WorldWideScience

Sample records for san salvador bahamas

  1. Comparisons of the 1995 and 1998 coral bleaching events on the patch reefs of San Salvador Island, Bahamas

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Thomas A.; Smith, Garriet W.

    2016-01-01

    Coral patch reefs around San Salvador Island, Bahamas have been monitored with the aid of Earthwatch volunteers three times a year since 1992. During that period two significant mass bleaching events occurred: autumn 1995, and late summer 1998. Elsewhere in 1995, bleaching was caused by higher-than-normal summer sea tempera-tures; in San Salvador, however, temperatures were normal. In 1998 a prolonged period of higher-than-normal sea temperatures preceded bleaching on San Salvador and worldwi...

  2. Amsterdam Expeditions to the West Indian Islands, Report 13. Marine sponges from an island cave on San Salvador Island, Bahamas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.; Sass, B. Daniel

    1981-01-01

    Dixon Hill Lighthouse Cave, about 800 m (0.5 miles) inshore on San Salvador Island, Bahamas, was found to hold populations of three sponge species new to science, viz. Pellina penicilliformis n. sp., Prosuberites geracei n. sp., and Cinachyra subterranea n. sp. The new species are described and

  3. Baseline physicochemical investigations on waters from three blue holes, San Salvador Island, Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Sampson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical parameters have been studied in the water column of Inkwell, Church, and Watling’s Blue Holes (San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Water samples were collected from multiple depths at the three blue holes to identify and characterize changes of physical and chemical parameters. The values were compared to the average ocean concentrations in order to assess how connectivity to the ocean, evaporation, freshwater input, and bacterial activity influence water rock interactions. The salinity concentrations vary between the surface and ~ -4 m in each blue hole before stabilizing to rather similar values (~19.6‰. Mixing processes in the water column at Inkwell and Church blue holes are inferred from changes in the concentration of chloride. The degree of variation is a mixed signal resulting from changes of the precipitation/evaporation balance and tidal driven water-rock interaction. Inkwell is strongly influenced by tidal pumping, which causes ample value fluctuations, most notably salinity (1.01 to 21.8‰, chloride (Cl- from 300 to 9591.8 mg/L, and total hardness (9 to 293 mg/L within the mixing zone. This location is the only site that may have a true halocline. Watlings’s geochemical parameters have the smallest range (i.e., salinity 30.19 - 34.30‰ due to a lack of mixing that suggests that this site has a direct conduit connection to the ocean. The furthest inland blue hole (Church lacks significant geochemical fluctuations with the exception of Cl-, which changes from 19600 mg/L to 1800 mg/L between the depths of 1 and 2 m. The abrupt modification of Cl- values between surface and -2 m suggests mixing is occurring. The lack of other parameter variations within the water column suggests restricted flow via narrow conduits or more likely matrix flow. Salinity values decrease from the surface (21.47‰ to ~ -1 m (17.78‰ whereas, sulfate (SO42- concentration at the same depth reach its maximum value (4009 mg/L. The high sulfate

  4. Testing cosmic dose rate models for ESR: Dating corals and molluscs on San Salvador, Bahamas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deely, A.E. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Blackwell, B.A.B., E-mail: bonnie.a.b.blackwell@williams.edu [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Dept. of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown MA, 01267-2692 (United States); Mylroie, J.E. [Dept. of Geosciences, Mississippi State University, MS, 39762-5448 (United States); Carew, J.L. [Dept. of Geology and Environmental Geosciences, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Blickstein, J.I.B. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Skinner, A.R. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Dept. of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown MA, 01267-2692 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Sealevel curves are best developed on tectonically stable coastlines, like San Salvador, where eolianites preserve transgressive and regressive phases associated with Quaternary high seastands, while reef facies mark the highstands. At 11 locations around San Salvador, terrestrial molluscs (Cerion) from the eolianites, lagoonal bivalves (Codakia), and corals from the highstand deposits were dated by ESR. Volumetrically averaged sedimentary dose rates were calculated from sedimentary geochemistry and time-averaged cosmic dose rates from each sample's current and past geologic contexts. Rice Bay Formation corals dated at 3.9 {+-} 0.3 to 7.1 {+-} 0.4 ka (OIS 1). Minimum ages for the Cockburn Town Member's regressive phase ranged from 49 {+-} 6 to 75 {+-} 8 ka, correlating with OIS 3-4. Codakia dates showed that an OIS 5a sealevel approached modern levels at 91-78 ka. In situ corals from the Cockburn Town Reef averaged from 127 {+-} 6 to 138 {+-} 10 ka, correlating well with OIS 5e. Ages from the Reef's rubble zones hint that some coral reefs grew as early as OIS 7, but were likely reworked during OIS 5. San Salvador preserves deposits from three mid to late Quaternary highstands above, and as many as three that closely approach, modern sealevel.

  5. Comparisons of the 1995 and 1998 coral bleaching events on the patch reefs of San Salvador Island, Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Thomas A; Smith, Garriet W

    2003-06-01

    Coral patch reefs around San Salvador Island, Bahamas have been monitored with the aid of Earthwatch volunteers three times a year since 1992. During that period two significant mass bleaching events occurred: autumn 1995, and late summer 1998. Elsewhere in 1995, bleaching was caused by higher-than-normal summer sea temperatures; in San Salvador, however, temperatures were normal. In 1998 a prolonged period of higher-than-normal sea temperatures preceded bleaching on San Salvador and worldwide. During the 1995 event, one of the monitored reefs had twice the percentage of coral colonies bleached as the other two. Bleaching was more evenly distributed among the reefs during the 1998 event. In 1995 Agaricia agaricites was significantly more affected than other coral species, with almost 50% of all its colonies showing bleaching. Bleaching was more evenly spread among coral species in 1998, with five species showing bleaching on more than 40% of their colonies. Bleaching began on Millepora as early as August during the 1998 event and progressed to other species through the remainder of the autumn. In 1995 bleaching was not seen until late autumn and appeared to impact all affected species at about the same time. Recovery from the 1995 event was complete: no coral death or damage above normal background levels were seen. In the 1998 event, all Acropora cervicornis on the monitored reefs died and A. palmata was severely damaged. Millepora sp. lost almost half of their live tissue, and Montastraea sp. showed significant tissue damage following this event. Phototransect analysis suggests that more than 20% of total live tissue on affected species died during the 1998 event. A. cervicornis has demonstrated no re-growth from 1998 to 2000 on monitored reefs. Monitoring has suggested significant differences in causes and courses in these two events.

  6. Habitat use patterns of the invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans: a comparison between mangrove and reef systems in San Salvador, Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimiento, Catalina; Nifong, James C.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Monaco, Eric; Silliman, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific red lionfish Pterois volitans is widespread both in its native and its non-native habitats. The rapid invasion of this top predator has had a marked negative effect on fish populations in the Western Atlantic and the Caribbean. It is now well documented that lionfish are invading many tropical and sub-tropical habitats. However, there are fewer data available on the change in lionfish abundance over time and the variation of body size and diet across habitats. A recent study in San Salvador, Bahamas, found body size differences between individuals from mangrove and reef systems. That study further suggested that ontogenetic investigation of habitat use patterns could help clarify whether lionfish are using the mangrove areas of San Salvador as nurseries. The aim of the present study is to determine temporal trends in lionfish relative abundance in mangrove and reef systems in San Salvador, and to further assess whether there is evidence suggesting an ontogenetic shift from mangroves to reef areas. Accordingly, we collected lionfish from mangrove and reef habitats and calculated catch per unit effort (a proxy for relative abundance), compared body size distributions across these two systems, and employed a combination of stable isotope, stomach content, and genetic analyses of prey, to evaluate differences in lionfish trophic interactions and habitat use patterns. Our results show that populations may have increased in San Salvador during the last 4 years, and that there is a strong similarity in body size between habitats, stark differences in prey items, and no apparent overlap in the use of habitat and/or food resources. These results suggest that there is not evidence an for ontogenetic shift from mangroves to reefs, and support other studies that propose lionfish are opportunistic forages with little movement across habitats.

  7. Fossilization of nanobes studied by transmission electron microscopy and constraints related to their population - recent and late quaternary reefbanks (San Salvador Island, the Bahamas; Heron Island, Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladil, J.; Gemperle, A.; Carew, J. L.; Bosak, P.; Slavik, L.; Pruner, P.; Charvatova, K.; Mylroie, J. E.; Jell, J. S.

    2003-04-01

    SEM analyses of rocks from Blow Hole Cave and The Gulf sections (San Salvador Island, Bahamas) found that ca 90-95% of peloids (and minor parts of other particles and cements) are substantially rebuilt into tiny corpuscles of ovoid, rotund cylindrical or slightly bent shapes (50-80 × 60-120 nm). About 20-30% of them form short and branched chains. These fabrics resemble `accumulations of ant eggs', have 40-60% fine porosity, correspond to better morpho-definitions of nanobes (cons. by R.L. Folk, 2002), and put a new light on micritization processes. The rocks strongly rebuilt by nanobes negatively correlate with magnetic susceptibility, but slightly contribute to NGR (uranium, gamma-ray spectrometry). In spite of strongly negative correlation to magnetic horizons, the nanobes are also present there, but to a lesser extent. The suspensions with nanobes (extracted by pump from the pores of rocks preserved in glutaraldehyde) exhibit a variety of preservation stages - from amorphous organics to completely fossilized corpuscles (studied by TEM). Early stages of fossilization are characterized by a gradually increasing amount of very fine crystalline inclusions, which are triangular to tetragonal in shape, and 3-15 nm long (mean size ˜ 6 nm). The TEM diffractograms provided data about face-centered cubic structures of B1 type (NaCl-like), with strongest 2nd and 3rd reflections on 0.240 and 0.170 nm and mean lattice parameter of 0.4813 nm. The substance was clearly identified as CaO. The difference to 0.4802 nm (ICDD data for pure CaO) is explained by effects of impurities Sr (+) > Fe, Mn (-). The number of CaO inclusions fluctuates from a few to 5 × 104 / μ {m3}. The CaO nucleation is possible in natural necrotic high-pH low-Eh organic coagulates; but presence of glutaraldehyde can facilitate the process. Other fossilization stages show unstable amorphous to crystalline calcium carbonate, homogeneous aragonite and calcite, and calcite replacing aragonite along sharp

  8. October 1986 San Salvador, El Salvador Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — At least 1,000 people killed, 10,000 injured, 200,000 homeless and severe damage in the San Salvador area. About 50 fatalities were the result of landslides in the...

  9. El origen de la identidad salvadoreña : etnicidad en la antigua Villa de San Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Definiciones de identidad y de etnicidad. Contacto, aculturación y conflicto. Etnicidad en la Villa de San salvador. Los españoles. Los nativos. Otros grupos étnicos. Un entorno político social hostil en el territorio donde fue establecido San Salvador. Dificultad en obtener bienes importados de España. UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLÓGICA DE EL SALVADOR.

  10. Actitudes lingüísticas de los hablantes de San Salvador, El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Rivera Orellana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de hablantes nativos de español de la ciudad de San Salvador hacia al español de El Salvador y el de los otros países hispanohablantes. El artículo es parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigación (RCN. La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando a una muestra de 400 personas estratificada con las variables de edad, sexo y nivel socioeconómico. Los estudios sobre actitudes lingüísticas en el país son escasos y este es el estudio que más dimensiones abarca respecto de cómo los salvadoreños que habitan en la capital se identifican con el idioma que hablan, cómo valoran o califican las formas de hablar de los habitantes de su entorno y cómo reaccionan ante formas de hablar el español en otros países, tanto de aquellos que conocen directamente como de otros con los cuales tienen una relación indirecta, principalmente a través de los medios de comunicación. Abstract This article analyzes the linguistic attitudes of native Spanish speakers from San Salvador towards Spanish spoken in El Salvador and in the other Spanish-speaking countries. It is a result of the LIAS-Project (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, funded by The Research Council of Norway (RCN. The data were gathered in the capital of the country, interviewing a stratified sample of 400 respondents, based on the variables of age, sex and socioeconomic status. Studies of linguistic attitudes are scarce in the country and this research study is the first one with a broad scope regarding how people living in the capital identify themselves with the way they speak; how they value or characterize the way people around them speak, and how they react to the way people speak Spanish in other countries that they know personally or through

  11. Religious Coping, Spirituality, and Substance Use and Abuse Among Youth in High-Risk Communities in San Salvador, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Olate, Rene; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between religious coping, spirituality, and substance use in developing nations such as El Salvador. Collected in 2011, the sample consists of 290 high-risk and gang-involved adolescents (11–17 years) and young adults (18–25 years) in San Salvador, El Salvador. Structural equation modeling and logistic regression are employed to examine the associations between the Measure of Religious Coping (RCOPE), the Intrinsic Spirituality Scale, and substance use and abuse. Results suggest that spirituality and, to a far lesser degree, religious coping may serve to protect for substance use and abuse among this high-risk population of Salvadoran youth. PMID:23647129

  12. Fluid geochemistry of the San Vicente geothermal field (El Salvador)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiuppa, A.; Carapezza, M.L.; Parello, F. [University of Palermo (Italy). Istituto di Mineralogia

    1997-02-01

    The volcano Chichontepeque (San Vicente) is one of the nine recent volcanoes making up the El Salvador sector of the WNW-ESE-trending active Central American volcanic belt. Thermal activity is at present reduced to a few thermal springs and fumaroles. The most important manifestations (Agua Agria and Los Infernillos Ciegos) are boiling springs and fumaroles located on the northern slope of the volcano (850 m a.s.l.) along two radial faults. The application of geothermometric and geobarometric methods to the gases and thermal waters suggests that both thermal areas are linked to the identified 1100-1300 m reservoir, whose temperature (250{sup o}C), lateral extension and chemical composition, as resulting from this study, are of interest for industrial development. (author)

  13. Chaparrastique (San Mighel) Volcano Eruptions since Dec. 29th, 2013, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hackert, B.; Bajo, J. V.; Escobar, D.; Gutierrez, E.

    2015-12-01

    The December 29th, 2013 eruption of Chaparrastique (San Miguel) volcano in El Salvador came as a surprise and was the first of several small eruptions in the past two years. They came after many years of preceeding earthquake swarms and significant degassing. Being the second volcano to erupt in El Salvador in less than ten years, it caused grave concern for the population of the country. Although they were not large eruptions (VEI 2), the materials were widespread and caused deposits of volcanic tephra as far at the capital San Salvador and closed the airports in the vecinity for a couple of days. This is a summary of the research, mitigation and services that were done days after the first eruption on December 29, 2013 and the follwing months. In conjunction with the team of the Direccion General del Observatorio Ambiental from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales possible first response strategies were discussed and decided to obtain results that could be quickly put in place to mitigate and decide on actions such as evacuations or relocations of people living in volcano related high-risk hazard areas. Collection of samples, mapping and measurements of the volcanic tephra in the field together with Digital Globe and areal photography after the event, allowed identification of four different volcanic products that can be correlated to the opening of the vent and ending in the eruption of juvenile materials of basaltic to trachybasaltic composition, and the production of a lahar hazard map based on LaharZ.

  14. LA LOCALIDAD HISTÓRICO ARQUEOLÓGICA DEL RÍO SAN SALVADOR (SORIANO, URUGUAY The historical archaeological town of Rio San Salvador (Soriano, Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José López Mazz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los primeros cronistas de la conquista del Río de la Plata expusieron la diversidad cultural reinante en el área en el siglo XVI. Las investigaciones arqueológicas de los años 60 y 70 confirman, a nivel arqueológico, la intensa ocupación de la que fue objeto esta zona próxima a la confluencia del río Paraná con el río Uruguay. Este trabajo presenta información producida durante un trabajo de diagnóstico realizado en el marco de la llamada Arqueología Pública, en un sitio de ocupación española del siglo XVI ubicado al oriente de dicha confluencia. Los resultados muestran que la ocupación del sitio desde el año 1000 AP está caracterizada por una amplia diversidad de estilos cerámicos. El área constituyó un lugar estratégico para los asentamientos europeos en función de la presencia de redes de intercambio pre existente. La información producida permite afinar la secuencia cronológica prehistórica para el bajo río Uruguay, al tiempo que abre el debate  respecto de la dinámica etnohistórica regional y del rol jugado por este particular asentamiento humano.   Palabras claves: asentamientos europeos, Uruguay, río San Salvador, siglo XVI.    Abstract Early chroniclers of the conquest of the Río de la Plata exposed the cultural diversity prevailing in the area in the sixteenth century. Archaeological research during the 60’s and 70’s confirm an intense occupation of the confluence of the Paraná river and the Uruguay river area. This paper presents information recovered during a diagnostic fieldwork developed on a Spanish settlement from the sixteenth century. The results show an intense occupation of the site since 1000 AP, characterized by a wide variety of ceramic styles. The area was a strategic location for European occupation due to the presence of preexisting exchange networks. Information produced refines prehistoric chronological sequence for lower Uruguay river while opening the discussion about regional

  15. Heráldica del condado: San Salvador de Leirado y Santa María de Oleiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez Cruces, Plácido

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Is question of a genealogyc and heraldry studio some noble houses to exist in the parish of St. Salvador de Leirado and Sta. Maria de Oleiros of Salvaterra de Miño in the south of the province of Pontevedra.

    Se trata de un estudio genealógico y heráldico de varias casas nobles existentes en las parroquias de San Salvador de Leirado y Santa María de Oleiros, pertenecientes al Ayuntamiento de Salvaterra de Miño, en el sur de la provincia de Pontevedra.

  16. Sociocultural construction of San Salvador de Jujuy, the symbolic border between Argentina and Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Gaona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The city of San Salvador de Jujuy is analyzed both as a border space and as a city space. Through the systematization of local studies, the aim is to consider the historical, political, socioeconomic, migratory and symbolic elements that create the urban border experience. This contribution focuses on reconstructing the city as a network of senses. It deepens our understanding of migratory flows, the recent political situation, the impact of economic inequality on urbanisms, and the relevance of media and ritual acts in the configuration of dominant senses in cities. In addition, the factors that demarcate the difference and local inequality and the process of peripheralization and impoverishment of the soil are examined. Both the recent political conflicts that affect regional disarticulation and the symbolic disputes that cause tension in national belonging against a strong Andean influence are outlined.

  17. Elementos afrodescendientes en la religiosidad popular : el caso de San Benito de Palermo en el oriente de El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Erquicia Cruz, José Heriberto

    2011-01-01

    Numerosos elementos culturales, en El Salvador, tienen su origen en un pasado que poco a poco se va revelando, tal es el caso del culto a san Benito de Palermo que se encuentra en la zona oriental del país. Esta región, desde la época colonial estuvo conformada por diversas comunidades étnicas que le dieron forma a muchas expresiones que se practican hoy en día. Esta investigación, denominada Elementos afrodescendientes en la religiosidad popular. El caso de san Benito de Palermo en el ...

  18. REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION AND GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN A YOUNG "SPECIES FLOCK" OF PUPFISHES (CYPRINODON SP.) FROM SAN SALVADOR ISLAND, BAHAMAS

    OpenAIRE

    Bunt, Thomas Michael

    2001-01-01

    The study of the process of speciation is instrumental to understanding the species diversity observed today. Diverging populations are intriguing, because speciation has not reached an endpoint, yet the process that may eventually lead to distinct species can be studied. Systems that contain many putative species and/or parallel divergences, such as many species flocks and species pairs, are extraordinary examples of divergence and therefore are critical to the understanding of the speciat...

  19. Estilos de Liderazgo Directivo y adecuado Desempeño Docente en Centros Educativos Maristas de San Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa Ayala, María Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Esta investigación tiene como objetivo determinar los estilos de liderazgo que poseen los directivos en los centros educativos maristas de San Salvador y cuáles de esos estilos se relacionan más con el adecuado desempeño docente. Para alcanzar este objetivo, los involucrados en el proceso reconocieron el estilo de liderazgo tradicional ejercido por los directivos e identificaron los nuevos estilos de liderazgo educativo que más se relacionan con el adecuado desempeño docente en los centro...

  20. Evidence of the negative effect of sexual minority stigma on HIV testing among MSM and transgender women in San Salvador, El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Hembling, John; Guardado, Maria Elena; de Maria Hernández, Flor; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Melendez, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    A cross sectional survey was administered to 670 men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in San Salvador through respondent driven sampling to identify determinants of ever testing for HIV using a minority stress framework. A positive association was found between ever testing and older age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.10], past experience of sexual assault (aOR 2.92), perceiving that most social acquaintances had tested (aOR 1.81), and knowing a PLHIV (aOR 1.94). A negative association was found between homelessness and ever testing (aOR 0.43). Among the MSM sub-sample (n = 506), similar results were found for older age (aOR 2.63), and past experience of sexual assault (aOR 2.56). Internalized homonegativity was negatively associated with ever testing for HIV among MSM (aOR 0.46), and HIV testing stigma and experienced provider discrimination further strengthened this relationship. It is important to mitigate sexual minority stigma in order to increase HIV testing among MSM. Future research should explore this construct among TW.

  1. Emission of gas and atmospheric dispersion of SO2 during the December 2013 eruption at San Miguel volcano (El Salvador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Giuseppe G.; Granieri, Domenico; Liuzzo, Marco; La Spina, Alessandro; Giuffrida, Giovanni B.; Caltabiano, Tommaso; Giudice, Gaetano; Gutierrez, Eduardo; Montalvo, Francisco; Burton, Michael; Papale, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    San Miguel volcano, also known as Chaparrastique, is a basaltic volcano along the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). Volcanism is induced by the convergence of the Cocos Plate underneath the Caribbean Plate, along a 1200-km arc, extending from Guatemala to Costa Rica and parallel to the Central American Trench. The volcano is located in the eastern part of El Salvador, in proximity to the large communities of San Miguel, San Rafael Oriente, and San Jorge. Approximately 70,000 residents, mostly farmers, live around the crater and the city of San Miguel, the second largest city of El Salvador, ten km from the summit, has a population of ~180,000 inhabitants. The Pan-American and Coastal highways cross the north and south flanks of the volcano.San Miguel volcano has produced modest eruptions, with at least 28 VEI 1-2 events between 1699 and 1967 (datafrom Smithsonian Institution http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=343100). It is characterized by visible milddegassing from a summit vent and fumarole field, and by intermittent lava flows and Strombolian activity. Since the last vigorous fire fountaining of 1976, San Miguel has only experienced small steam explosions and gas emissions, minor ash fall and rock avalanches. On 29 December 2013 the volcano erupted producing an eruption that has been classified as VEI 2. While eruptions tend to be low-VEI, the presence of major routes and the dense population in the surrounding of the volcano increases the risk that weak explosions with gas and/or ash emission may pose. In this study, we present the first inventory of SO2, CO2, HCl, and HF emission rates on San Miguel volcano, and an analysis of the hazard from volcanogenic SO2 discharged before, during, and after the December 2013 eruption. SO2 was chosen as it is amongst the most critical volcanogenic pollutants, which may cause acute and chronicle disease to humans. Data were gathered by the geochemical monitoring network managed by the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente

  2. Los cumpleaños de San Simón. Etnografías salvadoreñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García Espada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos una serie de trabajos de campo, hechos desde la metodología de la observación participante, sobre fiestas y celebraciones relacionadas con el culto a San Simón en El Salvador entre los años 2011 y 2014. Nos ocuparemos, de la forma más descriptiva posible, de seis casos que mantienen entre sí sustanciales diferencias de forma y fondo y que, en su conjunto, prueban la extraordinaria maleabilidad de este culto, así como la imposibilidad de reducir su existencia y el extraordinario éxito de difusión experimentado en los últimos años a razonamientos simplistas y paternalistas como la pobreza, la ignorancia o la marginalidad.

  3. Structural factors influencing patterns of drug selling and use and HIV risk in the San Salvador metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2010-06-01

    This article explores differences in the social context in which crack sales and use and HIV risk take place in seven low-income communities in San Salvador, and structural factors that may influence these differences. The organization of drug selling varied among the communities on a number of dimensions including: whether drug sales were open or closed systems; the type of drug-selling site; and the participation of drug users in drug-distribution roles. Drug-use sites also varied according to whether crack was used in private, semiprivate, or public spaces, and whether individuals used drugs alone or with other drug users. Three patterns of drug use and selling were identified based on the dimensions outlined above. Structural factors that influenced these patterns included the geographic location of the communities, their physical layout, gang involvement in drug sales, and police surveillance. Implications for HIV risk and prevention are explored for each pattern.

  4. Three thousand years of flank and central vent eruptions of the San Salvador volcanic complex (El Salvador) and their effects on El Cambio archeological site: a review based on tephrostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrés, D.; Delgado Granados, H.; Hernández, W.; Pullinger, C.; Chávez, H.; Castillo Taracena, C. R.; Cañas-Dinarte, C.

    2011-09-01

    The volcanic events of the last 3,000 years at San Salvador volcanic complex are reviewed using detailed stratigraphic records exposed in new excavations between 2005 and 2007, at El Cambio archeological site (Zapotitán Valley, El Salvador), and in other outcrops on the northern and northwestern sectors of the complex. The sequences that overlie Tierra Blanca Joven (cal. 429 ± 107 ad), from the Ilopango caldera, comprise the Loma Caldera (cal. 590 ± 90 ad) and El Playón (1658-1671) deposits and the San Andrés Tuff (cal. 1031 ± 29 ad), related to El Boquerón Volcano. The surge deposits within the El Playón, San Andrés Tuff and overlying Talpetate II sequences indicate the significance of phreatomagmatic phases in both central vent and flank eruptions during the last 1,600 years. Newly identified volcanic deposits underlying Tierra Blanca Joven at El Cambio extend the stratigraphic record of the area to 3,000 years bp. Paleosols interstratified with those deposits contain cultural artifacts which could be associated with the Middle Preclassic period (900-400 bc). If correct, human occupation of the site during the Preclassic period was more intense than previously known and volcanic eruptions must have affected prehistoric settlements. The archeological findings provide information on how prehistoric populations dealt with volcanic hazards, thousands of years ago in the eastern Zapotitán Valley, where several housing projects are currently being developed. The new stratigraphic and volcanological data can be used as a basis for local and regional hazard assessment related to future secondary vent activity in the San Salvador Volcanic Complex.

  5. Explosive and Phreatomagmatic Activity from San Salvador Volcanic Complex (El Salvador) and Their Effects on El Cambio Archaeological Site: a Review of the Last 3000 yrs. Based on Volcanic Stratigraphy Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrés, D.; Delgado, H.; Pullinger, C.; Castillo, R.; Chávez, H. I.

    2007-05-01

    El Cambio archeological site (ECAS; Zapotitán Valley), 4 km NW from the San Salvador Volcanic Complex comprises 3000 yrs. of pyroclastic record. Sheets (1983) identified different levels rich in cultural remains intercalated within the volcanic deposits, indicating that different prehistoric settings were affected by San Salvador volcano eruptions, and giving information on the reoccupation frequency in the area. Accordingly, ECAS was occupied since the Late Pre-Classic period until before the last plinian eruption of Ilopango Caldera (425AD) reference, that originated the Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ), pyroclastic deposits generally used as key-layer in stratigraphic reconstructions. Within the next two centuries, there is no evidence of human occupation at ECAS until the end of Late Classic which was a period of maximum splendor in the valley. During this time the area was affected by at least 3 eruptions from the San Salvador volcanic complex that produced the: Laguna Caldera volcanic fall deposits (which affected Joya de Cerén archeological site in 625AD), "Talpetate" surge deposits or Toba de San Andrés (600-900AD), and fall deposits of El Playón volcano (1658). We report new data on volcanic stratigraphy and archeological history including the following: a) the phreatomagmatic nature of eruptions that affected the area, the new excavations allowed the detailed study of surge deposits indicating magma-water interaction at Laguna Caldera and El Playón, previously considered strombolian eruptions; b)document the occupation of ECAS during Middle Pre-Classic period, new surge deposits below TBJ have been identified (with Middle Pre-Classic artifacts and pottery), that had not been documented before, extending the historic record up to 3000 yrs. BP. and c) detailed study of the "Talpetate" deposits, this sequence consists of fall, pyroclastic flow and surge deposits, present in the rim and slopes of San Salvador Volcano, which can be correlated with surge deposits

  6. Comportamientos matrimoniales en migrantes bolivianos residentes en San Salvador de Jujuy : un análisis exploratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintana, Sonia B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde la Biodemografía, los datos relativos a las uniones conyugales son importantes, en razón de su influencia en la estructura genética de las poblaciones. En el estudio de las migraciones de origen boliviano hacia Argentina -desde diferentes disciplinas- se han caracterizado a aquéllas como altamente endogámicas. De allí que nuestro objetivo fue explorar -desde una perspectiva antropológica- las prácticas matrimoniales de bolivianos residentes en la ciudad de San Salvador de Jujuy; para lo cual recurrimos a entrevistas en profundidad realizadas en el marco del proyecto "Los procesos de construcción/reconstrucción de identidades sociales y culturales en espacios fronterizos". Encontramos 46% de uniones exógamas y 54% endógamas (24% constituidas en Argentina y 30 % en Bolivia; situación que no se correspondería con lo reportado para otras ciudades argentinas. Dinámica migratoria en espacios de frontera -como lo es Jujuy-, podría contribuir a la comprensión de lo hasta aquí observado.

  7. El Salvador’s Crime Prevention Policies - From Mano Dura to El Salvador Seguro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Cerén presenta Plan Quinquenal de Desarrollo “El Salvador Productivo, Educado, y Seguro,” El Salvador: Presidencia de La Republica, (San Salvador, El...93 “Presidente Sánchez Cerén Presenta Plan Quinquenal de Desarrollo ‘El Salvador Productivo, Educado Y Seguro,’” El...08- citizen-insecurity-casas-zamora. 66 Consejo Nacional de la Seguridad Ciudadano y Convivencia. Plan El Salvador Seguro. Presidencia de la

  8. Organización barrial Tupac Amaru en San Salvador de Jujuy: ¿Un movimiento social urbano?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Valeria Torres

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone revisitar la categoría movimientos sociales urbanos, enlazando con las concepciones posibles de ciudad que dicha categoría analítica puede asumir. Nos referimos, por un lado, a las interpretaciones que comprenden los movimientos sociales por su contexto de intervención: la ciudad o el campo, basándose en una concepción del espacio como escenario y “contenedor” de hechos y procesos sociales. Por otro lado, encontramos aproximaciones que identifican a los movimientos sociales urbanos por sus acciones colectivas conscientemente destinadas a modificar el papel de la ciudad en la sociedad, o a redefinir el significado histórico de lo “urbano”. En cualquier caso, se mantiene la distinción entre lo urbano y lo rural, que ha demostrado ser una dicotomía poco productiva para analizar procesos que, las más de las veces, se presentan como formas de hibridación entre ambas situaciones. Específicamente, me propongo analizar el caso de la Organización Barrial Tupac Amaru en la ciudad de San Salvador de Jujuy-Argentina, atendiendo a su identificación como un movimiento social urbano o no y las connotaciones que dicha caracterización podrían tener, en la búsqueda de comprender parte de la relación que puede plantearse entre ciudad, territorio, movimientos sociales y construcción de identidades.

  9. Importancia social, económica y ecológica de la producción en traspatio, en la comunidad de San Salvador Xiutetelco, Puebla.

    OpenAIRE

    González Ortiz, Floriberto

    2013-01-01

    El traspatio es considerado un agroecosistema y ha sido incluido en programas gubernamentales para tratar de reducir la pobreza e inseguridad alimentaria. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue analizar la importancia social, económica y ecológica que generan los traspatios que cultivan los Grupos Domésticos Campesinos (GDC) de San Salvador Xiutetelco, Puebla. Para generar información, se utilizó la técnica de la encuesta a 63 GDC, resultado de un muestreo probabilístico aleatorio de l...

  10. Social vulnerability as a contributing factor to disasters in Central America: A case study at San Vicente volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, L. J.; Henquinet, K. B.; Gierke, J. S.; Rose, W. I.

    2012-12-01

    El Salvador's geographic location on the Pacific Ring of Fire at the juncture of the Caribbean and Cocos plates exposes its population to various natural hazards, including volcanic eruptions (e.g., Santa Ana in 2005), earthquakes (e.g., January 13 and February 13, 2001), and landslides and flooding due to tropical rainfall events (e.g., Hurricane Mitch in 1998, Hurricane Stan in 2005). Such hazards can be devastating anywhere, but the condition of social vulnerability in which many Salvadorans currently live exacerbates the impacts of these hazards. Aspects contributing to most rural Salvadorans being marginalized include a colonial history marked by ethnic discrimination and laws prohibiting land ownership, lack of access to desirable land in an agrarian society, a poor education system, global economic policies that foster inequality, political marginalization, a bloody civil conflict, and rampant criminality and violence. In November 2009, an extreme rainfall event triggered landslides and lahars killing over 200 people at San Vicente volcano. This disaster brought to light weaknesses in disaster preparedness and response plans. Despite the existence of recent hazard maps and lahar inundation models (2001), and the occurrence of a similar, deadly event in 1934, the population appeared to be unaware of the risk, and lacked the organization and decision-making protocols to adequately deal with the emergency. Therefore, in the aftermath of the 2009 lahars, much of the focus on disaster risk reduction (DRR) initiatives has been aimed at the communities affected by this most recent event. Our study examines root causes of social vulnerability and assesses the apparent impacts of these interventions on the population, including individual's perceptions regarding these risk-reducing interventions. Two years after the event, though aid abounds, many people remain vulnerable to hazards in this area. Semi-structured interviews were completed with survivors of the 2009

  11. Proyectos, debates y críticas en torno a la vivienda obrera en el Noroeste argentino. San Salvador de Jujuy (1930-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerez, Marcelo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El presente artículo se inserta dentro del conjunto de estudios que analizan a la vivienda obrera en la Argentina. Tiene como objetivo examinar los diseños y programas habitacionales elaborados durante los años previos a la irrupción del primer peronismo en la ciudad capital de la provincia de Jujuy: San Salvador de Jujuy. En esta tarea se presta atención a los debates, críticas y revisiones en torno a los diversos proyectos de vivienda obrera en un distrito del Noroeste argentino. Asimismo se pretende destacar las líneas de encuentro y particularidades de estos programas en relación a lo acontecido en otros puntos del país. Abstract This article is inserted into a set of studies that analyze the workers' housing in Argentina. It aims to examine the designs and housing programs developed during the years before the emergence of the Peronismo in the capital city of the province of Jujuy: San Salvador de Jujuy. The attention is focused in the discussions and reviews around the different projects of working class houses in a district of the Northwestern Argentina. It also pretends to give importance to similar lines and particularities of these programs related to other areas of the country.

  12. Probing The Buried Remains of The Todos los Santos, City of San Salvador in Hoping Island with Shallow Subsurface Geophysics Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-fan; Chang, Pin-yu; Eugenio Borao Mateo, José

    2013-04-01

    The study in ancient sites with GPR is widely documented over several decades. This non-invasive geophysical method provides a rapid measure for anthropogenic objects and therefore serves as a guide for possible excavation for the next stage of archaeological surveys. City of San Salvador, which is a Dutch colonial city consisted of fortress, hospitals and churches in 17 century, is located in the Hoping Island in Keelung, Taiwan. The fortress and its affiliated structures were abandoned and left collapsing since the mid-17th century. Some relics of the fortress wall were still remained until the early 20th century but the fast development projects in the island has caused the relics demolished or buried under building or road pavements. Many wells and bones have been found around the area belong to over three hundred years ago. As a consequence, the government initiated a new excavation project at the parking lot where the ancient convent of Todos los Santos is believed since 2011 in order to find the remains of the convent in city of San Salvador. Meanwhile we have surveyed with GPR to help guiding the excavation location. In this case, we surveyed with wide-angle-refraction/reflection (WARR) of GPR as well as common-offset array, to compensate the defect of traditional common-offset of lack of longitudinal resolution with velocity profile, and the combination of velocity profile and common-offset data helped distinguish the signals from other noises and further located the position of subsurface structures. After data analysis and numerical modeling of the buried materials, we have located the possible remains of walls of the convent or other structures around 0.9 to 1.3 meters in depth that can offer useful information to better plan the archaeological excavations.

  13. African Journals Online: Bahamas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Faeroe Islands, Falkland Islands (Malvinas), Fiji, Finland, France, France, MEtropolitan, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern Territories, Gabon, Gambia, The, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greece, Greenland, Grenada, Guam, Guatemala ...

  14. De la parte de dentro o de la parte de fuera”: la capilla paralela de San Salvador de Sevilla a comienzos del siglo XVII (“From the part of inside or the part of outside”: the parallel music chapel of San Salvador of Seville in XVIIth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Bejarano Pellicer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este trabajo aborda el estudio de los orígenes de la capilla musical de la iglesia colegial de San Salvador de Sevilla, en relación con una capilla musical preexistente del mismo nombre, formada por músicos independientes, que continuó a su sombra y servicio hasta finales de siglo como mínimo. Para ello, se ha realizado una colaboración entre las fuentes institucionales y las notariales. Las preguntas giran en torno a su razón de ser, su relación con la capilla oficial y con el cabildo colegial, la medida en que se nutrió de sus miembros, la auxilió y le otorgó un acceso al mercado de los servicios musicales ocasionales, en el contexto de un período de apogeo de la demanda musical en Sevilla y su área de influencia.Abstract: This paper deals with the study of the origins of the music chapel of the collegiate church of San Salvador of Seville, in relation to a pre-existent music chapel, consisted of independent musicians, which continued in its shadow and service at least until the end of the century. With this purpose, a collaboration between institutional and notarial sources has been done. Questions revolve around its reason why, its relationship with the official chapel and the collegiate council, the extend that one nourished on the other one’s members, one helped the other one and gave it an access to the market of occasional musical services, in the context of a period of high point of musical demand in Seville and its influence area.

  15. The unrest of the San Miguel volcano (El Salvador, Central America): installation of the monitoring network and observed volcano-tectonic ground deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Hernandez, Douglas Antonio; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Handal, Louis; Polío, Cecilia; Rapisarda, Salvatore; Scarlato, Piergiorgio

    2016-08-01

    On 29 December 2013, the Chaparrastique volcano in El Salvador, close to the town of San Miguel, erupted suddenly with explosive force, forming a column more than 9 km high and projecting ballistic projectiles as far as 3 km away. Pyroclastic density currents flowed to the north-northwest side of the volcano, while tephras were dispersed northwest and north-northeast. This sudden eruption prompted the local Ministry of Environment to request cooperation with Italian scientists in order to improve the monitoring of the volcano during this unrest. A joint force, made up of an Italian team from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and a local team from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, was organized to enhance the volcanological, geophysical and geochemical monitoring system to study the evolution of the phenomenon during the crisis. The joint team quickly installed a multiparametric mobile network comprising seismic, geodetic and geochemical sensors (designed to cover all the volcano flanks from the lowest to the highest possible altitudes) and a thermal camera. To simplify the logistics for a rapid installation and for security reasons, some sensors were colocated into multiparametric stations. Here, we describe the prompt design and installation of the geodetic monitoring network, the processing and results. The installation of a new ground deformation network can be considered an important result by itself, while the detection of some crucial deforming areas is very significant information, useful for dealing with future threats and for further studies on this poorly monitored volcano.

  16. Sociodemographic and clinical profiles in leprosy patients in the Hospital San Salvador de Chiquinquirá, Boyacá, during 1951-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Buitrago

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to describe the sociodemographicand clinic profile of Hansen diseasecases attended at the Dermatologic outpatient’sdepartment of San Salvador Hospital from 1951to 1999 on the purpose of drawing up recommendationsto eliminate Leprosy as a publichealth problem in the country.A longitudinal descriptive study revieweda total amount of 302 clinic dossiers covering43 years of the programme.It was established that the patients’ profileregistered men, 39 average age, married, mostof them from rural areas of Boyacá, workingin agricultural tasks.The average time between the symptomsand the diagnostic was 5.4 years. 98.2% of thepatients showed prymary leprosy symptoms,most of them, neurologic and dermatologic.Multibacilar forms predominated in 15 yearsold patients with a diagnosis by baciloscopy andin the paucibacilar ones, by clinics. Monotherapywas the most used scheme, taken regularly.Men showed more disability in hands, –bothat the beginning and at the end of the treatment–,than the women. (Ji: 14.23 p: 0.0000.The average time between the diagnostic andthe treatment beginning was 9 days, while thetotal treatment average time spent 12.7 years.In 40% of the cases the denouement wasunknown, 26.8% were reported as healed and19.5% died.A young peasant with lepratosomic leprosytreated with monotherapy in long periods andhigher disability in hands is the profile of patientsin concordance with the sickness’ behaviorthroughout the world.

  17. ¡Queremos a Mano Santa!: actores y significados de una revuelta popular acontecida en 1929 en San Salvador de Jujuy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta Fleitas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo examina un acontecimiento histórico significativo, enmarcado en una sociedad en rápida transformación: la visita de un conocido curandero a San Salvador de Jujuy, que derivó en una revuelta popular el día 3 de diciembre de 1929. Se analizarán conjuntamente no sólo las ideologías que, en relación con este suceso, tuvieron una influencia en cuanto a la resolución de los problemas de salud-enfermedad sino también el grado de compromiso y las transacciones que los involucrados fueron capaces de lograr. Finalmente, se trata de interpretar la dinámica de este incidente dentro del contexto de ciertas configuraciones ideológicas y políticas de Jujuy en ese período histórico. El material investigado proviene de artículos periodísticos locales.

  18. Mineralogy and Microbial Diversity of the Microbialites in the Hypersaline Storr's Lake, the Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Varun G; Wronkiewicz, David J; Mormile, Melanie R; Foster, Jamie S

    2016-04-01

    Microbialites found in the low-light-intensity, hypersaline waters of Storr's Lake (SL), San Salvador Island, the Bahamas, were investigated with respect to their morphology, mineralogy, and microbial diversity. Previously described microbialite morphologies, as well as a newly identified "multi-cuspate" morphology, were observed at various depths. Electron microscopy analysis revealed the presence of angular, blocky, and needle-shaped crystals with mineralized cyanobacterial filaments and remains of exopolymeric substances. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the presence of both Mg-calcite and aragonite in the plateau-mushroom and pinnacle mound microbialites, whereas only Mg-calcite was identified in the other microbialite morphotypes. A comprehensive molecular analysis using barcoded pyrosequencing of five different microbial mat communities identified at least 12 dominant bacterial phyla. Cyanobacteria were generally low in abundance and ranged from ∼0.01% in the deeper pinnacle mounds to ∼3.2% in the shallow calcareous knobs. Other photosynthetic members included green nonsulfur bacteria of the phylum Chloroflexi and purple sulfur bacteria of the class Gammaproteobacteria. All mat types contained significant amounts of sulfate-reducing and dehalogenating bacteria. The low light intensity reaching the deeper microbialites, the lack of dominant cyanobacteria, and the abundance of sulfate reducers and Chloroflexi collectively suggest that sulfate reduction and anoxygenic photosynthetic processes influence the carbonate biomineralization process in these systems.

  19. Executions in The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lofquist, William Steele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The stories of those who have been executed in the Bahamas are heretofore untold. In telling these stories and in linking them to the changing course of Bahamian history, the present research adds an important dimension to our understanding of Bahamian history and politics. The major theme of this effort is that the changing practice of the death penalty is much more than a consequence of changes in crime. The use of the death penalty parallels the changing interests of colonial rulers, the changing practice of slavery, and the changing role of the Bahamas in colonial and regional affairs. Four distinctive eras of death penalty practice can be identified: (1 the slave era, where executions and commutations were used liberally and with a clear racial patterning; (2 a long era of stable colonialism, a period of marginalization and few executions; (3 an era of unstable colonialism characterized by intensive and efficient use of the death penalty; and (4 the current independence era of high murder rates and equally high impediments to the use of executions.

  20. Découverte de microfossiles au passage Dévonien Mississippien à San Salvador Patlanoaya (Puebla, Mexique): conséquences biogéographiques et géodynamiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachard, Daniel; Flores de Dios, Antonio

    2002-12-01

    Carbonate microfossils Petschoria (?), Kettnerammina, Kamaena, and Tolypammina (?) allow to biostratigraphically date the base of the sedimentary cover in San Salvador Patlanoaya (Puebla State, Mexico). They are indicative of the former Tournaisian, i.e. the Latest Devonian (Strunian) and the Earliest Mississippian Kinderhookian (= Hastarian). Deposits of this period are very poorly known in Mexico, and appear to be confined to a rift affecting only Patlanoaya, some areas of the Sonora and Chihuahua states (Mexico) and the Pedregosa Basin (New Mexico, USA). This rift is connected with the Rheic Ocean that opens, whereas the Antler Ocean is probably entirely closed in this period, as confirmed by the microfossil migration ways. To cite this article: D. Vachard, A. Flores de Dios, C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 1095-1101.

  1. El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Background notes on El Salvador capsulizes specific statistical and descriptive information on geography, demography, government. and economic conditions. The man text describes the people, their history and the nature of the peace process, principal government officials, political conditions, human rights, the state of the economy, foreign relations, and relations with the US. In 1992, the estimated population was about 5 million of which 89% are mestizo (Spanish-Indian), 10% Indian, and 1% Caucasian. 58% live in rural areas. It is largely Roman Catholic. Literacy is about 65% among adults. 6 years of education are compulsory. 40% are engaged in agriculture, 27% in services, and 16% in industry. The gross domestic product was $5.1 billion; per capita income was $1160. El Salvador's history has been marked by frequent revolutions. Almost every present since 1932 has been a military officer. In the more recent past (1969-80), Honduras and El Salvador fought over borders; a peace treaty was signed in 1980, but it was not until 1992 that the land in dispute was awarded by the International Court of Justice to Honduras. During the 1970, efforts by Duarte were made toward democratic reform, but fraud and corruption contributed to the rise of armed guerrilla warfare as a means to bring about change. There were rightist and leftists groups accelerating violence; event he Salvadoran armed forces engaged in lawlessness. The judicial system failed. Nicaragua after 1979 supplied arms and munitions to 5 guerrilla groups. Duarte returned to power and his junta initiated land reform and nationalized banks and marketing of coffee and sugar. The elections in 1982 led to the transfer of power to Alvaro Magana. The new constitution in 1983 appeased some, but land reforms still did not satisfy guerrillas. Duarte was elected again in 1984 and Alfredo Christiani in 1989 in a peaceful transfer of power. In 1991 and 1992 peace accords were signed with the guerrillas. During this 12-year

  2. Eleuthera Island, Bahamas seen from STS-66

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The striking views provided by the Bahama Islands lend insights into the important problems of limestone (CaCO3) production and transport. This photograph includes the southern part of Eleuthera Island in the northern Bahamas. The hook-shaped island encloses a relatively shallow platform (light blue) which is surrounded by deep water (dark blue). The feathery pattern along the western edge of Eleuthera's platform are sand bars and sand channels created by tidal currents sweeping on and off the platform. The channels serve to funnel large amounts of CaCO3 off the platform and into the deeper water.

  3. Mining in El Salvador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country.......In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country....

  4. AMBIENT NOISE STUDIES OFF BIMINI, BAHAMAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long periods of observations of ambient noise, wind speed and wind direction were made during 1962 in an area off Bimini in the Bahamas. Noise from...is described which will sequentially record ambient noise along with severaloceanographic parameters, automatically process this information, and

  5. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangelhoff, Christine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The cultural identity of the Bahamas owes much to its West African and British colonial heritages and to its physical proximity to the United States. A combination of African and European elements - rhyming spirituals, anthems, rushin' music at watch-night services, wake and setting-up songs; ringplays, fire dance, jump-in-dance, quadrille music (rake-‘n’-scrape music, goombay, and junkanoo - can be seen in musical traditions throughout the Caribbean, including art music.

  6. IDRC in El Salvador

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Grantee: Instituto de Estudios Comparados en Ciencias Penales de Guatemala. Central American countries report some of the highest homicide rates in the world. Organized crime is rampant, and trans- national gangs are among the region's most powerful institutions. Researchers mapping crime activity in El Salvador and ...

  7. HIV and STI control in El Salvador: results from an integrated behavioural survey among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Jacob; Guardado, Maria Elena; Lee, Janet; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Kim, Andrea A; Monterroso, Edgar; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2012-12-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STI), and risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM) in two cities in El Salvador. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to recruit MSM in the cities of San Salvador and San Miguel, El Salvador. Participants responded to questions about HIV risk behaviours; and blood, urine and anal swabs were collected. Blood samples were tested for herpes simplex type 2, syphilis and HIV infection. Urine and anal samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Mycoplasma genitalium. HIV-positive samples were tested with the BED capture enzyme immunoassay to distinguish recent from longstanding HIV infection. We estimated population-adjusted prevalence of behavioural variables, STI and HIV, and identified risk factors for HIV. The final sample included 596 and 195 MSM in San Salvador and San Miguel, respectively. Consistent condom use was low across all partner types as was recent HIV testing. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence was 10.8% (95% CI 7.4% to 14.7%) in San Salvador, and 8.8% (95% CI 4.2% to 14.5%) in San Miguel. The proportion of recent testing among HIV-positive samples was 20%. Prevalence of any bacterial STI by PRC testing was 12.7% (95% CI 8.2% to 17.5%) in San Salvador, and 9.6% (95% CI 4.9% to 15.4%) in San Miguel. We found a high prevalence of HIV, high levels of recent infection, and low condom usage. In El Salvador, targeted interventions towards MSM are needed to promote condom use, as well as to diagnose, treat and prevent HIV and other STIs.

  8. Acción colectiva, visibilidad y espacio público en la construcción de la ciudadanía. Los cortes de puentes de mayo del 97 en San Salvador de Jujuy

    OpenAIRE

    Lic. Alejandra García Vargas

    2000-01-01

    Salvador de Jujuy es la ciudad capital de la provincia de Jujuy, Argentina. En mayo de 1997, y paralelamente a cortes de rutas en todo el territorio provincial, parte de sus habitantes interrumpieron el tránsito sobre los puentes del río Chico o Xibi Xibi, que atraviesa la ciudad. Este trabajo propone analizar, a partir de entrevistas a participantes de los cortes y artículos de la prensa gráfica local, las características de esta acción colectiva y su vinculación con la construcción de la ci...

  9. Acción colectiva, visibilidad y espacio público en la construcción de la ciudadanía. Los cortes de puentes de mayo del 97 en San Salvador de Jujuy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Alejandra García Vargas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Salvador de Jujuy es la ciudad capital de la provincia de Jujuy, Argentina. En mayo de 1997, y paralelamente a cortes de rutas en todo el territorio provincial, parte de sus habitantes interrumpieron el tránsito sobre los puentes del río Chico o Xibi Xibi, que atraviesa la ciudad. Este trabajo propone analizar, a partir de entrevistas a participantes de los cortes y artículos de la prensa gráfica local, las características de esta acción colectiva y su vinculación con la construcción de la ciudadanía.

  10. null Izalco, El Salvador Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Izalco is a young stratovolcano on the south flank of Santa Ana Volcano in western El Salvador. Its continuous small explosive eruptions (beginning in 1770) caused...

  11. Gazetteer of El Salvador,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    ADM2 second-order administrative division (distrito) ADM3 third-order administrative division (municipio) BAR sandbar (deposit of waterborne materials...Botoncillal PPL 13󈧰’N 8921’W ES05 BL41 ND16-09 Hramadero: see El Bramadero PPL 13󈧺’N 88󈧈’W ES08 CL83 ND16-10 Brava , Punta [EL SALVADOR...CK69 ND16-10 Camulian PPL 14 17’N 8917 W ESll 6L58 ND16-05 Carla Brava PPL 13󈧫’N 89 08’W ESlO BL60 ND16-09 (’afiafistula PPL 13 45’N 88 35’W ES02

  12. FAIR-TRADE INDIGO IN EL SALVADOR INDIGO ÉQUITABLE AU ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    of her three children head over to the indigo planta- tion, where they clean and fertilize the crops. Jose and Santos Inocente are among the 18 fam- ilies of the San Lucas community—which is located about an hour's drive northwest of El Salvador's capital—who celebrated their first harvest of true in- digo leaves under fair ...

  13. On a collection of Decapod Crustacea from the Republic of El Salvador (Central America)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1954-01-01

    For about half a year (February-July, 1953) Dr. M. Boeseman, curator of Fishes of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, was the guest of the Instituto Tropical de Investigaciones Científicas at San Salvador. During this time Dr. Boeseman made extensive collections in numerous localities

  14. Bahamas Optical Turbulence Exercise (BOTEX): preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weilin; Jorosz, Ewa; Dalgleish, Fraser; Nootz, Gero; Woods, Sarah; Weidemann, Alan D.; Goode, Wesley; Vuorenkoski, Anni; Metzger, B.; Ramos, B.

    2012-06-01

    The Bahamas Optical Turbulence Exercise (BOTEX) was conducted in the coastal waters of Florida and the Bahamas from June 30 to July 12 2011, onboard the R/V FG Walton Smith. The primary objective of the BOTEX was to obtain field measurements of optical turbulence structures, in order to investigate the impacts of the naturally occurring turbulence on underwater imaging and optical beam propagation. In order to successfully image through optical turbulence structures in the water and examine their impacts on optical transmission, a high speed camera and targets (both active and passive) were mounted on a rigid frame to form the Image Measurement Assembly for Subsurface Turbulence (IMAST). To investigate the impacts on active imaging systems such as the laser line scan (LLS), the Telescoping Rigid Underwater Sensor Structure (TRUSS) was designed and implemented by Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute. The experiments were designed to determine the resolution limits of LLS systems as a function of turbulence induced beam wander at the target. The impact of natural turbulence structures on lidar backscatter waveforms was also examined, by means of a telescopic receiver and a short pulse transmitter, co-located, on a vertical profiling frame. To include a wide range of water types in terms of optical and physical conditions, data was collected from four different locations. . Impacts from optical turbulence were observed under both strong and weak physical structures. Turbulence measurements were made by two instruments, the Vertical Microstructure Profiler (VMP) and a 3D acoustical Doppler velocimeter with fast conductivity and temperature probes, in close proximity in the field. Subsequently these were mounted on the IMAST during moored deployments. The turbulence kinetic energy dissipation rate and the temperature dissipation rates were calculated from both setups in order to characterize the physical environments and their impacts. Beam deflection by multiple point

  15. Nuevas obras de Luis y José Salvador Carmona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro, Juan Nicolau

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Hace unos años publicábamos un artículo sobre un grupo de esculturas de José Salvador Carmona aún existentes o procedentes del convento de San Miguel de las Victorias de la villa de Priego en la provincia de Cuenca. Del conjunto existía una descripción del Padre Pedro Cruz Ocaña redactada antes de su dispersión y en el momento de realizar el trabajo nos encontramos con el hecho de que dos de las figuras del inventario no estaban en el pueblo y nada nos supieron decir sobre su paradero. En una visita a la Catedral de Cuenca tuvimos la sorpresa de encontrarlas en las dependencias del museo catedralicio. Las esculturas localizadas ahora son un San Pascual Bailón y un San Francisco de Asís recibiendo los estigmas....

  16. Educating Nurses at The College of The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia C. Ballance

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the first decade following Bahamian Independence in 1973, registered nurse education transformed from a professional training programme offered by the Ministry of Health’s Department of Nursing Education into an academic discipline offered at The College of The Bahamas. The College of The Bahamas began offering an Associate of Arts degree in Nursing in the early 80s, with its first class graduating at the 1986/87 commencement. The diploma and degree programmes operated in tandem, sharing a campus until the Ministry of Health nursing diploma programme was phased out. Its last graduation ceremony was held in 1993. The nursing programme offered by COB evolved from an Associate of Arts to an Associate of Science in Nursing degree and later, in the 2000s, to a Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree. This paper will trace the development of nurse education programmes in the Bahamas from their beginnings to date, highlighting the milestones and achievements.

  17. Microbial Signatures in Ooids from the Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, M. R.; Swart, P. K.; Devlin, Q.; Oehlert, A. M.; Saied, A.; Eberli, G. P.; Klaus, J. S.; Altabet, M.

    2013-12-01

    indicate that the genesis of ooids, marine cements, and carbonate muds in the supersaturated carbonate waters in the Bahamas are likely the product of intertwined abiotic and biotic factors.

  18. Carbonate slope morphology revealing bank-to-slope sediment transfer in Little Bahama Bank, Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Thierry; Gillet, Hervé; Hanquiez, Vincent; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Fauquembergue, Kelly; Conesa, Gilles; Principaud, Mélanie; Le Goff, Johan; Ragusa, Jérémy; Bujan, Stephane; Bashah, Sara

    2017-04-01

    New high-quality multibeam data depict the area located between Little Bahama Bank (LBB, Bahamas) and Blake Plateau. The survey details the morphology of a giant 135-km-long canyon, the Great Abaco Canyon (GAC) and its main characteristics. The canyon main axis runs parallel to the margin. The pathway shows several knickpoints and plunge pools. The most important knickpoint is underlined by an abrupt change in slope of the canyon thalweg. The last one leads to the opening towards the Blake Basin. Its morphologic head forms a vast receptacle but does not represent the main source of material at present. The material supplied through the LBB canyon systems does not reach this area which only shows lineaments related to the pathway of the Antilles current and restricted failure scars. Most of the supply comes from the canyon flanks. In the north, tributary canyons drain the contourite deposits forming large flat plateaus above the drowned carbonate platform of the Blake Plateau. In addition, these contourite plateaus are subjected to translational slides moving towards the northern edge of the canyon forming a dissymmetric debris accumulation along the toe of the north canyon edge. Another source of sediment are two large tributaries connecting the GAC directly to the LBB upper slope. Sub bottom profiles suggest the presence of a turbiditic levee on the tributary canyon sides and inferred turbiditic activity. Little Abaco Canyon (LAC) shows morphologic similarities with GAC but at a smaller size. However, the canyon seems more active in terms of sediment transport. Canyons draining the eastern part of LBB show fresh sedimentary structures (sediment waves) suggesting active sedimentary processes. These structures are made of clean sand with shallow water organisms suggesting a direct supply from the carbonate platform edge. In term of size and morphology, the GAC compares to the largest canyons in siliciclastic environments. Its originality comes from the fact it is

  19. Salvador Dali : 1904-1989

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Sürrealismi joonte levimine mööblikujundusse - Salvador Dali Edvard Jamesile kavandatud diivan "Mae Westi huuled". Diivani ideeks Dali maal "Mae Westi nägu, mida võiks kasutada sürrealistliku ruumina", mille järgi on sisustatud üks ruum 1973. a. Hispaanias Figuerases avatud Dali majamuuseumis. 2 ill

  20. Childhood cancer in El Salvador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossell, Nuria; Gigengack, Roy; Blume, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In El Salvador, children under 12 diagnosed with cancer have access to free treatment at a specialized national facility. Until recently, 13 percent of patients annually abandoned therapy-a serious loss of lives and scarce resources. This qualitative study explores how some parents

  1. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  2. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Bahamas (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the electricity generation or reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to the Commonwealth of the Bahamas - a country consisting of more than 700 islands, cays, and islets - of which only 30 are actually inhabited. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  3. Multiple U.S. Agencies Provided Billions of Dollars to Train and Equip Foreign Police Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    Budapest, Hungary; Bangkok, Thailand; Gaborone, Botswana; San Salvador , El Salvador ; and Roswell, New Mexico. The ILEAs received about $16 million...Nevis Barbados Grenada Uruguay Antigua and Barbuda El Salvador Bahamas, The Costa Rica Honduras Trinidad & Tobago Nicaragua Argentina Venezuela Jamaica...Alteriis, Lisa Canini, Susan Czachor, Gena Evans, Etana Finkler, Nicholas Jepson, Maria Mercado , Jaclyn Nelson, Erin Saunders-Rath, and George Taylor

  4. El Salvador: La guerra transparente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Luers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La función comunicacional tuvo una importancia destacada en la guerra de El Salvador. Radios, agencias de prensa, cine, videos, medios internacionales y fotografías fueron parte del conflicto. En este contexto el cine documental logró un desarrollo destacado. En 1980 se creó el Instituto Cinematográfico de El Salvador revolucionario con corta duración pues en 1983 se disolvió. Trata además de proyectos documentales como el sistema Radio Venceremos, la Carta de Morazán de gran impacto internacional rompió el estilo, el lenguaje y la concepción cinematográfica.

  5. The Decade of the Seventies in El Salvador: Prelude to Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-05

    April 1969, the Honduran 1Scwnldt. Staffmn W.. El Slvalor: Amerdca’s Next Vistomn ( Salisbury . NC: Documentary Publications, 1983). 58-62. 22 government...intolerable. On 9 May 1979, the National Guard opened fire on about one hundred demonstrators in front of a cathedral . Twenty- three of the unarmed...commemorate the matanza of 1932. Thousands gathered in the capital city of San Salvador to participate in the march toward Cathedral 27 1bid, 133

  6. Establishment of a Comprehensive Military Medical System during Wartime in El Salvador: A Retrospective View

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    of wealthy landowners known as the "Fourteen Families." 2 4 In 1932, a peasant uprising against this oligarchy was led by Agustin Farabundo Marti, a...the capital, San Salvador, Jose Napoleon Duarte, ran for the presidency and won by * plurality. He was not allowed to take office, was beaten 12...or "La Universidad Centroamericana Jose Simon Canas, 55) openly promulgated their views on "Liberation Theology." This doctrine emerged from the

  7. Hurricanes accelerated the Florida-Bahamas lionfish invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Matthew W; Purkis, Sam J

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate how perturbations to the Florida Current caused by hurricanes are relevant to the spread of invasive lionfish from Florida to the Bahamas. Without such perturbations, this current represents a potential barrier to the transport of planktonic lionfish eggs and larvae across the Straits of Florida. We further show that once lionfish became established in the Bahamas, hurricanes significantly hastened their spread through the island chain. We gain these insights through: (1) an analysis of the direction and velocity of simulated ocean currents during the passage of hurricanes through the Florida Straits and (2) the development of a biophysical model that incorporates the tolerances of lionfish to ocean climate, their reproductive strategy, and duration that the larvae remain viable in the water column. On the basis of this work, we identify 23 occasions between the years 1992 and 2006 in which lionfish were provided the opportunity to breach the Florida Current. We also find that hurricanes during this period increased the rate of spread of lionfish through the Bahamas by more than 45% and magnified its population by at least 15%. Beyond invasive lionfish, we suggest that extreme weather events such as hurricanes likely help to homogenize the gene pool for all Caribbean marine species susceptible to transport. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Salvador Dali Kopenhaagenis / Ave Räkk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Räkk, Ave

    1999-01-01

    Salvador Dalí näitus Kopenhaageni moodsa kunsti muuseumis Arkenis kuni 2. I 2000. Eksponeeritud 119 originaaljoonistust autobiograafilisest raamatust 'The secret life of Salvador Dali', umbes 300 illustratsiooni, graafikat, skulptuure, kuld ja klaasehistöid, mööblit ja üks maal: 1944. a. valminud, esmakordselt avalikkuse ees olev 'Papillion'.

  9. Canyon morphology on a modern carbonate slope of the Bahamas: Evidence of regional tectonic tilting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, T.; Ducassou, E.; Gillet, H.; Hanquiez, V.; Tournadour, E.; Combes, J.; Eberli, G.P.; Kindler, P.; Gonthier, E.; Conesa, G.; Robin, C.; Sianipar, R.; Reijmer, J.J.G.; François, A.

    2012-01-01

    New high-quality multibeam data presented here depict the northern slope of the Little Bahama Bank (Bahamas). The survey reveals the details of large- and small-scale morphologies that look like siliciclastic systems at a smaller scale, including large-scale slope failure scars and canyon

  10. Role of Temperature, Humidity and Rainfall on Influenza Transmission in Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Bonilla, Luis; Jara, Jorge; McCracken, John; Azziz?-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kiang, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, seasonal influenza causes about 500,000 deaths and 5 million severe illnesses per year. The environmental drivers of influenza transmission are poorly understood especially in the tropics. We aimed to identify meteorological factors for influenza transmission in tropical Central America. We gathered laboratory-confirmed influenza case-counts by week from Guatemala City, San Salvador Department (El Salvador) and Panama Province from 2006 to 2010. The average total cases per year were: 390 (Guatemala), 99 (San Salvador) and 129 (Panama). Meteorological factors including daily air temperature, rainfall, relative and absolute humidity (RH, AH) were obtained from ground stations, NASA satellites and land models. For these factors, we computed weekly averages and their deviation from the 5-yr means. We assessed the relationship between the number of influenza case-counts and the meteorological factors, including effects lagged by 1 to 4 weeks, using Poisson regression for each site. Our results showed influenza in San Salvador would increase by 1 case within a week of every 1 day with RH>75% (Relative Risk (RR)= 1.32, p=.001) and every 1C increase in minimum temperature (RR=1.29, p=.007) but it would decrease by 1 case for every 1mm-above mean weekly rainfall (RR=0.93,pGuatemala had 1 case increase for every 1C increase in minimum temperature in the previous week (RR=1.21, p<.001), and for every 1mm/day-above normal increase of rainfall rate (RR=1.03, p=.03) (model pseudo-R2=0.54). Our findings that cases increase with temperature and humidity differ from some temperate-zone studies. But they indicate that climate parameters such as humidity and temperature could be predictive of influenza activity and should be incorporated into country-specific influenza transmission models

  11. Voto preferente en El Salvador: Lecciones aprendidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cristina Araujo Serrano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la implementación del voto preferente en El Salvador por medio de una resolución de la Sala Constitucional salvadoreña. Asimismo, se estudian las consecuencias de esta disposición en el ordenamiento jurídico salvadoreño, la percepción de la opinión pública y en el sistema de partidos de ese país centroamericano. Finalmente, se exponen algunas de las discusiones que en torno a este tema se han generado en el ámbito costarricense.

  12. El Salvador - Non-Formal Skills Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Non-Formal Skills Development Sub-Activity had a budget of $5 million (USD) to provide short-term training to vulnerable populations in El Salvador's Northern...

  13. Arreteeriti Salvador Dali võltsija

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Hispaania politsei arreteeris Cadaquesis Salvador Dali endise sekretäri, ameeriklase John Peter Moore'i, kes tabati Dali võltslitograafiate müümiselt. Läbiotsimisel leiti Moore'i majast sadu võltsinguid

  14. Lenini ilmumine Salvador Dalile / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-2016

    2007-01-01

    Salvador Dali maali "Osaline kangastus. Kuus Lenini ilmumist tiibklaveril" ("Hallucination partielle. Six apparitions de Lénine sur un piano") verbaalsest interpretatsioonist Harkovi ülikooli uurija Oleg Zaslavski teooria alusel

  15. Women and Science in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Maria Mendez Martınez, Luz; Portillo, Mercy; Elías, José Héctor

    2009-04-01

    Physics is rarely pursued by El Salvadoran students. As in most Latin-American countries, there exists the false idea in El Salvador that some careers should be exclusively for men, such as engineering and hard sciences like physics. Because El Salvador is a natural laboratory for geophysical phenomena, due to the existence of more than 20 volcanoes, prevalent seismic activity, and large production of geothermic energy, geophysics is the most common branch of physics studied in El Salvador. The numbers and gender breakdown of physics and geophysics students at the University of El Salvador in the years since the last IUPAP Women in Physics Conference in 2005 are presented, and the numbers are encouraging.

  16. Is the lionfish invasion waning? Evidence from The Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkwitt, Cassandra E.; Albins, Mark A.; Buch, Kevin L.; Ingeman, Kurt E.; Kindinger, Tye L.; Pusack, Timothy J.; Stallings, Christopher D.; Hixon, Mark A.

    2017-12-01

    Indo-Pacific lionfishes ( Pterois volitans/ miles) have undergone rapid population growth and reached extremely high densities in parts of the invaded Atlantic. However, their long-term population trends in areas without active management programs are unknown. Since 2005, we have monitored lionfish abundance in the Exuma Cays of the central Bahamas on 64 reefs ranging in size from 1 to 4000 m2. Lionfish densities increased from the first sighting in 2005 through 2009, leveled off between 2010 and 2011, and then began to decrease. By 2015, densities had noticeably declined on most of these reefs, despite a lack of culling or fishing efforts in this part of The Bahamas. There was no consistent change in lionfish size structure through time. We discuss possible causes of the decline, including reductions in larval supply or survival, hurricanes, interactions with native species, and intraspecific interactions. Further studies are required to determine whether the declines will persist. In the meantime, we recommend that managers continue efforts to control invasive lionfish abundances locally.

  17. Incidence of leukemias in children from El Salvador and Mexico City between 1996 and 2000: population-based data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Bonilla, Miguel; Lorenzana, Rodolpho; Juárez-Ocaña, Servando; de Reyes, Gladys; Pérez-Saldivar, María Luisa; González-Miranda, Guadalupe; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Ortiz-Fernández, Antonio; Ortega-Alvarez, Manuel; Martínez-García, María del Carmen; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo

    2005-04-04

    There are very few studies that report the incidence of acute leukemias in children in Latin America. This work assesses the incidence of acute leukemias, between 1996 and 2000, in children from 0-14 years old who were attended at the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City and in children from 0-11 years old in El Salvador. Population-based data. Hospitals: In San Salvador, El Salvador, Hospital Nacional de Niños "Benjamin Bloom", the only center in El Salvador which attends all children, younger than 12 years, with oncologic disease. The Pediatric Hospital and the General Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City, the only centers in Mexico City which attend all those children with acute leukemia who have a right to this service. All patients were diagnosed by bone marrow smear and were divided into acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and unspecified leukemias (UL). The annual incidence rate (AIR) and average annual incidence rate (AAIR) were calculated per million children. Cases were stratified by age and assigned to one of four age strata: 1) AAIRs in Mexico City were 44.9, 10.6, 2.5, 0.5, and 58.4 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. The AAIRs in El Salvador could not be calculated because the fourth age stratum in El Salvador included children only from 0-11 years old. The incidence rates for the Salvadorian group of 0-11 year olds were 34.2, 7.1, 0.6, 0.2, and 43.2 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. Reported AIRs for each age group in El Salvador were similar to those from other American countries. The AAIR of ALL in Mexico City is one of the highest reported for North America.

  18. Sedimentary Records of the Paleohurricane Activity in the Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, E. J.; Donnelly, J. P.; Wiman, C.; Cashman, M.

    2015-12-01

    Hurricanes pose a threat to human lives and can cause significant destruction of coastal areas. This threat has become more pronounced with recent rises in sea level and coastal populations. Currently, there is a large degree of uncertainty surrounding future changes in tropical cyclone activity. This is due to the limitations of climate models as well as the scarcity and unreliability of the current observational record. With so much uncertainty surrounding the current projections of hurricane activity, it is crucial to establish a longer and more accurate historical record. This study uses sediment cores extracted from blueholes in the Bahamas to develop a record of intense hurricane landfalls in the region dating back more than a millennia. The collected cores were sectioned, split, and scanned on an X-ray fluorescence scanner to obtain a high resolution core profile of the sediments' elemental composition and to identify potential sedimentary structures. Age control of the samples was determined using radiocarbon dating, coarse fraction was measured every centimeter, and hurricane event bed frequency was established for each core. We assess the statistical significance of the patterns observed in the sedimentary record using a coupled ocean-atmosphere hurricane model to simulate storms representative of modern climatology. Cores extracted from two blue holes near South Andros Island provide approximately a 1600 year and a 600 year record respectively, with sedimentation rates exceeding 1 cm/year. Both records contain coarse grained event deposits that correlate with known historical intense hurricane strikes in the Bahamas within age uncertainties. The 1600 year record confirms previous hurricane reconstructions from the Caribbean indicating higher tropical cyclone activity from 500 to 1400 CE. In addition, these new high-resolution records indicate elevated intense hurricane activity in the 17th and 18th centuries CE, when activity is also elevated in lower

  19. African Journals Online: El Salvador

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Self-Pay, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Sint Maarten (Dutch part), Slovakia (Slovak Republic), Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Spain ...

  20. Security Assistance to Central America: Assessment of U.S. Involvement in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    in the religious education of millions of indians, and the establishment of a university (whites only) in San Carlos , Guatemala (60:9). During the...Salvador. The two dictators were Santiago Gonzalez (1871-1875) and General Carlos Erzeta (1890-1894), both of whom allowed elections after their four 2...ed. Goode’s World Atlas. Chicago: Rand McNally & Co., 1974. 48. Fagen, Richard R. and Olga Pellicer , ed. The Future of Central America. Stanford CA

  1. Indigo équitable au Salvador | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jose et Santos Inocente font partie des 18 familles de la communauté de San Lucas, située à une heure de route au nord-ouest de la capitale du Salvador, qui, au mois d'août dernier, ont procédé à leur première récolte de feuilles d'indigotier effectuée selon des procédés équitables et durables. Depuis 2000, l'organisme ...

  2. [The echinoderms (Echinodermata) from El Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enrique Barraza, José; Roberto Hasbún, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    A list of echinoderms from El Salvador (tropical eastern Pacific) is presented. The results were obtained from field surveys (between the years 2000 and 2004), the scarce literature sources, and Internet information. A total of 37 species and six genera are reported. The most abundant echinoderms in rocky shores were: Phataria unifascialis, Echinometra vanbrunti, Holothuria kefersteini, as well as Astropecten armatus in soft bottoms.

  3. Carles Salvador, l'autoritat gramatical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent Pitarch

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Carles Salvador had strong nationalistic convictions and was very active in promoting the Catalan language in several areas, specifically in developing treatises on spelling, grammar and lexicography. His work would help consolidate the standardization of Catalan in the Valencian Country and would make him an unquestionable authority on Catalan grammar.

  4. Microbial diversity in modern marine stromatolites, Highborne Cay, Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Laura K; Spear, John R; Buckley, Daniel H; Pace, Norman R; Reid, R Pamela; Dupraz, Christophe; Visscher, Pieter T

    2009-10-01

    Living marine stromatolites at Highborne Cay, Bahamas, are formed by microbial mat communities that facilitate precipitation of calcium carbonate and bind and trap small carbonate sand grains. This process results in a laminated structure similar to the layering observed in ancient stromatolites. In the modern marine system at Highborne Cay, lamination, lithification and stromatolite formation are associated with cycling between three types of microbial communities at the stromatolite surface (Types 1, 2 and 3, which range from a leathery microbial mat to microbially fused sediment). Examination of 923 universal small-subunit rRNA gene sequences from these communities reveals that taxonomic richness increases during transition from Type 1 to Type 3 communities, supporting a previous model that proposed that the three communities represent different stages of mat development. The phylogenetic composition also changes significantly between these community types and these community changes occur in concert with variation in biogeochemical rates. The dominant bacterial groups detected in the stromatolites include Alphaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In addition, the stromatolite communities were found to contain novel cyanobacteria that may be uniquely associated with modern marine stromatolites. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of current models for stromatolite formation.

  5. Measurements of turbulent dissipation during the Bahamas Optical Turbulence Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Silvia; Hou, Weilin; Woods, Sarah; Jarosz, Ewa; Goode, Wesley; Weidemann, Alan

    2013-06-01

    The Bahamas Optical Turbulence Experiment (BOTEX) was conducted in the summer of 2011 to investigate the impact of turbulence on underwater optical imaging. Underwater optical properties can be affected by turbulence in the water, due to localized changes in the index of refraction. We discuss measurements of current velocity and temperature, made with a Nortek Vector Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) and PME Conductivity- Temperature (CT) probe, as well as observations made with a Rockland Oceanographic Vertical Microstructure Profiler (VMP). The instruments were deployed in close proximity in the field and in the context of measurements of optical target clarity. Turbulent kinetic energy dissipation (TKED) and temperature dissipation (TD) rates are calculated from the ADV/CT measurements and compared to TKED and TD estimated from the data collected with the VMP. The results show reasonable agreement between the two methods; differences are attributed to turbulence patchiness and intermittence, as well as sampling challenges. The study also highlights the importance of collecting concurrent data on temperature, current velocity, and current shear to assess the turbulence impact on underwater optical properties.

  6. Incidence of leukemias in children from El Salvador and Mexico City between 1996 and 2000: Population-based data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernáldez-Ríos Roberto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are very few studies that report the incidence of acute leukemias in children in Latin America. This work assesses the incidence of acute leukemias, between 1996 and 2000, in children from 0–14 years old who were attended at the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City and in children from 0–11 years old in El Salvador. Methods Design: Population-based data. Hospitals: In San Salvador, El Salvador, Hospital Nacional de Niños "Benjamín Bloom", the only center in El Salvador which attends all children, younger than 12 years, with oncologic disease. The Pediatric Hospital and the General Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City, the only centers in Mexico City which attend all those children with acute leukemia who have a right to this service. Diagnosis: All patients were diagnosed by bone marrow smear and were divided into acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL, acute myeloid leukemia (AML, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, and unspecified leukemias (UL. The annual incidence rate (AIR and average annual incidence rate (AAIR were calculated per million children. Cases were stratified by age and assigned to one of four age strata: 1 Results The number of cases was 375 and 238 in El Salvador and Mexico City, respectively. AAIRs in Mexico City were 44.9, 10.6, 2.5, 0.5, and 58.4 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. The AAIRs in El Salvador could not be calculated because the fourth age stratum in El Salvador included children only from 0–11 years old. The incidence rates for the Salvadoran group of 0–11 year olds were 34.2, 7.1, 0.6, 0.2, and 43.2 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. Conclusion Reported AIRs for each age group in El Salvador were similar to those from other American countries. The AAIR of ALL in Mexico City is one of the highest reported for North America.

  7. Reptile-associated ticks from Dominica and the Bahamas with notes on hyperparasitic erythraeid mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, Lance A; Knapp, Charles R; Beati, Lorenza; Dold, Stephanie

    2015-02-01

    Ticks were collected or recorded from 522 individual reptiles on Dominica and from 658 reptiles from the Bahamas. Two species of ticks were collected on Dominica: Amblyomma antillorum and Amblyomma rotundatum. Similarly, 2 species were collected in the Bahamas: Amblyomma albopictum and Amblyomma torrei. On Dominica, A. antillorum was recorded from 517 Lesser Antillean iguanas (Iguana delicatissima), 2 boa constrictors (Boa nebulosa), 1 Antilles snake (Alsophis sibonius), and 1 Dominican ground lizard (Ameiva fuscata), whereas A. rotundatum was recorded from 1 Lesser Antillean skink (Mabuya mabouya). In the Bahamas, A. albopictum was recorded from 131 Andros iguanas (Cyclura cychlura cychlura), 271 Exuma Island iguanas (Cyclura cychlura figginsi), and 1 Andros curlytail lizard (Leiocephalus carinatus coryi), whereas A. torrei was recorded from 255 Exuma Island iguanas. In the Bahamas, A. albopictum parasitized iguanas on Andros Island and the central Exuma Islands, and A. torrei parasitized iguanas in the southern Exumas. An exception to this trend was that A. torrei was collected from iguanas on Pasture Cay in the central Exumas, an anomaly that is explained by the fact that iguanas (with attached ticks) on Pasture Cay were introduced by humans in the past from islands further south. External hyperparasitic larval erythraeid mites ( Leptus sp.) were recorded from A. torrei in the Bahamas.

  8. Hydrocarbon market in El Salvador; Mercado de hidrocarburos en El Salvador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava de Hernandez, Gina Mercedes [Ministerio de Economia, Direccion de Energia, Minas e Hidrocarburos (El Salvador)

    1997-07-01

    This document presents a summary of the present situation of the market of hydrocarbons in El Salvador, doing a synthesis of the conformation of the industry, of the demand of the country, the prices and others. In addition, it shows the situation before and after the deregulation, making emphasis in the changes originated by such a measure. [Spanish] El presente documento presenta un resumen de la situacion actual del mercado de los hidrocarburos en El Salvador, haciendo una sintesis de la conformacion de la industria, de la demanda del pais, los precios y otros. Ademas muestra la situacion antes y despues de la desregulacion, haciendo enfasis en los cambios ocurridos por tal medida.

  9. Salvador na "Globalização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Porto

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available El texto sitúa la ciudad de Salvador-Bahía, tercera en población de Brasil, en el contexto de los impactos de la globalización. Desde la década de 1950 hasta la de 1970, Salvador se destacó de las demás ciudades del Nordeste de Brasil experimentando un rápido crecimento gracias a los incentivos y subsidios fiscales y financieros del gobierno federal. El crecimiento de la Región y ciudades fue desigual y abrupto, sobre todo Salvador, que abrió espacios internos para expandir y descentralizarse. Todavía, a partir de los años 80 y 90, con la reestruturación productiva y el neoliberalismo, que definen los terminos de la globalización, el proceso se invirtió. El espacio metropolitano se contrajo, económica y socialmente, con un aumento desmesurado de desempleados y sub-empreados, intensificando de esa forma el proceso de segregación y exclusión social. En contraposición, algunas «islas de modernidad» pasaron a conectarse, a partir de sus cada vez más reducidas y cada vez más ricas actividades económicas -el turismo, antes y encima de todo-, a puntos y espacios nacionales y, mayoritariamente, internacionales, mucho más de que a espacios y flujos internosThe following paper sets the city of Salvador-Bahía, Brazil´s third most populated city, in context with the effects of globalization. Between the 1950’s and 1970’s, Brazil’s northeastern region experienced fast economic growth due to federal financial and fiscal incentives. This sudden process occurred unevenly at regional and city levels, especially for Salvador that released internal areas to expand and decentralize itself. However, during the 1980’s and 1990’s this process was reversed due to neoliberalism and productive restructuring. These are the elements that define in what terms globalization sets in. Consequently, the economic and social spaces of the metropolitan area contracted, increasing the number of unemployed and under-employed people, and

  10. Many trained at E1 Salvador center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-02-01

    The Family Planning Association of E1 Salvador is conducting regular week-long courses in family planning for doctors, nurses, social workers and other interested people in El Salvador and the surrounding countries of Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Twelve regional courses on population dynamics, the physiology of reproduction and family planning were held in the academic year 1968-69 at the Faculty of Medicine at the University of El Salvador. Because the demand for places far exceeds the capacity of the Association's training unit, careful selection of candidates is made through consultation with the national family planning associations. Most of those trained are doctors who are being specially equipped to carry out family planning work either as part of government maternal and child health centres or in Association clinics. Many places are also found for nurses and some social workers also attend in order to build up teams for effective clinic management. A few journalists and teachers have been among the trainees as well as groups of religious leaders including Roman Catholics. Lecturers are mainly university personnel drawn from a wide range of disciplines in order to relate family planning not only to health and medicine but also to socio-economic aspects and community welfare. The El Salvador Association, an IPPF member, gets financial support from the Population Council for the training programme but hopes eventually that responsibility for continuing the courses will be taken over by the Government, probably through the Ministry of Education. Another pace-setting activity of the Association has been its close contacts with industry, particulary through the efforts of its President, Mr. Lucio Burgos, General Manager of the El Salvador Power Company, who has gained the interest and support of business and union leaders. Not only do these groups help the work of the Association through fund-raising and public relations activities, but

  11. Violence in Counterinsurgency - The Case of El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    ofContents Page DISCLAIMER .i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS .iii PREFACE .iv EXECUTIVE SUMMARY v INTRODUCTION 1 CRISIS IN EL SALVADOR : 2 TIIE HOBBES COVENANT...5 BARBARISM, INDISCRIMINATE VIOLENCE, INTIMACY 8 NO CONTROL 11 TIIE UNITED STATES IN EL SALVADOR 13 . NOT JUST THE INSURGENTS 17 CONCLUSION 18

  12. Promoting Non-violent Masculine Identities in El Salvador and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Promoting Non-violent Masculine Identities in El Salvador and Nicaragua. The aim of this project is to prevent violence and increase resilience among individuals and communities in El Salvador and Nicaragua by contributing to more informed, effective, and participatory interventions. Although violence levels in the region ...

  13. Biochemical characterization of cyanobacterial extracellular polymers (EPS) from modern marine stromatolites (Bahamas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, T; Decho, A W

    2000-11-01

    A range of biochemical characterizations were used to examine the extracellular polymeric secretions (EPS) of two cyanobacteria, Synechocystis sp. and Oscillatoria sp., isolated from marine stromatolites, Bahamas. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was successfully used to fractionate proteins in EPS. The results suggest that cyanobacterial EPS is composed of a network of macromolecules having different biochemical properties, which may contribute to extracellular functions.

  14. Situation Report--Bahamas, Bermuda, Bolivia, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 11 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Bermuda, Boliva, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, and Panama. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  15. Whiting–related sediment export along the Middle Miocene carbonate ramp of Great Bahama Bank.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turpin, M.; Emmanuel, L.; Reijmer, J.J.G.; Renard, M.

    2011-01-01

    Modern aragonite needles are present all along the modern leeward margin of Great Bahama Bank (ODP Leg 166), while Middle Miocene sediments contain needles only in more distal areas (Sites 1006 and 1007). In contrast to the rimmed, flat-topped platform topography during the Plio-Pleistocene, the

  16. “The Isle is Full of Noises”: C Force and Musical Life in The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathleen LeGrand

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available C Force, the faculty ensemble from The College of The Bahamas, is a powerful tool for music education. The ensemble blends performance, recording, arrangement, instruction, and musical discovery in ways that create new opportunities for teaching and learning about music.

  17. Winter Avian Distribution and Relative Abundance in Six Terrestrial Habitats on Southern Eleuthera, The Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAVE CURRIE; JOSEPH M. WUNDERLE JR.; DAVID N. EWERT; ANCILLENO DAVIS; ZEKO MCKENZIE

    2005-01-01

    We studied winter avian distribution and relative abundance in six common terrestrial broadleaf habitats, selected on a continuum of disturbance from recently disturbed (abandoned plantation) to mature vegetation (tall coppice), on the island of Eleuthera, The Bahamas. During 158-point counts conducted 22 January—10 March 2003, 1357 individuals were detected,...

  18. Habitat Distribution of Birds Wintering in Central Andros, The Bahamas: Implications for Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAVE CURRIE; JOSEPH M. WUNDERLE JR.; DAVID N. EWERT; MATTHEW R. ANDERSON; ANCILLENO DAVIS; JASMINE TURNER

    2005-01-01

    We studied winter avian distribution in three representative pine-dominated habitats and three broadleaf habitats in an area recently designated as a National Park on Andros Island, The Bahamas, 1-23 February 2002. During 180 five-minute point counts, 1731 individuals were detected (1427 permanent residents and 304 winter residents) representing 51 species (29...

  19. Sedimentary processes determining the modern carbonate periplatform drift of Little Bahama Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chabaud, L.; Ducassou, E.; Tournadour, E.; Mulder, T.; Reijmer, J.J.G.; Conesa, G.; Giraudeau, J.; Hanquiez, V.; Borgomano, J.; Ross, L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the combined influence of along-slope sediment transport and off-bank sediment export from the Little Bahama Bank (LBB) to the periplatform sediment wedge of the northwestern part of the slope over the last 424 ka. The LBB northwestern slope is divided in (i) a

  20. San Francisco District Laboratory (SAN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesFood Analysis SAN-DO Laboratory has an expert in elemental analysis who frequently performs field inspections of materials. A recently acquired...

  1. Exploring factors in the decision to choose sterilization vs alternatives in rural El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Miriam L; Holland, Erica; Monterroza, Maritza; Duran, Sonia; Singh, Rameet; Terbell, Heather; Edelman, Alison

    2008-01-01

    To explore the factors that influence rural Salvadoran women to undergo tubal sterilization versus opting for alternative methods of family planning. A moderator fluent in English and Spanish conducted eleven 90-minute focus groups consisting of 5-10 women each. Eligible women in the municipality of San Pedro Perulapan, El Salvador, were identified and recruited by local health workers. Participant demographics and information about family planning decisions were collected through detailed notes and tape-recorded sessions. The tapes were transcribed verbatim, and all data were analyzed using grounded theory procedures to identify common themes. Eighty women aged 24-45 years who had previously been sterilized participated in the study. Three major themes influenced a woman's decision to undergo sterilization instead of opting for alternative forms of family planning: (1) availability: tubal sterilization is readily available, (2) fears about side effects of other methods: these women associated negative side effects with other forms of family planning, (3) effectiveness: the women in these focus groups thought sterilization was more effective than other forms of family planning. This study shows that there is a lack of information, and misinformation, about other effective methods of contraception, especially the intrauterine device and oral contraceptives. Reproductive health education projects, especially those providing services in locations similar to rural El Salvador, should focus on providing accurate information about all forms of contraception, including tubal sterilization.

  2. Sistema de salud de El Salvador The health system of El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describen las condiciones de salud de la población salvadoreña y, con mayor detalle, el sistema de salud de El Salvador, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos con los que cuenta, las actividades de rectoría que desarrolla el Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social, y la participación de los usuarios de los servicios de salud en la evaluación del sistema. Asimismo se discuten las más recientes innovaciones implantadas por el sistema salvadoreño de salud, dentro de las que destacan la aprobación de la Ley de Creación del Sistema Nacional de Salud que busca ampliar la cobertura, disminuir las desigualdades y mejorar la coordinación de las instituciones públicas de salud.This paper describes the health conditions in El Salvador and the main característics of the Salvadoran health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the physical, material and human resources available, the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Public Health, and the participation of health care users in the evaluation of the system. It also discusses the most recent policy innovations including the approval of the Law for the Creation of the National Health System, which intends to expand coverage, reduce health inequalities and improve the coordination of public health institutions.

  3. Maternal and Alloparental Discipline in Atlantic Spotted Dolphins (Stenalla frontalis in the Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan R. Weinpress

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal and alloparental disciplinary behavior were examined in a community of Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis on Little Bahama Bank, Bahamas. An operational definition of discipline was created and analyses were performed of underwater behavior by spotted dolphins. Results indicated that both mothers and alloparents performed discipline towards juveniles and calves in their community. Both males and females were observed performing and receiving discipline. Disciplinarians were significantly more likely to be adults than juveniles, and receivers of discipline were significantly more likely to be calves than juveniles. Pursuit, contact, and display behaviors were used in discipline, however pursuit behaviors were most often observed. Variables such as age class, sex, and parity were not found to influence how discipline was implemented, nor outcome. The durations of all disciplinary pursuits analyzed were under thirty seconds.

  4. Indigo équitable au Salvador | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sustainable Production and Commercialization of Indigo in El Salvador : Exploration and Program Plan. In the year 2000, the Balsam Association, a nongovernmental organization, approached members of the Health Dyes Project, Department of Human Ecology, University of Alberta, for assistance with.

  5. San Marino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    San Marino, an independent republic located in north central Italy, in 1983 had a population of 22,206 growing at an annual rate of .9%. The literacy rate is 97% and the infant mortality rate is 9.6/1000. The terrain is mountainous and the climate is moderate. According to local tradition, San Marino was founded by a Christian stonecutter in the 4th century A.D. as a refuge against religious persecution. Its recorded history began in the 9th century, and it has survived assaults on its independence by the papacy, the Malatesta lords of Rimini, Cesare Borgia, Napoleon, and Mussolini. An 1862 treaty with the newly formed Kingdom of Italy has been periodically renewed and amended. The present government is an alliance between the socialists and communists. San Marino has had its own statutes and governmental institutions since the 11th century. Legislative authority at present is vested in a 60-member unicameral parliament. Executive authority is exercised by the 11-member Congress of State, the members of which head the various administrative departments of the goverment. The posts are divided among the parties which form the coalition government. Judicial authority is partly exercised by Italian magistrates in civil and criminal cases. San Marino's policies are tied to Italy's and political organizations and labor unions active in Italy are also active in San Marino. Since World War II, there has been intense rivalry between 2 political coalitions, the Popular Alliance composed of the Christian Democratic Party and the Independent Social Democratic Party, and the Liberty Committee, coalition of the Communist Party and the Socialist Party. San Marino's gross domestic product was $137 million and its per capita income was $6290 in 1980. The principal economic activities are farming and livestock raising, along with some light manufacturing. Foreign transactions are dominated by tourism. The government derives most of its revenue from the sale of postage stamps to

  6. A qualitative, phenomenological study on the lived experiences of science teachers in The Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklewhite, Thalia Vionne

    This phenomenological study investigates the lived experiences and perceptions of secondary science teachers in the archipelagic country of The Bahamas and how these teachers make meaning of the secondary science program in The Bahamas through the lens of life in a democratic society. The study's purpose was to answer the question: What are the lived experiences of secondary science teachers in The Bahamas in terms of their working conditions'? Using principles of phenomenological research to approach meaning, in-depth interviewing was conducted with six secondary science teachers on four islands of The Bahamas, including the capital of New Providence. The participants and the selected islands are representative of the diversity of teachers, the population, and school climates and structures throughout the country. Narratives were obtained via three ninety-minute interviews with each participant; and thematic analysis was the instrument by which three central themes emerged. Analysis of narratives reveals that lived experience of secondary science teachers revolve around themes of: (1) The Professional Self, (2) Curriculum Leadership, and (3) Curriculum. Most participants are in the career of secondary science education as second choice but are still committed to the profession. Participants overwhelmingly commented that there was a lack of supportive frameworks for critical elements of their daily work, and a need for clear, visionary and decisive curriculum leadership by The Ministry of Education and private School Boards. Participants also desired more appropriate and alternative science curricula that would meet the need of non-academically inclined Bahamian students. Antecedent to their calls was a pressing recognition that they lacked participatory democratic voice in national secondary science education evidenced by years of unrecognized and unattended suggestions sent to those in authority. As a result of these findings, the researcher was propelled towards

  7. Análisis Socioeconómico de los Modelos de Finca promovidos por el Programa Ambiental de El Salvador (PAES) en la Microcuenca del Rio Guazapa

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Cortez, Sigfredo

    2010-01-01

    La investigación se realizó de enero del 2003 hasta agosto del 2004 en la micro cuenca del río Guazapa, la cual tiene una extensión de 139.64 km², ubicada en los departamentos de Cuscatlán y San Salvador, abarcando los municipios de San José Guayabal, Tonacatepeque, Guazapa, San Martín, Oratorio de Concepción y Suchitoto. El trabajo consistió en un estudio socio económico de los modelos de finca implementados en los años 1999 y 2000 por los agricultores que participaron en el proyecto MAG-PAE...

  8. Poverty-associated risk factors for wheezing in the first year of life in Honduras and El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueso, A; Figueroa, M; Cousin, L; Hoyos, W; Martínez-Torres, A E; Mallol, J; Garcia-Marcos, L

    2010-01-01

    Risk factors for wheezing specifically during the first year of life have been studied in well-developed countries, but the information from developing countries is very scarce. There are no such studies focusing on factors derived from poverty. The aim of the present study was to determine if risk factors related to poverty are associated to wheezing during the first year of life in infants from Honduras and El Salvador. A survey, using a validated questionnaire, was carried out in the metropolitan area of San Pedro Sula (Honduras) and in La Libertad (El Salvador) in centres where infants attended for a scheduled vaccination shot or a healthy child visit at 12 months of age. Fieldworkers offered questionnaires to parents and helped the illiterate when necessary. The main outcome variable was wheezing during the first year of life, as reported by parents. A total of 1047 infants in El Salvador and 780 in Honduras were included in the analysis. The prevalence of wheeze in the first year was higher in El Salvador (41.2%) than in Honduras (27.7%), as was recurrent wheezing defined as three or more episodes (18.4% vs. 11.7%). Wheezing and recurrent wheezing was associated to unpaved floor in the household (summary odds ratios for both countries 1.55, p=0.036 and 1.72, p=0.054 for any wheeze and recurrent wheezing, respectively); dust entering from streets (1.30, p=0.052 and 1.67, p=0.008); living in a heavily polluted area (1.33, p=0.037 and 1.52, p=0.033); and having mould stains on the household walls (1.36, p=0.072 and 1.76, p=0.007). Furthermore, marginal associations were found for additional person at home and use of kerosene as cooking fuel. University studies in the mother (0.34, p=0.046 and 0.32, p=0.022) and a professional occupation in the father (0.34, p=0.046 and 0.26, p=0.047) were associated to a lower risk. The prevalence of wheezing and recurrent wheezing is notoriously high in El Salvador and Honduras. In those populations factors related to poverty

  9. Spatial patterns of preventable perinatal mortality in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Rita de Cássia de Sousa; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Braga, José Uéleres; Natividade, Márcio Santos da

    2017-08-17

    To identify the spatial distribution patterns and areas of higher risk of preventable perinatal mortality in the city of Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil. We carried out a spatial aggregated study in 2007, considering the weighting areas (census tracts contiguous sets) of Salvador, of which the center and north present low life conditions. Data were obtained from national vital statistics systems and the 2010 Census. Addresses of live births and stillbirths were geocoded by weighting area. The spatial distribution of the perinatal mortality rate was analyzed from thematic maps. Spatial dependence was evaluated by the Global and Local Geary's and Moran's Indexes. Crude and smoothed perinatal mortality rates were high in areas situated to the north, west, and in center of Salvador. The smoothed rates in weighting areas ranged from 4.9/1,000 to 22.3/1,000 births. Of all perinatal deaths, 92.1% could have been prevented. We identified spatial dependence for preventable perinatal mortality for care in pregnancy, with neighboring areas with high risk in the north of the city. The preventability potential of perinatal mortality was high in Salvador, in 2007. The spatial distribution pattern with higher rates in disadvantaged areas of the city suggests the existence of social inequalities in health. The characteristics of the process of urban development of Salvador, which has inadequate prenatal care, possibly influenced the magnitude and spatial distribution pattern of this mortality.

  10. Epidemiological profile of cancer for Grand Bahama residents: 1988-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, A F; Brathwaite, N; del Riego, A

    2007-01-01

    This retrospective and observational study is based on a review of data from the pathology ledgers and clinical records of the Rand Memorial Hospital, of diagnoses and deaths from cancer from 1988 to 2002 (15 years). The aim was to determine the cancer incidence, mortality, survival rates and the trends for the island of Grand Bahama, Bahamas. The records indicated at least 545 (males: 187; females: 358) new cancer diagnoses giving an approximate age-standardized annual incidence rate of 167.7 per 100,000. The most frequent cancers were, in males (except for skin keratinocytic cancers) prostate 21.9%, colon/rectum 12.8% and lung 6.4%; and in females: breast 45.3%, cervix uteri 16.8% and colon/rectum 6.4%. Of these cancers, 443 (81.3%) were diagnosed in the pathology department of the hospital with the median age at diagnosis of all persons being 52 years. This comprised 119 males and 324 females. Whereas the majority of breast and cervical cancers were histologically diagnosed locally, those of prostate and lung were not. During the period, 359 (males: 181; females: 178) persons had died from cancer; an annual age-standardized mortality rate of 114.8 per 100,000, with breast 19.2%, prostate 14.5% and colon/rectum 9.5% being the most frequent. The overall median period of survival was one year (range 0-14 years). The median survival for persons with cervix uteri was five years; for breast cancer, three years; colorectal cancer, 2 years; prostate, one year; and less than a year for lung cancer. The data on cancer were not easily obtained and this may be improved if a cancer registry is established on this second most populated island of The Bahamas.

  11. H2O2 levels in rainwater collected in south Florida and the Bahama Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zika, R.; Saltzman, E.; Chameides, W. L.; Davis, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of H2O2 in rainwater collected in Miami, Florida, and the Bahama Islands area indicate the presence of H2O2 concentration levels ranging from 100,000 to 700,000 M. No systematic trends in H2O2 concentration were observed during an individual storm, in marked contrast to the behavior of other anions for example, NO3(-), SO4(-2), and Cl(-). The data suggest that a substantial fraction of the H2O2 found in precipitation is generated by aqueous-phase reactions within the cloudwater rather than via rainout and washout of gaseous H2O2.

  12. Direct and mediated associations between religious coping, spirituality, and youth violence in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Salas-Wrigh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the direct and mediated relationships between religious coping, spirituality, social developmental factors, and violence among high-risk and gang-involved youth in a high-crime, Latin American country. METHODS: Using a community sample of 290 high-risk and gang-involved youth in San Salvador, El Salvador, structural equation modeling was employed to examine the relationships between religious coping, spirituality, social developmental factors (e.g., antisocial bond and antisocial beliefs, and violence. RESULTS: Religious coping (β = - 0.14, P < 0.05 and spirituality (β = - 0.20, P < 0.01 were both significantly associated with antisocial bond. Antisocial bond, in turn, was directly associated with violence (β = 0.70, P < 0.001 and was associated with antisocial beliefs (β = 0.54, P < 0.001; however, the path from antisocial beliefs to violence was not statistically significant. No direct paths were identified from religiosity and spirituality to violence. The goodness-of-fit statistics (root mean square error of approximation, 0.034; comparative fit index, 0.974; and Tucker-Lewis index, 0.966 suggest that the final model had acceptable fit. CONCLUSIONS: This study is among the first to shed light on the relationship between religiosity, spirituality, and youth violence in the Latin American context. Elevated levels of religious coping and spirituality are associated with less antisocial bonding, which, in turn, is associated with lower levels of violent behavior among high-risk and gang-involved Salvadoran youth. Study findings suggest that religious coping and spirituality are indirectly protective for youth violence among this high-risk population.

  13. [Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from El Salvador, Central America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez-Ruiz, Migdalia; Barraza, José E; Rivera, Ana M; Hasbún, Carlos R

    2007-03-01

    Collections of 11 species of shallow water Polyplacophora from El Salvador were made in July 2002. Previously only five species had been documented in El Salvador: Chaetopleura lurida (Sowerby, 1832); Ischnochiton guatemalensis (Thiele, 1910); Ceratozona angusta (Thiele, 1909); Chiton stokesii (Broderip, 1832) and Acantochitona exquisita (Pilsbry, 1893). Of these, L. guatemalensis and A. exquisita were not collected in this census. Seven other species are reported here for El Salvador for the first time: Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1857); Ischnochiton dispar (Sowerby, 1832); Stenoplax limaciformis (Sowerby, 1832); Callistochiton expressus (Carpenter, 1865); Acanthochitona arragonites (Carpenter, 1867); A. ferreirai (Lyons, 1988) and A. hirudiniformis (Sowerby, 1832). The known geographic distribution of 1. dispar is extended to the north. An un-named species of Lepidochitona is briefly described.

  14. Housing development strategies in El Salvador cities and natural disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Panadero Moya, Miguel; Cebrián Abellán, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    La política de vivienda en El Salvador en la segunda mitad del siglo XX se ha desarrollado siguiendo el mismo modelo establecido en el resto de los países de su entorno cultural en esos momentos. En todos ellos se trataba de dar respuesta a un acelerado crecimiento demográfico que también apareció con un comportamiento similar en toda América Latina. Sin embargo, en este marco general, las características físicas del territorio salvadoreño introducen un factor perturbador de la dinámica socia...

  15. Palabras de la Primera Dama de El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Aguirre de Calderón Sol

    1998-01-01

    Este documento incluye las palabras de la Primera Dama de El Salvador Elizabeth de Calderón Sol en la clausura del Foro "Convivencia y seguridad ciudadana en el Istmo Centroamericano y la Isla Española". La conferencia se centra en la violencia doméstica, un tema de particular interés para el gobierno y el instituto salvadoreño para el desarrollo de la mujer que preside. Se presenta el "Programa de saneamiento de la relación familiar", el esfuerzo del gobierno para abordar el problema de la v...

  16. Herbolaria y pintura mural: plantas medicinales en los murales del convento del Divino Salvador de Malinalco, Estado de México

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Zepeda G.

    2008-01-01

    En la época prehispánica Malinalco fue un centro ceremonial importante, probablemente de control ideológico y económico. Para reforzar el proceso de evangelización después de la conquista, se fundó en 1540 el convento agustino de San Cristóbal ahora conocido como del Divino Salvador. Poco después de su edifi cación, sus paredes y bóvedas fueron decoradas por artistas nativos con pasajes bíblicos, exuberantes plantas y diferentes especies de animales. Los análisis que se han realizado de estos...

  17. Impacts of Hurricane Andrew on carbonate platform environments, northern Great Bahama Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Stephen K.; Neumann, A. Conrad

    1993-10-01

    The northern (most energetic) quadrant of Hurricane Andrew (August 1992) passed over leeward-margin sand waves, bank-top sand shoals, reefs, and low islands of Great Bahama Bank for which an extensive prestorm data base exists. A reconnaissance survey seven weeks after Hurricane Andrew evaluated storm impacts on these bank-top settings. Resurveyed seismic profiles showed that positions, dimensions, and orientations of platform sand bodies were unchanged relative to fixed bedrock features. Surveys of reef communities indicated only minor storm-related disturbance. Coral bleaching may be due to storm-induced environmental stress. In addition, storm-wave plucking of boulders from emergent rocky cays resulted in localized crushing of reef biota. On low islands, beach erosion and storm surge were insignificant, and storm damage to Casuarina forests was minor and substrate-specific. Observed minimal hurricane impacts on northern Great Bahama Bank environments lying 10-75 km from the hurricane eye are reconciled by analysis of meteorological data, which show significant weakening of the storm (expressed as a rise in central barometric pressure of ˜20 mbar) during passage across the bank-top. This study demonstrates the importance of specific dynamic aspects of hurricanes (e.g., varying intensity, strength, size, forward speed, duration) which influence their geologic potential, even over relatively short distances along the storm track of an individual hurricane.

  18. Weather and hydrographic conditions associated with coral bleaching: Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ned P.

    2001-12-01

    Thermograph, current-meter, and coastal-weather data from Lee Stocking Island, Exuma Cays, Bahamas, are used to investigate hydrographic and meteorological conditions preceding and during a bleaching event in August 1990. Shelf water temperatures recorded at three locations rise to just over 30 °C. Weather data provide estimates of local heating and cooling by insolation, net outgoing long-wave radiation, and sensible and latent heat fluxes. Weather data do not indicate a period of unusually clear skies during the days and weeks preceding the bleaching event. Rather, calculations suggest that low wind speeds during late July and early August reduced evaporative cooling. A tidal channel near the bleaching site provided a source of hyperpycnal 31 °C water that had been heated in the shallow waters of Great Bahama Bank. Current-meter data suggest an along-shelf transport of water from the mouth of the tidal channel to the bleaching site. A comparison of wind-stress and water-temperature data suggests that a downwelling pattern contributed to heating at the reef by flooding the shelf with warm surface water. Results suggest that heating at the reef was a combination of local warming, enhanced by reduced evaporation, and advective warming resulting from both an along-shelf transport of bank water and a landward across-shelf transport of warm surface water.

  19. Observations and relocation of a West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus) off Bimini, The Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo-Sweeting, Kelly; Reid, James P.; Gittens, Lester; Adimey, Nicole; Dillet, Jared Z.

    2011-01-01

    West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) are listed as vulnerable (IUCN Red List, 7 March 2009; Deutsch et al., 2008), with the subspecies Trichechus manatus latirostris and T. m. manatus (Florida and Antillean, respectively) considered endangered (IUCN Red List, 21 January 2011; Deutsch, 2008; Self-Sullivan & Mignucci-Giannoni, 2008). Manatees are not native to The Bahamas; however, sightings have been recorded periodically since 1904, with an increase in sightings documented in the 1990s (Lefebvre et al., 2001). In the area of Bimini, The Bahamas, the first recorded manatee sighting was in 1904 of a single individual that was apparently killed (Allen, 1942). The second was not until 1996, which was poorly documented. The small adult remained for approximately 6 wks before disappearing (Lefebvre et al., 2001). In 1998, a third sighting was reported off Bimini of a single individual. Although the animal was seen for several weeks and was relatively habituated to human presence (Al Sweeting, Jr., pers. comm., 28 November 2008), no data were collected on this individual nor any photographs suitable for identification purposes.

  20. Echinodermata das praias de Salvador (Bahia, Brasil The Echinoderms of Salvador beaches (Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orane Falcão de Souza Alves

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 28 species of Echinoderms collected on 5 beaches of Salvador (12º54' to 13º01' S and 38º26' to 38º33' W, Brazil, which are distributed in 19 families. Ophiuroidea represented 53,6% of the collected species, followed by Echinoidea (28,6%, Asteroidea (7,1%, Holothuroidea (7,1%, and Crinoidea (3,6%. Ophiuroidea and Echinoidea were the most frequent groups, occurring at all the studied beaches while Crinoidea occurred only on 20% of them. Most of the species are characterized as belonging to the tropical warm waters, some to the shallow coastal areas and some having a broad bathymetric distribution. The richness of species values on beaches ranged from 7 to 24, at Itapua Beach, and from 2 to 14 among different kinds of habitats, where protected ones showed higher values.

  1. The Law Collection (formerly the Law Library of Library and Instructional Media Services at the College of the Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Errol Augustus Adams

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Law Collection of the Harry C. Moore Library and Information Centre was first established in August 2000 at the time that the College of The Bahamas entered into a collaborative LL.B programme with the University of the West Indies. This paper profiles the law librarians, the Law Collection and the UWI/COB programme.

  2. Fire management assessment of the Caribbean Pine (Pinus caribea) forest ecosystems on Andros and Abaco Islands, Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Myers; D. Wade; C. Bergh

    2004-01-01

    From 2-7 February 2003, a team of fire management and fire ecology experts visited the islands of Andros, Abaco, and New Providence in the Bahamas to gain insight into the fire issues facing the conservation of the Caribbean pine forests, which cover large percentages of each island. The objectives for the assessment were to: (1) Gather information on fire...

  3. Production et commercialisation durables de l'indigo au Salvador ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Asociación Balsamo tente de mettre au point un nouveau modèle agroindustriel de production d'indigo, au Salvador, qui permettra aux petits exploitants de faire de cette culture leur principale source de revenus. Le projet permettra à une équipe ...

  4. Minera Australiana adquiere proyecto cuestionado en El Salvador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at the environmental risks of gold mining in El Salvador in general and specifically at the risks associated with OceanaGold's project. The article also examines the stiff opposition to the project presented by an alliance of local and international organisations....

  5. An Introduction to the Psychedelic Psychotherapy of Salvador Roquet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villoldo, Alberto

    1977-01-01

    Psychosynthesis as developed by Salvador Roquet presents a new method combining Freudian, Frommian, and transpersonal therapies. Its immediate result is to obtain results expected from long-term psychoanalysis in an abbreviated period of time. It also helps the individual take responsibility for his own development. (Author/RK)

  6. Revolution and Accommodation. Post-Insurgency in El Salvador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenkels, R.

    2014-01-01

    In 1980, El Salvador fragmented revolutionary movement united to form the Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional (FMLN). This Front subsequently fought a war against the U.S. backed Salvadoran military which culminated in military stalemate. After the 1992 Peace Accords, the guerrilla

  7. Dollarization In El Salvador And Ecuador: A Model Worth Following

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Salvadoran experience, but at the same time it has its own unique story. Like El Salvador, Ecuador was colonized by the Spanish which largely resulted...Almost immediately after the Spanish conquistadores arrived, they instituted an externally focused, commodity driven export market. This type of

  8. Rethinking El Salvador's public transit trouble | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-07-19

    Jul 19, 2017 ... Riding a public bus in El Salvador can be a treacherous and even deadly experience. But a local think tank is using its newfound ability to conduct detailed on-the-ground research to help transform a system relied upon by millions. This article is part of an ongoing series of stories about innovative projects ...

  9. Market research completed in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Intensive market research, completed in El Salvador for the contraceptive social marketing project of the Asociacion Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), was designed to obtain a better understanding of Salvadoran usage of and attitudes toward contraceptives in general and ADS products in particular. The research results are being used to develop a new marketing plan for the Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) program as it works to increase the program's effectiveness in reaching consumers. Points-of-purchase (retail outlets) were surveyed in November 1982 to study brand presence and vendor perceptions of consumer behavior in order to define the market in terms of products, prices, and distribution. Focus groups were conducted during November and December 1982 to probe consumer awareness and attitudes regarding methods, brands, and purchasing behavior. The results of the focus groups helped guide the development of a door-to-door consumer survey conducted from December 1982 through February 1983 to further define the market in terms of consumer size and characteristics. Personal interviews were conducted with the owner or manager of each of 247 pharmacies selected at random but in proportion to their distributional weight as to location. Aragon and Associates found that standard-dose orals and condoms were sold in 86% of the outlets surveyed and foaming tablets and low-dose pills in 37%. In terms of brand presence in outlets, the CSM products Perla (orals) and Condor (condom) both led their respective categories. In the foaming tablet category Suave had the lowest presence and Neo Sampoon the highest. The difference between reported and actual presence of contraceptives in the outlets was significant: 32% of the sellers of Perla, 18% of the sellers of Condor, and 26% of the sellers of Suave were out of stock at the time of the survey. The difference in average CSM product prices and the next lowest priced brands is very large. Dealers reported that their contraceptive

  10. San Jose Accord: energy aid or petroleum-marketing strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-30

    The San Jose Accord was signed in San Jose, Costa Rica on August 3, 1980 by the Presidents of Venezuela and Mexico, whereby the two countries mutually committed to supply the net imported domestic oil consumption of several Central American and Caribbean countries. Countries initially participating in the program are: Barbados, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, and Panama. Seven eastern Caribbean countries were to meet on October 7 to petition for inclusion in the Accord, namely: Antigua, St. Kitt/Nevis, Montserrat, Dominica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Grenada. The official language of the Accord is presented, and the operative status of the Accord two years after signing is discussed. Specific briefs about some of the individual countries in the Accord are included. The fuel price/tax series for the Western Hemisphere countries is updated.

  11. Yupingfeng San

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue; Shen, Jiawen; Fan, Danping; Qiu, Xuemei; Guo, Qingqing; Zheng, Kang; Luo, Hui; Shu, Jun; Lu, Cheng; Zhang, Ge; Lu, Aiping; Ma, Chaoying; He, Xiaojuan

    2017-01-01

    Yupingfeng San (YPFS) is a representative Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula with accepted therapeutic effect on Asthma. However, its action mechanism is still obscure. In this study, we used network pharmacology to explore potential mechanism of YPFS on asthma. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor pathway was shown to be the top one shared signaling pathway associated with both YPFS and asthma. In addition, NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome was treated as target protein in the process of YPFS regulating asthma. Further, experimental validation was done by using LPS-stimulated U937 cells and ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized BALB/c mice model. In vitro experiments showed that YPFS significantly decreased the production of TNF-α and IL-6, as well as both mRNA and protein levels of IL-1β, NLRP3, Caspase-1 and ASC in LPS-stimulated U937 cells. In vivo experiment indicated that YPFS treatment not only attenuated the clinical symptoms, but also reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, mucus secretion and MUC5AC production in lung tissue of asthmatic mice. Moreover, YPFS treatment remarkably decreased the mRNA and protein levels of IL-1β, NLRP3, Caspase-1 and ASC in lung tissue of asthmatic mice. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that YPFS could inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome components to attenuate the inflammatory response in asthma.

  12. Colecta de frutales tropicales en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cruz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tuvo como objetivo recolectar, caracterizar y establecer colecciones de frutales de: Pouteria sapota (zapote, Manilkara zapota (níspero, Psidium sp. (guayaba, Spondia sp. (jocote, Mammea americana (mamey. Se realizaron giras de exploración y recolección a las diferentes zonas del país, con mayor potencial para el cultivo de los frutales. Las características evaluadas fueron: peso, longitud, diámetro, porcentaje de germinación, número de semillas, sabor y color de pulpa, forma del fruto, color de cáscara, presencia de plagas y enfermedades, y análisis bromatológico. Los datos fueron analizados por estadística descriptiva para mínimo, máximo y media. Se distribuyeron árboles frutales para el establecimiento de las colecciones en los Centros de Innovación Tecnológica San Andrés, Izalco y Morazán. El zapote Magaña presentó frutos de mayor peso, longitud y diámetro, textura de pulpa bastante fibrosa. El Zapote Valiente presentó frutos con mayor contenido proteína y grasa de 2,65% y 0,77%. El Zapote Rivera presentó frutos con mayor contenido de carbohidratos, 32,15%. La Guayaba Miami roja, presentó mayor fibra cruda 3,72%. En jocote, las principales plagas y enfermedades fueron trips, mosca de la fruta y antracnosis. Se estableció una colección de jocote del tipo azucarón, verano, pitarrillo, chapín, invierno, iguana y tronador; el Centro Innovación Tecnológica de San Andrés, La Libertad

  13. Status and conservation of parrots and parakeets in the Greater Antilles, Bahama Islands, and Cayman Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the 1490s a minimum of 28 species of psittacines occurred in the West Indies. Today, only 43% (12) of the species survive. All macaws and most parakeet species have been lost. Although the surviving parrot fauna of the Greater Antilles, Cayman Islands, and Bahama Islands has fared somewhat better than that of the Lesser Antilles, every species has undergone extensive reductions of populations and all but two have undergone extensive reductions in range, mostly as a result of habitat loss, but also from persecution as agricultural pests, conflicts with exotic species, harvesting for pets, and natural disasters. The Cayman Brac Parrot Amazona leucocephala hesterna with its tiny population (less than 150 individuals in the wild) and range, and the Puerto Rican Parrot A. vittata, with about 22-23 birds in the wild and 56 individuals in captivity, must be considered on the verge of extinction and in need of (in the latter's case, continuing) aggressive programmes of research and management. Other populations declining in numbers and range include the Yellow-billed Amazona collaria, and Black-billed A. agilis Parrots of Jamaica, Hispaniolan Parakeet Aratinga chloroptera, Hispaniolan Parrot Amazona ventralis, Cuban Parrot A. leucocephala leucocephala and, most seriously, Cuban Parakeet Aratinga euops. The population of the Grand Cayman Parrot (Amazona leucocephala caymanensis), although numbering only about 1,000 birds, appears stable and the current conservation programme gives hope for the survival of the race. An active conservation and public education programme has begun for the Bahama Parrot A. l. bahamensis, which still occurs in good numbers on Great Inagua Island, but is threatened on Abaco Island. Recommendations for conservation of parrots and parakeets in the region include (1) instituting long-term programmes of research to determine distribution, status, and ecology of each species; (2) developing conservation programmes through education and management

  14. Distribution and abundance of snowy plovers in eastern North America, the Caribbean, and the Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Leah; Haig, Susan M.

    2002-01-01

    Snowy Plovers (Charadrius alexandrinus) are small, partially migrant shorebirds that are broadly distributed across North America. Snowy Plover distribution west of the Rocky Mountains has been well described. However, distribution and abundance east of the Rocky Mountains has not received much attention despite current status and ESA listing concerns for Snowy Plovers in the southeastern United States and the Caribbean. Thus, a first step in developing a monitoring program for Snowy Plovers is to understand the species' distribution. We summarize information on distribution and abundance of Snowy Plovers in the eastern United States, Caribbean, and Bahamas. Breeding and winter distribution maps for the continental United States were generated from a database of 3563 records from 388 sites in continental North America constructed from International Shorebird Survey (ISS), Christmas Bird Count (CBC), unpublished field data, and published accounts. Comparison of maximum counts per site (1980–present) indicated the number of breeding Snowy Plovers was greatest in Kansas and Oklahoma, while the greatest number of wintering birds occurred in the Laguna Madre of Texas and Mexico. Snowy Plovers concentrate at sites in Oklahoma and Texas during migration, with higher concentrations on the upper Texas coast in spring compared to fall migration. Data regarding historic abundance and trends are limited but suggest that Snowy Plovers in the eastern United States may have experienced regional population declines and may have suffered a range contraction in Texas. Serious concerns about the conservation status of Snowy Plovers in the eastern United States, the Caribbean, and the Bahamas indicate an immediate need for systematic surveys and up-to-date population estimates.

  15. Leaf wax records of late Holocene hydrologic changes on Abaco Island, Northern Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamalavage, A.; Feakins, S. J.; van Hengstum, P. J.; Louchouarn, P.; Fall, P. L.; Albury, N. A.; Donnelly, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Previous pollen-based evidence from Abaco Island (Little Bahama Bank, Northern Bahamas) indicates that the terrestrial forest changed in dominance over the last 1500 years from palms to pines, and that this change is potentially driven by climate and/or anthropogenic factors. Geochemical markers (δ13Corg, δ15Norg,, C/N, and lignin phenols) measured from bulk sedimentary matter that has accumulated in Blackwood Sinkhole on Abaco Island also support the pollen-based evidence that vegetation has not been constant throughout the late Holocene (last 3000 years). More specifically, these geochemical markers document three intervals where sedimentary deposition was dominated by a different source of organic matter. These changes are likely driven by the combination of the ecological response to shoreline migration from Holocene sea-level rise, and a southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) at 1000 Cal yrs BP. However, the specific impact of a southward ITCZ displacement at 1000 Cal yrs BP on Abaco rainfall variability remains uncertain (e.g., quantity, seasonality). This research will explore hydrologic variability associated with regional vegetation changes by measuring precipitation isotopic composition based upon plant leaf wax n-alkanoic acid and n-alkane biomarkers. We find C29 and C31 n-alkanes and C24, C26, C28, and C30 n-alkanoic acids record the same hydrogen isotopic values within uncertainties indicating a uniform terrestrial vegetation source. We find a negative shift (-50‰) towards present in our initial analyses; the results of ongoing work will be presented at the meeting. This multi-proxy approach will allow us to resolve the nature of the leaf wax biomarker hydrogen isotope evidence for past precipitation, including testing for the impacts of vegetation on the hydrological proxy, and testing predictions of a shift in precipitation on Abaco Island over the late Holocene coincident with a southward displacement of the ITCZ.

  16. Informe Especial de la Procuraduria para la Defensa de los Derechos Humanos sobre el legado de la Mina San Sebastian y sus impactos en la vida de las poblaciones afectadas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir; Quiñonez Basagoitia, Julio Cesar; Van Ho, Tara

    This reports is the result of a study carried out to analyse the socio-economic impacts of the San Sebastian Mine in eastern El Salvador. The impacts are divided into 3 areas: land ownership, water resources and artisanal miner's livelihoods. The report contains 20 recommendations for the Salvado...

  17. Formas y significados del vestido en una sociedad posmoderna: el caso de San Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Moncada, Mariella; Campos, Melissa Regina

    2010-01-01

    Entre las formas de cultura creadas por el ser humano en sociedad está el modo de vestir, y, a pesar de que necesidades funcionales del vestido varían de una sociedad o región a otra al encontrarse presente en todas y cada una de ellas, esto lo vuelve un hecho universal. Ciertamente, la vestimenta surge con la básica finalidad de dar respuesta a la necesidad de abrigo. Y si el uso de la vestimenta es universal, lo que la hace diferente en cada grupo humano es el desarrollo independiente de su...

  18. Advising Indigenous Forces: American Advisors in Korea, Vietnam, and El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Team MATA Military Assistance Training and Advisory (course) MD Maryland MI military intelligence MILGROUP Military Group (El Salvador ) MILZONE...Advising Indigenous Forces: American Advisors in Korea, Vietnam, and El Salvador Robert D. Ramsey III Global War on Terrorism Occasional Paper 18...Advising Indigenous Forces: American Advisors in Korea, vietnam, and El Salvador 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  19. San Mateo Creek Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  20. Women in physics in El Salvador: Historical perspectives and current challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Telma; Jiménez, Diana; Larios, Gloria

    2015-12-01

    Physics as a discipline in El Salvador's higher education system has struggled historically; however, since 1991, it has enjoyed a growth-friendly environment. While there are few female physicists in El Salvador, they are employed in various organizations and educational institutions, demonstrating that physics is a viable career path. El Salvador currently offers a range of opportunities for women in physics. With the support of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, we will both meet the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities that face female physicists in El Salvador.

  1. Video documental biográfico sobre Paco Salvador.

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Lascano, José David

    2016-01-01

    The following text will present an audiovisual recording about the Paco Salvador’s biography, thanks to this; it will be possible that choreographers and dancers realize that is really important a deep research before to make a performance. Paco Salvador, a very important ecuadorian person, who has a Master’s degree in Studies about Culture and with a great CV, does extensive research for performing their choreographies. He has an interesting proposal which consist in to n...

  2. HTLV-I associated myelopathy in salvador (northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Meireles

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of tropical spastic paraparesis have confirmed the existence of human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLVI in several tropical areas of the world. In order to determine the role of HTLVI as an etiologic agent of myelopathies in Salvador, we conducted a clinical and serological study in 43 patients with non-traumatic and non-tumoral myelopathies. We found 9 patients with HTLVI associated myelopathy (HAM which points to a new endemic area of HAM.

  3. El Salvador: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-08

    improve the business climate, (2) investing in education and health care, and (3) combatting crime and violence. Sánchez Cerén stressed the importance...emigrated in search of opportunities (work and education ) and/or to reunite with family living in the United States. Escalating crime and violence, as...emigration by unaccompanied children from El Salvador and reintegrate deportees from the United States into Salvadoran society, figure prominently on the

  4. Strategic Thinking: A Proposal to Reduce Violence in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    governmental institutions and organizations of civil society that work towards the prevention of youth violence by creating diverse occupational industries ...Seelke, “Gangs in Central America”, 5 23 21 Carmen Gentile, “The Gangs of El Salvador: A Growing Industry ”, TIME, http://www.time.com/time/world...Development Program (UNDP), “Informe Sobre Desarrollo Humano Para América Central 2009-2010: Abrir Espacios a la Seguridad Ciudadana y el Desarrollo

  5. The decreased diphthongization in popular speech of Salvador: variational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ludwig Gayer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a variational analysis of the decreased diphthongization process in the popular speech of Salvador. The diphthongization can occur between words, between the final vowel of the first word and the initial vowel of the second word in the sequence, when one of the vowels is phonetically high and unstressed. In the case of decreased diphthongization, the second vowel becomes glide with the application of the process, as in the example minh[aj]scola (my school. The objective of this work was to contribute with a more detailed description of the decreased diphthongization that occurs in Brazilian Portuguese, considering the popular speech data of Salvador, taken from PEPP (Studies Program on the Spoken Popular Portuguese of Salvador, coordinated by Professor Norma Lopes (UNEB. We selected eight interviews classified by sex (male and female, education (primary and secondary education and age (25-35 years and over 65 years, totaling 1.121 data for the statistical analysis. These data passed through a statistical analysis of Goldvarb X, taking into account some variables that have already been analysed in other studies. The main favorable factors to the application of the process were a combination of a stressed vowel plus an unstressed vowel, clitic group, combination of a not high vowel plus a high vowel, etc.---DOI: http:/dx.doi.org/10.12957/matraga.2017.27157 

  6. [Demand for cigarettes and tax increases in El Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Carbajales, Alejandro; González-Rozada, Martín; Vallarino, Hugo

    2016-10-01

    Analyze short- and long-term elasticities of demand for cigarettes in El Salvador as a tool for supporting recommendations on tax increases to reduce prevalence and consumption through price increases. Demand for cigarettes in El Salvador was analyzed through an econometric time-series model using a database from El Salvador's General Directorate of Internal Taxes (DGII) and the General Directorate of Statistics and Census (DIGESTYC). The analysis period was quarterly: 2000Q1-2012Q4. The usual tests were done to prevent a spurious econometric estimation. It was found that the variables volume sales, actual sale prices, and actual per capita income exhibited first-order cointegration; this result makes it possible to use an error correction model with short- and long-term elasticity estimates. Only long-term elasticities were found to be statistically significant to 5%. Results show long-term price elasticity (5 quarters) of -0.9287 and income price elasticity of 0.9978. Absolute price elasticity is somewhat high, although it is within the levels estimated in other studies in low per-capita income countries. A tax increase from a base amount of US$1.04 per pack of 20 cigarettes to US$1.66 within three years would reduce demand by 20% to 31% and would increase tax revenues by 9% to 22%.

  7. Tuberculosis and living conditions in Salvador, Brazil: a spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erazo, Carlos; Pereira, Susan M; Costa, Maria da Conceição N; Evangelista-Filho, Delsuc; Braga, José Ueleres; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2014-07-01

    To investigate spatial tuberculosis (TB) distribution patterns and the association between living conditions and incidence of the disease in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. An ecological study with neighborhood as the unit of analysis. Data was collected from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, SINAN) and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, IBGE). Rates of TB incidence were transformed and smoothed. Spatial analysis was applied to identify spatial auto-correlation and "hotspot" areas of high and low risk. The relationship between TB and living conditions was confirmed by spatial linear regression. The incidence of TB in Salvador displayed heterogeneous patterns, with higher rates occurring in neighborhoods with poor living conditions in 1995 - 1996. Over the study period, disease occurrence declined, particularly in less-privileged strata. In 2004 - 2005, the association between living conditions and TB was no longer observed. The heterogeneous spatial distribution of TB in Salvador previously reflected inequalities related to living conditions. Improvements in such conditions and health care for the less privileged may have contributed to observed changes.

  8. Coral bleaching indices and thresholds for the Florida Reef Tract, Bahamas, and St. Croix, US Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzello, Derek P; Berkelmans, Ray; Hendee, James C

    2007-12-01

    It is well established that elevated sea temperatures cause widespread coral bleaching, yet confusion lingers as to what facet of extreme temperatures is most important. Utilizing long-term in situ datasets, we calculated nine thermal stress indices and tested their effectiveness at segregating bleaching years a posteriori for multiple reefs on the Florida Reef Tract. The indices examined represent three aspects of thermal stress: (1) short-term, acute temperature stress; (2) cumulative temperature stress; and (3) temperature variability. Maximum monthly sea surface temperature (SST) and the number of days >30.5 degrees C were the most significant; indicating that cumulative exposure to temperature extremes characterized bleaching years. Bleaching thresholds were warmer for Florida than the Bahamas and St. Croix, US Virgin Islands reflecting differences in seasonal maximum SST. Hind-casts showed that monthly mean SST above a local threshold explained all bleaching years in Florida, the Bahamas, and US Virgin Islands.

  9. Tabagismo em amostra de adolescentes escolares de Salvador-Bahia Smoking among school adolescents in Salvador (BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelmo Souza Machado Neto

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O hábito de fumar em geral se inicia na adolescência. No Brasil, as estimativas da freqüência deste hábito entre adolescentes variam de 1% até 35%. OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência do tabagismo entre os adolescentes da oitava série do ensino fundamental à terceira série do curso médio, em escolas de Salvador - Bahia, Brasil. MÉTODO: Feito um estudo do tipo corte transversal de caráter exploratório. Foram aplicados 3.500 questionários a alunos matriculados entre a 8ª série do ensino fundamental e a 3ª série do ensino médio, em cinco escolas da região metropolitana de Salvador (BA. Análise estatística: medidas descritivas e de associação (razão de prevalência e o teste t de Student e o do qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: A prevalência do tabagismo entre adolescentes de Salvador (BA foi de 9,6%, considerando-se os 3.180 questionários válidos, sendo maior no sexo masculino (14% que no feminino (6%. À medida que aumentava a idade, elevava-se essa prevalência. A média de idade do início do tabagismo foi de 14 ± 2 anos. Dentre adolescentes, 46% experimentaram o cigarro e 20% destes continuaram fumando. Entre filhos de fumantes a freqüência foi maior. O número médio de cigarros consumidos por dia pelos adolescentes que fumavam diariamente (n = 132 foi de 7 ± 6, sendo maior no sexo masculino. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência do tabagismo em uma amostra selecionada de adolescentes escolares de Salvador (BA foi de 9,6%, sendo maior entre os indivíduos do sexo masculino. A experimentação e a influência dos pais foram associadas ao tabagismo nos adolescentes.BACKGROUND: Most tobacco users become addicted during adolescence. In Brazil, smoking prevalence among teenagers varies from 1% to 35%. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of smoking among teenagers, aged from 13 to 20, in fundamental and high school in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. METHOD: Cross-sectional exploratory study. Thirty five hundred questionnaires were

  10. Historical Processes and Contemporary Anthropogenic Activities Influence Genetic Population Dynamics of Nassau Grouper (Epinephelus striatus within The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista D. Sherman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Severe declines of endangered Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus across The Bahamas and Caribbean have spurred efforts to improve their fisheries management and population conservation. The Bahamas is reported to hold the majority of fish spawning aggregations for Nassau grouper, however, the status and genetic population structure of fish within the country is largely unknown, presenting a major knowledge gap for their sustainable management. Between August 2014–February 2017, 464 individual Nassau grouper sampled from The Bahamas were genotyped using 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci to establish measures of population structure, genetic diversity and effective population size (Ne. Nassau grouper were characterized by mostly high levels of genetic diversity, but we found no evidence for geographic population structure. Microsatellite analyses revealed weak, but significant genetic differentiation of Nassau grouper throughout the Bahamian archipelago (Global FST 0.00236, p = 0.0001. Temporal analyses of changes in Ne over the last 1,000 generations provide evidence in support of a pronounced historic decline in Bahamian Nassau grouper that appears to pre-date anthropogenic fishing activities. M-ratio results corroborate significant reductions in Ne throughout The Bahamas, with evidence for population bottlenecks in three islands and an active fish spawning aggregation along with apparent signs of inbreeding at two islands. Current estimates of Ne for Nassau grouper are considerably lower compared with historic levels. These findings represent important new contributions to our understanding of the evolutionary history, demographics and genetic connectivity of this endangered species, which are of critical importance for advancing their sustainable management.

  11. Genetic spatial structure of an anchialine cave annelid indicates connectivity within - but not between - islands of the Great Bahama Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Brett C; Martínez, Alejandro; Borda, Elizabeth; Iliffe, Thomas M; Fontaneto, Diego; Worsaae, Katrine

    2017-04-01

    Land-locked anchialine blue holes are karstic sinkholes and caves with tidally influenced, vertically stratified water bodies that harbor endemic fauna exhibiting variable troglomorphic features. These habitats represent island-like systems, which can serve to elucidate evolutionary and biogeographic processes at local scales. We investigated whether the 'continuous spelean corridor' hypothesis may elucidate the biogeographical distributions of the stygobitic annelid Pelagomacellicephala iliffei (Polynoidae) collected from the Great Bahama and Caicos Banks of the Bahamas Archipelago. Phylogenetic reconstructions were performed using Bayesian Inference on individual and combined datasets of three molecular markers (16S rDNA, COI, 18S rDNA) and species delimitation employed three widely accepted methods in DNA taxonomy, namely GMYC, bPTP, and ABGD. Mantel tests were used to test the effect of geography on genetic structure. Using these analyses, we recovered five independently evolving entities of the focal species across four islands of the Great Bahama Bank including Cat, Eleuthera, Exumas, and Long. Genetic data yielded strong correlations between islands and phylogenetic entities, signifying independent evolutionary histories within anchialine caves across the platform. The island of Eleuthera showed intra-island gene flow and dispersal capabilities between blue holes separated by 115km, providing evidence of a crevicular spelean corridor within the island. However, no evidence of inter-island dispersal is present in the analyzed system. Consistent with previous biogeographic studies of cave crustaceans, the major barriers shaping the cave biota of the Bahamas Archipelago appears to be the deep trenches and channels separating the Bahamian banks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Exceptionally well preserved late Quaternary plant and vertebrate fossils from a blue hole on Abaco, The Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, David W.; Franz, Richard; Morgan, Gary S.; Albury, Nancy A.; Kakuk, Brian; Broad, Kenneth; Franz, Shelley E.; Tinker, Keith; Pateman, Michael P.; Lott, Terry A.; Jarzen, David M.; Dilcher, David L.

    2007-01-01

    We report Quaternary vertebrate and plant fossils from Sawmill Sink, a “blue hole” (a water-filled sinkhole) on Great Abaco Island, The Bahamas. The fossils are well preserved because of deposition in anoxic salt water. Vertebrate fossils from peat on the talus cone are radiocarbon-dated from ≈4,200 to 1,000 cal BP (Late Holocene). The peat produced skeletons of two extinct species (tortoise Chelonoidis undescribed sp. and Caracara Caracara creightoni) and two extant species no longer in The Bahamas (Cuban crocodile, Crocodylus rhombifer; and Cooper's or Gundlach's Hawk, Accipiter cooperii or Accipiter gundlachii). A different, inorganic bone deposit on a limestone ledge in Sawmill Sink is a Late Pleistocene owl roost that features lizards (one species), snakes (three species), birds (25 species), and bats (four species). The owl roost fauna includes Rallus undescribed sp. (extinct; the first Bahamian flightless rail) and four other locally extinct species of birds (Cooper's/Gundlach's Hawk, A. cooperii/gundlachii; flicker Colaptes sp.; Cave Swallow, Petrochelidon fulva; and Eastern Meadowlark, Sturnella magna) and mammals (Bahamian hutia, Geocapromys ingrahami; and a bat, Myotis sp.). The exquisitely preserved fossils from Sawmill Sink suggest a grassy pineland as the dominant plant community on Abaco in the Late Pleistocene, with a heavier component of coppice (tropical dry evergreen forest) in the Late Holocene. Important in its own right, this information also will help biologists and government planners to develop conservation programs in The Bahamas that consider long-term ecological and cultural processes. PMID:18077421

  13. 75 FR 39556 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... March 9, 2001, the Attorney General designated El Salvador for TPS based on an environmental disaster... earthquakes, other recent destructive environmental events and its weak economy, El Salvador cannot adequately... crisis that threatens to undermine sustained development and confidence in democratic governance, as well...

  14. 75 FR 38589 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Salvador Dali: The Late...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Salvador Dali: The Late Work... that the objects to be ] included in the exhibition ``Salvador Dali: The Late Work,'' imported from...

  15. Laboratory spawning and development of the Bahama lancelet, Asymmetron lucayanum (cephalochordata): fertilization through feeding larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Nicholas D; Holland, Linda Z

    2010-10-01

    Here we report on spawning and development of the Bahama lancelet, Asymmetron lucayanum. Ripe adults collected in Bimini spawned the same evening when placed in the dark for 90 minutes. The developmental morphology is described from whole mounts and histological sections. A comparison between development in Asymmetron and the better known cephalochordate genus Branchiostoma reveals similarities during the early embryonic stages but deviations by the late embryonic and early larval stages. Thus, the initial positions of the mouth, first gill slit, and anus differ between the two genera. Even more strikingly, Hatschek's right and left diverticula, which arise by enterocoely at the anterior end of the pharynx in Branchiostoma, never form during Asymmetron development. In Branchiostoma, these diverticula become the rostral coelom and preoral pit. In Asymmetron, by contrast, homologs of the rostral coelom and preoral pit form by schizocoely within an anterior cell cluster of unproven (but likely endodermal) origin. Proposing evolutionary scenarios to account for developmental differences between Asymmetron and Branchiostoma is currently hampered by uncertainty over which genus is basal in the cephalochordates. A better understanding of developmental diversity within the cephalochordates will require phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear genes and the genome sequence of an Asymmetron species.

  16. Molecular indicators of microbial diversity in oolitic sands of Highborne Cay, Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgcomb, V P; Bernhard, J M; Beaudoin, D; Pruss, S; Welander, P V; Schubotz, F; Mehay, S; Gillespie, A L; Summons, R E

    2013-05-01

    Microbialites (stromatolites and thrombolites) are mineralized mat structures formed via the complex interactions of diverse microbial-mat communities. At Highborne Cay, in the Bahamas, the carbonate component of these features is mostly comprised of ooids. These are small, spherical to ellipsoidal grains characterized by concentric layers of calcium carbonate and organic matter and these sand-sized particles are incorporated with the aid of extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS), into the matrix of laminated stromatolites and clotted thrombolite mats. Here, we present a comparison of the bacterial diversity within oolitic sand samples and bacterial diversity previously reported in thrombolitic and stromatolitic mats of Highborne Cay based on analysis of clone libraries of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene fragments and lipid biomarkers. The 16S-rRNA data indicate that the overall bacterial diversity within ooids is comparable to that found within thrombolites and stromatolites of Highborne Cay, and this significant overlap in taxonomic groups suggests that ooid sands may be a source for much of the bacterial diversity found in the local microbialites. Cyanobacteria were the most diverse taxonomic group detected, followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Planctomyces, Deltaproteobacteria, and several other groups also found in mat structures. The distributions of intact polar lipids, the fatty acids derived from them, and bacteriohopanepolyols provide broad general support for the bacterial diversity identified through analysis of nucleic acid clone libraries. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Biogeochemical cycling and microbial diversity in the thrombolitic microbialites of Highborne Cay, Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshrall, K L; Mobberley, J M; Green, S J; Visscher, P T; Havemann, S A; Reid, R P; Foster, J S

    2010-09-01

    Thrombolites are unlaminated carbonate build-ups that are formed via the metabolic activities of complex microbial mat communities. The thrombolitic mats of Highborne Cay, Bahamas develop in close proximity (1-2 m) to accreting laminated stromatolites, providing an ideal opportunity for biogeochemical and molecular comparisons of these two distinctive microbialite ecosystems. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive characterization of the biogeochemical activities and microbial diversity of the Highborne Cay thrombolitic mats. Morphological and molecular analyses reveal two dominant mat types associated with the thrombolite deposits, both of which are dominated by bacteria from the taxa Cyanobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. Diel cycling of dissolved oxygen (DO) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were measured in all thrombolitic mat types. DO production varied between thrombolitic types and one morphotype, referred to in this study as 'button mats', produced the highest levels among all mat types, including the adjacent stromatolites. Characterization of thrombolite bacterial communities revealed a high bacterial diversity, roughly equivalent to that of the nearby stromatolites, and a low eukaryotic diversity. Extensive phylogenetic overlap between thrombolitic and stromatolitic microbial communities was observed, although thrombolite-specific cyanobacterial populations were detected. In particular, the button mats were dominated by a calcified, filamentous cyanobacterium identified via morphology and 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Dichothrix sp. The distinctive microbial communities and chemical cycling patterns within the thrombolitic mats provide novel insight into the biogeochemical processes related to the lithifying mats in this system, and provide data relevant to understanding microbially induced carbonate biomineralization.

  18. Molecular and morphological characterization of cyanobacterial diversity in the stromatolites of Highborne Cay, Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jamie S; Green, Stefan J; Ahrendt, Steven R; Golubic, Stjepko; Reid, R Pamela; Hetherington, Kevin L; Bebout, Lee

    2009-05-01

    Stromatolites are sedimentary deposits that are the direct result of interactions between microbes and their surrounding environment. Once dominant on ancient Earth, actively forming stromatolites now occur in just a few remote locations around the globe, such as the island of Highborne Cay, Bahamas. Although the stromatolites of Highborne Cay contain a wide range of metabolically diverse organisms, photosynthetic cyanobacteria are the driving force for stromatolite development. In this study, we complement previous morphological data by examining the cyanobacterial phylogenetic and physiological diversity of Highborne Cay stromatolites. Molecular analysis of both clone and culture libraries identified 33 distinct phylotypes within the stromatolites. Culture libraries exhibited several morphologically similar but genetically distinct ecotypes, which may contribute to ecosystem stability within the stromatolites. Several of the cultured isolates exhibited both a positive phototactic response and light-dependent extracellular polymeric secretions production, both of which are critical phenotypes for stromatolite accretion and development. The results of this study reveal that the genetic diversity of the cyanobacterial populations within the Highborne Cay stromatolites is far greater than previous estimates, indicating that the mechanisms of stromatolite formation and accretion may be more complex than had been previously assumed.

  19. Tsunamis caused by submarine slope failures along western Great Bahama Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, Jara S D; Eberli, Gregor P; Kirby, James T; Shi, Fengyan; Tehranirad, Babak; Mulder, Thierry; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Hebbeln, Dierk; Wintersteller, Paul

    2016-11-04

    Submarine slope failures are a likely cause for tsunami generation along the East Coast of the United States. Among potential source areas for such tsunamis are submarine landslides and margin collapses of Bahamian platforms. Numerical models of past events, which have been identified using high-resolution multibeam bathymetric data, reveal possible tsunami impact on Bimini, the Florida Keys, and northern Cuba. Tsunamis caused by slope failures with terminal landslide velocity of 20 ms-1 will either dissipate while traveling through the Straits of Florida, or generate a maximum wave of 1.5 m at the Florida coast. Modeling a worst-case scenario with a calculated terminal landslide velocity generates a wave of 4.5 m height. The modeled margin collapse in southwestern Great Bahama Bank potentially has a high impact on northern Cuba, with wave heights between 3.3 to 9.5 m depending on the collapse velocity. The short distance and travel time from the source areas to densely populated coastal areas would make the Florida Keys and Miami vulnerable to such low-probability but high-impact events.

  20. Climate Change, Adaptation, and Formal Education: the Role of Schooling for Increasing Societies' Adaptive Capacities in El Salvador and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wamsler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With a worldwide increase in disasters, the effects of climate change are already being felt, and it is the urban poor in developing countries who are most at risk. There is an urgent need to better understand the factors that determine people's capacity to cope with and adapt to adverse climate conditions. This paper examines the influence of formal education in determining the adaptive capacity of the residents of two low-income settlements: Los Manantiales in San Salvador (El Salvador and Rocinha in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, where climate-related disasters are recurrent. In both case study areas, it was found that the average levels of education were lower for households living at high risk, as opposed to residents of lower risk areas. In this context, the influence of people's level of education was identified to be twofold due to (a its direct effect on aspects that reduce risk, and (b its mitigating effect on aspects that increase risk. The results further suggest that education plays a more determinant role for women than for men in relation to their capacity to adapt. In light of these results, the limited effectiveness of institutional support identified by this study might also relate to the fact that the role of formal education has so far not been sufficiently explored. Promoting (improved access to and quality of formal education as a way to increase people's adaptive capacity is further supported with respect to the negative effects of disasters on people's level of education, which in turn reduce their adaptive capacity, resulting in a vicious circle of increasing risk.

  1. [Heart failure mortality trend in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latado, Adriana Lopes; Passos, Luiz Carlos Santana; Guedes, Rodrigo; Santos, Alessandra B; Andrade, Marianna; Moura, Simone

    2005-11-01

    To assess mortality trend due to heart failure (HF) in Salvador--Bahia, from 1979 to 1995. HF was defined by notations from the 9th Review of International Disease Code (IDC9) 428.0, 428.1 and 428.9. HF death and population data (metropolitan area of Salvador) were obtained by means of Secretaria de Saúde da Bahia (Bahia State Health Secretariat) and Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). Mortality rates (/100,000) were total or per gender and age, and gross or adapted per age (straight standardization). Mortality rates due to HF had a progressive reduction in the period of time assessed, for both genders, especially up to 1992. From then and up to 1995, there was an apparent stabilization of the curves. Gross mortality rate went from 25.0/10(5), in 1979, to 16.4/10(5) inhabitants, in 1995 (a decrease of 34.4%). The reduction was 34.0% (23.3/10(5), in 1979, to 15.4/10(5) inhabitants, in 1995) for male sex and 35.2% (26.7/10(5), in 1979, to 17.3/10(5) inhabitants, in 1995), for female sex. The same trend took place in several age ranges, including the population > or = 40 years old, which has a greater risk for HF. After adaptation per age (standard population of 1979), it is observed that relative reductions in the rates were even greater. Mortality due to HF, in Salvador-Bahia, decreased from 1979 to 1992, becoming stable from then to 1995.

  2. De las pasiones al conocimiento en Farabeuf, de Salvador Elizondo

    OpenAIRE

    Mari Carmen Esquivel-Colín

    2015-01-01

    Se exploraron las diferencias entre filosofía y literatura como modos de razonamiento presentes en la novela de Salvador Elizondo: Farabeuf , y se analizó la manera en que ambas disciplinas se acercan al cuerpo y las pasiones. Se encontró que el erotismo aparece en esa novela como un modo de acceder al conocimiento del alma humana. Así entendida, la verdad que la literatura propone es interior, se aparta del mero razonamiento y exige de su lector la experiencia para ser aprehendida; tam...

  3. De las pasiones al conocimiento en Farabeuf, de Salvador Elizondo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Carmen Esquivel-Colín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se exploraron las diferencias entre filosofía y literatura como modos de razonamiento presentes en la novela de Salvador Elizondo: Farabeuf , y se analizó la manera en que ambas disciplinas se acercan al cuerpo y las pasiones. Se encontró que el erotismo aparece en esa novela como un modo de acceder al conocimiento del alma humana. Así entendida, la verdad que la literatura propone es interior, se aparta del mero razonamiento y exige de su lector la experiencia para ser aprehendida; también ofrece la oportunidad de imaginar la muerte y el erotismo como escapes del mundo.

  4. Sources of income persistence: evidence from rural El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa Escudero, Walter; Marchionni, Mariana; Arias, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Este trabajo utiliza una base de datos longitudinales única sobre zonas rurales en El Salvador (1995-2001) para investigar las fuentes principales de la persistencia y variabilidad del ingreso. Primero, proponemos un marco econométrico donde un modelo dinámico de paneles se simplifica a una estructura lineal con covarianza dinámica, lo cual aumenta la cantidad de grados de libertad usualmente perdidos en la construcción de instrumentos para estimar modelos dinámicos estándar. Segundo, investi...

  5. Regularized joint inverse estimation of extreme rainfall amounts in ungauged coastal basins of El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    A regularized joint inverse procedure is presented and used to estimate the magnitude of extreme rainfall events in ungauged coastal river basins of El Salvador: Paz, Jiboa, Grande de San Miguel, and Goascoran. Since streamflow measurements reflect temporal and spatial rainfall information, peak-flow discharge is hypothesized to represent a similarity measure suitable for regionalization. To test this hypothesis, peak-flow discharge values determined from streamflow recurrence information (10-year, 25-year, and 100-year) collected outside the study basins are used to develop regional (country-wide) regression equations. Peak-flow discharge derived from these equations together with preferred spatial parameter relations as soft prior information are used to constrain the simultaneous calibration of 20 tributary basin models. The nonlinear range of uncertainty in estimated parameter values (1 curve number and 3 recurrent rainfall amounts for each model) is determined using an inverse calibration-constrained Monte Carlo approach. Cumulative probability distributions for rainfall amounts indicate differences among basins for a given return period and an increase in magnitude and range among basins with increasing return interval. Comparison of the estimated median rainfall amounts for all return periods were reasonable but larger (3.2-26%) than rainfall estimates computed using the frequency-duration (traditional) approach and individual rain gauge data. The observed 25-year recurrence rainfall amount at La Hachadura in the Paz River basin during Hurricane Mitch (1998) is similar in value to, but outside and slightly less than, the estimated rainfall confidence limits. The similarity in joint inverse and traditionally computed rainfall events, however, suggests that the rainfall observation may likely be due to under-catch and not model bias. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  6. De la migración económica a la migración forzada por el incremento de la violencia en El Salvador y México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gómez-Johnson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se propone determinar el impacto del incremento de la violencia en las movilizaciones actuales desde el estado de Guerrero en México y en la zona conurbada de San Salvador y La Libertad en El Salvador, durante la década del 2000. Los migrantes aquí estudiados no forman parte de los flujos tradicionales, comúnmente relacionados con precariedad laboral y económica, sino que se ven obligados a salir por la inseguridad. Se utilizó el enfoque cualitativo, aunque las cuestiones de seguridad constituyeron un reto para la construcción del instrumento y para el contacto con los sujetos de estudio. Se optó por entrevistas semiestructuradas a personas afectadas por la violencia y a personal que trabaja y ayuda a esta población. Para esto se contó con apoyo del Comité de Familiares de Desaparecidos en México (Cofamide, la Procuraduría de Derechos Humanos de El Salvador y la Universidad José Simeón Cañas (UCA, y con el Centro Regional de Defensa de Derechos Humanos José María Morelos y Pavón y Médicos Sin Fronteras, en México.

  7. De la migración económica a la migración forzada por el incremento de la violencia en El Salvador y México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gómez-Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se propone determinar el impacto del incremento de la violencia en las movilizaciones actuales desde el estado de Guerrero en México y en la zona conurbada de San Salvador y La Libertad en El Salvador, durante la década del 2000. Los migrantes aquí estudiados no forman parte de los flujos tradicionales, comúnmente relacionados con precariedad laboral y económica, sino que se ven obligados a salir por la inseguridad. Se utilizó el enfoque cualitativo, aunque las cuestiones de seguridad constituyeron un reto para la construcción del instrumento y para el contacto con los sujetos de estudio. Se optó por entrevistas semiestructuradas a personas afectadas por la violencia y a personal que trabaja y ayuda a esta población. Para esto se contó con apoyo del Comité de Familiares de Desaparecidos en México (Cofamide, la Procuraduría de Derechos Humanos de El Salvador y la Universidad José Simeón Cañas (UCA, y con el Centro Regional de Defensa de Derechos Humanos José María Morelos y Pavón y Médicos Sin Fronteras, en México.

  8. Patrimonio, religiosidad popular e identidades a través de la acción colectiva: el caso del municipio de Huizúcar en El Salvador, Centroamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Heriberto Erquicia Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En El Salvador del siglo XXI, existe un interés de las localidades por conocer sus orígenes, sus historias, sus patrimonios y otros elementos que constituyen y conforman sus identidades. El municipio de Huizúcar, ubicado al sur de la ciudad d e San Salvador, se ha sido identificado a tr avés de su historia como uno de los lugares con población de ascendencia indígena de habla nahua - pipil , junto con otros municipios localizados en la misma cordillera. Dicha población, guarda dentro de su territorio y entre cada uno de sus habitantes un eno rme capital de tradiciones, relatos y memorias, entre ellos la historia, patrimonio, identidades y religiosidad popular, que conforman l a diversidad de universos históricos en dicha localidad . Con ello, l os elementos patrimoniales de la cultura material y las manifestaciones vivas de sus habitantes , conforman elementos esenciales en la construcción de la s historia s locales de El Salvador.

  9. Mielopatias por HTLV-1 na cidade de Salvador, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Melo

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Paraparesia espástica progressiva associada a HTLV-1 constitui-se em uma patologia com características endêmicas em várias regiões do Brasil. Em Salvador, 102 pacientes com mielopatias de diversas etiologias foram triados para HTLV-I/II com ELISA e Western blot em quatro hospitais gerais que assistem a população de baixa renda. Foram encontrados 36 pacientes com mielopatia associada a HTLV-I/II, o que está de acordo com a elevada prevalência dessa patologia em Salvador. Todos os pacientes com infecção pelo HTLV-I/ II apresentavam paraparesia espástica progressiva, bexiga neurogênica associada, a graus variáveis de comprometimento sensitivo superficial e/ou profundo e síndrome do neurônio motor inferior. O exame de LCR mostrou pleocitose linfocitária com aumento moderado de gama-globulinas e a ressonância magnética mostrou graus variáveis de lesões periventriculares e subcorticais associadas ou não a atrofia da medula espinal torácica. O exame neurológico e os dados de ressonância magnética sugerem que os pacientes com comprometimento neurológico por HTLV-I podem estar acometidos por graus variáveis de leucoencefalomieloneuropatia.

  10. La prensa en El Salvador: tolerancia al mejor postor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Eric Lemus

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El periodismo salvadoreño en el año 2002 estuvo marcado por la presión política, empresarial y las agresiones a la prensa de parte de distintos actores. Una característica que parece afincarse en el trabajo de campo es el riesgo a reportear cualquier evento público. Sufrir el impacto de una bolsa con agua o un empellón puede suceder en cualquier evento público, desde una huelga de médicos hasta en una pelea de vendedores callejeros que protestan por su desalojo.¿La prensa salvadoreña sufre un problema de credibilidad o el respeto al derecho a informar no existe? Las encuestan todavía registran a los medios de comunicación, después de la Iglesia Católica, como uno de los sectores con mayor credibilidad en el país.

  11. El senador Salvador Parga Torreiro (1838-1901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdés Hansen, Felipe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biography of Salvador Parga Torreiro (1838- 1901, a member of the Spanish Senate, a professor at the Law School of the University of Santiago de Compostela, and the president of one of the Spanish societies for economic development. Throughout his life he carried out a fruitful task of promoting local life in the social and economic levels and he became one of the first defenders in Spain and Europe of the right for women’s vote.

    Biografía de Salvador Parga Torreiro (1838- 1901, senador, catedrático de Derecho de la Universidad de Santiago y presidente de la Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País de Santiago. A lo largo de su vida desarrolló una importante labor en pro de la modernización socio-económica del país a nivel local, siendo uno de los primeros en reclamar el sufragio femenino en España y Europa en 1870.

  12. Metagenomic and metabolic profiling of nonlithifying and lithifying stromatolitic mats of Highborne Cay, The Bahamas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L M Khodadad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stromatolites are laminated carbonate build-ups formed by the metabolic activity of microbial mats and represent one of the oldest known ecosystems on Earth. In this study, we examined a living stromatolite located within the Exuma Sound, The Bahamas and profiled the metagenome and metabolic potential underlying these complex microbial communities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The metagenomes of the two dominant stromatolitic mat types, a nonlithifying (Type 1 and lithifying (Type 3 microbial mat, were partially sequenced and compared. This deep-sequencing approach was complemented by profiling the substrate utilization patterns of the mats using metabolic microarrays. Taxonomic assessment of the protein-encoding genes confirmed previous SSU rRNA analyses that bacteria dominate the metagenome of both mat types. Eukaryotes comprised less than 13% of the metagenomes and were rich in sequences associated with nematodes and heterotrophic protists. Comparative genomic analyses of the functional genes revealed extensive similarities in most of the subsystems between the nonlithifying and lithifying mat types. The one exception was an increase in the relative abundance of certain genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism in the lithifying Type 3 mats. Specifically, genes associated with the degradation of carbohydrates commonly found in exopolymeric substances, such as hexoses, deoxy- and acidic sugars were found. The genetic differences in carbohydrate metabolisms between the two mat types were confirmed using metabolic microarrays. Lithifying mats had a significant increase in diversity and utilization of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur substrates. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The two stromatolitic mat types retained similar microbial communities, functional diversity and many genetic components within their metagenomes. However, there were major differences detected in the activity and genetic pathways of organic carbon

  13. Metagenomic and Metabolic Profiling of Nonlithifying and Lithifying Stromatolitic Mats of Highborne Cay, The Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadad, Christina L. M.; Foster, Jamie S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Stromatolites are laminated carbonate build-ups formed by the metabolic activity of microbial mats and represent one of the oldest known ecosystems on Earth. In this study, we examined a living stromatolite located within the Exuma Sound, The Bahamas and profiled the metagenome and metabolic potential underlying these complex microbial communities. Methodology/Principal Findings The metagenomes of the two dominant stromatolitic mat types, a nonlithifying (Type 1) and lithifying (Type 3) microbial mat, were partially sequenced and compared. This deep-sequencing approach was complemented by profiling the substrate utilization patterns of the mats using metabolic microarrays. Taxonomic assessment of the protein-encoding genes confirmed previous SSU rRNA analyses that bacteria dominate the metagenome of both mat types. Eukaryotes comprised less than 13% of the metagenomes and were rich in sequences associated with nematodes and heterotrophic protists. Comparative genomic analyses of the functional genes revealed extensive similarities in most of the subsystems between the nonlithifying and lithifying mat types. The one exception was an increase in the relative abundance of certain genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism in the lithifying Type 3 mats. Specifically, genes associated with the degradation of carbohydrates commonly found in exopolymeric substances, such as hexoses, deoxy- and acidic sugars were found. The genetic differences in carbohydrate metabolisms between the two mat types were confirmed using metabolic microarrays. Lithifying mats had a significant increase in diversity and utilization of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur substrates. Conclusion/Significance The two stromatolitic mat types retained similar microbial communities, functional diversity and many genetic components within their metagenomes. However, there were major differences detected in the activity and genetic pathways of organic carbon utilization. These

  14. Sedimentary dynamics and high-frequency sequence stratigraphy of the southwestern slope of Great Bahama Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Marco; Betzler, Christian; Eberli, Gregor P.; Lindhorst, Sebastian; Lüdmann, Thomas; Reijmer, John J. G.

    2018-01-01

    New geophysical data from the leeward slope of Great Bahama Bank show how contour currents shape the slope and induce re-sedimentation processes. Along slope segments with high current control, drift migration and current winnowing at the toe of slope form a deep moat. Here, the slope progradation is inhibited by large channel incisions and the accumulation of large mass transport complexes, triggered by current winnowing. In areas where the slope is bathed by weaker currents, the accumulation of mass transport complexes and channel incision is rather controlled by the position of the sea level. Large slope failures were triggered during the Mid-Pleistocene transition and Mid-Brunhes event, both periods characterized by changes in the cyclicity or the amplitude of sea-level fluctuations. Within the seismic stratigraphic framework of third order sequences, four sequences of higher order were identified in the succession of the upper Pleistocene. These higher order sequences also show clear differences in function of the slope exposure to contour currents. Two stochastic models emphasize the role of the contour currents and slope morphology in the facies distribution in the upper Pleistocene sequences. In areas of high current influence the interplay of erosional and depositional processes form a complex facies pattern with downslope and along strike facies alterations. In zones with lower current influence, major facies alternations occur predominately in downslope direction, and a layer-cake pattern characterizes the along strike direction. Therefore, this study highlights that contour currents are an underestimated driver for the sediment distribution and architecture of carbonate slopes.

  15. Impact of the 'Providing Access to Continued Education' Programme on Repeat Teenage Pregnancy in the Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharkar, V P; Frankson, M A; Sakharkar, P R

    2015-05-15

    To determine the relationship of determinants such as age, ethnicity, education and sexual behaviour with repeat teenage pregnancy and to determine the impact of 'Providing Access to Continued Education' (PACE) programme in reducing repeat teenage pregnancy amongst its participants in The Bahamas. This retrospective cohort study included 397 attendees of the Adolescent Health Centre (AHC). Eighty-eight out of 139 registered participants completed the PACE programme. Data on age, ethnicity, education, sexual behaviour and repeat pregnancy in two years were analysed for descriptive statistics, and association of demographic characteristics and participation in the PACE programme with repeat pregnancy using the Chi-squared test. Mean age of participants was 16.4 ± 1.1 years; median school grade and mean grade point average (GPA) was 11 and 1.97 ± 0.7, respectively. The mean age at the first sexual activity was 14.9 ± 1.2 years. The mean age and number of sexual partners were 21 ± 4.3 years and 2 ± 1, respectively. Overall, repeat pregnancy rate was 39%: 37.4% amongst PACE registered and 31.8% amongst PACE completed mothers. No significant difference was observed in repeat pregnancy between registered and non-registered as well as those who completed the programme and those who did not. The odds ratio of 0.525 suggested that completion of the PACE programme had a moderate protective effect on reducing repeat pregnancy. Age, ethnicity, education and sexual behaviour showed no association with repeat pregnancy. The PACE programme did not reduce repeat pregnancy rate significantly. However, completion of the programme offered a moderate protection.

  16. Emergency care and referral among isolated island populations in the Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Brett D; Ahn, Roy; Markovchick, Vince; Hines, Rosemary A; Lauretti, Alexandre R; Lauretti, Julien R; Dahl-Regis, Merceline; Burke, Thomas F

    2015-03-01

    Isolated island populations face unique health challenges. In the Bahamas, the islands of Mayaguana, Inagua, Crooked Island, Acklins, and Long Cay-referred to as the MICAL Constituency-are among the most isolated. Our objective was to better understand regional emergency care needs and capabilities, and determine how emergency care can be optimized among island populations. During the summer of 2013, the project team conducted semi-structured key-informant interviews and small-group discussions among all health care teams in the MICAL region, as well as a community-based household survey on the island of Mayaguana. The interviews and small-group discussions consisted of open-response questions related to health care services, equipment, supplies, medications, and human resources. The community-based survey examined the prevalence of chronic noncommunicable diseases (CNCDs) and associated risk factors affecting the inhabitants of the region. The average number of annual emergency referrals from each of the MICAL islands was approximately 25-30, and reasons for referrals off-island included chest pain, abdominal pain, trauma, and dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Traditional prehospital care is not established in the MICAL Constituency. Providers reported feelings of isolation from the distant health system in Nassau. Whereas most clinics have a well-stocked pharmacy of oral medications, diagnostic capabilities are limited. The household survey showed a high prevalence of CNCDs and associated risk factors. Ongoing in-service emergency care training among MICAL providers is needed. Additional equipment could significantly improve emergency care capabilities, specifically, equipment to manage chest pain, fractures, and other trauma. Community-based preventive services and education could improve the overall health of the island populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. SAN CARLOS APACHE PAPERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROESSEL, ROBERT A., JR.

    THE FIRST SECTION OF THIS BOOK COVERS THE HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE INDIANS, AS WELL AS AN HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM. THE SECOND SECTION IS DEVOTED TO THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHERS OF THE INDIAN CHILDREN IN GLOBE AND SAN CARLOS, ARIZONA. IT IS DIVIDED INTO THREE PARTS--(1)…

  18. Late Holocene stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic variation of bulk organic matter deposited in Blackwood Sinkhole, Abaco, The Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamalavage, A.; van Hengstum, P. J.; Louchouarn, P.; Fall, P. L.; Donnelly, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    In the modern climate of the Bahamas, a latitudinal precipitation gradient only allows Pine (Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis) dominated forests to exist on the more mesic (humid) northern islands (Abaco, Andros, New Providence, Grand Bahamas). Previous research suggests that the northern Bahamas underwent dramatic environmental changes in the late Holocene (e.g., waves of human arrival, shifts in terrestrial vegetation and animal extinctions). However, disentangling the timing and relative forcing (climatic vs. anthropogenic) of these changes has proven challenging without high-resolution terrestrial climate records. Recently, a late Holocene decadal to multi-decadal laminated sedimentary record was recovered from Blackwood Sinkhole, on Abaco Island. The bottom of the sinkhole is characterized by anoxic, saline groundwater, while the upper, brackish meteoric lens provides a habitat to fish, algae and other organisms. Here, we present δ13Corg and δ15Norg values of bulk organic matter (OM) taken every cm of the 110 cm core to help elucidate changes in the chemical composition of the source of OM reaching the anoxic sediments of the sinkhole. δ13Corg values change at 812 Cal yrs BP (2s: 931-681 Cal yrs BP, 31.7 cm depth) from -30.5 ± 1.6‰ in the lower 80 cm of the core to -27.6 ± 1.2‰ in the upper 30 cm. There is a synchronous change from more enriched δ15N values, 3.7 ± 1.1‰, in the lower portion of the core, to lower δ15N values (1.9 ± .5‰), in the upper portion of the core. A pollen-based reconstruction of terrestrial vegetation from the same core indicates that these isotopic shifts are concomitant with a shift from a dominance of Arecaceae (Palms) and tropical dry hardwoods below 30 cm, to Pinus and Conocarpus predominance above 30 cm. These results indicate that the source of sedimentary OM deposited into the sinkhole changed coherently with regional landscape change. Biomarker analyses will be used to further identify the role of autochthonous

  19. The Impact of College Graduates on Bahamian Society: With Emphasis on Graduates from The College of The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Fielding

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Society at large, both government and residents, invests in education, a process which is considered to reach its apex with a university qualification. Economically, education is typically seen to be both a private and public good, and so it is useful to determine the benefits to both the individual and society arising from this investment. This paper examines the economic contributions of university-educated Bahamians to society. Using information obtained from The College of The Bahamas and other official sources, the study demonstrates that having a populace with higher education has a beneficial impact upon the Bahamian economy.

  20. Evaluación del efecto de la cartera vencida en el crecimiento económico en las Bahamas

    OpenAIRE

    Alwyn Jordan; Carisma Tucker

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo analiza la medida en que el producto económico y otras variables afectan la cartera vencida en las Bahamas mediante el uso de un modelo vectorial de corrección de error (vec). También intenta determinar si existe una respuesta de retroalimentación de la cartera vencida en el crecimiento económico. Los datos utilizados en el estudio abarcan el periodo de septiembre de 2002 a marzo de 2012. Los hallazgos más importantes son que el crecimiento de la actividad económica tiende a deri...

  1. Exceptionally well preserved late Quaternary plant and vertebrate fossils from a blue hole on Abaco, The Bahamas

    OpenAIRE

    Steadman, David W.; Franz, Richard; Morgan, Gary S.; Albury, Nancy A.; Kakuk, Brian; Broad, Kenneth; Franz, Shelley E.; Tinker, Keith; Pateman, Michael P.; Lott, Terry A.; Jarzen, David M.; Dilcher, David L.

    2007-01-01

    We report Quaternary vertebrate and plant fossils from Sawmill Sink, a “blue hole” (a water-filled sinkhole) on Great Abaco Island, The Bahamas. The fossils are well preserved because of deposition in anoxic salt water. Vertebrate fossils from peat on the talus cone are radiocarbon-dated from ≈4,200 to 1,000 cal BP (Late Holocene). The peat produced skeletons of two extinct species (tortoise Chelonoidis undescribed sp. and Caracara Caracara creightoni) and two extant species no longer in The ...

  2. Diverse habitat use during two life stages of the critically endangered Bahama Oriole (Icterus northropi: community structure, foraging, and social interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R. Price

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to prevent extinction in declining populations often depends on effective management of habitats that are disturbed through wildfire, logging, agriculture, or development. In these disturbed landscapes, the juxtaposition of multiple habitat types can be especially important to fledglings and young birds, which may leave breeding grounds in human-altered habitat for different habitats nearby that provide increased foraging opportunities, reduced competition, and higher protection from predators. In this study, we evaluated the importance of three habitat types to two life stages of the critically endangered Bahama Oriole (Icterus northropi, a synanthropic songbird endemic to Andros, The Bahamas. First, we determined the avian species composition and relative abundance of I. northropi among three major vegetation types on Andros: Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea forest, coppice (broadleaf dry forest, and anthropogenic areas, dominated by nonnative vegetation (farmland and developed land. We then compared the foraging strategies and social interactions of two age classes of adult Bahama Orioles in relation to differential habitat use. Bird surveys late in the Bahama Oriole’s breeding season indicated the number of avian species and Bahama Oriole density were highest in coppice. Some bird species occurring in the coppice and pine forest were never observed in agricultural or residential areas, and may be at risk if human disturbance of pine forest and coppice increases, as is occurring at a rapid pace on Andros. During the breeding season, second-year (SY adult Bahama Orioles foraged in all vegetation types, whereas after-second-year (ASY adults were observed foraging only in anthropogenic areas, where the species nested largely in introduced coconut palms (Cocos nucifera. Additionally, SY adults foraging in anthropogenic areas were often observed with an ASY adult, suggesting divergent habitat use for younger, unpaired birds. Other

  3. Salvador Dali’nin Takı Çalışmaları / Jewelry Works of Salvador Dali

    OpenAIRE

    Yağmur, Önder; Bulat, Serap

    2014-01-01

    Öz: Modern sanatın büyük isimlerinden olan Salvador Dali’nin resim sanatındaki dehasınınyanında takı sanatında da nasıl bir dahi olduğunun anlatılması gerekir. Sinemadantakıya kadar birçok sanatsal alanda çalışmalar ortaya koymuş olan Dali, kendisineözgü sanatsal üslubunu çalışmış olduğu her sanat dalında olduğu gibi takı eserlerine deyansıtmıştır. Salvador Dali’nin resimlerinde görülen detaycı ve zihni zorlayıcı özelliği,Dali’nin takı alanında ortaya koymuş olduğu eserlerinde de görülmektedi...

  4. Salvador Allende, por la democracia y el socialismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto de la Fuente A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ¿Habrá algo más obvio que preguntarse quién fue Salvador Allende? ¿Es reflejo, la definición o la interpretación de la historia de la que formó parte, entre 1927 y 1973? ¿Qué grado de sensibilidad y sentido de trascendencia había en él, cuando le habla al mundo desde el Palacio de Gobierno bombardeado e incendiándose, esa mañana del 11 de septiembre de 1973. El propósito de esta comunicación es sistematizar las experiencias, ideas y pensamientos de quien fuera el "Compañero Presidente de Chile". De paso, rendirle un homenaje a quien dejara una lección de entusiasmo, perseverancia y coherencia. Salvador Allende (1908-1973, quiso hacer concordar sus ideales con la conciencia crítica del político que fue madurando en su práctica y concepción revolucionaria. Mi hipótesis es la siguiente: en la biografía de Salvador Allende, en sus vínculos con las luchas sociales, políticas, culturales y controversias con el partido socialista, subyace una idea de América Latina y de socialismo a la chilena, donde él sitúa su praxis como médico, militante socialista, dirigente político, parlamentario y luego como Presidente de la República. La síntesis de su concepción política y programática, entre otros documentos, se encuentra en el diálogo que sostiene con Régis Debray en 1971 y que queda plasmada en el libro Conversaciones: a la realidad de un país subdesarrollado le aplica las concepciones teóricas de un marxismo enriquecido con los aportes científicos del devenir social. Su tesis es la transformación del país al socialismo por la vía pacífica-electoral, con respeto a las demás concepciones políticas, ideológicas y religiosas. Concibe América Latina ¿en la unidad de los pueblos en su lucha emancipatoria como base esencial de la victoria definitiva, (1966, Conferencia Tricontinental de La Habana.

  5. Determinants of the Level of Care Provided for Various Types and Sizes of Dogs in New Providence, The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fielding, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the level of care offered 424 dogs, classified as small dogs, large dogs, pit bulls and potcakes (the colloquial name for the local mongrel in New Providence, The Bahamas. Levels of care that meet the legal minimum –food water and shelter– as well as care considered essential and enriched in The Bahamas were less common for large dogs than small dogs. Small dogs tended to get more care than other dogs and so were at lowest risk of being neglected.It is suggested that the size of the dog is an important factor which determines the level of care provided. Pit bulls generally received similar care to potcakes which are often considered neglected. Large dogs were more likely to be kept outside and less likely to be allowed inside the home than small dogs. It is conjectured that in many instances the level of care offered constitutes partial abandonment due to a lack of interaction between caregivers and their dogs.

  6. METHODS OF TAXATION IN THE TAX HAVENS. EXAMPLES OF TAXATION IN THE BAHAMAS, BERMUDA AND THE CAYMAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANTIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We should never trust appearances: "the drum, with all the noise it makes is not only filled with wind"[1]. This old oriental proverb perfectly illustrates our proposal regarding the "true false" tax havens. Only at the beginning of this century, learned before firms to exercise their activity in the national territory, returned to international trade. The continuous search for new outlets to escape the growing production, export them first and then they were implanted overseas sales platforms and then installing production. Zero Haven sites or havens with zero tax consisting essentially of small economies, the British colonies (Cayman Islands, British Virgin Islands, dependent territories of the Commonwealth (Bermuda or territories became independent (Antigua, Bahamas 1963 or Vanuatu 1980. Our study will analyze tax havens most common: Bahamas, Bermuda or the Cayman Islands, where we find all models of reception that can be viewed in other areas zero-haven: International Business Companies (Antigua, the Virgin Islands, Nevis exemption schemes to insurance companies or banks (Barbados, Vanuatu. The subject of tax evasion subject of much debate, targeting both the domestic economic space and the world. Unlike their concerns globally, domestic concerns to reduce tax evasion resumes, especially on taxation of small businesses, avoiding knowingly scope of tax havens.

  7. The Peace Processes of Colombia and El Salvador: A Comparative Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gantiva, Diego

    1997-01-01

    Colombia and El Salvador, two Latin American countries, have developed similar counterinsurgency processes and started similar processes of peace negotiations between the insurgent armies and the forces of order...

  8. The Rule of Law and the U.S. Quest for Security in El Salvador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stapleton, Anthony K

    2007-01-01

    .... Separate case studies examine U.S. efforts to promote the rule of law in El Salvador in response to security threats ranging from human rights violations and insurgency to illegal immigration and transnational street gangs...

  9. REDES DO COMÉRCIO DE RUA DE SALVADOR, BAHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Nogueira Maia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo representa un estudio de caso de comercio de la calle que se produce en la Centralización Iguatemi y Avenida Lima e Silva, en Salvador, Bahia. Al caminar por las calles es la diversidad notable que esta actividad presenta son bienes de todo tipo, ropa, electrónica, productos alimenticios y los que están diseñados para satisfacer una necesidad momentánea. Buscamos entender el camino que lleva a la diversidad bienes desde la producción hasta el consumo, se analizan los productos de “extranjero” en un intento de controlar todo el trayecto del camino para ellos. Por lo tanto, desarrollamos un entendimiento en torno a redes posibles formados detrás de la venta ambulante, es decir, las redes de suministro de este comercio.

  10. Para una lectura iconotextual de Farabeuf de Salvador Elizondo

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Reveles

    2007-01-01

    L’objectif de ce travail est de montrer comment Farabeuf, roman du mexicain Salvador Elizondo,invite à réaliser une lecture à partir aussi bien des éléments visuels intégrés dans le texte, que de ceux auxquels le texte fait référence. Divisé en trois parties, l’article repère les éléments paratextuels et intertextuels présents dans l’oeuvre, afin de souligner l’importance des relations intermédiaires et iconotextuelles en tant que point de départ pour une lecture spécifique.El objetivo del pr...

  11. El Salvador: Entre la guerra y la paz, UNICEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Jaramillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante la guerra civil salvadoreña se dieron momentos de tregua. En una de ellas la UNICEF organizó la campaña de vacunación infantil; estos días abrieron el camino a la paz en otras latitudes del mundo. Con esta favorable experiencia fue posible organizar 17 campañas más con el apoyo de varias instituciones. El país tuvo que solidarizarse y extraer de esta dura década positivas lecciones, falta por pensar en la reconstrucción del país asolado por la violencia, el deterioro económico y la falta de oportunidades para el desarrollo humano de la población. Las negociaciones entre el gobierno y la guerrilla llegaron a su fin.

  12. Emergence and proliferation of private security companies in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Saavedra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El Salvador has been impacted by political instability and socioeconomic turmoil in a perfect environment for organized crime amidst the pacification and democratization of the country after a bloody internal conflict. This essay focuses on private security through a descriptive analysis of the factors that influence its development and implications for governance and governability in the country. Analysis of security as a common good, factors that influence the use of private security, and inter-institutional relations of private security and police require appropriate regulation in accordance with the factors mentioned above. When considering security as a common good, observance of fundamental rights is mandatory and forms the basis of legitimacy of government action.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v4i2.1765

  13. Results of investigation at the Ahuachapan Geothermal Field, El Salvador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.B. (HydroGeophysics, Tucson, AZ (United States))

    1990-04-01

    The Ahuachapan Geothermal Field (AGF) is a 95 megawatt geothemal-sourced power-plant operated by the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) of El Salvador. During the past decade, as part of an effort to increase in situ thermal reserves in order to realize the full generation capacity of the AGF, extensive surface geophysical coverage has been obtained over the AGF and the prospective Chipilapa area to the east. The geophysical surveys were performed to determine physical property characteristics of the known reservoir and then to search for similar characteristics in the Chipilapa area. A secondary objective was to evaluate the surface recharge area in the highlands to the south of the AGF. The principal surface electrical geophysical methods used during this period were DC resistivity and magnetotellurics. Three available data sets have been reinterpreted using drillhole control to help form geophysical models of the area. The geophysical models are compared with the geologic interpretations.

  14. The peace processes of Colombia and El Salvador : a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Gantiva Arias, Diego A.; Palacios Luna, Marco A.

    1997-01-01

    Colombia and El Salvador, two Latin American countries, have developed similar counterinsurgency processes and started similar processes of peace negotiations between the insurgent armies and the forces of order. One peace process was concluded in 1992, when El Salvador ended the war through a political solution (Peace Accords). Salvadoran insurgent forces agreed to demobilize its army and to become a legal political party, while the government agreed to make changes in the social and politic...

  15. Quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) de El Salvador, América Central

    OpenAIRE

    Cedar I García-Ríos; Migdalia Álvarez-Ruiz; José E Barraza; Ana M Rivera; Carlos R Hasbún

    2007-01-01

    En El Salvador se habían registrado los poliplacóforos Chaetopleura lurida (Sowerby, 1832); Ischnochiton guatemalensis (Thiele, 1910); Ceratozona angusta (Thiele, 1909); Chiton stokesii (Broderip, 1832) y Acantochitona exquisita (Pilsbry, 1893). Recolectamos quitones en aguas someras de El Salvador en julio del 2002, agragando a la lista a Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1857); Ischnochiton dispar (Sowerby, 1832); Stenoplax limaciformis (Sowerby, 1832); Callistochiton expressus (Carpenter, 1...

  16. The Impact of the Vietnam Analogy on American Policy in El Salvador from 1979 to 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-03

    were shot in front of the National Cathedral . Nowhere was the concern for the spread of revolution felt more intensely than in El Salvador. A small...98. 78. Ibid. 79. Ibid., 310. 80. Gettleman, xiii. 81. Ibid., 3. 92 82. Steffen W. Schmidt El Salvador: America’s Next Vietnam ( Salisbury , NC...Colorado River Press, 1984. Salisbury , Harrison E. Vietnam Reconsidered: Lessons From a War. New York, NY: Harper & Row, 1984. Schmidt, Steffen W. El

  17. PARANOÏA: la vie secrète de Salvador Dali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Buuren, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    En 1942, Salvador Dali, âgé de trente-huit ans, termine son autobiographie La vie secrète de Salvador Dali. Il prétend s’y livrer au lecteur en toute candeur. Mais c’est un leurre. Dali construit l’histoire de sa vie sur ce qu’il considère comme sa trouvaille capitale : la méthode

  18. Quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora de El Salvador, América Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available En El Salvador se habían registrado los poliplacóforos Chaetopleura lurida (Sowerby, 1832; Ischnochiton guatemalensis (Thiele, 1910; Ceratozona angusta (Thiele, 1909; Chiton stokesii (Broderip, 1832 y Acantochitona exquisita (Pilsbry, 1893. Recolectamos quitones en aguas someras de El Salvador en julio del 2002, agragando a la lista a Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1857; Ischnochiton dispar (Sowerby, 1832; Stenoplax limaciformis (Sowerby, 1832; Callistochiton expressus (Carpenter, 1865; Acanthochitona arragonites (Carpenter, 1867; Acanthochitona ferreirai (Lyons, 1988 y Acanthochitona hirudiniformis (Sowerby, 1832. Ampliamos la distribución documentada de I. dispar hacia el norte y describimos brevemente una especie innominada de Lepidochitona.Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora from El Salvador, Central America. Collections of 11 species of shallow water Polyplacophora from El Salvador were made in July 2002. Previously only five species had been documented in El Salvador: Chaetopleura lurida (Sowerby, 1832; Ischnochiton guatemalensis (Thiele, 1910; Ceratozona angusta (Thiele, 1909; Chiton stokesii (Broderip, 1832 and Acantochitona exquisita (Pilsbry, 1893. Of these, I. guatemalensis and A. exquisita were not collected in this census. Seven other species are reported here for El Salvador for the first time: Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1857; Ischnochiton dispar (Sowerby, 1832; Stenoplax limaciformis (Sowerby, 1832; Callistochiton expressus (Carpenter, 1865; Acanthochitona arragonites (Carpenter, 1867; A. ferreirai (Lyons, 1988 and A. hirudiniformis (Sowerby, 1832. The known geographic distribution of I. dispar is extended to the north. An un-named species of Lepidochitona is briefly described. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 171-176. Epub 2007 March. 31.

  19. Jurassic and Cretaceous Hagiastridae from the Blake-Bahama Basin /Site 5A, JOIDES Leg I/ and the Great Valley Sequence, California Coast Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessagno, E. A., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a total of 24 new species and four genuses of Jurassic and Cretaceous Hagiastridae found in the Great Valley Sequence of the California Coast Ranges. Also described are four new species from the late Jurassic strata of the Blake-Bahama Basin. Spumellariina with a spongy meshwork is included in the superfamily Spongodiscacea Haeckel.

  20. Geological control of earthquake induced landslide in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsige Aga, Meaza

    2010-05-01

    Geological control of earthquake induced landslides in El Salvador. M., Tsige(1), I., Garcia-Flórez(1), R., Mateos(2) (1)Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Geología, Madrid, Spain, (meaza@geo.ucm.es) (2)IGME, Mallorca El Salvador is located at one of the most seismically active areas en Central America, and suffered severe damage and loss of life in historical and recent earthquakes, as a consequence of earthquake induced landslides. The most common landslides were shallow disrupted soil-slides on steep slopes and were particularly dense in the central part of the country. Most of them are cited in the recent mechanically weak volcanic pyroclastic deposits known as "Tierra Blanca" and "Tierra Color Café" which are prone to seismic wave amplification and are supposed to have contributed to the triggering of some of the hundreds of landslides related to the 2001 (Mw = 7.6 and Mw = 6.7), seismic events. The earthquakes also triggered numerous deep large scale landslides responsible for the enormous devastation of villages and towns and are the source for the current high seismic hazard as well. Many of these landslides are located at distances more than 50 and 100 km from the focal distance, although some of them occurred at near field. Until now there has been little effort to explain the causes and concentration of the deep large-scale landslides especially their distribution, failure mechanism and post-rapture behavior of the landslide mass (long run-out). It has been done a field investigation of landslides, geological materiales and interpretation of aerial photographs taken before and after the two 2001 (Mw= 7.6 and Mw= 6.7) El Salvador earthquakes. The result of the study showed that most of the large-scale landslides occured as coherent block slides with the sliding surface parallel to a pre-existing fractures and fault planes (La Leona, Barriolera, El Desague, Jiboa landslides). Besides that the pre-existing fractures are weak zones controlling

  1. Tsunami hazard and risk assessment in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M.; González-Riancho, P.; Gutiérrez, O. Q.; García-Aguilar, O.; Aniel-Quiroga, I.; Aguirre, I.; Alvarez, J. A.; Gavidia, F.; Jaimes, I.; Larreynaga, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Tsunamis are relatively infrequent phenomena representing a greater threat than earthquakes, hurricanes and tornadoes, causing the loss of thousands of human lives and extensive damage to coastal infrastructure around the world. Several works have attempted to study these phenomena in order to understand their origin, causes, evolution, consequences, and magnitude of their damages, to finally propose mechanisms to protect coastal societies. Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow the development of adaptation and mitigation strategies to reduce risk on coastal areas. This work -Tsunami Hazard and Risk Assessment in El Salvador-, funded by AECID during the period 2009-12, examines the state of the art and presents a comprehensive methodology for assessing the risk of tsunamis at any coastal area worldwide and applying it to the coast of El Salvador. The conceptual framework is based on the definition of Risk as the probability of harmful consequences or expected losses resulting from a given hazard to a given element at danger or peril, over a specified time period (European Commission, Schneiderbauer et al., 2004). The HAZARD assessment (Phase I of the project) is based on propagation models for earthquake-generated tsunamis, developed through the characterization of tsunamigenic sources -sismotectonic faults- and other dynamics under study -tsunami waves, sea level, etc.-. The study area is located in a high seismic activity area and has been hit by 11 tsunamis between 1859 and 1997, nine of them recorded in the twentieth century and all generated by earthquakes. Simulations of historical and potential tsunamis with greater or lesser affection to the country's coast have been performed, including distant sources, intermediate and close. Deterministic analyses of the threats under study -coastal flooding- have been carried out, resulting in different hazard maps (maximum wave height elevation, maximum water depth, minimum tsunami

  2. Sea-level related resedimentation processes on the northern slope of Little Bahama Bank (Middle Pleistocene to Holocene)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lantzsch, H.; Roth, S.; Reijmer, J.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    . These glacial to interglacial differences in mineralogy, grain-size distribution and organic content clearly show the impact of climatically controlled sea-level fluctuations on the sedimentation patterns of the northern slope of Little Bahama Bank. The coarser deposits (ii) occur mainly at the transitions from...... glacial to interglacial and interglacial to glacial stages, and are interpreted as redeposition events, indicating a direct link between sediment properties (changes in mineralogy, grain-size distribution, variations in organic contents) and sea-level fluctuations. Changes in hydrostatic pressure...... content, carbonate mineralogy and grain-size; and (ii) coarser intervals with cemented debris consisting of massive, poorly sorted, mud-supported or clast-supported deposits with an increased high-magnesium calcite content. During interglacial stages (marine isotope stages 1, 5, 7, 9 and 11) periplatform...

  3. Applying Task-based Language Teaching in Introductory Level Mandarin Language Classes at The College of The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhua Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In foreign-language teaching and learning, there exist a number of methodologies and approaches. The idea and principles of Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT and the task-based framework in language teaching and learning have proven to be effective in classrooms. The three pedagogic goals for task-based approaches—communication, restructuring and fluency—are also the goals of Mandarin learners. This paper explains, using examples, that the Task-based Language Teaching applied in introductory level Mandarin classes at the College of the Bahamas is helpful and that enthusiastic Bahamian learners can improve their Mandarin skills by completing various activities and tasks within the task-based framework. Observations and results obtained through using this strategy have shown that TBLT is effective in classroom Mandarin teaching and learning for Bahamian college students and adult learners, though some issues exist, which warrant further discussion.

  4. A spatio-temporal analysis of suicide in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcach, Carlos

    2017-04-20

    In 2012, international statistics showed El Salvador's suicide rate as 40th in the world and the highest in Latin America. Over the last 15 years, national statistics show the suicide death rate declining as opposed to an increasing rate of homicide. Though completed suicide is an important social and health issue, little is known about its prevalence, incidence, etiology and spatio-temporal behavior. The primary objective of this study was to examine completed suicide and homicide using the stream analogy to lethal violence within a spatio-temporal framework. A Bayesian model was applied to examine the spatio-temporal evolution of the tendency of completed suicide over homicide in El Salvador. Data on numbers of suicides and homicides at the municipal level were obtained from the Instituto de Medicina Legal (IML) and population counts, from the Dirección General de Estadística y Censos (DIGESTYC), for the period of 2002 to 2012. Data on migration were derived from the 2007 Population Census, and inequality data were obtained from a study by Damianović, Valenzuela and Vera. The data reveal a stable standardized rate of total lethal violence (completed suicide plus homicide) across municipalities over time; a decline in suicide; and a standardized suicide rate decreasing with income inequality but increasing with social isolation. Municipalities clustered in terms of both total lethal violence and suicide standardized rates. Spatial effects for suicide were stronger among municipalities located in the north-east and center-south sides of the country. New clusters of municipalities with large suicide standardized rates were detected in the north-west, south-west and center-south regions, all of which are part of time-stable clusters of homicide. Prevention efforts to reduce income inequality and mitigate the negative effects of weak relational systems should focus upon municipalities forming time-persistent clusters with a large rate of death by suicide. In

  5. en El Salvador, una intervención de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Larissa Centeno Monge

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe algunas de las fortalezas y debilidades encontradas en el Proyecto de Atención a Poblaciones Móviles y sectores que las atienden directamente: personal de salud, migración, aduanas, cuerpos uniformados -recién instalados en las fronteras a nivel nacional- y que se encuentra plasmado en el Plan Estratégico Nacional para la Prevención, Atención y Control del VIH-SIDA e ITS / El Salvador 2005 –2010. El propósito de la intervención fue desarrollar la capacidad, mejorar los conocimientos y habilidades para realizar actividades de educación e información continuas que generen percepción de riesgo y un cambio de comportamiento para tener relaciones sexuales seguras o de menor riesgo ante las Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual y el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana-SIDA (ITS/VIH-SIDA que al final incidan en la disminución de la transmisión. La metodología incluyó tres momentos claves: la construcción de una línea de base, la implementación de talleres educativos y de información y una evaluación final. Logró captar un total de 380 individuos a nivel nacional. De los resultados mas significativos se pueden mencionar los alcanzados por los participantes que no pertenecían al sector salud, en los cuales hubo un aumento de conocimientos básicos –transmisión y prevención del VIH- y adquisición de habilidades de un 40% hasta un 60% más de lo encontrado en la línea basal, situación que no resultó ser la misma en los profesionales de salud, en quienes la tendencia fue similar en la línea basal y en la evaluación final. Se concluye que los esfuerzos realizados desde el año 2001 en que dan inicio las intervenciones en poblaciones móviles y que tienen como fin frenar el avance del SIDA en El Salvador no han sido suficientes hasta el momento pues sus estrategias carecen de participación activa de todos los sectores que atienden a dichas poblaciones vulnerables y expuestas a riesgo.

  6. A gripe espanhola em Salvador, 1918: cidade de becos e cortiços The Spanish flu in Salvador, 1918: city of alleys and tenements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Maria Cruz de Souza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo investigar o episódio da epidemia de gripe espanhola que atingiu a cidade de Salvador e outras áreas da Bahia, tendo seu ápice entre setembro e dezembro de 1918. Utilizando como fonte privilegiada a imprensa local, analiso o jogo do poder, a condição sanitária da capital, alguns aspectos da economia, as condições materiais de sobrevivência dos moradores de Salvador, a fragilidade das políticas de saúde e assistência pública e outros aspectos de uma sociedade complexa e desigual evidenciados pela epidemia.The article investigates the Spanish flu epidemic that hit the city of Salvador and the state of Bahia, reaching its height between September and December of 1918. The local press is a primary source in this analysis of power politics, sanitary conditions in the state capital, some economic issues, the material conditions for survival in Salvador, and the fragility of public health and assistance policies - all features of a complex, unequal society made visible by the epidemic.

  7. Diarrhea outbreak during U.S. military training in El Salvador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Kasper

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhea remains a major risk to deployed military units worldwide in addition to their impact on travelers and populations living in the developing world. This report describes an outbreak of diarrheal illness in the U.S. military's 130(th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade deployed in San Vicente, El Salvador during a training and humanitarian assistance mission. An outbreak investigation team from U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit-Six conducted an epidemiologic survey and environmental assessment, patient interviews, and collected stool samples for analysis in an at risk population of 287 personnel from May 31(st to June 3(rd, 2011. Personnel (n = 241 completed an epidemiological survey (87% response rate and 67 (27% reported diarrhea and/or vomiting during the past two weeks. The median duration of illness was reported to be 3 days (IQR 2-4 days and abdominal pain was reported among 30 (49% individuals. Presentation to the medical aid station was sought by (62% individuals and 9 (15% had to stop or significantly reduce work for at least one day. Microscopy and PCR analysis of 14 stool samples collected from previously symptomatic patients, Shigella (7, Cryptosporidium (5, and Cyclospora (4 were the most prevalent pathogens detected. Consumption of food from on-base local vendors (RR = 4.01, 95% CI = 1.53-10.5, p-value <0.001 and arriving on base within the past two weeks (RR = 2.79, 95% confidence [CI] = 1.35-5.76, p-value = 0.001 were associated with increased risk of developing diarrheal disease. The risk of infectious diarrhea is great among reserve military personnel during two week training exercises. The consumption of local food, prepared without proper monitoring, is a risk factor for deployed personnel developing diarrheal illness. Additional information is needed to better understand disease risks to personnel conducting humanitarian assistance activities in the Latin America Region.

  8. Estimation of density and population size and recommendations for monitoring trends of Bahama parrots on Great Abaco and Great Inagua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Milan, F. F.; Collazo, J.A.; Stahala, C.; Moore, W.J.; Davis, A.; Herring, G.; Steinkamp, M.; Pagliaro, R.; Thompson, J.L.; Bracey, W.

    2005-01-01

    Once abundant and widely distributed, the Bahama parrot (Amazona leucocephala bahamensis) currently inhabits only the Great Abaco and Great lnagua Islands of the Bahamas. In January 2003 and May 2002-2004, we conducted point-transect surveys (a type of distance sampling) to estimate density and population size and make recommendations for monitoring trends. Density ranged from 0.061 (SE = 0.013) to 0.085 (SE = 0.018) parrots/ha and population size ranged from 1,600 (SE = 354) to 2,386 (SE = 508) parrots when extrapolated to the 26,154 ha and 28,162 ha covered by surveys on Abaco in May 2002 and 2003, respectively. Density was 0.183 (SE = 0.049) and 0.153 (SE = 0.042) parrots/ha and population size was 5,344 (SE = 1,431) and 4,450 (SE = 1,435) parrots when extrapolated to the 29,174 ha covered by surveys on Inagua in May 2003 and 2004, respectively. Because parrot distribution was clumped, we would need to survey 213-882 points on Abaco and 258-1,659 points on Inagua to obtain a CV of 10-20% for estimated density. Cluster size and its variability and clumping increased in wintertime, making surveys imprecise and cost-ineffective. Surveys were reasonably precise and cost-effective in springtime, and we recommend conducting them when parrots are pairing and selecting nesting sites. Survey data should be collected yearly as part of an integrated monitoring strategy to estimate density and other key demographic parameters and improve our understanding of the ecological dynamics of these geographically isolated parrot populations at risk of extinction.

  9. Ubiquitous associations and a peak fall prevalence between apicomplexan symbionts and reef corals in Florida and the Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, N. L.; Thornhill, D. J.; Kemp, D. W.; Fitt, W. K.; Santos, S. R.

    2013-09-01

    Although apicomplexans are a widely recognized and important parasitic group, little is known about those associated with invertebrates, such as reef-building scleractinian corals. To resolve the potential impact of apicomplexans on coral health, it is first necessary to further describe this group of putative parasites and determine their prevalence among host species. Here, it was hypothesized that apicomplexan prevalence would vary seasonally, similar to what occurs in other marine apicomplexans as well as some coral symbionts. To test this, Caribbean scleractinian species Porites astreoides, Montastraea (= Orbicella) annularis, M. (= O.) faveolata, and Siderastrea siderea were sampled seasonally from two reefs each in the Florida Keys and the Bahamas for 9- and 5.5-year periods, respectively. Utilizing a PCR-based screening assay, apicomplexan DNA was detected from most Floridian (80.1 %: n = 555/693) and Bahamian (90.7 %: n = 311/343) coral tissue samples collected over these multi-year periods. Furthermore, apicomplexan DNA was detected from nearly all (98.7 %: n = 78/79) single polyps sampled at multiple locations within six M. faveolata colonies, indicating little to no intracolonial variation in the screening assay. Mixed-model logistic regression was utilized to determine the effects of season, host species, and reef on apicomplexan prevalence. The model identified a significant seasonal effect, with the highest apicomplexan prevalence occurring during fall. There also was a large effect of host species, with apicomplexan prevalence significantly lower among S. siderea colonies relative to the other species. While reef did not have a significant effect in the full model, there was a significant difference in apicomplexan prevalence between Floridian and Bahamian reefs for S. siderea, implying regional differences in this host species. Despite seasonal and species-specific differences in prevalence, apicomplexans are ubiquitous constituents of these

  10. A sedimentary record of middle Holocene precipitation and terrestrial vertebrates from Great Cistern Blue Hole (Abaco Island), The Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, R.; van Hengstum, P. J.; Winkler, T. S.; Donnelly, J. P.; Albury, N. A.; Steadman, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    Sinkholes and blueholes provide sheltered basins on carbonate landscapes for sediments and fossils to accumulate and remain protected from reworking by coastal processes. These sedimentary archives can span hundreds to thousands of years and may contain detailed records of environmental change and landscape evolution. Great Cistern Blue Hole on Great Abaco Island in the northern Bahamas provides such an archive. Today situated a few meters above sea level in the coastal zone, Great Cistern was likely located further inland prior to a geometric change to the local coastline and during lower sea-level. To explore the long-term record of environmental change in this region, sediment cores were collected between 2014 and 2015 that yielded an 8,000-year record of continuous sedimentation. Visual inspection of the core revealed multiple intervals dominated by coarse-grained sediment that subsequent microscopic examination identified as fragments of calcite rafts. Calcite rafts (common in caves) precipitate at an air-groundwater interface in quiescent environments from the offgassing of calcium carbonate saturated groundwater. The recurrent precipitation of calcite rafts in a sinkhole potentially reflects intervals of increased discharge of the local coastal aquifer in response to increased precipitation. The onset, peak, and decline of the calcite raft deposits are consistent with other precipitation proxy records from the Caribbean region, suggesting that the deposition is providing direct evidence for middle Holocene precipitation patterns in the northern Bahamas. In addition, numerous vertebrate bones have accumulated in Great Cistern including those of a Bahamian Boa (age: 7ka yBP), a species of crocodile no longer present on Abaco Island (age: 2ka yBP), and pre-European contact human remains (age: 600 yBP). As the project continues, other bones will be identified that may serve to enhance our knowledge of human and animal activity on the island.

  11. Exodus! Large-scale displacement and social adjustments of resident Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) in the Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzing, Denise L; Augliere, Bethany N; Elliser, Cindy R; Green, Michelle L; Pack, Adam A

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, significant habitat shifts have been documented in some populations of cetaceans. On Little Bahama Bank (LBB) there are sympatric communities of resident Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), monitored since 1985. The size and social structure (three clusters: Northern, Central, Southern) have been stable among the spotted dolphin community with little immigration/emigration, even after large demographic losses (36%) following two major hurricanes in 2004. In 2013 an unprecedented exodus of over 50% (52 individuals) of the spotted dolphin community was documented. The entire Central cluster and a few Northern and Southern individuals relocated 161 km south to Great Bahama Bank (GBB), also home to two sympatric resident communities of spotted dolphins and bottlenose dolphins. During the late summer of 2013 and the summers of 2014 and 2015 both sites were regularly monitored but no former LBB dolphins returned to LBB. Uncharacteristic matriline splits were observed. Social analyses revealed random associations for those spotted dolphins and very little integration between spotted dolphins that moved to GBB (MGBB) and those dolphin resident to GBB (RGBB). Male alliances among spotted dolphins were present, with some altered patterns. On LBB, the operational sex ratio (OSR) was reduced (.40 to .25). OSR for MGBB and RGBB dolphins were similar (.45 and .43). A significant steady decrease in sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a (a proxy for plankton production) occurred on LBB leading up to this exodus. Similar trends were not present over the same period on GBB. The sudden large-scale shift of spotted dolphins from LBB to GBB in association with the gradual decline in certain environmental factors suggests that a possible "tipping point" was reached in prey availability. This study provides a unique view into social and genetic implications of large-scale displacement of stable dolphin

  12. Geochemical evidence for African dust inputs to soils of western Atlantic islands: Barbados, the Bahamas, and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Prospero, J.M.; Carey, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    We studied soils on high-purity limestones of Quaternary age on the western Atlantic Ocean islands of Barbados, the Florida Keys, and the Bahamas. Potential soil parent materials in this region, external to the carbonate substrate, include volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent (near Barbados), volcanic ash from the islands of Dominica and St. Lucia (somewhat farther from Barbados), the fine-grained component of distal loess from the lower Mississippi River Valley, and wind-transported dust from Africa. These four parent materials can be differentiated using trace elements (Sc, Cr, Th, and Zr) and rare earth elements that have minimal mobility in the soil-forming environment. Barbados soils have compositions that indicate a complex derivation. Volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent appears to have been the most important influence, but African dust is a significant contributor, and even Mississippi River valley loess may be a very minor contributor to Barbados soils. Soils on the Florida Keys and islands in the Bahamas appear to have developed mostly from African dust, but Mississippi River valley loess may be a significant contributor. Our results indicate that inputs of African dust are more important to the genesis of soils on islands in the western Atlantic Ocean than previously supposed. We hypothesize that African dust may also be a major contributor to soils on other islands of the Caribbean and to soils in northern South America, central America, Mexico, and the southeastern United States. Dust inputs to subtropical and tropical soils in this region increase both nutrient-holding capacity and nutrient status and thus may be critical in sustaining vegetation. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Geochemical evidence for African dust inputs to soils of western Atlantic islands: Barbados, the Bahamas, and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Budahn, James R.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Carey, Steven N.

    2007-06-01

    We studied soils on high-purity limestones of Quaternary age on the western Atlantic Ocean islands of Barbados, the Florida Keys, and the Bahamas. Potential soil parent materials in this region, external to the carbonate substrate, include volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent (near Barbados), volcanic ash from the islands of Dominica and St. Lucia (somewhat farther from Barbados), the fine-grained component of distal loess from the lower Mississippi River Valley, and wind-transported dust from Africa. These four parent materials can be differentiated using trace elements (Sc, Cr, Th, and Zr) and rare earth elements that have minimal mobility in the soil-forming environment. Barbados soils have compositions that indicate a complex derivation. Volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent appears to have been the most important influence, but African dust is a significant contributor, and even Mississippi River valley loess may be a very minor contributor to Barbados soils. Soils on the Florida Keys and islands in the Bahamas appear to have developed mostly from African dust, but Mississippi River valley loess may be a significant contributor. Our results indicate that inputs of African dust are more important to the genesis of soils on islands in the western Atlantic Ocean than previously supposed. We hypothesize that African dust may also be a major contributor to soils on other islands of the Caribbean and to soils in northern South America, central America, Mexico, and the southeastern United States. Dust inputs to subtropical and tropical soils in this region increase both nutrient-holding capacity and nutrient status and thus may be critical in sustaining vegetation.

  14. Exodus! Large-scale displacement and social adjustments of resident Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis in the Bahamas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L Herzing

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, significant habitat shifts have been documented in some populations of cetaceans. On Little Bahama Bank (LBB there are sympatric communities of resident Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus, monitored since 1985. The size and social structure (three clusters: Northern, Central, Southern have been stable among the spotted dolphin community with little immigration/emigration, even after large demographic losses (36% following two major hurricanes in 2004. In 2013 an unprecedented exodus of over 50% (52 individuals of the spotted dolphin community was documented. The entire Central cluster and a few Northern and Southern individuals relocated 161 km south to Great Bahama Bank (GBB, also home to two sympatric resident communities of spotted dolphins and bottlenose dolphins. During the late summer of 2013 and the summers of 2014 and 2015 both sites were regularly monitored but no former LBB dolphins returned to LBB. Uncharacteristic matriline splits were observed. Social analyses revealed random associations for those spotted dolphins and very little integration between spotted dolphins that moved to GBB (MGBB and those dolphin resident to GBB (RGBB. Male alliances among spotted dolphins were present, with some altered patterns. On LBB, the operational sex ratio (OSR was reduced (.40 to .25. OSR for MGBB and RGBB dolphins were similar (.45 and .43. A significant steady decrease in sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a (a proxy for plankton production occurred on LBB leading up to this exodus. Similar trends were not present over the same period on GBB. The sudden large-scale shift of spotted dolphins from LBB to GBB in association with the gradual decline in certain environmental factors suggests that a possible "tipping point" was reached in prey availability. This study provides a unique view into social and genetic implications of large-scale displacement of stable

  15. Prenatal care quality indexes of public health services in Salvador, Bahia Indicadores de calidad de la asistencia prenatal en Salvador, Bahia Indicadores de qualidade da assistência pré-natal em Salvador - Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enilda Rosendo do Nascimento

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze prenatal care quality indexes of public health services in Salvador, Bahia following the implementation of the Prenatal and Birth Humanization Program (PBHB. METHODS: This quantitative descriptive study was conducted in primary care units in Salvador that adopted the Prenatal and Birth Humanization Program. RESULTS: Few pregnant women registered in the Prenatal and Birth Humanization Program had the benchmark of six prenatal consultations (9.76%. More than half of these registered pregnant women received all basic exams. However, only few women received puerperal consultations (5.66%, which conclude their maternal care. CONCLUSION: Prenatal care in Salvador, carried out through the Prenatal and Birth Humanization Program in 2002, had a low performance in basic exams, and in prenatal and puerperal consultations.OBJETIVO: Analizar indicadores de calidad de la asistencia prenatal prestada por servicios públicos de salud de Salvador/Bahia, después de la implantación del Programa de Humanización en el Prenatal y Nacimiento. MÉTODOS: Estudio cuantitativo realizado en las unidades básicas de salud de Salvador que se adhirieron al Programa de Humanización en el Prenatal y Nacimiento. RESULTADOS: Bajo porcentaje de gestantes inscritas en el Programa de Humanización en el Prenatal y Nacimiento realizaron seis consultas de prenatal (9,76%; más de la mitad de esas mujeres realizaron todos los exámenes básicos y hubo bajo porcentaje de las que se presentaron a la consulta de puerperio (5,66%. Además, apenas el 5,66% concluyeron la asistencia prenatal. CONCLUSIÓN: La asistencia prenatal en Salvador, prestada a través del Programa de Humanización en el Prenatal y Nacimiento en el año 2002, se caracteriza por la baja cobertura realizada por las unidades de salud tanto de consultas prenatales como de exámenes básicos y consulta puerperal.OBJETIVO: Analisar indicadores de qualidade da assistência pré-natal prestada por

  16. Salvador Alvarado y las elecciones de 1920, una candidatura olvidada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Iván Méndez Lara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra una de las facetas menos estudiadas del general Salvador Alvarado: su papel en la sucesión presidencial de 1920. A través de la revisión de fuentes poco exploradas como los periódicos El Heraldo de México y El Monitor Republicano podrá observarse la complejidad y tensión del ambiente político en la coyuntura electoral. Alvarado modificó su postura conforme avanzó la contienda, de una actitud belicosa que lo llevó a crear su propio partido político contra los generales Pablo González y Álvaro Obregón, pasó a ser un aliado del grupo sonorense en la lucha contra la imposición del candidato carrancista, Ignacio Bonillas. Además de comprender a un Alvarado interesado en la silla presidencial, este trabajo muestra el accionar de los periódicos capitalinos como espacios de discusión e impulsores de plataformas políticas en las elecciones que posicionaron a los sonorenses en la cúspide del poder.

  17. Police, Prevention, Social Capital and Communities in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Argueta Hernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between police and the community. In El Salvador, the role traditionally played by police has been that of the repressor of crime, with no concern for community outreach. However, over the last two years, the law enforcement agency has had an about face in terms of its attention to the problem of violence and crime. As a result, it has introduced the community police philosophy. That is, a law enforcement agency that empowers active participation in the community in identifying and preventing problems that affect it, meaning that community participation is promoted in terms of tasks tied to citizen security. Currently, what is under consideration is the degree to which there is a process of strengthening the bonds of solidarity, constructive relationships between neighbors, and the existence of social capital that contributes to cooperation between law enforcement and community in preventing violence and crime. Evidently the results of this new form of taking on public security will not be obtained immediately. It requires both the agents and commanders to be convinced that this philosophy can yield good results in crime prevention. However, the community must also become an active player in co-producing security.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i1.1391

  18. Hemoglobinopathies in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, Elisângela Vitória; Couto, Fábio David; Moura Neto, José Pereira de; Menezes, Joelma Figueiredo; Rêgo, Marco; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão dos; Gonçalves, Marilda Souza

    2005-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary disorders of the hemoglobin molecule with a high prevalence worldwide. Brazil has a prevalence of 0.1 to 0.3% of newborns with sickle cell anemia and 20.0 to 25.0% of heterozygous alpha2 thalassemia among African Brazilians. In the present study, we investigated the presence of variant hemoglobins and alpha2(3.7 Kb) and alpha2 (4.2 Kb) thalassemia in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Samples of umbilical cord blood from a total of 590 newborns were analyzed, of which 57 (9.8%) were FAS; 36 (6.5%) FAC; one (0.2%) SF; and five (0.9%) FSC. One hundred fourteen (22.2%) newborns had alpha2(3.7 Kb) thalassemia, of whom 101 (19.7%) were heterozygous and 13 (2.5%) homozygous, showing statistical significance for hematological data between newborns with normal alpha genes and alpha2(3.7 Kb) thalassemia carriers. The alpha2(4.2 Kb) thalassemia was not found. Frequencies found in the present study confirm that hemoglobinopathies are a public health problem in Brazil, emphasizing the need for neonatal screening and genetic counseling programs.

  19. ANÁLISE PRELIMINAR DA CONTROLADORIA DA CIDADE DE SALVADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Pitiá Barreto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Controllership has been the subject of studies and analyzes and reflections of prominentresearchers of the sciences that focus on the field management of organizations such as theAdministration and Accounting. It is important to note the contribution of the Controllershipof public governance, the foundation of a democratic and participative management. In this context, it fits the purpose of this study, reflect on public performance of the comptroller of the city of Salvador, noting the contribution that effective governance in the municipality. The studies were developed in the Department of Finance (SEFAZ Controllership of the municipality who is linked to. With exploratory, descriptive investigation that involved field research, analysis of documents and reports issued by SEFAZ and the Court of the City(TCM. It is the chart of SEFAZ, your budget and the opinions of TCM. The results show the importance of the Comptroller and denote the impression that the institution studied, this area is not performing their role well.

  20. Hemoglobinopathies in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adorno Elisângela Vitória

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary disorders of the hemoglobin molecule with a high prevalence worldwide. Brazil has a prevalence of 0.1 to 0.3% of newborns with sickle cell anemia and 20.0 to 25.0% of heterozygous alpha2 thalassemia among African Brazilians. In the present study, we investigated the presence of variant hemoglobins and alpha2(3.7 Kb and alpha2(4.2 Kb thalassemia in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Samples of umbilical cord blood from a total of 590 newborns were analyzed, of which 57 (9.8% were FAS; 36 (6.5% FAC; one (0.2% SF; and five (0.9% FSC. One hundred fourteen (22.2% newborns had alpha2(3.7 Kb thalassemia, of whom 101 (19.7% were heterozygous and 13 (2.5% homozygous, showing statistical significance for hematological data between newborns with normal alpha genes and alpha2(3.7 Kb thalassemia carriers. The alpha2(4.2 Kb thalassemia was not found. Frequencies found in the present study confirm that hemoglobinopathies are a public health problem in Brazil, emphasizing the need for neonatal screening and genetic counseling programs.

  1. Financiamiento de la seguridad pública en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfredo Molina Batlle

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available El artículo describe y analiza el comportamiento de las principales variables que afectan la seguridad pública, tomando como referencia los homicidios, extorsiones y delitos al patrimonio, además de variables en el ámbito económico y que mantienen una relación con el tema de estudio; utilizando métodos comparativos, tendenciasy modelos econométricos, con el propósito de concluir sobre los datos históricos y situar al lector en el contexto salvadoreño. Con ello se crea un modelo de seguridad pública que permite definir escenarios financieros, concluyendo en ideas y propuesta de fuentes de financiamiento para obtenerlos recursos que fortalezcan las institucionesy programas que afectan la seguridad pública en el país, analizándolas bajo perspectivas e impactos macroeconómicos, procurando que estas no afecten las principales variables económicas.Revista Policía y Seguridad Pública 5(1 2015: 31-74

  2. ANÁLISE PRELIMINAR DA CONTROLADORIA DA CIDADE DE SALVADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Pitiá Barreto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A Controladoria tem sido alvo de estudos e destaque de análises e reflexões dos estudiosos das ciências que têm como foco o campo gerencial das organizações como a da Administração e Contabilidade. É importante observar a contribuição da Controladoria à governança pública, fundamento de uma gestão democrática e participativa. Nesse contexto, insere-se o objetivo deste estudo, refletir sobre atuação da controladoria pública da cidade de Salvador, observando a contribuição efetiva na governança nesse município. Os estudos foram desenvolvidos na Secretaria da Fazenda (SEFAZ do município a quem Controladoria vincula-se. Com caráter exploratório, essa investigação descritiva envolveu pesquisa de campo, análise de documentos e relatórios emitidos pela SEFAZ e pelo Tribunal de Contas do Município (TCM. Verificou-se o organograma da SEFAZ, seu orçamento e os pareceres do TCM. Os resultados expressam a importância da Controladoria e denotam a impressão de que, na instituição estudada, essa área não esteja cumprindo bem seu papel. 

  3. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Reservoir analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Steingrimsson, B.; Truesdell, A.H.; Witherspoon, P.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland); Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA); Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is conducting a reservoir evaluation study of the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador. This work is being performed in cooperation with the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report describes the work done during the first year of the study (FY 1988--89), and includes the (1) development of geological and conceptual models of the field, (2) evaluation of the initial thermodynamic and chemical conditions and their changes during exploitation, (3) evaluation of interference test data and the observed reservoir pressure decline, and (4) the development of a natural state model for the field. The geological model of the field indicates that there are seven (7) major and five (5) minor faults that control the fluid movement in the Ahuachapan area. Some of the faults act as a barrier to flow as indicated by large temperature declines towards the north and west. Other faults act as preferential pathways to flow. The Ahuachapan Andesites provide good horizontal permeability to flow and provide most of the fluids to the wells. The underlying Older Agglomerates also contribute to well production, but considerably less than the Andesites. 84 refs.

  4. Area Handbook Series: El Salvador: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    the National Directorate of Intelligence (Direcci6n Nacional de Inteligencia -DNI) under the Ministry of Defense and Public Security; and the EMC’s C-2...Operaciones Conjuntos de Inteligencia -COCI), with a mission to collect, integrate, and analyze incelligence relating to terrorist activities in the San... Inteligencia : COCI), 232 tribution of, 62-63, 67-68, 74-76, 83, Jovel, Francisco ("Roberto Roca"), xxv, 88, 101, 118-19; early pattern for, 6; 238

  5. El Salvador en transición: el proceso de paz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo CÓRDOVA MACÍAS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El artículo hace un balance de la transición política salvadoreña, centrándose en el proceso de cumplimiento de los acuerdos de paz y las modificaciones sufridas por el sistema político entre 1992 y 1994. Asimismo se plantean algunos desafíos para la gobernabilidad democrática de El Salvador en los próximos años.ABSTRACT: The article makes a balance of the Salvadorian political transition, dealing with the process of implementation of peace agreements and the modifications of the political system between 1992 and 1994. Therefore some challenges for the future democratic governability of El Salvador are suggested in the next pages.

  6. Visión general del mercado de las telecomunicaciones en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Vidales Bolaños

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El artículo identifica las dimensiones del mercado de las telecomunicaciones en El Salvador para entender en qué medida las tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación son una realidad accesible para los jóvenes salvadoreños. Además pretende conocer si la emergencia de esta realidad tecnológica está suscitando el interés de los investigadores en comunicación de las universidades salvadoreñas y, en caso de que así sea, qué enfoques están adoptando en sus trabajos.

  7. Política habitacional e locação social em Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Baltrusis

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar o mercado imobiliário de locação em Salvador. Num primeiro momento, caracterizaremos o problema habitacional em Salvador, para o que nos apoiaremos nas diretrizes e ações previstas no Plano Municipal de Habitação de Interesse Social (PMHIS. Em seguida, trataremos das políticas implantadas pelos governos do estado e federal, destacando a experiência do Programa de Arrendamento Residencial (PAR e incorporando algumas considerações sobre o Programa Minha Casa, Minha Vida. Também será abordada a questão do mercado de locação em Salvador a partir do perfil de moradores e da dinâmica do mercado.

  8. 78 FR 58878 - Safety Zone; San Diego Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay... Diego Shark Fest Swim. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of the participants, crew... this rule because the logistical details of the San Diego Shark Fest Swim were not finalized nor...

  9. Distúrbio Ondulatório de Leste e seus impactos na cidade de Salvador Wavelike easterly disturbance and its impacts on Salvador city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Helena Machado dos Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Um evento extremo de chuva registrado na cidade de Salvador, Bahia, é investigado neste trabalho. Dados observacionais de superfície e altitude, dados em pontos de grade, imagens de satélite meteorológico e informações de desastres fornecidas pela Defesa Civil de Salvador (CODESAL foram utilizados na análise. No período entre a meia noite e 3 horas da madrugada do dia 12 de junho de 2006, a precipitação acumulada foi de 51 mm. Um número elevado de ocorrências foi registrado pela CODESAL, notadamente deslizamentos de encosta. Ventos fracos em toda a troposfera e energia potencial convectiva disponível máxima de 3.233 J kg-1 foram diagnosticados em Salvador no dia 11 de junho, quinze horas antes do período de chuva forte. Áreas de convecção profunda caracterizaram esse evento provocado por uma onda que chegou à costa leste do Nordeste do Brasil, após se propagar para oeste sobre o Atlântico Sul com velocidade de fase estimada de 10 m s-1, conforme evidenciado no campo da componente meridional do vento no nível de 700 hPa e em imagens de satélite meteorológico.An extreme rainfall event registered in the city of Salvador, Bahia, is investigated in this work. Observational surface and upper air data, gridpoint data, meteorological satellite images and disasters information provided by the Civil Defense of Salvador (CODESAL were used in the analysis. During the period from midnight to 3 A.M. on 12 June 2006 51 mm accumulated rainfall was registered. A high number of disasters were registered by CODESAL, particularly landslides. Weak winds throughout the troposphere and maximum convective available potential energy of 3,233 J kg-1 were identified in Salvador on June 11th, fifteen hours before the heavy rainfall. Areas of deep convection characterized this event, favored by a wave that reached the eastern coast of Northeast Brazil after moving westward over the South Atlantic with an estimated phase speed of 10 m s-1, as seen on

  10. A baixa qualidade do soro caseiro em Salvador, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martins Carvalho

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante o ano de 1988 foi realizada uma campanha de âmbito nacional com o objetivo de informar a população brasileira sobre o preparo e utilização do soro caseiro (solução sal/açúcar para reidratação oral. A campanha foi intensivamente divulgada pelos meios de comunicação de massa. Este estudo preliminar avaliou a qualidade do soro caseiro preparado por 23 mães de crianças internadas num hospital pediátrico de Salvador, Bahia. Catorze (60,9% dentre as 23 mães prepararam soluções, contendo concentrações de Na na faixa de 30-80mmol/L, recomendada pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Onze (47,8% soluções continham glicose dentro da faixa recomendada, de 30-112 mmol/L. Apenas seis (26% das 23 mães prepararam soluções com concentrações adequadas de Na e glicose simultaneamente e, destas, somente três (13% apresentavam, também, balanço adequado das concentrações dos eletrólitos. Características potencialmente iatrogênicas devido a elevadas concentrações de Na e glicose foram encontradas em 30,4% e em 43,5% das soluções, respectivamente. Os resultados revelam grande dificuldade das mães em preparar o soro caseiro com características adequadas para sua utilização numa campanha de controle da diarréia.In 1988 a nation-wide campaign aiming to inform the Brazilian population about preparation and use of simple sugar/salt oral rehydration solution (ORS was carried out. The campaign was massively shown by the media. This preliminary study assessed the quality of ORS prepared by 23 mothers of in-patient children from a pediatric hospital in Salvador, State of Bahia. Fourteen (60.9% among the 23 mothers prepared solutions containing Na concentrations ranging from 30 to 80 mmol/L which is recommended by the World Health Organization. Eleven (47.8% solutions contained glucose within the recommended range of 30 to 112 mmoI/L Only 6 (26% out of the 23 mothers prepared ORS with simultaneously adequate Na and glucose

  11. Las migraciones internacionales y sus efectos económicos en El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Funes, Oscar Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Se plantearán aspectos relacionados a los flujos migratorios sucedidos en El Salvador, desde la década de los años setentas y cómo se intensificó en el decenio de 1980, como consecuencia del guerra interna. Se utilizaron algunos estudios realizados por el Dr. Segundo Montes de la Universidad Centroamericana Simeón Cañas (UCA), y se determinará hacia donde migraron principalmente esos grupos de población. Luego se tomará de referencia los datos del Banco Central de Reserva de El Salvador (BCR)...

  12. Sinopsis del género Meliosma (Sabiaceae en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menjívar C., Jenny

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A synopsis of the genus Meliosma (Sabiaceae in El Salvador is presented, with a key, descriptions, illustrations, distributional data, phenology, and citation of all specimens examined. Two species are reported, including a new taxon, Meliosma echeverriae.Se presenta una sinopsis del género Meliosma (Sabiaceae en El Salvador, incluyendo una clave, descripciones, ilustraciones, datos de distribución, fenología y una lista de los especímenes examinados. Se describen un total de dos especies, incluyendo un nuevo taxón, Meliosma echeverriae.

  13. Social cohesion and peace education: Alternatives for preventing child-youth violence in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhina Cabezas Valencia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a general overview of the current situation of the phenomenon of childyouth violence in El Salvador. It describes some of the measures, both governmental and those deriving from international cooperation, that have been implemented to date, in order to seek a solution to the problem. The authors also explore more deeply the new trends in preventing the phenomenon. In this sense, the article is aimed at the prevention of violence through twospecific mechanisms: peace education and social cohesion. As the authors demonstrate, both mechanisms are potentially adaptable to the reality of El Salvador.

  14. Legislative attitudes toward overpopulation: the case of EL Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verner, J G

    1975-10-01

    The members of the 1972-1974 national assembly of El Salvador were asked to complete questionnaires on population in an effort to determine what their general attitude toward the population problem was. Indications were that the legislators were factually aware of the dimensions of population growth and the existing overpopulation, and that both problems were seen as impediments to economic progress. They also showed a willingness to act quickly on various public programs for controlling population growth, primarily in the areas of public education and healht. However, while admitting the urgency of the problems, none of the legislators had individually done anything about them and no such plans were underway. They indicated in their responses that they would have to play a major role in formulating any population control policy and that such a policy would probably concentrate on measures to deal with overpopulation in the short run, i.e., to cut the population growth rate by educating and informing the populous both with general and governmental publicity and through sex education in schools. The policy would also in part attempt to alleviate the general social conditions that the legislators perceived as contributing to high birthrates, i.e., illiteracy, lack of sex information, unemployment, rural isolation, unavailability of contraceptives, and lack of family planning Support would be sought from the public in spite of the Catholic Church, though the Church would eventually have to be considered in the formulation of a final policy. The fact of religious opposition plus the fact that the government has not yet embarked on a policy make the adoption and implementation of such a policy unlikely in the forseeable future. The ligislators themselves were pessimistic as to the possibility of controlling the population and felt that in view of its rapid growth, the country would not be able to provide educational and employment opportunites for the advancement of the

  15. AN EARLY POSTCLASSIC ROUND STRUCTURE AT CIHUATÁN, EL SALVADOR (Una estructura circular del Posclásico Temprano en Cihuatán, El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paúl E. Amaroli Bertolucci

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Round temples in Mesoamerica have been commonly ascribed to Ehécatl-Quetzalcóatl, the God of Wind and Air, on the basis of conquest period chronicles referring to such buildings. Round structures have been rarely reported on the southeastern frontier of Mesoamerica and none has previously been adequately documented or published. A recently excavated round structure at the Early Postclassic site of Cihuatán in western El Salvador raises questions concerning its possible use. The platform, unfinished at the time Cihuatán was burned and abandoned, could have been intended to be either a temple to Ehécatl or a gladiatorial platform for sacrifices to Xipe Tótec, two Mexican deities whose presence in El Salvador is attested to by archaeological evidence from other sites. ESPAÑOL: Los templos circulares mesoamericanos por lo común se relacionan con el culto a Ehécatl-Quetzalcóatl, el dios del Viento y del Aire, en base a las crónicas coloniales. En la frontera sureste de Mesoamérica apenas se ha documentado o publicado en detalle ninguno de ellos. Aquí informamos sobre nuestra excavación de una plataforma circular en el sitio de Cihuatán, un centro urbano del Posclásico Temprano de El Salvador occidental, que plantea cuestiones sobre su posible uso. La plataforma, sin terminar en el momento de la destrucción y abandono de Cihuatán, podría haber sido un templo dedicado a Ehécatl o una plataforma de gladiadores relacionada con los sacrificios al dios Xipe Tótec, dos deidades mexicanas cuya presencia en El Salvador está confirmada por la evidencia arqueológica de otros sitios.

  16. Characterization of atrial fibrillation in the Department of Internal Medicine at “Hospital Nacional San Rafael” (El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel I. Merino Barrera

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: The lower ejection fraction and increased left ventricular diastolic diameter were associated with atrial fibrillation. Most patients have a high risk of stroke; variables associated are older age, female gender and increased thickness of the interventricular septum.

  17. The cost of solidarity: the salvadoran labor movement in Puerto el Triunfo and Greater San Salvador in 1979 and 1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Gould

    2015-11-01

    the militant rise and expansion of the labor movement. The essay will trace this broader transformation while presenting a detailed examination of the political and social changes in Puerto El Triunfo, a quite distinct history that nevertheless reflected, influenced and paralleled the labor movement as a whole. I will make use of the concept of “desencuentro”.

  18. 75 FR 55975 - Safety Zone; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego... Shark Fest Swim, consisting of 600 swimmers swimming a predetermined course. The sponsor will provide 26...; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The following area is a...

  19. Los costos económicos de la violencia en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos ACEVEDO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este trabajo efectúa un ejercicio de cuantificación de los costos económicos asociados a las diversas manifestaciones y consecuencias de la situación de violencia prevaleciente en El Salvador, utilizando información para 2007. Tales costos son clasificados en cuatro grandes categorías: i costos en salud; ii costos institucionales (legales, judiciales y policiales; iii costos preventivos en seguridad privada; y iv pérdidas materiales. Los resultados de las estimaciones efectuadas indican que, en dicho año, la violencia impuso sobre El Salvador un costo económico equivalente a 10,9% del Producto Interno Bruto (PIB y a más del doble de las asignaciones presupuestarias para Educación y Salud. ABSTRACT: This essay carries out an accounting exercise on the economic costs derived from the violence situation which prevails in El Salvador, using information for 2007. Those costs are classified into four main categories: i costs on health; ii institutional costs (legal, judiciary and police; iii preventive costs for private security; and iv material losses. The results from the estimations performed indicate that, in 2007, the different expressions and consequences derived from the violence situation imponed on El Salvador an economic cost which was equivalent to 10,9% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP and more than twice the combined budget allocations to Education and Health.

  20. Agricultural Elites; Economic Structure; and the Transition Towards Democracy in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofía Cardenal

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the process of democratization in El Salvador. More particularly, it attempts to explain a political outcome: the Peace Accords that were achieved in this country in January of 1992. Despite the attention recent theories about democracy have placed on political variables and strategic behavior, this study focusses mainly on structural factors emphasizing the role that such variables played in explaining democratic change in El Salvador. The argument lay down here rests on Barrington Moore’s thesis regarding the role of agrarian elites in democratic transitions. Based on his seminal comparative study, he established that no democratic result could possibly emerge without an erosion of the agrarian elite’s power base. As this article discloses, the Moore Condition was fullfiled for El Salvador in the 80s, rendering possible the peace accords. One of the most important consequences of the war -and the political and social processes that accompanied it- concerned the changes that took place in the economy. Those transformations moved El Salvador away from an agro-export economy to place it into a commercial and moreindustrialized one, leading in turn to a weakening of the traditional agrarian elite.

  1. Chupar frutas in Salvador da Bahia. A case of practice-specific alterities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Port, M.P.J.; Mol, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we interfere with the naturalization of 'eating' by comparing two modes of engaging with fruits in Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. One of these is comer, which translates as 'to eat'. The other is chupar, 'to suck'. In comer, a piece of fruit crosses distinct bodily boundaries and gets

  2. Chupar frutas in Salvador da Bahia: a case of practice-specific alterities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Port, M.; Mol, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we interfere with the naturalization of ‘eating’ by comparing two modes of engaging with fruits in Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. One of these is comer, which translates as ‘to eat’. The other is chupar, ‘to suck’. In comer, a piece of fruit crosses distinct bodily boundaries and gets

  3. Small States and Big Institutions: USAID and Education Policy Formation in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the institutional power of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in the process of education policy formation in El Salvador during 2003-2005. The results show how bi- and multi-lateral institutions are able to leverage financial and intellectual capital to guide the policymaking process and sway…

  4. End-stage renal disease among patients in a referral hospital in El Salvador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trabanino, Ramón García; Aguilar, Raúl; Silva, Carlos Reyes; Mercado, Manuel Ortiz; Merino, Ricardo Leiva

    2002-01-01

    El Salvador is a country with high mortality from end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of a series of new cases of ESRD seen in a referral hospital in the country...

  5. [Vagotonía. The medical thesis of Salvador Zubirán].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Guillermo; Estañol-Vidal, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Salvador Zubirán submitted his thesis for his MD degree in 1923. This thesis falls within the context of the new Mexican physiological medicine and denotes the visionary character of its author. Zubirán appears here as the introducer in Mexico of the physiopharmacological approach in autonomic nervous system disorders.

  6. Dimensions of child punishment in two Central American countries: Guatemala and El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Goodwin, Mary M; Samandari, Ghazaleh; Kim, Shin Y; Clyde, Maureen

    2008-04-01

    Severe physical punishment of children is an important issue in international child health and welfare. This study examines such punishment in Guatemala and El Salvador. Data came from nationally representative surveys of women aged 15-49 and men aged 15-59 residing in Guatemala (2002) and El Salvador (2002-2003). The surveys included questions about punishment experienced during childhood, with response options ranging from verbal scolding to beating. In Guatemala, parents were asked how they disciplined their children; questions allowed them to compare how they were punished in their childhood with how they punished their own children. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are presented. In Guatemala, 35% of women and 46% of men reported being beaten as punishment in childhood; in El Salvador, the figures were 42% and 62%, respectively. In both countries, older participants were relatively more likely than younger participants to have been beaten as children. Witnessing familial violence was associated with an increased risk of being beaten in childhood. In Guatemala, having experienced physical punishment as a child increased the chance that parents would use physical punishment on their own children. Multivariate analyses revealed that women who were beaten in childhood were significantly more likely in both countries to be in a violent relationship. The use of beating to physically punish children is a common problem in Guatemala and El Salvador, with generational and intergenerational effects. Its negative and lingering effects necessitate the introduction of policies and programs to decrease this behavior.

  7. Evaluación del Proceso Consultivo Ciudadano en Villa el Salvador, Lima, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Calderon (Julio); L. Marulanda (Liliana)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractEl presente informe contiene un estudio de caso sobre “Evaluación del Proceso Consultivo Ciudadano en Villa el Salvador, Lima, Perú” realizado para el Instituto de Estudios de Vivienda y Desarrollo Urbano - IHS (Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies) y el Programa SINPA

  8. EDUCO Schools in El Salvador: A Democratic Tree in a Globalized Forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Cheryl T.

    2009-01-01

    This research on the Educacion con Participacion de Communidad (EDUCO) rural schools in El Salvador examined the nature of the reform and its impact on parent involvement and engagement for the local community; the underlying economic and political ideologies of EDUCO; and interpreted these findings to uncover the implications of the reform for…

  9. 77 FR 2990 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services RIN 1615-ZB06 Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension of Employment Authorization Documentation...

  10. 77 FR 1710 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension of Employment Authorization Documentation...- registrants at local offices. ] Am I eligible to receive an automatic 6-month extension of my current EAD from March 9, 2012 through September 9, 2012? You will receive an automatic 6-month extension of your EAD if...

  11. Carles Salvador i Gimeno: l'home i l'obra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Salvador

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Carles Salvador's daughter offers here a great amount of previously unknown information about the life of her father. This information deals with topics such as his background and family relations, the changes in his professional activities as teacher, and how he was professionally marginalized after Franco carne to power.

  12. Salvador Dalí et le mécénat du Zodiaque

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaar, Marijke

    2008-01-01

    When Salvador Dalí settled in Paris with the avowed aim to conquer the art world, he was unknown and virtually penniless. The great Economic Crisis which had hit Europe at that time, did nothing to improve his prospects. Yet, during his early years in the French capital, 1929-1935, he was able to

  13. A spatio-temporal analysis of suicide in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Carcach

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2012, international statistics showed El Salvador’s suicide rate as 40th in the world and the highest in Latin America. Over the last 15 years, national statistics show the suicide death rate declining as opposed to an increasing rate of homicide. Though completed suicide is an important social and health issue, little is known about its prevalence, incidence, etiology and spatio-temporal behavior. The primary objective of this study was to examine completed suicide and homicide using the stream analogy to lethal violence within a spatio-temporal framework. Methods A Bayesian model was applied to examine the spatio-temporal evolution of the tendency of completed suicide over homicide in El Salvador. Data on numbers of suicides and homicides at the municipal level were obtained from the Instituto de Medicina Legal (IML and population counts, from the Dirección General de Estadística y Censos (DIGESTYC, for the period of 2002 to 2012. Data on migration were derived from the 2007 Population Census, and inequality data were obtained from a study by Damianović, Valenzuela and Vera. Results The data reveal a stable standardized rate of total lethal violence (completed suicide plus homicide across municipalities over time; a decline in suicide; and a standardized suicide rate decreasing with income inequality but increasing with social isolation. Municipalities clustered in terms of both total lethal violence and suicide standardized rates. Conclusions Spatial effects for suicide were stronger among municipalities located in the north-east and center-south sides of the country. New clusters of municipalities with large suicide standardized rates were detected in the north-west, south-west and center-south regions, all of which are part of time-stable clusters of homicide. Prevention efforts to reduce income inequality and mitigate the negative effects of weak relational systems should focus upon municipalities forming time

  14. Characterization of the stromatolite microbiome from Little Darby Island, The Bahamas using predictive and whole shotgun metagenomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaburi, Giorgio; Duscher, Alexandrea A; Reid, R Pamela; Foster, Jamie S

    2016-05-01

    Modern stromatolites represent ideal ecosystems to understand the biological processes required for the precipitation of carbonate due to their long evolutionary history and occurrence in a wide range of habitats. However, most of the prior molecular work on stromatolites has focused on understanding the taxonomic complexity and not fully elucidating the functional capabilities of these systems. Here, we begin to characterize the microbiome associated with stromatolites of Little Darby Island, The Bahamas using predictive metagenomics of the 16S rRNA gene coupled with direct whole shotgun sequencing. The metagenomic analysis of the Little Darby stromatolites revealed many shared taxa and core pathways associated with biologically induced carbonate precipitation, suggesting functional convergence within Bahamian stromatolites. A comparison of the Little Darby stromatolites with other lithifying microbial ecosystems also revealed that although factors, such as geographic location and salinity, do drive some differences within the population, there are extensive similarities within the microbial populations. These results suggest that for stromatolite formation, 'who' is in the community is not as critical as metabolic activities and environmental interactions. Together, these analyses help improve our understanding of the similarities among lithifying ecosystems and provide an important first step in characterizing the shared microbiome of modern stromatolites. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Bathyal sea urchins of the Bahamas, with notes on covering behavior in deep sea echinoids (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawson, David L.; Pawson, Doris J.

    2013-08-01

    In a survey of the bathyal echinoderms of the Bahama Islands region using manned submersibles, approximately 200 species of echinoderms were encountered and documented; 33 species were echinoids, most of them widespread in the general Caribbean area. Three species were found to exhibit covering behavior, the piling of debris on the upper surface of the body. Active covering is common in at least 20 species of shallow-water echinoids, but it has been reliably documented previously only once in deep-sea habitats. Images of covered deep-sea species, and other species of related interest, are provided. Some of the reasons adduced in the past for covering in shallow-water species, such as reduction of incident light intensity, physical camouflage, ballast in turbulent water, protection from desiccation, presumably do not apply in bathyal species. The main reasons for covering in deep, dark, environments are as yet unknown. Some covering behavior in the deep sea may be related to protection of the genital pores, ocular plates, or madreporite. Covering in some deep-sea species may also be merely a tactile reflex action, as some authors have suggested for shallow-water species.

  16. Remote monitoring of chlorophyll fluorescence in two reef corals during the 2005 bleaching event at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzello, D.; Warner, M.; Stabenau, E.; Hendee, J.; Lesser, M.; Jankulak, M.

    2009-03-01

    Zooxanthellae fluorescence was measured in situ, remotely, and in near real-time with a pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer for a colony of Siderastrea siderea and Agaricia tenuifolia at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas during the Caribbean-wide 2005 bleaching event. These colonies displayed evidence of photosystem II (PS II) inactivation coincident with thermal stress and seasonally high doses of solar radiation. Hurricane-associated declines in temperature and light appear to have facilitated the recovery of maximum quantum yield of PS II within these two colonies, although both corals responded differently to individual storms. PAM fluorometry, coupled with long-term measurement of in situ light and temperature, provides much more detail of coral photobiology on a seasonal time scale and during possible bleaching conditions than sporadic, subjective, and qualitative observations. S. siderea displayed evidence of PS II inactivation over a month prior to the issuing of a satellite-based, sea surface temperature (SST) bleaching alert by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). In fact, recovery had already begun in S. siderea when the bleaching alert was issued. Fluorescence data for A. tenuifolia were difficult to interpret because the shaded parts of a colony were monitored and thus did not perfectly coincide with thermal stress and seasonally high doses of solar radiation as in S. siderea. These results further emphasize the limitations of solely monitoring SST (satellite or in situ) as a bleaching indicator without considering the physiological status of coral-zooxanthellae symbioses.

  17. Mitochondrial Echoes of First Settlement and Genetic Continuity in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Antonio; Lovo-Gómez, José; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Cerezo, María; Lareu, María Victoria; Macaulay, Vincent; Richards, Martin B.; Carracedo, Ángel

    2009-01-01

    Background From Paleo-Indian times to recent historical episodes, the Mesoamerican isthmus played an important role in the distribution and patterns of variability all around the double American continent. However, the amount of genetic information currently available on Central American continental populations is very scarce. In order to shed light on the role of Mesoamerica in the peopling of the New World, the present study focuses on the analysis of the mtDNA variation in a population sample from El Salvador. Methodology/Principal Findings We have carried out DNA sequencing of the entire control region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome in 90 individuals from El Salvador. We have also compiled more than 3,985 control region profiles from the public domain and the literature in order to carry out inter-population comparisons. The results reveal a predominant Native American component in this region: by far, the most prevalent mtDNA haplogroup in this country (at ∼90%) is A2, in contrast with other North, Meso- and South American populations. Haplogroup A2 shows a star-like phylogeny and is very diverse with a substantial proportion of mtDNAs (45%; sequence range 16090–16365) still unobserved in other American populations. Two different Bayesian approaches used to estimate admixture proportions in El Salvador shows that the majority of the mtDNAs observed come from North America. A preliminary founder analysis indicates that the settlement of El Salvador occurred about 13,400±5,200 Y.B.P.. The founder age of A2 in El Salvador is close to the overall age of A2 in America, which suggests that the colonization of this region occurred within a few thousand years of the initial expansion into the Americas. Conclusions/Significance As a whole, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that today's A2 variability in El Salvador represents to a large extent the indigenous component of the region. Concordant with this hypothesis is also the observation of a

  18. 75 FR 38412 - Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA... zone on the ] navigable waters of San Diego Bay in support of the San Diego POPS Fireworks. This safety... San Diego POPS Fireworks, which will include fireworks presentations conducted from a barge in San...

  19. Presa de San Esteban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Equipo Editorial

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available En el número 73 de esta revista se publicó un artículo, que trataba sobre los aprovechamientos hidroeléctricos de la cuenca del río Sil. En este trabajo se hace referencia, únicamente, a la importante presa de San Esteban, obra que, por so altura de salto, caudales disponibles y embalse, es la de mayor producción de las de la referida cuenca. Su proyección en planta e« circular, tipo gravedad, de 115 m de altura, y su embalse, de 213 millones de metros cúbicos.

  20. Adaptive introgression from distant Caribbean islands contributed to the diversification of a microendemic adaptive radiation of trophic specialist pupfishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie J Richards

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid diversification often involves complex histories of gene flow that leave variable and conflicting signatures of evolutionary relatedness across the genome. Identifying the extent and source of variation in these evolutionary relationships can provide insight into the evolutionary mechanisms involved in rapid radiations. Here we compare the discordant evolutionary relationships associated with species phenotypes across 42 whole genomes from a sympatric adaptive radiation of Cyprinodon pupfishes endemic to San Salvador Island, Bahamas and several outgroup pupfish species in order to understand the rarity of these trophic specialists within the larger radiation of Cyprinodon. 82% of the genome depicts close evolutionary relationships among the San Salvador Island species reflecting their geographic proximity, but the vast majority of variants fixed between specialist species lie in regions with discordant topologies. Top candidate adaptive introgression regions include signatures of selective sweeps and adaptive introgression of genetic variation from a single population in the northwestern Bahamas into each of the specialist species. Hard selective sweeps of genetic variation on San Salvador Island contributed 5 times more to speciation of trophic specialists than adaptive introgression of Caribbean genetic variation; however, four of the 11 introgressed regions came from a single distant island and were associated with the primary axis of oral jaw divergence within the radiation. For example, standing variation in a proto-oncogene (ski known to have effects on jaw size introgressed into one San Salvador Island specialist from an island 300 km away approximately 10 kya. The complex emerging picture of the origins of adaptive radiation on San Salvador Island indicates that multiple sources of genetic variation contributed to the adaptive phenotypes of novel trophic specialists on the island. Our findings suggest that a suite of factors

  1. Dolomitization of carbonated reservoirs of platforms. From geologic data to modeling. Example of the great Bahama bank; La dolomitisation des reservoirs carbonates de plate-forme. Des donnees geologiques a la modelisation. Exemple du Grand Banc des Bahamas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspard, E.

    2002-09-01

    Dolomitization has long been one of the most studied geological processes because of its economic interest (dolomitic rocks form a significant share of hydrocarbon reservoirs) as well as its academic interest, based on the fact that dolomite scarcely forms in current and recent marine environments whereas seawater is highly over-saturated; and that it is still not possible to synthesize it in laboratory under the same conditions. We used data collected by the University of Miami (Bahamas Drilling Project, ODP Leg 166) to understand the geological context of complete dolomitization of a Messinian 60 m thick reef unit. Classical methods of petrographic analysis of thin sections (optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence, scanning electron microscopy, in situ isotopic analyze using ionic microprobe) showed that the intensity of dolomitization is not controlled by the initial texture of the sediment, that the key parameter for dolomitization is the conservation of the initial mineralogy of magnesian bio-clasts, and that redox conditions, salinity and/or temperature of the precipitation fluid varied significantly during the process. Hydrodynamic modelling showed that during periods of high sea-level, Kohout thermal convection is a viable mechanism for driving marine fluids through the sediments. The key parameter for fluid circulations is the permeability anisotropy on the platform scale. Geochemical modelling showed that seawater is able to induce a complete dolomitization over durations of around one million years. Sensitivity tests showed that the critical parameter (as well as one of the less well-known) to describe diagenetic processes in carbonates is the water/rock reactions kinetics and in particular the precipitation kinetics of carbonate minerals. We finally propose that the dolomitization of the reef unit of the Unda well took place during the high sea-level period which extended over 1,1 My in the early Pliocene, according to the Kohout thermal convection

  2. Los Angeles og San Francisco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    1998-01-01

    Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Los Angeles og San Francisco april-maj 1998 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Institut 3H......Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Los Angeles og San Francisco april-maj 1998 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Institut 3H...

  3. A descriptive study of youth risk behavior in urban and rural secondary school students in El Salvador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Springer, Andrew E; Selwyn, B J; Kelder, Steven H

    2006-01-01

    ..., and sexual behaviors-among public secondary school students in central El Salvador. We employed a multi-stage sampling design in which school districts, schools, and classrooms were randomly selected...

  4. The Road from LaPalma. Analysis of the Potential for a Negotiated Solution in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    that is not their role. * - 3 6 Juqg, Harald, " Class Strugle and Civil War in El Salvador , in El Salvador: Central America in the New Cold War...weakened the hold of oligarchic domination. Along with modernization came the attendant social dynamics of urbanization and middle class growth. The urban...NUMBER OF PAGES 63 14. MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(if dillerent from Controlling office) IS. SECURITY CLASS . (of this report) UNCLASSIFIED 13s

  5. Storm drains as larval development and adult resting sites for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Salvador, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Paploski,Igor Adolfo Dexheimer; Rodrigues, Moreno S.; Mugabe, V?nio Andr?; Kikuti,Mariana; Tavares, Aline S.; Reis, Mitermayer Galv?o; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro,Guilherme Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue (DENV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), Zika (ZIKV), as well as yellow fever (YFV) viruses are transmitted to humans by Aedes spp. females. In Salvador, the largest urban center in north-eastern Brazil, the four DENV types have been circulating, and more recently, CHIKV and ZIKV have also become common. We studied the role of storm drains as Aedes larval development and adult resting sites in four neighbourhoods of Salvador, representing different socioeconomic, infrastructure and topo...

  6. Tendência da mortalidade por insuficiência cardíaca em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Heart failure mortality trend in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Lopes Latado

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a tendência da mortalidade por insuficiência cardíaca (IC em Salvador - Bahia, no período de 1979-1995. MÉTODOS: A IC foi definida pelas notações da 9ª Revisão do Código Internacional de Doenças (CID9 428.0, 428.1 e 428.9. Dados de óbitos por IC e populacionais (região metropolitana de Salvador foram obtidos por meio da Secretaria de Saúde da Bahia e do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. As taxas de mortalidade (/100.000 foram totais ou por gênero e idade, e brutas ou ajustadas por idade (padronização direta. RESULTADOS: As taxas de mortalidade por IC sofreram redução progressiva no período de tempo avaliado, para ambos os gêneros, especialmente até o ano de 1992. A partir daí e até 1995, ocorreu uma aparente estabilização das curvas. A taxa de mortalidade bruta passou de 25,0/10(5, em 1979, para 16,4/10(5 habitantes, em 1995 (queda de 34,4%. A redução foi de 34,0% (23,3/10(5, em 1979, para 15,4/10(5 habitantes, em 1995 para o sexo masculino e de 35,2% (26,7/10(5, em 1979, para 17,3/10(5 habitantes, em 1995, para o sexo feminino. A mesma tendência ocorreu nas diversas faixas etárias, inclusive para a população > 40 anos, de maior risco para IC. Após o ajuste por idade (população padrão de 1979, observa-se que as reduções relativas nas taxas foram ainda maiores. CONCLUSÃO: A mortalidade por IC, em Salvador-Bahia, declinou de 1979 a 1992, estabilizando-se a partir de então até 1995.OBJECTIVE: To assess mortality trend due to heart failure (HF in Salvador - Bahia, from 1979 to 1995. METHODS: HF was defined by notations from the 9th Review of International Disease Code (IDC9 428.0, 428.1 and 428.9. HF death and population data (metropolitan area of Salvador were obtained by means of Secretaria de Saúde da Bahia (Bahia State Health Secretariat and Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Mortality rates (/100,000 were

  7. Physiological, morphological, and ecological tradeoffs influence vertical habitat use of deep-diving toothed-whales in the Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Trevor W; Durban, John W; Claridge, Diane E; Dunn, Charlotte A; Fearnbach, Holly; Parsons, Kim M; Andrews, Russel D; Ballance, Lisa T

    2017-01-01

    Dive capacity among toothed whales (suborder: Odontoceti) has been shown to generally increase with body mass in a relationship closely linked to the allometric scaling of metabolic rates. However, two odontocete species tagged in this study, the Blainville's beaked whale Mesoplodon densirostris and the Cuvier's beaked whale Ziphius cavirostris, confounded expectations of a simple allometric relationship, with exceptionally long (mean: 46.1 min & 65.4 min) and deep dives (mean: 1129 m & 1179 m), and comparatively small body masses (med.: 842.9 kg & 1556.7 kg). These two species also exhibited exceptionally long recovery periods between successive deep dives, or inter-deep-dive intervals (M. densirostris: med. 62 min; Z. cavirostris: med. 68 min). We examined competing hypotheses to explain observed patterns of vertical habitat use based on body mass, oxygen binding protein concentrations, and inter-deep-dive intervals in an assemblage of five sympatric toothed whales species in the Bahamas. Hypotheses were evaluated using dive data from satellite tags attached to the two beaked whales (M. densirostris, n = 12; Z. cavirostris, n = 7), as well as melon-headed whales Peponocephala electra (n = 13), short-finned pilot whales Globicephala macrorhynchus (n = 15), and sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus (n = 27). Body mass and myoglobin concentration together explained only 36% of the variance in maximum dive durations. The inclusion of inter-deep-dive intervals, substantially improved model fits (R2 = 0.92). This finding supported a hypothesis that beaked whales extend foraging dives by exceeding aerobic dive limits, with the extension of inter-deep-dive intervals corresponding to metabolism of accumulated lactic acid. This inference points to intriguing tradeoffs between body size, access to prey in different depth strata, and time allocation within dive cycles. These tradeoffs and resulting differences in habitat use have important implications for spatial distribution

  8. Early sediment diagenesis on the Blake/Bahama Outer Ridge, North Atlantic Ocean, and its effects on sediment magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Martha; Lund, Steve P.; Hammond, Douglas E.; Schwartz, Richard; Wong, Kathy

    1997-04-01

    Sediment magnetic and geochemical studies of a suite of deep-sea sediment cores from the Blake/Bahama Outer Ridge (BBOR), North Atlantic Ocean, have identified two current redox boundaries in surficial (Holocene), carbonate-rich sediments over much of the BBOR. The upper Mn+4/Mn+2 redox boundary is associated with a spike in the concentration of solid-phase Mn (as MnO2); the lower Fe+3/Fe+2 redox boundary is associated with a spike in the concentration of solid-phase Fe (as goethite, αFeOOH). Over much of the BBOR, high sediment magnetic intensities occur in surficial, carbonate-rich sediments associated with these redox boundaries and lower intensities occur in deeper (late Pleistocene) carbonate-poor sediments. This relationship is opposite to that expected if sediment magnetism simply reflects the clastic (noncarbonate) sediment fraction. The surficial, high sediment magnetic intensities are due primarily to the following two factors: (1) magnetic mineral authigenesis associated with early diagenesis and (2) the presence of abundant bacterial magnetosomes. Magnetosomes are almost absent in the late Pleistocene low-carbonate sediments owing, most likely, to local Pleistocene environmental conditions (high clastic flux, low organic flux) which did not favor their growth. The sediment natural remanent magnetization is strongly correlated with the sediment clastic fraction and is relatively unaffected by early diagenesis and the presence of abundant bacterial magnetite. If this is typical, bacterial magnetite may be more abundant in nature but less important to sediment paleomagnetic records, than previously thought.

  9. Arquivos secretos eclesiásticos em Salvador Archivos secretos eclesiásticos en Salvador de Bahía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Aparecida Gonzaga da Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo investiga os critérios empregados por arquivos de ordens religiosas e pelo Arquivo da Cúria de Salvador para identificar o teor secreto de seus documentos. Consideram-se as relações históricas entre a Igreja Católica e o poder civil para compreender o porquê de muitos documentos depositados nos arquivos eclesiásticos brasileiros serem identificados como de interesse público e social pela lei nacional. O trabalho também destaca as disposições normativas existentes nas legislações civil e canônica relacionadas aos arquivos secretos. Apresenta ainda uma breve discussão sobre a questão do acesso e sigilo da informação, bem como sobre o direito à informação. Quanto aos procedimentos de pesquisa, utilizou-se o sítio eletrônico da Arquidiocese de Salvador na seleção das ordens masculinas e femininas estudadas; em seguida, foi aplicada entrevista com questões semi-estruturadas com a finalidade de coletar dados para os resultados empíricos desta pesquisa. Conclui-se que não existem critérios explícitos para a classificação dos documentos considerados secretos nos arquivos eclesiásticos católicos de Salvador, o que leva à utilização de critérios aleatórios e que seus responsáveis não demonstraram possuir domínio do significado de documentos secretos, já que entram em contradição em suas afirmações.

  10. Statistical relationships between local sea level and weather with Florida-Bahamas cable and Pegasus measurements of Florida Current volume transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, George A.; Mayer, Dennis A.; Bushnell, Mark

    1990-03-01

    Straits of Florida sea level is studied as a measure of Florida Current volume transport because sea level provides an independent time series both (1) for detecting changes in the calibration of the Florida-Bahamas submarine cable which has been operating since 1982, and (2) as a measure of the strength of the Gulf Stream System dating to the 1930s when cable measurements were not available. Accordingly, tide gauge records from Haulover Beach (Miami) and Lake Worth, Florida, and from Cat Cay and Settlement Point, The Bahamas, together with Miami weather and cable voltage, are correlated with each other and with discrete volume transport estimated from all Pegasus data taken during the intensive 1982-1984 Subtropical Atlantic Climate Studies (STACS) observations. Time domain linear correlation coefficients between these 132 Pegasus values and cable voltage observations, Cat Cay minus Haulover Beach sea level, and Haulover Beach sea level only, are 0.91, 0.55, and -0.76, respectively, but for the 1982-1988 time series, Cat Cay minus Haulover Beach is better correlated with cable observations (0.62) than is Haulover Beach alone (-0.44). Frequency domain modeling computations reveal that the sea level and cable data are organized in such a way that most of their energy lies below frequencies of 30-1 cycles per day (cpd). In a subseasonal band (up to and including the semiannual frequency) 49% of the cable energy and 59% of the Haulover Beach energy can be accounted for using 30-day low-passed data. A subseasonal frequency response function has been tentatively identified that relates both Florida sea level and Bahamas-Florida sea level difference to cable observations and can successfully account for more than 60% of the observed cable variance (standard error is ±1×106 m3 s-1). Further, negative Florida sea level only and Bahamas-Florida sea level difference have different phase relationships with cable observations; it is suggested that steric effects could be

  11. Características da assistência ao parto na cidade do Salvador (Bahia, Brasil Characteristics of the maternity care in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Guimarães Neto Dias

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Levou-se a efeito estudo para analisar a disponibilidade de serviços de maternidade na cidade do Salvador, Brasil. Foi elaborado questionário destinado à obtenção de informações sobre o tipo de hospital, meios de manutenção, número de leitos obstétricos existentes, tempo e percentual de ocupação de leitos hospitalares. Informações sobre o tipo de assistência fornecida por ocasião da admissão, foram obtidas a partir do livro de ocorrências de cada instituição. Os dados referentes a mortalidade para o período 1961-1970 foram obtidos de duas fontes diferentes. No primeiro período de 1971, o estudo assim conduzido, demonstrou elevada demanda para leitos hospitalares mantidos pelo Governo estadual e período de permanência muito curto na maioria dos hospitais. As taxas de abortos e de mortalidade materna, em 1970, revelaram-se muito elevadas. Ambos os aspectos da assistência à maternidade apresentam-se como problemas importantes de Saúde Pública na cidade do Salvador.A study was made attempting to analyse the availability of maternity services in the City of Salvador, Brazil. A questionaire was designed aiming at to obtain information on the type of the hospital, owner ship, number of existing lying-beds, length of stay and percentage of occupation of hospital beds. The kind of natal care delivered by the time of the admission, was obtained from the book of ocurrences of each institution, while the mortality data to the period 1961-1970 were derived from two different sources. The study was conducted in the first period of 1971 and has indicated: a high demand for the hospital beds maintained by the state government and a very low length of stay in most of the lying in hospitals. The abortion rate observed in 1970 as well as the maternal mortality rates were found extremelly high, and both aspects of maternity care appeared as important public health problems in the City of Salvador.

  12. ¿El armario está abierto?: estudios sobre diversidad sexual en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Palevi Gómez Arévalo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto tiene por objetivo analizar 39 producciones universitarias sobre diferentes temáticas de diversidad sexual producidas entre 1988 a 2015, las cuales se organizan en 4 ejes/binomios: Prácticas sexuales/Cuerpos, Matrimonio/Familias, Identidades/Prejuicios y Derechos/Ciudadanías. Al mismo tiempo se proponen nuevas temáticas para investigar y se reflexiona sobre los retos al interior de la educación superior salvadoreña para constituir un campo de Estudios sobre Diversidad Sexual. Concluyendo, a pesar de la existencia dispersa de 39 producciones universitarias, las cuales son un avance, el armario de la academia salvadoreña está aún cerrado, y por tal motivo surge la pregunta ¿cómo lo podemos abrir?

  13. [An information system for injuries from external causes (SILEX): a successful project in El Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Oscar; de Cosío, Gerardo; Clavel-Arcas, Carme; Montoya, Jeannette; Serpas, Mario; Morán de García, Silvia; Concha-Eastman, Alberto

    2008-12-01

    This article examines the stages in developing an information system for injuries from external causes (Sistema de Información de Lesiones de Causa Externa-SILEX), as well as its limitations and achievements. SILEX is a Web-based application for collection, quality control, presentation, and analysis of data available from the hospital system for surveillance of injuries from external causes created by Ministry of Health of El Salvador with data from the hospital emergency services. This system maintains comprehensive information on the injured person-type of injury, intention, injury site, activity being performed at the time of injury, risk factors, etc.-in the form of tables, graphs, and maps, which streamlines the development of intervention plans and prevention initiatives for these types of injuries in El Salvador. This experience is an example of what can be done to close the information gap on injuries by external causes in the Region of the Americas.

  14. [Professional Burnout Syndrome of intensive care physicians from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tironi, Márcia Oliveira Staffa; Nascimento Sobrinho, Carlito Lopes; Barros, Dalton de Souza; Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Marques Filho, Edson Silva; Almeida, Alessandro; Bitencourt, Almir; Feitosa, Ana Isabela Ramos; Neves, Flávia Serra; Mota, Igor Carlos Cunha; França, Juliana; Borges, Lorena Guimarães; Lordão, Manuela Barreto de Jesus; Trindade, Maria Valverde; Teles, Marcelo Santos; Almeida, Mônica Bastos T; Souza, Ygor Gomes de

    2009-01-01

    Describe prevalence of the Burnout syndrome in intensive care physicians of Salvador, associated to demographic data and aspects of the work environment (psychological demand and job control). This cross sectional study has investigated the association between work conditions and Burnout Syndrome in a population of 297 Intensive Care Physicians from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. An individual, self-report questionnaire evaluated the physicians' psychological aspects of work, using the demand-control model (Job Content Questionnaire) and their mental health, using the Maslash Burnout Inventory (MBI). The study found work overload,a high proportion of on duty physicians and low income for the hours worked. Prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome was 7.4% and it was more closely associated with aspects of the job's psychological demand than with its control. Physicians under great stress (high demand and low control) presented prevalence of the Bornout Syndrome 10.2 times higher than those under low stress (low demand and high control) jobs.

  15. PARANOÏA: la vie secrète de Salvador Dali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten van Buuren

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1942, Salvador Dali, âgé de trente-huit ans, termine son autobiographie La vie secrète de Salvador Dali. Il prétend s’y livrer au lecteur en toute candeur. Mais c’est un leurre. Dali construit l’histoire de sa vie sur ce qu’il considère comme sa trouvaille capitale : la méthode paranoïaque-critique. Qu’est-ce que la paranoïa? Comment Dali a-t-il transformé ce complexe psychanalytique en un instrument de production artistique? Comment s’en sert-il comme canevas pour son autobiographie ? Voilà une série de questions auxquelles nous allons répondre dans la présente analyse.

  16. Ethnographies of the Brau: body, masculinity and race in the reafricanization in Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmundo Pinho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author aims to explore the developments in the process known as "cultural and political reafricanization in Salvador," embodied in the transitory crystallization of a specific social figure known as the brau. This refers to an inflection of masculinity informed by the racial and gender tensions in Salvador, as well as a local re-appropriation of cultural themes in the African diaspora. The Braus were (are Negro youths, in the periphery, who re-invent a Negro visualness/bodiliness from re-readings of the North American soul 'culture' and are at the same time stigmatized by the middle class as violent, of "bad taste" and hyper-sexualized, that is, excessively 'Negro' and excessively 'masculinized,' in a hyperbolization, which, in a sense, contradicts the stigmatization.

  17. Ocorrência de neoplasias em caninos na cidade de Salvador, Bahia (Achados de biopsias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. F. de Souza

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Estudaram-se microscopicamente 138 amostras obtidas de biopsias de diversos tecidos e órgãos de caninos da região metropolitana de Salvador, Bahia. Foram diagnosticadas 126 casos de neoplasias de vários tipos histológicos, sobressaindo os tumores de pele e os da glândula mamária . PALAVRAS CHAVE: Neoplasias, caninos, tumores, patologia , achados de biopsia , câncer, neoplasmas SUMMARY: Microscopic examinations were performed in the 138 biopsies of various tecides and organs of the canines from the metropolitan regions of Salvador, Bahia. Diagnostic showed 126 cases of the neoplasms of various histologic appearances, must of the teguments and mammary glands tumors. KEYWORDS: Neoplasies, canines, tumours, pathology, biopsies, findings, cancer, neoplasms.

  18. Insurgents to Presidents: Contemporary Civil-Military Relations In Brazil, El Salvador, and Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    legislative oversight of the military. Both the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies and Senate have congressional oversight of the military granted by the 1988...mixed record toward achieving positive civil–military relations. A. SALVADORAN MILITARY HISTORY: 1979–PRESENT The military in El Salvador has a bloody ...has still not been held accountable, however, for widespread abuse during the bloody civil war. Successive FMLN presidencies have taken very modest

  19. Crónica de la prensa salvadoreña: imaginarios que migran

    OpenAIRE

    Amparo Marroquín Parducci

    2008-01-01

    EL ARTÍCULO PRESENTA UN ESTUDIO DE LAS NARRATIVAS QUE LA PRENSA escrita ha venido construyendo en El Salvador en torno al fenómeno de la migración. Se argumenta que a través del tema de la migración se construye una poética de nación imaginada, y conjuntamente, se da la construcción de las alteridades que desde el discurso oficial se han mantenido vigentes.

  20. ALGUNOS ASPECTOS MATEMÁTICOS DE LA OBRA DE SALVADOR DALÍ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Blázquez-Sanz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploramos la influencia de las matemáticas y la ciencia contemporánea en la obra de Salvador Dalí. Nos centramos en algunos motivos matemáticos que aparecen de forma recurrente en sus obras, como son el hipercubo, la razón aúrea o la teoría de catástrofes.

  1. The red tide event in El Salvador, August 2001-January 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Enrique Barraza

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A red tide event occurred in El Salvador from August 2001 to January 2002. National health authorities usually measured toxin levels in Ostrea iridescens, however other species were analyzed during this microalgae bloom: Anadara similis, Anadara tuberculosa and Modiolus sp. El Salvador authorities consider 400 mouse units/100 g the highest value that is safe for human health. During this period toxin levels in O. iridescens and Modiolus sp. increased from values under 400 to 3 977 and 15 468 mouse units/100 g, respectively. Persistent and higher levels were recorded in oyster and mussel banks on the west part of the country. The Ministry of Health and Social Assistance treated 41 slight to moderate intoxications associated to bivalve mollusks consumptionHubo una marea roja en El Salvador desde agosto de 2001 hasta enero de 2002. Las autoridades de salud usualmente medían niveles de toxinas en Ostrea iridescens, pero durante esta proliferación de microalgas se estudió también Anadara similis, Anadara tuberculosa y Modiolus sp. En El Salvador se consideran 400 unidades ratón/ 100 g como el límite sobre el cual el consumo de moluscos representa riesgo para la salud humana. Durante este período se detectó que los niveles de toxinas en O. iridescens y Modiolus sp. variaron desde niveles menores a 400 hasta 3 977 y 15 468 unidades ratón/100 g, respectivamente. Los niveles más altos y persistentes se registraron en los bancos de ostras y mejillones de la zona oeste del país. El Ministerio de Salud y Asistencia Social atendio 41 intoxicaciones de leves a moderadas atribuidas al consumo de moluscos bivalvos

  2. First person: a mental health mission to post-earthquake El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Craig L

    2013-09-01

    In this article the author excerpts and discusses salient quotes or moments from the journal he compiled while visiting El Salvador in February 2001 as head of Disaster Psychiatry Outreach (DPO) to assist survivors of a major earthquake. This case discussion of a single disaster mental health response exemplifies key issues related to both short and long term mental health service delivery to disaster affected communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Política e cidadania operária em Salvador (1890-1919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrin A. S. Castellucci

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates that an important fraction of the working class in Salvador, aiming for citizenship, was actively engaged in the elections of the First Republic. This struggle for political and social rights was implemented by three organizations founded between 1890 and 1893: the Partido Operário da Bahia, the União Operária Bahiana and the Centro Operário da Bahia.

  4. The Rule of Law and the U.S. Quest for Security in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-12

    high levels of income inequality and limited economic opportunities steer juveniles towards crime and delinquency , and magnify the levels of...turning a blind eye to weapons trafficking and other activity, facilitates street gang dominance of some urban areas .199 In light of these obstacles...above areas could lead to the U.S. government identifying itself with the policies of the government of El Salvador, increasing U.S. economic assista

  5. La materia metamorfica. Percorsi nel Surrealismo di Salvador Dalì

    OpenAIRE

    Nigro, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Questo lavoro effettua un attraversamento dell’opera artistica e letteraria del genio surrealista Salvador Dalì, mediante un continuo rifermento ai passi della teoria psicoanalitica di Sigmund Freud e Jacques Lacan, evidenziando il tema costante della “metamorfosi”. I capitoli trattano del problema della definizione della paranoia, della rappresentazione dello smembramento corporeo, delle suggestioni dalla fisica nucleare, delle riprese dall’arte classica, rinascimentale e barocca, del...

  6. The Foreign Policy of Venezuela Toward El Salvador: 1979-1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    contenido cientifico y lenguaje . Profesor Tu or t94 ~6Ad~/~ 1/ 0 Fecha ESTA TESIS HA SIDO APROBADA EN NOMBRE DE LA UNIVERSIDAD SIMON BOLIVAR POR EL...de El Salvador enviando eguipos militares y asesores para "entrenar a tres batAllones salvadoreffos en logIstica, comunicaciones e inteligencia." En...administrativo, el sector industrial, el sector de comercio internacional, el sector cultural, y el sector de transporte y comunicaciones " (27). Una lista

  7. Carles Salvador i la reivindicació de l'ús social de la llengua catalana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Pérez i Moragón

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Carles Salvador described himself as «a politician of language». Already at an early age, he staunchly defended the right to speak Catalan in the Valencian Country at every level, beginning in primary school. Pérez i Moragón situates this posture within the Valencian linguistic panorama in an era characterized by the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, the Second Republic, and the Franco regime.

  8. Modernização e concentração do transporte urbano em Salvador (1849-1930 Tramway modernization and concentration in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil (1849-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Macchione Saes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo recupera a história da formação das empresas de transporte urbano da cidade de Salvador entre os anos de 1849 e 1930. A proclamação da República marcou a fase inicial de modernização das empresas de transporte, em que a fusão de companhias e a incorporação de capitais estrangeiros possibilitaram a introdução dos bondes elétricos na capital baiana. Foi nesse contexto que dois grupos rivais iniciaram mais uma batalha no Brasil, agora pelos mercados de Salvador: de um lado, o grupo nacional da Companhia Brasileira de Energia Elétrica, e de outro lado, o grupo estrangeiro Light, liderado em Salvador pelo empresário norte-americano Percival Farquhar. Diante desse cenário de concorrência, o artigo analisa a relação entre as empresas e a Câmara Municipal de Salvador, instituição responsável por distribuir as concessões de transporte na cidade.This paper draws on the history of the formation of Salvador's city tramways between 1849 and 1930. The Proclamation of the Republic in Brazil (1889 started the modernization of the tramway companies which, through the merger of enterprises and the arrival of foreign capital, was responsible for the introduction of the electric tramways in Bahia's capital. Two rival groups, in this context, competed in the Brazilian market, now in Salvador: on the one hand, the national enterprise Companhia Brasileira de Energia Elétrica, and on the other, the foreign company Light, led by the North-American entrepreneur Percival Farquhar. In this context of competition, the paper analyses the relation between the enterprises and Salvador's Town Council, the institution responsible for tramway concessions in the city.

  9. Perfil epidemiológico dos afogamentos em praias de Salvador, Bahia, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnildo De Santana Só Segundo

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever o perfil epidemiológico e a frequência dos afogamentos em praias do município de Salvador, estado da Bahia, Brasil, cobertas pela Coordenadoria de Salvamento Marítimo de Salvador (Salvamar, em 2012. MÉTODOS: foram descritos os dados obtidos do banco de informações sobre as vitimas atendidas pelo Salvamar. RESULTADOS: foram registrados 733 afogamentos; houve predomínio do sexo masculino (65,5%, adolescentes (40,8%, estudantes (67,7% e moradores de Salvador (69,4%; a idade média das vitimas era de 22,2 anos; quase todos os afogamentos foram não fatais (98,9%, a maioria deles aconteceu entre 10 e 16 horas (89,5% e os meses com maior ocorrência foram janeiro (20,9% e fevereiro (16,4%. CONCLUSÃO: predominaram, entre as vítimas, homens, jovens e estudantes, e os afogamentos não fatais; as ocorrências foram registradas, principalmente, nos meses do verão; as ações de prevenção a afogamentos deveriam focar os subgrupos identificados como mais vulneráveis.

  10. Urban population genetics of slum-dwelling rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajdacsi, Brittney; Costa, Federico; Hyseni, Chaz; Porter, Fleur; Brown, Julia; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; Reis, Mitermayer G; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2013-10-01

    Throughout the developing world, urban centres with sprawling slum settlements are rapidly expanding and invading previously forested ecosystems. Slum communities are characterized by untended refuse, open sewers and overgrown vegetation, which promote rodent infestation. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoirs for epidemic transmission of many zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Understanding the population ecology of R. norvegicus is essential to formulate effective rodent control strategies, as this knowledge aids estimation of the temporal stability and spatial connectivity of populations. We screened for genetic variation, characterized the population genetic structure and evaluated the extent and patterns of gene flow in the urban landscape using 17 microsatellite loci in 146 rats from nine sites in the city of Salvador, Brazil. These sites were divided between three neighbourhoods within the city spaced an average of 2.7 km apart. Surprisingly, we detected very little relatedness among animals trapped at the same site and found high levels of genetic diversity, as well as structuring across small geographical distances. Most F(ST) comparisons among sites were statistically significant, including sites norvegicus in Salvador, linked to the heterogeneous urban landscape. Future rodent control measures need to take into account the spatial and temporal linkage of rat populations in Salvador, as revealed by genetic data, to develop informed eradication strategies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Riparian Habitat - San Joaquin River

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The immediate focus of this study is to identify, describe and map the extent and diversity of riparian habitats found along the main stem of the San Joaquin River,...

  12. Assessing a 1500-year record of Atlantic hurricane activity from South Andros Island, the Bahamas, using modeled hurricane climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, E. J.; Donnelly, J. P.; Emanuel, K.; Wiman, C.; van Hengstum, P. J.; Sullivan, R.; Winkler, T. S.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical cyclones can cause substantial loss of life and economic resources in coastal areas. In the current changing climate, it is of critical importance for society to understand any links between hurricane activity and climactic conditions. Unfortunately, historical tropical cyclone records are too short and incomplete to constrain how climate controls cyclone activity or to accurately quantify the risk of such storms to local human populations. Hurricane-induced deposits preserved in sediment cores can offer records of past hurricane activity stretching over thousands of years. Here we present a 1500 year annually resolved record of the frequency of intense hurricane events in a blue hole (AM4) on South Andros Island on the Great Bahama Bank. This carbonate island in the western North Atlantic Ocean is positioned along the trackway of many storms originating in the Caribbean and Atlantic basins. The record is corroborated by cores collected from three other blue holes near AM4. Over the past 1500 years, there have been periods of elevated hurricane activity from 750 to 950 CE, 1150 to 1300 CE and 1550 to 1850 CE. The statistical significance of this sedimentary record is assessed utilizing a set of synthetic storms generated from a previously published statistical deterministic hurricane model. The model simulates climatological conditions from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset, and the CMIP5 MPI model for the 20th century calibration (1850-2005 CE), and the millennial simulation (850-1849 CE). The average reoccurrence rates of hurricanes passing within 100 km of AM4 under each simulation are 1.06, 0.62, and 0.61 storms per year respectively. Using each climatology, thousands of hurricane induced deposits for the site are generated based on a random draw of these storms, a wind speed threshold for deposit, and a temporal resolution given the sedimentation rate of approximately 1 cm/yr at the site. Overall, the results of this study offer information on changes

  13. Environmental assessment : Rodent control program : San Joaquin river levee : San Luis National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower San Joaquin Levee District (LSJLD) requires that six miles of levee situated along the San Joaquin River on San Luis National Wildlife Refuge (SLNWR) be...

  14. The genetic diversity,relationships,and potential for biological control of the lobate lac scale,Paratachardina pseudolobata Kondo&Gullan(Hemiptera:Coccoidea:Kerriidae),a pest in Florida,the Bahamas,Cuba and Christmas Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lobate lac scale Paratachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan (Kerriidae) is a polyphagous pest of woody plants in Florida (U.S.A), the Bahamas, Cuba, and Christmas Island (Australia). Its recent appearance as a pest in these places indicates that this scale is introduced; however, its native rang...

  15. Characterization of the grafting copolymer EPDM-SAN; Caracterizacao do copolimero de enxertia EPDM-SAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchette, Renato; Felisberti, Maria Isabel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: turchete@iqm.unicamp.br

    2001-07-01

    This work aims the characterization of the grafting copolymer EPDM-SAN. This copolymer presents a fraction of free SAN chains, which was extracted by solubilization in chloroform followed of precipitation of the grafting copolymer EPDM-g-SAN in acetone. The EPDM-SAN and EPDM-g-SAN were characterized by {sup 13}C NMR, DSC, TGA and SEM. EPDM-SAN contain 23 wt% of free SAN and 77 wt% of EPDM-g-SAN. Both materials are heterogeneous and the thermal and thermo-oxidative degradation are independent of the composition. (author)

  16. Uso de substâncias psicoativas entre estudantes de Medicina de Salvador (BA Psychoactive substance use by medical students from Salvador (BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleuber Moreira Lemos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Estudos indicam que estudantes de Medicina, apesar do seu dedutível conhecimento sobre os efeitos das substâncias psicoativas, consomem-nas em proporção semelhante à dos jovens de mesma idade na população geral. OBJETIVO: Analisar o padrão local do consumo dessas substâncias entre graduandos de Medicina e contribuir na formulação de atividades preventivas. MÉTODOS: Aplicação de questionário semi-estruturado no qual foi avaliada a freqüência de uso das substâncias psicoativas entre os estudantes, assim como as principais razões apontadas para o consumo. Foram analisados 404 questionários obtidos entre alunos dos seis anos de curso das duas maiores escolas médicas de Salvador. RESULTADOS: As drogas mais utilizadas no critério uso na vida foram álcool (92,8% e lança-perfume (46,2%. O uso de álcool apresentou-se constante nos seis anos de curso. Entretanto, o uso de tabaco, lança-perfume e tranqüilizantes aumentou significativamente para os alunos dos últimos anos (p BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that medical students consume psychoactive substances at the same rates as the same age youth on general population, despite their predictable knowledge about drugs effects. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the local pattern of psychoactive substances use among medical students and contribute for the formulation of preventive activities. METHODS: The frequency of psychoactive substances use was evaluated by a self-administered anonymous questionnaire that also asked the main reasons for that use. Four hundred and four students in the first to sixth year from the two biggest medical schools in Salvador answered the questionnaire. RESULTS: The lifetime use was bigger for alcohol (92.8% and inhalant (46.2%. Alcohol use was constant for the students from first to sixth year of course, but it was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. However, tobacco, inhalants and tranquilizers use had a significant increase at the last two years

  17. Distribuição espacial da mortalidade por tuberculose em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Spatial distribution of tuberculosis mortality in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Frias Mota

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de descrever a distribuição espacial da mortalidade por tuberculose em Salvador nos anos de 1991, 1994 e 1997, foi realizado um estudo ecológico, descritivo, tendo como unidade de análise o Distrito Sanitário (DS. Foram calculados os coeficientes padronizados de mortalidade por tuberculose e a mortalidade proporcional por tuberculose, em relação ao conjunto das doenças infecciosas e parasitárias, utilizando-se as declarações de óbitos como fonte de dados. O DS com os maiores coeficientes padronizados foi o Subúrbio Ferroviário, com taxas de 15,7, 10,6 e 10,6/100 mil habitantes, em 1991, 1994 e 1997, respectivamente. Em 1997, foram observadas as menores taxas padronizadas. A mortalidade proporcional por tuberculose em Salvador, nos anos de 1991, 1994 e 1997, representou 20,7%, 18,2 % e 16,9%, respectivamente, do total das mortes por doenças infecciosas e parasitárias. A faixa etária de maior risco, nos anos estudados, foi aquela acima de 65 anos. Os autores discutem as possibilidades de utilização dos resultados deste estudo para a implementação de políticas locais de saúde equânimes e desenvolvimento de operações de vigilância da saúde, tendo em vista a identificação de DS com maior risco de óbito e as faixas etárias mais acometidas.An ecological study was conducted to describe the urban spatial distribution of mortality attributable to tuberculosis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil in 1991, 1994, and 1997. The unit of analysis was the Health District (HD. The HD with the highest standardized rates was Subúrbio Ferroviário in 1991, 1994, and 1997, with 15.7, 10.6, and 10.6/100.000 inhabitants, respectively. Inequalities in mortality between HDs were high. The year 1997 showed the lowest standardized rates. The proportional mortality ratios for tuberculosis when compared with total deaths from infectious diseases were 20.7%, 18.2%, and 16.9% for 1991, 1994, and 1997 respectively. The highest rates were

  18. Prevalência de dislipidemias em adultos da demanda laboratorial de Salvador, Brasil Prevalence of dyslipidemias in non-hospital laboratory tests of adults from Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Lessa

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência das dislipidemias em adultos da demanda laboratorial não-hospitalar da cidade de Salvador (BA. MÉTODOS: Casuística procedente de amostra probabilística de 25% dos laboratórios não-hospitalares da cidade que usavam o método enzimático para dosagem dos lípides séricos e controle de qualidade da Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia Clínica (93% do total; LDL estimado pela fórmula de Friedewald. Sorteados os meses ímpares de 1995 para o estudo. Critérios para dislipidemias, em mg/dl: colesterol ³240; LDL ³160; HDL ³200. Análise: prevalências, seus intervalos de confiança (IC a 95% e qui-quadrado (chi². RESULTADOS: Excluídos uma recusa e um laboratório que arquivava laudos só por 3 meses, foram analisados dados de 24 dos 26 laboratórios amostrados. Dos 7392 adultos, 65,5% eram mulheres. Prevalências estimadas e valores dos IC a 95% para homens, foram: hipercolesterolemia =24,0% (20,5; 27,5; LDL elevado =26,1 (22,4; 29,3; HDL baixo =15,9 (14,2; 17,8 e hipertrigliceridemia =27,6 (25,7; 29,5. Para mulheres: hipercolesterolemia =30,0 (27,8; 32,2, LDL elevado =33,1 (30,8; 35,4; HDL baixo =8,0 (7,1; 8,9 e hipertrigliceridemia =30,4 (29,0; 31,4. Todas as prevalências diferiram significantemente inter-gênero (p, 0,05 a pPURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia in non-hospital laboratory tests of adults from Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: The study was carried out in subjects from a probabilistic sample of 25% of a total of 104 local laboratories that used the same enzymatic method for lipid analysis with the quality control as recommended by the Brazilian Society of Clinical Analyses. These represented 93% of all non-hospital laboratories of Salvador in 1995. The odd months of 1995 were selected for sampling in the present study. Criteria for dyslipidemias were: total cholesterol ³240; LDL ³160; HDL ³200mg/dl. Prevalence rates and their 95% confidence intervals (CI and chi² test were

  19. Comida de rua: um estudo crítico e multirreferencial em Salvador, BA − Brasil / Street food: A critical and multifaceted study in Salvador, BA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Oliveira Benevides Sanches Leal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é descrever e analisar a situação da comida de rua em Salvador, BA – Brasil, compreendendo suas especificidades em diferentes contextos da cidade. Trata-se de estudo de caso único, cujas técnicas de coleta de dados foram a observação de cunho etnográfico, entrevistas semiestruturadas, uso de imagens e leitura de jornal local ao logo de um ano em três aspectos relacionados ao segmento: riscos relacionados aos alimentos e ao ambiente onde são comercializados e riscos relacionados aos trabalhadores. Os resultados indicaram grandes fragilidades relacionadas às categorias analisadas: diversidade de alimentos comercializados, mal manipulados e conservados; ambiente urbano insalubre, sem pontos de água, coleta de lixo inadequada, drenagem precária de águas e poluição atmosférica pelo elevado número de veículos; trabalhadores sem qualificação, sem uniformização adequada e submetidos a riscos sociais e ambientais constantes. Evidencia-se a necessidade da adoção de novas formas de gerenciamento de riscos para o segmento pela Vigilância sanitária, numa perspectiva intersetorial e solidária, dada a complexidade do objeto e a importância socioeconômica, cultural e nutricional da comida de rua. Constata-se a dificuldade para a VISA controlar os riscos relacionados à comida de rua atuando de forma apenas fiscalizatória, especialmente em grandes centros urbanos, como no caso de Salvador, BA. ==================================== This study aims to describe and analyze the present situation of street food in Salvador, BA, Brazil, understanding its specificities in different urban contexts. In this single case study, the data collection techniques included ethnographic observation, semi-structured interviews, use of images, and reading a local newspaper for one year focusing on three aspects related to the segment that include risks related to food, to the environment in which it is sold, and to workers

  20. Cine Surrealista: Salvador Dalí y Luis Buñuel / Surrealist cinema: Salvador Dalí and Luis Buñuel

    OpenAIRE

    Castiglioni, Ruben Daniel Méndez; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO Salvador Dalí, além de pintor e escritor, se dedicou ao cinema. Neste texto procura-se fazer uma aproximação à produção cinematográfica de Dalí realizada com Luis Buñuel. Seus trabalhos mais conhecidos são do período de Hollywood, onde Dalí trabalhou nos filmes Quando fala o coração, de Alfred Hitchcock e Destino, de Walt Disney. Porém, suas obras mais importantes foram feitas na sua etapa surrealista que compreenderia aproximadamente de 1929 até 1937. Nesse período realizou com Luis B...

  1. Sounding the alarm on chronic kidney disease in farming communities: María Isabel Rodríguez MD. Minister of health, El Salvador. Interview by Conner Gorry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, María Isabel

    2013-07-01

    In April 2013, a consortium of regional health ministries, nongovernmental organizations, aid agencies, clinical specialists and researchers from diverse sectors convened in San Salvador to discuss the epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown or non-traditional causes (CKDu) plaguing agricultural communities in Central America and beyond. The three-day meeting, where presentation of research on the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of CKDu roused significant debate, led the Pan American Health Organization to declare CKDu "a pressing and serious health problem [which] represents a burden for families, communities, health systems and society as a whole."[1] This High-level Meeting on Chronic Kidney Disease of Non-Traditional Causes in Central America (24-26 April) followed several international meetings at which Dr María Isabel Rodríguez, El Salvador's Minister of Health, presented studies on the disease burden in her country, where end-stage renal disease is the leading cause of hospital deaths. She outlined results of original scientific research by Dr Carlos Orantes (first published in MEDICC Review), that described an "elevated prevalence of chronic kidney disease, chronic renal failure and risk factors" among the patients studied, noting that "the most common [form] was chronic kidney disease of unknown cause, associated with neither diabetes nor hypertension."[2] In this interview with MEDICC Review, Dr Rodríguez discussed the gravity of the problem in Salvadoran agricultural communities; the importance of CKDu research in other countries; and the urgent need for intersectoral action and active community participation to confront and control the epidemic.

  2. Uma nota sobre ilusionismos e alegorias na pintura barroca de Salvador da Bahia A Note on Illusionism and Allegory in the Baroque Painting of Salvador, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís de Moura Sobral

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As principais tendências da pintura no Brasil colonial podem ser estudadas na Catedral de Salvador, a igreja do antigo Colégio da Companhia de Jesus. Datando dos finais do século XVII, várias séries de quadros de qualidade diversa, compõem com as esculturas dos altares um soberbo e complexo bel composto de propaganda inaciana. Para decorar o forro da Biblioteca, por cima da sacristia, os Jesuítas encomendaram cerca de 1735-1736 uma monumental quadratura ao pintor português António Simões Ribeiro (?-1755. A pintura é estudada em função da tradição de decoração das bibliotecas durante a época moderna. Para além da quadratura, Simões Ribeiro introduziu na arte brasileira as figuras alegóricas, tornando-se assim o primeiro pintor brasileiro verdadeiramente barroco e o criador da chamada Escola Bahiana.The main trends of the painting in colonial Brazil can be studied in the Cathedral of Salvador, Bahia, the church of the former Jesuit College. Dating from the late 17th Century, several cycles of paintings on the walls and the ceiling of the sacristy, of varying quality, accomplish particular symbolic functions; in conjunction with the sculpture of the altars, they compose a complex bel composto of Jesuit propaganda. To decorate the ceiling of their Library, above the sacristy, the Jesuits commissioned around 1735-1736 a huge quadratura from the Portuguese born painter António Simões Ribeiro (?-1755. This painting is discussed within the tradition of Library decoration in the Modern period. Besides the quadratura, Simões Ribeiro introduced in the Brazilian art the allegorical figures and became the first full-Baroque painter in Brazil and the initiator of the so-called Bahian School.

  3. Cuando los hijos se quedan en El Salvador: Familias transnacionales y reunificación familiar de inmigrantes salvadoreños en Washington, D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Molina, Raúl

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Current migratory flows develope new social-cultural patterns such as transnational families. Using ethnographic data collected in Washington, D.C. and El Salvador, this article describes and analyzes the different strategies develop by Salvadoran immigrants living in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area to re-shape their domestic units. The immigrant modes of incorporation into the US societies and the logic of family unity affect these configurations to such an extent that until all the family members can be together again, the pre-migratory cultural patterns and those acquired in the host society affect in the transnational family configurations.

    Los actuales movimientos migratorios están propiciando el desarrollo de patrones socioculturales transnacionales que, en el ámbito de las unidades domésticas, permiten configuraciones de familias transnacionales. A partir de los datos obtenidos en una investigación etnográfica transnacional, este artículo describe y analiza las estrategias de inmigrantes en la reestructuración de sus familias. La lógica de la unidad familiar, por un lado, y los modos de incorporación de los salvadoreños al área metropolitana de Washington, D.C., por otro, explican las estrategias utilizadas por los inmigrantes en las reestructuración de sus unidades domésticas. De tal manera que hasta que los miembros de la familia puedan estar juntos de nuevo, tanto los patrones culturales premigratorios, como los adquiridos en las sociedades de asentamiento influyen en las configuraciones de las familias transnacionales.

  4. Hardened subtidal stromatolites, bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dravis, J J

    1983-01-28

    Hardened, high-relief stromatolites have been discovered along the margins of some Bahamian platforms. They occur in high-energy (tidal) oolitic sand environments in waters ranging in depth from about 1 to 5 meters. Physical stress produced by actively migrating bed forms of oolitic sand appears to exclude grazing gastropods and subsequent community successions, permitting stromatolite growth.

  5. Interactions between Climate, Land Use and Vegetation Fire Occurrences in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolors Armenteras

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation burning is a global environmental threat that results in local ecological, economic and social impacts but also has large-scale implications for global change. The burning is usually a result of interacting factors such as climate, land use and vegetation type. Despite its importance as a factor shaping ecological, economic and social processes, countries highly vulnerable to climate change in Central America, such as El Salvador, lack an assessment of this complex relationship. In this study we rely on remotely sensed measures of the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI and thermal anomaly detections by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor to identify vegetation cover changes and fire occurrences. We also use land use data and rainfall observations derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM data to determine the spatial and temporal variability and interactions of these factors. Our results indicate a highly marked seasonality of fire occurrence linked to the climatic variability with a peak of fire occurrences in 2004 and 2013. Low vegetation indices occurred in March–April, around two months after the driest period of the year (December–February, corresponding to months with high detection of fires. Spatially, 65.6% of the fires were recurrent and clustered in agriculture/cropland areas and within 1 km of roads (70% and only a 4.7% of fires detected were associated with forests. Remaining forests in El Salvador deserve more attention due to underestimated consequences of forest fires. The identification of these clear patterns can be used as a baseline to better shape management of fire regimes and support decision making in this country. Recommendations resulting from this work include focusing on fire risk models and agriculture fires and long-term ecological and economic consequences of those. Furthermore, El Salvador will need to include agricultural fires in the

  6. Salvador, un reto para las políticas de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Larissa Centeno Monge

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En El Salvador, para el año 2003, la población de 15 a 24 años representa un poco más de un tercio de la población clasificada como en edad fértil. Los indicadores de salud reflejan una situación que demanda atención y acciones concretas hacia las necesidades de la salud reproductiva que afrontan los adolescentes. Según la Encuesta nacional de salud familiar realizada en 1998, el 48.8% de las mujeres menores de 24 años han tenido experiencia sexual, menos del 10% utilizaron algún método anticonceptivo en su primera relación y el 42% han tenido al menos un embarazo antes de los 24 años. Dado que los problemas de salud sexual y reproductiva fueron de los primeros en poner a la adolescencia en el tapete como sujeto prioritario de atención de la salud, la promoción de la salud del adolescente debe constituir uno de los principales objetivos de cualquier proyecto de desarrollo, tanto a nivel local como nacional. Al utilizar los datos de la FESAL–98 e información proporcionada por el Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social de El Salvador, se presentan en este artículo algunas cifras y reflexiones acerca de la situación referente a la salud sexual y reproductiva de las adolescentes salvadoreñas de 15 a 24 años y algunas acciones que se realizan al respecto. Se plantea el modelo de atención a los y las adolescentes implementado en el país y las principales implicaciones y retos que aun hay que atender.

  7. San Language Development for Education in South Africa: The South African San Institute and the San Language Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamo, Billies

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the 3 San communities in South Africa: the !Xun, the Khwe, and the [image omitted]Khomani San. The !Xun and Khwe communities are living in Platfontein, near Kimberley in the Northern Cape. The [image omitted]Khomani San community is living in Upington and in the southern Kalahari, which are also in the Northern Cape. This…

  8. San Jorge, el primer rejoneador

    OpenAIRE

    Mandianes Castro, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Las proezas de Jorge son una réplica de las de Santiago. Este luchó y venció las serpientes que habitaban Galicia para entrar allí y convertirla al cristianismo. San Jorge venció al monstruo del lago, y el rey y los habitantes de Silca se convirtieron a Cristo. Santiago ganó el nombre de Matamoros y de soldado de Cristo por excelencia porque, montado en su caballo blanco, venció en 1.000 batallas a los moros al frente de los cristianos. San Jorge venció a los sarracenos y conquistó Jerusalén ...

  9. Influenza Illness among Case-Patients Hospitalized for Suspected Dengue, El Salvador, 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Chacon

    Full Text Available We estimate the proportion of patients hospitalized for suspected dengue that tested positive for influenza virus in El Salvador during the 2012 influenza season. We tested specimens from 321 hospitalized patients: 198 patients with SARI and 123 patients with suspected dengue. Among 121 hospitalized suspected dengue (two co-infected excluded patients, 28% tested positive for dengue and 19% positive for influenza; among 35 with suspected dengue and respiratory symptoms, 14% were positive for dengue and 39% positive for influenza. One percent presented co-infection between influenza and dengue. Clinicians should consider the diagnosis of influenza among patients with suspected dengue during the influenza season.

  10. Influenza Illness among Case-Patients Hospitalized for Suspected Dengue, El Salvador, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Rafael; Clara, Alexey Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Armero, Julio; Lozano, Celina; El Omeiri, Nathalie; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the proportion of patients hospitalized for suspected dengue that tested positive for influenza virus in El Salvador during the 2012 influenza season. We tested specimens from 321 hospitalized patients: 198 patients with SARI and 123 patients with suspected dengue. Among 121 hospitalized suspected dengue (two co-infected excluded) patients, 28% tested positive for dengue and 19% positive for influenza; among 35 with suspected dengue and respiratory symptoms, 14% were positive for dengue and 39% positive for influenza. One percent presented co-infection between influenza and dengue. Clinicians should consider the diagnosis of influenza among patients with suspected dengue during the influenza season.

  11. Condições atuais da esquistossomose no "Dique do Tororó" em Salvador, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth B. Amorim

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Os Autores apresentam os resultados de observações realizadas entre os anos de 1971 a 1974 sobre a incidência humana da esquistosomose no Dique do Tororó, em Salvador, Bahia, após alí terem sido realizadas melhorias pela engenhària sanitária e medidas de combate biológico ao caramujo vetor pelo uso de peixes predadores. Comparando com os resultados obtidos por outros Autores em 1960, concluem que o Dique do Tororó não mais representa uma importante fonte de propagação da esquistosomose.

  12. Crónica de la prensa salvadoreña: imaginarios que migran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Marroquín Parducci

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available EL ARTÍCULO PRESENTA UN ESTUDIO DE LAS NARRATIVAS QUE LA PRENSA escrita ha venido construyendo en El Salvador en torno al fenómeno de la migración. Se argumenta que a través del tema de la migración se construye una poética de nación imaginada, y conjuntamente, se da la construcción de las alteridades que desde el discurso oficial se han mantenido vigentes.

  13. Sintomas de asma e fatores associados em adolescentes de Salvador, Bahia

    OpenAIRE

    Mascarenhas, Jean Márcia Oliveira; Silva, Rita de Cássia Ribeiro; Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira de; Pinto, Elizabete de Jesus; Conceição, Jackson Santos; Barreto, Maurício Lima

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO: Objetivo: Identificar os fatores associados a sintomas de asma em adolescentes. Métodos: Estudo transversal, com a participação de 1.176 alunos com idade entre 11 e 17 anos, em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Os sintomas de asma foram identificados utilizando-se o questionário padronizado do The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Program (ISAAC), fase III. A avaliação do consumo alimentar dos adolescentes foi obtida por meio de questionário da frequência alimentar (Q...

  14. Comunicación insurgente y proceso revolucionario en El Salvador, 1970-1992

    OpenAIRE

    Cortina Orero, Eudald

    2015-01-01

    A lo largo de esta tesis hemos abordado dos décadas de proceso revolucionario en El Salvador (1970-1992), deteniéndonos en el análisis de los proyectos comunicativos insurgentes surgidos en este período. Estos medios han sido puestos en diálogo con el desarrollo experimentado por las diferentes organizaciones en forma independiente (ERP, FPL, RN, PRTC y PCS) y en el marco unitario del FMLN. En este sentido, nuestro trabajo se ha orientado en dos direcciones: por un lado, a analizar el papel ...

  15. Algunas consideraciones sobre el modelo de psicoterapia familiar de Salvador Minuchin

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Buzzoni, Ana María

    2011-01-01

    Teniendo en cuenta el titulo de la mesa autoconvocada " los padecimientos actuales y sus terapéuticas" este trabajo intentara presentar algunas nociones básicas que forman parte del modelo sistémico psicoterapéutico familiar propuesto en la actualidad por Salvador Minuchin. Este autor y psicoterapeuta sistémico, es atendiendo a familias con problemáticas de violencia, que intentará abordarlas, no justamente para dar las mismas respuestas que desde algunos organismos estatales se precipitan, c...

  16. Les espaces utopiques de la peinture de Salvador Dalí

    OpenAIRE

    Mendiboure, Jean-Michel

    2008-01-01

    International audience; La nature des espaces construits dans les tableaux de Salvador Dalí, que ceux-ci s'élaborent dans la perspective surréaliste (période principalement évoquée dans cet article), ou dans celle de la "mystique nucléaire" ultérieure, invite à s'interroger sur le degré d'existence ou de non-existence de ces espaces pour celui qui en est le spectateur et, par là même, sur la capacité de ce dernier à les habiter ou non de son regard.

  17. Adela Salvador. Una vida dedicada a las Matemáticas

    OpenAIRE

    Nieves Martín Díaz

    2012-01-01

    En el verano de 2012 tuve la oportunidad de entrevistar a la matemática Adela Salvador,que no sólo se ha preocupado de la enseñanza de la materia en Institutos o Universidades,sino que también ha realizado importantes investigaciones en el campo de la Lógica Borrosa (entre otros) y especializado en la vida de otras Mujeres Matemáticas que la precedieron. Lleva dando clases unos 45 años, de forma ininterrumpida. Ha dirigido, coordinado o colaborado con más de 83 proyectos de investigación o de...

  18. Automatización de invernadero para cultivos hidropónicos en El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Zavala, Josué Alberto; López Guevara, Leonel Eduardo; Romero Vásquez, René David

    2017-01-01

    Este estudio muestra de manera concisa la historia del surgimiento de la hidroponía en el mundo del ser humano, desde sus orígenes hasta su llegada y crecimiento en Latinoamérica, lo que permitió implementar proyectos y desarrollar investigaciones que tratan de llevar este conocimiento hacia la agricultura salvadoreña, para el desarrollo del país, y con el asesoramiento por parte de naciones amigas, la hidroponía con métodos tecnológicos avanzados podría mejorar en gran medida la economía sal...

  19. THE POLITICAL DOCUMENTARY IN EL SALVADOR: COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH CUBA AND VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emperatriz Arreaza-Camero

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper the political documentary in El Salvador: comparative study with Cuba and Venezuela, is to know diferent communicatives and alternative experiences in coyuntural situations of special meaning in Latin America and the Caribbean. In general, these experiences had the main objetive to promote more important political participation of the population, and also to promote the defense of the human rights of the subaltern groups, and the unification of the criteria about the political projects of national liberation.

  20. Centro socio-deportivo y nueva plaza : centro histórico de Salvador de Bahía, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    MARTÍ RODRÍGUEZ, ROCÍO

    2015-01-01

    Actuación en el casco histórico de la ciudad brasileña de Salvador de Bahía, consta de dos actuaciones diferentes. Rehabilitación de un edificio preexiste con el fin de crear un centro socio-deportivo e intervención urbanística en el entorno donde se encuentra dicho edificio, generando una plaza nueva. Martí Rodríguez, R. (2013). Centro socio-deportivo y nueva plaza : centro histórico de Salvador de Bahía, Brasil. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/57167. Archivo delegado

  1. Vegetation - San Felipe Valley [ds172

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This Vegetation Map of the San Felipe Valley Wildlife Area in San Diego County, California is based on vegetation samples collected in the field in 2002 and 2005 and...

  2. Rapid directional changes associated with a 6.5 kyr-long Blake geomagnetic excursion at the Blake-Bahama Outer Ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Mark; McNiocaill, Conall; Thomas, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    and provide constraints on the mechanisms producing field variability. We present here the highest resolution record yet published of the Blake geomagnetic excursion (similar to 125 ka) measured in three cores from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1062 on the Blake-Bahama Outer Ridge. The Blake excursion has......Geomagnetic excursions are recognized as intrinsic features of the Earth's magnetic field. High-resolution records of field behaviour, captured in marine sedimentary cores, present an opportunity to determine the temporal and geometric character of the field during geomagnetic excursions...... a controversial structure and timing but these cores have a sufficiently high sedimentation rate (similar to 10 cm ka(-1)) to allow detailed reconstruction of the field behaviour at this site during the excursion. Palaeomagnetic measurements of the cores reveal rapid transitions (

  3. Dendromonocotyle colorni sp. n. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) from the skin of Himantura uarnak (Dasyatididae) from Israel and a new host record for D. octodiscus from the Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, L A; Whittington, I D; Kearn, G C

    2001-01-01

    Dendromonocotyle colorni sp. n. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) is described from the dorsal skin surface of two specimens of Himantura uarnak (Forsskål) kept at the Eilat Underwater Observatory in Israel. Dendromonocotyle colorni is distinguished from the other eight species in the genus by the morphology of the terminal papillar sclerite on the haptor, the distal portion of the male copulatory organ and the morphology of the vagina. The development of the male copulatory organ is detailed for D. colorni and the adaptations of species of Dendromonocotyle to life on the dorsal skin surface of rays are discussed. Dendromonocotyle octodiscus Hargis, 1955 was identified from the dorsal skin surface of the southern stingray Dasyatis americana Hildebrand et Schroeder off Bimini, Bahamas and represents a new host record.

  4. The San Bernabe power substation; La subestacion San Bernabe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez Sanudo, Andres D. [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The first planning studies that gave rise to the San Bernabe substation go back to year 1985. The main circumstance that supports this decision is the gradual restriction for electric power generation that has been suffering the Miguel Aleman Hydro System, until its complete disappearance, to give priority to the potable water supply through the Cutzamala pumping system, that feeds in an important way Mexico City and the State of Mexico. In this document the author describes the construction project of the San Bernabe Substation; mention is made of the technological experiences obtained during the construction and its geographical location is shown, as well as the one line diagram of the same [Espanol] Los primeros estudios de planeacion que dieron origen a la subestacion San Bernabe se remontan al ano de 1985. La circunstancia principal que soporta esta decision es la restriccion paulatina para generar energia que ha venido experimentando el Sistema Hidroelectrico Miguel Aleman, hasta su desaparicion total, para dar prioridad al suministro de agua potable por medio del sistema de bombeo Cutzamala, que alimenta en forma importante a la Ciudad de Mexico y al Estado de Mexico. En este documento el autor describe el proyecto de construccion de la subestacion San Bernabe; se mencionan las experiencias tecnologicas obtenidas durante su construccion y se ilustra su ubicacion geografica, asi como un diagrama unifilar de la misma

  5. 76 FR 45693 - Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA... temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of San Diego Bay in support of the San Diego POPS Fireworks..., participating vessels, and other vessels and users of the waterway during scheduled fireworks events. Persons...

  6. Cross-sectional data on alcohol and marijuana use and sexual behavior among male and female secondary school students in New Providence, The Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, Linda; Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Rolle, Glenda; Villar, Maria Elena; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-05-01

    While The Bahamas have significantly reduced poor reproductive health outcomes among adolescents and emerging adults, data indicate that youth are engaged in sexual risk behaviors. Substance use has been linked to increased risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in other contexts. There are limited data on Bahamian youth in relation to consumption of alcohol and marijuana use and engagement in sexual behaviors. This study aimed to assess potential relationships between alcohol and marijuana use and engagement in sexual behavior among government secondary school students in New Providence, The Bahamas. Total sample size was 2572, and about 56% of respondents were female. Mean age was 14.2 (SD 2.7 years). Cross-sectional data came from a baseline survey conducted as part of a longitudinal randomized controlled evaluation of a school-based HIV prevention and reproductive health program in New Providence. Overall, 46.5% (519) males and 44.8% (652) females reported alcohol consumption; 7.3% (82) males and 1.7% (25) females reported use of marijuana in the last 6 months. About 43% (477) male respondents and 16% (231) female respondents reported ever having vaginal sex. Logistic regression analysis indicates that increased likelihood of engaging in sex during the past 6 months is associated with being older, male, and consuming alcohol and marijuana. These data provide a 'global correlation' between substance use and engagement in sexual behaviors among Bahamian adolescents. Longitudinal research is needed to assess event specific risks and identify mediating and moderating factors. These findings indicate the importance of integrating reproductive health and substance use education.

  7. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa, which border the San Francisco Bay. The area also... proceed along the San Francisco, San Mateo, and Santa Cruz County shoreline (across the Quadrangles of San... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false San Francisco Bay. 9.157...

  8. Convair Astronautics, San Diego (California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira & Luckmam, Arquitectos

    1960-05-01

    Full Text Available Este brillante y espectacular complejo industrial se ha creado especialmente para la investigación y fabricación de cohetes intercontinentales y vehículos del espacio de las Fuerzas Aéreas de los EE. UU., en las proximidades de San Diego y cerca del campo de pruebas de Sycamore Canyon.

  9. Diáspora salvadoreña: identidades y mapas culturales en el ciberespacio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Benítez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available EL FENÓMENO DE LA MIGRACIÓN INTERNACIONAL PLANTEA NUEVOS desafíos de investigación al campo académico de la comunicación. En esta perspectiva, algunos estudios de comunicación han analizado el papel de los medios de comunicación y sus narrativas mediáticas sobre la migración, la construcción de imaginarios sociales acerca de la experiencia de emigrar, y la importancia de las nuevas tecnologías enlas prácticas cotidianas de los inmigrantes. En este contexto, este artículo explora algunos contenidos y formatos que grupos y comunidades migrantes salvadoreñas construyen desde sitios y páginas web, usos de medios de comunicación local y nacional accesibles desde el Internet, y nuevas plataformas de redes sociales como los blogs, Myspace, Facebook, YouTube, entre otros. Por tanto, este artículo intenta dibujar algunos trazos de mapas culturales y expresiones de identidades colectivas que la diáspora salvadoreña construye día a día en el ciberespacio.

  10. Spatial analysis of migrating Apis mellifera colonies in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato L. Jr. Sandes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Beekeeping in Brazil is growing but also associated with an increase in the number of human and animal accidents involved. In particular, bees of the Apis mellifera species (Africanized bees are known for their aggressive behaviour and frequent swarming activity due to their poor adaptation to the human environment. This study analyzed the spatial distribution of occurrences of migratory swarms of A. mellifera and recorded apicultural accidents in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The association of demographic and climatic variations on places where the swarms occurred was also evaluated. The study is based on data collected within the frame of the “SOS Bees”, a project initiated for the protection of the environment and enforced by a special unit of the military police in Bahia. In the 3-year period from 2000 to 2003, 590 swarms were registered in 75 of the 98 zones of information of Salvador. Three cluster areas, representing 25.4% of all events, were identified. In that period, 316 apicultural accidents were registered involving humans and one involving dogs. The seasonal rise of the monthly average temperature showed an association with the increase of the number of swarming events.

  11. Esporte e Modernidade no Rio de Janeiro e Salvador: Um Estudo Comparado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coriolano Pereira da Rocha Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar comparativamente a relação entre a construção de projetos de modernidade e a conformação do campo esportivo no Rio de Janeiro e em Salvador, no âmbito dos governos Pereira Passos (1902-1906 e J. J. Seabra (1912-1916, respectivamente. Estabeleceram-se as seguintes questões a investigar: como essas cidades mobilizaram o esporte nos seus projetos de intervenção? Qual o impacto da experiência esportiva nas duas cidades? A investigação justifica-se por se tratar de duas cidades, historicamente, importantes para o país, bem como pela ausência de estudos correlatos. A análise comparada é, pois, o aspecto mais original deste texto. Para o alcance do objetivo, como fontes para investigar o caso de Salvador, examinamos jornais de circulação diária, como também algumas revistas. Como conclusão, identificamos que no Rio de Janeiro o campo esportivo desenvolveu-se em ampla relação com o processo de modernização, enquanto na Bahia essa relação foi menos significativa, implicando menor desenvolvimento esportivo.DOI: 10.5585/podium.v2i1.38

  12. Prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in children with diarrhea in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Franzolin

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the frequency of the different diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC categories isolated from children with acute endemic diarrhea in Salvador, Bahia. The E. coli isolates were investigated by colony blot hibridization whit the following genes probes: eae, EAF, bfpA, Stx1, Stx2, ST-Ih, ST-Ip, LT-I, LT-II, INV, and EAEC, as virulence markers to distinguish typical and atypical EPEC, EHEC/STEC, ETEC, EIEC, and EAEC. Seven of the eight categories of DEC were detected. The most frequently isolated was atypical EPEC (10.1% followed by ETEC (7.5%, and EAEC (4.2%. EHEC, STEC, EIEC, and typical EPEC were each detected once. The strains of ETEC, EAEC, and atypical EPEC belonged to a wide variety of serotypes. The serotypes of the others categories were O26:H11 (EHEC, O21:H21 (STEC, O142:H34 (typical EPEC, and O?H55 (EIEC. We also present the clinical manifestations and other pathogenic species observed in children with DEC. This is the first report of EHEC and STEC in Salvador, and one of the first in Brazil.

  13. Between New Terrains and Old Dichotomies: Peacebuilding and the Gangs’ Truce in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Roque

    Full Text Available Abstract This article intends to challenge the dominant assumptions that undermine the potential application of peacebuilding frameworks beyond formal post-war contexts. It analyses the gangs’ truce that recently took place in El Salvador as a privileged laboratory to rethink hegemonic understandings and practices of peacebuilding by specifically addressing the importance of overcoming dichotomised categories such ‘war and peace’, ‘criminal and political’, and ‘success and failure’. It is claimed that while the truce fostered a discourse pointing towards an ongoing peace process and enlarged the public debate on the failings of post-war policies and on the structural roots of violence, it was also decisively undermined by the inability to surmount the dichotomy that juxtaposes the criminal and the political domains. It is argued that a peacebuilding framework, inspired by a set of critical perspectives on war and peace and on the nature of ‘the political’, may thus be of crucial importance for the future of policies aimed at curbing violence in El Salvador and elsewhere.

  14. ASTER Flyby of San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer, ASTER, is an international project: the instrument was supplied by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint US/Japan science team developed algorithms for science data products, and is validating instrument performance. With its 14 spectral bands, extremely high spatial resolution, and 15 meter along-track stereo capability, ASTER is the zoom lens of the Terra satellite. The primary mission goals are to characterize the Earth's surface; and to monitor dynamic events and processes that influence habitability at human scales. ASTER's monitoring and mapping capabilities are illustrated by this series of images of the San Francisco area. The visible and near infrared image reveals suspended sediment in the bays, vegetation health, and details of the urban environment. Flying over San Francisco (3.2MB) (high-res (18.3MB)), we see the downtown, and shadows of the large buildings. Past the Golden Gate Bridge and Alcatraz Island, we cross San Pablo Bay and enter Suisun Bay. Turning south, we fly over the Berkeley and Oakland Hills. Large salt evaporation ponds come into view at the south end of San Francisco Bay. We turn northward, and approach San Francisco Airport. Rather than landing and ending our flight, we see this is as only the beginning of a 6 year mission to better understand the habitability of the world on which we live. For more information: ASTER images through Visible Earth ASTER Web Site Image courtesy of MITI, ERSDAC, JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  15. [Sources of interest to the history and culture of health: Arquivo Histórico municipal de Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Maria Teresa Navarro de Britto

    2008-01-01

    Based on documental investigation, supplemented by bibliographic research, this exploratory study recaptures the historical and institutional evolution of Salvador's Municipal History Archives and describes its current organizational structure and documental collection. Special attention is placed on sources of interest to the history and culture of health.

  16. El Registro de Mammuthus (Proboscidea, Elephantidae) en la República de El Salvador, América Central

    OpenAIRE

    Laurito Mora, César; Huziel Aguilar Calles, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Se describen dos nuevos registros de mamuts Mammuthus columbi Falconer (1857) para el Pleistoceno Tardío de El Salvador y se analiza el patrón paleobiogeográfico de Mammuthus en el Cuaternario de América Central.

  17. Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

  18. The Dilemma Between Peace and Justice. Transitional Justice in Post-conflict Context: the Cases of Guatemala and El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena MARTÍNEZ BARAHONA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe and explain the trade-off between justice and peace through the analysis of two post-conflict cases: Guatemala and El Salvador. Using the comparative methodology, we analyse the issues of truth, justice and reparation from the Peace Agreements until today.

  19. 78 FR 70092 - 2013 Special 301 Out-of-Cycle Review of El Salvador: Identification of Countries Under Section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... and whose acts, policies, or practices have the greatest adverse impact (actual or potential) on... STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE 2013 Special 301 Out-of-Cycle Review of El Salvador: Identification of Countries Under Section 182 of the Trade Act of 1974: Request for Public Comment AGENCY: Office of the...

  20. Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lauren Ila

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the…

  1. Tuberculose na cidade de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil: o perfil na década de 1990 Tuberculosis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, in the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Mota Xavier

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar o perfil epidemiológico da tuberculose (incidência e mortalidade no Município de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, na década de 1990, foram analisadas as características demográficas, clínicas e laboratoriais dos casos e óbitos por esta doença ocorridos no período. Foram calculadas as taxas médias anuais de mortalidade e da incidência por sexo, faixa etária e formas clínicas da doença com base nas informações dos bancos de dados do Sistema de Informações de Tuberculose da Secretaria de Saúde do Estado da Bahia e do Sistema de Informações de Mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde. Analisou-se a distribuição espacial da tuberculose segundo distritos sanitários. Ficou evidente o predomínio dos casos e óbitos no sexo masculino e na faixa etária de 15 a 39 anos. A forma pulmonar apresentou uma maior taxa de incidência e de mortalidade. Sobre a hipótese de que, a co-infecção AIDS/tuberculose possa contribuir para manter elevadas taxas de mortalidade, os dados existentes não corroboram para esta associação. A maior ocorrência de tuberculose em determinados distritos sanitários pode estar associada à densidade populacional e às condições desfavoráveis de vida.The characteristics of tuberculosis (TB cases and deaths were analyzed in order to characterize the epidemiological profile of TB (incidence and mortality in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, in the 1990s. Annual incidence and mortality rates were calculated by gender, age bracket, and clinical forms of the disease using databases from the Tuberculosis Information System of the Bahia State Health Secretariat and the Mortality Information System of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. TB spatial distribution was analyzed according to health district. Cases and deaths were predominantly in males in the 15 to 39 year group. The pulmonary form showed the highest incidence and mortality. The existing data did not corroborate the hypothesis that AIDS

  2. Práticas de higiene em uma feira livre da cidade de Salvador (BA Hygiene practices in a street market in the city of Salvador, Bahia State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia de Sá Teles Minnaert

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de compreender os significados das práticas de higiene dos alimentos em uma feira livre da cidade de Salvador (BA. O estudo etnográfico consegue apreender duas categorias centrais como produção simbólica das práticas higiênicas: o limpo como ordem e o sujo como desordem. Esses códigos culturais fazem correspondências com os estudos de Mary Douglas e Norbert Elias e apresentam especificidades para decifrar um mundo cotidiano em que concepções e práticas de higiene são aspectos normalizados por personagens que compartilham o espaço da feira: feirantes, consumidores, garis e fiscais municipais. O conhecimento técnico-científico e a legislação sanitária são tidos como estranhos ao sistema simbólico dos feirantes. As leis não são efetivas e não têm uma influência importante na construção das práticas higiênicas. As práticas dos fiscais municipais são coercitivas e punitivas e não consideram os valores culturais na formação de novas práticas de higiene.The main objective of this research is to understand the meaning of the practices concerning food hygiene in a street market in Salvador, the capital of Bahia State in Brazil. The ethnographic study presents two main categories for symbolic production related to hygiene practices: cleanliness as order and dirtiness as disorder. These cultural codes make correspondence with the studies of Mary Douglas and Nobert Elias. The codes present particularities to decode everyday life, in which concept and hygiene practices are aspects normalized, in daily activity, for persons who share the space of street market: vendors, consumers, street cleaners and official inspectors. The techno-scientific knowledge and sanitary legislation are strange to the symbolic system of street market vendors. The laws are ineffective and their influence is of little importance in the creation of hygiene practices. Official inspectors' attitudes are coercive and punitive and do not take

  3. La colección nacional de aves del Museo de historia natural de El Salvador: 40 años de ciencia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra Portillo, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Antecedentes. Introducción. Quiénes, cómo y por qué hacer una recolecta científica. Importancia de las colecciones biológicas. Marco legal. Las colecciones ornitológicas en la región Centroamericana y Panamá. Breve historia del estudio de aves en El Salvador. La colección ornitológica de El Salvador. Especies interesantes. Proporción por departamento. Conclusiones. Agradecimientos. UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLÓGICA DE EL SALVADOR

  4. Arcos triunfales de San Petersburgo

    OpenAIRE

    Kurz Muñiz, Juan Albert; Gordo, Carmen María

    2001-01-01

    Se conmemora el tricentenario de la ciudad de San Petersburgo, ciudad que nos ha dejado grandiosos monumentos a lo largo de su historia. La importancia de los arcos triunfales, exponentes máximos que reglejan las victorias acaecidas, con un refinamiento y belleza occidental. Erigidos durante los reinados de Pedro I el Grande y Catalina II, monarcas ilustrados que supieron abrir a Rusia hacia la modernidad.

  5. Polycystic ovary syndrome in Salvador, Brazil: a prevalence study in primary healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielli Ligia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common condition in women of reproductive age. It is characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea and polycystic ovaries. It is associated with obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. No studies have been conducted on the prevalence of PCOS in Brazilian or South American women. Few studies using the Rotterdam criteria have been published. The objective of the present study was to calculate the prevalence of PCOS at primary healthcare level in Salvador, Brazil based on these criteria. Methods This was a cross-sectional, two-phase study conducted in a probability sample of women of 18–45 years of age screened for cervical cancer in the primary healthcare network of the city of Salvador, Brazil. In the first phase, interviews were conducted, weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure and random blood sugar levels were measured, and the presence of acne and hirsutism was investigated. Women with at least one diagnostic criterion were referred for the second phase, which consisted of specialist consultation, pelvic ultrasonography and hormone measurements for differential diagnosis and/or investigation of a second criterion. Results Of the 859 women interviewed, 88.5% were black and 58.7% had 11 years of schooling or less. A diagnosis of PCOS was excluded in 84.4%, undetermined in 7.1% and confirmed in 8.5% (95%CI: 6.80–10.56. There were no statistically significant differences between these three groups with respect to weight, body mass index, waist circumference, blood sugar levels or arterial blood pressure. Women with PCOS were younger (p = 0.00, taller (p = 0.04, had fewer children (p = 0.00, were better educated (p = 0.01, and had higher total testosterone levels (p = 0.01 and a higher LH/FSH ratio (p = 0.01. Conclusion According to the Rotterdam criteria, the prevalence of PCOS in women seeking primary

  6. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Larreynaga, J.; González, M.; Castro, M.; Gavidia, F.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; González-Riancho, P.; Carreño, E.

    2013-11-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and deterministic methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold: on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high-resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps, and from the elevation in the near shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific Basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences-finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the linear and non-linear shallow water equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake-generated tsunami scenarios. Our results show that at the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results

  7. El Salvador, Chile porphyry copper deposit revisited: Geologic and geochronologic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, P.; Tosdal, R.M.; Mpodozis, C.; Tomlinson, A.J.; Rivera, O.; Fanning, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Eocene (42 to 41 Ma) El Salvador porphyry copper deposit in the Indio Muerto district, northern Chile (26?? 15??? S Lat.), formerly thought to have formed at the culmination of a 9-m.y. period of episodic magmatism, is shown by new mapping, U-Pb and K-Ar geochronology, and petrologic data to have formed during the younger of two distinct but superposed magmatic events - a Paleocene (???63 to 58 Ma) and an Eocene (44 to 41 Ma) event. In the district, high-K Paleocene volcano-plutonic activity was characterized by a variety of eruptive styles and magmatic compositions, including a collapse caldera associated with explosive rhyolitic magmatism (El Salvador trap-door caldera), a post-collapse rhyolite dome field (Cerro Indio Muerto), and andesitic-trachyandesitic stratovolcanos (Kilo??metro Catorce-Los Amarillos sequence). Precaldera basement faults were reactivated during Paleocene volcanism as part of the collapse margin of the caldera. Beneath Cerro Indio Muerto, where the porphyry Cu deposit subsequently formed, the intersection of two major basement faults and the NNE-striking rotational axis of tilted ignimbrites of the Paleocene El Salvador caldera localized emplacement of post-collapse rhyolite domes and peripheral dikes and sills. Subsequent Eocene rhyolitic and granodioritic-dacitic porphyries intruded ???14 m.y. after cessation of Paleocene magmatism along the same NNE-striking structural belt through Cerro Indio Muerto as did the post-collapse Paleocene rhyolite domes. Eocene plutonism over a 3-m.y. period was contemporaneous with NW-SE-directed shortening associated with regional sinistral transpression along the Sierra Castillo fault, lying ???10 km to the east. Older Eocene rhyolitic porphyries in the Indio Muerto district were emplaced between 44 and 43 Ma, and have a small uneconomic Cu center associated with a porphyry at Old Camp. The oldest granodioritic-dacitic porphyries also were emplaced at ???44 to 43 Ma, but their petrogenetic relation to

  8. Adela Salvador. Una vida dedicada a las Matemáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Martín Díaz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En el verano de 2012 tuve la oportunidad de entrevistar a la matemática Adela Salvador,que no sólo se ha preocupado de la enseñanza de la materia en Institutos o Universidades,sino que también ha realizado importantes investigaciones en el campo de la Lógica Borrosa (entre otros y especializado en la vida de otras Mujeres Matemáticas que la precedieron. Lleva dando clases unos 45 años, de forma ininterrumpida. Ha dirigido, coordinado o colaborado con más de 83 proyectos de investigación o de innovación educativa. Ha escrito 76 libros, 116 artículos, 94 ponencias a congresos, y ha impartido montones de cursos, seminarios, conferencias durante todos esos años.

  9. Health sector response to security threats during the civil war in E1 Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentlinger, P. E.

    1996-01-01

    During the recent civil war in E1 Salvador, as in other modern wars, human rights abuses adversely affected health workers, patients, and medical facilities. The abuses themselves have been described in reports of human rights advocacy organisations but health sector adaptations to a hostile wartime environment have not. Agencies engaged in health work during the civil war adapted parties such as training of community based lay health workers, use of simple technology, concealment of patients and medical supplies, denunciation of human rights abuses, and multilevel negotiations in order to continue providing services. The Salvadorean experience may serve as a helpful case study for medical personnel working in wars elsewhere. Images p1471-a p1472-a p1473-a PMID:8973238

  10. Periodismo salvadoreño: de la intolerancia política a las posibilidades informativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alfredo Cantarero

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se plantea la historia reciente del periodismo salvadoreño: antes de los acuerdos de paz y después de los acuerdos de paz. Se sostiene que durante la guerra el periodismo se realizaba con las limitaciones que impuso la intolerancia política. A partir de los acuerdos de paz, por la distensión política y la instauración de la democracia, el periodismo tiene mayores posibilidades de realizar un trabajo más profesional. Sin embargo, profesionalizarlo más implica superar dificultades propias del gremio de periodistas, que se encuentran el orden de la responsabilidad social, el manejo técnico, el respeto a las leyes y a la asunción de normas éticas.

  11. Leadership in nonprofit organizations of Nicaragua and El Salvador: a study from the social identity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriano León, Juan Antonio; Topa Cantisano, Gabriela; Lévy Mangin, Jean-Pierre

    2009-11-01

    This study follows the social identity model of leadership proposed by van Knippenberg and Hogg (2003), in order to examine empirically the mediator effect of leadership prototypicality between social identity, extra effort, and perceived effectiveness of group members. The sample consisted of 109 participants who worked in 22 different work-teams of non-profit organizations (NPO) from Nicaragua and El Salvador. The data analysis was performed through structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that NPO membership is related to a high level of social identity. In addition, the results confirmed that leadership prototypicality has a significant and positive mediator effect in the relationship between the group identification and the group members' extra effort and the perceived effectiveness of leadership.

  12. Geostatistical Spatio-Time model of crime in el Salvador: Structural and Predictive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welman Rosa Alvarado

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, to study a geospatial and spatio-temporal phenomena requires searching statistical tools that enable the analysis of the dependency of space, time and interactions. The science that studies this kind of subjects is the Geoestatics which the goal is to predict spatial phenomenon. This science is considered the base for modeling phenomena that involves interactions between space and time. In the past 10 years, the Geostatistic had seen a great development in areas like the geology, soils, remote sensing, epidemiology, agriculture, ecology, economy, etc. In this research, the geostatistic had been apply to build a predictive map about crime in El Salvador; for that the variability of space and time together is studied to generate crime scenarios: crime hot spots are determined, crime vulnerable groups are identified, to improve political decisions and facilitate to decision makers about the insecurity in the country.

  13. PUNISHED AND UNSUBMISSIVE: SCANDAL IT IN THE CONVENT OF THE LAPA IN SALVADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA BEATRIZ NIZZA DA SILVA

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a rich nucleus of documentation dealing with the punitive reclusion of an upper class married woman in Salvador during the period of 1788 and 1807. As a case study of the role played by the institutions of feminine reclusion in family relations it highlights the efforts of diverse personages and institutions preserve the honor of married woman. On the other hand, it illustrates the behavior could include complete submission, to request for divorce and the commitment of transgressions. The article points out the importance of studding feminine reclusion in order to analysis family relations in colonial Brazil. lt also concludes that conjugal relations during the Old Regimen were not confined to the private sphere.

  14. Acoso en la escuela Salvadoreña:más allá del bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez Valle, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Bullying es el término anglosajón con el que se designa a la situación de acoso entre escolares. Acuñado por Dan Olweus en la década de 1970, el término ayudó a identificar y estudiar dichas prácticas alrededor del mundo. Sin embargo, el acoso escolar, como todo fenómeno social, muta a través del tiempo. Este ensayo parte del supuesto que el término bullying es insuficiente para explicar las situaciones que actualmente suceden en la escuela salvadoreña. Realizado en el marco de una investiga...

  15. La construcción de Return ticket, de Salvador Novo: el viaje doble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heladio Colín-Medina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con base en la narratología, se describe la forma en que el autor / narrador / personaje construye el viaje doble en Return Ticket , y se analiza dicho trayecto en exterior / objetivo e interior / subjetivo. Así se encontró que el primer viaje permite al personaje Salvador —en sus tres facetas de cronista, crítico e historiador— relatar un viaje a Hawái, donde reflexiona sobre el nacionalismo que se estaba gestando en 1928; mientras que el segundo lleva al lector hacia la recreación de una infancia. De modo que el viaje exterior / objetivo es sólo el pretexto para plantear el interior / subjetivo.

  16. Hippo pathway phylogenetics predicts monoubiquitylation of Salvador and Merlin/Nf2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Wisotzkey

    Full Text Available Recently we employed phylogenetics to predict that the cellular interpretation of TGF-β signals is modulated by monoubiquitylation cycles affecting the Smad4 signal transducer/tumor suppressor. This prediction was subsequently validated by experiments in flies, frogs and mammalian cells. Here we apply a phylogenetic approach to the Hippo pathway and predict that two of its signal transducers, Salvador and Merlin/Nf2 (also a tumor suppressor are regulated by monoubiquitylation. This regulatory mechanism does not lead to protein degradation but instead serves as a highly efficient "off/on" switch when the protein is subsequently deubiquitylated. Overall, our study shows that the creative application of phylogenetics can predict new roles for pathway components and new mechanisms for regulating intercellular signaling pathways.

  17. Perceived Parental Monitoring and Health Risk Behavior among Public Secondary School Students in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Springer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982. After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, multilevel regression analyses indicated that students reporting low parental monitoring were between 2 to 3.5 times more likely to report risk behaviors examined. The promotion of specific parenting practices such as parental monitoring may hold promise for reducing adolescent risk behaviors in El Salvador.

  18. Marvels of Illusion: illusion and perception in the art of Salvador Dali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana eMartinez-Conde

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The surrealist movement aimed to blur the distinction between the real and the imagined. Such lack of a border between demonstrable truth and fantasy is perhaps most apparent in the art of Spanish painter Salvador Dali (1904-1989. Dali included numerous illusions in his artworks, with the intent to challenge the viewers’ perceptions of reality and to enable them to see beyond the surface. The Marvels of Illusion exhibit, shown at The Dali Museum in St. Petersburg, FL., from June 14 to October 12, 2014, showcased Dali paintings, prints and sculptures centered on illusory themes. Here we review the significance of illusions in Dali’s art, focusing on the pieces displayed at the Marvels of Illusion exhibit.

  19. Comparing Madrid and Salvador GHG Emission Inventories: Implications for Future Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Celio Silveira Andrade

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the Greenhouse Gas (GHG emission inventories of Madrid and Salvador and discusses some implications for future researches, focusing on citylevel carbon accounting (CLCA of emissions from urban supply chains (USC and final consumers. To carry out this study, secondary data were collected from official documents of municipal governments of these two cities. According to the results, there are differences in stationary energy GHG emissions due to the big distinction concerning electricity emission factors used by each city. Air transportation GHG emissions are also very different. These two cities share some common figures regarding road transportation and per capita waste sector GHG emissions. In the conclusion section, we discuss opportunities for improvement of the cities’ GHG emission inventories as well as some implications for policy-making and future researches on carbon accounting, with focus on an integrated production-consumption system.

  20. Expressão da tristeza em camada popular urbana de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Lívia Alessandra F. da

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina as peculiaridades da expressão da emoção em um bairro popular de Salvador, Bahia, o Nordeste de Amaralina. Focalizando nossa exploração na expressão da tristeza, tentamos construir um esquema que possibilite a compreensão de como os informantes percebem, identificam e lidam com esta emoção no curso de suas vidas cotidianas. Perseguindo este objetivo, construímos uma rede semântica que revela a existência de três agrupamentos principais de expressão emocional: um grupo "interior", um "corporal" e outro "interativo". Observamos também as superposições entre o universo da expressão emocional e o conceito de pessoa local.

  1. [Hygiene practices in a street market in the city of Salvador, Bahia State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnaert, Ana Cláudia de Sá Teles; Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this research is to understand the meaning of the practices concerning food hygiene in a street market in Salvador, the capital of Bahia State in Brazil. The ethnographic study presents two main categories for symbolic production related to hygiene practices: cleanliness as order and dirtiness as disorder. These cultural codes make correspondence with the studies of Mary Douglas and Nobert Elias. The codes present particularities to decode everyday life, in which concept and hygiene practices are aspects normalized, in daily activity, for persons who share the space of street market: vendors, consumers, street cleaners and official inspectors. The techno-scientific knowledge and sanitary legislation are strange to the symbolic system of street market vendors. The laws are ineffective and their influence is of little importance in the creation of hygiene practices. Official inspectors' attitudes are coercive and punitive and do not take into account any cultural values when enforcing new hygiene practices.

  2. Molecular biology in Salvador Dalí’s artistic career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel López del Rincón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Salvador Dalí’s relationship with science is one of the most important aspects of his artistic production, spanning disciplines such as physics, mathematics and biology. Considering his interest in the different sciences, the aim of this paper is to explore the special relationship between the painter and molecular biology, establishing a catalogue of works permitting the identification of its importance within Dalí’s career. We will try to demonstrate that the so-called «DNA period» encompasses a broader chronology than the one traditionally proposed, extending it from 1957 until the 1980s. That would place Dalí as the pioneer in the incorporation of molecular biology into art history.

  3. Gênero e brincadeira em parquinhos públicos de Salvador (BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Silva Fiaes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies about the use of space to play in open environments have shown that boys and girls show differences in play, preference for certain kinds of spaces and in how they organize themselves. This study proposes to describe and discuss ways to use space in two playgrounds in the city of Salvador, prioritizing the issues associated with how girls and boys use them to play. Sessions of observation were registered, through focus on cursive records of the event of play and scanning observations in Tororo’s Dock and Campo Grande. There were no significant differences in the presence of boys and girls. Children played predominantly using physical exercise, with differences in the frequency of participation of segregated and mixed groups. Differences were found in the use of space based on gender, linked to the size of the available spaces and the adult’s presence.   Keywords: gender; play; public playground.

  4. Marvels of illusion: illusion and perception in the art of Salvador Dali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Conde, Susana; Conley, Dave; Hine, Hank; Kropf, Joan; Tush, Peter; Ayala, Andrea; Macknik, Stephen L

    2015-01-01

    The surrealist movement aimed to blur the distinction between the real and the imagined. Such lack of a border between demonstrable truth and fantasy is perhaps most apparent in the art of Spanish painter Salvador Dali (1904-1989). Dali included numerous illusions in his artworks, with the intent to challenge the viewers' perceptions of reality and to enable them to see beyond the surface. The "Marvels of Illusion" exhibit, shown at The Dali Museum in St. Petersburg, FL., from June 14 to October 12, 2014, showcased Dali paintings, prints and sculptures centered on illusory themes. Here, we review the significance of illusions in Dali's art, focusing on the pieces displayed at the "Marvels of Illusion" exhibit.

  5. Dynamics of Blue Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions Along a Land Use Gradient in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, M.; Torres, D.; Sergio, V.; Rivera, C. G.; Molina, O.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal blue carbon ecosystems can store up to 5 times more carbon than their terrestrial counterparts. The former are also under great threats stemming from climate change (i.e. sea level rise) and human encroachment (i.e. land use change). Our research was conducted in Jiquilisco and Jaltepeque Bays in El Salvador and constitutes the first-ever assessment of blue carbon stocks and GHG emissions along a land use gradient in the country. Ecosystem-level carbon stocks were measured in mangroves (natural and restored stands), marshes, shrimp farms, artisan salt flats, and adjacent agriculture areas. Ecosystem carbon ranged from 738 ± 116 MgC·ha-1 to 617 ± 115 MgC·ha-1 in tall and medium mangroves to 191 ± 28 MgC·ha-1 in dwarf mangroves. An average 87 % of this carbon is sequestered in the soil, consistent with measurements made elsewhere. Carbon losses from conversion from mangroves to agricultural uses reduced natural stocks by 90%, thus producing dramatic historical emissions in the country. Conservative estimates suggest historical (1993-2014) carbon emissions from this land-use dynamics may amount to 48495 to 58004 Gg CO2e, representing 3 to 4 times the country's emissions in 2005. Our data allow us to test the efficacy of "Ecological Mangrove Restoration" programs promoted in El Salvador to strengthen local governance, livelihoods and ecosystem stability. Restored mangrove stands represent anywhere from 36 to 77 % of ecosystem carbon stocks measured in natural stands, suggesting they are playing an important role in recovering lost stocks over time. Further efforts should be spent in expanding community mangrove restoration, and ensuring carbon sequestration is properly included in the national MRV system for REDD+.

  6. Factors associated with body image dissatisfaction among adolescents in public schools students in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Mônica L P; Silva, Rita de Cássia R; Assis, Ana M O; Raich, Rosa M; Machado, Maria Ester P C; de J Pinto, Elizabete; de Moraes, Lia T L P; Ribeiro Júnior, Hugo da C

    2013-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and associated factors among students in Salvador, Brazil. A cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 1,494 (852 girls and 642 boys) adolescents between 11 and 17 years of age who were students in the public schools in Salvador, Brazil. Participants completed the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Eating Attitudes Test-26. Body image was characterized as satisfactory or unsatisfactory. We obtained demographic, anthropometric and economic information and information regarding the stage of maturation, self-perception of body weight, and consumption of sweetened beverages and diet soft drinks. To identify associated factors we used Poisson regression analysis. Body image dissatisfaction was present in 19.5% of the adolescents, with a prevalence of 26.6% among the girls and 10% among the boys. Independent of sex, the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was higher among adolescents who were overweight or obese (girls, PR: 1.38, CI: 1.09-1.73 and boys, PR: 2.26, CI: 1.08-4.75), higher among those who perceived themselves as fat (girls, PR: 2.85, CI: 2.07-3.93 and boys, PR: 3.17, CI: 1.39-7.23), and higher among those who had negative attitudes toward eating (girls, PR: 2.42, CI: 1.91-3.08 and boys, PR: 4.67, CI: 2.85-7.63).. A reduction in body image dissatisfaction was only identified among underweight girls (PR: 0.12, CI: 0.03-0.49). A high occurrence of body image dissatisfaction was observed among the adolescents, and biological and behavioral factors were associated with this dissatisfaction. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Wi-Fi Salvador: mapeamento colaborativo e redes sem fio no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Lemos

    Full Text Available O trabalho faz uma breve demonstração de políticas públicas para inclusão digital por meio da disponibilização do acesso à internet por meio de redes sem fio e discute a forma como as pessoas se relacionam com os lugares, de acordo com a existência ou inexistência de acessibilidade à internet. O objetivo é discutir o acesso à internet pelas redes sem fio no Brasil e, mais especificamente, na cidade de Salvador. Este trabalho é fruto de pesquisa realizada no âmbito do Grupo de Pesquisa em Cibercidades da Universidade Federal da Bahia e mostra como a intersecção entre o ciberespaço e o espaço físico está trazendo novas experiências de uso e de produção de sentido sobre a cidade. Hoje, a urbe contemporânea supõe ampla conexão e associações entre espaço físico e "territórios informacionais" para os mais diversos fins, em uma aliança entre a mobilidade física e a informacional. Assim, mostramos os principais desafios teóricos em jogo com as mídias digitais, as redes sem fio e o espaço urbano. A partir deste aporte, o trabalho faz uma análise do projeto Wi-Fi Salvador, o maior mapeamento de redes sem fio já realizado na capital baiana e no Brasil.

  8. Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Matos Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common vaginal infection. HIV-infection is a risk factor for this infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of VVC and to describe the main Candida species isolated and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs in HIV-infected patients, compared to HIV-uninfected women in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a group of 64 HIV-infected women and 76 uninfected women, followed up at the AIDS reference center and at the Gynecological Clinic of Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. RESULTS: Frequency of Candida spp. was higher in HIV-infected women (29.7% than in HIV-uninfected controls (14.5% (p = 0.02. The odds ratio value for vulvovaginal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.07 - 6.32 p = 0.03. Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species in both HIV-infected (52.3% and uninfected women (85.7%, followed by C. parapsolis in 17.6% and 14.3%, respectively. In HIV-infected women, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and a coinfection of C. albicans and C. glabrata were also identified. There was no significant difference between Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of women with VVC and colonization of the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. One C. glabrata isolate from an HIV-infected patient was resistant to fluconazole and other two isolates exhibited a dose-dependent susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm a higher frequency of Candida spp. isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women and a broader spectrum of species involved. Only Candida glabrata isolates showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole.

  9. Bacterial contamination in milk kitchens in pediatric hospitals in Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romilda Castro Cairo

    Full Text Available Milk may represent an important source of infectious agents to hospitalized pediatric patients. To describe the bacterial microflora isolated from the hands, stools, pharynx of all workers at milk kitchens in pediatric hospitals in the city of Salvador, Brazil, as well as in the formulas prepared by them, we carried out this cross-sectional study with all 91 workers from the 20 milk kitchens of all the public and private hospitals in Salvador, Brazil. Hand and pharynx swabs and stool samples were collected from all workers, as well as samples of the milk and formulas delivered by the kitchens. All samples were cultured for the detection of pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 20 (22.0% and 8 (8.8% cultures of the hands and pharynx of the workers, respectively. No pathogenic bacteria were isolated from stool samples. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 17 (18.7% milk samples. The prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in hand swabs was significantly higher in workers from public (37.8% than from private (6.5% hospitals (prevalence ratio [PR]=5.8; p<0.01. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from two (4.4% workers from public hospitals and six (13.0% workers from private hospitals (PR=0.38; p=0.27. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 11 (24.4% milk samples from public hospitals and 6 (13.0% from private hospitals (PR=1.9; p=0.16. A high prevalence of contamination was found, mainly on the hands of workers on units for manipulation of milk. Preventive efforts should be intensified and focus primarily on effective hand washing and continuous work supervision.

  10. Prevalence of patients receiving renal replacement therapy in El Salvador in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Trabanino, Ramón; Trujillo, Zulma; Colorado, Ana Verónica; Magaña Mercado, Salvador; Henríquez, Carlos Atilio

    El Salvador has the highest renal failure mortality rate in the Americas. Five healthcare providers offer renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the country. The national RRT prevalence has never been reported. To determine the RRT prevalence in El Salvador and some basic characteristics. The association of nephrology coordinated a nationwide cross-sectional survey during the third quarter of 2014. 31 renal centres participated in the survey, covering 99.5% of patients. National RRT prevalence: 595 per million population (pmp), N=3807, average age 50.4 years, 67.5% male. By modality: peritoneal dialysis (PD) 289 pmp, haemodialysis (HD) 233 pmp, with functioning kidney transplantation 74 pmp (living donor only). Social security covers 25% of the population but treats 49.7% of RRT patients. Generally, higher prevalence was observed in municipalities with renal centres or located on the coast or lowlands. Ninety-five percent of HD patients receive fewer than 3 weekly sessions. Of PD patients, 59% do not belong to a continuous outpatient or automated programme, and 25% still use rigid catheter. Aetiology of chronic kidney disease: unavailable/undetermined 50%, hypertension 21.1%, diabetes 18.9%, glomerulonephritis 6.7%, obstructive causes 1.2%, tubulointerstitial 0.9%, polycystic 0.4% and other 0.7%. Despite the increase in RRT services, the prevalence is lower than the Latin American average (660 pmp). Three quarters of HD and PD patients are under-dialysed. Obsolete RRT techniques are still used. The presence of Mesoamerican nephropathy influences the demographic characteristics (many young patients, two-thirds male, high prevalence in lowlands and coastlands). Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Distribuição espacial da mortalidade por tuberculose em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Frias Mota

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de descrever a distribuição espacial da mortalidade por tuberculose em Salvador nos anos de 1991, 1994 e 1997, foi realizado um estudo ecológico, descritivo, tendo como unidade de análise o Distrito Sanitário (DS. Foram calculados os coeficientes padronizados de mortalidade por tuberculose e a mortalidade proporcional por tuberculose, em relação ao conjunto das doenças infecciosas e parasitárias, utilizando-se as declarações de óbitos como fonte de dados. O DS com os maiores coeficientes padronizados foi o Subúrbio Ferroviário, com taxas de 15,7, 10,6 e 10,6/100 mil habitantes, em 1991, 1994 e 1997, respectivamente. Em 1997, foram observadas as menores taxas padronizadas. A mortalidade proporcional por tuberculose em Salvador, nos anos de 1991, 1994 e 1997, representou 20,7%, 18,2 % e 16,9%, respectivamente, do total das mortes por doenças infecciosas e parasitárias. A faixa etária de maior risco, nos anos estudados, foi aquela acima de 65 anos. Os autores discutem as possibilidades de utilização dos resultados deste estudo para a implementação de políticas locais de saúde equânimes e desenvolvimento de operações de vigilância da saúde, tendo em vista a identificação de DS com maior risco de óbito e as faixas etárias mais acometidas.

  12. Distribuição espacial da mortalidade por tuberculose em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Fábio Frias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de descrever a distribuição espacial da mortalidade por tuberculose em Salvador nos anos de 1991, 1994 e 1997, foi realizado um estudo ecológico, descritivo, tendo como unidade de análise o Distrito Sanitário (DS. Foram calculados os coeficientes padronizados de mortalidade por tuberculose e a mortalidade proporcional por tuberculose, em relação ao conjunto das doenças infecciosas e parasitárias, utilizando-se as declarações de óbitos como fonte de dados. O DS com os maiores coeficientes padronizados foi o Subúrbio Ferroviário, com taxas de 15,7, 10,6 e 10,6/100 mil habitantes, em 1991, 1994 e 1997, respectivamente. Em 1997, foram observadas as menores taxas padronizadas. A mortalidade proporcional por tuberculose em Salvador, nos anos de 1991, 1994 e 1997, representou 20,7%, 18,2 % e 16,9%, respectivamente, do total das mortes por doenças infecciosas e parasitárias. A faixa etária de maior risco, nos anos estudados, foi aquela acima de 65 anos. Os autores discutem as possibilidades de utilização dos resultados deste estudo para a implementação de políticas locais de saúde equânimes e desenvolvimento de operações de vigilância da saúde, tendo em vista a identificação de DS com maior risco de óbito e as faixas etárias mais acometidas.

  13. Incidence of diarrhea in children living in urban slums in Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clotildes N. de Melo

    Full Text Available Diarrhea remains a major health issue in developing countries, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Determining the incidence of acute diarrhea in children and its associated factors is crucial to the planning of preventive approaches. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of diarrhea and to assess some relevant associated factors to it in children younger than 40 months living in two slums of Salvador, Brazil. This is the first prospective cohort, community-based study that was performed in two periurban slums of Salvador, Brazil. Eighty-four children younger than 40 months were randomly selected and visited every other day for one year. The chi-square test was used to evaluate the occurrence of diarrhea and its associated factors. During the surveillance period, 232 diarrhea episodes were identified, resulting in an incidence rate of 2.8 episodes/child/year. In average (mean value of 84 children,each child suffered 11.1 days of diarrhea per year, yielding an average duration of 3.9 days per episode. The highest incidence rates were found among children under one year old. Early weaning, male sex, malnutrition, having a mother younger than 25 years or who considered her child malnourished, missed immunizations and previous pneumonia were associated factors for suffering diarrheal episodes. The rates of incidence and duration of diarrhea that we found are in accordance to those reported by others. Additionally, our results reinforce the importance of environmental and health-related associated factors to the onset of diarrhea.

  14. Serological survey of Leishmania infection in blood donors in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutani, Kiyoshi F; Figueiredo, Virgínia; Celes, Fabiana S; Cristal, Juqueline R; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel; de Oliveira, Camila I

    2014-07-30

    Visceral Leishmaniasis is endemic to Brazil, where it is caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi). Following parasite inoculation, individuals may experience asymptomatic infection, raising the possibility of parasite transmission through the transfusion of contaminated blood products. In the present work, we evaluated the prevalence of asymptomatic Leishmania infection among blood donors in Salvador, northeastern Brazil. Peripheral blood was collected from 700 blood donors attending the Blood Bank of Bahia (HEMOBA/SESAB), from January to September 2010. We evaluated anti-Leishmania serology by ELISA, employing Soluble Leishmania Antigen (sensitivity 90% and specificity 95%). The presence of parasite DNA was determined by qPCR, targeting a single copy gene (G6PD), and by end-point PCR, targeting multiple targets, namely a segment located in the Leishmania rRNA locus (ITS) and the conserved region of kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) minicircles. The blood-donor population was comprised of 74.5% of males with a mean age of 34 years. Anti-Leishmania serology by ELISA was positive in 5.4% (38/700) individuals. One individual was also positive for Chagas' disease and another tested positive for Syphilis. Employing qPCR, parasite DNA was not found in any of 38 seropositive samples. However, by ITS PCR, 8/38 (21%) samples were positive and this positivity increased to 26/38 (68%) when we targeted kDNA amplification. Agreement between both techniques (ITS and kDNA PCR) was fair (kappa = 0.219). These results indicate that asymptomatic infection is present among the blood donor population of Salvador, a finding that warrants a broader discussion regarding the need to implement specific screening strategies.

  15. Species - San Diego Co. [ds121

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is the Biological Observation Database point layer representing baseline observations of sensitive species (as defined by the MSCP) throughout San Diego County....

  16. 78 FR 18238 - Safety Zone; SFPD Training Safety Zone; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... William Hawn, U.S. Coast Guard Sector San Francisco; telephone (415) 399-7442 or email at D11-PF-Marine... navigable waters around the SFPD's maritime interdiction training exercises. The SFPD Training Safety ] Zone... Hunters Point in San Francisco, CA in support of the San Francisco Police Department's maritime...

  17. 77 FR 34988 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Diego State University, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: San Diego State University, San Diego, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: San Diego State University Archeology Collections Management Program has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in...

  18. 77 FR 46115 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Diego Museum of Man, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ...-1100-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: San Diego Museum of Man, San Diego, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The San Diego Museum of Man has completed an inventory of... Diego Museum of Man. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribe stated below may occur if no...

  19. 78 FR 34123 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... NAGPRA Program, c/o Department of Anthropology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San... construction activities for the Middle Fork American River Project. Site materials from the Middle Fork... Jeffrey Boland Fentress, San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, c/o Department of Anthropology...

  20. Cuartel San Carlos. Yacimiento veterano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Flores

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El Cuartel San Carlos es un monumento histórico nacional (1986 de finales del siglo XVIII (1785-1790, caracterizado por sufrir diversas adversidades en su construcción y soportar los terremotos de 1812 y 1900. En el año 2006, el organismo encargado de su custodia, el Instituto de Patrimonio Cultural del Ministerio de Cultura, ejecutó tres etapas de exploración arqueológica, que abarcaron las áreas Traspatio, Patio Central y las Naves Este y Oeste de la edificación. Este trabajo reseña el análisis de la documentación arqueológica obtenida en el sitio, a partir de la realización de dicho proyecto, denominado EACUSAC (Estudio Arqueológico del Cuartel San Carlos, que representa además, la tercera campaña realizada en el sitio. La importancia de este yacimiento histórico, radica en su participación en los acontecimientos que propiciaron conflictos de poder durante el surgimiento de la República y en los sucesos políticos del siglo XX. De igual manera, se encontró en el sitio una amplia muestra de materiales arqueológicos que reseñan un estilo de vida cotidiana militar, así como las dinámicas sociales internas ocurridas en el San Carlos, como lugar estratégico para la defensa de los diferentes regímenes que atravesó el país, desde la época del imperialismo español hasta nuestros días.

  1. Kwoniella mangroviensis gen. nov., sp.nov. (Tremellales, Basidiomycota), a teleomorphic yeast from mangrove habitats in the Florida Everglades and Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statzell-Tallman, Adele; Belloch, Carmela; Fell, Jack W

    2008-02-01

    Mangrove forests inhabit the shoreline regions of tropical and subtropical marine habitats, where they are the basis of a multi-trophic level food web that drives the shellfish and fisheries industries. Yeasts, and other fungi, have significant roles in these ecosystems as they decompose plant organic material and serve as a food source for small invertebrates. Studies designed to examine yeast communities of mangrove regions of the Florida Everglades and the Bahamas demonstrated the repeated presence of an undescribed teleomorphic basidiomycetous yeast. The yeast is heterothallic, with a sexual cycle that can be observed on artificial media. Mating between compatible pairs produces polymorphic basidia. Some basidia are globose, ovoid or lageniform, with longitudinal to oblique and transverse septa, whereas other basidia are navicular with one to three transverse septa. Basidiocarps and ballistoconidia are absent. Molecular sequence analysis of a partial region (D1/D2 domains) of the large subunit rRNA demonstrated that the yeast is phylogenetically distinct from other teleomorphic Tremellales with close relationships to the anamorphic species Cryptococcus dejecticola, Cryptococcus bestiolae and Bullera dendrophila. The molecular and phenotypic data indicate that this teleomorph should be classified in a novel genus. Therefore, Kwoniella mangroviensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (Type strain CBS 8507), is proposed.

  2. Synchronous and Rhythmic Vocalizations and Correlated Underwater Behavior of Free-ranging Atlantic Spotted Dolphins (Stenella frontalis and Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in the Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Herzing

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1985 a resident community of Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis, and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus, have been studied underwater in the Bahamas. Over 200 individuals of both species have been identified and observed over the years. Basic correlations with sound patterns and behavior such as whistles during contact/reunions and squawks during aggression have been reported. This paper describes a small subset of their vocal repertoire that involves synchronous/rhythmic sound production. Dolphin behavior was recorded underwater using underwater video cameras with hydrophone input. Vocalizations were correlated with basic underwater behavioral activity and analyzed using Raven 1.3. Spotted dolphins were observed using two types of synchronized vocalizations including synchronized squawks (burst pulsed vocalizations and screams- (overlapping FM whistles during intraspecific and interspecific aggression. Bottlenose dolphins used three types of synchronized vocalizations; whistles/buzz bouts, bray/buzz bouts, and buzz bouts during intraspecific aggression. Body postures were synchronous with physical movements and often mirrored the rhythm of the vocalizations. The intervals between highly synchronized vocalizations had small variance and created a rhythmic quality and cadence to the acoustic sequences. Three types of vocalizations had similar ratios of sound duration to the spacing between sounds (Screams, whistle/buzz bouts, and bray/buzz bouts. Temporal aspects of sequences of sound and postures may be important aspects of individual and group coordination and behavior in delphinids.

  3. The use of ethanol in the bus in public transport system of Salvador (Bahia): environmental benefits; O uso de onibus a etanol no sistema de transporte publico de Salvador (Bahia): beneficios ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Alberto Rodamilans Freire de; Lopo, Luciene Matos; Pereira, Osvaldo Livio Soliano [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article makes an initial approach on the environmental benefits, the replacement of diesel vehicles to the public transportation system in Salvador by cars to ethanol and natural gas. It also makes an approach on reducing the emission of pollutants like carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate material, and estimates the environmental benefit caused by the reduction of the emission of pollutants. (author)

  4. Etnografias do brau: corpo, masculinidade e raça na reafricanização em Salvador Ethnographies of the brau: body, masculinity and race in the reafricanization of Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmundo de Araújo Pinho

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, o autor pretende explorar desenvolvimentos do processo conhecido como reafricanização da cultura e da política em Salvador corporificados na cristalização transitória de determinada figura social conhecida como o brau. Essa seria uma inflexão de masculinidade informada pelas tensões raciais e de gênero em Salvador, assim como uma re-apropriação localizada de temas culturais da diáspora africana. Braus foram (são jovens negros da periferia que re-inventam uma visualidade/corporalidade negra a partir de releituras da 'cultura' soul norte-americana e ao mesmo tempo são estigmatizados pela classe média como violentos, de "mau-gosto" e hiper-sexualizados, ou seja, excessivamente 'negros' e excessivamente 'masculinos', em uma hiperbolização que em certo sentido contradiz com sua estigmatização.In this article the author seeks to explore some developments of the process known as the cultural and political reafricanization of Salvador, through the transitory crystalization of social figure called "brau". This would be an inflexion of masculinity informed by racial and gender tensions in Salvador, as well as a localized appropriation of cultural themes of the African Diaspora. "Braus" were (are young blacks from poor neighborhoods who re-created a black look/corporality from readings of North-American soul culture, while being stigmatized by the middle class as violents, ugly-looking and hyper-sexed, that is, excessively black and excessively male, a hyperbole which in a way contradicts this stigmatization.

  5. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil)

    KAUST Repository

    Roth, Florian

    2016-03-30

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ13Corg and δ15N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6 km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  6. Descentralização, clientelismo e capital social na governança urbana: comparando Belo Horizonte e Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boschi Renato Raul

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this comparison of Belo Horizonte?s and Salvador?s experiences within three arenas of local government, the article focuses on the viability of institutional arrangements based on decentralization and citizen participation. It concludes that the relative success achieved when inaugurating city master plans, participatory budgeting (where civil society has direct input in budget definitions, and sectoral councils (councils for decentralized policy issue areas is linked to three factors: prior decentralization processes; articulation between different decision-making units; and, above all, the neutralization of clientelistic control mechanisms through the introduction of horizontal loyalty networks and spaces of representation that in the final analysis will foster greater social capital and accountability.

  7. Solutionner les problèmes du système d'autobus urbain au Salvador ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Un trajet en autobus public au Salvador peut être une expérience périlleuse, mais un projet de recherche contribue à améliorer ce système de transport qui dessert des millions de gens. Cet article fait partie d'une série de reportages sur des projets innovants mis en œuvre dans les pays en développement, compilée dans ...

  8. First Report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Mexico, El Salvador and Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of sugarcane orange rust were observed on July 17, 2008 in sugarcane varieties, Mex 57-1285, Mex 61-230 and Co 301 (a clone received in Mexico in 1953) at the Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Caña de Azúcar en Tuxtla Chico, Chiapas, Mexico.In El Salvador, from August 2008 through ...

  9. El derecho penal del enemigo en la legislación relativa a las Maras en EEUU y El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Javier Rua

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the historical, social, cultural and political factors that allowed the generation of “Maras” in the USA and its expantion in El Salvador, particulary the “Mara Salvatrucha”. It analice from a critic point of view how the criminal laws implemented in both States recognice an afiliation with “Enemies Criminal Law’s” theories and how they didn’t help in the path of achieving a solution of this conflct.  

  10. The Relative Contribution of Immigration or Local Increase for Persistence of Urban Schistosomiasis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Blanton, Ronald E.; Barbosa, L?cio M.; Reis, Eliana A.; Carmo, Theomira M.; dos Santos, Cl?udio R. A.; Costa, Jackson M.; Aminu, Peace T.; Blank, Walter A.; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Guimar?es, Isabel C.; Silva, Luciano K.; Reis, Mitermayer G.

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is increasing across the globe, and diseases once considered rural can now be found in urban areas due to the migration of populations from rural endemic areas, local transmission within the city, or a combination of factors. We investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of urban immigrants and natives living in a neighborhood of Salvador, Brazil where there is a focus of transmission of Schistosoma mansoni. In a cross-sectional study, all inhabitants from 3 sections of the c...

  11. San Diego's High School Dropout Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James C.

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights San Diego's dropout problem and how much it's costing the city and the state. Most San Diegans do not realize the enormous impact high school dropouts on their city. The California Dropout Research Project, located at the University of California at Santa Barbara, has estimated the lifetime cost of one class or cohort of…

  12. En búsqueda de los salvadoreños en los Estados Unidos: contextualizando los datos etnográficos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Ricardo Machuca

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presento una visión de conjunto de la literatura etnográfica sobre los salvadoreños en Estados Unidos. La migración salvadoreña a los Estados Unidos comienza a finales del siglo XIX, sin embargo los salvadoreños no llegan en masa a ese país hasta principios de la década de los ochenta, a principios de la guerra civil que duraría doce años (1980-1992. En las pasadas tres décadas, la literatura general sobre salvadoreños en Estados Unidos es extensa y cubre una amplia variedad de disciplinas. Muchos trabajos académicos estudian a los migrantes salvadoreños bajo la categoría de “centroamericanos”. Con el notable incremento de la migraciónsalvadoreña a los Estados Unidos a partir de 1980, se ha publicado un número significativo de etnografías sobre su experiencia migratoria en las pasadas dos décadas.En este artículo se discuten y comparan nueve de esos trabajos académicos. Estos trabajos tratan a los salvadoreños desde temas, tópicos y perspectivas particulares,los cuales incluyen inmigración y emigración, diáspora y transnacionalismo, cambios en relaciones de género, leyes migratorias estadounidenses y estatus migratorio,remesas y derecho al voto. A medida que los migrantes salvadoreños forjan nuevas redes de conexión e interacción social entre su país de origen y los Estados Unidos,los trabajos académicos buscan entender y teorizar sobre estos emergentes espaciostransnacionales.

  13. Prevalence of visual impairment in El Salvador: inequalities in educational level and occupational status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rius

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of blindness, visual impairment, and related eye diseases and conditions among adults in El Salvador, and to explore socioeconomic inequalities in their prevalence by education level and occupational status, stratified by sex. METHODS: Based upon the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB methodology, this nationwide sample comprised 3 800 participants (3 399 examined ≥ 50 years old from 76 randomly selected clusters of 50 persons each. The prevalence of blindness, visual impairment and related eye diseases and conditions, including uncorrected refractive error (URE, was calculated for categories of education level and occupational status. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs and stratified by sex. RESULTS: Age-adjusted prevalence was 2.4% (95% CI: 2.2-2.6 for blindness (men: 2.8% (95% CI: 2.5-3.1; women: 2.2% (95% CI: 1.9-2.5 and 11.8% (95% CI: 11.6-12.0 for moderate visual impairment (men: 10.8% (95% CI: 10.5-11.1; women: 12.6% (95% CI: 12.4-12.8. The proportion of visual impairment due to cataract was 43.8% in men and 33.5% in women. Inverse gradients of socioeconomic inequalities were observed in the prevalence of visual impairment. For example, the age-adjusted OR (AOR was 3.4 (95% CI: 2.0-6.4 for visual impairment and 4.3 (95% CI: 2.1-10.4 for related URE in illiterate women compared to those with secondary education, and 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-3.1 in cataract in unemployed men. CONCLUSIONS: Blindness and visual impairment prevalence is high in the El Salvador adult population. The main associated conditions are cataract and URE, two treatable conditions. As socioeconomic and gender inequalities in ocular health may herald discrimination and important barriers to accessing affordable, good-quality, and timely health care services, prioritization of public eye health care and disability policies should be put in place

  14. Ocular Findings in Infants With Microcephaly Associated With Presumed Zika Virus Congenital Infection in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Freitas, Bruno; de Oliveira Dias, João Rafael; Prazeres, Juliana; Sacramento, Gielson Almeida; Ko, Albert Icksang; Maia, Maurício; Belfort, Rubens

    2016-02-09

    The Zika virus (ZIKV) has rapidly reached epidemic proportions, especially in northeastern Brazil, and has rapidly spread to other parts of the Americas. A recent increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in newborn infants and vision-threatening findings in these infants is likely associated with the rapid spread of ZIKV. To evaluate the ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed intrauterine ZIKV infection in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Case series at a tertiary hospital. Twenty-nine infants with microcephaly (defined by a cephalic circumference of ≤32 cm) with a presumed diagnosis of congenital ZIKV were recruited through an active search and referrals from other hospitals and health unities. The study was conducted between December 1 and December 21, 2015. All infants and mothers underwent systemic and ophthalmic examinations from December 1 through December 21, 2015, in the Roberto Santos General Hospital, Salvador, Brazil. Anterior segment and retinal, choroidal, and optic nerve abnormalities were documented using a wide-field digital imaging system. The differential diagnosis included toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus, which were ruled out through serologic and clinical examinations. Ocular abnormalities associated with ZIKV. Twenty-three of 29 mothers (79.3%) reported suspected ZIKV infection signs and symptoms during pregnancy, 18 in the first trimester, 4 in the second trimester, and 1 in the third trimester. Of the 29 infants (58 eyes) examined (18 [62.1%] female), ocular abnormalities were present in 17 eyes (29.3%) of 10 children (34.5%). Bilateral findings were found in 7 of 10 patients presenting with ocular lesions, the most common of which were focal pigment mottling of the retina and chorioretinal atrophy in 11 of the 17 eyes with abnormalities (64.7%), followed by optic nerve abnormalities in 8 eyes (47.1%), bilateral iris coloboma in 1 patient (2

  15. Tendência da mortalidade neonatal na cidade de Salvador (Bahia-Brasil, 1996-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelise C. Gonçalves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos:analisar a tendência da mortalidade neonatal, principais causas e potenciais fatores de risco, em Salvador-Bahia, 1996-2012.Métodos:estudo de série temporal tendo como fontes de dados os Sistemas de Informação sobre Mortalidade e sobre Nascidos Vivos/NV e Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saúde. Parâmetros da tendência temporal do coeficiente de mortalidade neonatal/CMN e da proporção de NV segundo características maternas, do recém-nascido e de atenção à saúde foram obtidos mediante Regressão Linear Simples. Coeficiente de Correlação de Spearman avaliou relação entre estas variáveis.Resultados:observou-se declínio de 21,2% no CMN, principalmente devido ao componente precoce (β= - 0,730; p=0,006; R2= 0,423. Acompanhou esta tendência, a proporção de NV de mães adolescentes e sem instrução. A proporção de NV de mães com idade > 35 anos, nascimentos prematuros e de partos cesáreos exibiram crescimento. Predominaram mortes neonatais por Infecções específicas do período perinatal (13,2%, Hipóxia intrauterina/Asfixia ao nascer (8,4% e Transtornos relacionados à prematuridade/baixo peso ao nascer (15,9%, estas últimas com tendência de crescimento (β= 1,319; p=0,006; R2= 0,428.Conclusões:a mortalidade neonatal e potenciais fatores de risco estão decrescendo em Salvador. Iniciativas voltadas para melhoria da atenção ao recém-nascido e das condições de vida da população podem estar contribuindo para esta tendência.

  16. Spread pattern of the first dengue epidemic in the city of Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Marilia S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The explosive epidemics of dengue that have been occurring in various countries have stimulated investigation into new approaches to improve understanding of the problem and to develop new strategies for controlling the disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of diffusion of the first dengue epidemic that occurred in the city of Salvador in 1995. Methods The epidemiological charts and records of notified cases of dengue in Salvador in 1995 constituted the source of data. The cases of the disease were georeferenced according to census areas (spatial units and epidemiological weeks (temporal unit. Kernel density estimation was used to identify the pattern of spatial diffusion using the R-Project computer software program. Results Of the 2,006 census areas in the city, 1,400 (70% registered cases of dengue in 1995 and the spatial distribution of these records revealed that by the end of 1995 practically the entire city had been affected by the virus, with the largest concentration of cases occurring in the western region, composed of census areas with a high population density and predominantly horizontal residences compared to the eastern region of the city, where there is a predominance of vertical residential buildings. Conclusion The pattern found in this study shows the characteristics of the classic process of spreading by contagion that is common to most infectious diseases. It was possible to identify the epicenter of the epidemic from which centrifugal waves of the disease emanated. Our results suggest that, if a more agile control instrument existed that would be capable of rapidly reducing the vector population within a few days or of raising the group immunity of the population by means of a vaccine, it would theoretically be possible to adopt control actions around the epicenter of the epidemic and consequently reduce the incidence of the disease in the city. This finding emphasizes

  17. Prevalence of visual impairment in El Salvador: inequalities in educational level and occupational status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Anna; Guisasola, Laura; Sabidó, Meritxell; Leasher, Janet L; Moriña, David; Villalobos, Astrid; Lansingh, Van C; Mujica, Oscar J; Rivera-Handal, José Eduardo; Silva, Juan Casrlos

    2014-11-01

    To examine the prevalence of blindness, visual impairment, and related eye diseases and conditions among adults in El Salvador, and to explore socioeconomic inequalities in their prevalence by education level and occupational status, stratified by sex. Based upon the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) methodology, this nationwide sample comprised 3 800 participants (3 399 examined) ≥ 50 years old from 76 randomly selected clusters of 50 persons each. The prevalence of blindness, visual impairment and related eye diseases and conditions, including uncorrected refractive error (URE), was calculated for categories of education level and occupational status. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and stratified by sex. Age-adjusted prevalence was 2.4% (95% CI: 2.2-2.6) for blindness (men: 2.8% (95% CI: 2.5-3.1); women: 2.2% (95% CI: 1.9-2.5)) and 11.8% (95% CI: 11.6-12.0) for moderate visual impairment (men: 10.8% (95% CI: 10.5-11.1); women: 12.6% (95% CI: 12.4-12.8)). The proportion of visual impairment due to cataract was 43.8% in men and 33.5% in women. Inverse gradients of socioeconomic inequalities were observed in the prevalence of visual impairment. For example, the age-adjusted OR (AOR) was 3.4 (95% CI: 2.0-6.4) for visual impairment and 4.3 (95% CI: 2.1-10.4) for related URE in illiterate women compared to those with secondary education, and 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-3.1) in cataract in unemployed men. Blindness and visual impairment prevalence is high in the El Salvador adult population. The main associated conditions are cataract and URE, two treatable conditions. As socioeconomic and gender inequalities in ocular health may herald discrimination and important barriers to accessing affordable, good-quality, and timely health care services, prioritization of public eye health care and disability policies should be put in place, particularly among women, the unemployed, and

  18. An interpretive study of food, snack and beverage advertisements in rural and urban El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanzadeh, Baharak; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Barker, Judith C

    2015-05-30

    Globalization and increased marketing of non-nutritious foods and beverages are driving a nutrition transition in developing countries, adversely affecting the health of vulnerable populations. This is a visual interpretive study of food, snack, and beverage advertisements (ads) in rural and urban El Salvador to discern the strategies and messages used to promote consumption of highly processed, commercialized products. Digital photographs of billboard and wall advertisements recorded a convenience sample of 100 advertisements, including 53 from rural areas and 47 from urban areas in El Salvador. Advertisements were coded for location, type of product, visual details, placement and context. Qualitative methods were used to identify common themes used to appeal to consumers. Advertisements depicted "modern" fast foods, processed snacks and sugary beverages. Overall, the most prominent themes were: Cheap Price, Fast, Large Size, and Modern. Other themes used frequently in combination with these were Refreshment, Sports/Nationalism, Sex and Gender Roles, Fun/Happy Feelings, Family, Friendship and Community, and Health. In rural areas, beverage and snack food ads with the themes of cheap price, fast, and large size tended to predominate; in urban areas, ads for fast food restaurants and the theme of modernity tended to be more prominent. The advertisements represented a pervasive bombardment of the public with both explicit and subliminal messages to increase consumerism and shift dietary patterns to processed foods and beverages that are low in micronutrients and high in carbohydrates, sugar, fat and salt--dietary changes that are increasing rates of child and adult diseases including tooth decay, obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Global food and beverage industries must be held accountable for the adverse public health effects of their products, especially in low-middle income countries where there are fewer resources to prevent and treat the health

  19. Dermatozoonosis by Culicoides' bite (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil: III - Epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo A. Sherlock

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesta terceira contribuiçãos os Autores apresentam os aspectos Epídemiológicos da Dermatozoonose pela picada de Culicoides em Salvador. Salientam que embora a densidade de insetos outros de hábitos antropófilos seja elevada na cidade, as seguintes evidências os conduziram a responsabilizar os Culicoides: conincidência do aparecimento de casos de Dermatozoonose após um período de maior densidade de Culicoides; maior número de casos, desde que a densidade de Culicoides aumentou nos últimos anos; proveni~encia de maior número de casos dos bairros onde há maior infestação de Culicoides. A Dermatozoonose é acentuadamente mais freqüente no sexo feminino. Houve maior número de casos entre os negros, talvez devido a maior freqüencia de negros que procuram tratamento no Hospital das Clínicas. Não há predominância acentuada para determinado grupo etário. Num levantamento que fizeram sôbre a incomodidade do Culicoides observaram que 81% de 593 residências visitadas em diferentes bairros, são incomodadas, sendo o inverno a época de maior incômodo. As horas de maior incômodo, coincidem com a ocorrência horária máxima do Culicoides. Observaram que as medidas usadas pela população para combate ao inseto são inadequadas pois, em 56% das residências não se obtém qualquer resultado. Considerando que nesses último cinco anos a densidade de Culicoides aumentou inexplicàvelmente em Salvador, julgam que os seguintes fatôres participara para que êsse fenômeno ocorresse: a extinção do Serviço de Profilaxia da Febre Amarela em 1956, o qual, indiretamente, por meio de sua "polícia de fócos" combatendo o Aedes aegypti, controlava os Culicoides; o crescimento da cidade, aumentando o número de fossas, já que não existe um sistema de esgotos adequado; e a deficiência do Serviço de Limpeza Pública da Cidade, ocasionando o acúmulo de lixo nos quintais, terrenos baldios e mesmo em logradouros públicos. Essas condi

  20. The Role of Temperature and Humidity on Seasonal Influenza in Tropical Areas: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama, 2008-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Clara, Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Castillo, Leticia; Sorto, Oscar Rene; Marinero, Sidia; Antinori, Maria E. Barnett de; McCracken, John P.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; hide

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama. Method/ Findings: Logistic regression was used to model the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples during 2008 to 2013 (excluding pandemic year 2009). Meteorological data was obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and the Global Land Data Assimilation System. We found that specific humidity was positively associated with influenza activity in El Salvador (Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval of 1.18 (1.07-1.31) and 1.32 (1.08-1.63)) and Panama (OR = 1.44 (1.08-1.93) and 1.97 (1.34-2.93)), but negatively associated with influenza activity in Guatemala (OR = 0.72 (0.6-0.86) and 0.79 (0.69-0.91)). Temperature was negatively associated with influenza in El Salvador's west-central departments (OR = 0.80 (0.7-0.91)) whilst rainfall was positively associated with influenza in Guatemala's central departments (OR = 1.05 (1.01-1.09)) and Panama province (OR = 1.10 (1.05-1.14)). In 4 out of the 6 locations, specific humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to temperature and rainfall. The model performed best in estimating 2013 influenza activity in Panama and west-central El Salvador departments (correlation coefficients: 0.5-0.9). Conclusions/Significance: The findings highlighted the association between influenza activity and specific humidity in these 3 tropical countries. Positive association with humidity was found in El Salvador and Panama. Negative association was found in the more subtropical Guatemala, similar to temperate regions. Of all the study locations, Guatemala had annual mean temperature and specific

  1. The Role of Temperature and Humidity on Seasonal Influenza in Tropical Areas: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama, 2008–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Clara, Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Castillo, Leticia; Sorto, Oscar Rene; Marinero, Sidia; de Antinori, María E. Barnett; McCracken, John P.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Kiang, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama. Method/Findings Logistic regression was used to model the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples during 2008 to 2013 (excluding pandemic year 2009). Meteorological data was obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and the Global Land Data Assimilation System. We found that specific humidity was positively associated with influenza activity in El Salvador (Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval of 1.18 (1.07–1.31) and 1.32 (1.08–1.63)) and Panama (OR = 1.44 (1.08–1.93) and 1.97 (1.34–2.93)), but negatively associated with influenza activity in Guatemala (OR = 0.72 (0.6–0.86) and 0.79 (0.69–0.91)). Temperature was negatively associated with influenza in El Salvador's west-central departments (OR = 0.80 (0.7–0.91)) whilst rainfall was positively associated with influenza in Guatemala's central departments (OR = 1.05 (1.01–1.09)) and Panama province (OR = 1.10 (1.05–1.14)). In 4 out of the 6 locations, specific humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to temperature and rainfall. The model performed best in estimating 2013 influenza activity in Panama and west-central El Salvador departments (correlation coefficients: 0.5–0.9). Conclusions/Significance The findings highlighted the association between influenza activity and specific humidity in these 3 tropical countries. Positive association with humidity was found in El Salvador and Panama. Negative association was found in the more subtropical Guatemala, similar to temperate regions. Of all the study locations, Guatemala had

  2. Caracterización hidrogeoquímica e isotopica de areas de recarga en el acuífero de San Salvador.

    OpenAIRE

    Barrera de Calderon , Marcia Lizeth

    2010-01-01

    El agua subterránea y el ciclo hidrológico -- La composición del agua subterránea -- Unidades de la composición isotópica del agua -- Geología de la cuenca del rio Acelhuate -- Caracterización hidrogeoquímica e isotópica del agua subterránea en la microcuenca alta del rio Acelhuate.

  3. Gestión integral de residuos sólidos urbanos en los municipios de Actopan, San Salvador y el Arenal del estado de Hidalgo

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Olguín, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    La presente investigación se llevó a cabo para presentar un plan de Gestión Integral de Residuos Sólidos Urbanos (GIRSU) en una zona semi-rural del estado de Hidalgo, que permita una transición de gestión tradicional a una de tipo integral. Dentro de las actividades que se realizaron se conformó un punto de partida básicamente con la identificación de la condición actual del manejo de los residuos de la zona en estudio, así como de la composición de los mismos, además de las características s...

  4. Suicides in San Mateo County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, G

    1967-08-01

    The usual surveys of completed suicides, encompassing, as they do, large geographical areas, are of limited value to physicians of a particular community. The unique and differentiating characteristics of the suicides in his locale may be "washed out" in these large surveys.San Mateo County has an annual suicide rate of 17 per 100,000 and a disproportionately high incidence in persons over 65 years old. In this particular county females, widows and Orientals are more prone to suicide than has usually been reported elsewhere. Alcohol was directly or indirectly involved in a significant number of instances. Many of the persons who killed themselves were under a physician's care at the time of self-destruction. There are probably important ecological and sociological variables as well as personal factors involved in the suicidal process that are of significance to any suicide prevention program. It is urged that there be more extensive and comparative research in this important public health problem.

  5. The Last Interglacial (MIS5e) cycle offshore the Little Bahama Bank: Large-scale ocean dynamics versus sea-level fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Anastasia; Bauch, Henning; Kandiano, Evgeniya

    2017-04-01

    Along the northwestern part of the Subtropical Gyre existing carbonate platforms can be considered an important link between the tropical and subpolar regions via the Gulf Stream. Here, we used the sediment record from the upper northern slope of Little Bahama Bank (460 m water depth) to decipher the variability of the Gulf Stream strength in the area of its origin during the penultimate deglaciation (T2) and the ensuing interglacial Marine Isotope Substage (MIS) 5e. The stratigraphy is based on the stable oxygen records derived from surface and thermocline planktic foraminifera as well as from bottom dwelling benthic foraminifera. Isotopic data from planktic and benthic foraminifera as well as faunal and XRF-scan data clearly reveal a cooling event that punctuated the climatic amelioration during T2. Although the faunal sea surface temperature reconstructions based on planktic foraminiferal census data indicate relatively stable and warm conditions during MIS5e, high interglacial variability of the "mixed layer" species, dwelling in the upper 50-100 m underscore the existence of short-term climatic perturbations within the last warm period. Of particular note is a marked cold event subsequent to early MIS5e warming - as revealed from a significant decrease in shares of "mixed layer" species along with rapid positive excursions in d18O values of all measured foraminifera groups - and a clear two-fold structure of the last interglacial. Climatic variability during the first phase of the MIS5e goes along with significant variations in chemical composition of sediments (e.g. Sr counts normalized by Ca counts). These changes in sedimentary regime are attributed to the ongoing deglaciation of northern hemisphere ice sheets and associated post-glacial sea level rise. Accordingly, the stable conditions characterized by maximum bank-top flooding appear to have been postponed until the second phase of MIS5e and coincide with a stabilized phase in Sr/Ca ratios.

  6. Hipertensão arterial na população adulta de Salvador (BA - Brasil Arterial hypertension in the adult population of Salvador (BA - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ínes Lessa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência (Pr da hipertensão arterial (HA e da sua associação com outros fatores de risco cardiovascular em população fortemente miscigenada. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal, realizado em amostra populacional de 1.439 adultos e > 20 anos, em Salvador-Brasil. Todos responderam a questionário em domicilio e tiveram medidos: pressão arterial, peso, altura, circunferência da cintura (CC, glicemia e lípidas séricas. O critério para HA foi a média da PAS > 140 e/ou PAD > 90mmHg. Foram estimadas Pr da HA com IC a 95%. As associações foram medidas pelo OR ajustado (ORaj, por análise de regressão. RESULTADOS: A Pr total foi da HA foi 29,9%: 27,4% IC (23,9-31,2 em homens e 31,7%, IC(28,5-34,9 em mulheres. Em negros a Pr foi 31,6% para homens e 41,1% para mulheres. Em brancos foi 25,8% nos homens e 21,1% nas mulheres. A HA apresentou associação significante com idades > 40 anos, sobrepeso/obesidade [ORaj = 2,37(1,57-3,60] para homens e 1,62(1,02-2,58 para mulheres. Nos homens a HA associou-se à escolaridade elevada e nas mulheres com a cor da pele parda e negra, com obesidade abdominal, ORaj = 2,05 IC(1,31-3,21, diabetes ORaj = 2,16 IC(1,19-3,93 e com a menopausa. CONCLUSÃO: A HA predominou em negros de ambos os sexos, e em mulheres. Excetuando-se o sobrepeso/obesidade, as variáveis que se mantiveram independentemente associadas à HA diferiram entre os sexos. Os resultados sugerem aprofundamento do estudo da HA em negros e necessidade de intervenções educacionais contínuas e de início precoce.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of hypertension (H and its association with other cardiovascular risk factors in a highly multiracial population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study carried out in Salvador, Brazil, in a population sample of 1439 adults > 20 years of age. All participants completed a questionnaire at home and had the following measurements taken: blood pressure, body weight, height, waist

  7. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room during The National Week of Science and Technology, Salvador

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    The Polytechnic School of the Federal University of Bahia (EPUFBA) was founded in 1897 in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Currently there are in EPUFBA 10 undergraduate and six graduate programs in engineering, The EPUFBA is one of the largest Brazilian centers of education and research in engineering and technology. The National Week of Science and Technology (SNCT) is an annual event organized by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT) and in 2012 will take place in the period between October 15th and 21st. The SNCT is held since 2004 and its aim is to mobilize the population, especially children and youth around science and technology themes and activities. In SNCT activities are carried out in all regions of the country, involving several partners, such as universities, research institutions, schools, public and private companies, government entities and civil society. In 2011, there were approximately 16,000 activities in 654 cities. http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtua...

  8. HTLV-1 and myelopathy in Salvador (Northeastern Brazil: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Lessa

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of the study was to determine the degree of association between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF that is positive for HTLV-1 and myelopathy in Salvador, Brazil. From the same hospital, twenty-eight cases of myelopathy and twenty-eight cases showing no neurological disorder were studied using blind selection matched 1:1 by age and sex. The twenty-eight pairs underwent HTLV-1 serology tests. In those with a positive result, anti-HTLV-1 antibodies were investigated in the CSF. The ELISA method was used, complemented by the Western-blot test. Myelopathy was considered associated with HTLV-1 only when the CSF was positive indicating neurotropism of the virus. The mean age of the cases was 44.6 ± 15.6 years and the control group was 43.5 ± 16.0 (p>0.05. An OR of 9.0 was detected with a reability interval (95% of 1.652-48.866 and chi-square significant at the 0.02 level. Despite a strong degree of association and considering the low level of precision, there is a need for analytical studies with larger samples which besides improving the precision will allow for greater control of the confounding variables.

  9. [End-stage renal disease among patients in a referral hospital in El Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabanino, Ramón García; Aguilar, Raúl; Silva, Carlos Reyes; Mercado, Manuel Ortiz; Merino, Ricardo Leiva

    2002-09-01

    El Salvador is a country with high mortality from end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of a series of new cases of ESRD seen in a referral hospital in the country. A cross-sectional study was conducted of all the new cases that initiated chronic dialysis between November 1999 and March 2000. Using a personal interview, data were obtained on the patients' clinical, demographic, and occupational characteristics, among others. During the five months that the study lasted, 205 new cases of ESRD were observed. Among the 202 interviewees, two groups were clearly distinguished. One group, of 67 patients (33%), had known risk factors for ESRD, similar to those for developed countries (basically, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and chronic consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatories). Another group of 135 patients (67%) had unusual characteristics that were not associated with the known risk factors. The majority of the patients in this second group were male, farmers, residents of coastal areas or areas next to rivers, and some years before had been exposed, without adequate protection, to agricultural insecticides or pesticides through their work. We have identified an important group of patients with ESRD who seem to lack a cause for their disease. Their special characteristics make it possible to suspect a relationship with the occupational exposure to insecticides or pesticides. New studies are needed in order to confirm this hypothesis.

  10. [Work in health: sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador (state of Bahia, Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Augusto Amorim; Costa, Ediná Alves; de Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo

    2011-05-01

    A drugstore is an establishment of interest in health, from which medication is dispensed, namely the therapeutic technology most broadly used in the practice of medicine. The scope of this study is to describe and analyze the sanitary surveillance of drugstores. Based on the theory of working processes in healthcare, a case study was conducted on the sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador (Bahia, Brazil), examining 2 analytical categories: agents and activities. Data were collected through observation, analysis of documents and interviews, and QSR N Vivo software was used for data processing. Personnel of the surveillance service were found to have varied professional and educational backgrounds, with limited experience in the sanitary surveillance of drugstores, and insufficient technical training for the performance of the tasks assigned. Deficiencies of a managerial nature were detected in the service. Its operation is primarily focused on granting drugstore licenses, prioritizing attendance to spontaneous demand, thereby configuring a technological model of intervention based on sanitary inspection. The findings revealed a need for updating the service and the adoption of technologies to enhance control of risk, given that technological evolution provides drugs that are increasingly more potent, with a concomitant rise in levels risk.

  11. PERCEPTION OF UNDERGRADUATE ACCOUNTANCY STUDENTS IN SALVADOR (BA ABOUT RELEVANT ACCOUNTING THEORY CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Leal Bruni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mastering basic Accountancy concepts appropriately and analyzing their characteristics are essential for the development of Accounting Theory. The financial decision making process requires knowledge on adequate economic values, which Accounting users are increasingly demanding. The aim of this research was to ascertain the understanding of some terms explored in the context of the subject Accounting Theory, such as assets, liabilities, goodwill, revenues, expenses, gains and losses. A sample was investigated, comprising 591 students enrolled in Accountancy programs who had already taken the subject Accounting Theory at higher education institutions (HEI located in the city of Salvador (BA, Brazil. Logistic regression analysis of the results indicates that the relation between student performance and the teacher’s degree is more significant than the relation between student performance and type of HEI. In general, however, superficial concepts on the topics addressed in this study were cited at all levels. The results generally disclosed errors in the understanding of relevant accounting concepts for students’ education, mainly reflecting an outdated, or at least conservative view. When compared per type of education institution, the results indicate that students from public institutions better master the concepts considered in this study. The understanding improves further when the teacher’s degree evolves from specialist to M.Sc. and Ph.D.

  12. Detection of caliciviruses associated with acute infantile gastroenteritis in Salvador, an urban center in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P.T.P. Xavier

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute gastroenteritis caused by viruses is one of the leading causes of infantile morbidity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of human caliciviruses of the genera norovirus and sapovirus in children up to 3 years of age with acute gastroenteritis from low-income communities in the city of Salvador, Brazil. This study is an extension of previous work carried out to establish the profile of the most prevalent enteric pathogens present in these communities. In this report, 139 fecal samples, collected from July 2001 to January 2002 were analyzed by RT-PCR and 13 (9% were positive for human caliciviruses. By sequencing, seven isolates were characterized as norovirus genogroup GII and one as sapovirus genotype GII/1. Sequencing of the previously detected group-A rotaviruses and human astroviruses was also performed and revealed the circulation of rotavirus group A genotypes G1P[8] and G9P[8], and human astrovirus genotypes 6, 7, and 8. No mixed infection was observed. Community-based studies provide geographically representative information on disease burden. However, there are only a few reports in developing countries concerning the genotypes of the most important gastroenteric viruses detected in such communities. The present findings demonstrate the wide diversity of genotypes of the most important viruses responsible for acute gastroenteritis circulating in low-income communities.

  13. PLAN DE DESARROLLO URBANO DE SALVADOR: ¿CAMBIO O DEMOCRATIZACION APARENTE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacileda Cerqueira Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Originados por intereses de carácter político económico, las ciudades crecerán, se multiplicarán y se diferenciarán cada vez que transcurra el tiempo. No obstante, ellas estan también cada vez mas inmersas en una dinámica escala global. En Brasil, los caminos señalados por la ordenanza de la Ciudad pretenden responder a las directrices generales del pleno desarrollo de las funciones sociales de la propiedad urbana y de la gestión democrática de las ciudades por medio de la participación de la población y de asociaciones representativas de los diversos segmentos de la comunidad en los procesos de gestión y planeamientos urbanos. Los tres Planes Reguladores elaborados en los últimos sesenta años en Salvador de Bahía, son el referencial de este trabajo, mientras que la valorizacion de la discusión sobre la democratización en la concepción de la planificacion y de la realizacíon de los cambios esperados para este proceso, son posterior a la aprobación de la ordenanza de la Ciudad.

  14. Detection of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli from children with and without diarrhea in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Bueris

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We identified different diarrheagenic (DEC Escherichia coli pathotypes isolated from 1,207 children with and without acute endemic diarrhea in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil collected as part of a case-control study. Since the identification of DEC cannot be based on only biochemical and culture criteria, we used a multiplex polymerase chain reaction developed by combining five specific primer pairs for Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli/ Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (STEC/EHEC, Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC and Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC to detect these pathotypes simultaneously in a single-step reaction. In order to distinguish typical and atypical EPEC strains, these were tested for the presence of EAF plasmid. The prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli in this sample of a global case-control study was 25.4% (259 patients and 18.7% (35 patients in the diarrhea group (1,020 patients and the control group (187 patients, respectively. The most frequently isolated pathotype was EAEC (10.7%, followed by atypical EPEC (9.4%, ETEC (3.7%, and STEC (0.6%. Typical EPEC was detected only in one sample. The prevalence of the pathotypes studied in children with diarrhea was not significantly different from that in children without diarrhea.

  15. What is needed to improve food sales in schools?Food vendors’ opinion from El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eHilari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Latin America and the Caribbean are at the forefront of the double burden of malnourishment, with rocketing rates of overweight, obesity and stagnant prevalence of stunting in many countries. School children are at a crucial age for setting eating habits, physical activity, nutritional status and long term outcomes both in their health as well as their education and economic productivity. Save the Children International implements a school health and nutrition program in 45 rural schools in El Salvador, Central America. The program aims at increasing the consumption of protein and micronutrients while reducing intake of sugar and fats in school children. In addition, there is great emphasis on food hygiene and safe handling, through training of the food vendors. We developed a conceptual framework for school nutrition programs that is phrased around five different moments: school snacks, school stores, nutrition learning, bringing food to school and eating at home. Monitoring and control lies in the hands of student brigades, which fosters child participation. We present findings of a qualitative evaluation on sale regulation in school food stores, documenting additional interventions that were needed to foster compliance. We explore how vendors are making money on healthy food if head teachers and parents are involved in regulating food stores and children are motivated to cherish fruits and vegetables. Based on these findings, we discuss a model of an enabling environment for healthy food at school.

  16. The Metamorphoses of Narcissus in Symbolist and Surrealist Painting: Gustave Moreau and Salvador Dalí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Germ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article concentrates on interpreting the Narcissus myth in the oeuvre of Gustave Moreau (1826–1898, a symbolist artist who developed the theme in many paintings and drawings, and in the famous Metamorphosis of Narcissus (1937, Tate Modern by Salvador Dalí (1904–1989, which has proved one of the most inspiring and controversial realisations of the myth. A major topic is the relation between the Narcissus myth of symbolism and surrealism on the one hand, and the story of the Boeotian youth as depicted in Ovid’s Metamorphoses on the other. With regard to the works of Gustave Moreau, the study focuses on a new paradigm, which has not been su.ciently investigated, namely the replacement of the traditional image of Narcissus reflected in the pool with a new concept: the concept of reflection as the hero’s introspection. The analysis of Dalí’s much discussed Metamorphosis of Narcissus, on the other hand, tackles the rarely addressed problem of the classical elements employed in this painting.

  17. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Exploitation model, performance predictions, economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripperda, M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Goranson, C.

    1991-05-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is conducting a reservoir evaluation study of the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador. This work is being performed in cooperation with the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with funding from the US Agency for International Development (USAID). This report describes the work done during the second year of the study (FY89--90). The first year's report included (1) the development of geological and conceptual models of the field, (2) the evaluation of the reservoir's initial thermodynamic and chemical conditions and their changes during exploitation, (3) the evaluation of interference test data and the observed reservoir pressure decline and (4) the development of a natural state model for the field. In the present report the results of reservoir engineering studies to evaluate different production-injection scenarios for the Ahuachapan geothermal field are discussed. The purpose of the work was to evaluate possible reservoir management options to enhance as well as to maintain the productivity of the field during a 30-year period (1990--2020). The ultimate objective was to determine the feasibility of increasing the electrical power output at Ahuachapan from the current level of about 50 MW{sub e} to the total installed capacity of 95 MW{sub e}. 20 refs., 75 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Social inequalities and the rise in violent deaths in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil: 2000-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Luiz Antonio Chaves; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Paim, Jairnilson Silva; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2011-01-01

    An ecological study was carried out using information zones as units of analysis in order to assess the evolution of socio-spatial inequalities in mortality due to external causes and homicides in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2000 and 2006. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística--IBGE) and the City Health Department (Secretaria Municipal de Saúde) provided the data sources, and causes of death were reviewed and reclassified based on reports from the Institute of Legal Medicine (Instituto Médico Legal). The information zones were classified into four social strata according to income and schooling. The ratio between mortality rates (inequality ratio) was calculated and confirmed a rise of 98.5% in the homicide rate. In 2000, the risk of death due to external causes and murders in the stratum with the worst living conditions was respectively 1.40 and 1.94 times greater than in the reference stratum. In 2006 these figures were 2.02 and 2.24. The authors discuss the implications for inter-sectoral public policies, based on evidence from the study's findings.

  19. Risk factors for Chagas disease among pregnant women in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasagawa, Emi; Aiga, Hirotsugu; Corado, Edith Y; Cuyuch, Blanca L; Hernández, Marta A; Guevara, Ana V; Romero, José E; Ramos, Hector M; Cedillos, Rafael A; Misago, Chizuru; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2015-03-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of Chagas disease among pregnant women and estimate the risk factors for Chagas disease during pregnancies. Community-based serological tests on Trypanosoma cruzi and structured interviews on socio-demographic and socio-economic status were conducted with pregnant women registered at three health centres in Sonsonate province, El Salvador. Of 797 pregnant women participating in the study, 29 (3.6%) were infected with Chagas disease. None had clinical symptoms. The results of bivariate analyses showed the significant association between seropositivity and maternal age ≥35 years, anaemia, illiteracy, having no formal school education and having knowledge on Chagas disease (P Chagas disease among pregnant women (OR = 3.541 and 5.197, respectively). We recommend that the national Chagas disease control programme be better coordinated with the national maternal and child health programme to introduce blood screening for T. cruzi during antenatal visits. If financial constraint allows systematic blood screening to be only partially implemented, resources should be focused on pregnant women ≥35 years and women who have anaemia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Mental health and primary care: an experience with community health agents in Salvador-BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noêmia Aragão Casais

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To share an experience of a link between primary care and mental health by means of matrix support. Method: A survey conducted from March to December 2007, in Pernambués neighborhood, District of Cabula-beiru, in Salvador - Bahia. The shared knowledge construction was carried out by residents of the Multidisciplinary Residency Program in Health from the Nucleus of Mental Health, State University of Bahia, with Community Health Agents (ACS. Meetings, discussions and domiciliary visits were applyed as sharing technics and tools with phonographic recording, photographic register and report. The obtained information were evaluated regarding their content and were divided into stages and categories. Results: We determined the following stages by means of the technique: approach, ties’ strengthening, teamwork and conclusion. The results were analyzed based on the ACS’ everyday interactivity for cooperation, thus obtaining the development of a critical spirit in the assesment of the relationship between primary care and mental health. Final Considerations: The exchange of experiences produced significant learning, besides health promotion for all those involved in the process: ACS, families cared for and residents.

  1. Community violence and childhood asthma prevalence in peripheral neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Guilherme da Costa; Santos, Darci Neves; Feitosa, Caroline Alves; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify degrees of exposure to community violence reported by parents and guardians of children from four to 12 years of age and the association with childhood asthma symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,232 parents/guardians in 24 peripheral neighborhoods in Salvador, the capital of Bahia State, Brazil. The authors investigated asthma symptoms in children and acts of violence in the community. More than 75% of parents/guardians had been exposed to community violence in the previous year, with 20% reporting high levels of exposure. Children that were more exposed to violence showed higher asthma prevalence (28.4%) as compared to non-exposed children (16.4%). Children exposed to maximum levels of violence were nearly twice as likely to present asthma symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.94; 95%CI: 1.12-3.36). The study highlighted the relevance of community violence as a risk factor for asthma and the need for further research to elucidate methodological issues.

  2. Molecular characterization of group A rotavirus isolates obtained from hospitalized children in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Serravalle

    Full Text Available Rotavirus is a major cause of infectious diarrhea in infants and young children. The objective of this study was to characterize the genotypes of Human Rotavirus found in children hospitalized with acute diarrhea in the Pediatric Hospital Prof. Hosannah de Oliveira of the UFBA in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, during the years of 1999, 2000 and 2002. Fecal samples were analyzed (n=358 by methods EIARA and SDS-PAGE for detection of Rotavirus. Positive samples of one or two of these methods (n=168 were submitted to RT-PCR and Multiplex-Nested PCR to determine genotypes G and P. A hundred sixty-eight (46.9% samples were positive and 190 (53.1% negative. Only 17 (4.7% samples had divergent results. The distribution of genotypes G during the first year, showed that the genotype G9 was present in 96,8% of the analyzed samples, in the second year, it was responsible for 96% and in the third year, 88,1%. The characterization of genotypes P demonstrated that the genotype P1A[8] was the most outstanding in all years. In this study we discuss the benefit to control the genotypes of Rotavirus through the molecular characterization for the development of potential vaccines.

  3. CIRSS vertical data integration, San Bernardino study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, W.; Christenson, J.; Michel, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The creation and use of a vertically integrated data base, including LANDSAT data, for local planning purposes in a portion of San Bernardino County, California are described. The project illustrates that a vertically integrated approach can benefit local users, can be used to identify and rectify discrepancies in various data sources, and that the LANDSAT component can be effectively used to identify change, perform initial capability/suitability modeling, update existing data, and refine existing data in a geographic information system. Local analyses were developed which produced data of value to planners in the San Bernardino County Planning Department and the San Bernardino National Forest staff.

  4. Description of gravity cores from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Donald L.; John L. Chin,; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-06-27

    Seventy-two gravity cores were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1990, 1991, and 2000 from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, California. The gravity cores collected within San Pablo Bay contain bioturbated laminated silts and sandy clays, whole and broken bivalve shells (mostly mussels), fossil tube structures, and fine-grained plant or wood fragments. Gravity cores from the channel wall of Carquinez Strait east of San Pablo Bay consist of sand and clay layers, whole and broken bivalve shells (less than in San Pablo Bay), trace fossil tubes, and minute fragments of plant material.

  5. 33 CFR 165.776 - Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico 165.776 Section 165.776 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.776 Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico (a...

  6. 76 FR 9709 - Water Quality Challenges in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Chapter I RIN-2009-ZA00 Water Quality Challenges in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San... water quality conditions affecting aquatic resources in the San Francisco Bay/ Sacramento-San Joaquin... Estuary that would be constructive, including enforcement, research, revisions to water quality standards...

  7. 77 FR 15799 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... Boland Fentress, San Francisco State University, Academic Affairs-ADM 447, San Francisco, CA 94132... identity that can be reasonably traced between the basket and the Santa Rosa Indian Community of the Santa..., San Francisco State University, Academic Affairs-ADM 447, San Francisco, CA 94132, telephone (415) 338...

  8. 77 FR 15798 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... Fentress, San Francisco State University, Academic Affairs-ADM 447, San Francisco, CA 94132, telephone (415.... Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(2), there is a relationship of shared group identity that can be reasonably... Boland Fentress, San Francisco State University, Academic Affairs-ADM 447, San Francisco, CA 94132...

  9. AMS San Diego Testbed - Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The data in this repository were collected from the San Diego, California testbed, namely, I-15 from the interchange with SR-78 in the north to the interchange with...

  10. San Antonio Bay 1986-1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The effect of salinity on utilization of shallow-water nursery habitats by aquatic fauna was assessed in San Antonio Bay, Texas. Overall, 272 samples were collected...

  11. Backscatter A [8101]--Offshore San Gregorio, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, California. Backscatter data...

  12. Backscatter B [7125]--Offshore San Gregorio, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, California. Backscatter data...

  13. April 1906 San Francisco, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1906 San Francisco earthquake was the largest event (magnitude 8.3) to occur in the conterminous United States in the 20th Century. Recent estimates indicate...

  14. San Pablo Avenue Green Stormwater Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP San Pablo Avenue Green Stormwater Spine Project project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  15. San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge contaminant study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1982 for the protection and management of endangered desert fishes which are indigenous to the Rio...

  16. Historical methyl mercury in San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — San Francisco Bay, California is considered a mercury-impaired watershed. Elevated concentrations of mercury are found in water and sediment as well as fish and...

  17. Contours--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file...

  18. SANS observations on weakly flocculated dispersions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischenko, N.; Ourieva, G.; Mortensen, K.

    1997-01-01

    Structural changes occurring in colloidal dispersions of poly-(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) particles, sterically stabilized with poly-(12-hydroxystearic acid) (PHSA), while varying the solvent quality, temperature and shear rate, are investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS...

  19. Habitat--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  20. Surviving the Present: San Francisco Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Tom

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the services of the San Francisco Public Library with respect to the effects of Proposition 13 and inflation, and describes the roles of the Main Library, the Business Branch, the Chinatown Branch, and the Communications Center. (CHC)

  1. Resíduos da construção civil em Salvador: os caminhos para uma gestão sustentável Construction waste in Salvador: ways to a sustainable management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardênia Oliveira David de Azevedo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute o impacto ambiental provocado pela geração crescente de resíduos da construção civil e sua disposição inadequada, analisando a legislação sobre o tema e as possibilidades de sua minimização na cidade do Salvador. Como contribuição, são sugeridas medidas para viabilizar a prevenção da geração de resíduos e é proposto um modelo simplificado de fluxo dos resíduos da construção civil em Salvador, para estimular a redução do desperdício nas obras e, conseqüentemente, menor custo na gestão da cidade e menor impacto ambiental. A partir dessa proposta se obteria uma redução da geração dos RCC de 30%, um desvio do aterro de inertes de 37,3% e, ainda, permaneceria seguindo, diretamente, para o aterro 32,7% dos resíduos totais, não absorvidos na reciclagem ou reutilização.This paper discusses the environmental impacts caused by construction waste generation and its inadequate disposal, analyzing the regulation related to this subject and possibilities for its minimization in the city of Salvador. As a contribution measures are suggested to make viable waste construction prevention. It is proposed a draft model for construction waste streams that stimulates the reduction of losses of building materials in construction sites and, consequently, reduces costs in urban management as well as environmental impacts. This proposal suggests the possibility of a source generation reduction of 30%, a 37% diversion of materials from landfills and, still, 32.7% of construction waste generation, not absorbed in the recycling or reuse, remain following, directly, for landfill.

  2. Trabalho e síndrome da estafa profissional (Síndrome de Burnout em médicos intensivistas de Salvador Professional Burnout Syndrome among intensive care physicians in Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Oliveira Staffa Tironi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência da Síndrome de Burnout em médicos intensivistas de Salvador, associando-a a dados demográficos e aspectos da situação de trabalho (demanda psicológica e controle sobre o trabalho. MÉTODOS: Um estudo de corte transversal investigou a associação entre aspectos psicossocias do trabalho e a síndrome da estafa profissional em uma população de 297 médicos intensivistas de Salvador, Bahia. Um questionário individual autoaplicável avaliou aspectos psicossociais do trabalho, utilizando o modelo demanda-controle (Job Content Questionnaire e a saúde mental dos médicos, usando Inventário de Burnout de Maslach (MBI. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se elevada sobrecarga de trabalho e de trabalho em regime de plantão. A prevalência da Síndrome da Estafa Profissional (Burnout foi de 7,4% e estava mais fortemente associada com aspectos da demanda psicológica do trabalho do que com o controle deste por parte dos médicos intensivistas. CONCLUSÃO: Médicos com trabalho de alta exigência (alta demanda e baixo controle apresentaram 10,2 vezes mais burnout que aqueles com trabalho de baixa exigência (baixa demanda e alto controle.OBJECTIVE: Describe prevalence of the Burnout syndrome in intensive care physicians of Salvador, associated to demographic data and aspects of the work environment (psychological demand and job control. METHODS: This cross sectional study has investigated the association between work conditions and Burnout Syndrome in a population of 297 Intensive Care Physicians from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. An individual, self-report questionnaire evaluated the physicians' psychological aspects of work, using the demand-control model (Job Content Questionnaire and their mental health, using the Maslash Burnout Inventory (MBI. RESULTS: The study found work overload,a high proportion of on duty physicians and low income for the hours worked. Prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome was 7.4% and it was more closely

  3. Risco para transtornos alimentares em escolares de Salvador, Bahia, e a dimensão raça/cor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane de Jesus Bittencourt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a existência de fatores de risco associados aos transtornos alimentares em escolares da cidade de Salvador, Bahia, por meio da dimensão étnico-racial como fator de heterogeneidade. MÉTODOS: Os participantes da pesquisa são escolares do sexo feminino, na faixa etária entre 15 e 30 anos, residentes na cidade de Salvador, no Estado da Bahia. Foram investigadas 626 estudantes, selecionadas em instituições públicas e privadas de ensino médio e universitário. Utilizaram-se o Eating Atittude Test-26, o Body Shape Questionnaire e o Beck Depression Inventory como instrumentos de identificação de risco para os transtornos alimentares. A classificação étnico-racial se deu por autodeclaração, de acordo com as categorias do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Foram realizadas análises descritivas, bivariadas (χ2 de Pearson e regressão logística multivariada para análise dos dados. RESULTADOS: As estudantes que se identificaram como amarelas ou indígenas têm 3,6 vezes mais chances de desenvolverem comportamentos alimentares desordenados e 4,8 vezes mais possibilidade de estarem insatisfeitas com sua imagem corporal. As pardas apresentam 2,5 vezes mais risco para essa insatisfação. A depressão é uma comorbidade que deve ser considerada, apesar de não estar associada significativamente à raça/cor. CONCLUSÃO: As mulheres não brancas em Salvador apresentam risco de desenvolver transtornos alimentares. Outros estudos que combinam métodos quantitativos e qualitativos podem permitir uma análise mais robusta quanto à relação entre transtornos alimentares e raça/cor e etnia.

  4. Evaluation of blood stream infections by Candida in three tertiary hospitals in Salvador, Brazil: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goreth Barberino

    Full Text Available Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. are an important problem in immunocompromised patients. There is scarce data on the epidemiology of blood stream candidiasis in Salvador, Brazil. This study evaluates the risk factors associated with candidemia, among patients admitted to three tertiary, private hospitals, in Salvador, Brazil. We conducted a case-control, retrospective study to compare patients with diagnosis of candidemia in three different tertiary hospitals in Salvador, Brazil. Patients were matched for nosocomial, acquired infections, according to the causal agent: cases were defined by positive blood cultures for Candida species. Controls were those patients who had a diagnosis of systemic bacterial infection, with a positive blood culture to any bacteria, within the same time period (± 30 days of case identification. The groups were compared for the main known risk factors for candidemia and for mortality rates. A hundred thirty-eight patients were identified. Among the 69 cases, only 14 were diagnosed as infected by Candida albicans. Candida species were defined in only eight cultures: C. tropicalis (4 cases, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. guillermondi, C. formata (1 case each. The main risk factors, identified in a univariate analysis, were: presence of a central venous catheter (CVC, use of parenteral nutrition support (PNS, previous exposure to antibiotics, and chronic renal failure (CRF. No association was detected with surgical procedures, diabetes mellitus, neutropenia or malignancies. Patients were more likely to die during the hospitalization period, but the rates of death caused by the infections were similar for cases and controls. The length of hospitalization was similar for both groups, as well as the time for a positive blood culture. Blood stream infection by Candida spp. is associated with CVC, PNS, previous use of antibiotics, and CRF. The higher mortality rate for cases probably better reflects the severity

  5. Is It Still a Disaster if It is Routine? A Case Study in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, T.; Rios Sanchez, M.; MacLennan, C.; Gierke, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    El Salvador is among the world's highest ranked in terms of risks of natural disasters. According to a United Nations study, almost 90% of the country's territory is highly susceptible to the effects of a natural disaster and correspondingly 95% of the country's population lives within the disaster-prone regions. This high vulnerability, coupled with the country's relatively small area, has led to some paradoxical situations involving the way disaster risk is managed at the local level. One extreme example occurs annually in a small town that borders a large, shallow lake (laguna). The lake level rises by 2 to 4 meters during every year's wet season from May to October, prompting the surrounding families to temporarily relocate in response to these annual floods. A series of storms related to Tropical Depression 12E during the 2011 wet season resulted in flooding levels of nearly 5 meters. Nearly 300 households were evacuated, and a government-run emergency shelter was set up nearby. Owing to the regularity of the situation, however, not a single person needed to use the emergency shelter. Many of those who are most affected by the annual flooding will move their belongings to second homes (their own or those of relatives or friends) in advance of the wet season but remain in their flood-prone dwellings so as to be eligible to receive the aid that is sure to come when the lake level rises. Considerable funds are provided to the community for relief. This scenario occurs predictably every year. The regularity of the flooding raises questions concerning the local views on the normalcy of the flooding. To evaluate the local perceptions of flood risk, a vulnerability analysis was conducted using surveys and interviews. To better characterize the flooding risks, a hazard analysis was performed using satellite imagery and GIS. In addition to the surveys of families affected by flooding each year, the residents living in higher elevations unaffected by flooding were

  6. The application of the principle uti possidetis juris to the dispute between El Salvador and Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etinski Rodoljub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of the Chamber was to resolve the land, island and maritime dispute between El Salvador and Honduras by the law. Article 5 of the Special Agreement of 24 May 1984 defines applicable law in broad and general terms: In accordance with the provisions of the first paragraph of Article 38 of the Statute of the International Court of Justice, the Chamber, when delivering its Judgment, will take into account the rules of international law applicable between the Parties, including, where pertinent, the provisions of the General Treaty of Peace. The parties did not expressly referred to the principle uti possidetis juris. It is without doubt that they agreed that it was the main principle applicable to the dispute. Still, if the parties were limited the applicable law just to this principle, the Chamber would have much more complicated job. The broad and general determination of the applicable law facilitated a judicial resolution of the dispute. It allowed the Chamber to apply other rules that completed or substituted the application of uti possidetis juris. The Chamber had at its disposal a lot of title-deeds to commons, it is acts of colonial Spanish authorities granting lands to Indian communities that lived in villages in various provinces which became parts of El Salvador or Honduras. A border of lands granted to Indian villages, one of which was located in Salvadorian province and the other in Honduran province, has been transformed by the effect of the principle uti possidetis juris or precisely by colonial effectivités into an inter-state frontier. It was the first method, used by the Chamber, to determine the frontier. However, the Chamber considered that uti possidetis frontier is subjected to changes by mutual consent of the parties over the times. It did not hesitate to take into account mutual consent even acquiescence as a method of determination of the frontier. The Chamber had at its disposal records of previous numerous

  7. Reconfiguring and Remediating Social Media as Alternative Media: Exploring Youth Activists’ Digital Media Ecology in El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Summer Harlow

    2016-01-01

    Este estudio de caso etnográfico examinó cómo el grupo de activistas ju- veniles salvadoreños, Activista, incorporó los medios de comunicación so - ciales en su ecología de medios. El análisis reveló cuatro temas principales: los medios de comunicación social como medios alternativos; la relación entre Facebook y la visibilidad, la legitimidad y la comunidad; una brecha de los medios de comunicación social; y los desafíos de la brecha digital y una falta de estrategia de medios sociales. ...

  8. Límites de la sociedad y perspectivas de la sociología.El planteamiento de Salvador Lissarrague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Campoy Lozar

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo versa sobre la dimensión del pensamiento de Salvador Lissarrague directamente implicada tanto en la Teoría Sociológica como en la temática propia de la Sociología General. El tratamiento de ambas no sólo esclarece las complejas conexiones entre poder, derecho y realidad social. También, entendida la sociedad como convivencia, muestranse muy afortunados sus conceptos «estricta convicción-neto ajustamiento», en cuanto criterios analíticos a aplicar en el desciframiento de su naturaleza.

  9. Clinical and laboratory evidence of Haff disease - case series from an outbreak in Salvador, Brazil, December 2016 to April 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Antonio C; Campos, Gubio S; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Cardoso, Cristiane W; Bastos, Claudilson Jc; Pessoa, Tiago L; Araujo, Karine A; Grassi, Maria Fernanda R; Castro, Alessandra P; Carvalho, Rejane H; Prates, Ana Paula P B; Gois, Luana L; Rocha, Veronica Fd; Sardi, Silvia I

    2017-06-15

    We describe a series of 15 Haff disease cases from an outbreak in Salvador, Brazil, starting early December 2016. Eleven cases were grouped in four family clusters of two to four individuals, four were isolated cases. All but one patient consumed cooked fish; 11 within 24h before symptoms onset. Cases consumed 'Olho de Boi' (Seriola spp.) and 'Badejo' (Mycteroperca spp.). A total of 67 cases were detected, the last case was reported on 5 April 2017. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  10. A Mesa Galega na Bahia: a alimentação dos imigrantes galegos e descendentes em Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Viana, Fabiana Paixão

    2016-01-01

    Desde as últimas décadas do século XIX Salvador foi o destino escolhido por muitos galegos que cruzaram o Oceano Atlântico em busca do sonho de “conquistar a América”. Na capital baiana estes imigrantes sentiram as diferenças entre a sociedade galega e a soteropolitana, principalmente em relação a língua, aos hábitos alimentares e ao tratamento hostil e preconceituoso dispensado, bilateralmente, entre os imigrantes galegos e os soteropolitanos. Os galegos se destacaram nos setores do comércio...

  11. The cultural movement of black carnaval groups in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The case of the Grupo Cultural Olodum

    OpenAIRE

    Schaeber, Petra

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is about race relations and the debate about race in Brazil. Since the end of the 1970s Afro-Brazilians have begun to construct a new black identity. It has been based on an Afro-centric ideological agenda that diverges from the once prevailing view of racial harmony. Blacks have protested against racism in new carnival groups ("blocos afros") that began to appear in Salvador in the northeastern state of Bahia. The general assumptions about race and the debate about race ...

  12. El Salvador, acceso ciudadano directo a las Elecciones Legislativas y de Concejos Municipales, 11 marzo del 2012: una experiencia desde la observación electoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Fournier Facio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Perspectiva de la experiencia como observador electoral internacional en las elecciones de medio período de El Salvador, para los puestos de elección popular de la Asamblea Legislativa y de miembros de Concejos Municipales. Inicia con una comparación de los fundamentos normativos y constitucionales del sistema electoral de Costa Rica y el Salvador, para continuar con la descripción de las novedades implementadas en el proceso. Finaliza con un informe sobre el proceso de observación, los pro y contra detectados durante la jornada electoral.

  13. El dilema entre la paz y la justicia. Justicia transicional en contextos post-conflicto: los casos de Guatemala y el Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Barahona, Elena; Gutiérrez Salazar, Martha Liliana

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to describe and explain the trade-off between justice and peace through the analysis of two post-conflict cases: Guatemala and El Salvador. Using the comparative methodology, we analyse the issues of truth, justice and reparation from the Peace Agreements until today. El presente artículo pretende describir y poder explicar los compromisos y renuncias que se producen entre la justicia y la paz a través del análisis de dos casos de post-conflicto: Guatemala y El Salvador. ...

  14. Los Derechos Humanos y el Bloque de Constitucionalidad en los sistemas de justicia latinoamericanos: propuesta de un modelo de justicia en El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Molina, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Existe interés por parte del autor de esta tesis doctoral, en el sentido que el tema que se desarrolla permita a la comunidad jurídica salvadoreña, tener conocimiento sobre una figura que para muchos operadores jurídicos en el país es una verdadera novedad jurídica. El trabajo de investigación realizado que presento tiene como propósitos primordiales: exponer a los operadores del Sistema de Justicia en El Salvador, la importancia que reviste el conocimiento de la doctrina llamada Bloque de Co...

  15. Introduced and native Phlebobranch and Stolidobranch solitary ascidians (Tunicata: Ascidiacea around Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana M. Rocha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Port of Salvador (12°58'S, 38°30'W receives cargo ships from different regions such as southeast Asia, North Atlantic, Mediterranean, Africa, North and South America. Thus, the presence of this port enhances the probability of new species arriving and establishing in Todos os Santos Bay (TSB, in which the port is located. Ascidians are sessile filter-feeding invertebrates with short lived larvae and thus are good indicators of bioinvasion. We surveyed the ascidian fauna on three different occasions: August 1999, June 2004 and December 2007. Nineteen species were identified belonging to the following families: Ascidiidae (Phallusia nigra, Ascidia cf. multitentaculata, A. nordestina, A. papillata, A. scalariforme, A. cf. tapuni, A. tenue, Corellidae (Rhodosoma turcicum, Pyuridae (Microcosmus anchylodeirus, M. exasperatus, M. helleri, Pyura vittata, Herdmania pallida, and Styelidae (Polycarpa cf. reviviscens, P. spongiabilis, P. tumida, Polycarpa sp., Styela canopus, Cnemidocarpa irene. Only A. nordestina, A. papillata, A. scalariforme and P. spongiabilis are possibly native to this region, while P. tumida and C. irene were classified as introduced. Microcosmus anchylodeirus, H. pallida, P. vittata, M. exasperatus, M. helleri, S. canopus, A. cf. multitentaculata, A. tenue and P. nigra were classified as cryptogenic. Most are widely distributed in all oceans and their native geographic distribution is unknown, while A. cf. multitentaculata and A. tenue occur only in the Atlantic, with disjunct distributions. Polycarpa cf. reviviscens, P. tumida and M. anchylodeirus are registered for the first time on the coast of Brazil. Colonial ascidians from this collection are still being studied. The large number of cryptogenic and introduced species indicates the necessity of monitoring TSB for expansion of these populations and the need for the establishment of control programs.

  16. [Alternating hemiplegia of childhood. The first clinical case reported in El Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Zamora, Mauricio; Ortez-González, Carlos Ignacio

    2013-09-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare disease characterised by repeated episodes of hemiplegia that alternately affect one side of the body. Onset is usually before the age of 18 months, the episodes last anywhere from a few minutes to several days. In some cases these episodes may even render the early infant quadriplegic for some time if one begins before the previous one has finished or if they occur at the same time. The clinical description includes, in addition to these paralysing attacks, other paroxysmal manifestations that are present in practically all the children diagnosed with this condition and which, moreover, appear earlier. Such manifestations consist in tonic attacks, dystonic attacks, abnormal eye movements and autonomic disorders. The fact that these symptoms precede the typical clinical signs and symptoms often leads to delays in the final diagnosis. We report the case of a male, aged one year and nine months, who initially presented a clinical picture of tonic seizures at the age of two weeks, which then went on to episodes of hemiplegia that appeared alternately at the age of 11 months. The patient also presented retarded overall psychomotor development. In the early stages of the symptoms he was diagnosed with epilepsy, failed to respond to multiple antiepileptic drugs, and the electroencephalogram, neuroimaging and complementary blood and urine tests were all normal/negative. The patient responded well to flunarizine. This is the first patient with AHC reported in El Salvador. The early and accurate diagnosis of AHC is essential to be able to establish drug therapy and improve the prognosis and the quality of life of patients and their families.

  17. Conocimientos de los pediatras de Salvador, Brasil, sobre la vacuna antisarampionosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza A. Cabus Moreira

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available El éxito de las iniciativas internacionales para la erradicación del sarampión depende en gran medida del grado de conocimiento sobre la vacunación. En 1992 se evaluaron mediante un estudio transversal los conocimientos sobre la vacuna antisarampionosa de los pediatras de la ciudad brasileña de Salvador, Bahia. Del total de 506 pediatras residentes en la ciudad, 299 (59% pudieron ser localizados y respondieron a un cuestionario de 15 preguntas en las que se planteaban situaciones hipotéticas sobre indicaciones y contraindicaciones de esta vacuna. El promedio de aciertos fue de 9,3 preguntas de las 15, lo que muestra el poco conocimiento de los pediatras sobre la vacunación antisarampiososa. Situaciones comunes en la práctica pediátrica brasileña -desnutrición, infección de vías respiratorias altas, diarrea y estado prematuro- fueron a menudo erróneamente consideradas como contraindicaciones para la inmunización. Más de la mitad (62% de los pediatras no conocían la vía correcta de administración de la vacuna. Los conocimientos sobre la vacuna no variaron en función del tiempo transcurrido desde la formación universitaria del pediatra o de su trabajo en centros sanitarios de la Secretaría Estatal de Salud. Los profesores universitarios, los pediatras con maestría y los que cursaban estudios de posgrado tuvieron una media de aciertos ligeramente superior a la del resto. Estos resultados indican la necesidad de reforzar la enseñanza sobre la vacunación antisarampionosa en las facultades de medicina y en los programas de formación continuada para pediatras.

  18. Spatial distribution of triatomines (Reduviidae: Triatominae in urban areas of the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine de Souza O. Santana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes have a strong influence on the emergence and/or reemergence of infectious diseases. The city of Salvador, Brazil -currently the focus of a housing boom linked to massive deforestation- is an example in point as the destruction of the remaining areas of the Atlantic Forest around the city has led to an increased risk for Chagas disease. Human domiciles have been invaded by the triatomine vectors of Trypansoma cruzi, the flagellate protozoan causing Chagas disease, a problem of particular concern in urban/suburban areas of the city such as the Patamares sector in the north-east, where numbers of both the vector and human cases of the disease have increased lately. To control and prevent further deterioration of the situation, the control programme for Chagas disease, developed by the Bahia Center for Zoonosis Control, has divided the area into a grid of designated surveillance units (ZIs that are subjected to vector examination. In six out of 98 of these ZIs, 988 triatomes were collected and georeferenced during the 3-year period between 2006 and 2009. The hottest months, that are also generally the driest, showed the highest numbers of triatomines with Triatoma tibiamaculata being the predominant species (98.3% with Panstrongylus geniculatus present only occasionally (0.6%. Fifty-four percent of all triatomines captured were found inside the homes, and 48.6% out of 479 individuals in the affected ZIs selected for analysis tested positive for T. cruzi infection. The study presented here is a pioneering initiative to map the spatial distribution of triatomines based on geographical information systems with the additional aim of contributing to an expanded knowledge-base about T. cruzi and its vectors in urban areas and raise public health awareness of the risks involved.

  19. Epidemiological and microbiological aspects of acute bacterial diarrhea in children from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Diniz-Santos

    Full Text Available In the few cases of acute childhood diarrhea that require antimicrobial therapy, the correct choice of the drug depends on detailed previous knowledge of local strains. In order to establish such parameters in our city, we reviewed the results of all 260 positive stool cultures of children between 0 and 15 years of age during two years at a pediatric tertiary care facility in Salvador, Brazil. Bacterial strains had been presumptively identified by culturing in selective media and by biochemical testing, and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were automatically detected by the MicroScan Walkaway System. Data about patients' sex and age, monthly distribution of the cases, pathogens isolated and their antimicrobial resistance patterns were recorded. Males corresponded to 55.4% of our sample, and most of our patients (42.7% were between one and four years of age. Shigella was the commonest pathogen, being found in 141 (54.3% cultures, while Salmonella was found in 100 (38.4% cultures and Enteropathogenic E. coli in 19 (7.3%. Salmonella was the main causal agent of diarrhea in children younger than five years old, whereas Shigella was the most frequent pathogen isolated from the stools of children between five and 15 years old. The peaks of incidence correspond to the periods of school vacations. Shigella specimens presented a very high resistance rate to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (90.1% and to ampicillin (22.0%, while Salmonella presented very low resistance rates to all drugs tested. These data are useful for practitioners and they reinforce the need for continuous microbiological surveillance.

  20. High Zika Virus Seroprevalence in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil Limits the Potential for Further Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Eduardo Martins; Moreira-Soto, Andres; Pedroso, Celia; Höser, Christoph; Funk, Sebastian; Kucharski, Adam J.; Rockstroh, Alexandra; Kümmerer, Beate M.; Sampaio, Gilmara Souza; Luz, Estela; Vaz, Sara Nunes; Dias, Juarez Pereira; Bastos, Fernanda Anjos; Cabral, Renata; Kistemann, Thomas; Ulbert, Sebastian; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Jaenisch, Thomas; Brady, Oliver J.; Drosten, Christian; Sarno, Manoel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT During 2015 to 2016, Brazil reported more Zika virus (ZIKV) cases than any other country, yet population exposure remains unknown. Serological studies of ZIKV are hampered by cross-reactive immune responses against heterologous viruses. We conducted serosurveys for ZIKV, dengue virus (DENV), and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 633 individuals prospectively sampled during 2015 to 2016, including microcephaly and non-microcephaly pregnancies, HIV-infected patients, tuberculosis patients, and university staff in Salvador in northeastern Brazil using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and plaque reduction neutralization tests. Sera sampled retrospectively during 2013 to 2015 from 277 HIV-infected patients were used to assess the spread of ZIKV over time. Individuals were georeferenced, and sociodemographic indicators were compared between ZIKV-positive and -negative areas and areas with and without microcephaly cases. Epidemiological key parameters were modeled in a Bayesian framework. ZIKV seroprevalence increased rapidly during 2015 to 2016, reaching 63.3% by 2016 (95% confidence interval [CI], 59.4 to 66.8%), comparable to the seroprevalence of DENV (75.7%; CI, 69.4 to 81.1%) and higher than that of CHIKV (7.4%; CI, 5.6 to 9.8%). Of 19 microcephaly pregnancies, 94.7% showed ZIKV IgG antibodies, compared to 69.3% of 257 non-microcephaly pregnancies (P = 0.017). Analyses of sociodemographic data revealed a higher ZIKV burden in low socioeconomic status (SES) areas. High seroprevalence, combined with case data dynamics allowed estimates of the basic reproduction number R0 of 2.1 (CI, 1.8 to 2.5) at the onset of the outbreak and an effective reproductive number Reff of ZIKV-associated congenital disease and an association of low SES and ZIKV infection and suggest that population immunity caused cessation of the outbreak. Similar studies from other areas will be required to determine the fate of the American ZIKV outbreak. PMID:29138300

  1. Effect of an intervention in storm drains to prevent Aedes aegypti reproduction in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Raquel Lima; Mugabe, Vánio André; Paploski, Igor Adolfo Dexheimer; Rodrigues, Moreno S; Moreira, Patrícia Sousa Dos Santos; Nascimento, Leile Camila Jacob; Roundy, Christopher Michael; Weaver, Scott C; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro, Guilherme Sousa

    2017-07-11

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector for dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, is a synanthropic species that uses stagnant water to complete its reproductive cycle. In urban settings, rainfall water draining structures, such as storm drains, may retain water and serve as a larval development site for Aedes spp. reproduction. Herein, we describe the effect of a community-based intervention on preventing standing water accumulation in storm drains and their consequent infestation by adult and immature Ae. aegypti and other mosquitoes. Between April and May of 2016, local residents association of Salvador, Brazil, after being informed of water accumulation and Ae. aegypti infestation in the storm drains in their area, performed an intervention on 52 storm drains. The intervention consisted of placing concrete at the bottom of the storm drains to elevate their base to the level of the outflow tube, avoiding water accumulation, and placement of a metal mesh covering the outflow tube to avoid its clogging with debris. To determine the impact of the intervention, we compared the frequency at which the 52 storm drains contained water, as well as adult and immature mosquitoes using data from two surveys performed before and two surveys performed after the intervention. During the pre-intervention period, water accumulated in 48 (92.3%) of the storm drains, and immature Ae. aegypti were found in 11 (21.2%) and adults in 10 (19.2%). After the intervention, water accumulated in 5 (9.6%) of the storm drains (P storm drains also decreased after the intervention. This study exemplifies how a simple intervention targeting storm drains can result in a major reduction of water retention, and, consequently, impact Ae. aegypti larval populations. Larger and multi-center evaluations are needed to confirm the potential of citywide structural modifications of storm drains to reduce Aedes spp. infestation level.

  2. Nefropatía terminal en pacientes de un hospital de referencia en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón García Trabanino

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. El Salvador es un país con alta mortalidad por nefropatía terminal (NT. El objetivo de este estudio consistió en conocer las características epidemiológicas de una serie de nuevos casos de NT atendidos en un hospital de referencia de este país. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal de todos los nuevos casos que iniciaron diálisis crónica entre noviembre de 1999 y marzo de 2000. Mediante una entrevista personal se obtuvieron datos sobre aspectos clínicos, demográficos, laborales y ambientales. Resultados. Durante los 5 meses que duró el estudio se observaron 205 nuevos casos de NT. Entre los 202 entrevistados, se diferenciaron claramente dos grupos: uno de 67 pacientes (33% con factores de riesgo conocidos de NT, similares a los de países desarrollados (fundamentalmente, diabetes mellitus, hipertensión arterial y consumo crónico de antiinflamatorios no esteroideos, y otro de 135 pacientes (67% con características peculiares, en los que no se pudo detectar ningún factor asociado. La mayoría de estos últimos pacientes eran hombres, agricultores, habitantes de zonas costeras o adyacentes a ríos, que años atrás habían estado expuestos, sin protección, a insecticidas o plaguicidas agrícolas por razones laborales. Conclusiones. Se ha identificado un importante grupo de pacientes con NT que aparentemente carecen de una causa para su enfermedad y que presentan características peculiares que permiten sospechar una relación con la exposición laboral a insecticidas o plaguicidas. Son necesarios nuevos estudios para confirmar esta hipótesis.

  3. Multiple Paternity in the Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus, from Urban Slums in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Federico; Richardson, Jonathan L; Dion, Kirstin; Mariani, Carol; Pertile, Arsinoe C; Burak, Mary K; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2016-03-01

    The Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, is one of the most important pest species globally and the main reservoir of leptospires causing human leptospirosis in the urban slums of tropical regions. Rodent control is a frequent strategy in those settings to prevent the disease but rapid growth from residual populations and immigration limit the long-term effectiveness of interventions. To characterize the breeding ecology of R. norvegicus and provide needed information for the level of genetic mixing, which can help identify inter-connected eradication units, we estimated the occurrence of multiple paternity, distances between mothers and sires, and inbreeding in rats from urban slum habitat in Salvador, Brazil. We genotyped 9 pregnant females, their 66 offspring, and 371 males at 16 microsatellite loci. Multiple paternity was observed in 22% (2/9) of the study litters. Of the 12 sires that contributed to the 9 litters, we identified 5 (42%) of those sires among our genotyped males. Related males were captured in close proximity to pregnant females (the mean inter-parent trapping distance per litter was 70 m, ±58 m SD). Levels of relatedness between mother-sire pairs were higher than expected and significantly higher than relatedness between all females and non-sire males. Our findings indicate multiple paternity is common, inbreeding is apparent, and that mother-sire dyads occur in close proximity within the study area. This information is relevant to improve the spatial definition of the eradication units that may enhance the effectiveness of rodent management programs aimed at preventing human leptospirosis. High levels of inbreeding may also be a sign that eradication efforts are successful. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. 76 FR 81371 - Safety Zone; San Francisco New Year's Eve Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with... regulated area. The PATCOM shall be designated by the Commander, Coast Guard Sector San Francisco. The...

  5. 77 FR 15260 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... safety zone for the San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. During the...

  6. 77 FR 37603 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Independence Day Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with... regulated area. The PATCOM shall be designated by the Commander, Coast Guard Sector San Francisco. The...

  7. 76 FR 14051 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... American human remains. The National Park Service is not responsible for the determinations in this notice... of shared group identity that can be reasonably traced between the Native American human remains and... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA...

  8. Una Visita al Viejo San Juan (A Visit to Old San Juan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Victor; And Others

    Written in Spanish, this black and white illustrated booklet provides a tour of Old San Juan, Puerto Rico's oldest and most historic city. Brief historical information is provided on the Perro de San Jeronimo, a statue of a barking dog found in front of the Castillo; Plaza de Colon, a small plaza dedicated to Christopher Columbus; the Catedral de…

  9. Synthesis of SAN-PB-SAN triblock copolymers via a ''living'' copolymerization with macro-photoiniferters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, E; de Boer, B.; ten Brinke, G.; Hadziioannou, G

    1996-01-01

    A technique is described for the synthesis of poly((styrene-co-acrylonitrile)-block-butadiene-block-(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)) (SAN-PB-SAN) triblock copolymers through polybutadiene-based photo-iniferters. Dihydroxy- and dicarboxy-terminated polybutadienes were transformed into the

  10. 77 FR 59969 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, Department of Anthropology, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Anthropology, San Francisco, CA; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; correction... Department of Anthropology). The human remains and associated funerary objects were removed from Marin County... University staff under the direction of Gary Pahl. Materials from the excavations were jointly curated by San...

  11. 78 FR 21403 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... NAGPRA Program, c/o Department of Anthropology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San... conjunction with the construction of the New Don Pedro Reservoir. Site materials from the New Don Pedro...-Wuk Indians of the Tuolumne Rancheria of California. The objects are consistent with the material...

  12. The San Andreas Fault 'Supersite' (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnut, K. W.

    2013-12-01

    An expanded and permanent Supersite has been proposed to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) for the San Andreas Fault system, based upon the successful initial Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Geohazard Supersite for the Los Angeles region from 2009-2013. As justification for the comprehensive San Andreas Supersite, consider the earthquake history of California, in particular the devastating M 7.8 San Francisco earthquake of 1906, which occurred along the San Andreas Fault, as did an earthquake of similar magnitude in 1857 in southern California. Los Angeles was only a small town then, but now the risk exposure has increased for both of California's megacities. Between the San Francisco and Los Angeles urban areas lies a section of the San Andreas Fault known to creep continually, so it has relatively less earthquake hazard. It used to be thought of as capable of stopping earthquakes entering it from either direction. Transitional behavior at either end of the creeping section is known to display a full range of seismic to aseismic slip events and accompanying seismicity and strain transient events. Because the occurrence of creep events is well documented by instrumental networks such as CISN and PBO, the San Andreas Supersite can be expected to be especially effective. A good baseline level of geodetic data regarding past events and strain accumulation and release exists. Many prior publications regarding the occurrence of geophysical phenomena along the San Andreas Fault system mean that in order to make novel contributions, state-of-the-art science will be required within this Supersite region. In more recent years, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake struck adjacent to the San Andreas Fault and caused the most damage along the western side of the San Francisco Bay Area. More recently, the concern has focused on the potential for future events along the Hayward Fault along the eastern side of San Francisco Bay. In Southern California, earthquakes

  13. 78 FR 19103 - Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano Escort; Bahia de San Juan; San Juan, PR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El... during the transit of the Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano, a public vessel, and during... board the Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano. The inbound escort is scheduled to take place...

  14. Hepatite de Lábrea em Salvador, BA?: (Apresentação de um possível caso Labrea hepatitis in Salvador, BA?: (Report of a possible case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilton A. Andrade

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Um menino de quatro anos de idade, natural e residente em Salvador, Bahia, apresentou uma doença febril, de curso rápido com febre, icterícia, dores abdominais, agitação psicomotora, coma e morte no 7º dia do internamento. Histologicamente o fígado exibiu extensa necrose lítica e de coagulação dos hepatócitos, além de degeneração gordurosa aguda ("células em mórula", infiltração mononuclear e colestase, um quadro considerado tipico da hepatite de Lábrea. A existência de tal caso levanta o problema da ocorrência de hepatite de Lábrea fora da Região Amazônica ou aquele de falta de especificidade do quadro histopatológico considerado como típico da referida condição.A case of a four-year-old boy from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, with a probable Labrea hepatitis is reported. He ran a rapid course of fever, jaundice, abdominal pain, agitation, coma and death. Histologically, the liver presented widespread hepatic cell lytic and coagulative necrosis, acute fatty changes, mononuclear cell infiltration and cholestasis. The study of the case raises the question whether Lábrea hepatitis can occur outside the Amazonian region, or else its clinico-pathological features lack specificity.

  15. A via rupturista: o movimiento de izquierda revolucionaria e o governo de Salvador Allende (1970-1973 = The rupturist way: the movimiento de izquierda revolucionaria and Salvador Allende’s administration (1970-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brum, Maurício Marques

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundado em 1965, o Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria (MIR foi a maior organização de esquerda do Chile a não integrar a Unidad Popular (UP, a ampla coalizão que levou o socialista Salvador Allende à Presidência da República em setembro de 1970. Visto como uma organização “extremista” pela direita e por setores moderados da esquerda, o MIR defendeu a necessidade de preparar o povo para um conflito armado contra as classes dominantes, mesmo durante o governo Allende. Sua posição, definida por Casals (2010 como a “via rupturista”, contrariava a postura hegemônica da UP: o projeto político liderado por Salvador Allende propunha realizar uma transição ao socialismo através da “via sistêmica”, isto é, seguindo os ritos democráticos e a legislação pré-existente. Este artigo analisa os posicionamentos do MIR durante o governo da UP, suas tentativas de radicalizar o restante da esquerda e suas discordâncias em relação aos partidos moderados, diferenças que acabariam persistindo até o golpe de Estado liderado por Augusto Pinochet em 11 de setembro de 1973

  16. Estudio de relación entre Niveles de Violencia en Población masculina Privada de Libertad (PPL en El Salvador y conocimientos de VIH, Vulnerabilidad asociada con VIH/Sida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Joshua Mariño Lozano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio muestra, los resultados de evaluar los niveles de violencia presentes en Personas Privadas de Libertad (PPL asociadas a la situación del VIH/Sida y su Vulnerabilidad ante la misma. Entendiendo como Vulnerabilidad el término que hace referencia a, las condiciones que una persona puede presentar en su vida que no permiten a la misma llevar actitudes correctas basadas en un cumulo de conocimientos considerado adecuado también. De aquí surge la necesidad de realizar este estudio, con el fin de determinar las herramientas necesarias para alcanzar las metas individuales en este tipo de población, así como las mismas les permitan disminuir su condición de vulnerabilidad ante la epidemia del VIH. La investigación se llevó a cabo con PPL del Centro Penal de Ciudad Barrios en San Miguel, El Salvador. Se realizó una encuesta a 175 internos donde se tomaron en cuenta variables como: edad, ocasiones que ha sido procesado en un centro penal (reincidencia, niveles de violencia, conocimientos y actitudes correctas ante el VIH/Sida Los resultados apuntan a que la mayor parte de la población es joven y se encuentran en su primer proceso como mayores de edad. Por su parte la mayoría presenta afinidad de incorporarse a un sector laboral como una manera de generar sus propios ingresos. La mayor parte de la población encuestada, muestra que a lo largo de su vida han desarrollado elevados niveles de violencia, y una gran necesidad de conocimientos correctos sobre VIH, lo que se demuestra con los altos índices de ausencia de buenas prácticas ante la epidemia-no hay un buen uso del condónfenómeno que refleja no estar sensibilizados sobre la situación.

  17. Estudio de relación entre Niveles de Violencia en Población masculina Privada de Libertad (PPL en El Salvador y conocimientos de VIH, Vulnerabilidad asociada con VIH/Sida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Joshua Mariño Lozano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio muestra, los resultados de evaluar los niveles de violencia presentes en Personas Privadas de Libertad (PPL asociadas a la situación del VIH/Sida y su Vulnerabilidad ante la misma. Entendiendo como Vulnerabilidad el término que hace referencia a, las condiciones que una persona puede presentar en su vida que no permiten a la misma llevar actitudes correctas basadas en un cumulo de conocimientos considerado adecuado también. De aquí surge la necesidad de realizar este estudio, con el fin de determinar las herramientas necesarias para alcanzar las metas individuales en este tipo de población, así como las mismas les permitan disminuir su condición de vulnerabilidad ante la epidemia del VIH. La investigación se llevó a cabo con PPL del Centro Penal de Ciudad Barrios en San Miguel, El Salvador. Se realizó una encuesta a 175 internos donde se tomaron en cuenta variables como: edad, ocasiones que ha sido procesado en un centro penal (reincidencia, niveles de violencia, conocimientos y actitudes correctas ante el VIH/Sida Los resultados apuntan a que la mayor parte de la población es joven y se encuentran en su primer proceso como mayores de edad. Por su parte la mayoría presenta afinidad de incorporarse a un sector laboral como una manera de generar sus propios ingresos. La mayor parte de la población encuestada, muestra que a lo largo de su vida han desarrollado elevados niveles de violencia, y una gran necesidad de conocimientos correctos sobre VIH, lo que se demuestra con los altos índices de ausencia de buenas prácticas ante la epidemia-no hay un buen uso del condón- fenómeno que refleja no estar sensibilizados sobre la situación.

  18. Rapid contrast matching by microfluidic SANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Marco; Poulos, Andreas S; Miller, Ruhina M; Lopez, Carlos G; Martel, Anne; Porcar, Lionel; Cabral, João T

    2017-05-02

    We report a microfluidic approach to perform small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements of contrast variation and matching, extensively employed in soft and biological matter research. We integrate a low scattering background microfluidic mixer and serpentine channel in a SANS beamline to yield a single phase, continuous flow, reconfigurable liquid cell. By contrast with conventional, sequential measurements of discrete (typically 4-6) solutions of varying isotopic solvent composition, our approach continually varies solution composition during SANS acquisition. We experimentally and computationally determine the effects of flow dispersion and neutron beam overillumination of microchannels in terms of the composition resolution and precision. The approach is demonstrated with model systems: H2O/D2O mixtures, a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), a triblock copolymer (pluronic F127), and silica nanoparticles (Ludox) in isotopic aqueous mixtures. The system is able to zoom into a composition window to refine contrast matching conditions, and robustly resolve solute structure and form factors by simultaneous fitting of scattering data with continuously varying contrast. We conclude by benchmarking our microflow-SANS with the discrete approach, in terms of volume required, composition resolution and (preparation and measurement) time required, proposing a leap forward in equilibrium, liquid solution phase mapping and contrast variation by SANS.

  19. Prevalence of behavior problems and associated factors in preschool children from the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia M. dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To identify the prevalence of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems among preschoolers from the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil, and their associations with maternal mental health and family characteristics.Methods:This was a cross-sectional study of 349 children aged 49 to 72 months, randomly selected from 20,000 households representing the range of socioeconomic and environmental conditions in Salvador. In 1999, we assessed sociodemographic variables and family environment characteristics. In 2001, we used the Child Behavior Checklist to measure and describe the frequencies of behavior problems. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analysis to estimate associations between family and maternal factors and prevalence of behavior problems.Results:The overall prevalence of behavior problems was 23.5%. The prevalence of internalizing problems was 9.7%, and that of externalizing problems, 25.2%. Behavior problems were associated with several maternal mental health variables, namely: presence of at least one psychiatric diagnosis (odds radio [OR] 3.01, 95%CI 1.75-5.18, anxiety disorder (OR 2.06, 95%CI 1.20-3.46, affective disorder (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.21-3.65, and mental health disorders due to use of psychoactive substances (OR 2.31, 95%CI 1.18-4.55.Conclusion:The observed prevalence of child behavior problems fell within the range reported in previous studies. Maternal mental health is an important risk factor for behavior problems in preschool-aged children.

  20. El Crimen Organizado en las Cárceles: Las Extorsiones desde los Centros Penales en El Salvador (2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ricardo Gómez Hecht

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Se explora el delito de extorsión en El Salvador y la manera como la mayoría de estas actividades ilícitas son planificadas, ordenadas y negociadas por grupos de crimen organizado, desde los diversos centros penitenciarios del país a través de sus estructuras reticulares. A partir de una profunda investigación bibliográfica y empírica, el trabajo se centra en analizar las condiciones criminógenas de carácter político-gubernamental, cultural-social y económico que se conjugan en El Salvador para generar que organizaciones criminales desde el interior de los centros penales se dediquen a extorsionar nacional o transnacionalmente. Finalmente se concluye que las estructuras de crimen organizado desde los centros penales constituyen una amenaza a la seguridad del Estado. Las actividades ilegales de estas organizaciones socava la habilidad del Estado para proveer servicios, proteger a las personas y mantener la confianza de la ciudadanía en el gobierno y la democraciaDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v3i1.1333

  1. Etnografias do brau: corpo, masculinidade e raça na reafricanização em Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmundo de Araújo Pinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-026X2005000100009 Neste artigo, o autor pretende explorar desenvolvimentos do processo conhecido como reafricanização da cultura e da política em Salvador corporificados na cristalização transitória de determinada figura social conhecida como o brau. Essa seria uma inflexão de masculinidade informada pelas tensões raciais e de gênero em Salvador, assim como uma reapropriação localizada de temas culturais da diáspora africana. Braus foram (são jovens negros da periferia que re-inventam uma visualidade/corporalidade negra a partir de releituras da ‘cultura’ soul norte-americana e ao mesmo tempo são estigmatizados pela classe média como violentos, de “mau-gosto” e hiper-sexualizados, ou seja, excessivamente ‘negros’ e excessivamente ‘masculinos’, em uma hiperbolização que em certo sentido contradiz com sua estigmatização.

  2. Cacao use and the San Lorenzo Olmec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powis, Terry G.; Cyphers, Ann; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.; Grivetti, Louis; Cheong, Kong

    2011-01-01

    Mesoamerican peoples had a long history of cacao use—spanning more than 34 centuries—as confirmed by previous identification of cacao residues on archaeological pottery from Paso de la Amada on the Pacific Coast and the Olmec site of El Manatí on the Gulf Coast. Until now, comparable evidence from San Lorenzo, the premier Olmec capital, was lacking. The present study of theobromine residues confirms the continuous presence and use of cacao products at San Lorenzo between 1800 and 1000 BCE, and documents assorted vessels forms used in its preparation and consumption. One elite context reveals cacao use as part of a mortuary ritual for sacrificial victims, an event that occurred during the height of San Lorenzo's power. PMID:21555564

  3. Analyzing the Learning of the Taking Personal and Social Responsibility Model within a New Physical Education Undergraduate Degree Program in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Mauro H.; Mandigo, James L.

    2013-01-01

    El Salvador has an unfortunate history that includes a military regime and a civil war that together created a legacy of violence in which the country still struggles nowadays. Salud Escolar Integral (SEI) was created in 2005 by universities, federal governments, a corporate sponsor, and sport associations as a program to combat youth violence…

  4. Candomblé in pink, green and black: re-scripting the Afro-Brazilian religious heritage in the public sphere of Salvador, Bahia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Port, M.

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the dispersion of candomblé imagery, practices and aesthetics in the public sphere of Salvador, Bahia. It shows that the spirit possession cult has become a trademark for the Bahian state and a major ‘symbol bank’ for groups as varied as the Bahian gay movement, environmental

  5. Rising from the Ashes: How the Global Education Policy of Community-Based Management Was Born from El Salvador's Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the emergence of global education policies and conflict-affected contexts by analysing the trajectory of community-level education decentralization within and beyond El Salvador from the 1980s, during the country's civil war, to the 2000s, by which point this approach to education governance was being…

  6. El trabajo de la memoria en Centroamérica : Cinco propuestas heurísticas en torno a las guerras en El Salvador, Guatemala y Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenkels, Ralph|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/250199777

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a comparative exploration of contemporary memory work related to the  wars of the second half of the twentieth century in three  Central American countries: El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua. It identifies five different heuristic proposals forwarded the explain the

  7. Historia del diseño en El Salvador: El Diseño Gráfico como profesión formal (1978-1988)

    OpenAIRE

    Colorado Berríos, Jorge Arturo

    2014-01-01

    El presente artículo trata sobre la historia del diseño gráfico en El Salvador, desde principios del siglo XX hasta 1988, cuando se formaliza como profesión en la Universidad Dr. José Matías Delgado.

  8. Jesuit Education and Social Change in El Salvador. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Volume 1055. Garland Studies in Higher Education, Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirne, Charles J.

    This book on the University of Central America Jose Simeon Canas (UCA) in El Salvador reviews its history, its establishment, its work for social change, and the consequent 1989 assassination of six Jesuit priests and two women. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the text and a description and discussion of the November 16, 1989 assassination.…

  9. Its surreal: zinc-oxide degradation and misperceptions in Salvador Dalí’s Couple with Clouds in their Heads, 1936

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keune, K.; Boevé-Jones, G.; Burnstock, A.; de Keijzer, M.; Krueger, J.; Learner, T.; de Tagle, A.; Heydenreich, G.

    2014-01-01

    The painting Couple with Clouds in their Heads by Salvador Dalí (1936) from the Museum Boijmans van Beuningen in Rotterdam was seriously disfigured by ring formations on the edges of the painting and a matt, white-looking semi-transparent material on the surface. Paint samples, taken from affected

  10. Mortalidade perinatal no municipio de Salvador, Bahia: evolucao de 2000 a 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Jacinto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Analisar a evolução da mortalidade perinatal quanto à dimensão do problema e sua extensão. MÉTODOS Estudo descritivo de tendência temporal com 10.994 óbitos perinatais, de mães residentes em Salvador, BA, com idade gestacional ≥ 22 semanas, idade do recém-nascido até seis dias e 500 g ou mais de peso ao nascer, registrados de 2000 a 2009. Utilizaram-se dados do Sistema de Informações de Nascidos Vivos e do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade do sitio eletrônico do Datasus/Ministério da Saúde. Calcularam-se taxas de mortalidade perinatal e fetal/1.000 nascimentos e neonatal precoce/1.000 nascidos vivos. Aplicaram-se: teste Qui-quadrado de Pearson para diferenças em proporções, teste de sequências ( runs , cálculo de médias móveis e coeficiente de determinação linear (R 2 para análise de tendência. Utilizou-se a classificação de Wigglesworth para causas de morte. RESULTADOS A taxa de mortalidade perinatal mostrou tendência decrescente, sendo reduzida em 42,0% no período (de 33,1 (2000 para 19,2 (2009, com maior contribuição da taxa neonatal precoce (-56,3%. A mortalidade fetal representou grande proporção (61,9% da taxa de mortalidade perinatal em 2009. A classificação dos óbitos apontou como causas mais frequentes de óbito perinatal: asfixia intraparto (8,8/1.000, imaturidade (7,1/1.000 e malformações congênitas (1,3/1.000. CONCLUSÕES Mesmo em declínio, a taxa de mortalidade perinatal continua elevada e o predomínio recente da mortalidade fetal indica mudança no perfil de causas e impacto nas ações de prevenção. A consulta pré-natal de qualidade com controle de riscos e melhoria da assistência ao parto pode reduzir a ocorrência de causas evitáveis.

  11. High Zika Virus Seroprevalence in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil Limits the Potential for Further Outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Martins Netto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available During 2015 to 2016, Brazil reported more Zika virus (ZIKV cases than any other country, yet population exposure remains unknown. Serological studies of ZIKV are hampered by cross-reactive immune responses against heterologous viruses. We conducted serosurveys for ZIKV, dengue virus (DENV, and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV in 633 individuals prospectively sampled during 2015 to 2016, including microcephaly and non-microcephaly pregnancies, HIV-infected patients, tuberculosis patients, and university staff in Salvador in northeastern Brazil using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs and plaque reduction neutralization tests. Sera sampled retrospectively during 2013 to 2015 from 277 HIV-infected patients were used to assess the spread of ZIKV over time. Individuals were georeferenced, and sociodemographic indicators were compared between ZIKV-positive and -negative areas and areas with and without microcephaly cases. Epidemiological key parameters were modeled in a Bayesian framework. ZIKV seroprevalence increased rapidly during 2015 to 2016, reaching 63.3% by 2016 (95% confidence interval [CI], 59.4 to 66.8%, comparable to the seroprevalence of DENV (75.7%; CI, 69.4 to 81.1% and higher than that of CHIKV (7.4%; CI, 5.6 to 9.8%. Of 19 microcephaly pregnancies, 94.7% showed ZIKV IgG antibodies, compared to 69.3% of 257 non-microcephaly pregnancies (P = 0.017. Analyses of sociodemographic data revealed a higher ZIKV burden in low socioeconomic status (SES areas. High seroprevalence, combined with case data dynamics allowed estimates of the basic reproduction number R0 of 2.1 (CI, 1.8 to 2.5 at the onset of the outbreak and an effective reproductive number Reff of <1 in subsequent years. Our data corroborate ZIKV-associated congenital disease and an association of low SES and ZIKV infection and suggest that population immunity caused cessation of the outbreak. Similar studies from other areas will be required to determine the fate of the American

  12. Recent Intermediate Depth Earthquakes in El Salvador, Central Mexico, Cascadia and South-West Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, A.; Gardi, A.; Gutscher, M.; Madariaga, R.

    2001-12-01

    be favored by stress transfer between intermediate depth and interplate zone during the earthquake cycle, flexural stresses associated with bendings which are not only present at ``flat slab'' geometry but also at ``normal'' dipping subduction zone, seem to govern the location of intermediate depth seismicity and to explain their focal mechanisms in El Salvador, SW Japon, Cascadia and Central Mexico.

  13. High-Resolution Analysis of Seismicity Induced at Berlín Geothermal Field, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, G.; Bulut, F.; Dresen, G. H.; Bohnhoff, M.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate induced microseismic activity monitored at Berlín Geothermal Field, El Salvador, during a hydraulic stimulation. The site was monitored for a time period of 17 months using thirteen 3-component seismic stations located in shallow boreholes. Three stimulations were performed in the well TR8A with a maximum injection rate and well head pressure of 160l/s and 130bar, respectively. For the entire time period of our analysis, the acquisition system recorded 581 events with moment magnitudes ranging between -0.5 and 3.7. The initial seismic catalog provided by the operator was substantially improved: 1) We re-picked P- and S-wave onsets and relocated the seismic events using the double-difference relocation algorithm based on cross-correlation derived differential arrival time data. Forward modeling was performed using a local 1D velocity model instead of homogeneous full-space. 2) We recalculated source parameters using the spectral fitting method and refined the results applying the spectral ratio method. We investigated the source parameters and spatial and temporal changes of the seismic activity based on the refined dataset and studied the correlation between seismic activity and production. The achieved hypocentral precision allowed resolving the spatiotemporal changes in seismic activity down to a scale of a few meters. The application of spectral ratio method significantly improved the quality of source parameters in a high-attenuating and complex geological environment. Of special interest is the largest event (Mw3.7) and its nucleation process. We investigate whether the refined seismic data display any signatures that the largest event is triggered by the shut-in of the well. We found seismic activity displaying clear spatial and temporal patterns that could be easily related to the amount of water injected into the well TR8A and other reinjection wells in the investigated area. The migration of seismicity outside of injection point is observed

  14. Mammal Track Counts - San Diego County [ds442

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The San Diego Tracking Team (SDTT) is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting the preservation of wildlife habitat in San Diego County through citizen-based...

  15. Mammal Track Counts - San Diego County, 2010 [ds709

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The San Diego Tracking Team (SDTT) is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting the preservation of wildlife habitat in San Diego County through citizen-based...

  16. Coastal Cactus Wren, San Diego Co. - 2011 [ds708

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The San Diego Multiple Species Conservation program (MSCP) was developed for the conservation of plants and animals in the southeast portion of San Diego County....

  17. Coastal Cactus Wren, San Diego Co. - 2009 [ds702

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The San Diego Multiple Species Conservation program (MSCP) was developed for the conservation of plants and animals in the southeast portion of San Diego County....

  18. Species Observations (poly) - San Diego County [ds648

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Created in 2009, the SanBIOS database serves as a single repository of species observations collected by various departments within the County of San Diego's Land...

  19. Caracterización y evaluación de la calidad del agua de los ríos Quiscab y San Francisco, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normal E. Gil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Los ríos Quiscab y San Francisco son los principales afluentes del lago de Atitlán. Para determinar el aporte de contaminación de estos ríos, se realizaron ocho muestreos durante dos años (septiembre 2011 a septiembre 2013, evaluando la parte alta, media y baja de las dos sub cuencas y desembocaduras en el lago de Atitlán. Se midieron los parámetros fisicoquímicos, calculando el Índice de Calidad del Agua (ICA de El Salvador. Se evaluó la presencia y cantidad de macroinvertebrados acuáticos y se calculó el Indice Biológico por Familias de El Salvador (IBF-SV-2010. Se evaluó la presencia de fitoplancton en forma cualitativa y cuantitativa en la desembocadura de los ríos en el lago. Los dos ríos presentaron valores de ICA y de IBF-SV regular y regular pobre respectivamente. La contaminación del agua no reveló diferencias significativas entre las épocas de los años estudiados (invierno y verano, es decir seca y lluviosa. Se obtuvieron dos mapas en los que se observó que en las partes altas de ambas cuencas se mostraban valores aceptables de calidad del agua. Esta calidad se va deteriorando desde la parte media hasta la parte baja de los ríos, volviendo a mejorar en la desembocadura del lago de Atitlán. En los monitoreos cuantitativos de fitoplancton de la desembocadura de los ríos se observó una alta presencia de organismos representantes de Cianophytas, no existiendo diferencias en cuanto a cantidad y género en comparación con el invierno y verano.

  20. 78 FR 34895 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Independence Day Fireworks Display, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Display in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards.... The PATCOM is empowered to forbid entry into and control the regulated area. The PATCOM shall be...