitic source rock at Point Lobos; a magnetic anomaly at Black Point with a magnetic anomaly near San Gregorio; and the Strata of Anchor Bay with previously established source rock, the potassium-poor Logan Gabbro (Ross et al., 1973) at a more recently recognized location (Brabb and Hanna, 1981; McLaughlin et al., 1996) just east of the San Gregorio fault, south of San Gregorio. From these correlations, an upper Cretaceous early Oligocene paleogeography of the San Andreas fault system was constructed that honors both the Anchor Bay

  1. New Pliocene-Pleistocene 40Ar/ 39Ar ages fill in temporal gaps in the Nicaraguan volcanic record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saginor, Ian; Gazel, Esteban; Carr, Michael J.; Swisher, Carl C., III; Turrin, Brent

    2011-04-01

    The volcanic record of western Nicaragua documents a significant lull in volcanic activity that has persisted from the late Miocene (~ 7 Ma) to the formation of the modern volcanic front around 350 ka. This study fills this gap for the first time with samples collected in Northwest Nicaragua between Cosigüina and San Cristóbal volcanoes and with samples collected from the Nicaraguan Depression. We found two previously unknown volcanic units ranging from 3.6 to 1.3 Ma and the improved volcanic record allows us to reconstruct the geochemical evolution of the Nicaraguan arc. U/Th values increased by nearly threefold since the Miocene following the "carbonate crash" at 10 Ma, when dominantly carbonate sediment deposition shifted toward hemipelagic sediment deposition. This transition was thought to be abrupt, however our new data show that it took place gradually over the last 7 Ma. Northwest Nicaragua is a particularly interesting case study because it contains Middle Miocene volcanism on either side of the Nicaraguan Depression, the Coyol Formation (25-7 Ma) to the East and the Tamarindo Formation (14.7-11.7 Ma) to the West. The presence of Mid Miocene volcanism on either side of the Nicaraguan Depression has led to the hypothesis that the two coeval units, currently separated by ~ 100 km, were once connected and have since been separated by extension. Here, we present data suggesting that the Tamarindo and Coyol are geochemically distinct and therefore cannot be considered part of the same unit.

  2. Recurrence models of volcanic events: Applications to volcanic risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, B.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Picard, R.; Valentine, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Perry, F.V. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-03-01

    An assessment of the risk of future volcanism has been conducted for isolation of high-level radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada. Risk used in this context refers to a combined assessment of the probability and consequences of future volcanic activity. Past studies established bounds on the probability of magmatic disruption of a repository. These bounds were revised as additional data were gathered from site characterization studies. The probability of direct intersection of a potential repository located in an eight km{sup 2} area of Yucca Mountain by ascending basalt magma was bounded by the range of 10{sup {minus}8} to 10{sup {minus}10} yr{sup {minus}1 2}. The consequences of magmatic disruption of a repository were estimated in previous studies to be limited. The exact releases from such an event are dependent on the strike of an intruding basalt dike relative to the repository geometry, the timing of the basaltic event relative to the age of the radioactive waste and the mechanisms of release and dispersal of the waste radionuclides in the accessible environment. The combined low probability of repository disruption and the limited releases associated with this event established the basis for the judgement that the risk of future volcanism was relatively low. It was reasoned that that risk of future volcanism was not likely to result in disqualification of the potential Yucca Mountain site.

  3. Controls on volcanism at intraplate basaltic volcanic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hove, Jackson C.; Van Otterloo, Jozua; Betts, Peter G.; Ailleres, Laurent; Cas, Ray A. F.

    2017-02-01

    A broad range of controlling mechanisms is described for intraplate basaltic volcanic fields (IBVFs) in the literature. These correspond with those relating to shallow tectonic processes and to deep mantle plumes. Accurate measurement of the physical parameters of intraplate volcanism is fundamental to gain an understanding of the controlling factors that influence the scale and location of a specific IBVF. Detailed volume and geochronology data are required for this; however, these are not available for many IBVFs. In this study the primary controls on magma genesis and transportation are established for the Pliocene-Recent Newer Volcanics Province (NVP) of south-eastern Australia as a case-study for one of such IBVF. The NVP is a large and spatio-temporally complex IBVF that has been described as either being related to a deep mantle plume, or upper mantle and crustal processes. We use innovative high resolution aeromagnetic and 3D modelling analysis, constrained by well-log data, to calculate its dimensions, volume and long-term eruptive flux. Our estimates suggest volcanic deposits cover an area of 23,100 ± 530 km2 and have a preserved dense rock equivalent of erupted volcanics of least 680 km3, and may have been as large as 900 km3. The long-term mean eruptive flux of the NVP is estimated between 0.15 and 0.20 km3/ka, which is relatively high compared with other IBVFs. Our comparison with other IBVFs shows eruptive fluxes vary up to two orders of magnitude within individual fields. Most examples where a range of eruptive flux is available for an IBVF show a correlation between eruptive flux and the rate of local tectonic processes, suggesting tectonic control. Limited age dating of the NVP has been used to suggest there were pulses in its eruptive flux, which are not resolvable using current data. These changes in eruptive flux are not directly relatable to the rate of any interpreted tectonic driver such as edge-driven convection. However, the NVP and other

  4. Volcanic activity in the Acambay Graben: a < 25 Ka subplinian eruption from the Temascalcingo volcano and implications for volcanic hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzi, Dario; Aguirre Díaz, Gerardo; Sunyé Puchol, Ivan; Bartolini, Stefania; Geyer, Adelina

    2016-04-01

    The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) contains a large number of stratovolcanoes, some well-known, as Popocatepetl, Iztaccihuatl, Nevado de Toluca, or Colima and many others of more modest dimensions that are not well known but constitute the majority in the TMVB. Such volcanoes are, for example, Tequila, San Juan, Sangangüey, Cerro Culiacán, Cerro Grande, El Zamorano, La Joya, Palo Huerfano, Jocotitlán, Altamirano and Temascalcingo, among many others. The Temascalcingo volcano (TV) is an andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano located in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) at the eastern part of the Acambay Graben (northwest portion of Estado de México). The TV is composed mainly by dacitic, porphyritic lavas, block and ash deposits and subordinate pumice fall deposits and ignimbrites (Roldán-Quintana et al., 2011). The volcanic structure includes a summit caldera that has a rectangular shape, 2.5×3.5 km, with the largest side oriented E-W, parallel to major normal faults affecting the edifice. The San Mateo Pumice eruption is one of the greatest paroxysmal episodes of this volcano with pumice deposits mainly exposed at the scarp of the Acambay-Tixmadeje fault and at the northern and northeastern flanks of TV. It overlies a paleosol dated at 25 Ka. A NE-trending dispersion was obtained from field data covering an area of at least 80 km2. These deposits overlie older lava flows and mud flows and are discontinuously covered and eroded by younger reworked deposits of Temascalcingo volcano. This event represents a highly explosive phase that generated a relatively thick and widespread pumice fallout deposit that may occur again in future eruptions. A similar eruption today would have a significantly impact in the region, overall due to the fact that there has been no systematic assessment of the volcanic hazard in any of the studies that have been conducted so far in the area. So, this is a pending and urgent subject that must be tackled without delay. Financed by

  5. Initial Analysis of Inner Crater Eruptive Deposits and Modeling of the 2005 Eruption of Ilamatepec (Santa Ana) Volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hackert, B.; Bajo, J. V.; Escobar, D.; Gutierrez, E.

    2011-12-01

    The October 1st, 2005 eruption of Ilamatepec Volcano, also known as Santa Ana Volcano in El Salvador, Central America, was a relatively small phreatic possibly phreatomagmatic eruption that generated an approximately 10km high ash column, with a volume of 1.5 million cubic meters. It generated small pyroclastic density currents, and shortly after the eruption a hot lahar. All of these volcanic products present grat danger to the surrounding population and the surrounding fertile lands growing coffe and sugar cane, the major export products. To better understand the eruptive behavior of this active composite volcano, older deposits need to be studied. An initial analysis of the inner crater eruptive deposits was undertaken in 2011. The many layers that can be seen within the crater suggest that Santa Ana volcano alternates its eruptions from phreatic to phreatomagmatic to magmatic, back to phreatomagmatic to phreatic with a period of rest in between. The last magmatic eruption of the Santa Ana Volcano took place in 1904. There are some historical records of it, and the scoracious materials and lava flows can still be well traced on the flanks and the crater of Ilamatepec, while the 2005 eruption has been eroded away in most areas of the flanks. Observations and data collected in 2005 and 2011 indicate that pyroclastic density currents went not only to the Southeastern flanks of the volcano, but also towards the Northwestern flanks, an area behind the highest rim of the volcano. Deposits up to 0.5 m were found in 2011, after significant erosion already had taken place. We present here the partial stratigraphic column taken within the inner crater walls that indicate alternating eruption styles from eruptions well pre-1904, with radiocarbon dating pending. Additionally, we show the results of the modeling of pyroclastic deposits, and lahars using Titan2D on DEMs extracted from the only topographic map (pre-1980) which has a 10 m resolution of the volcano, and a DEM

  6. An investigation of vegetation and other Earth resource/feature parameters using LANDSAT and other remote sensing data. 1: LANDSAT. 2: Remote sensing of volcanic emissions. [New England forest and emissions from Mt. St. Helens and Central American volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, R. W.; Stoiber, R. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A fanning technique based on a simplistic physical model provided a classification algorithm for mixture landscapes. Results of applications to LANDSAT inventory of 1.5 million acres of forest land in Northern Maine are presented. Signatures for potential deer year habitat in New Hampshire were developed. Volcanic activity was monitored in Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Guatemala along with the Mt. St. Helens eruption. Emphasis in the monitoring was placed on the remote sensing of SO2 concentrations in the plumes of the volcanoes.

  7. The late Quaternary tephrostratigraphical record of the San Gregorio Magno basin (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munno, R.; Petrosino, P.

    2007-03-01

    Twenty-one primary pyroclastic layers were found embedded in the lacustrine sediments of the San Gregorio Magno basin (Southern Apennines). These sand-sized layers were characterised by a noticeable juvenile fragments content and by a sharp basal contact with the underlying clay and silt sediments. The tephra layers have been correlated with terrestrial counterparts from well-known eruptive events of the Campanian volcanic area, or with reference layers from deep sea sediment cores and from the Monticchio maar sequence. The investigation of the San Gregorio Magno tephra layers made it possible to deduce that lacustrine sedimentation at San Gregorio Magno basin began before 170k yr BP and lasted at least until the emplacement of the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff, which occurred about 15k yr BP. The tephrochronology allowed determination of the varying sedimentation rate that occurred in the basin. Correlation of the lacustrine record with marine sequences has allowed development of a late Quaternary tephrostratotype for southern Italy. Copyright

  8. Stratigraphy, geomorphology, geochemistry and hazard implications of the Nejapa Volcanic Field, western Managua, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellán, Denis Ramón; Macías, José Luis; Pardo, Natalia; Scolamacchia, Teresa; Rodriguez, Dionisio

    2012-02-01

    The Nejapa Volcanic Field (NVF) is located on the western outskirts of Managua, Nicaragua. It consists of at least 30 volcanic structures emplaced along the N-S Nejapa fault, which represents the western active edge of the Managua Graben. The study area covers the central and southern parts of the volcanic field. We document the basic geomorphology, stratigraphy, chemistry and evolution of 17 monogenetic volcanic structures: Ticomo (A, B, C, D and E); Altos de Ticomo; Nejapa; San Patricio; Nejapa-Norte; Motastepe; El Hormigón; La Embajada; Asososca; Satélite; Refinería; and Cuesta El Plomo (A and B). Stratigraphy aided by radiocarbon dating suggests that 23 eruptions have occurred in the area during the past ~ 34,000 years. Fifteen of these eruptions originated in the volcanic field between ~ 28,500 and 2,130 yr BP with recurrence intervals varying from 400 to 7,000 yr. Most of these eruptions were phreatomagmatic with minor strombolian and fissural lava flow events. A future eruption along the fault might be of a phreatomagmatic type posing a serious threat to the more than 500,000 inhabitants in western Managua.

  9. A quantitative model for volcanic hazard assessment

    OpenAIRE

    W. Marzocchi; Sandri, L.; Furlan, C

    2006-01-01

    Volcanic hazard assessment is a basic ingredient for risk-based decision-making in land-use planning and emergency management. Volcanic hazard is defined as the probability of any particular area being affected by a destructive volcanic event within a given period of time (Fournier d’Albe 1979). The probabilistic nature of such an important issue derives from the fact that volcanic activity is a complex process, characterized by several and usually unknown degrees o...

  10. Volcanic forcing in decadal forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménégoz, Martin; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco; Guemas, Virginie; Asif, Muhammad; Prodhomme, chloe

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions can significantly impact the climate system, by injecting large amounts of particles into the stratosphere. By reflecting backward the solar radiation, these particles cool the troposphere, and by absorbing the longwave radiation, they warm the stratosphere. As a consequence of this radiative forcing, the global mean surface temperature can decrease by several tenths of degrees. However, large eruptions are also associated to a complex dynamical response of the climate system that is particularly tricky do understand regarding the low number of available observations. Observations seem to show an increase of the positive phases of the Northern Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) the two winters following large eruptions, associated to positive temperature anomalies over the Eurasian continent. The summers following large eruptions are generally particularly cold, especially over the continents of the Northern Hemisphere. Overall, it is really challenging to forecast the climate response to large eruptions, as it is both modulated by, and superimposed to the climate background conditions, largely driven themselves by internal variability at seasonal to decadal scales. This work describes the additional skill of a forecast system used for seasonal and decadal predictions when it includes observed volcanic forcing over the last decades. An idealized volcanic forcing that could be used for real-time forecasts is also evaluated. This work consists in a base for forecasts that will be performed in the context of the next large volcanic eruption.

  11. 78 FR 39610 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA... temporary safety zones upon the navigable waters of the San Diego Bay for the annual Port of San Diego... Sector San Diego, Coast Guard; telephone 619-278-7261, email d11marineeventssd@uscg.mil . If you have...

  12. 75 FR 38412 - Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA... zone on the ] navigable waters of San Diego Bay in support of the San Diego POPS Fireworks. This safety.... Coast Guard Sector San Diego, CA; telephone 619-278- 7262, e-mail Shane.E.Jackson@uscg.mil . If you have...

  13. 78 FR 42027 - Safety Zone; San Diego Bayfair; Mission Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Bayfair; Mission Bay, San Diego... proposing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Mission Bay in San Diego, CA for the San Diego..., call or email Lieutenant John Bannon, Waterways Management, U.S. Coast Guard Sector San Diego...

  14. 78 FR 29289 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA... establish four temporary safety zones upon the navigable waters of San Diego ] Bay for the Port of San Diego... Management, U.S. Coast Guard Sector San Diego; telephone (619) 278-7261, email John.E.Bannon@uscg.mil . If...

  15. 78 FR 53245 - Safety Zone; San Diego Bayfair; Mission Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Bayfair; Mission Bay, San Diego... temporary safety zone upon the navigable waters of Mission Bay in San Diego, CA for the annual San Diego... Management, U.S. Coast Guard Sector San Diego; telephone (619) 278-7261, email John.E.Bannon@uscg.mil . If...

  16. Experimental generation of volcanic lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimarelli, Corrado; Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, Miguel; Kueppers, Ulrich; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2014-05-01

    Ash-rich volcanic plumes that are responsible for injecting large quantities of aerosols into the atmosphere are often associated with intense electrical activity. Direct measurement of the electric potential at the crater, where the electric activity in the volcanic plume is first observed, is severely impeded, limiting progress in its investigation. We have achieved volcanic lightning in the laboratory during rapid decompression experiments of gas-particle mixtures under controlled conditions. Upon decompression (from ~100 bar argon pressure to atmospheric pressure), loose particles are vertically accelerated and ejected through a nozzle of 2.8 cm diameter into a large tank filled with air at atmospheric conditions. Because of their impulsive character, our experiments most closely represent the conditions encountered in the gas-thrust region of the plume, when ash is first ejected from the crater. We used sieved natural ash with different grain sizes from Popocatépetl (Mexico), Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland), and Soufrière Hills (Montserrat) volcanoes, as well as micrometric glass beads to constrain the influence of material properties on lightning. We monitored the dynamics of the particle-laden jets with a high-speed camera and the pressure and electric potential at the nozzle using a pressure transducer and two copper ring antennas connected to a high-impedance data acquisition system, respectively. We find that lightning is controlled by the dynamics of the particle-laden jet and by the abundance of fine particles. Two main conditions are required to generate lightning: 1) self-electrification of the particles and 2) clustering of the particles driven by the jet fluid dynamics. The relative movement of clusters of charged particles within the plume generates the gradient in electrical potential, which is necessary for lightning. In this manner it is the gas-particle dynamics together with the evolving particle-density distribution within different regions of

  17. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N2–CO2–H2O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO2 outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H2 can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N2–CO2–H2O–H2) can be sustained as long as volcanic H2 output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H2 warming is reduced in dense H2O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H2 atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  18. Transmitted drug-resistance in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adult population in El Salvador, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguín, Á; Yebra, G; Martín, L; de Pineda, A T; Ruiz, L E; Quezada, A Y; Nieto, A I; Escobar, G

    2013-12-01

    El Salvador harbours one of the largest Central American human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics, but few studies have analysed it in depth. Here, we describe the presence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and HIV variants in the HIV-infected adult population in El Salvador. Dried blood spots from 119 HIV-infected antiretroviral-naive adults attended in El Salvador were collected in 2011. The TDR was assessed according to the list recommended by the WHO. HIV-1 variants were described using phylogeny. Pol sequences could be amplified in 88 patients (50.6% men), with a mean age of 35 years. Almost all (96.7%) were infected with HIV through sexual practice and 58.7% were recently diagnosed. The mean CD4(+) count was 474 cells/mm(3) and 43.1% and 15.5% of patients showed moderate (100 000 copies/mL in 24.7% of patients and El Salvador, lower than in other Central American studies. Periodical studies are essential to monitor and prevent TDR emergence in low-income and middle-income regions. Also, more efforts are needed to promote early diagnosis and prevention of infection in El Salvador. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  19. Geochemical exploration of the Chipilapa geothermal field, El Salvador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieva, David; Verma, Mahendra Pal; Santoyo, Edgar; Portugal, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Campos, Alejandro [Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa, Santa Tecla (El Salvador)

    1997-12-01

    steam upflow zone to the south of the study area, on the northern slope of the volcanic range, and thermal water discharges several kilometers to the north. (Author)

  20. Riparian Habitat - San Joaquin River

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The immediate focus of this study is to identify, describe and map the extent and diversity of riparian habitats found along the main stem of the San Joaquin River,...

  1. 1906 San Francisco, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1906 San Francisco earthquake was the largest event (magnitude 8.3) to occur in the conterminous United States in the 20th Century. Recent estimates indicate...

  2. The Maars of the Tuxtla Volcanic Field: the Example of 'laguna Pizatal'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espindola, J.; Zamora-Camacho, A.; Hernandez-Cardona, A.; Alvarez del Castillo, E.; Godinez, M.

    2013-12-01

    Los Tuxtlas Volcanic Field (TVF), also known as Los Tuxtlas massif, is a structure of volcanic rocks rising conspicuously in the south-central part of the coastal plains of eastern Mexico. The TVF seems related to the upper cretaceous magmatism of the NW part of the Gulf's margin (e.g. San Carlos and Sierra de Tamaulipas alkaline complexes) rather than to the nearby Mexican Volcanic Belt. The volcanism in this field began in late Miocene and has continued in historical times, The TVF is composed of 4 large volcanoes (San Martin Tuxtla, San Martin Pajapan, Santa Marta, Cerro El Vigia), at least 365 volcanic cones and 43 maars. In this poster we present the distribution of the maars, their size and depths. These maars span from a few hundred km to almost 1 km in average diameter, and a few meters to several tens of meters in depth; most of them filled with lakes. As an example on the nature of these structures we present our results of the ongoing study of 'Laguna Pizatal or Pisatal' (18° 33'N, 95° 16.4'W, 428 masl) located some 3 km from the village of Reforma, on the western side of San Martin Tuxtla volcano. Laguna Pisatal is a maar some 500 meters in radius and a depth about 40 meters from the surrounding ground level. It is covered by a lake 200 m2 in extent fed by a spring discharging on its western side. We examined a succession of 15 layers on the margins of the maar, these layers are blast deposits of different sizes interbedded by surge deposits. Most of the contacts between layers are irregular; which suggests scouring during deposition of the upper beds. This in turn suggests that the layers were deposited in a rapid series of explosions, which mixed juvenile material with fragments of the preexisting bedrock. We were unable to find the extent of these deposits since the surrounding areas are nowadays sugar cane plantations and the lake has overspilled in several occassions.

  3. Mujeres para el cambio : la lucha contra la pobreza en El Salvador y los impactos de la experiencia migratoria en las biografias de las mujeres salvadoreñas en Italia

    OpenAIRE

    Spizzichino, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    El presente estudio realiza un análisis de la pobreza en El Salvador con un enfoque de género y ha sido el resultado de dos fases de investigación, en las cuales se han hecho un análisis de la mujer salvadoreña que vive en el país y de las mujeres que han migrado hacia Italia. En la primera fase de investigación (Mayo 2006- Septiembre 2007) se ha realizado un análisis de la mujer salvadoreña que en el país vive en condición de pobreza, con el objetivo de valorar la importancia de la formac...

  4. Sediment transport dynamics in steep, tropical volcanic catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkel, Christian; Solano Rivera, Vanessa; Granados Bolaños, Sebastian; Brenes Cambronero, Liz; Sánchez Murillo, Ricardo; Geris, Josie

    2017-04-01

    How volcanic landforms in tropical mountainous regions are eroded, and how eroded materials move through these mostly steep landscapes from the headwaters to affect sediment fluxes are critical to water resources management in their downstream rivers. Volcanic landscapes are of particular importance because of the short timescales (Central Volcanic Cordillera of Costa Rica (Figure 1A). Typical for tropical volcanic and montane regions, deeply incised V-form headwaters (Figure 1B) deliver the majority of water (>70%) and sediments to downstream rivers. At the catchment outlet (Figure 1C) of the San Lorencito stream, we established high temporal resolution (5min) water quantity and sediment monitoring (turbidity). We also surveyed the river network on various occasions to characterize fluvial geomorphology including material properties. We could show that the rainfall-runoff-sediment relationships and their characteristic hysteresis patterns are directly linked to variations in the climatic input (storm intensity and duration) and the size, form and mineralogy of the transported material. Such a relationship allowed us to gain the following insights: (i) periodic landslides contribute significant volumes of material (> 100m3 per year) to the stream network, (ii) rainfall events that exceed a threshold of around 30mm/h rain intensity activate superficial flow pathways with associated mobilization of sediments (laminar erosion). However, the erosion processes are spatially very heterogeneous and mostly linked to finer material properties of the soils that mostly developed on more highly weathered bedrock. (iii) extreme events (return period > 50 years) mainly erode the streambed and banks cutting deeper into the bedrock and re-distribute massive amounts of material in the form of removed old alluvial deposits and new deposits created elsewhere, (iv) recovery after such extreme events in the form of fine material transport even during low intensity rainfall towards pre

  5. Uso de substâncias psicoativas entre estudantes de Medicina de Salvador (BA Psychoactive substance use by medical students from Salvador (BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleuber Moreira Lemos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Estudos indicam que estudantes de Medicina, apesar do seu dedutível conhecimento sobre os efeitos das substâncias psicoativas, consomem-nas em proporção semelhante à dos jovens de mesma idade na população geral. OBJETIVO: Analisar o padrão local do consumo dessas substâncias entre graduandos de Medicina e contribuir na formulação de atividades preventivas. MÉTODOS: Aplicação de questionário semi-estruturado no qual foi avaliada a freqüência de uso das substâncias psicoativas entre os estudantes, assim como as principais razões apontadas para o consumo. Foram analisados 404 questionários obtidos entre alunos dos seis anos de curso das duas maiores escolas médicas de Salvador. RESULTADOS: As drogas mais utilizadas no critério uso na vida foram álcool (92,8% e lança-perfume (46,2%. O uso de álcool apresentou-se constante nos seis anos de curso. Entretanto, o uso de tabaco, lança-perfume e tranqüilizantes aumentou significativamente para os alunos dos últimos anos (p BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that medical students consume psychoactive substances at the same rates as the same age youth on general population, despite their predictable knowledge about drugs effects. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the local pattern of psychoactive substances use among medical students and contribute for the formulation of preventive activities. METHODS: The frequency of psychoactive substances use was evaluated by a self-administered anonymous questionnaire that also asked the main reasons for that use. Four hundred and four students in the first to sixth year from the two biggest medical schools in Salvador answered the questionnaire. RESULTS: The lifetime use was bigger for alcohol (92.8% and inhalant (46.2%. Alcohol use was constant for the students from first to sixth year of course, but it was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. However, tobacco, inhalants and tranquilizers use had a significant increase at the last two years

  6. Mineralogical and textural evidences of melt transfer in a granulite from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (Salvador da Bahia, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Philippe; Santos de Souza, Jailma; Barbosa, Johildo; Bourque, Hugo; Floess, David

    2014-05-01

    In pelitic rocks, the effect of melt transfer (loss and/or gain) on phase relations can be successfully predicted via phase equilibrium modeling and more particularly using pseudosections with bulk composition as a variable (e.g. White et al., 2001). One of the most obvious effect of melt loss is the dehydration of the rock that limits further melting and favors the preservation of peak metamorphic assemblage. However, in most cases, melt loss has a limited effect that can be hardly seen mineralogically. Indeed, composition of phases like garnet, cordierite or plagioclase, that are first-order metamorphic phase, will not be affected significantly by melt loss. Therefore, evidences of melt extraction must be evidenced texturally. The goal of this contribution is to present an example where both mineralogical and textural evidences of melt extraction have been inferred. The studied sample is a pelitic granulite from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (Salvador da Bahia, Brazil). It is located in the city of Salvador da Bahia, next to the Farol da Bara. Structurally, it is located in a steeply deeping high strain zone that could have play a major role on the segregation and transfer of melt. The gneissic foliation is marked by a compositional banding with centimer-wide quartzo-feldspathic leucosomes in a garnet-bearing granulite. Leucosomes are almost systematically surrounded by a darker layer that is quartz-undersaturated and enriched in spinel and primatic sillimanite. This silica undersaturation is interpreted as the effect of extreme melt extraction and was modeled using phase diagram section. An interesting feature of the rock is that garnet grain size decreases and the number of garnet grains increases in the melanosome away from the leucosome. Furthermore, the type, amount and shape of inclusions in garnet, chemical composition and zoning in garnet also varies greatly and continuously across the gneissic foliation. Texturally, the presence of

  7. Distribuição espacial da mortalidade por tuberculose em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Spatial distribution of tuberculosis mortality in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Frias Mota

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de descrever a distribuição espacial da mortalidade por tuberculose em Salvador nos anos de 1991, 1994 e 1997, foi realizado um estudo ecológico, descritivo, tendo como unidade de análise o Distrito Sanitário (DS. Foram calculados os coeficientes padronizados de mortalidade por tuberculose e a mortalidade proporcional por tuberculose, em relação ao conjunto das doenças infecciosas e parasitárias, utilizando-se as declarações de óbitos como fonte de dados. O DS com os maiores coeficientes padronizados foi o Subúrbio Ferroviário, com taxas de 15,7, 10,6 e 10,6/100 mil habitantes, em 1991, 1994 e 1997, respectivamente. Em 1997, foram observadas as menores taxas padronizadas. A mortalidade proporcional por tuberculose em Salvador, nos anos de 1991, 1994 e 1997, representou 20,7%, 18,2 % e 16,9%, respectivamente, do total das mortes por doenças infecciosas e parasitárias. A faixa etária de maior risco, nos anos estudados, foi aquela acima de 65 anos. Os autores discutem as possibilidades de utilização dos resultados deste estudo para a implementação de políticas locais de saúde equânimes e desenvolvimento de operações de vigilância da saúde, tendo em vista a identificação de DS com maior risco de óbito e as faixas etárias mais acometidas.An ecological study was conducted to describe the urban spatial distribution of mortality attributable to tuberculosis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil in 1991, 1994, and 1997. The unit of analysis was the Health District (HD. The HD with the highest standardized rates was Subúrbio Ferroviário in 1991, 1994, and 1997, with 15.7, 10.6, and 10.6/100.000 inhabitants, respectively. Inequalities in mortality between HDs were high. The year 1997 showed the lowest standardized rates. The proportional mortality ratios for tuberculosis when compared with total deaths from infectious diseases were 20.7%, 18.2%, and 16.9% for 1991, 1994, and 1997 respectively. The highest rates were

  8. How Volcanism Controls Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P. L.

    2013-12-01

    Large explosive volcanoes eject megatons of sulfur dioxide into the lower stratosphere where it spreads around the world within months and is oxidized slowly to form a sulfuric-acid aerosol with particle sizes that grow large enough to reflect and scatter solar radiation, cooling Earth ~0.5C for up to 3 years. Explosive eruptions also deplete total column ozone ~6% causing up to 3C winter warming at mid-latitudes over continents. Global cooling predominates. Extrusive, basaltic volcanoes deplete ozone ~6% but do not eject much sulfur dioxide into the lower stratosphere, causing net global warming. Anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) deplete ozone ~3% for up to a century while each volcanic eruption, even small ones, depletes ozone twice as much but for less than a decade through eruption of halogens and ensuing photochemical processes. The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, the 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn, plus anthropogenic CFCs depleted ozone over Toronto Canada 14% in 2012, causing an unusually warm winter and drought. Total column ozone determines how much solar ultraviolet energy with wavelengths between 290 and 340 nanometers reaches Earth where it is absorbed most efficiently by the ocean. A 25% depletion of ozone increases the amount of this radiation reaching Earth by 1 W m-2 for overhead sun and 0.25 W m-2 for a solar zenith angle of 70 degrees. The tropopause is the boundary between the troposphere heated from below by a sun-warmed Earth and the stratosphere heated from above by the Sun through photodissociation primarily of oxygen and ozone. The mean annual height of the tropopause increased ~160 m between 1980 and 2004 at the same time that northern mid-latitude total column ozone was depleted by ~4%, the lower stratosphere cooled ~2C, the upper troposphere warmed ~0.1C, and mean surface temperatures in the northern hemisphere rose ~0.5C. Regional total ozone columns are observed to increase as rapidly as 20% within 5 hours with an associated 5

  9. Volcanic gas impacts on vegetation at Turrialba Volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, R.; Jenkins, M.; Pushnik, J.; Houpis, J. L.; Brown, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    Turrialba volcano is an active composite stratovolcano that is located approximately 40 km east of San Jose, Costa Rica. Seismic activity and degassing have increased since 2005, and gas compositions reflect further increased activity since 2007 peaking in January 2010 with a phreatic eruption. Gas fumes dispersed by trade winds toward the west, northwest, and southwest flanks of Turrialba volcano have caused significant vegetation kill zones, in areas important to local agriculture, including dairy pastures and potato fields, wildlife and human populations. In addition to extensive vegetative degradation is the potential for soil and water contamination and soil erosion. Summit fumarole temperatures have been measured over 200 degrees C and gas emissions are dominated by SO2; gas and vapor plumes reach up to 2 km (fumaroles and gases are measured regularly by OVSICORI-UNA). A recent network of passive air sampling, monitoring of water temperatures of hydrothermal systems, and soil pH measurements coupled with measurement of the physiological status of surrounding plants using gas exchange and fluorescence measurements to: (1) identify physiological correlations between leaf-level gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements of plants under long term stress induced by the volcanic gas emissions, and (2) use measurements in tandem with remotely sensed reflectance-derived fluorescence ratio indices to track natural photo inhibition caused by volcanic gas emissions, for use in monitoring plant stress and photosynthetic function. Results may prove helpful in developing potential land management strategies to maintain the biological health of the area.

  10. Environmental assessment : Rodent control program : San Joaquin river levee : San Luis National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower San Joaquin Levee District (LSJLD) requires that six miles of levee situated along the San Joaquin River on San Luis National Wildlife Refuge (SLNWR) be...

  11. Sounding the alarm on chronic kidney disease in farming communities: María Isabel Rodríguez MD. Minister of health, El Salvador. Interview by Conner Gorry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, María Isabel

    2013-07-01

    In April 2013, a consortium of regional health ministries, nongovernmental organizations, aid agencies, clinical specialists and researchers from diverse sectors convened in San Salvador to discuss the epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown or non-traditional causes (CKDu) plaguing agricultural communities in Central America and beyond. The three-day meeting, where presentation of research on the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of CKDu roused significant debate, led the Pan American Health Organization to declare CKDu "a pressing and serious health problem [which] represents a burden for families, communities, health systems and society as a whole."[1] This High-level Meeting on Chronic Kidney Disease of Non-Traditional Causes in Central America (24-26 April) followed several international meetings at which Dr María Isabel Rodríguez, El Salvador's Minister of Health, presented studies on the disease burden in her country, where end-stage renal disease is the leading cause of hospital deaths. She outlined results of original scientific research by Dr Carlos Orantes (first published in MEDICC Review), that described an "elevated prevalence of chronic kidney disease, chronic renal failure and risk factors" among the patients studied, noting that "the most common [form] was chronic kidney disease of unknown cause, associated with neither diabetes nor hypertension."[2] In this interview with MEDICC Review, Dr Rodríguez discussed the gravity of the problem in Salvadoran agricultural communities; the importance of CKDu research in other countries; and the urgent need for intersectoral action and active community participation to confront and control the epidemic.

  12. Residencia San Pedro, California

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    Neutra, Richard J.

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta vivienda representa una aproximación más hacia la típica casa grande española, con techos de teca de 7 cm, que los señores Rados han edificado y en la que albergan a su gran familia de hijos, los cuales tienen ya sus propios vástagos. Ambos, el señor y la señora Rados, descienden de familias navieras italianas de Trieste, y el propio señor Rados tiene una compañía constructora de barcos en el puerto de San Pedro, que puede verse desde su propia casa. Los dos son verdaderamente unos abuelos muy sociables, cariñosos y atentos. Por añadidura, la señora Rados se entretiene frecuentemente y le agrada el cuidado de la casa. Por ello ha sido proyectada para facilitar sensiblemente toda esta serie de actividades.

  13. Preliminary geologic map and digital database of the San Bernardino 30' x 60' quadrangle, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas M.; Miller, Fred K.

    2003-01-01

    The San Bernardino 30'x60' quadrangle, southern California, is diagonally bisected by the San Andreas Fault Zone, separating the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains, major elements of California's east-oriented Transverse Ranges Province. Included in the southern part of the quadrangle is the northern part of the Peninsular Ranges Province and the northeastern part of the oil-producing Los Angeles basin. The northern part of the quadrangle includes the southern part of the Mojave Desert Province. Pre-Quaternary rocks within the San Bernardino quadrangle consist of three extensive, well-defined basement rock assemblages, the San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, and the Peninsular Ranges assemblages, and a fourth assemblage restricted to a narrow block bounded by the active San Andreas Fault and the Mill Creek Fault. Each of these basement rock assemblages is characterized by a relatively unique suite of rocks that was amalgamated by the end of the Cretaceous and (or) early Cenozoic. Some Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks are unique to specific assemblages, and some overlap adjacent assemblages. A few Miocene and Pliocene units cross the boundaries of adjacent assemblages, but are dominant in only one. Tectonic events directly and indirectly related to the San Andreas Fault system have partly dismembered the basement rocks during the Neogene, forming the modern-day physiographic provinces. Rocks of the four basement rock assemblages are divisible into an older suite of Late Cretaceous and older rocks and a younger suite of post-Late Cretaceous rocks. The age span of the older suite varies considerably from assemblage to assemblage, and the point in time that separates the two suites varies slightly. In the Peninsular Ranges, the older rocks were formed from the Paleozoic to the end of Late Cretaceous plutonism, and in the Transverse Ranges over a longer period of time extending from the Proterozoic to metamorphism at the end of the Cretaceous

  14. Petrology and geochemistry of the San Félix-San Ambrosio islands, Eastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper Percker, Oliver; Lara, Luis E.

    2015-04-01

    The San Félix-San Ambrosio (SF-SA) islands, Eastern Pacific, are fragments of two volcanic sequences 20 km apart. Both represent the top of an eroded large shield-volcano which rises over the Nazca Plate. Here, new geochemical and 40Ar/39Ar geochronological data are presented in order to understand magmatic evolution and source features. Two units are recognized on the SF island: (1) the Cerro Amarillo unit (CAU) (190±30 ka) formed by a hyaloclastic-tuff cone and basanitic lavas (Ba/Yb=519; Ba/Zr=2.19; La/Yb=49.88; Nb/Ta=17.96; Nb/Y=3.78; Nb/Zr=0.25) with absent or scarce modal content of plagioclase (20%). The hyaloclastic-tuff cone of the CAU contains aphanitic-trachytic lithic fragments of Na-augite and kaersutite, which correspond to the final product of fractional crystallization of olivine+clinopyroxene+Fe-Ti oxides+apatite±plagioclase from alkaline primitive liquids similar to SF-SA lavas. The geochemical data suggest that the islands represent different evolutive stages of a same volcanic intraplate complex. The alkaline to transitional SA lavas (Ba/Yb=249; Ba/Zr=1.60; La/Yb=24.62; Nb/Ta=16.55; Nb/Y=2.22; Nb/Zr=0.19) would represent the shield stage (ca 2.9 Ma), while the basanitic SF lavas the post-erosional stage (ca 0.2 Ma). Considering the Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data of the SF-SA lavas, previous works have ruled out a genetic relationship between SF-SA islands and the nearby Nazca Ridge. An heterogeneous mantle plume with mantelic metasomatized recycled lithologies is hypothesized as a possible magmatic source capable of explaining the petrologic differences between the SF-SA islands and between the CAU and PU, in SF island. This research is supported by FONDECYT Project 1141303.

  15. Prevalência de dislipidemias em adultos da demanda laboratorial de Salvador, Brasil Prevalence of dyslipidemias in non-hospital laboratory tests of adults from Salvador, Brazil

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    Ines Lessa

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência das dislipidemias em adultos da demanda laboratorial não-hospitalar da cidade de Salvador (BA. MÉTODOS: Casuística procedente de amostra probabilística de 25% dos laboratórios não-hospitalares da cidade que usavam o método enzimático para dosagem dos lípides séricos e controle de qualidade da Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia Clínica (93% do total; LDL estimado pela fórmula de Friedewald. Sorteados os meses ímpares de 1995 para o estudo. Critérios para dislipidemias, em mg/dl: colesterol ³240; LDL ³160; HDL ³200. Análise: prevalências, seus intervalos de confiança (IC a 95% e qui-quadrado (chi². RESULTADOS: Excluídos uma recusa e um laboratório que arquivava laudos só por 3 meses, foram analisados dados de 24 dos 26 laboratórios amostrados. Dos 7392 adultos, 65,5% eram mulheres. Prevalências estimadas e valores dos IC a 95% para homens, foram: hipercolesterolemia =24,0% (20,5; 27,5; LDL elevado =26,1 (22,4; 29,3; HDL baixo =15,9 (14,2; 17,8 e hipertrigliceridemia =27,6 (25,7; 29,5. Para mulheres: hipercolesterolemia =30,0 (27,8; 32,2, LDL elevado =33,1 (30,8; 35,4; HDL baixo =8,0 (7,1; 8,9 e hipertrigliceridemia =30,4 (29,0; 31,4. Todas as prevalências diferiram significantemente inter-gênero (p, 0,05 a pPURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia in non-hospital laboratory tests of adults from Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: The study was carried out in subjects from a probabilistic sample of 25% of a total of 104 local laboratories that used the same enzymatic method for lipid analysis with the quality control as recommended by the Brazilian Society of Clinical Analyses. These represented 93% of all non-hospital laboratories of Salvador in 1995. The odd months of 1995 were selected for sampling in the present study. Criteria for dyslipidemias were: total cholesterol ³240; LDL ³160; HDL ³200mg/dl. Prevalence rates and their 95% confidence intervals (CI and chi² test were

  16. Comida de rua: um estudo crítico e multirreferencial em Salvador, BA − Brasil / Street food: A critical and multifaceted study in Salvador, BA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Oliveira Benevides Sanches Leal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é descrever e analisar a situação da comida de rua em Salvador, BA – Brasil, compreendendo suas especificidades em diferentes contextos da cidade. Trata-se de estudo de caso único, cujas técnicas de coleta de dados foram a observação de cunho etnográfico, entrevistas semiestruturadas, uso de imagens e leitura de jornal local ao logo de um ano em três aspectos relacionados ao segmento: riscos relacionados aos alimentos e ao ambiente onde são comercializados e riscos relacionados aos trabalhadores. Os resultados indicaram grandes fragilidades relacionadas às categorias analisadas: diversidade de alimentos comercializados, mal manipulados e conservados; ambiente urbano insalubre, sem pontos de água, coleta de lixo inadequada, drenagem precária de águas e poluição atmosférica pelo elevado número de veículos; trabalhadores sem qualificação, sem uniformização adequada e submetidos a riscos sociais e ambientais constantes. Evidencia-se a necessidade da adoção de novas formas de gerenciamento de riscos para o segmento pela Vigilância sanitária, numa perspectiva intersetorial e solidária, dada a complexidade do objeto e a importância socioeconômica, cultural e nutricional da comida de rua. Constata-se a dificuldade para a VISA controlar os riscos relacionados à comida de rua atuando de forma apenas fiscalizatória, especialmente em grandes centros urbanos, como no caso de Salvador, BA. ==================================== This study aims to describe and analyze the present situation of street food in Salvador, BA, Brazil, understanding its specificities in different urban contexts. In this single case study, the data collection techniques included ethnographic observation, semi-structured interviews, use of images, and reading a local newspaper for one year focusing on three aspects related to the segment that include risks related to food, to the environment in which it is sold, and to workers

  17. Cine Surrealista: Salvador Dalí y Luis Buñuel / Surrealist cinema: Salvador Dalí and Luis Buñuel

    OpenAIRE

    Castiglioni, Ruben Daniel Méndez; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO Salvador Dalí, além de pintor e escritor, se dedicou ao cinema. Neste texto procura-se fazer uma aproximação à produção cinematográfica de Dalí realizada com Luis Buñuel. Seus trabalhos mais conhecidos são do período de Hollywood, onde Dalí trabalhou nos filmes Quando fala o coração, de Alfred Hitchcock e Destino, de Walt Disney. Porém, suas obras mais importantes foram feitas na sua etapa surrealista que compreenderia aproximadamente de 1929 até 1937. Nesse período realizou com Luis B...

  18. LiDAR observations of an Earth magmatic plumbing system as an analog for Venus and Mars distributed volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jacob; Connor, Charles; Malservisi, Rocco; Bleacher, Jacob; Connor, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Clusters of tens to thousands of small volcanoes (diameters generally system of these clusters can constrain magma ascent processes as well as the regional magma production budget and heat flux beneath each cluster. Unfortunately, directly observing the plumbing systems of volcano clusters on Mars and Venus eludes our current geologic abilities. Because erosion exposes such systems at the Earth's surface, a better understanding of magmatic processes and migration can be achieved via field analysis. The terrestrial plumbing system of an eroded volcanic field may be a valuable planetary analog for Venus and Mars clusters. The magmatic plumbing system of a Pliocene-aged monogenetic volcanic field, emplaced at 0.8 km depth, is currently exposed as a sill and dike swarm in the San Rafael Desert of Central Utah, USA. The mafic bodies in this region intruded into Mesozoic sedimentary units and now make up the most erosion resistant units as sills, dikes, and plug-like conduits. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) can identify volcanic units (sills, dikes, and conduits) at high resolution, both geomorphologically and with near infrared return intensity values. Two Terrestrial LiDAR Surveys and an Airborne LiDAR Survey have been carried out over the San Rafael volcanic swarm, producing a three dimensional point cloud over approximately 36 sq. km. From the point clouds of these surveys, 1-meter DEMs are produced and volcanic intrusions have been mapped. Here we present reconstructions of the volcanic instrusions of the San Rafael Swarm. We create this reconstruction by extrapolating mapped intrustions from the LiDAR surveys into a 3D space around the current surface. We compare the estimated intrusive volume to the estimated conduit density and estimates of extrusive volume at volcano clusters of similar density. The extrapolated reconstruction and conduit mapping provide a first-order estimate of the final intrustive/extrusive volume ratio for the now eroded volcanic field

  19. Expressão da tristeza em camada popular urbana de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil The expression of sadness in a working class bairro in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Lívia Alessandra F. da Costa

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina as peculiaridades da expressão da emoção em um bairro popular de Salvador, Bahia, o Nordeste de Amaralina. Focalizando nossa exploração na expressão da tristeza, tentamos construir um esquema que possibilite a compreensão de como os informantes percebem, identificam e lidam com esta emoção no curso de suas vidas cotidianas. Perseguindo este objetivo, construímos uma rede semântica que revela a existência de três agrupamentos principais de expressão emocional: um grupo "interior", um "corporal" e outro "interativo". Observamos também as superposições entre o universo da expressão emocional e o conceito de pessoa local.This paper examines the peculiarities of the expression of emotion in a poor neighborhood from Northeastern Brazil, the bairro of Nordeste de Amaralina, in Salvador, Bahia. Focusing on the expression of sadness, we built a scheme in which to understand how the informants perceive, identify, and deal with this emotion in the course of their daily lives. We attempted to reach an understanding of the wavs people in the bairro interpret sadness. In order to accomplish this goal. we built a semantic network which revealed three main clusters of emotional expression: the inner set, the bodily set, and the interactional set. We came to realize the various superpositions benween the universe of emotional expression and the local concept of person.

  20. Uma nota sobre ilusionismos e alegorias na pintura barroca de Salvador da Bahia A Note on Illusionism and Allegory in the Baroque Painting of Salvador, Bahia

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    Luís de Moura Sobral

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As principais tendências da pintura no Brasil colonial podem ser estudadas na Catedral de Salvador, a igreja do antigo Colégio da Companhia de Jesus. Datando dos finais do século XVII, várias séries de quadros de qualidade diversa, compõem com as esculturas dos altares um soberbo e complexo bel composto de propaganda inaciana. Para decorar o forro da Biblioteca, por cima da sacristia, os Jesuítas encomendaram cerca de 1735-1736 uma monumental quadratura ao pintor português António Simões Ribeiro (?-1755. A pintura é estudada em função da tradição de decoração das bibliotecas durante a época moderna. Para além da quadratura, Simões Ribeiro introduziu na arte brasileira as figuras alegóricas, tornando-se assim o primeiro pintor brasileiro verdadeiramente barroco e o criador da chamada Escola Bahiana.The main trends of the painting in colonial Brazil can be studied in the Cathedral of Salvador, Bahia, the church of the former Jesuit College. Dating from the late 17th Century, several cycles of paintings on the walls and the ceiling of the sacristy, of varying quality, accomplish particular symbolic functions; in conjunction with the sculpture of the altars, they compose a complex bel composto of Jesuit propaganda. To decorate the ceiling of their Library, above the sacristy, the Jesuits commissioned around 1735-1736 a huge quadratura from the Portuguese born painter António Simões Ribeiro (?-1755. This painting is discussed within the tradition of Library decoration in the Modern period. Besides the quadratura, Simões Ribeiro introduced in the Brazilian art the allegorical figures and became the first full-Baroque painter in Brazil and the initiator of the so-called Bahian School.

  1. Geochemistry of modern sediments from San Quintín coastal lagoon, Baja California: Implication for provenance

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Walter Daesslé; Gabriel Rendón-Márquez; Víctor F. Camacho-Ibar; Efraín A. Gutiérrez-Galindo; Evgueny Shumilin; Eduardo Ortiz-Campos

    2009-01-01

    A detailed regional grid of 97 surficial sediment samples is studied for the San Quintín coastal lagoon, which is a shallow embayment located adjacent to a “regionally-rare” intraplate-type basaltic terrain known as San Quintín volcanic fi eld. The infl uence that this unique lithology and other potencial sources have on the recent sediment geochemistry is discussed on the basis of geochemical, petrographic and sedimentological results. The sandy silts and silts in the lagoon are enriched in ...

  2. Source mechanisms of volcanic tsunamis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Raphaël

    2015-10-28

    Volcanic tsunamis are generated by a variety of mechanisms, including volcano-tectonic earthquakes, slope instabilities, pyroclastic flows, underwater explosions, shock waves and caldera collapse. In this review, we focus on the lessons that can be learnt from past events and address the influence of parameters such as volume flux of mass flows, explosion energy or duration of caldera collapse on tsunami generation. The diversity of waves in terms of amplitude, period, form, dispersion, etc. poses difficulties for integration and harmonization of sources to be used for numerical models and probabilistic tsunami hazard maps. In many cases, monitoring and warning of volcanic tsunamis remain challenging (further technical and scientific developments being necessary) and must be coupled with policies of population preparedness. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Anomalous diffusion of volcanic earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Sumiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic seismicity at Mt. Etna is studied. It is found that the associated stochastic process exhibits a subdiffusive phenomenon. The jump probability distribution well obeys an exponential law, whereas the waiting-time distribution follows a power law in a wide range. Although these results would seem to suggest that the phenomenon could be described by temporally-fractional kinetic theory based on the viewpoint of continuous-time random walks, the exponent of the power-law waiting-time distribution actually lies outside of the range allowed in the theory. In addition, there exists the aging phenomenon in the event-time averaged mean squared displacement, in contrast to the picture of fractional Brownian motion. Comments are also made on possible relevances of random walks on fractals as well as nonlinear kinetics. Thus, problems of volcanic seismicity are highly challenging for science of complex systems.

  4. Permian plate margin volcanism and tuffs in adjacent basins of west Gondwana: Age constraints and common characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gamundí, Oscar

    2006-12-01

    Increasing evidence of Permian volcanic activity along the South American portion of the Gondwana proto-Pacific margin has directed attention to its potential presence in the stratigraphic record of adjacent basins. In recent years, tuffaceous horizons have been identified in late Early Permian-through Middle Permian (280-260 Ma) sections of the Paraná Basin (Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay). Farther south and closer to the magmatic tract developed along the continental margin, in the San Rafael and Sauce Grande basins of Argentina, tuffs are present in the Early to Middle Permian section. This tuff-rich interval can be correlated with the appearance of widespread tuffs in the Karoo Basin. Although magmatic activity along the proto-Pacific plate margin was continuous during the Late Paleozoic, Choiyoi silicic volcanism along the Andean Cordillera and its equivalent in Patagonia peaked between the late Early Permian and Middle Permian, when extensive rhyolitic ignimbrites and consanguineous airborne tuffaceous material erupted in the northern Patagonian region. The San Rafael orogenic phase (SROP) interrupted sedimentation along the southwestern segment of the Gondwana margin (i.e., Frontal Cordillera, San Rafael Basin), induced cratonward thrusting (i.e., Ventana and Cape foldbelts), and triggered accelerated subsidence in the adjacent basins (Sauce Grande and Karoo) located inboard of the deformation front. This accelerated subsidence favored the preservation of tuffaceous horizons in the syntectonic successions. The age constraints and similarities in composition between the volcanics along the continental margin and the tuffaceous horizons in the San Rafael, Sauce Grande, Paraná, and Karoo basins strongly suggest a genetic linkage between the two episodes. Radiometric ages from tuffs in the San Rafael, Paraná, and Karoo basins indicate an intensely tuffaceous interval between 280 and 260 Ma.

  5. Risk behaviors and STI prevalence among people with HIV in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Bailey, G; Shah, N; Creswell, J; Guardado, M E; Nieto, A I; Estrada, M C; Cedillos, R; Pascale, J M; Monterroso, E

    2012-01-01

    To date, there are no studies from El Salvador among people with HIV to inform prevention programs. We conducted a study in El Salvador in 2008 among people with HIV using audio computer-assisted interviews on risk behaviors and access to health care. Blood was tested for syphilis and herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2). Active syphilis was defined as RPR titer ≥1:8. Genital specimens were tested for other sexually transmitted infections (STI) by PCR. We evaluated factors associated with unprotected sex with last stable partner of HIV-negative or unknown status among those reporting a stable partner. A total of 811 HIV-positive individuals participated: 413 men and 398 women. Prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea was low (≤1%), while prevalence of other STI was high: Mycoplasma genitalium (14%), syphilis (15% seropositivity, active syphilis 3%) and HSV-2 (85%). In multivariate analysis, disclosing HIV status to partner (OR 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1-0.3, p<0.001), participation in HIV support groups (OR 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.8, p=0.01), easy access to condoms (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9, p=0.04) were protective factors for unprotected sex. Reporting a casual partner in the last 12 months (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.5-8.5, p=0.004). and having an STI (OR 2.6, 95% CI:1.3-5.5, p=0.02) were associated with an increased odds of unprotected sex. Prevention interventions among HIV-positives in El Salvador should focus on increasing condom access, promoting HIV disclosure and couples testing and reducing the number of partners. The positive role of support groups should be used to enhance behavioral change.

  6. Interactions between Climate, Land Use and Vegetation Fire Occurrences in El Salvador

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    Dolors Armenteras

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation burning is a global environmental threat that results in local ecological, economic and social impacts but also has large-scale implications for global change. The burning is usually a result of interacting factors such as climate, land use and vegetation type. Despite its importance as a factor shaping ecological, economic and social processes, countries highly vulnerable to climate change in Central America, such as El Salvador, lack an assessment of this complex relationship. In this study we rely on remotely sensed measures of the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI and thermal anomaly detections by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor to identify vegetation cover changes and fire occurrences. We also use land use data and rainfall observations derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM data to determine the spatial and temporal variability and interactions of these factors. Our results indicate a highly marked seasonality of fire occurrence linked to the climatic variability with a peak of fire occurrences in 2004 and 2013. Low vegetation indices occurred in March–April, around two months after the driest period of the year (December–February, corresponding to months with high detection of fires. Spatially, 65.6% of the fires were recurrent and clustered in agriculture/cropland areas and within 1 km of roads (70% and only a 4.7% of fires detected were associated with forests. Remaining forests in El Salvador deserve more attention due to underestimated consequences of forest fires. The identification of these clear patterns can be used as a baseline to better shape management of fire regimes and support decision making in this country. Recommendations resulting from this work include focusing on fire risk models and agriculture fires and long-term ecological and economic consequences of those. Furthermore, El Salvador will need to include agricultural fires in the

  7. Disparities in HIV Screening among Pregnant Women – El Salvador, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Nieto Gómez, Ana I.; Dubón Abrego, María A.; Gagnier, Marielle C.; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To provide an accurate estimate of antenatal HIV screening and its determinants among pregnant women in El Salvador and help local authorities make informed decisions for targeted interventions around mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Methods A total sample of 4,730 women aged 15-49 years were interviewed from a random sample of 3,625 households. We collected data on antenatal care services, including HIV screening, during last pregnancy through a pre-established questionnaire. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to examine the association between HIV screening and sociodemographic and health care-related factors. Results A total of 2,929 women were included in this analysis. About 98% of participants reported receiving antenatal care, but only 83% of these reported being screened for HIV. Screening was lower in geographic areas with higher HIV incidence and ranged from 69.1% among women who were not seen by a physician during antenatal care, to 93.7% among those who attended or completed college. Odds for screening varied also by age, employment status, household economic expenditure, possession of health care coverage, health care settings, and number of antenatal care visits. Conclusions We found disparities in HIV screening during antenatal care at the environmental, social, demographic, and structural levels despite a high uptake of antenatal care in El Salvador. Our findings should urge health authorities to tailor and enhance current strategies implemented to eliminate MTCT and reduce inequities and HIV morbidity among women in El Salvador. PMID:24349356

  8. Salvador, un reto para las políticas de salud

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    Helen Larissa Centeno Monge

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En El Salvador, para el año 2003, la población de 15 a 24 años representa un poco más de un tercio de la población clasificada como en edad fértil. Los indicadores de salud reflejan una situación que demanda atención y acciones concretas hacia las necesidades de la salud reproductiva que afrontan los adolescentes. Según la Encuesta nacional de salud familiar realizada en 1998, el 48.8% de las mujeres menores de 24 años han tenido experiencia sexual, menos del 10% utilizaron algún método anticonceptivo en su primera relación y el 42% han tenido al menos un embarazo antes de los 24 años. Dado que los problemas de salud sexual y reproductiva fueron de los primeros en poner a la adolescencia en el tapete como sujeto prioritario de atención de la salud, la promoción de la salud del adolescente debe constituir uno de los principales objetivos de cualquier proyecto de desarrollo, tanto a nivel local como nacional. Al utilizar los datos de la FESAL–98 e información proporcionada por el Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social de El Salvador, se presentan en este artículo algunas cifras y reflexiones acerca de la situación referente a la salud sexual y reproductiva de las adolescentes salvadoreñas de 15 a 24 años y algunas acciones que se realizan al respecto. Se plantea el modelo de atención a los y las adolescentes implementado en el país y las principales implicaciones y retos que aun hay que atender.

  9. POBREZA URBANA E A FORMAÇÃO DE BAIRROS POPULARES EM SALVADOR NA LONGA DURAÇÃO

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro de Almeida Vasconcelos

    2006-01-01

    L´article comprend deux parties. La première discute le concept de la pauvreté, en particulier les notions de marginalité, underclass, exclusion et pauvreté urbaine. La situation des pauvres et la formation des quartiers populaires à Salvador, pendant la longue durée (1549-2005), sont analysées dans la deuxième partie, suivant une périodisation en huit étapes, conformément à mon livre sur les transformations et permanences à Salvador (2002).

  10. POBREZA URBANA E A FORMAÇÃO DE BAIRROS POPULARES EM SALVADOR NA LONGA DURAÇÃO

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    Pedro de Almeida Vasconcelos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available L´article comprend deux parties. La première discute le concept de la pauvreté, en particulier les notions de marginalité, underclass, exclusion et pauvreté urbaine. La situation des pauvres et la formation des quartiers populaires à Salvador, pendant la longue durée (1549-2005, sont analysées dans la deuxième partie, suivant une périodisation en huit étapes, conformément à mon livre sur les transformations et permanences à Salvador (2002.

  11. Decline in rotavirus hospitalizations and health care visits for childhood diarrhea following rotavirus vaccination in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Catherine; Armero Guardado, Julio A; Alberto, Patricia; Rodriguez Araujo, David S; Mena, Carlos; Cuellar, Elizabeth; Nolasco, Jenny Brenda; De Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Pastor, Desiree; Tate, Jacqueline E; Parashar, Umesh D; Patel, Manish M

    2011-01-01

    A recent postlicensure study from El Salvador showed that the monovalent rotavirus vaccine conferred 76% protection against rotavirus hospitalizations. We further examined the impact of rotavirus vaccination on the national burden of childhood diarrhea to help assess the total public health benefits of vaccination. We compared all-cause diarrhea and rotavirus-specific hospitalization rates during prevaccine year 2006, with postvaccine years 2008 and 2009 in children El Salvador. Important age-related changes in diarrheal incidence emphasize the need for ongoing rotavirus surveillance after vaccine introduction.

  12. With God's Help I Can Do It: Crack Users' Formal and Informal Recovery Experiences in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Bodnar, Gloria; Guevara, Carmen Eugenia; Rodriguez, Karla; De Mendoza, Lorena Rivas; Corbett, A. Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Crack use has increased dramatically in El Salvador in the last few decades. As with other developing countries with sudden onsets of drug problems, El Salvador has few medical staff trained in addictions treatment. Little research has examined drug users' attempts to reduce or abstain from drug use in countries where government-regulated formal medical treatment for drug addiction is scarce. This paper uses qualitative and quantitative data gathered from active crack users to explore their formal and informal strategies to reduce or abstain from drugs, and compares these with components of informal and formal treatment in developed countries. PMID:20735191

  13. With God's help i can do it: crack users? Formal and informal recovery experiences in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Bodnar, Gloria; Guevara, Carmen Eugenia; Rodriguez, Karla; De Mendoza, Lorena Rivas; Corbett, A Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Crack use has increased dramatically in El Salvador in the last few decades. As with other developing countries with sudden onsets of drug problems, El Salvador has few medical staff trained in addictions treatment. Little research has examined drug users? attempts to reduce or abstain from drug use in countries where government-regulated formal medical treatment for drug addiction is scarce. This paper uses qualitative and quantitative data gathered from active crack users to explore their formal and informal strategies to reduce or abstain from drugs, and compares these with components of informal and formal treatment in developed countries.

  14. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  15. COMPORTAMENTO ELEITORAL: RACIONALIDADE, IDENTIDADE E PERSONALISMO NO VOTO EM LULA DA SILVA EM SALVADOR

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    Janaína Xavier do Nascimento

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to address the process that culminated in the re-election of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in 2006. It is based on a case study carried out in the city of Salvador, Bahia, as well as on analysis of secondary data. We employed a qualitative methodology using data collected through focus groups. Our findings indicate that voters tended to act largely on the basis of rational, retrospective evaluation of government performance, but were also informed by identity issues and personalist tendencies.

  16. Atitude do cirurgião dentista frente ao atendimento de pacientes HIV positivos em salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, Robert Silva De

    2006-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atitude dos Cirurgiões Dentistas do município de Salvador-Ba, 2005 frente ao atendimento de pacientes portadores do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana (HIV); bem como o conhecimento destes profissionais acerca da probabilidade de contaminação e os cuidados primários após acidente com instrumento pérfuro-cortante. Tratou-se de um estudo de corte transversal envolvendo uma amostra probabilística de 230 profissionais selecionados a partir de listagem fornecida...

  17. Matar para vivir; las maras de El Salvador. Estudio de los principales factores

    OpenAIRE

    Quijano González, Almudena

    2014-01-01

    La violencia es uno de los grandes problemas sociales que afecta a la sociedad latinoamericana. En concreto, en El Salvador, requieren de especial atención las pandillas juveniles o maras al ser producto del fracaso de una sociedad voraz e injusta que crea las condiciones necesarias para empujar hacia ellas a los y las jóvenes. Éstos, a su vez, se destruyen socialmente a sí mismos y a sus comunidades. Por tanto, romper los círculos de la violencia demanda propuestas contrarias al modelo repre...

  18. El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-18

    America- United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR), by J. F. Hornbeck, CRS Report R40135, Mérida Initiative for Mexico and Central America: Funding and...January 27, 2009. 13 Ibid; Alberto Fajardo, “Funes quiere gobernar cerca Brasil y EEUU,” Reuters, March 16, 2009; “Presidente electo El Salvador...for Mexico and Central America, by Colleen W. Cook and Clare Ribando Seelke. 26 It is unclear how much bilateral and Mérida Initiative assistance

  19. Algunas consideraciones sobre el modelo de psicoterapia familiar de Salvador Minuchin

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Buzzoni, Ana María

    2011-01-01

    Teniendo en cuenta el titulo de la mesa autoconvocada " los padecimientos actuales y sus terapéuticas" este trabajo intentara presentar algunas nociones básicas que forman parte del modelo sistémico psicoterapéutico familiar propuesto en la actualidad por Salvador Minuchin. Este autor y psicoterapeuta sistémico, es atendiendo a familias con problemáticas de violencia, que intentará abordarlas, no justamente para dar las mismas respuestas que desde algunos organismos estatales se precipitan, c...

  20. EL DOCUMENTAL POLITICO EN EL SALVADOR: ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO CON CUBA Y VENEZUELA

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    Emperatriz Arreaza-Camero

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo el documental político en El Salvador: estudio comparativo con cuba y Venezuela, es conocer diferentes experiencias comunicacionales alternativas en situaciones coyunturales de especial significación en América Latina y el Caribe. En general, estas experiencias han tenido como principal propósito promover mayor conciencia y participación política en la población, así como defender los derechos humanos de los grupos subalternos, y/o unificar criterios en torno a proyectos políticos de liberación nacional.

  1. Los costos económicos de la violencia en El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos ACEVEDO

    2008-01-01

    RESUMEN: Este trabajo efectúa un ejercicio de cuantificación de los costos económicos asociados a las diversas manifestaciones y consecuencias de la situación de violencia prevaleciente en El Salvador, utilizando información para 2007. Tales costos son clasificados en cuatro grandes categorías: i) costos en salud; ii) costos institucionales (legales, judiciales y policiales); iii) costos preventivos en seguridad privada; y iv) pérdidas materiales. Los resultados de las estimaciones efectuadas...

  2. Intelectualidad y racismo en Guatemala y El Salvador a finales del siglo XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Urbina Gaitán, Chester

    2010-01-01

    Introducción. Guatemala. El Salvador. Hacia mediados del siglo XIX, en Europa, surge la moderna teoría racista articulada sobre obras antropológicas de clasificación del género humano a partir de los conceptos biológicos de “especie” y “raza”, desarrollados por los científicos desde el siglo XVIII. También tuvieron gran influencia los estudios que afirmaron la existencia de una supuesta raza aria y la teoría proveniente de los descubrimientos realizados por la lingüística del siglo XIX. En es...

  3. Crónica de la prensa salvadoreña: imaginarios que migran

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    Amparo Marroquín Parducci

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available EL ARTÍCULO PRESENTA UN ESTUDIO DE LAS NARRATIVAS QUE LA PRENSA escrita ha venido construyendo en El Salvador en torno al fenómeno de la migración. Se argumenta que a través del tema de la migración se construye una poética de nación imaginada, y conjuntamente, se da la construcción de las alteridades que desde el discurso oficial se han mantenido vigentes.

  4. Condições atuais da esquistossomose no "Dique do Tororó" em Salvador, Bahia

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    Ruth B. Amorim

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Os Autores apresentam os resultados de observações realizadas entre os anos de 1971 a 1974 sobre a incidência humana da esquistosomose no Dique do Tororó, em Salvador, Bahia, após alí terem sido realizadas melhorias pela engenhària sanitária e medidas de combate biológico ao caramujo vetor pelo uso de peixes predadores. Comparando com os resultados obtidos por outros Autores em 1960, concluem que o Dique do Tororó não mais representa uma importante fonte de propagação da esquistosomose.

  5. Influenza Illness among Case-Patients Hospitalized for Suspected Dengue, El Salvador, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Rafael; Clara, Alexey Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Armero, Julio; Lozano, Celina; El Omeiri, Nathalie; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the proportion of patients hospitalized for suspected dengue that tested positive for influenza virus in El Salvador during the 2012 influenza season. We tested specimens from 321 hospitalized patients: 198 patients with SARI and 123 patients with suspected dengue. Among 121 hospitalized suspected dengue (two co-infected excluded) patients, 28% tested positive for dengue and 19% positive for influenza; among 35 with suspected dengue and respiratory symptoms, 14% were positive for dengue and 39% positive for influenza. One percent presented co-infection between influenza and dengue. Clinicians should consider the diagnosis of influenza among patients with suspected dengue during the influenza season.

  6. Strategic Mapping of economic intelligence in the public sector of El Salvador

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    Mónica María Cerritos Ascencio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to focus on the implementation and development of economic intelligence as a tool for strategic decision making at the governmental level. Likewise, it is also expected that the identification of key players in economic intelligence will allow to create areas of complementarity and coordination to achieve common goals. The document contains a brief summary of economic intelligence today, a theoretical approach to implementation – as economic intelligence should be implemented by the Salvadoran public institutions – How is economic intelligence applied in the public arena, a critical analysis of its implementation in El Salvador – that involves contrasting the “should be” with implementation itself.

  7. La dolarización en El Salvador: implicaciones, ventajas y riesgos

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    David Ibarra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A fines del 2000 el gobierno salvadoreño tomó la decisión de dolarizar su economía de manera unilateral. El paso fundamental en esta dirección se dio en el mes de noviembre con la aprobación de la Ley de Integración Monetaria (LIM por la Asamblea Legislativa con fecha de vigencia del primero de enero de 2001. La LIM modificó radicalmente el marco legal del sistema financiero y monetario salvadoreño para permitir la plena utilización del dólar en todas las transacciones comerciales, financieras y contables en el país. De acuerdo con las autoridades salvadoreñas dicha reforma traerá importantes beneficios económicos al país, sobre todo en el largo plazo. El argumento central es que la integración monetaria unilateral conducirá a bajar la inflación hasta hacerla convergente con la de Estados Unidos y a abatir tanto el nivel como la volatilidad de las tasas de interés domésticas al reducir el riesgo cambiario y, en alguna medida, el riesgo país. Asimismo, fortalecerá al sistema financiero local, ayudará a su profundización y —muy importante— ampliará la oferta de crédito de largo plazo para fines de inversión. Dado que ha transcurrido poco tiempo de la puesta en vigor de la LIM y que, en principio, los beneficios de la dolarización se materializarían en el mediano y el largo plazo es prematuro intentar realizar una evaluación comprehensiva de sus efectos sobre la economía salvadoreña. Este trabajo pretende centrarse en examinar algunas de sus implicaciones principales, identificar ventajas y riesgos, así como elementos que indiquen su pertinencia.

  8. Alicia en el País de las Maravillas ilustrada por Salvador Dalí

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Esteban Zepeda Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    Se revisa la relación entre Las aventuras de Alicia en el País de las Maravillas, una de las obras más representativas del “sinsentido” inglés, escrita por Lewis Carroll, y uno de los más importantes exponentes del surrealismo, Salvador Dalí, quien la ilustró de una manera muy ingeniosa, a modo de experiencia complementaria, para conmemorar el centenario de la primera edición de dicha obra en francés.

  9. Comunicación insurgente y proceso revolucionario en El Salvador, 1970-1992

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A lo largo de esta tesis hemos abordado dos décadas de proceso revolucionario en El Salvador (1970-1992), deteniéndonos en el análisis de los proyectos comunicativos insurgentes surgidos en este período. Estos medios han sido puestos en diálogo con el desarrollo experimentado por las diferentes organizaciones en forma independiente (ERP, FPL, RN, PRTC y PCS) y en el marco unitario del FMLN. En este sentido, nuestro trabajo se ha orientado en dos direcciones: por un lado, a analizar el papel ...

  10. [Salvador Armendares: second generation Spanish refugee and pioneer of human genetics in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva Lozano, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an analysis of Dr. Salvador Armendares' exile and professional career, with the aim of exploring the relation between the intellectual contributions of the second generation of Spanish refugees in Mexico and the origins of medical genetics in that country. The thesis is that the emigration of European refugees due to political issues, where eugenic values were exalted, paradoxically facilitated the establishment of medical genetics in Mexico. Interpretation of cultural, political, and social factors contributes to the analysis, avoiding Eurocentric and expansionist narratives.

  11. Social Protection Systems in Latin America and the Caribbean: El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Martinez Franzoni; Diego Sánchez-Ancochea

    2015-01-01

    "Since the end of a civil war in 1992, El Salvador has embarked on important policy transformations. Despite volatile economic growth?6 per cent annually over the first half of the 1990s and 3 per cent since then?social policy has grown in prominence. Public social spending grew from 8 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 1998 to 13 per cent in 2009 and from USD191 per capita to USD382 per capita over the same period. Having grown 3.2 percentage points, more than any other sector, soci...

  12. Indicadores de recursos humanos en ciencia y tecnología; El Salvador 1999-2007.

    OpenAIRE

    Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT); Marroquín, William E.; Alegría, José Roberto; Alens, Doris Salinas de; Ledesma, Sonia Montoya de

    2009-01-01

    El Indicador de Recursos Humanos en Ciencia y Tecnología; El Salvador 1999-2007 analiza por medio de datos estadísticos el siguiente contenido: 1. Oferta Educativa de Educación Superior, 2. Espacios de Infraestructura en la Educación Superior, 3.Cobertura Matricular por las Instituciones de Educación Superior, 4.Estudiantes Inscritos en Educación Superior, 5.Estudiantes Extranjeros en el Sistema de Educación Superior, 6.Graduados en Educación Superior, 7.Evolución de Graduados en Educaci...

  13. Submarine volcanoes along the Aegean volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomikou, Paraskevi; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Alexandri, Matina; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Rousakis, Grigoris

    2013-06-01

    The Aegean volcanic arc has been investigated along its offshore areas and several submarine volcanic outcrops have been discovered in the last 25 years of research. The basic data including swath bathymetric maps, air-gun profiles, underwater photos and samples analysis have been presented along the four main volcanic groups of the arc. The description concerns: (i) Paphsanias submarine volcano in the Methana group, (ii) three volcanic domes to the east of Antimilos Volcano and hydrothermal activity in southeast Milos in the Milos group, (iii) three volcanic domes east of Christiana and a chain of about twenty volcanic domes and craters in the Kolumbo zone northeast of Santorini in the Santorini group and (iv) several volcanic domes and a volcanic caldera together with very deep slopes of several volcanic islands in the Nisyros group. The tectonic structure of the volcanic centers is described and related to the geometry of the arc and the neotectonic graben structures that usually host them. The NE-SW direction is dominant in the Santorini and Nisyros volcanic groups, located at the eastern part of the arc, where strike-slip is also present, whereas NW-SE direction dominates in Milos and Methana at the western part, where co-existence of E-W disrupting normal faults is observed. The volcanic relief reaches 1100-1200 m in most cases. This is produced from the outcrops of the volcanic centers emerging usually at 400-600 m depth and ending either below sea level or at high altitudes of 600-700 m on the islands. Hydrothermal activity at relatively high temperatures observed in Kolumbo is remarkable whereas low temperature phenomena have been detected in the Santorini caldera around Kameni islands and in the area southeast of Milos. In Methana and Nisyros, hydrothermal activity seems to be limited in the coastal areas without other offshore manifestations.

  14. Preliminary isostatic gravity map of the Sonoma volcanic field and vicinity, Sonoma and Napa Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Roberts, C.W.; McCabe, C.A.; McPhee, D.K.; Tilden, J.E.; Jachens, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    This isostatic residual gravity map is part of a three-dimensional mapping effort focused on the subsurface distribution of rocks of the Sonoma volcanic field in Napa and Sonoma counties, northern California. This map will serve as a basis for modeling the shapes of basins beneath the Santa Rosa Plain and Napa and Sonoma Valleys, and for determining the location and geometry of faults within the area. Local spatial variations in the Earth's gravity field (after accounting for variations caused by elevation, terrain, and deep crustal structure explained below) reflect the distribution of densities in the mid to upper crust. Densities often can be related to rock type, and abrupt spatial changes in density commonly mark lithologic boundaries. High-density basement rocks exposed within the northern San Francisco Bay area include those of the Mesozoic Franciscan Complex and Great Valley Sequence present in the mountainous areas of the quadrangle. Alluvial sediment and Tertiary sedimentary rocks are characterized by low densities. However, with increasing depth of burial and age, the densities of these rocks may become indistinguishable from those of basement rocks. Tertiary volcanic rocks are characterized by a wide range in densities, but, on average, are less dense than the Mesozoic basement rocks. Isostatic residual gravity values within the map area range from about -41 mGal over San Pablo Bay to about 11 mGal near Greeg Mountain 10 km east of St. Helena. Steep linear gravity gradients are coincident with the traces of several Quaternary strike-slip faults, most notably along the West Napa fault bounding the west side of Napa Valley, the projection of the Hayward fault in San Pablo Bay, the Maacama Fault, and the Rodgers Creek fault in the vicinity of Santa Rosa. These gradients result from juxtaposing dense basement rocks against thick Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks.

  15. Algumas características do setor privado de saúde de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Ligia Maria Vieira da

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de descrever algumas características dos serviços de saúde privados do Município de Salvador, foi realizado inquérito envolvendo 174 estabelecimentos cadastrados no IBGE. Foram investigados a natureza jurídica, a capacidade instalada ambulatorial e hospitalar, a produção e o custo das consultas médicas segundo modalidades de financiamento público e privado. As diferentes formas de assistência médica supletiva são a principal fonte de financiamento da assistência ambulatorial, e 51,1% das unidades investigadas são independentes dos recursos públicos oriundos do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. Os convênios-empresa e o seguro saúde stricto sensu participaram de forma moderada e elevada do financiamento das consultas médicas, em 54% e 41,9% dos serviços respectivamente. Os autores discutem o significado das modificações verificadas no segmento privado da atenção à saúde de Salvador, bem como as implicações desses achados no que diz respeito ao redimensionamento das estratégias de reorganização das práticas e serviços de saúde no País e de relacionamento entre o público e o privado.

  16. Salvador-warts-hippo signaling promotes Drosophila posterior follicle cell maturation downstream of notch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polesello, Cédric; Tapon, Nicolas

    2007-11-06

    The Salvador Warts Hippo (SWH) network limits tissue size in Drosophila and vertebrates [1]. Decreased SWH pathway activity gives rise to excess proliferation and reduced apoptosis. The core of the SWH network is composed of two serine/threonine kinases Hippo (Hpo) and Warts (Wts), the scaffold proteins Salvador (Sav) and Mats, and the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie (Yki) [1]. Two band 4.1 related proteins, Merlin (Mer) and Expanded (Ex), have been proposed to act upstream of Hpo, which in turn activates Wts ([1] for review). Wts phosphorylates and inhibits Yki, repressing the expression of Yki target genes [2-4]. Recently, several planar cell polarity (PCP) genes have been implicated in the SWH network in growth control [5-8]. Here, we show that, during oogenesis, the core components of the SWH network are required in posterior follicle cells (PFCs) competent to receive the Gurken (Grk)/TGFalpha signal emitted by the oocyte to control body axis formation. Our results suggest that the SWH network controls the expression of Hindsight, the downstream effector of Notch, required for follicle cell mitotic cycle-endocycle switch. The PCP members of the SWH network are not involved in this process, indicating that signaling upstream of Hpo varies according to developmental context.

  17. Diáspora salvadoreña: identidades y mapas culturales en el ciberespacio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Benítez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available EL FENÓMENO DE LA MIGRACIÓN INTERNACIONAL PLANTEA NUEVOS desafíos de investigación al campo académico de la comunicación. En esta perspectiva, algunos estudios de comunicación han analizado el papel de los medios de comunicación y sus narrativas mediáticas sobre la migración, la construcción de imaginarios sociales acerca de la experiencia de emigrar, y la importancia de las nuevas tecnologías enlas prácticas cotidianas de los inmigrantes. En este contexto, este artículo explora algunos contenidos y formatos que grupos y comunidades migrantes salvadoreñas construyen desde sitios y páginas web, usos de medios de comunicación local y nacional accesibles desde el Internet, y nuevas plataformas de redes sociales como los blogs, Myspace, Facebook, YouTube, entre otros. Por tanto, este artículo intenta dibujar algunos trazos de mapas culturales y expresiones de identidades colectivas que la diáspora salvadoreña construye día a día en el ciberespacio.

  18. A Segregação Residencial em Salvador no Contexto do Miolo da Cidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosali Braga Fernandes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata, de forma suscinta e sistemática, sobre os processos de segregação residencial ocorridos na cidade de Salvador. A profunda pesquisa, desenvolvida ao longo da última década, aponta que a eferida forma de crescimento segregado se concretiza em várias áreas da cidade, mas que, no chamado Miolo, se manifesta de forma contundente, tanto por causa da área ocupada (cerca de 35% da superfície da cidade como pela população ali residente (mais de 30% do total soteropolitano. A população do Miolo cresce com taxas superiores às de Salvador, constituindo-se num grande eixo de expansão da cidade. A densificação prossegue,tornando necessárias ações estratégicas que contemplem as necessidades expressadas pela comunidade local e que se preocupem, também, com a qualidade de vida na região e em todaa cidade.

  19. Mother-to-Child Transmission of Chagas Disease in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasagawa, Emi; Aiga, Hirotsugu; Soriano, Edith Yanira Corado; Marroquín, Blanca Leticia Cuyuch; Ramírez, Marta Alicia Hernández; de Aguilar, Ana Vilma Guevara; Chévez, José Eduardo Romero; Hernández, Hector Manuel Ramos; Cedillos, Rafael Antonio; Misago, Chizuru; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the incidence (any mother to child) and rate (from seropositive mother to child) of mother-to-child transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, a serological census was conducted, targeting pregnant women and infants born to seropositive mothers, in four municipalities of El Salvador. Of 943 pregnant women, 36 (3.8%) were seropositive for T. cruzi. Of 36, 32 proceeded to serological tests of their infants when they became 6–8 months of age. Six infants seropositive at the age of 6–8 months further proceeded to second-stage serological test at the age of 9–16 months. As the result, one infant was congenitally infected. Thus, serological tests at the age of 6–8 months produced five false positives. To ensure earlier effective medication only for true positives, identification of seropositive infants at the age of 9–16 months is crucial. Incidence and rate of mother-to-child transmission were 0.14 (per 100 person-years) and 4.0%, respectively. Estimated number of children infected through mother-to-child transmission in El Salvador (170 per year) was much higher than that of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; seven per year). It is recommended that serological testing for T. cruzi be integrated into those for HIV and syphilis as part of antenatal care package. PMID:26123959

  20. Condições atuais da esquistossomose no "Dique do Tororó" em Salvador, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth B. Amorim

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Os Autores apresentam os resultados de observações realizadas entre os anos de 1971 a 1974 sobre a incidência humana da esquistosomose no Dique do Tororó, em Salvador, Bahia, após alí terem sido realizadas melhorias pela engenhària sanitária e medidas de combate biológico ao caramujo vetor pelo uso de peixes predadores. Comparando com os resultados obtidos por outros Autores em 1960, concluem que o Dique do Tororó não mais representa uma importante fonte de propagação da esquistosomose.The Authors present the results of observations made between 1971 and 1974 on the incidence of human infection by Schistosoma mansoni at the Dique do Tororó in Salvador, Bahia, foiiowing sanitary improvements and biological control of vector snails by introduction of predatory fishes in the lake. Comparing these results with those obtained by other Author in 1960, it is concluded that the Dique do Tororó is no longer an important focus of schistosomiasis.