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Sample records for san paulo brazil

  1. Characteristics of Contraceptive Use in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elisabeth Meloni Vieira; Rita Badiani; Amaury Léis Dal Fabbro; Antonio Luiz Rodrigues Junior

    2006-01-01

    Objective To know the characteristics of contraceptive use in Sao Paulo State collected by the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted in 1996.Methods Data of Sao Paulo in 1996 were analyzed compared with the previous DHS carried on in 1986focusing on Sao Paulo State. Contraceptive use among married or cohabiting women by age, number of children and schooling was closely examined.Age and timing of female sterilization were also analyzed.Results The results showed that unlike Brazil there was a stability of female sterilization in Sao Paulo State during 1986 and 1996. There was a pattern in Sao Paulo: up to 30years old the pill was the most used contraceptive, after 30 there was a predominance of female sterilization, which increased with the number of children and decreased with schooling. The use of male methods had also increased in the 1986 and 1996period, being greater in Sao Paulo than in Brazil. Sao Paulo also presented more diversity in the use of reversible contraceptives.Conclusions The predominant two contraceptive methods in Brazil and Sao Paulo changed from 1986 to 1996, I.e. From pill to female sterilization.

  2. [Health education in Brazil: from Paulo Freire to today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselli, Maria Cecilia; Vieira, Carla Maria; Oliveira, Nayara L S; Smeke, Elizabeth L M

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the experience of Brazil in the area of health education integrated in popular education movements. More specifically, the paper discusses the link between health education and popular education, focusing in particular on the work of Paulo Freire. Anti-slavery movements, protest movements against social inequalities and the reconstruction of democracy after the end of the military dictatorship (1965-1984) provided fertile ground for a dynamic process of change--a process illustrated by the creation of the Unified Health System. These developments occurred in a context of social change and unrest. Since then, other actors and other forms of action have emerged, though creativity and popular empowerment remain central to the process of change. However, in popular education, nothing is set in stone and new issues have emerged, as Paulo Freire had predicted. The point is to recognize that popular education applied to health, or rather integrating health, is constantly changing and developing.

  3. Prevalence of Bluetongue virus serotype 4 in cattle in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmeister de Campos Nogueira, Adriana; De Stefano, Eliana; de Souza Nunes Martins, Maira; Okuda, Liria Hiromi; Dos Santos Lima, Michele; da Silva Garcia, Thais; Heinz Hellwig, Otto; Alves de Lima, José Eduardo; Savini, Giovanni; Pituco, Edviges Maristela

    2016-09-30

    Bluetongue (BT) is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. The State of Sao Paulo was divided into 7 cattle production regions (circuits) according the different systems of breeding, operational and logistical capacity of the state veterinary service. At least 1 animal from each property (a total of 1,716 farms) was tested by competitive ELISA for the presence of antibodies against BTV. Sero‑positive sera were subsequently also tested by virus neutralization tests (VNT) using serial dilutions from 1:10 (cutoff) up to 1:640 (in MEM). BTV‑4 neutralizing antibodies were detected in 86% (1,483/1,716) of the animals tested. These results show that BTV‑4 is endemic and widespread in the State of San Paulo and indirectly confirm that in the State there are favourable conditions for the multiplication of competent vectors. However, as no clinical signs have ever been reported in cattle in the region, BTV‑4 infection is likely to occur silently in the State of Sao Paulo.

  4. [Healthy lifestyle in São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Tatiane Kosimenko; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Goldbaum, Moisés; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2017-01-23

    The objective was to analyze adolescent, adult, and elderly lifestyles in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, according to demographic and socioeconomic variables. A cross-sectional, population-based study was performed with data from the Health Survey in São Paulo City (ISA-Capital 2008) database. Lifestyle was defined on the basis of physical activity, diet, smoking, and alcohol abuse and addiction, according to the respective guidelines. Prevalence of healthy lifestyle was 36.9% in the elderly, 15.4% in adults, and 9.8% in adolescents, and was higher in females in the elderly and adults. Among individuals with unhealthy lifestyle, 51.5% of the elderly, 32.2% of adults, and 57.9% of adolescents failed to reach the guidelines for adequate diet. Prevalence of healthy lifestyle was highest among the elderly, followed by adults and adolescents. Food consumption was the main factor associated with unhealthy lifestyle, demonstrating the importance of interventions to promote healthy lifestyle, especially adequate diet.

  5. New records of Simuliidae (Diptera, Nematocera in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Mateus Pepinelli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult and immature Simuliidae were studied in 31 streams of 8 regions of the State of São Paulo. Among the 25 species collected, seven are new records for the State of São Paulo, and one of them, Simulium shewellianum Coscarón, 1985 for Brazil as well.

  6. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    B. S. Oyama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV and Heavy (HDV duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol, hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel. The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5 in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS, and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT. The organic aerosol (OA desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF organic aerosol (OA and organic carbon (OC were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the

  7. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, B. S.; Andrade, M. F.; Herckes, P.; Dusek, U.; Röckmann, T.; Holzinger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV) and Heavy (HDV) duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol), hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel). The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ) where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA) where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS), and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT). The organic aerosol (OA) desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF) organic aerosol (OA) and organic carbon (OC) were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the aerosol

  8. 77 FR 18215 - U.S. Education Mission to Brazil; Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil, August 30...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration U.S. Education Mission to Brazil; Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and S o Paulo... Brazil Patricia S. Marega, Business Development Specialist, S o Paulo, Tel: (55-11) 5186-7482,...

  9. Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehnert, D.U.; Stewien, K.E. (Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    1993-01-01

    Rotavirus invection is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality of infants and children in developing countries, especially where the water supply and sewage disposal systems are in precarious conditions. This report describes the detection, quantitation, and distribution of rotaviruses in domestic sewage and sewage polluted creeks in the city of San Paulo. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. Envenomation caused by Latrodectus geometricus in São Paulo state, Brazil: a case report

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    Ramb Almeida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Widow spiders (Latrodectus spp., also known as "black widows", have a worldwide distribution and can cause latrodectism. To the best of our knowledge, in Brazil, only one case of Latrodectus geometricus (Koch, 1841 envenomation in a human has been reported. The aim of the present report is to describe a spider bite caused by Latrodectus geometricus in a patient who lives in Paranapanema, São Paulo state, Brazil.

  11. Reconnaissance for radioactive rocks in the Paulo Afonso Region, Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Donald D.; Mau, Henry

    1958-01-01

    Ground and air traverses were made to the northwest, north and northeast of Paulo Afonso, Bahia, Brazil, covering Precambrian crystalline rocks and sedimentary rocks of the Jatoba series of Jurassic or Cretaceous age. No important radioactivity anomalies were found; samples from the two strongest anomalies had an equivalent uranium-oxide content of 0.002 percent and 0.006 percent.

  12. OCCURRENCE OF NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN CAPYBARAS (HYDROCHAERIS HYDROCHAERIS) FROM SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a large rodent distributed throughout tropical America. Antibodies to Neospora caninum in 213 feral capybaras from 11 counties of the State of São Paulo, Brazil were assessed using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (titer '1:25) and found in 20 (9.4...

  13. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in bats from São Paulo city, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii with a worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies in bats from São Paulo city, Brazil. A total of 616 serum samples were collected from 22 species of bats. Anti-T. gon...

  14. Meat consumption in Sao Paulo-Brazil: trend in the last decade.

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    Aline Martins de Carvalho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize trends in meat consumption, and verify the percentage of excessive red and processed meat consumption in the last decade in São Paulo, Brazil. DESIGN: Cross-sectional weighted data from the Health Survey for São Paulo, conducted in São Paulo, Brazil among people aged 12 years and older. SETTING: Diet was assessed by two 24-hour recalls in each survey. Usual meat consumption was estimated by Multiple Source Method. Wald tests were used to compare means across survey years. Data were collected from adolescents, adults, and elderly using a representative, complex, multistage probability-based survey in 2003 and in 2008 in São Paulo, southeast of Brazil. SUBJECTS: 2631 Brazilians were studied in 2003 and 1662 in 2008. RESULTS: Daily mean of red and processed meat consumption was 100 g/day in 2003, and 113 g/day in 2008. Excessive red and processed meat consumption was observed in almost 75% of the subjects, especially among adolescents in both surveys. Beef represented the largest proportion of meat consumed, followed by poultry, pork and fish in both surveys. CONCLUSIONS: Daily red and processed meat consumption was higher in 2008 than in 2003, and almost the entire population consumed more than what is recommended by World Cancer Research Fund. Public health strategies are needed, in order to reduce red and processed meat consumption to the recommended amounts, for a healthy diet.

  15. Desigualdade ambiental no município de São Paulo: análise da exposição diferenciada de grupos sociais a situações de risco ambiental através do uso de metodologias de geoprocessamento Desigualdad ambiental en el municipio de San Pablo: análisis de la exposición diferenciada de grupos sociales a situaciones de riesgo ambiental a través del uso de metodologías de geoprocesamiento Environmental inequality in the City of São Paulo, Brazil: analysis of differential exposure of social groups to situations of environmental risk by using geoprocessing methodologies

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    Humberto Prates da Fonseca Alves

    2007-12-01

    distribuidos de manera desigual entre los diferentes grupos sociales, así como el ingreso y el acceso a servicios públicos. Para comprobar esta hipótesis, se realizó un análisis comparativo de la dinámica demográfica y socioeconómica entre las poblaciones residentes en áreas de riesgo ambiental y aquéllas no residentes en estos tipos de área, con base en una tipología de la distribución espacial de los habitantes del municipio de San Pablo en tres grupos sociales (pobres, clase media y clase alta. Los resultados muestran que, en todos los grupos sociales, las poblaciones residentes en áreas de riesgo ambiental presentan condiciones socioeconómicas significativamente peores que las no residentes en esas áreas. Los resultados también revelan un aumento de la desigualdad ambiental, en el período reciente.This article represents an effort at making operational the concept of environmental inequality, in order to identify and analyze situations of environmental inequality in the City of São Paulo, Brazil, by using geoprocessing methodologies. The objective is to identify and measure the association between unfavorable socioeconomic conditions and greater exposure to environmental risks, by analyzing the level of risk exposure of different social groups in São Paulo. The results show that, in all social groups, people living in risky areas have much lower socioeconomic conditions than those who living in other places. The results also show that environmental inequality in São Paulo has been increasing in recent years.

  16. Added sugars: consumption and associated factors among adults and the elderly. São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno,Milena Baptista; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; César,Chester Luis Galvão; Regina Mara FISBERG

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate added sugar intake, main dietary sources and factors associated with excessive intake of added sugar. METHODS: A population-based household survey was carried out in São Paulo, the largest city in Brazil. Cluster sampling was performed and the study sample comprised 689 adults and 622 elderly individuals. Dietary intake was estimated based on a 24-hour food recall. Usual nutrient intake was estimated by correcting for the within-person variance of intake using the Io...

  17. Environmental radioactive monitoring in Itu, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Monitoramento de radioatividade ambiental no municipio de Itu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-01-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring of a region near to a radioactive materials deposit in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, are presented. The radioactive materials are uranium and thorium hydroxides from monazite processing. The temporal variation of {sup 226} Ra was determined in the superficial and underground water, showing no increase for the former and a maximum concentration of 0,306 Bq/L for the latter. 21 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Factors associated with overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    CAMARGO,Juliana Melo Teruel Biagi; Marín-León, Leticia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To assess overweight/obesity of elementary schoolchildren in Campinas , São Paulo , Brazil, and its association with parental nutritional status, children's food consumption, food preferences, and level of physical activity, and familial socioeconomic status. Methods This case-control study included 509 schoolchildren aged 7 to 10 years. Body mass index Z-score was used to determine nutritional status, defining cases (>+1 Z-score) and controls (³-2 ?+1 Z-score). To addres...

  19. Tetanus and diphtheria immunity in adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    M.I.S Dinelli; Fisberg, M.; de Moraes-Pinto, M. I.

    2007-01-01

    Tetanus and diphtheria vaccines are of special concern in adolescents because boosters are necessary for adequate maintenance of protection and are often omitted. We assessed serum levels of tetanus and diphtheria antibodies in adolescents and their association with vaccination status. From May to October 2001, we evaluated the vaccination records of 208 adolescents aged 10 to 20 years in São Paulo, Brazil. Antibodies to tetanus and diphtheria were detected using double-antigen ELISA and vacc...

  20. The sarsaparilla market in the state of Sao Paulo (Brazil) and the challenges of cultivation

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    Soares, MKM; Martins, AR; MONTANARI, I.; Figueira, GM; ZUCCHI, MI; Bajay, MM; Appezzato-da-Gloria, B

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to present information about the sarsaparilla sold in establishments in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, assess the genetic diversity of Smilax brasiliensis Spreng., Smilacaceae, and examine the growing conditions and productivity of five species of Smilax. The amount of sarsaparilla sold per month at most pharmacies was 0.4 kg on average. Herbal stores and markets sold averages of 9 kg and 8 kg per month, respectively. The weight of the underground biomass of S. fluminensis (...

  1. Factors associated with overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Melo Teruel Biagi CAMARGO; Leticia MARÍN-LEÓN

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To assess overweight/obesity of elementary schoolchildren in Campinas , São Paulo , Brazil, and its association with parental nutritional status, children's food consumption, food preferences, and level of physical activity, and familial socioeconomic status. Methods This case-control study included 509 schoolchildren aged 7 to 10 years. Body mass index Z-score was used to determine nutritional status, defining cases (>+1 Z-score) and controls (³-2 ?+1 Z-score). To addres...

  2. Medical genetics services in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Brunoni, Decio

    2004-01-01

    The city of Sao Paulo is located in the center of a metropolitan area with nearly 18 million inhabitants and 300,000 births/year. The currently existing medical genetics services are unable to meet the demand, due to their insufficient physical and personnel infrastructure. Institutions and experts in medical genetics could give short training and refresher courses to health professionals to enable them to work in the public health network. The city has a reasonably well developed health care network, represented by the Single Health System (Sistema Unico de Saude - SUS) and by the Family Health Program (Programa de Saude da Familia - PSF). The financial resources for such actions originate in the budget of the managing agencies of such systems. The limitations of genetic services provided to the population of the city could be overcome in a short period of time by developing programs within the public health care network. The city has institutions, professionals and financial resources to make this project feasible. To that end, the competent authorities of the Sao Paulo State and City Secretariats of Health should take managerial responsibility for the genetic services in the city. Copyright (c) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Cancer incidence in eighteen cities of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Andreoni, G I; Veneziano, D B; Giannotti Filho, O; Marigo, C; Mirra, A P; Fonseca, L A

    2001-08-01

    As in Brazil cancer registries are mostly based on large cities, there are no estimates per state or per region and information on the disease incidence in the vast in-land areas is very scarce. An incidence survey was conducted in 18 major cities of the state of São Paulo, excluding the capital, aiming to collect information about cancer incidence in the state of São Paulo. Of the 18 cities in state of São Paulo included in the survey, all had available resources for cancer management. Data from the year of 1991 were collected by the personnel of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Statistics), who were especially trained by the study coordinators at the Fundação Oncocentro de São Paulo (Cancer Center of São Paulo). The collected data were processed and analyzed at the Oncocentro. Data collection, processing, and analyses were performed according to the recommendations of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Although some discrepancies were observed in cancer incidence rates between the cities, results obtained for all 18 cities combined were remarkably close to those recently found for the city of São Paulo in the year 1993. One remarkable finding was the relatively high cancer incidence rates in both sexes in the city of Santos. The very similar all-sites cancer incidence rates found in the year 1991, when compared to those for the city of São Paulo in the year 1993, are suggestive that all regions have common cancer-related factors. Nevertheless, other explanations, such as the inclusion in the study of prevalent cases, as well as of non-residents, may have occurred in both studies, biasing the results. There is a need of further studies to confirm the high cancer incidence in Santos.

  4. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness.RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients.CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  5. Mortalidade perinatal em São Paulo, Brasil Perinatal mortality in S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Ruy Laurenti

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi analisada a mortalidade perinatal em São Paulo num período de dois anos. Partiu o estudo da totalidade dos atestados de nascidos mortos e de uma amostra de óbitos de menores de sete dias, para a qual a metodologia foi a de entrevistas domiciliares e junto aos médicos e hospitais que tenham prestado assistência às crianças falecidas. O coeficiente de mortalidade perinatal encontrado foi igual a 42,04 por mil nascidos vivos. Esse valor apresenta-se bastante elevado quando comparado ao de áreas desenvolvidas. Foi verificado que ele poderia ser diminuído com a simples redução dos coeficientes específicos por algumas causas evitáveis a nível de pré-natal (sífilis congênita, doenças próprias ou associadas à gravidez, do parto (distócias, traumatismos obstétricos e anóxia, ou da atenção ao recém-nascido (causas infecciosas, do aparelho respiratório, hemorragias e certas anóxias. O coeficiente de mortalidade perinatal segundo a idade da mãe mostrou que o risco varia com a idade, apresentando-se maior nas mulheres de 40 a 49 anos.Perinatal mortality in S. Paulo, over a period of two years, was analysed. The study took in all death certificates of the stillborn and a sample of children under a week of age. For the latter the methodology used was by interviewing phisicians and hospitals that cared for the deceased. The perinatal mortality rate was 42,05 per thousand live births. This value is really high when compared with those of developed areas. Nevertheless it can be reduced once the specific rates for some of the avoidable diseases be reduced by proper pre-natal care (congenital syphilis, illness pertaining to or associated with pregnancy. This can also be done by improving care at delivery (Distocias, obstetrical traumatism and anoxia and towards the newlyborn (infeccious diseases, respiratory diseases, haemorrages and anoxia. The perinatal mortality rate varies with the age of the mother, the risk being largest in

  6. [Mortality among Japanese migrants residing in the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil, 1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlieb, S L

    1990-12-01

    The mortality patterns of Japanese migrants (issei) and their descendants (nissei/sansei) resident in the City of S. Paulo, Brazil, are compared with those of their native country (Japan) and their place of adoption (S. Paulo), in 1980. The mortality data were obtained from death certificates for the issei and nissei/sansei populations and from official tabulations for deaths in Japan and S. Paulo. The population estimates were based upon the S. Paulo and Japanese censuses. The age-standardized populations were calculated according to the Jowett method. The five leading causes of death were basically the same for these populations under study. S. Paulo residents had the highest age-standardized mortality rates, except as regards deaths due to neoplasms, higher in Japan. The issei population (both sexes) presented intermediate values for deaths due to endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases and diseases of the respiratory system; the female migrants also showed an intermediate rate for deaths due to diseases of the circulatory system. For the other causes, the lowest risk of dying was that registered for the issei population. The comparisons of the rates for cancers of stomach, breast, prostate, diabetes mellitus, ischaemic heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, homicide and suicide resulted in the detection of a possible transition experienced by the issei population, leading to the belief that the issei pattern of mortality is showing a deviation from the Japanese pattern and resembles that of S. Paulo. Since social and cultural changes are thought to be occurring among the migrants, one might argue that the role of environmental factors (including diet) is more important than the role of genetic factors in the incidence of and mortality due to these diseases.

  7. Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Karina Camasmie; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri

    2016-07-11

    Epidemiological research suggests that air pollution may cause chronic diseases, as well as exacerbation of related pathologies such as cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates air pollution scenarios considering a Health Impact Assessment approach in São Paulo, Brazil. We have analyzed abatement scenarios of Particulate Matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter health effects on respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the period from 2009 to 2011 through the APHEKOM tool, as well as the associated health costs. Considering World Health Organization (WHO) standards of PM2.5 (10 μg/m³), São Paulo would avoid more than 5012 premature deaths (equivalent to 266,486 life years' gain) and save US$15.1 billion annually. If São Paulo could even diminish the mean of PM2.5 by 5 μg/m³, nearly 1724 deaths would be avoided, resulting in a gain of US$ 4.96 billion annually. Reduced levels of PM10, PM2.5 and ozone could save lives and an impressive amount of money in a country where economic resources are scarce. Moreover, the reduced levels of air pollution would also lower the demand for hospital care, since hospitalizations would diminish. In this sense, Brazil should urgently adopt WHO air pollution standards in order to improve the quality of life of its population.

  8. Cycling in São Paulo, Brazil (1997–2012: Correlates, time trends and health consequences

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    Thiago Hérick Sá

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to describe cyclists and cycling trips, and to explore correlates, time trends and health consequences of cycling in São Paulo, Brazil from 1997 to 2012. Cross-sectional analysis using repeated São Paulo Household Travel Surveys (HTS. At all time periods cycling was a minority travel mode in São Paulo (1174 people with cycling trips out of 214,719 people. Poisson regressions for individual correlates were estimated using the entire 2012 HTS sample. Men were six times more likely to cycle than women. We found rates of bicycle use rising over time among the richest quartile but total cycling rates dropped from 1997 to 2012 due to decreasing rates among the poor. Harms from air pollution would negate benefits from physical activity through cycling only at 1997 air pollution levels and at very high cycling levels (≥9 h of cycling per day. Exposure-based road injury risk decreased between 2007 and 2012, from 0.76 to 0.56 cyclist deaths per 1000 person-hours travelled. Policies to reduce spatial segregation, measures to tackle air pollution, improvements in dedicated cycling infrastructure, and integrating the bicycle with the public transport system in neighborhoods of all income levels could make cycling safer and prevent more individuals from abandoning the cycling mode in São Paulo.

  9. Cycling in São Paulo, Brazil (1997-2012): Correlates, time trends and health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Thiago Hérick; Duran, Ana Clara; Tainio, Marko; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto; Woodcock, James

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe cyclists and cycling trips, and to explore correlates, time trends and health consequences of cycling in São Paulo, Brazil from 1997 to 2012. Cross-sectional analysis using repeated São Paulo Household Travel Surveys (HTS). At all time periods cycling was a minority travel mode in São Paulo (1174 people with cycling trips out of 214,719 people). Poisson regressions for individual correlates were estimated using the entire 2012 HTS sample. Men were six times more likely to cycle than women. We found rates of bicycle use rising over time among the richest quartile but total cycling rates dropped from 1997 to 2012 due to decreasing rates among the poor. Harms from air pollution would negate benefits from physical activity through cycling only at 1997 air pollution levels and at very high cycling levels (≥ 9 h of cycling per day). Exposure-based road injury risk decreased between 2007 and 2012, from 0.76 to 0.56 cyclist deaths per 1000 person-hours travelled. Policies to reduce spatial segregation, measures to tackle air pollution, improvements in dedicated cycling infrastructure, and integrating the bicycle with the public transport system in neighborhoods of all income levels could make cycling safer and prevent more individuals from abandoning the cycling mode in São Paulo.

  10. Nota sobre leishmaniose tegumentar no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Cutaneous leishmaniasis at the South Coastal region of the S. Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a existência de área endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar na região Sul do litoral do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Descrevem-se 17 casos a maioria dos quais foram diagnosticados parasitologicamente. As características observadas permitem supor a possibilidade de transmissão intradomiciliar.An endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the South Coastal region of S. Paulo State, Brazil, is reported. Seventeen cases were found and diagnostic was made mainly through parasitologic evidences. Probability of local intradomiciliary transmission is suspected.

  11. NO2 emissions from agricultural burning in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Clive; Tsanev, Vitchko I; Allen, Andrew G; McGonigle, Andrew J S; Cardoso, Arnaldo A; Wiatr, Antony; Paterlini, Willian; Dias, Cristine de Mello

    2004-09-01

    We report here on the application of a compact ultraviolet spectrometer to measurement of NO2 emissions from sugar cane field burns in São Paulo, Brazil. The time-resolved NO2 emission from a 10 ha plot peaked at about 240 g (NO2) s(-1), and amounted to a total yield of approximately 50 kg of N, or about 0.5 g (N) m(-2). Emission of N as NOx (i.e., NO + NO2) was estimated at 2.5 g (N) m(-2), equivalent to 30% of applied fertilizer nitrogen. The corresponding annual emission of NOx nitrogen from São Paulo State sugar cane burning was >45 Gg N. In contrast to mechanized harvesting, which does not require prior burning of the crop, manual harvesting with burning acts to recycle nitrogen into surface soils and ecosystems.

  12. [The decentralization and municipalization of health services in Säo Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, O A; Yunes, J; Chorny, A H

    1994-05-01

    The health system in Brazil has undergone profound changes since the 1980s. In the state of São Paulo, the processes of decentralization to the municipio and regional levels, as well as integration of health services, began in 1983. This study describes the strategies adopted by the Ministry of Health of the state of São Paulo to implement these processes and create 65 regional health offices, and discusses the role of these offices in the new unified health system. It is concluded that decentralization has resulted in increased local government participation in financing the health system, that production of medical and community health services has grown, and that health indicators have improved.

  13. Mortality from asthma in the state of S. Paulo, Brazil (1970-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Andrade Lotufo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Mortality from asthma has shown important variations over time in several countries. In Brazil, a mortality study performed in the 60s, covering the cities of S.Paulo and Ribeirão Preto, and other ten cities showed that S.Paulo presented the lowest death rate from asthma among of them all. It was decided to study the time trends of deaths from asthma and from the whole set of respiratory diseases from 1970 to 1992, in the population aged 15-34 yrs. old in the State of S.Paulo, as well as to compare them with those of other countries. Asthma mortality rates during the 23 years of observation since 1975, showed an oscillatory declining pattern with a peak of deaths in the initial years. The linearization of the curve allows the calculation of Pearson's correlation coefficient that was significantly negative, suggesting a decline in the mortality over this period, mainly in the 5-9 yrs. old and 30-34 yrs. old strata. The segmentation of data between the period of ICD-9, 1970 to 1978, and of ICD-9, 1979 and subsequent years, shows that there is stability within each period, in all age-groups, except for that of 5-9 yr. olds between 1970-1978. Comparing the rates of the population aged 15-34 yrs. old for the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, with trends observed in 14 other countries, an intermediate pattern for the first triennial period (1970-1972 as well as for the subsequent triennial periods, emerges. A prevalence study of asthma, a follow up program meant for using emergency rooms and a surveillance of deaths due to all respiratory diseases and specifically to asthma are strongly recommended.

  14. Genotypic Characterization of Cryptosporidium hominis from Water Samples in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ronalda S.; Dropa, Milena; Fernandes, Licia N.; Carvalho, Terezinha T.; Sato, Maria Inês Z.; Soares, Rodrigo M.; Matté, Glavur R.; Matté, Maria Helena

    2011-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium has emerged as one of the most important water contaminants, causing waterborne outbreaks of diarrheal diseases worldwide. The small size of oocysts under the microscope and the possibility of changes in characteristics of oocysts, mainly in environmental samples, make the taxonomy of the genus difficult if morphologic characteristics are considered. This limitation encouraged the application of molecular methods to identify this microorganism. The aim of this study was to detect and identify by nested-polymerase chain reaction oocysts of Cryptosporidium present in water samples in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Water samples were concentrated through a membrane filter, DNA was extracted by using a standard technique, and both amplification reactions used forward and reverse oligonucleotides that were complementary to Cryptosporidium 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Thirty water samples from different sites of collection in the state of São Paulo were evaluated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 30% of the samples. By genoptyping, C. hominis and Cryptosporidium sp. were identified in recreational water and C. meleagridis was identified in surface water samples. This is the first report of C. hominis in environmental samples in Brazil. Although identification of Cryptosporidium is still a difficult task, molecular methods are essential for specific identification and are a helpful tool to aid to understand the epidemiology of this parasite in Brazil. PMID:22049036

  15. Teeth of Abelisauridae and Carcharodontosauridae cf. (Theropoda, Dinosauria from the Campanian-Maastrichtian Presidente Prudente Formation (Southwestern São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Furtado, M. R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Isolated theropod teeth referable to Abelisauridae indet., and Carcharodontosauridae cf., from the Campanian-Maastrichtian Presidente Prudente Formation of the western São Paulo State, Brazil, are described. They are compared to the Late Cretaceous Gondwanan theropod dinosaur teeth and their affinities are discussed. These teeth are significant because carnivorous dinosaur remains are poorly known from the Late Cretaceous beds of Western São Paulo State except for a few isolated elements.Se describen dientes aislados de terópodos referidos a Abelisauridae indet. y Carcharodontosauridae cf., procedentes de la Formación Presidente Prudente del Campaniano-Maastrichtiano, en el oeste del estado de San Pablo, Brasil. Los materiales son comparados con dientes de dinosaurios gondwánicos del Cretácico tardío, y cuyas afinidades son aquí discutidas. Estos dientes de dinosaurios carnívoros son significativos debido a que su presencia es pobremente conocida en el Cretácico tardío del oeste del estado del San Pablo, excepto por unos pocos huesos.

  16. Biomonitoring of air pollution in a mixed industrial/residential district in the region of Greater Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, A. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landschafts- und Pflanzenoekologie; Silva, M.D. da; Domingos, M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ecologia

    2002-07-01

    During a one year's study, bioindicator plants were used in order to monitor the air quality in a mixed industrial/residential district of the city of Sao Paulo do Campo in the metropolitan region of Greater Sao Paulo, Brazil. The percentage of ozone-induced injuries on tobacco Bel-W3 leaves was low except from the reference site located at the Botanical Garden at Sao Paulo. In exposed rye grass cultures (Lolium multiflorum), relatively high levels of lead and zinc were found particularly at sites influenced by industrial and traffic emissions whereas the foliar nickel concentrations remained low in the whole area. (orig.)

  17. Ticks infesting birds in Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio Claro, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Gustavo Seron; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Lopes, Ileyne Tenório; Costa, Luís Flávio da Silva; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we report tick infestations on wild birds in plots of the Atlantic Forest reforested fragments with native species and plots reforested with Eucalyptus tereticornis in the municipality of Rio Claro, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. A total of 256 birds were captured: 137 individuals of 33 species, in planted native forest; and 128 individuals of 37 species, in planted Eucalyptus tereticornis forest. Nymphs of two tick species were found on the birds: Amblyomma calcaratum and Amblyomma longirostre, the former was more abundant in the fragments reforested with Atlantic forest native species, and the latter in the fragment reforested with E. tereticornis. New host records were presented for A. calcaratum.

  18. Non-volant mammals from Nucleo Santa Virginia, Serra do Mar State Park, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study presents data on the composition and species richness of non-flying mammals in the northern part of the Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, called Nucleo Santa Virginia (NSV - around 17000 hectares of Atlantic Forest), Sao Paulo state, southeastern Brazil. The species list was based on ca. 660 km of line-transects, 25512 hours of cameras traps, 7740 trap. nights for small mammals, and 394 track-station. days, as well as occasional records and registers from local people (period 2002 t...

  19. Prevalence of malocclusion in schoolchildren in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cassiano Arashiro; Marsha Lisa Schlittler Ventura; Edson Yoshihiro Mada; Paulo Toshiro Uenshi; Jurandir Antonio Barbosa; Marcelo José Strazzeri Bonecker

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and types of malocclusion in schoolchildren in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.Method: Six hundred and sixty schoolchildren at three schools in the municipality of Campinas were examined. The age bracket ranged from 6.5 up to18.1 years (mean ± s.d. = 12.2 ± 2.3 years) The intraoral clinical exams were performed by four duly trained and calibrated dentists, consisted of visual inspection using only disposable wooden spatulas and millimetric...

  20. Physicochemical composition of Apis mellifera honey samples from São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Marchini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This research, developed with Apis mellifera honey samples from producers of São Paulo State, Brazil, has the objective of verifying how eucalyptus, wild flower, and orange honey samples would be clustered, based on physicochemical characteristics. All the orange honey samples and some wild flower ones formed distinct groups, thus confirming that the floral source interferes with honey characteristics. Eucalyptus and some of the wild flower honey samples were clustered together because of the great floral source variation in the latter ones. The characteristics that influence sample clustering are acidity and electric conductivity on the X axis, and total sugars and pH on the Y axis.

  1. A DECADE TREND OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollela, Valdes Roberto; Puga, Fernanda Guioti; Moya, Maria Janete; Andrea, Mauro; Oliveira, Maria de Lourdes Viude

    2016-11-03

    The aim of this retrospective study was to review all the notified cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in São Paulo State (Brazil), as well as to describe and discuss the clinical, microbiological and radiologic aspects in a single reference center, within the same state, from 2000 to 2012. There were 1,097 notifications of MDR-TB in São Paulo State over this period, 70% affecting men aged on average 38 years (10-77). There was a significant fall in the MDR-TB mortality rate from 30% to 8% (2000-2003 versus 2009-2012). The same trend was observed in the cases studied at the reference center. The number of notified cases increased and death rate reduced from 37.5% (2000-2005) to 3.4% (2006-2012). Among the 48 drug-resistant TB cases, 17 non-tuberculous Mycobacteria were isolated in the sputum culture of nine patients, without any clinical significance. TB and fungus co-infection was diagnosed in 15% (7/48) of these cases: three with confirmed chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and four with positive serological markers for paracoccidioidomycosis. Overall, the reports show that MDR-TB diagnosis and cure rates have increased, while the mortality rate has decreased significantly in São Paulo State including in the studied reference center.

  2. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2008. Calendar year 2007; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo 2008. Ano base 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regionalized and environmental information. It covers the period of 1994 to 2007 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy.

  3. Photovoltaic plants of PRODEEM, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil and a proposal for regional organization; Instalacoes fotovoltaicas do PRODEEM - Sao Paulo e uma proposta de organizacao regional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maria Julita Guerra; Campos, Ubirajara Sampaio de [Secretaria de Estado de Energia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents an overview on the Photovoltaic Systems for Water Pumping in Temporary Settlements in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil project, submitted for approval of the Brazilian PRODEEM (Program for the Energetic Development of States and Municipal Districts). This project aims the electric power viability for rural workers settlement in the Pontal do Parapanema region, providing the water supply for families and cattle.

  4. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2009. Calendar year 2008.; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo 2009. Ano base 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regional and environmental information. It covers the period of 1995 to 2008 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy

  5. Exercise of essential competencies for midwifery care by nurses in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narchi, Nadia Zanon

    2011-02-01

    GENERAL OBJECTIVE: to analyse the exercise of essential competencies for midwifery care by nurses and/or midwives in the public health system of São Paulo (eastern zone), Brazil. to develop a profile of the public health institutions and of the nurses and/or midwives who care for women before, during and following childbirth; to identify the activities performed in providing such care, as well as their frequency; and to specify the possible obstacles or difficulties encountered by them when exercising their competencies. a descriptive and exploratory research design, using a quantitative approach. the study was conducted in all public health services of São Paulo (eastern zone), Brazil, namely 59 basic health-care units and six hospitals, during the period of October 2006-December 2007. the study population consisted of 272 nurses and/or midwives who provide care for pregnant women and newborns at the primary health-care units and maternity hospitals of the public health system. Participants comprised 100% of hospital nurse coordinators (n=6), 61% of hospital maternity nursing and/or midwifery staff (n=62) and 64% (n=204) of nursing and/or midwifery staff working at primary health-care units. the data collection was based on a single form given to the coordinators and two questionnaires, one handed out to antenatal and postnatal nursing and/or midwifery staff and another handed out to labour and birth nursing and/or midwifery staff. The results showed that nurses and/or midwives providing care for women during pregnancy, labour, birth and the postnatal period did not put the essential competencies for midwifery care into practice, because they encountered institutional barriers and personal resistance, and lacked protocols based on best practice and on the exercise of essential competencies needed for effective midwifery care. the model of care in the public health services of São Paulo (eastern zone) is based much more on hierarchical positions than on

  6. Compulsive sexual behavior and psychopathology among treatment-seeking men in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanavino, Marco de Tubino; Ventuneac, Ana; Abdo, Carmita Helena Najjar; Tavares, Hermano; do Amaral, Maria Luiza Sant'ana; Messina, Bruna; dos Reis, Sirlene Caramello; Martins, João Paulo Lian Branco; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2013-10-30

    This study examined compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) and psychopathology in a treatment-seeking sample of men in São Paulo, Brazil. Eighty-six men (26% gay, 17% bisexual, 57% heterosexual) who met diagnostic criteria for excessive sexual drive and sexual addiction completed assessments consisting of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Clinical Version (segment for Impulse Control Disorder), Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), and questions about problematic CSB. The average SCS score for our sample was above the cut-off score reported in other studies, and 72% of the sample presented at least one Axis I psychiatric diagnosis. There were no differences among gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men on SCS scores and psychiatric conditions, but gay and bisexual men were more likely than heterosexual men to report casual sex and sex with multiple casual partners as problematic behaviors. SCS scores were associated with psychiatric co-morbidities, mood disorder, and suicide risk, but diagnosis of a mood disorder predicted higher SCS scores in a regression analysis. The study provides important data on the mental health needs of men with CSB in São Paulo, Brazil.

  7. Association of Overweight with Food Portion Size among Adults of São PauloBrazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Aline; Crispim, Sandra Patricia; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-01-01

    Background Although studies show that portion size affects energy intake, few have demonstrated a link between portion size and weight status, especially in free-living populations. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between food portion sizes and overweight in a representative population of adults of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional population-based study with 1005 adults from São Paulo, Brazil. Dietary data were obtained from two 24-hour recalls. Reported foods were classified into groups and energy contribution, prevalence of consumers and portion sizes were calculated. Individuals were classified according to BMI in with and without overweight. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between food portion sizes and being overweight. Results The most consumed food groups were: beans, breads/rolls, coffee/tea, milk, rice, and sugar. Rice, red meat, breads/rolls, and white meat were the groups with the highest percentage of contribution to total energy intake. Butter/margarine, toasts/biscuits, sugar, and cakes were the groups with the highest energy density. After adjustment for confounding variables, overweight was associated with larger portions of pizza (OR = 1.052; p = 0.048), red meat (OR = 1.025; p = 0.043), rice (OR = 1.033; prelated to the consumption of larger portion sizes of a series of food groups, not a food group alone. Additionally, we highlight the importance of considering underreporting as a confounding factor in these associations. PMID:27706222

  8. Vegetarianism and Eating Disorder Risk Behavior in Adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla CP Estima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate eating disorders risk behaviors and unhealthy weight control practices among adolescents who consider themselves as vegetarians and those who are omnivorous.Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 technical schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample included 1167 adolescents (51% female, aged 14 to 19 (mean age, 16. Adolescents stated whether they  were currently vegetarian, and the sample was dichotomized as vegetarian and non-vegetarian. The two groups were compared as regards weight status, eating disorder risk behavior, unhealthy weight control methods and the perception of healthy eating.Results: About 4% of the sample was currently vegetarian, most of them female (70.8%, and females were 2.89 times more likely to be vegetarian than males. No relationship was found between the vegetarian status and unhealthy weight control behavior; however the vegetarian group considered their diet to be healthier than the non-vegetarian group (P=.04.Conclusions: The frequency of vegetarianism, as well the frequency of eating disorder risk behaviors had no association in this adolescent sample from São Paulo, Brazil.

  9. Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Camasmie Abe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological research suggests that air pollution may cause chronic diseases, as well as exacerbation of related pathologies such as cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates air pollution scenarios considering a Health Impact Assessment approach in São Paulo, Brazil. We have analyzed abatement scenarios of Particulate Matter (PM with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10, <2.5 μm (PM2.5 and ozone concentrations and the health effects on respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the period from 2009 to 2011 through the APHEKOM tool, as well as the associated health costs. Considering World Health Organization (WHO standards of PM2.5 (10 μg/m3, São Paulo would avoid more than 5012 premature deaths (equivalent to 266,486 life years’ gain and save US$15.1 billion annually. If São Paulo could even diminish the mean of PM2.5 by 5 μg/m3, nearly 1724 deaths would be avoided, resulting in a gain of US$ 4.96 billion annually. Reduced levels of PM10, PM2.5 and ozone could save lives and an impressive amount of money in a country where economic resources are scarce. Moreover, the reduced levels of air pollution would also lower the demand for hospital care, since hospitalizations would diminish. In this sense, Brazil should urgently adopt WHO air pollution standards in order to improve the quality of life of its population.

  10. Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Karina Camasmie; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological research suggests that air pollution may cause chronic diseases, as well as exacerbation of related pathologies such as cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates air pollution scenarios considering a Health Impact Assessment approach in São Paulo, Brazil. We have analyzed abatement scenarios of Particulate Matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10), <2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ozone concentrations and the health effects on respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the period from 2009 to 2011 through the APHEKOM tool, as well as the associated health costs. Considering World Health Organization (WHO) standards of PM2.5 (10 μg/m3), São Paulo would avoid more than 5012 premature deaths (equivalent to 266,486 life years’ gain) and save US$15.1 billion annually. If São Paulo could even diminish the mean of PM2.5 by 5 μg/m3, nearly 1724 deaths would be avoided, resulting in a gain of US$ 4.96 billion annually. Reduced levels of PM10, PM2.5 and ozone could save lives and an impressive amount of money in a country where economic resources are scarce. Moreover, the reduced levels of air pollution would also lower the demand for hospital care, since hospitalizations would diminish. In this sense, Brazil should urgently adopt WHO air pollution standards in order to improve the quality of life of its population. PMID:27409629

  11. Statistical innovations improve prevalence estimates of nutrient risk populations: applications in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Juliana Masami; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake and excess sodium intake among adults age 19 years and older in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall and sociodemographic data were collected from each participant (n=1,663) in a cross-sectional study, Inquiry of Health of São Paulo, of a representative sample of the adult population of the city of São Paulo in 2003 (ISA-2003). The variability in intake was measured through two replications of the 24-hour recall in a subsample of this population in 2007 (ISA-2007). Usual intake was estimated by the PC-SIDE program (version 1.0, 2003, Department of Statistics, Iowa State University), which uses an approach developed by Iowa State University. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy was calculated using the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method for vitamins A and C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, copper, phosphorus, and selenium. For vitamin D, pantothenic acid, manganese, and sodium, the proportion of individuals with usual intake equal to or more than the Adequate Intake value was calculated. The percentage of individuals with intake equal to more than the Tolerable Upper Intake Level was calculated for sodium. The highest prevalence of inadequacy for males and females, respectively, occurred for vitamin A (67% and 58%), vitamin C (52% and 62%), thiamin (41% and 50%), and riboflavin (29% and 19%). The adjustment for the within-person variation presented lower prevalence of inadequacy due to removal of within-person variability. All adult residents of São Paulo had excess sodium intake, and the rates of nutrient inadequacy were high for certain key micronutrients.

  12. FLOATING COMMUNITIES OF ALGAE IN AN ARTIFICIAL POND IN THE PARQUE DO ESTADO, SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos Bicudo, C E; Teixeira Bicudo, R M

    1967-12-01

    A fresluvater floating algal community was repeatedly observed in an artificial pond in the Parque do Estado São Paulo, Brazil. The ontogeny and composition of the community are discussed and are related to oxygen liberation during photosynthesis of the periphyton, or of the pond-bottom algne, which carries up portions of the algae growing there.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Mayaro Virus Imported from the Amazon Basin to São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Mânlio Tasso Oliveira; Vedovello, Danila; Estofolete, Cassia; Malossi, Camila Dantas; Araújo, João Pessoa; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda

    2015-11-25

    Mayaro (MAYV) is a neglected arbovirus from the tropical Americas. Here, we report the complete genome of an MAYV isolate from a patient returning from the Amazon basin and complaining of arthralgia, high fever, and headache, who was attended at an emergency service of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil.

  14. Dogs and Opossums Positive for Vaccinia Virus during Outbreak Affecting Cattle and Humans, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Marina G; Barros, Claudenice B; Appolinário, Camila M; Antunes, João M A P; Mioni, Mateus S R; Bacchiega, Thais S; Allendorf, Susan D; Vicente, Acácia F; Fonseca, Clóvis R; Megid, Jane

    2016-02-01

    During a vaccinia virus (VACV) outbreak in São Paulo State, Brazil, blood samples were collected from cows, humans, other domestic animals, and wild mammals. Samples from 3 dogs and 3 opossums were positive for VACV by PCR. Results of gene sequencing yielded major questions regarding other mammalian species acting as reservoirs of VACV.

  15. SURVEY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ASSOCIATED WITH AUTOMOTIVE EMISSIONS IN THE URBAN AIRSHED OF SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP), Brazil, is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world (population 17 million, approx.) and relies heavily on alcohol-based fuels for automobiles. It is estimated that about 40% of the total volume of fuel is ethanol with som...

  16. Education, Training and Employment in Small-Scale Enterprises: Three Industries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. IIEP Research Report No. 63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Elenice M.; Caillods, Francoise

    Despite the prophecies forecasting their probable disappearance or annihilation, small-scale enterprises have persisted in the Brazilian industrial structure since 1950. To account for the survival of small firms in Brazil, specifically in the state of Sao Paulo, a study examined 100 small firms in three industrial sectors: clothing, mechanical…

  17. Leishmaniose visceral adquirida no Estado de São Paulo (Brasil A case of visceral leishmaniasis contracted in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Amato Neto

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi descrita a notificação de um caso de leishmaniose visceral em uma criança com dois anos de idade, tendo sempre residido em Capão Redondo, localidade situada na Grande São Paulo (Brasil. Apesar de transmissão congênita ou por transfusão de sangue ter sido cogitada, é provável que a infecção tenha decorrido de mecanismo habitual, consubstanciando ocorrência autóctone relativa do Estado de São Paulo.A case of visceral leishmaniasis in a two-year-old child who has always lived in Capão Redondo, situated in Greater S. Paulo (Brazil, was reported. Although congenital transmission or blood transfusion were considered, it is probable that the infection originated in the usual mechanism, thus constituting an autochthonous occurrence in the State of S. Paulo. The State Health Department was notified of the case in order that it could be investigated and necessary measures taken.

  18. Evolution of bacterial meningitis diagnosis in Sao Paulo State-Brazil and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Marques Salgado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial meningitis (BM is a severe disease and still represents a serious public health problem with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The most common cases of BM around the world, mainly in Brazil, have been caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. Bacterial culture is the gold-standard technique for BM confirmation, but approximately 50% of suspected cases are not culture-confirmed, due to problems related to improper transportation and seeding or previous antibiotic treatment. Immunological methods present low sensitivity and have possibility of cross-reactions. Real time PCR (qPCR is a molecular technique and has been successful used for BM diagnosis at Instituto Adolfo Lutz in São Paulo State, Brazil, since 2007. The incorporation of qPCR in the Public Health surveillance routine in our state resulted in diminishing 50% of undetermined BM cases. Our efforts are focused on qPCR implementation in the BM diagnostic routine throughout Brazil.

  19. Hepatitis B vaccination in adolescents living in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo Francisco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Viral hepatitis is an important public health problem in Brazil and around the world.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate vaccination coverage against hepatitis B in adolescents and to identify the associated factors and reasons for non-adherence.METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study with sampling by clusters and in two stages, carried out from records of 702 adolescents aged 11 to 19 years old, non-institutionalized, living in an urban area of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, in 2008/2009. The data were obtained from the Health Survey in the city of Campinas (ISACamp.RESULTS: The prevalence of vaccination (3 doses was 72.2%. An independent and negative association with the vaccine was observed for the adolescents who were not born in the municipality. The orientation of a health care provider was positively and significantly associated with vaccination. The main reasons for non-adherence were the lack of orientation and not considering the vaccine necessary. Socioeconomic factors, health behaviors and conditions did not restrict the access to vaccination, but the coverage was below the target established by the Ministry of Health in Brazil.CONCLUSION: Health education programs, addressing the importance of vaccination to prevent the disease; strategies to actively reach out adolescents that did not complete the schedule; as well as orientation from the health care professional about the benefits of the vaccine to the adolescents, parents and guardians can extend the vaccination coverage.

  20. Mundial FIFA 2014 en San Paulo y sus impactos: estádio arena Corinthians como equipamiento de ocio

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    Caroline Lopes de Paula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estimó que el Mundial de Fútbol de la FIFA en 2014 en Brasil debería agregar 183,2 billones de reales al (PIB brasileño hasta 2019, de los cuales 47,5 billones de reales se invertirían en infraestructura, costos incrementales de los turistas e incremento en el consumo de las familias. Doce ciudades ‑sede fueron elegidas para el evento, entre ellas San Paulo. A propósito de este cuadro se preguntó cuáles son los reales impactos para el sector del ocio y del turismo a partir del acontecimiento del Mundial 2014 en la ciudad de San Paulo, al respecto de los legados del estadio como un potencial equipamiento de ocio y sus reales contribuciones para el desarrollo para población local. El procedimiento metodológico fue realizado por investigación cualitativa exploratoria. El proyecto resultó en abordaje temático de sectores del ocio/ turismo, que por método presentado exploraron datos relativos al desarrollo del segmento temático de eventos.

  1. Precipitation diagnostics of an exceptionally dry event in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Coelho, Caio A. S.; Cardoso, Denis H. F.; Firpo, Mári A. F.

    2016-08-01

    The State of São Paulo in Brazil experienced in 2014 and early 2015 an expressive precipitation deficit, leading to drought conditions with impacts in water availability for public consumption, hydropower generation, and agriculture, particularly during austral summer. This study performs a detailed diagnostics of the observed precipitation during 2014 and early 2015 over a particular region of São Paulo State, which includes the massively populated metropolitan region of São Paulo. The diagnostic was designed to provide answers to a number of relevant questions for the activities, decisions, and strategic planning of several sectors (e.g., general public, media, and high-level governments). Examples of questions such diagnostics can help answer are: How much precipitation has the region received? Has the region experienced drought conditions in the past? When have similar drought conditions been observed in the past? What has been the observed precipitation pattern in the last years? How severe/rare were the 2014 and 2015 droughts? When does the rainy season typically start/end in the region? What happened during the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 rainy seasons? The performed diagnostics based on historical 1961/1962-2014/2015 records revealed that the 2013/2014 austral summer was a very rare event classified as exceptionally dry. Similar drought events were previously recorded but with smaller magnitude in terms of precipitation deficits, making the 2013/2014 drought event the driest on the examined record. In fact, the region has been experiencing a precipitation deficit pattern since 1999/2000. One of the contributing factors for the expressive precipitation deficit in 2014 was the abnormally early end of the 2013/2014 rainy season in the region.

  2. Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in São Paulo, Brazil Emergência de Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistente à fluoroquinolona em São Paulo, Brasil

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    Walter Belda Junior

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Continued monitoring of antimicrobial resistance patterns is essential in order for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD treatment to be effective. Gonococci isolates from 65 patients in São Paulo were submitted to susceptibility testing, and a decreased susceptibility or resistance to ciprofloxacin was observed in 8.7% of these patients, indicating that Neisseria gonorrhoeae fluoroquinolone resistance is emerging in Brazil.O monitoramento contínuo de resistência antimicrobiana é essencial para a efetividade do tratamento das Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis (DST. Gonococosisolados de 65 pacientes de São Paulo foram submetidos a teste de susceptibilidade verificando-se que 8,7% apresentavam susceptibilidade diminuída ou resistência ao ciprofloxacino, o que indica que a resistência da Neisseria gonorrhoeae às fluoroquinolonas é emergente no Brasil.

  3. Canal*Motoboy, São Paulo (Brazil: communication for social change

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    Alisson DIAS GOMES

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, reference media faces the alternative media propagation, which uses different means and it is based on the work of independent producers who target the information democratization in every possible format at no cost and created by «common citizens». The Canal*Motoboy, a project by the Catalan Antoni Abad, is an example of this kind of communication. He aims to consolidate an open structure in order to give voice to motoboys from São Paulo (SP, Brazil. After being properly trained and by using their multimedia cell phones, they register their routine on Canal*Motoboy website. This article analyzes the progress of this project, based on the communication for social change, once the right to freedom of expression, historically, has been expropriated from citizens on account of the expansion of communication conglomerates. The methodological approach will consist of observation and deep interview technique, as well as literature review.

  4. Enhanced degradation of metalaxyl in agricultural soils of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Papini Solange

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the effect of repeated applications on enhanced degradation of metalaxyl in two different agricultural soils used for cultivation of orange and lemon from Casa Branca and Itapetininga districts of São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from areas repeatedly treated with commercial ridomil 50GR for six successive years, and from other areas never exposed to this fungicide. At the laboratory, soil samples received a 14C-metalaxyl solution and its degradation was studied through radiometric techniques to measure biomineralization and recovery of extractable- and soil-bound products. Enhanced degradation was verified only in one soil, although partial degradation and mineralization of the fungicide were detected in both soils. The different rates and patterns of metalaxyl degradation in the soils were probably due to their different physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.

  5. Reproduction of a fish assemblage in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil

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    LM. Gomiero

    Full Text Available Fish reproductions were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira basins in the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça River, Lapa Stream, Passa-Cinco River, and Corumbataí River; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá Stream, Jacaré-Pepira River, and Água Branca Stream. A total of 12 bimonthly samples were made. Fish equipment included gill nets, purse seines, sieves, and traps. The main objective of this study was to characterize the fish assemblage regarding their reproductive biology and to compare these reproductive traits between both river basins. Most individuals with gonads in stage C (mature and in stage D (empty gonads were captured in the spring and summer. Multiple spawn and parental care were common strategies, which guaranteed offspring survivorship in unstable conditions.

  6. The first canine visceral leishmaniasis outbreak in Campinas, State of São Paulo Southeastern Brazil

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    Andrea Paula Bruno von Zuben

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Early detection of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL outbreak in animals is crucial for controlling this disease in non-endemic areas. Methods Epidemiological surveillance (2009-2012 was performed in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Results In 2009, Leishmania chagasi was positively identified in four dogs. Entomological research and three serological studies (2010-2012 were undertaken as monitoring measures; these approaches revealed a moderate prevalence of Leishmania present in 4% of the canine population. Nyssomyia whitmani and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the predominant species identified. Conclusions Detection of an AVL outbreak in dogs in an area with an evolving natural landscape containing sand flies is crucial for control programs.

  7. Reproduction of a fish assemblage in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

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    Gomiero, L M; Braga, F M S

    2007-05-01

    Fish reproductions were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira basins) in the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça River, Lapa Stream, Passa-Cinco River, and Corumbataí River; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá Stream, Jacaré-Pepira River, and Agua Branca Stream. A total of 12 bimonthly samples were made. Fish equipment included gill nets, purse seines, sieves, and traps. The main objective of this study was to characterize the fish assemblage regarding their reproductive biology and to compare these reproductive traits between both river basins. Most individuals with gonads in stage C (mature) and in stage D (empty gonads) were captured in the spring and summer. Multiple spawn and parental care were common strategies, which guaranteed offspring survivorship in unstable conditions.

  8. Suicide among physicians in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, across one decade

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    Hamer N. Palhares-Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To describe mortality by suicide among physicians in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, between 2000 and 2009.Methods:Secondary analysis of government mortality data. The variable of interest was “underlying cause of death”, specifically deaths classified by the ICD-10 as intentional self-harm (X60 to X84.Results:The analyses examined 2,297 declarations of death, among which suicide accounted for 50 cases, i.e., 1.7% of all causes of death. Women comprised 13.2% of the total sample and represented 24% of the death-by-suicide group, indicating an overrepresentation of women in the latter (p = 0.02. Deaths by suicide occurred on average 20 years earlier than deaths by other causes (46.8±14.2 years and 68.1±15.8 years, respectively; p = 0.001. There was a significant association between single and/or divorced status and suicide (p < 0.001. The average mortality rate during the study period was 4.2 deaths per 100,000 physicians registered with the Regional Board of Medicine of the State of São Paulo.Conclusion:Deaths by suicide occurred 20 years earlier than deaths by other causes. Medical institutions should develop strategies for the prevention and early detection of mental disorders and occupational stressors that elevate the risk of suicide among physicians.

  9. [Some perspectives for the analysis of health management in São Paulo State (Brazil)].

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    Ermel, Regina Célia; Bigio, Fernanda Martins; Evangelista, Aline Francine Raphael; Gomes, Maria Fernanda Pereira; Fracolli, Lislaine Aparecida

    2011-03-01

    The current study aims to reflect the changes made in Secretaria do Estado da Saúde de São Paulo (SES) (São Paulo's Health State Secretariat, Brazil) related to the theoretical management proposals. A brief bibliography research was done, in Lilacs and Scielo databases. Twenty two bibliography sources from the period of 1993 to 2007 were selected. The results have shown that the main trends in the management of public administration are represented by the separation between the political and administrative functions, distinction between state exclusive activities from the ones that can be accomplished by other workers, emphasis of procedure control to product control, clear result attribution, definition of rendering account forms, governability and governing. It has been concluded that the redefinition and direction of several functions of the SES' management allowed the continuity of the decentralization processes so that health actions coverage is enlarged and it makes possible the attention inequalities decrease and promotes the equality in the health processes through an articulated management between states and cities.

  10. American Visceral Leishmaniasis: Factors Associated with Lethality in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Geraldine Madalosso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To identify factors associated with death in visceral leishmaniasis (VL cases. Patients and Methodology. We evaluated prognostic factors for death from VL in São Paulo state, Brazil, from 1999 to 2005. A prognostic study nested in a clinical cohort was carried out by data analysis of 376 medical files. A comparison between VL fatal cases and survivors was performed for clinical, laboratory, and biological features. Association between variables and death was assessed by univariate analysis, and the multiple logistic regression model was used to determine adjusted odds ratio for death, controlling confounding factors. Results. Data analysis identified 53 fatal cases out of 376 patients, between 1999 and 2005 in São Paulo state. Lethality was 14.1% (53/376, being higher in patients older than fifty years. The main causes of death were sepsis, bleeding, liver failure, and cardiotoxicity due to treatment. Variables significantly associated with death were severe anemia, bleeding, heart failure, jaundice, diarrhea, fever for more than sixty days, age older than fifty years, and antibiotic use. Conclusion. Educational health measures are needed for the general population and continuing education programs for health professionals working in the affected areas with the purpose of identifying and treating early cases, thus preventing the disease evolution towards death.

  11. Hemosporidian parasites of free-living birds in the São Paulo Zoo, Brazil.

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    Chagas, Carolina Romeiro Fernandes; Guimarães, Lilian de Oliveira; Monteiro, Eliana Ferreira; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Katayama, Michele Viana; Santos, Stéfanie Vanessa; Guida, Fernanda Junqueira Vaz; Simões, Roseli França; Kirchgatter, Karin

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies addressed the diversity of bird Plasmodium and Haemoproteus parasites. However, a few have been carried out in continental avian hotspot regions such as Brazil, a country with markedly different biomes, including Amazon, Brazilian Savanna, Atlantic Forest, Caatinga, Pantanal, and Pampas. We present the first study on hemosporidian (Haemosporida) parasites in free-living birds from an Atlantic Forest fragment where more than 80 avian species have been reported. Within this area, the São Paulo Zoo locates, and it is the fourth largest zoo in the world and the largest in Latin America. A total of 133 free-living bird samples representing 12 species were collected in the zoo, with the overall hemosporidian prevalence of 18 % by PCR-based diagnostics. Twenty-four positive PCR signals were reported from four different bird species, including migratory ones. Columba livia, an urban species, considered nowadays a pest in big cities, showed 100 % prevalence of Haemoproteus spp., mainly Haemoproteus columbae. We discuss the epidemiological importance of new parasites introduced by migratory birds in the São Paulo Zoo area and the risk it poses to the captive species, which are natives or exotics. We also warn about the influence these parasites can have on the biodiversity and the structure of host populations by altering the competitive interaction between the free-living and the captive birds.

  12. Energy balance in the watershed of Ipê, Northwestern São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Feitosa, Diego G.; T. Hernandez, Fernando B.; Franco, Renato A. M.; Teixeira, Antonio H. C.; Neale, Christopher M.

    2016-10-01

    The region of Ilha Solteira, in the Northwestern of São Paulo State, has been undergoing significant changes in agricultural land use and cover since 2006, as pasture fields have been replaced by sugarcane crop. This drastic change can lead to a disturbance in the energy balance, affecting the local climate. The aim of this paper was to assess some parameters related to the energy balance of Ipê's watershed, that changed since no sugarcane cultivation in 2006 to 2,164 hectares in 2011, occupying 31% of the catchment area with this important energy crop for the economy and the environment of Brazil. This study was carried out using remote sensing combined with weather data and using the SAFER (Simple Algorithm for Retrieving Evapotranspiration) model applied in 9 Landsat images collected between 2003 and 2011. The results showed a wide variation between the components of energy balance and when considering only the sugarcane crop were verified the increase values of ETa (Actual Evapotranspiration), H/Rn (Sensible Heat Flux/Net Radiation), TS (Surface Temperature), Rl↑ (Emitted longwave), Rl↓ (Incidente longwave) and surface albedo after the sugarcane production over these years. On the other hand, the NDVI, λE/Rn (Latent Heat Flux/Net Radiation) and Rn values (data) decreased in the same period. Also there was satisfactory correlation between NDVI and ETa. The SAFER model showed satisfactory results for studies of energy balance applied in the Northwestern of São Paulo State.

  13. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Irene Ramires

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in scholars aging 12 to 15 years old, residents in the city of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: 1318 volunteers were enrolled in this study and examined in 18 public schools of the State of São Paulo. The examinations were performed in the schools' court by three dentists (with a Master's degree in Public Health, after toothbrushing supervised by another dentist. The teeth were dried with cotton pellets and examined under natural light by visual inspection, using an explorer as recommended by the WHO, a plane mirror and a tongue depressor. The Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF index was used for rating fluorosis. Intra and inter-examiner reproducibility was calculated and data were submitted to descriptive analysis. RESULTS: Approximately 36% of the children presented dental fluorosis, of which 28% was diagnosed as TF1 while the remaining received scores between TF2 and TF4. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dental fluorosis in Bauru is within the expected range, based on previous studies. Although fluoride is an important resource for caries control, its use must be adequate to the needs of each specific population.

  14. The structural molecular biology network of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    João A.R.G. Barbosa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the achievements of the Structural Molecular Biology Network (SMolBNet, a collaborative program of structural molecular biology, centered in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and supported by São Paulo State Funding Agency (FAPESP. It gathers twenty scientific groups and is coordinated by the scientific staff of the Center of Structural Molecular Biology, at the National Laboratory of Synchrotron Light (LNLS, in Campinas. The SMolBNet program has been aimed at 1 solving the structure of proteins of interest related to the research projects of the groups. In some cases, the choice has been to select proteins of unknown function or of possible novel structure obtained from the sequenced genomes of the FAPESP genomic program; 2 providing the groups with training in all the steps of the protein structure determination: gene cloning, protein expression, protein purification, protein crystallization and structure determination. Having begun in 2001, the program has been successful in both aims. Here, four groups reveal their participation in the program and describe the structural aspects of the proteins they have selected to study.Esse artigo descreve realizações do Programa SMolBNet (Rede de Biologia Molecular Estrutural do Estado de São Paulo, apoiado pela FAPESP (Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo. Ele reúne vinte grupos de pesquisa e é coordenado pelos pesquisadores do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS, em Campinas. O Programa SMolBNet tem como metas: Elucidar a estrutura tridimensional de proteínas de interesse aos grupos de pesquisa componentes do Programa; Prover os grupos com treinamento em todas as etapas de determinação de estrutura: clonagem gênica, expressão de proteínas, purificação de proteínas, cristalização de proteínas e elucidação de suas estruturas. Tendo começado em 2001, o Programa alcançou sucesso em ambas as metas. Neste artigo, quatro dos grupos

  15. Psychotropic Drug Use in Sao Paulo, Brazil--An Epidemiological Survey.

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    Maria Ines Quintana

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence of one month psychotropic drug use in São Paulo, Brazil, and to assess the gap treatment between the presence of mental disorders and psychotropic drug users.A probabilistic sample of non-institutionalized individuals from the general population of São Paulo (n = 2336; turnout: 84.5% who were 15 years or older were interviewed by a trained research staff, applying the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (CIDI WHO (depression, anxiety-phobia, OCD\\PTSD, alcoholism sections, and an inventory investigating psychotropic drug use during the 12-month and one-month periods immediately preceding the interview. Logistic models were fitted to investigate associations between psychotropic drug use as well as socio-demographic and clinical variables.The one month prevalence of psychotropic drug use in São Paulo was 5.89%, the most commonly used drugs were antidepressants (3.15% and tranquilizers (2.67%. A higher consumption of psychotropic drugs (overall, antidepressants and tranquilizers was observed among women (OR:2.42, older individuals (OR:1.04, individuals with higher levels of formal education (1.06, and individuals with a family (OR:2.29 or personal history of mental illness (OR:3.27. The main psychotropic drug prescribers were psychiatrists (41%, followed by general practitioners (30%; 60% of psychotropic drugs were obtained through a government-run dispensing program. Most individuals who obtained a positive diagnosis on the CIDI 2.1 during the previous month were not using psychotropic medication (85%. Among individuals with a diagnosis of moderate to severe depression, 67.5% were not on any pharmacological treatment.There is a change in the type of psychotropic more often used in São Paulo, from benzodiazepines to antidepressants, this event is observed in different cultures. The prevalence of use is similar to other developing countries. Most of the patients presenting a psychiatric illness in the

  16. Os abortos no atendimento hospitalar do Estado de São Paulo, 1995 Hospitalizations by abortion, 1995 - S. Paulo State, Brazil

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    Sara Romera Sorrentino

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora o aborto provocado no Brasil seja importante problema de saúde, é difícil conhecer a exata medida de sua ocorrência, em função da ilegalidade dessa prática. Com a disponibilidade das informações sobre as hospitalizações pelo Ministério da Saúde, tornou-se possível conhecer, ainda que de forma incompleta, o quadro dos abortos atendidos na rede hospitalar do SUS. O objetivo do estudo foi conhecer as 53.861 internações com diagnóstico de aborto entre mulheres de 10 a 49 anos na rede hospitalar conveniada com o SUS no Estado de São Paulo no ano de 1995, segundo o tipo do aborto, idade e local de residência. As internações de mulheres em idade reprodutiva no Estado de São Paulo, em 1995, representaram 37,8% do total das hospitalizações pagas pelo SUS, sendo que dessas 59,6% foram por questões ligadas à gravidez, parto e puerpério, dentre as quais os abortos representam cerca de 10%. Sua distribuição nas regiões da Grande São Paulo e Interior do Estado mostra que é maior a proporção aborto/parto entre as mulheres da Grande São Paulo do que do Interior (127,4 abortos a cada 1.000 partos na Grande São Paulo contra 90,9 no Interior. O tipo de aborto mais freqüente foi o aborto espontâneo (57,4% e a distribuição por idade mostra uma concentração entre os 20 e 29 anos, além de revelar que cerca de 20% deles ocorreram em adolescentes com menos de 19 anos.Despite the importance of the issue of abortion in Brazil, it is difficult to know the exact extent of the problem owing to the fact that it is an illegal practice. Information about hospitalizations from the Ministry of Health has helped an admittedly incomplete understanding of the situation with regard to abortions carried out in the SUS (Unified Health System hospital network. The objective of the study was to investigate the 53,861 hospitalizations diagnosed as abortion among women from 10 to 49 years of age in hospitals affiliated to SUS in the state

  17. Genetic characterization of St. Louis encephalitis virus isolated from human in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Cecília Luiza Simões dos Santos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The molecular characterization of SPH253157, a new strain of St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV, isolated in 2004 from the first case of human infection recognized in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is reported. The patient, presenting a febrile illness without neurological involvement, was hospitalized as a probable case of dengue fever. Genomic RNA was isolated from the supernatant of C6/36 cells infected with acute phase-serum specimen of the patient and the envelope gene was amplified by reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The complete nucleotide sequence of the envelope gene of this isolate was directly sequenced from the amplified products and compared with other Brazilian and American SLEV strains. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out under maximum likelihood criterion with outgroups both included and excluded. Outgroups comprised four flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis group. Phylogeny also included Bayesian analysis. The results indicated that the new SLEV isolate belongs to lineage III, being closely related to an Argentinean strain recovered from Culex sp. in 1979. It is concluded that there are at least 3 lineages of SLEV in Brazil.

  18. Clinical and epidemiological features of definitive and presumed loxoscelism in São Paulo, Brazil

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    MÁLAQUE Ceila Maria Sant'Ana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study analysed 359 proven or presume cases of loxoscelism seen at the Hospital Vital Brazil, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil, between 1985 and 1996. The spider was identified in 14%. The bites occurred predominantly in the urban areas (73% between September and February. Patients > 14 years were commonest inflicted (92% and 41% were bitten while getting dressed. Only 11% sought medical care within the first 12 hours post bite. Cutaneous loxoscelism was the commonest form presenting (96%; commonest manifestations were: pain (76%, erythema (72%, edema with enduration (66%, ecchymosis (39%. Skin necrosis occurred in 53% of patients, most frequently seen on trunk, tigh and upper arm, and when patients seek medical care more than 72 hours after bite. Local infection was detected in 12 patients (3%. Hemolysis was confirmed in 4 cases (1.1%. Generalised cutaneous rash, fever and headache were also observed in 48% of the total of patients. None of them had acute renal failure or died. Treatment usually involved antivenom administration (66%, being associated with corticosteroids (47% or dapsone (30%. Presumptive diagnosis of loxoscelism may be established based on clinical and epidemiological findings. Further investigations are required to prove the value of antivenom and other treatment schedules.

  19. Aflatoxin M₁ in raw milk from different regions of São Paulo state--Brazil.

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    Santili, Ana Beatriz Nappi; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Nunes, Raquel de Syllos Rosa; da Gloria, Eduardo Micotti; Machado, Paulo Fernando; Cassoli, Laerte Dagher; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia

    2015-01-01

    A total of 635 raw milk samples from 45 dairy farms, from three regions of São Paulo state - Brazil, were evaluated during 15 months for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). AFM1 was determined by high performance liquid chromatograph with fluorescence detection. AFM1 was detected (>0.003 µg kg(-1)) in 72.9%, 56.3% and 27.5% of the samples from Bauru, Araçatuba and Vale do Paraíba regions, respectively. The mean AFM1 contamination considering all the samples was 0.021 µg kg(-1). Furthermore, the concentration of AFM1 was quite different among Bauru (0.038 µg kg(-1)), Araçatuba (0.017 µg kg(-1)) and Vale do Paraíba (<0.01 µg kg(-1)) regions. Only three samples (0.5%) had higher contamination than the tolerated limit in Brazil (0.50 µg kg(-1)) and 64 samples (10.1%) had a higher contamination than the maximum limit as set by the European Union (0.050 µg kg(-1)). The estimated AFM1 daily intake was 0.358 and 0.120 ng kg(-1) body weight per day for children and adults, respectively.

  20. Milk microbiological profile of four dairy farms from São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Adna Crisleia Rodrigues Monção

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern in milk quality, milk production, and in animals’ welfare is in constant increase. Mastitis is recognized as the main disease affecting dairy animals because of changing in milk composition and reduction in milk production. In Brazil, the highest incidence of mastitis is related to infectious agents. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic microorganisms in milk produced by 60 cows from four dairy farms (15 cows/farm located at Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Milk samples from each teat were collected fortnight in sterile tubes, previously identified, during two months. In each herd 240 samples were obtained, except on the farm A, where an extra collection was done, in a total amount of 300 samples. On the farm A, the sampling was done in a period of transition between the dry and rainy season. On the farm B, samples were collected mostly in the season of high temperatures. On the farm C the collections were made over a period of heat and humidity. On the farm D, on a period of warmer temperatures and reduced rainfall. The isolation and identification of microorganisms were conducted at Laboratory of Milk Quality from Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, São Paulo, Brazil. Aliquots of 100 mL of milk were grown on plates with 5% sheep blood agar. After incubation, they were used for the production of catalase and Gram stain. Gram positive and catalase positive samples were classified as Corynebacterium spp. (Coryne.. Gram positive cocci and catalase negative samples were classified as Streptococcus spp. (Strepto.. Milk were then proceeded to coagulase test in rabbit plasma. Gram-positive cocci, catalase positive and coagulase-negative were classified as Staphylococcus coagulase-negative (SCN. Gram positive, catalase positive and coagulase positive samples were subsequently subjected to biochemical tests: mannitol salt agar, maltose, trehalose, and acetoin production. Strains that were positive for these tests were

  1. Socioeconomic inequalities in dental health services in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2003-2008.

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    Monteiro, Camila Nascimento; Beenackers, Mariëlle A; Goldbaum, Moisés; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2016-12-07

    Access to, and use of, dental health services in Brazil have improved since 2003. The increase of private health care plans and the implementation of the "Smiling Brazil" Program, the largest public oral health care program in the world, could have influenced this increase in access. However, we do not yet know if inequalities in the use of dental health services persist after the improvement in access. The aims of this study are to analyze socioeconomic differences for dental health service use between 2003 and 2008 in São Paulo and to examine changes in these associations since the implementation of the Smiling Brazil program in 2003. Data was obtained via two household health surveys (ISA-Capital 2003 and ISA-Capital 2008) which investigated living conditions, lifestyle, health status and use of health care services. Logistic regression was used to analyze associations between socioeconomic factors and dental services use. Additionally, trends from 2003 to 2008 regarding socioeconomic characteristics and dental health service use were explored. Overall, dental health service use increased between 2003 and 2008 and was at both time points more common among those who had higher income, better education, better housing conditions, private health care plans and were Caucasian. Inequalities in use of dental health care did not decrease over time. Among the reasons for not seeking dental care, not having teeth and financial difficulty were more common in lower socioeconomic groups, while thinking it was unnecessary was more common in higher socioeconomic groups. The Brazilian oral health policy is still in a period of expansion and seems to have contributed slightly to increased dental health service use, but has not influenced socioeconomic inequalities in the use of these services. Acquiring deeper knowledge about inequalities in dental health service use will contribute to better understanding of potential barriers to reducing them.

  2. Ethnicity and cutaneous melanoma in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil: a case-control study.

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    Olinda C Luiz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogeneous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe-Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03-8.77, Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41-8.57, a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05-8.93, or ≥ 2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06-7.47; eye color-light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14-3.84 and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22-9.58; pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21-6.49; no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03-9.22; and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03-3.19. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants.

  3. Ethnicity and Cutaneous Melanoma in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Olinda C.; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Gonçalves, Fernanda T.; Francisco, Guilherme; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Sanches, José Antonio; Gattas, Gilka J. F.; Chammas, Roger; Eluf-Neto, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogenous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients) regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe—Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03–8.77), Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41–8.57), a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05–8.93), or ≥2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06–7.47); eye color—light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14–3.84) and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22–9.58); pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21–6.49); no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03–9.22); and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03–3.19). Conclusions Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants. PMID:22558444

  4. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  5. Epidemiologia do câncer do esôfago em São Paulo, Brasil Epidemiology of cancer of the oesophagus in S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Antonio Pedro Mirra

    1982-02-01

    Full Text Available São examinados aspectos da incidência de câncer do esôfago para residentes no município de São Paulo, (Brasil, no ano de 1975. Dados coletados pelo Registro de Câncer mostram um coeficiente de 6,4 e 1,3 por cem mil homens e mulheres, respectivamente; quando padronizados pela "população mundial" os coeficientes são 9,2 e 2,0 por cem mil. As taxas do sexo masculino mostram que São Paulo está a um nível de risco maior do que outras três cidades brasileiras, com dados conhecidos, Fortaleza, Recife e Rio de Janeiro; no sexo feminino não há evidências de diferenças, a não ser possivelmente em relação a Fortaleza. As curvas de incidência específica segundo idade e sexo concordam com o padrão descrito por Higginson e Muir; valores para a inclinação do 1nI (incidência específica por idade nas idades 35 a 75 foram 5,7 para o sexo masculino e 4,4 para o feminino, ajustando-se uma linha reta. Os nativos de São Paulo apresentam uma menor incidência do que os nascidos fora da cidade; para as duas categorias de imigrantes brasileiros residentes de São Paulo, as incidências para homens são consistentemente altas. As razões masculino-feminino de incidência apresentam regularidade nos grupos brasileiros; entre os estrangeiros as razões são maiores.Aspects of the incidente of cancer of the oesophagus in residents of the city of S. Paulo, Brazil, for 1975, are examined. Data collected by the Cancer Registry yield a rate of 6.4/100,000 and 1.3/100,000 for males and females, respectively; when adjusted to the «world-population» the rates are 9.2/100,000 and 2.0/100,000. Male rates put S. Paulo at higher risk than three other Brazilian cities with known data, namely Fortaleza, Recife and Rio de Janeiro; for females there is no strong indication of differences, except in the case of Fortaleza. The specific age-sex incidence curves conform well to the pattern described by Higginson and Muir; values for the curves of 1nI (age

  6. Environmental benefits of replacing fuel oil by natural gas in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, S. [Sao Paulo State Gas Co. and Mackenzie Univ. (Brazil); Assuncao, J.V. de [Mackenzie Univ. and Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (Brazil) has a population 16.322 million people (1995 estimate) living in an area of 8,051 km2 with most of them concentrated in the city of Sao Paulo with 9.8 million people and 4.6 million cars. Although with an air quality better than some other Latin American megacities such as Mexico and Santiago do Chile, the air quality still exceeds the national air quality standards. In 2/17/1993 Brazilian Petroleum Company (PETROBRAS) and the Bolivian Petroleum Company (Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos -- YPFB) signed an agreement to bring natural gas from Bolivia to the south and southeast of Brazil. The end of the construction of the gas pipeline will be in 1999, and it will deliver 4 million Nm3/day of natural gas to COMGAS Sao Paulo State Gas Company. This amount will increase to 8.1 million Nm3/day by the year 2006, that will be sufficient to supply the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region market need at that time. In this study an estimate of the influence in the air quality was performed supposing the substitution of fuel oil by natural gas in industry and also in diesel buses. The results showed that there will be benefits in relation to sulfur dioxide, PM10, greenhouse gases and trace elements, and negligible effects in relation to NO{sub x}, NMTOC and carbon monoxide.

  7. Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Chiaravalloti, Francisco

    2016-08-11

    To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may contribute to the adoption of actions that aim to

  8. Epidemiological aspects of centipede (Scolopendromorphae: Chilopoda bites registered in Greater S. Paulo, SP, Brazil

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    Knysak Irene

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The lack of basic knowledge on venomous arthropods and the benignity of the clinical manifestations contribute to the centipede bite victims' not being taken to a treatment reference center, leading to underestimation of the number of cases and minimizing the possibility of a broader epidemiological view. An inventory of the centipede bite occurrences in Greater S. Paulo, Brazil, and the therapeutic methods employed, by the main Brazilian medical center for the notification of poisoning by venomous animals, is presented. METHOD: All patient cards of the period 1980-1989 have been checked as to place, month and time of occurrence; sex, age, affected part of the body, signs and symptoms have been observed, as well as the therapeutic methods employed. The centipedes that caused the accidents were identified at the Arthropods Laboratory. RESULTS: It was registered 216 accidents, with a 69% predominance of the Greater S. Paulo and in only 63% of the cases (136 was the agent brought in by the victim for identification. The genera most frequently represented were Cryptops (58%, Otostigmus (33% and Scolopendra (4%. Of the 136 cases, 87% showed erythema, edema, hemorrhage, burns, cephalalgia, and intense pain. There was a predominance of accidents in the warm rainy season, in the morning and for females between 21 and 60 years of age. Hands and feet were the parts of the body most affected. The benign evolution of the clinical picture (54% made therapeutical treatment unnecessary. Only the victims of Scolopendra and Otostigmus (46% were medicated with anesthetics (51%, analgesics (25%, antihistamines and cortisone (24%. CONCLUSION: The reproductive period of the centipedes, associated with their sinanthropic habits, contributes to the greater incidence of accidents in urban areas in the warm rainy season. Only patients bitten by Scolopendra and Otostigmus require therapeutical treatment.

  9. Epidemiological aspects of centipede (Scolopendromorphae: Chilopoda bites registered in Greater S. Paulo, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Knysak

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The lack of basic knowledge on venomous arthropods and the benignity of the clinical manifestations contribute to the centipede bite victims' not being taken to a treatment reference center, leading to underestimation of the number of cases and minimizing the possibility of a broader epidemiological view. An inventory of the centipede bite occurrences in Greater S. Paulo, Brazil, and the therapeutic methods employed, by the main Brazilian medical center for the notification of poisoning by venomous animals, is presented. METHOD: All patient cards of the period 1980-1989 have been checked as to place, month and time of occurrence; sex, age, affected part of the body, signs and symptoms have been observed, as well as the therapeutic methods employed. The centipedes that caused the accidents were identified at the Arthropods Laboratory. RESULTS: It was registered 216 accidents, with a 69% predominance of the Greater S. Paulo and in only 63% of the cases (136 was the agent brought in by the victim for identification. The genera most frequently represented were Cryptops (58%, Otostigmus (33% and Scolopendra (4%. Of the 136 cases, 87% showed erythema, edema, hemorrhage, burns, cephalalgia, and intense pain. There was a predominance of accidents in the warm rainy season, in the morning and for females between 21 and 60 years of age. Hands and feet were the parts of the body most affected. The benign evolution of the clinical picture (54% made therapeutical treatment unnecessary. Only the victims of Scolopendra and Otostigmus (46% were medicated with anesthetics (51%, analgesics (25%, antihistamines and cortisone (24%. CONCLUSION: The reproductive period of the centipedes, associated with their sinanthropic habits, contributes to the greater incidence of accidents in urban areas in the warm rainy season. Only patients bitten by Scolopendra and Otostigmus require therapeutical treatment.

  10. Air pollution and child mortality: a time-series study in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, G M; Miraglia, S G; Kishi, H S; Saldiva, P H; Singer, J M

    2001-06-01

    Although most available evidence relating air pollution and mortality was obtained for adults, pollution has been also associated with increased mortality in children, but in a significantly smaller number of studies. This study was designed to evaluate the association between child mortality and air pollution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1994 to 1997. Daily records of mortality due to respiratory diseases for children under 5 years of age were obtained from the municipal mortality information improvement program. Daily concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), inhalable particulate matter less than 10 microm in diameter (PM(10)), and ozone were obtained from the state air pollution controlling agency. Information on minimum daily temperature and on relative humidity were obtained from the Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics of the University of São Paulo. Statistical analysis was performed through generalized additive models considering a Poisson response distribution and a log link. Explanatory variables were time, temperature, humidity, and pollutant concentrations. The loess smoother was applied to time (in order to model seasonality) and temperature. Significant associations between mortality and concentrations of CO, SO(2), and PM(10) were detected. The coefficients (and standard errors) of these three pollutants were 0.0306 (0.0076), 0.0055 (0.0016), and 0.0014 (0.0006), respectively. The observed associations were dose dependent and quite evident after a short period of exposure (2 days). According to the proposed model and considering the mean of the pollutant concentration during the period of the study, the estimated proportions of respiratory deaths attributed to CO, SO(2), and PM(10), when considered individually, are around 15, 13, and 7%, respectively.

  11. The impact of antipsychotic polytherapy costs in the public health care in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Denise Razzouk

    Full Text Available Guidelines for the treatment of psychoses recommend antipsychotic monotherapy. However, the rate of antipsychotic polytherapy has increased over the last decade, reaching up to 60% in some settings. Studies evaluating the costs and impact of antipsychotic polytherapy in the health system are scarce.To estimate the costs of antipsychotic polytherapy and its impact on public health costs in a sample of subjects with psychotic disorders living in residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil.A cross-sectional study that used a bottom-up approach for collecting costs data in a public health provider's perspective. Subjects with psychosis living in 20 fully-staffed residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo were assessed for clinical and psychosocial profile, severity of symptoms, quality of life, use of health services and pharmacological treatment. The impact of polytherapy on total direct costs was evaluated.147 subjects were included, 134 used antipsychotics regularly and 38% were in use of antipsychotic polytherapy. There were no significant differences in clinical and psychosocial characteristics between polytherapy and monotherapy groups. Four variables explained 30% of direct costs: the number of antipsychotics, location of the residential facility, time living in the facility and use of olanzapine. The costs of antipsychotics corresponded to 94.4% of the total psychotropic costs and to 49.5% of all health services use when excluding accommodation costs. Olanzapine costs corresponded to 51% of all psychotropic costs.Antipsychotic polytherapy is a huge economic burden to public health service, despite the lack of evidence supporting this practice. Great variations on antipsychotic costs explicit the need of establishing protocols for rational antipsychotic prescriptions and consequently optimising resource allocation. Cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to estimate the best value for money among antipsychotics, especially

  12. AIDS risk-taking behavior during carnival in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, V; Stall, R D; Klouri, C; Barrett, D C; Arevalo, E I; Hearst, N

    1995-07-01

    The Brazilian Carnival is thought to be a time when the risk of HIV infection is likely to be high. We therefore compared the risk during Carnival to risk in the past month among male samba school participants in São Paulo, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 380 male samba school drummers randomly sampled during rehearsal for the 1993 Carnival in São Paulo by means of a 20-min interviewer-administered questionnaire. The main outcome variable was condom use with non-steady partners. The sexual behavior of 36.1% of subjects risked HIV infection, but only 9.7% of all subjects were at risk only during Carnival. Subjects with a sexual risk of HIV differed from those without risk in substance use, attitudes towards condoms and expectations about Carnival; those who were at risk only during Carnival did not differ from those who were at risk at other times. About half of the subjects had been given free condoms during Carnival, although few of the men at risk had actually used them. Though more than a third of the drummers were at risk of HIV infection, only a small per cent were at risk only during Carnival. The level of sexual risk of HIV infection is probably better explained by factors in the men's daily lives, rather than through information on risks taken during Carnival. These results raise questions concerning the efficacy of universal condom distribution during Carnival, since about half of the men were given condoms but few of those at risk actually used them. A targeted distribution of condoms to populations with a high demonstrated risk may be more effective in preventing new HIV infection.

  13. Mercury and selenium accumulation assessment in fish most consumed by Cubatao Community, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Curcho, Michel R.S.M.; Fonseca, Barbara C.; Nascimento, Soraia M., E-mail: lufarias2@yahoo.com.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao de Neutrons; Kunioshi, Leonardo; Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos nos Oceanos (LABNUT)

    2009-07-01

    High correlation between mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in fish organs is well known. In the present study, 58 fish samples of five fish species most commonly consumed by the Cubatao city population, Sao Paulo State, Brazil were analyzed. The Cubatao Estuary, located in southeastern Sao Paulo State, is an economically important area suffering severe environmental water quality problems due to industrial wastes, domestic sewage and solid residues. The waters of the bay suffer the impact of the immense industrial complex of Cubatao. In this study, Hg concentration in muscle, liver and kidney tissues and Se concentration in liver tissue from three predatory fish species: Macrodon ancylodon (Pescada), Menticirrhus americanus (Perna de Moca) and Micropogonias furnieri (Corvina) and two planctivorous species: Mugil liza (Tainha) and Sardella braziliensis (Sardinha) were determined. Mercury determination was performed using Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV AAS) and selenium by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The muscle-Hg concentration variation (wet weight) was: (8 to 40 mug kg{sup -1}) - Sardinha; (12 to 62 mug kg{sup -1}) - Pescada; (3 to 23 mug kg{sup -1}) - Tainha; (43 to 184 mug kg{sup -1}) - Perna de Moca and (41 to 348 mug kg{sup -1}) - Corvina. The general concentration ranges of the analyzed elements in all species studied were (dry weight): muscle-Hg (13 to 1512 mug kg{sup -1}); liver-Hg (21 to 1804 mug kg{sup -1}); kidney-Hg 47 to 9912 mug kg{sup -1}) and liver-Se (2.10 to 43.00 mg kg{sup -1}). Se concentrations were higher than those of Hg in the liver. (author)

  14. Nitro-PAH compounds in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabilia, R.; Cecinato, A.; Tomasi Scianò, M. C.; Vasconcellos, P.; Carvalho, L.; Mathos, L.; Franco, L.

    2003-04-01

    Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAH) are the chemical class with potent mutagenic compounds. These species are emitted from a wide range of combustion sources. Some compounds can be formed photo chemically via reactions of their parents PAH with OH or NO_3 radicals (in the presence of NO_2) in the gas phase as well as N_2O_5 or HNO_3 when parent PAH is associated with aerosols. In the tropics, an important source of particulate PAH and nitro-PAH is biomass burning used for clearings in forest and for making easier the harvesting of sugar cane. Brazil owns 25% of global sugar cane and is the major producer in the world. This burning produces soot, which remains for along time in the air and can cause respiratory diseases. This study was conducted in 3 cities in São Paulo State during sugar cane burning episodes. Back trajectories were calculated by University of São Paulo Trajectory Model for determination of air parcel trajectories over the sites. Atmospheric samples were collected on quartz fiber filters for 24 hours in high-volume sampler during one week. A Soxhlet apparatus filled with methylene chloride was used for extracting the filters. This residue was submitted to HPLC separation and the 3 obtained fractions (n-alkanes, PAH and nitro-PAH) were analyzed by both gas chromatography/flame ionization and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry detection. The isomers 2-, 3-, 8-nitrofluoranthene and 2-nitropyrene were identified and results show large differences between the sites. 2-nitropyrene/2-nitrofluoranthene ratios were calculated indicating the daytime reactions promoted by OH radicals.

  15. Diversity of ectoparasites in sheep flocks in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, N G; Amarante, A F; Padovani, C R

    2000-08-01

    The occurrence of ectoparasites in sheep flocks is frequently reported but seldom quantified. Sheep production used to be a predominantly family activity in the state of São Paulo (Brazil), but it began to become a commercial activity in the past decade. Thus, information about the ectoparasites existing in sheep flocks has become necessary. The present data were obtained by means of questionnaires sent to all sheep breeders belonging to the 'Associação Paulista de Criadores de Ovinos' (ASPACO; São Paulo State Association of Sheep Breeders). Response reliability was tested by means of random visits paid to 10.6% of the respondents. Most of the properties (89.5%) reported the presence of one or more ectoparasites. Screw-worm (Cochliomyia hominivorax) was the most frequent ectoparasite (72.5%), followed by bot fly larvae (Dermatobia hominis, 45.0%), ticks (Amblyomma cajennense) and Boophilus microplus, 31.3%) and finally lice (Damalinia ovis, 13.8%). Combined infestations also occurred, the most common one being screw-worm with bot fly larvae (36.0%) followed by bot fly larvae with ticks (13.9%), screw-worm with ticks (9.3%), bot fly larvae with lice (6.9%), and ticks with lice (5.0%). The most common triple combination was screw-worm, bot fly larvae and ticks (12.8%). Breeds raised for meat or wool were attacked by bot fly larvae and ticks more often than other breeds. Lice were only absent from animals of indigenous breeds. The relationships among these ectoparasites are discussed in terms of sheep breeds, flock size, seasonality and the ectoparasitic combinations on the host.

  16. Gross violation of human rights and inequality in city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotti, Caren; Freitas, Taís Viudes de; Almeida, Juliana Feliciano de; Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho

    2009-06-01

    To analyze the profile of gross human rights violations, and the relationship between these violations and socioeconomic and demographic indicators. Cross-sectional ecological study of 96 census districts of the city of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil) in the year 2000. The data used came from the gross human rights violations database maintained by the Núcleo de Estudos de Violência (Center for the Study of Violence) at the Universidade de São Paulo. This database contains information on all the cases of summary executions, lynching and police violence reported on the written press. Socioeconomic and demographic data were obtained from the 2000 Census carried out by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). A descriptive analysis of the data was carried out, and the association between the dependent variable - gross human rights violations (number of police violence victims, lynching episodes and summary executions) -, and different socioeconomic and demographic variables was tested. In order to test this association the Spearman's correlation test was used. The correlations between gross human rights violations and the socioeconomic and demographic indicators were statistically significant, except for the urbanization rate and the hospital beds per 1000 inhabitants. The strongest correlations were found between the dependent variable and the following variables: size of the resident population (r=0,693), proportion of youths aged from 15 to 24 years (r=0,621), and proportion of household heads with no education or with up to three years of schooling (r=0,590). Gross human rights violations more markedly occur in the population with the worst living conditions. Therefore, in a scenario in which inequality in attaining social and economic rights is directly superposed to the violation of civil rights, the violence cycle is intensified and perpetuated.

  17. [Dental fluorosis in children from São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, 1998-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvai, Paulo Capel; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Frias, Antonio Carlos; Soares, Maria da Candelária; Marques, Regina Auxiliadora de Amorim; Teixeira, Doralice Severo da Cruz; Frazão, Paulo

    2013-12-01

    To assess the trend of dental fluorosis prevalence in 12-year-old children, in the context of exposure to multiple sources of fluoride. An analysis was carried out of the trends in prevalence of dental fluorosis in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2010. The rates of prevalence were calculated for different years (1998, 2002, 2008 and 2010) using secondary data obtained from epidemiological surveys of representative samples of 12-year-old children. Occurrence of fluorosis was assessed in natural light using the Dean index, recommended by the World Health Organization and categorized into normal, questionable, very mild, mild, moderate and severe. In 1998, 125 children were examined, 249 in 2002, 4,085 in 2008 and 231 in 2010. In 1998 the prevalence of fluorosis was 43.8% (95%CI 35.6;52.8) in 2002 it was 33.7% (95%CI 28.2;39.8), it was 40.3% (95%CI 38.8;41.8) in 2008 and 38.1% (95%CI 32.1;44.5) in 2010.The categories very mild + mild totaled 38.4% (95%CI 30.3;47.6) in 1998, 32.1% (95%CI 26.6;38.2) in 2002, 38.0% (95%CI 36.5;39.5) in 2008 and 36.4% (95%CI 30.4;42.7) in 2010. Severe fluorosis was not observed, with statistical significance, in the analyzed period. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in children from São Paulo can be classified as stationary between 1998 and 2010, both when considering all categories, and when considering only the categories very mild + mild.

  18. Historical accumulation of Trace elements in sediment cores from Tiete river, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, S.; Rocha, F.; Baumgardt, D.; Martins, L.; Silva, P.; Favaro, D. [IPEN-CNEN (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Tiete River, with 1100 km of extension, is one of the most economically important river of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil and throughout its length can be found reservoirs formed by damming its waters. This river is considered one of the most polluted rivers in the world, especially when it passes through the city of Sao Paulo. As a result of pollution observed since the 1950's, a project was established with the aim of evaluating the historic concentration of the trace elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn (mg.kg{sup -1}), in sediment cores dated by {sup 210}Pb method, sampled is several points of the river, since its source in Salesopolis up the mouth, on the Parana River. This work presents the results obtained by the trace elements above determined in two sediment cores collected in reservoirs in the city of Salesopolis and Pirapora do Bom Jesus. The analytical techniques used for the analysis were instrumental neutron activation analysis and gross beta measurement, respectively. The results obtained for the elements Br, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Nd, Sb, Sm, Th and U are higher than the values of Upper Continental Crust and the sedimentation rate obtained for the reservoir in Salesopolis, 1.53 cm.y{sup -1}, suggest silting processes. The enrichment factor and the geo-accumulation index were used to assess the presence of anthropogenic sources of pollution. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  19. The sarsaparilla market in the state of São Paulo (Brazil) and the challenges of cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Soares,Marli K.M.; Martins,Aline R.; Ilio Montanari Junior; Figueira,Glyn M.; Zucchi, Maria I; Miklos M. Bajay; Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to present information about the sarsaparilla sold in establishments in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, assess the genetic diversity of Smilax brasiliensis Spreng., Smilacaceae, and examine the growing conditions and productivity of five species of Smilax. The amount of sarsaparilla sold per month at most pharmacies was 0.4 kg on average. Herbal stores and markets sold averages of 9 kg and 8 kg per month, respectively. The weight of the underground biomass of S. fluminen...

  20. Outbreaks of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (West.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) under field conditions in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenção, André L; Alves, André C; Fugi, Cristina G Q; Matos, Evandro S

    2008-01-01

    Trialeurodes vaporariorum (West.) is a pest of greenhouse vegetables and ornamentals and infests crops in Europe and in the American continent. In Brazil, just a few cases are known on economic crops, being all restricted to greenhouse crops. In 2003, in Itatiba and neighboring localities of State of São Paulo, Brazil, field infestations of T. vaporariorum were observed, mainly on tomato and green bean. So far, whitefly infestation in this area expanded to squash and kale also. Field studies are needed for determining interactions of T. vaporariorum with plants and natural enemies, injury levels, and methods of control.

  1. Giardiasis as zoonosis: between proof of principle and paradigm in the Northwestern region of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Aline Cardoso Caseca Volotão

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In order to evaluate the potential zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis, isolates from humans and dogs in the Northwestern region of the São Paulo State, Brazil were characterized based on the β-giardin gene. METHODS: The samples were analyzed by sequencing of the Nested-PCR products. RESULTS: The A1 and A2 subgenotypes were detected in human and dogs. Cysts of assemblage B, C and D have not been found in any isolates studied. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with the view that giardiasis in the largest endemic region of the Brazil should not be seen as a single entity.

  2. Oral mucosal diseases in children - casuistics from the Department of Dermatology - University of São Paulo - Brazil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erthal, Aline; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa; Nico, Marcello Menta Simonsen

    2016-01-01

    There are no studies about pediatric oral mucosal diseases performed by dermatologists in Brazil. This study presents the casuistics of oral mucosal diseases in children examined at the Oral Diseases Clinic at the Department of Dermatology - University of São Paulo - Brazil. Cases were retrospectively studied from the hospital records from 2003 to 2015. A hundredsix children have been examined. Commoner lesions examined included mucoceles and aphthae. Rare and difficult cases were also seen and have been published; this clinic is based in a tertiary hospital center that deals mostly with complex cases. PMID:28099620

  3. Tabagismo, abandono do fumo e os otorrinolaringologistas do estado de São Paulo Smoking, smoking cessation and otorhinolaryngologists in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Aracy Pereira Silveira Balbani

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Os otorrinolaringologistas estão diretamente envolvidos no diagnóstico e tratamento de doenças provocadas pelo cigarro, incluindo o câncer das vias aéreas superiores. É importante que os especialistas estejam capacitados a tratar o tabagismo e a dependência da nicotina. Também se sabe que há fumantes entre os próprios médicos. OBJETIVO: Pesquisar as opiniões e condutas de otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo frente ao tabagismo e à dependência química da nicotina, e avaliar o hábito tabagístico dos especialistas. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Corte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 600 otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo. A esses especialistas foi enviado, em março de 2005, por correio, um questionário padrão. Foram analisadas as respostas recebidas no período de março a maio de 2005. RESULTADOS: Foram recebidas 209 respostas. Nestas, 97 profissionais (46,4% avaliaram sua familiaridade com os meios de tratamento da dependência de nicotina como regular e 60 (28,7% como insatisfatória. Dos participantes do estudo, 144 (68,9% nunca fumaram, 50 (23,9% são ex-fumantes, nove (4,3% são fumantes ocasionais e seis (2,9% são fumantes. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de tabagistas na amostra de 209 otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo foi de 7,1%.Otorhinolaryngologists are directly involved in the diagnosis and management of smoking related diseases, including upper airway malignancy. It is important that the specialists have skills to treat smoking and nicotine dependence. It is also known that there are smokers amongst doctors. AIM: To assess the opinions and practices of the otorhinolaryngologists of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, concerning smoking and nicotine dependence, and evaluation of smoking habits of the specialists. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We randomly selected 600 otorhinolaryngologists of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A survey was mailed to

  4. Variability of HIV-1 genomes among children and adolescents from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Sabri Saeed Sanabani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic variability is a major feature of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and considered the key factor to frustrating efforts to halt the virus epidemic. In this study, we aimed to investigate the genetic variability of HIV-1 strains among children and adolescents born from 1992 to 2009 in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODOLOGY: Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were collected from 51 HIV-1-positive children and adolescents on ART followed between September 1992 and July 2009. After extraction, the genetic materials were used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR to amplify the viral near full length genomes (NFLGs from 5 overlapped fragments. NFLGs and partial amplicons were directly sequenced and data were phylogenetically inferred. RESULTS: Of the 51 samples studied, the NFLGs and partial fragments of HIV-1 from 42 PBMCs and 25 plasma were successfully subtyped. Results based on proviral DNA revealed that 22 (52.4% patients were infected with subtype B, 16 (38.1% were infected with BF1 mosaic variants and 4 (9.5% were infected with sub-subtype F1. All the BF1 recombinants were unique and distinct from any previously identified unique or circulating recombinant forms in South America. Evidence of dual infections was detected in 3 patients coinfected with the same or distinct HIV-1 subtypes. Ten of the 31 (32.2% and 12 of the 21 (57.1% subjects with recovered proviral and plasma, respectively, protease sequences were infected with major mutants resistant to protease inhibitors. The V3 sequences of 14 patients with available sequences from PBMC/or plasma were predicted to be R5-tropic virus except for two patients who harbored an X4 strain. CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of HIV-1 BF1 recombinant, coinfection rate and vertical transmission in Brazil merits urgent attention and effective measures to reduce the transmission of HIV among spouses and sex partners.

  5. Epstein-Barr virus infection and gastric carcinoma in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    L.F. Lopes

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a ubiquitous herpesvirus, and most people have serological evidence of previous viral infection at adult age. EBV is associated with infectious mononucleosis and human cancers, including some lymphomas and gastric carcinomas. Although EBV was first reported in lymphoepithelioma-like gastric carcinoma, the virus was also found in conventional adenocarcinomas. In the present study, 53 gastric carcinomas diagnosed in São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated for EBV infection by non-isotopic in situ hybridization with a biotinylated probe (Biotin-AGACACCGTCCTCACCACCC GGGACTTGTA directed to the viral transcript EBER-I, which is actively expressed in EBV latently infected cells. EBV infection was found in 6 of 53 (11.32% gastric carcinomas, mostly from male patients (66.7%, with a mean age of 59 years old. Most EBV-positive tumors were in gastric antrum. Two EBV-positive tumors (33.3% were conventional adenocarcinomas, whereas four (66.7% were classified as lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas. EBV infection in gastric carcinomas was reported elsewhere in frequencies that range from 5.6% (Korea up to 18% (Germany. In Brazil, a previous work found EBV infection in 4 of 80 (5% gastric carcinomas, whereas another study found 4.7 and 11.2% of EBV-positive gastric carcinomas of Brazilians of Japanese origin or not, respectively. In the present study, the frequency of EBV-positive gastric carcinomas is similar to that reported in other series, and the clinicopathologic characteristics of these EBV-positive tumors are in agreement with the data in the literature.

  6. Local Climate Zones Classification to Urban Planning in the Mega City of São Paulo - SP, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves Santos, Rafael; Saraiva Lopes, António Manuel; Prata-Shimomura, Alessandra

    2017-04-01

    Local Climate Zones Classification to Urban Planning in the Mega city of São Paulo - SP, Brazil Tropical megacities have presented a strong trend in growing urban. Urban management in megacities has as one of the biggest challenges is the lack of integration of urban climate and urban planning to promote ecologically smart cities. Local Climatic Zones (LCZs) are considered as important and recognized tool for urban climate management. Classes are local in scale, climatic in nature, and zonal in representation. They can be understood as regions of uniform surface cover, structure, material and human activity that have to a unique climate response. As an initial tool to promote urban climate planning, LCZs represent a simple composition of different land coverages (buildings, vegetation, soils, rock, roads and water). LCZs are divided in 17 classes, they are based on surface cover (built fraction, soil moisture, albedo), surface structure (sky view factor, roughness height) and cultural activity (anthropogenic heat flux). The aim of this study is the application of the LCZs classification system in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil. Located at a latitude of 23° 21' and longitude 46° 44' near to the Tropic of Capricorn, presenting humid subtropical climate (Cfa) with diversified topographies. The megacity of São Paulo currently concentrates 11.890.000 inhabitants is characterized by large urban conglomerates with impermeable surfaces and high verticalization, having as result high urban heat island intensity. The result indicates predominance in urban zones of Compact low-rise, Compact Mid-rise, Compact High-rise and Open Low-rise. Non-urban regions are mainly covered by dense vegetation and water. The LCZs classification system promotes significant advantages for climate sensitive urban planning in the megacity of São Paulo. They offers new perspectives to the management of temperature and urban ventilation and allows the formulation of urban planning

  7. A new Oligonychus and description of the female allotype of Oligonychus psidium Estebanes & Baker (Acari, Tetranychidae from Qualea grandiflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae in northwestern São Paulo, Brazil

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    Reinaldo J.F. Feres

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligonychus longipenis, sp.n. and the female allotype of O. psidium Estebanes & Baker, 1968 from Qualea grandiflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae is described. The male of O. psidium is redescribed in Northwestern São Paulo (Brazil. This is the first record for 0. psidium in Brazil.

  8. Migrant labor and wear-out in manual sugarcane harvesting in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Verônica Gronau; Corrêa Filho, Heleno Rodrigues; Silva, Alessandro José Nunes da; Laat, Erivelton Fontana de; Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; Silva, Fernando Oliveira Catanho da; Zangirolani, Lia Thieme Oikawa

    2012-10-01

    The scope of this paper is to describe the work of manual sugarcane harvesters, assessing the nutritional behavior and body composition between the beginning and the end of the harvest. A descriptive longitudinal study was made of harvesters in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil, who answered a socio-demographic questionnaire and authorized measurement of Body Mass Index, Body Fat Percentage and Arm Muscle Circumference at three stages. Creatine kinase on the skeletal isoform, C-reactive protein and plasma urea were measured at the end of the harvest. Thirty male migrant harvesters with ages ranging from 18 to 44 from the Northeast (Ceará) were assessed over a nine-month period. The workers suffered significant body fat and weight loss in the first half of the harvest. Eighteen workers had abnormal levels of creatine kinase and four - out of 24 who had donated blood - had altered urea levels. Sugarcane harvesting work causes weight and body fat loss and gains in the lean body mass index, which suffers wear-out when working on consecutive harvests. It can also cause changes in biochemical markers of chronic systemic inflammation. Further studies will make it possible to comprehend the relationships between stress, wear-out, labor longevity and health in sugarcane harvesting.

  9. Corn Water Variables Assessments from Earth Observation Data in the Sao Paulo State, Southeast Brazil

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    Antonio Heriberto de Castro Teixeira[1; Femando Braz Tangerino Hemandez[2; Ricardo Guimaraes Andrade[1; Janice Freitas Leivas[1; Daniel de Castro Victoria[1; Edson Luis Bolfe[1

    2015-01-01

    Landsat satellite images and agrometeorological data were used together for modelling the crop coefficient (Kc) in irrigation pivots composed by a mixture of corn hybrids from a commercial farm for grains and silage, located at the northwestern side of Sao Paulo state, Brazil. After developing relationships between Kc and the accumulated degree-days (DDac) and having yield data for 2012 available, they were applied in the whole state, to upscale the crop water variables, during the GS (growing seasons) of a second-harvest crop from March to August. Spatial thermohydrological differences among the main corn growing regions were clear. The largest CWP (crop water productivity) values and SD (standard deviations) were for Itapetininga with an average value of 1.60 ± 0.43 kg m-3, while the lowest ones were for Presidente Prudente (0.81±0.21 kg m-3). As corn is important for these growing regions, being inside of the priorities from the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, these results should be considered for a rational exploration, including both, irrigation and rainfed conditions, as the actual water scarcity can bring much competition with other non-agricultural sectors.

  10. Health risks due to pre-harvesting sugarcane burning in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Maria Leticia de Souza Paraiso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available After 2003, a new period of expansion of the sugarcane culture began in Brazil. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw is an agricultural practice that, despite the nuisance for the population and pollution generated, still persisted in over 70% of the municipalities of São Paulo State in 2010. In order to study the distribution of this risk factor, an ecological epidemiological study was conducted associating the rates of deaths and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, for each municipality in the State, with the exposure to the pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw. A Bayesian multivariate regression model, controlled for the possible effects of socioeconomic and climate (temperature, humidity, and rainfall variations, has been used. The effect on health was measured by the standardized mortality and morbidity ratio. The measures of exposure to the pre-harvesting burning used were: percentage of the area of sugarcane harvested with burning, average levels of aerosol, and number of outbreaks of burning. The autocorrelation between data was controlled using a neighborhood matrix. It was observed that the increase in the number of outbreaks of burning was significantly associated with higher rates of hospital admissions for respiratory disease in children under five years old. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane effectively imposes risk to population health and therefore it should be eliminated.

  11. Schistosomiasis mansoni in Bananal (State of São Paulo, Brazil: II. Intermediate hosts

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    Horacio Manuel Santana Teles

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We conducted monthly snail captures in Bananal, State of São Paulo, Brazil, between March 1998 and February 2001, to identify Schistosoma mansoni vectors, estimate seasonal population changes, and delimit foci. We also evaluated the impact of improvements in city water supply and basic sanitation facilities. We identified 28,651 vector specimens, 28,438 as Biomphalaria tenagophila, 49 of them (0.2% infected with S. mansoni, and 213 as B. straminea, none of the latter infected. Vectors predominated in water bodies having some vegetation along their banks. Neither population density nor local vegetation could be linked to vector infection. We found the first infected snails in 1998 (from March to May. Further captures of infected snails ocurred, without exception, from July to December, when rainfall was least. Irrespective of season, overall temperature ranged from 16.5ºC to 21ºC; pH values, from 6.0 to 6.8. Neither factor was associated with snail population density. Frequent contact of people with the river result from wading across it, extracting sand from its bottom, fishing, washing animals, etc. Despite a marked reduction in contamination, cercaria shedding persists. Whatever the location along its urban course, contact with river Bananal, particularly of the unprotected skin, entails risks of infection.

  12. Evaluation of mercury, selenium and methylmercury in fish consumed by Santos Bay communities, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: lufarias@usp.br; Azevedo, Juliana de S.; Braga, Elisabete S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos no Mar (LABNUT)]. E-mail: juliana@io.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In the present study, mercury and selenium levels were evaluated in fish tissues and fish organs in the Santos Bay, Sao Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. Santos Bay waters are polluted by the large industrial complex of Cubatao. The estuary system filters part of this pollution before it reaches the Bay. Mercury and methylmercury determination were performed using Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) and selenium determination by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Methodology validation for the determination of these elements was carried out by means of reference materials analyses. There was no significant correlation between mercury and selenium concentrations (n = 17, (r2 ) R2 = 0.3482, p = 0.1709) in Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo)- Ariidae family and Centropomus sp. (robalo)- Centropomidae family livers. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in muscle from carnivorous species: Ariidae Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo), Scianidae Steliffer rastifer (cangoa) and Scianidae Paralonchurus brasiliensis (maria-luiza) were determined and discussed. Total mercury concentration in Ariidae Catharops spixii livers presented the highest Hg level (7.6 mg kg-1). Although the Santos Bay is less contaminated than the inner section of its estuary system (Cubatao), it presents signs of environmental impact. (author)

  13. Water quality in four reservoirs of the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Denise Amazonas Pires

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: This paper describes some limnological variables of four reservoirs with different trophic status (Billings, Guarapiranga, Jundiaí and Paiva Castro of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil, aiming to characterize the water quality in these reservoirs. Methods Water sampling occurred between October 2011 and September 2012, on subsurface, at the pelagic compartment. Physical and chemical characteristics of water were evaluated, and the Trophic State Index (TSI was calculated. Multivariate Principal Components Analysis (PCA was used to ordinate sampling sites and periods in relation to environmental data. Results Two reservoirs were classified as eutrophic (Billings and Guarapiranga, one as mesotrophic (Jundiaí and one as oligotrophic (Paiva Castro. The highest concentrations of total phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll a were recorded in the eutrophic reservoirs. The lowest values of dissolved oxygen concentration were registered at Guarapiranga reservoir. Residence time in Paiva Castro reservoir was very low (one day; on the other hand, the highest value was recorded in Billings reservoir: 428 days.

  14. Animal-assisted therapy in early childhood schools in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Amanda O. Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract: Since ancient times, humans and animals have interacted for different purposes. Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT is used for the assistance and treatment in humans and educational projects where animals are used as co-therapists or co-educators. The use of animals facilitates the process of teaching and learning, and stimulates physical and therapeutic activities. So that knowledge on AAT could be expanded, current study analyzes the opinion of people directly involved in education on AAT implementation as an educational model in early childhood schools in São Paulo, Brazil. Questionnaires were handed out to 10 pedagogical coordinators, 32 teachers, 23 parents and 26 children aged 3-6 years. Results revealed that AAT is not well-known for most interviewees, including pedagogical coordinators, teachers and parents. However, interviewees believe in the benefits of child-pet interactions and are favorable to the implementation of AATs in schools. Projects should be interdisciplinary and must involve professionals from other areas, such as psychologists and veterinarians. Regarding the educational model, interviewees believe in the innovation capacity of AAT and in the possibilities of interdisciplinarity among teachers in the use of animals. Research also demonstrated that children like and support the use of animals in the school.

  15. Prevalence of malocclusion in schoolchildren in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Cassiano Arashiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and types of malocclusion in schoolchildren in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.Method: Six hundred and sixty schoolchildren at three schools in the municipality of Campinas were examined. The age bracket ranged from 6.5 up to18.1 years (mean ± s.d. = 12.2 ± 2.3 years The intraoral clinical exams were performed by four duly trained and calibrated dentists, consisted of visual inspection using only disposable wooden spatulas and millimetric probes, performed in rooms provided by the schools, with good conditions of visibility and natural lighting. The criteria adopted for classifying normal and malocclusion were those stipulated by Andrews1, Angle2 and Maia3. Results: The data obtained indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the genders. Malocclusion was found in 87.4% of the schoolchildren examined, in agreement with the majority of Brazilian and International studies. Class I malocclusion was the most prevalent (39.7% among the schoolchildren examined, followed by Class II, with 36% of the cases, and there was higher prevalence of Class II division 1 (22.7% in comparison with Class II division 2 (13.3%. Class III malocclusion was present in 11.7% of the sample.Conclusion: There is high prevalence of malocclusion, irrespective of gender, in the studied population of schoolchildren. The most prevalent malocclusion was Class I, followed by Class I division 1.

  16. Soil functioning in a toposequence under rainforest in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Miguel Cooper

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of soil-water dynamics using toposequences are essential to improve the understanding of soil-water-vegetation relationships. This study assessed the hydro-physical and morphological characteristics of soils of Atlantic Rainforest in the Parque Estadual de Carlos Botelho, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The study area of 10.24 ha (320 x 320 m was covered by dense tropical rainforest (Atlantic Rainforest. Based on soil maps and topographic maps of the area, a representative transect of the soil in this plot was chosen and five soil trenches were opened to determine morphological properties. To evaluate the soil hydro-physical functioning, soil particle size distribution, bulk density (r, particle density (r s, soil water retention curves (SWRC, field saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks, macroporosity (macro, and microporosity (micro and total porosity (TP were determined. Undisturbed samples were collected for micromorphometric image analysis, to determine pore size, shape, and connectivity. The soils in the study area were predominantly Inceptisols, and secondly Entisols and Epiaquic Haplustult. In the soil hydro-physical characterization of the selected transect, a change was observed in Ks between the surface and subsurface layers, from high/intermediate to intermediate/low permeability. This variation in soil-water dynamics was also observed in the SWRC, with higher water retention in the subsurface horizons. The soil hydro-physical behavior was influenced by the morphogenetic characteristics of the soils.

  17. Perception of the value of generic drugs in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Elene Paltrinieri Nardi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of opinion-leaders, patients and their accompanying family members or carers about generic drugs. Three groups of participants were surveyed: (i 50 customers while they were visiting commercial pharmacies located in São Paulo city, Brazil, (ii 25 patients and 25 companions while they were waiting at the university outpatient clinic, and (iii 50 healthcare opinion-leaders from government, hospitals, health plans, academia, and pharmaceutical companies. The questions explored socio-demographic characteristics and perceptions regarding value attributes of generic drugs compared to brand name drugs. Respondents had an average age of 52 years and 53% were women. Respondents believed generic drugs to be cheaper than brand name drugs (97%, and 31% thought generic drugs to be less effective than brand name drugs. Also, generic drugs were perceived by 54% of respondents to be as safe as brand name drugs and 74% would prefer brand name drugs if there was no price difference. In conclusion, multiple factors may contribute to the decision to buy generic drugs; among these, perceived effectiveness, safety and price appear to be the most important factors.

  18. [Physical inactivity and associated factors in adults, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetta, Luane Margarete; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Carandina, Luana; Goldbaum, Moisés; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto

    2010-09-01

    To analyze the prevalence of overall and leisure time physical inactivity and associated factors and types of exercises or sports modalities according to schooling in 2,050 adults from 18 to 59 years of age - state of São Paulo, Brazil. Population-based cross-sectional study with a stratified sample of clusters performed in multiple stages. Physical inactivity was determined using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - IPAQ and by a question on the regular practice of leisure time physical activity. Data analysis took the sample design into account. Prevalence of physical inactivity during leisure was higher among women. Poisson multiple regression model in man indicated that overall sedentarism was lower among single and separated men, students and without car in the household. Leisure physical inactivity was greater among men over forty years, among those with less schooling and full-time students. Overall physical inactivity was more prevalent among woman with more schooling, with less qualified occupations and widows. Leisure physical inactivity decreased with age and schooling. Among modalities practiced for leisure, walking was more prevalent among women and football was more prevalent among men. Most modalities were directly associated with schooling; approximately 25% of the individuals with more than 12 years of schooling practiced walking. These results suggest that interventions and public policies to promote physical activity should consider differences in gender and socioeconomic status as well as the preferences for different modalities and the context in which the physical activity is practiced.

  19. Perception of the value of generic drugs in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Elene Paltrinieri; Ferraz, Marcos Bosi

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of opinion-leaders, patients and their accompanying family members or carers about generic drugs. Three groups of participants were surveyed: (i) 50 customers while they were visiting commercial pharmacies located in São Paulo city, Brazil, (ii) 25 patients and 25 companions while they were waiting at the university outpatient clinic, and (iii) 50 healthcare opinion-leaders from government, hospitals, health plans, academia, and pharmaceutical companies. The questions explored socio-demographic characteristics and perceptions regarding value attributes of generic drugs compared to brand name drugs. Respondents had an average age of 52 years and 53% were women. Respondents believed generic drugs to be cheaper than brand name drugs (97%), and 31% thought generic drugs to be less effective than brand name drugs. Also, generic drugs were perceived by 54% of respondents to be as safe as brand name drugs and 74% would prefer brand name drugs if there was no price difference. In conclusion, multiple factors may contribute to the decision to buy generic drugs; among these, perceived effectiveness, safety and price appear to be the most important factors.

  20. Ants as vectors of pathogenic microorganisms in a hospital in São Paulo county, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máximo, Heros J; Felizatti, Henrique L; Ceccato, Marcela; Cintra-Socolowski, Priscila; Beretta, Ana Laura R Zeni

    2014-08-20

    The present study aimed to identify and characterize the presence of bacteria carried by ants, and check the distribution of these ants in the physical confines of a medium-sized hospital in São Paulo county, Brazil. The ants were collected from March 2012 to February 2013. Attractive non-toxic baits were used to catch the ants, and the sectors considered for the study were medical wards, outdoor areas, obstetric unit, reception area, kitchen, surgical centres, paediatric clinic and intensive care unit. Captured ants were classified using taxonomic keys and subsequently immersed in Brain Heart Infusion broth. Paratrechina spp. and Monomorium floricola ants were found most frequently in the hospital. Ants had a high capacity for carrying bacteria, and the isolates comprised 68.8% Gram-positive, spore-producing bacilli (Bacillus spp. and Listeria spp.); 14.7% Gram-negative bacilli (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella spp.); and 16.4% Gram-positive cocci (Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus aureus). Among the areas being evaluated, the medical wards had the largest number of ants captured, and therefore the most bacteria. Ants in hospitals may carry both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and methods of controlling urban ants should be adopted and strictly adhered to, to minimize the risk of infection in hospital patients.

  1. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K estimate in edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Castro, Lilian Pavanelli de; Maihara, Vera A.; Moura, Patricia L.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: lilian.pavanelli@terra.com.br; vmaihara@ipen.br; patricialandim@ig.com.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: figueiraru@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, high levels of the radionuclide accumulation in different foodstuffs and the environment have being reported. The potential of mushrooms to accumulate fallout radionuclides in their fruit bodies have been well recognized. Mushrooms can also accumulate toxic elements in general, including natural radionuclides. In Southern Hemisphere countries, especially in Latin America, there are a few studies on this subject. In Brazilian literature, there are no studies that determine the composition of natural and artificial radionuclides in edible mushrooms. The objective of this study was to measure of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 40}K activity in commercialized edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The activity measurements were carried out by spectrometry gamma. The system detection efficiency was measured using the certified reference materials IAEA- 300 Marine Sediment and IAEA-375 Soil. The activities of {sup 13}'7Cs in the mushroom samples varied from 2.2 to 6.5 Bq kg{sup -1} for Pleurotus osteatus and Agaricus bisporus respectively. The {sup 40}K activities varied from 150 to 907 Bq kg{sup -1} for Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes, respectively. (author)

  2. Two variants of HIV-1 B serotype are transmitted heterosexually in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Casseb J.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 variability may have an important impact on transmission and pathogenicity. Better characterization of the HIV epidemic in Brazil is necessary for the development of vaccine trials in this country. We analyzed sera from 108 HIV-1-infected volunteers from São Paulo City to determine serotype and reactivity for V3 motifs of HIV in this population, and the relationship to transmission mode. We concluded that the HIV-1 B serotype is frequent among heterosexually infected women, even in the absence of anal sex, and that two major V3 motifs, GPGR and GWGR, had similar prevalence among women (48% and 52%, respectively and men (56% and 44%, respectively. We also observed an equal distribution of these strains regardless of their CD4+ T cell counts, clinical status, and mode of transmission. Even though V3 serology for HIV-1 subtyping is an inexpensive tool for use in developing countries, additional methods, such as heteroduplex mobility assay and direct DNA sequencing, should be included to determine HIV-1 genetic diversity.

  3. The political economy of infant mortality in São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Wood, C H

    1982-01-01

    After the military took power in Brazil in 1964, the government adopted a wide range of policies designed to stimulate economic growth. A central aspect of the Brazilian model of development was the control of wages. From 1964 to 1975 this strategy caused the purchasing power of the minimum wage in the city of Säo Paulo to fall. The decline in the real wage index was associated with a rise in infant mortality during the period. When real wages rose after 1974, the death rate dropped off. The infant mortality trend cannot be explained by other factors that affect the actual or the reported death rate, such as changes in cityward migration, shifts in the distribution of income, and improvements in the quality of vital statistics. The findings of this study indicate a causal relationship between the infant mortality trend and changes in the purchasing power of the urban poor. Additional data on nutrition, changes in household behavior, and shifts in the cause structure of mortality support this conclusion.

  4. Sedimentation rates in Atibaia River basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using {sup 210}Pb as geochronometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaris, T.P.P. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bonotto, D.M., E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.b [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    The constant initial concentration (CIC) of unsupported/excess {sup 210}Pb model was successfully used to assess {sup 210}Pb data of nine sediment cores from Atibaia River basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The {sup 210}Pb-based apparent sediment mass accumulation rates ranged from 47.7 to 782.4 mg/cm{sup 2} yr, whereas the average linear sedimentation rates between 0.16 and 1.32 cm/yr, which are compatible with the calculated sediment mass fluxes, i.e. a higher sediment mass accumulation rate yielded a higher linear sedimentation rate. The higher long-term based accumulation rate tended to be found in topographically softer regions. This occurs because the sediments are preferentially transported in topographically steeper regions instead of being deposited. Anthropic activities like deforestation possibly interfered with the natural/normal sedimentation processes, which increased in accordance with modifications on the channel drainage. The radionuclide geochronology as described in this paper allows determination of sedimentation rates that are compatible with values estimated elsewhere. The adoption of an appropriate factor generated from previous laboratory experiments resulted in a successful correction for the {sup 222}Rn-loss from the sediments, bringing the estimate of the parent-supported (in-situ produced) {sup 210}Pb to reliable values required by the CIC model.

  5. Vibrio vulnificus infection in São Paulo, Brazil: case report and literature review

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    Maria Rita Elmor de Araujo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Non cholera Vibrio may cause conjunctivitis, wound infection, gastroenteritis and serious sepsis. Transmission to men is through contact with skin, mucosa or wounds exposed to marine water, and consumption of certain barely cooked or raw seafood, more frequently in the summer. This is one of the first cases of severe infection related to Vibrio vulnificus described in Brazil. The patient was an old man, who ingested seafood in Guarujá, a seashore city near São Paulo, 3 days before hospitalization. He was admitted to the emergency room in an ill state with septic shock. On 2 sets of blood culture a highly virulent microorganism was isolated, Vibrio vulnificus, which leads to sepsis and frequently to death in susceptible patients. The objective of this report was to use this case to discuss clinical aspects, microbiological diagnosis and treatment of the infection caused by this agent, besides the review of epidemiology, associated risk factors and prevention before consuming or getting in contact with seafood, especially in patients with greater susceptibility to this kind of infection.

  6. Crowdsourcing urban air temperatures through smartphone battery temperatures in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Droste, Arjan; Pape, Jan-Jaap; Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Van Delden, Aarnout; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2017-04-01

    Crowdsourcing as a method to obtain and apply vast datasets is rapidly becoming prominent in meteorology, especially for urban areas where traditional measurements are scarce. Earlier studies showed that smartphone battery temperature readings allow for estimating the daily and city-wide air temperature via a straightforward heat transfer model. This study advances these model estimations by studying spatially and temporally smaller scales. The accuracy of temperature retrievals as a function of the number of battery readings is also studied. An extensive dataset of over 10 million battery temperature readings is available for São Paulo (Brazil), for estimating hourly and daily air temperatures. The air temperature estimates are validated with air temperature measurements from a WMO station, an Urban Fluxnet site, and crowdsourced data from 7 hobby meteorologists' private weather stations. On a daily basis temperature estimates are good, and we show they improve by optimizing model parameters for neighbourhood scales as categorized in Local Climate Zones. Temperature differences between Local Climate Zones can be distinguished from smartphone battery temperatures. When validating the model for hourly temperature estimates, initial results are poor, but are vastly improved by using a diurnally varying parameter function in the heat transfer model rather than one fixed value for the entire day. The obtained results show the potential of large crowdsourced datasets in meteorological studies, and the value of smartphones as a measuring platform when routine observations are lacking.

  7. Sperm characteristics in a sample of healthy adolescents in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Marcos Mitsuyoshi Mori

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents preliminary data from a prospective investigation in a sample of healthy 14-17-year-old students from a technical school in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Ninety-six Tanner stage 5 and thirty-one Tanner stage 4 adolescents were evaluated: testicular volume was measured using a Prader orchidometer, and semen analysis was performed according to standard procedures. Median testicular volume was 20.0ml among Tanner 5 students and 15.0ml in Tanner 4 students in both the right and left testes. No significant differences were found in sperm volume or motility. Median concentration was 66.0 million/ml for Tanner 5 and 47.0 million/ml for Tanner 4 subjects. Morphological patterns showed abnormal forms in 81.9% of Tanner 5 and 93.6% of Tanner 4 adolescents. Oligospermia (sperm concentration < 5 million/ml was observed in 7.3% of Tanner stage 5 and 12.9% of Tanner stage 4 individuals. Azoospermia was observed in 3 students (1.8%, with counts less than 1.0 in 8 students (4.8%. The authors discuss the observed results, analyzing the potential implications arising from biological development and potential environmental exposures.

  8. Energy balance model applied to pasture experimental areas in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Bayma-Silva, Gustavo; de Castro Teixeira, Antonio Heriberto; de Castro Victoria, Daniel; Furlan Nogueira, Sandra; Freitas Leivas, Janice; Coaguila, Daniel N.; Rodrigues Herling, Valdo

    2016-10-01

    The Simple Algorithm for Evapotranspiration Retrieving (SAFER) was used to estimate biophysical parameters and the energy balance components in two different pasture experimental areas, in the São Paulo state, Brazil. The experimental pastures consist in six rotational (RGS) and three continuous grazing systems (CGS) paddocks. Landsat-8 images from 2013 and 2015 dry and rainy seasons were used, as these presented similar hydrological cycle, with 1,600 mm and 1,613 mm of annual precipitation, resulting in 19 cloud-free images. Bands 1 to 7 and thermal bands 10 and 11 were used with weather data from a station located near the experimental area. NDVI, biomass, evapotranspiration and latent heat flux (λE) temporal values statistically differ CGS from RGS areas. Grazing systems influences the energy partition and these results indicate that RGS benefits biomass production, evapotranspiration and the microclimate, due higher LE values. SAFER is a feasible tool to estimate biophysical parameters and energy balance components in pasture and has potential to discriminate continuous and rotation grazing systems in a temporal analysis.

  9. Demographic characteristics of owned dogs and cats of Votorantim, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Santos Baquero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A two-stage cluster sample design was used to estimate population parameters of dogs and cats of the urban area of Votorantim, São Paulo State, Brazil, to support the planning and implementation of population management programs for companion animals. For dogs, the total and density estimates were 27,241 dogs (95% confidence interval [CI]=23,903-30,578 and 951 dogs km-2 (95% CI=835-1,068, respectively. For cats, these estimates were 5,579 cats (95% CI=3,595-7,562 and 195 cats km-2 (95% CI=126-264. Cost was the most prevalent reason for not sterilizing the animals (33%, 95% CI=23%-44%, Deff=6.1. The percentage of interviewees that expressed reasons for abandoning their animals was equal to 9 (95% CI=5-13, Deff=2.1. Other estimates were obtained, including indirect estimates of abandonment. The estimates associated with abandonment suggest that the prevalence of this phenomenon can significantly affect population dynamics. Distribution of dogs per household can be used to construct hypothetical populations and to validate estimation procedures. The estimates generated allow parameterizing mathematical models and constructing population management indicators

  10. Factors associated with overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Juliana Melo Teruel Biagi CAMARGO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess overweight/obesity of elementary schoolchildren in Campinas , São Paulo , Brazil, and its association with parental nutritional status, children's food consumption, food preferences, and level of physical activity, and familial socioeconomic status. Methods This case-control study included 509 schoolchildren aged 7 to 10 years. Body mass index Z-score was used to determine nutritional status, defining cases (>+1 Z-score and controls (³-2 ?+1 Z-score. To address association with overweight/obesity, a conceptual model was established and used for multiple analysis, performed by logistic regression. Results The children had an overweight/obesity frequency of 39.5%. Multiple analysis adjusted for socioeconomic level showed that overweight/obese children were more likely to eat at the mall (1.55; 95%CI=1.00-2.40, have overweight and obese parents (OR=1.71; 95%CI=1.08-2.71 and OR=3.55; 95%CI=2.18-5.80 respectively, report use of passive school transport (OR=1.57; 95%CI=1.04-2.36, and consume chicken nuggets on 3 or more days per week (OR=3.03; 95%CI=1.32-6.95. Conclusion These results support the urgent need of strategies to reduce overweight/obesity and promote its prevention in schoolchildren. Moreover, intervention studies involving parents and addressing environmental factors are important for the development of effective programs.

  11. Risk analysis and prediction of visceral leishmaniasis dispersion in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Mao, Liang; Galvis-Ovallos, Fredy; Tucker Lima, Joanna Marie; Valle, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important neglected disease caused by a protozoan parasite, and represents a serious public health problem in many parts of the world. It is zoonotic in Europe and Latin America, where infected dogs constitute the main domestic reservoir for the parasite and play a key role in VL transmission to humans. In Brazil this disease is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum chagasi, and is transmitted by the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Despite programs aimed at eliminating infection sources, the disease continues to spread throughout the Country. VL in São Paulo State, Brazil, first appeared in the northwestern region, spreading in a southeasterly direction over time. We integrate data on the VL vector, infected dogs and infected human dispersion from 1999 to 2013 through an innovative spatial temporal Bayesian model in conjunction with geographic information system. This model is used to infer the drivers of the invasion process and predict the future progression of VL through the State. We found that vector dispersion was influenced by vector presence in nearby municipalities at the previous time step, proximity to the Bolívia-Brazil gas pipeline, and high temperatures (i.e., annual average between 20 and 23°C). Key factors affecting infected dog dispersion included proximity to the Marechal Rondon Highway, high temperatures, and presence of the competent vector within the same municipality. Finally, vector presence, presence of infected dogs, and rainfall (approx. 270 to 540mm/year) drove the dispersion of human VL cases. Surprisingly, economic factors exhibited no noticeable influence on disease dispersion. Based on these drivers and stochastic simulations, we identified which municipalities are most likely to be invaded by vectors and infected hosts in the future. Prioritizing prevention and control strategies within the identified municipalities may help halt the spread of VL while reducing monitoring costs. Our results

  12. Modifiable risk factors for overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil

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    Codogno Jamile S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil is currently experiencing a nutrition transition: the displacement of traditional diets with foods high in saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol and an increase in sedentary lifestyles. Despite these trends, our understanding of child obesity in Brazil is limited. Thus, the aims of this study were (1 to investigate the current prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large sample of children and adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil, and (2 to identify the lifestyle behaviors associated with an increased risk of obesity in young Brazilians. Methods A total of 3,397 children and adolescents (1,596 male aged 7-18 years were randomly selected from 22 schools in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese based on international age- and sex-specific body mass index thresholds. Selected sociodemographic, physical activity, and nutrition behaviors were assessed via questionnaire. Results Overall, 19.4% of boys and 16.1% of girls were overweight while 8.9% and 4.3% were obese. Two-way analysis of variance revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was significantly higher in boys and in younger children when compared to girls and older children, respectively (P Conclusions Our results show that obesity in São Paulo children and adolescents has reached a level equivalent to that seen in many developed countries. We have also identified three key modifiable factors related to obesity that may be appropriate targets for future intervention in Brazilian youth: transport mode to school, computer usage, and breakfast consumption.

  13. O consumo de vitamina A em Ribeira, São Paulo (Brasil The consumption of vitamin A in Ribeira, S. Paulo (Brazil

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    Avany Maria Xavier Bon

    1974-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi evidenciado o problema da baixa adequação de vitamina A, em localidade considerada grande produtora de alimento rico nesse nutriente, a cidade de Ribeira (S. Paulo, Brasil , produtora de mamão (Carica Papaya L.. A análise dos dados evidencia que esse alimento, que poderia contribuir para cobrir as necessidades recomendadas de vitamina A, foi consumido em quantidades ínfimas. Atribuiu-se esse fato, à falta de conhecimento por parte da população local, do valor nutritivo dos alimentos ricos em vitamina A. Recomenda-se o desenvolvimento de campanhas de educação alimentar.It was focused the problem of low adequacy of vitamin A, in an area considered as a great producer of foodstuff rich in this nutrient, the city of Ribeira, S. Paulo (Brazil, that is a large scale producer of Papaya (Carica papaya L. The analysis of the data, pointed out that this foodstuff that would amply cover the recommended necessities of Vitamin A, was consumed in insignificant quantities. This fact was attributed to a lack of knowledge of the local population on the nutritive value of foodstuff rich in vitamin A. Consequently it was recommended, the development of food education programs, in the mentioned town.

  14. Observações sobre os mosquitos Culex da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Observations on Culex mosquitoes of S. Paulo City, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados obtidos na coleta de mosquitos do gênero Culex na área urbana da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram empregadas armadilhas luminosas automáticas tipo "New Jersey 50". Os resultados revelaram a presença de outras populações representadas principalmente por Culex chidesteri, C. dolosus e C. bidens as quais, em conjunto, chegaram algumas vezes a sobrepujar a de Culex pipiens fatigans. O maior rendimento foi obtido em áreas com abastecimento de água mas sem rede de esgotos. As coletas intradomiciliares revelaram franca predominância de C. pipiens fatigans.With the use of New Jersey-50 light traps, a survey of Culex mosquitoes was made in the urban área of São Paulo City, Brazil. Beside Culex pipiens fatigans several other species were found, mainly represented by Culex chidesteri, C. dolosus and C. bidens. The combined incidence of these three populations follows nearly the fatigans one and frequently exceeding it. The most high levels of density were found at areas with water treatment but without sewage disposal. Domiciliary collections showed great Culex pipiens fatigans predominancy.

  15. Occurrence of plastic particles in procellariiforms, south of São Paulo state (Brazil

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    Edison Barbieri

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Seabirds ingest plastic particles floating on the surface of the world's oceans. The birds can ingest plastic particles that they mistakenly identify as prey items. Alternatively, plastics can be taken up in the stomach contents of prey species. Plastic is often passed from parents to chicks in regurgitated food. In this study, individual petrels and albatrosses brought in by the tide onto Ilha Comprida beach between January 2000 and December 2002 were collected. Ilha Comprida, a barrier island in southern São Paulo, Brazil, was traversed by car along a transect of 70 kilometers. A total of 110 birds of 10 species were collected and 64.54% had plastic particles in their stomach. Frequencies of occurrence were Macronectes giganteus (64.28%, Thalassarche melanophrys (73.07%, Thalassarche chlororhinchos (44.44%, Puffinus puffinus (85.71%, Puffinus gravis (7.41%, Puffinus griseus (63.63%, Fumarus glacialoides (33.33%, Daption capensis (75%, Pachyptila belcheri (33.33%, Procellaria aequinoctialis (25%. These results demonstrated the extent of contamination with plastic and the possible harmful effects on seabirds.As aves marinhas ingerem partículas plásticas que ficam flutuando na superfície dos oceanos. Estes animais podem ingerir as partículas plásticas confundindo com as presas. Alternativamente os plásticos podem vir de presas, as quais os contêm em seus estômagos. Os plásticos podem ainda, serem passados dos pais para os ninhegos, quando regurgitam o alimento. Neste trabalho foram coletados indivíduos de petréis e albatrozes ao longo da praia da Ilha Comprida entre janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2002. Para tanto a Ilha Comprida, uma ilha de barreira situada no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, foi percorrida de carro ao longo de um transecção de 70 quilômetros.Foram coletados 110 indivíduos de aves de 10 espécies, das quais 64.54% continham partículas plásticas em seus estômagos. As Freqüências de ocorrências foram

  16. Indoor Particulate Matter in Houses of Elderly in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Segalin, B.; Goncalves, F. T.; Fornaro, A.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), Brazil, is responsible for particulate matter measurements (PM) in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). However, there are few works with indoor measures for MASP. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the PM in households in the MASP. The chosen households were there are aged people over 60 years old. The measurements were sampled during 24 hours using a Personal Cascade Impactor (SKC Cat No. 225-370), which the following aerodynamic diameters: 10.0 - 2.5 (A); 1.0 - 2.5 (B); 0.50 - 1.0 (C); 0.25 - 0.50 (D), and < 0.25 μm (E). Together the impactor, there is a Leland Legacy pump (SKC Cat No. 100-3002) with a flow of 9L/min. It was analyzed 56 households with average values of PM10 and PM2.5 of 30.7 and 23.4 μg/m3, respectively. On average, 76% of PM10 consists of PM2.5, percentage higher than the outdoor environment (60% - CETESB), and 43% of the PM2.5 consists of PM smaller than 0.25 μm. Among all households, there was no exceedance of thresholds national standards PM10 (120 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (60 μg/m3). However, 10.7% of residences exceeded the PM10 threshold of the World Health Organization (50 μg/m3) and 39.2% for PM2.5 (20 μg/m3). The cluster analysis grouped the measures in the houses in four profiles. In three of them were greater amount of mass in ultrafine particles (E), followed by coarse particles (A) with the minimum in C level. The maximum in E may be due to the high contribution vehicular and secondary aerosol outdoor environment. The secondary maximum in A may be due to particles ressuspension and also arising from outdoors. These three groups differ only by the amount of PM measured in the households; they represent high, medium and low PM concentrations. The fourth group has average concentrations, but it presents a different profile because its maximum is in the D rather than E. All data will be analyzed concerning the possible sources.

  17. Abundance and distribution of sessile invertebrates under intertidal boulders (São Paulo, Brazil

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    Rosana Moreira da Rocha

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The encrusting communities under two boulder fields (Praia Grande and Ponta do Baleeiro were monitored monthly during 1990 and 1991, in São Sebastião, on the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. Two sizes of boulders were chosen: small (20-30 cm² underside area and larger ones (160-220 cm² located on the middle and lower levels of the intertidal. The community's components were mainly sessile animals either compound ones such as Bryozoa, Ascidiacea, Porifera and Cnidaria, in this order of abundance, or simple ones such as Polychaeta and Bivalvia, also in this order of abundance. All groups, except by serpulids (Polychaeta, had higher percent cover in the low intertidal region and under large boulders. Diversity was higher at Ponta do Baleeiro, and in the low intertidal region and on large boulders for both shores.Em São Sebastião, litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, foram monitorados mensalmente dois ambientes de matacões em costões rochosos. Praia Grande e Ponta do Baleeiro, ao longo de 1990 e 1991. As condições ambientais avaliadas foram: temperatura e salinidade da água, hidrodinâmica, capacidade de abrasão da areia acumulada, heterogeneidade ambiental e porosidade das pedras. Foi estudada a comunidade incrustante na superfície inferior de pedras pequenas (20-30 cm² de área na face inferior e maiores (160-220 cm² dispostas nos estratos médio e inferior da zona entremarés. Esta comunidade era constituída principalmente por organismos sésseis coloniais (Bryozoa, Ascidiacea, Porifera e Cnidaria, nesta ordem de abundância ou solitários (Polychaeta e Bivalvia, nesta ordem de abundância. Todos os grupos, com exceção dos ser pulid cos (Polychaeta, apresentaram maior porcentagem de cobertura nos estratos inferiores e nas pedras grandes. A composição específica foi similar nos dois costões estudados, mas várias espécies ocorreram exclusivamente em um determinado nível de maré, ou tamanho de pedra

  18. Relationship between Black Carbon and heavy traffic in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Miranda, R. M.; Perez-Martinez, P.; Ribeiro, F. N. D.; Andrade, M. D. F.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols play an important role in air quality, human health and global climate change. Black Carbon (BC) can be considered the most efficient light absorber in the visible spectrum and is mainly found in the fine fraction of aerosol. Typically is emitted by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels related to traffic, industrial processes and biomass burning. São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) with more than 19 million inhabitants, 7 million vehicles, as well as the major industrial and technological park of the country, has high concentrations of air pollutants, especially in the winter and vehicles are considered the principal source of particles emitted to the atmosphere. Since November 2014, Black Carbon and PM2.5 are being monitored using a MAAP (Multi Angle Absorption Photometer) Thermo 5012 and a Dust Trak DRX-8533 TSI in the East Campus of University of São Paulo, close to important highways and also to the largest airport of Brazil (Guarulhos Airport). Average BC concentration was 1.7 μg/m3 with some peaks above 17.0 μg/m3 and for PM2.5 average was 10.2 μg/m3. Particle concentrations reached values greater than the air quality standard (60 μg/m3) in the winter months. Winds coming from the East direction predominate. Traffic restrictions to heavy duty vehicles in the road-rings next to the sampling site during some hours of the day are the responsible for the daily BC and PM2.5 behavior (figure below), where high concentrations occur early in the morning and late at night, when heavy diesel vehicles are released for transit. Seasonal variations are different for BC and PM2.5 due to local sources of BC and meteorological conditions that have more influence on the particles. The weekly variation indicates that concentrations are lower on Sundays and higher from Tuesday to Thursday. Emission factors for BC were calculated based on traffic information.

  19. Flood hazards analysis based on changes of hydrodynamic processes in fluvial systems of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas, Iury; Rodrigues, Cleide

    2016-04-01

    The metropolis of Sao Paulo, with its 7940 Km² and over 20 million inhabitants, is increasingly being consolidated with disregard for the dynamics of its fluvial systems and natural limitations imposed by fluvial terraces, floodplains and slopes. Events such as floods and flash floods became particularly persistent mainly in socially and environmentally vulnerable areas. The Aricanduva River basin was selected as the ideal area for the development of the flood hazard analysis since it presents the main geological and geomorphological features found in the urban site. According to studies carried out by Anthropic Geomorphology approach in São Paulo, to study this phenomenon is necessary to take into account the original hydromorphological systems and its functional conditions, as well as in which dimensions the Anthropic factor changes the balance between the main variables of surface processes. Considering those principles, an alternative model of geographical data was proposed and enabled to identify the role of different driving forces in terms of spatial conditioning of certain flood events. Spatial relationships between different variables, such as anthropogenic and original morphology, were analyzed for that purpose in addition to climate data. The surface hydrodynamic tendency spatial model conceived for this study takes as key variables: 1- The land use present at the observed date combined with the predominant lithological group, represented by a value ranging 0-100, based on indexes of the National Soil Conservation Service (NSCS-USA) and the Hydraulic Technology Center Foundation (FCTH-Brazil) to determine the resulting balance of runoff/infiltration. 2- The original slope, applying thresholds from which it's possible to determine greater tendency for runoff (in percents). 3- The minimal features of relief, combining the curvature of surface in plant and profile. Those three key variables were combined in a Geographic Information System in a series of

  20. Molecular detection of Leishmania sp. in cats (Felis catus) from Andradina Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; Langoni, Helio; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2011-03-10

    The aim of this work was to molecularly detect Leishmania species in 52 cats from Andradina Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. The direct parasitological test was performed by using imprints of poplited lymph node, bone marrow and spleen to verify amastigote forms of Leishmania spp. The samples that were positive parasitological tests were subjected to molecular analysis (PCR) and sequencing. Infection was detected for 5.76% (3/52) of the examined cats and two had presence of amastigote forms of Leishmania spp. in lymph nodes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of kinetoplast minicircle DNA, indicated positive amplification for samples of spleen and lymph nodes and the sequencing resulted in 97% similarity with Leishmania (L.) chagasi. This study proved the occurrence of infection with Leishmania (L.) chagasi in felines from Andradina municipality, São Paulo State.

  1. New occurrences of microvertebrate fossil accumulations in Bauru Group, Late Cretaceous of western São Paulo state, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveş, Y. M.; Bergqvist, L. P.; Brito, P. M.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we present the results of several palaeontological expeditions to four Upper Cretaceous fossil microsites of the Adamantina and Presidente Prudente formations in western São Paulo State, Brazil. Despite the fragmentary condition of the fossils recovered, they represent an important record of vertebrate microremains. The material, recovered through screen washing, comprises teeth and scales of Lepisosteidae; two morphotypes of Halecostomi teeth with similarities to Characiformes and Amiiformes; a Teleostei tooth of molariform shape; fin spines of Siluriformes; teeth of possible Baurusuchidae, Notosuchia (probably Adamantinasuchus or Mariliasuchus), Neosuchia (probably Itasuchus or Goniopholis), and other Mesoeucrocodylia indet.; probable teeth of Abelisauroidea, other Theropoda indet., and a phalanx of Aves. The comparative microvertebrate fossil accumulation from western São Paulo State provides evidence that: 1) floodplain channels accumulate large concentrations of microremains; 2) coarse sandstone privileges enamel tissues like teeth and scales; 3) new vertebrate fossil records have been discovered in Florida Paulista, Alfredo Marcondes, and Alvares Machado outcrops.

  2. Aseptic meningitis by echovirus 30 in São Paulo state, Brazil Meningite asseptica por echovírus 30 no estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Bráulio Caetano Machado

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the immunological and molecular aspects of Human Enterovirus (HEV associated with aseptic meningitis cases in São Paulo State, Brazil. Clinical samples (cerebrospinal fluid CSF, stool and sera were analyzed from 21 viral meningitis suspected cases collected in the period from 1998 to 1999. The isolated virus were identified as belonging to Enterovirus genus and specifically to echovirus serotype 30 (EV-30, using immunological techniques as Indirect Immunofluorescense Assay (IFA and Neutralization (Nt and by molecular technique of Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR directed to the 5' NTR and VP1 regions of viral genome. The results obtained contributed with to the surveillance system of São Paulo State and they are important due to a shortage of epidemiological data about the circulation of EV-30 associated to aseptic meningitis in this region of the world.O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar e caracterizar quanto aos aspectos imunológicos e moleculares os Enterovirus humanos associados a casos de meningite asséptica. Amostras clínicas (líquido cefaloraquidiano, fezes e soro originárias de 21 casos suspeitos de meningite viral, provenientes do estado de São Paulo no período de 1998 a 1999 foram analisadas. Os vírus isolados foram identificados como pertencentes ao gênero Enterovirus e mais especificamente ao sorotipo echovírus 30 (EV-30, utilizando-se técnicas imunológicas como Imunofluorescência Indireta e Neutralização e técnica molecular da transcrição reversa - reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR direcionada para as regiões 5' não traduzida (5'NTR e Proteína Viral 1(VP1 do genoma viral. Os resultados obtidos contribuíram com o sistema de vigilância epidemiológica do estado de São Paulo na geração de informações sobre a circulação de EV-30 associado à meningite asséptica nessa região do mundo.

  3. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Expedito Ja; Furucho, Celia R; Silva, Rubens A; Wanderley, Dalva M; Carvalho, Noemia B; Satolo, Camila G; Leite, Ruth M; Silveira, Cassio; Silva, Lia Mb; Aith, Fernando M; Carneiro, Nivaldo; Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria A

    2017-01-01

    With the urbanisation of the population in developing countries and the process of globalisation, Chagas has become an emerging disease in the urban areas of endemic and non-endemic countries. In 2006, it was estimated that the prevalence of Chagas disease among the general Bolivian population was 6.8%. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among Bolivian immigrants living in São Paulo, Brazil. This study had a sample of 633 volunteers who were randomly selected from the clientele of primary care units located in the central districts of São Paulo, Brazil. Infection was detected by two different ELISA assays with epimastigote antigens, followed by an immunoblot with trypomastigote antigens as a confirmatory test. The prevalence of the infection was 4.4%. Risk factors independently associated with the infection were: a history of rural jobs in Bolivia, knowledge of the vector involved in transmission, and having relatives with Chagas disease. Brazil has successfully eliminated household vector transmission of T. cruzi, as well as its transmission by blood transfusion. The arrival of infected immigrants represents an additional challenge to primary care clinics to manage chronic Chagas disease, its vertical transmission, and the blood derivatives and organ transplant programs.

  4. BF integrase genes of HIV-1 circulating in Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a recurrent recombination region.

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    Atila Iamarino

    Full Text Available Although some studies have shown diversity in HIV integrase (IN genes, none has focused particularly on the gene evolving in epidemics in the context of recombination. The IN gene in 157 HIV-1 integrase inhibitor-naïve patients from the São Paulo State, Brazil, were sequenced tallying 128 of subtype B (23 of which were found in non-B genomes, 17 of subtype F (8 of which were found in recombinant genomes, 11 integrases were BF recombinants, and 1 from subtype C. Crucially, we found that 4 BF recombinant viruses shared a recurrent recombination breakpoint region between positions 4900 and 4924 (relative to the HXB2 that includes 2 gRNA loops, where the RT may stutter. Since these recombinants had independent phylogenetic origin, we argue that these results suggest a possible recombination hotspot not observed so far in BF CRF in particular, or in any other HIV-1 CRF in general. Additionally, 40% of the drug-naïve and 45% of the drug-treated patients had at least 1 raltegravir (RAL or elvitegravir (EVG resistance-associated amino acid change, but no major resistance mutations were found, in line with other studies. Importantly, V151I was the most common minor resistance mutation among B, F, and BF IN genes. Most codon sites of the IN genes had higher rates of synonymous substitutions (dS indicative of a strong negative selection. Nevertheless, several codon sites mainly in the subtype B were found under positive selection. Consequently, we observed a higher genetic diversity in the B portions of the mosaics, possibly due to the more recent introduction of subtype F on top of an ongoing subtype B epidemics and a fast spread of subtype F alleles among the B population.

  5. Assessment of land use in protected areas of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Iori, P.; da Silva, R. B.; Dias Junior, M. S.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    It is of universal knowledge that the soil, a basic natural resource, is renewable only if conserved or used correctly(Primavesi, 2002). It is salient for Araújo et al. (2007) that the establishment of index of soil quality is an important tool in the functions of control, supervision and monitoring of areas for environmental protection. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of the soil by means of a comparative diagram in different soil uses in permanent preservation areas (APP). The study was conducted in areas near the Ribeira de Iguape river in the city of Registro - São Paulo - Brazil, belonging to the Atlantic Forest domain, a Haplic Cambisol. The following uses of the soil had been evaluated: a) banana culture (CBAN) without agricultural traffic of machines; b) degraded pasture (PDEG) with extensive system predominantly Brachiaria decumbens L. c) use silvopastoral (MPIs), consisted in a kills with a traffic free for the animals, and d) native vegetation (MNAT), proposed in this study as a reference area.The following physical indicators were analyzed: bulk density (BD), total soil porosity (TP), macroporosity (Ma), microporosity (Mi), water dispersible clay (ADA), flocculation index (FI), preconsolidation pressure (PP), soil shear strength (SS), soil resistance to penetration (RP). To construct the comparative diagram the values for each attribute of the soil in each land use were related to the values of the native forest. It was feasible to use the comparative model in the qualitative evaluation of soil use, allowing separate environments under different uses. According to the comparative diagram of banana culture is the use that most negatively impacts the physical and mechanical soil due to the smaller size of the lower polygon.

  6. Variability of apparently homogeneous soilscapes in São Paulo state, Brazil: I. spatial analysis

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    M. van Den Berg

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of strongly weathered soils under sugarcane and soybean/wheat rotation was quantitatively assessed on 33 fields in two regions in São Paulo State, Brazil: Araras (15 fields with sugarcane and Assis (11 fields with sugarcane and seven fields with soybean/wheat rotation. Statistical methods used were: nested analysis of variance (for 11 fields, semivariance analysis and analysis of variance within and between fields. Spatial levels from 50 m to several km were analyzed. Results are discussed with reference to a previously published study carried out in the surroundings of Passo Fundo (RS. Similar variability patterns were found for clay content, organic C content and cation exchange capacity. The fields studied are quite homogeneous with respect to these relatively stable soil characteristics. Spatial variability of other characteristics (resin extractable P, pH, base- and Al-saturation and also soil colour, varies with region and, or land use management. Soil management for sugarcane seems to have induced modifications to greater depths than for soybean/wheat rotation. Surface layers of soils under soybean/wheat present relatively little variation, apparently as a result of very intensive soil management. The major part of within-field variation occurs at short distances (< 50 m in all study areas. Hence, little extra information would be gained by increasing sampling density from, say, 1/km² to 1/50 m². For many purposes, the soils in the study regions can be mapped with the same observation density, but residual variance will not be the same in all areas. Bulk sampling may help to reveal spatial patterns between 50 and 1.000 m.

  7. Landscape, Environmental and Social Predictors of Hantavirus Risk in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Uriarte, Maria; Tambosi, Leandro Reverberi; Prado, Amanda; Pardini, Renata; D´Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which are negative-sense RNA viruses in the family Bunyaviridae that are highly virulent to humans. Numerous factors modify risk of Hantavirus transmission and consequent HPS risk. Human-driven landscape change can foster transmission risk by increasing numbers of habitat generalist rodent species that serve as the principal reservoir host. Climate can also affect rodent population dynamics and Hantavirus survival, and a number of social factors can influence probability of HPS transmission to humans. Evaluating contributions of these factors to HPS risk may enable predictions of future outbreaks, and is critical to development of effective public health strategies. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to quantify associations between annual HPS incidence across the state of São Paulo, Brazil (1993–2012) and climate variables (annual precipitation, annual mean temperature), landscape structure metrics (proportion of native habitat cover, number of forest fragments, proportion of area planted with sugarcane), and social factors (number of men older than 14 years and Human Development Index). We built separate models for the main two biomes of the state (cerrado and Atlantic forest). In both biomes Hantavirus risk increased with proportion of land cultivated for sugarcane and HDI, but proportion of forest cover, annual mean temperature, and population at risk also showed positive relationships in the Atlantic forest. Our analysis provides the first evidence that social, landscape, and climate factors are associated with HPS incidence in the Neotropics. Our risk map can be used to support the adoption of preventive measures and optimize the allocation of resources to avoid disease propagation, especially in municipalities that show medium to high HPS risk (> 5% of risk), and aimed at sugarcane workers, minimizing the risk of future HPS outbreaks. PMID:27780250

  8. Tetanus and diphtheria immunity in adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil

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    M.I.S Dinelli

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus and diphtheria vaccines are of special concern in adolescents because boosters are necessary for adequate maintenance of protection and are often omitted. We assessed serum levels of tetanus and diphtheria antibodies in adolescents and their association with vaccination status. From May to October 2001, we evaluated the vaccination records of 208 adolescents aged 10 to 20 years in São Paulo, Brazil. Antibodies to tetanus and diphtheria were detected using double-antigen ELISA and vaccination records were analyzed according to the guidelines of the Brazilian National Immunization Program. All adolescents had received complete primary vaccinations against tetanus and diphtheria, but 23.1% of them had not received a booster dose in the last 10 years. All adolescents were immune to tetanus and 88.9% were fully protected (antibodies ³0.1 IU/mL. One individual (0.5% was non-immune to diphtheria and 86% were fully protected against the disease. Adolescents with up-to-date vaccination records had higher antibody levels than those with not up-to-date records for tetanus (0.763 vs 0.239 IU/mL, t-test: P < 0.0001 and diphtheria (0.366 vs 0.233 IU/mL, t-test: P = 0.014. Full immunity against tetanus (antibodies ³0.1 IU/mL was higher among individuals with up-to-date vaccination (93.1% when compared to those with not up-to-date records (75%, Fisher's exact test: P = 0.001. All adolescents had received basic immunization in childhood and were protected against tetanus and diphtheria. However, these data indicate that more emphasis should be placed on the tetanus-diphtheria booster in order to avoid a decay in antibody levels.

  9. Tetanus and diphtheria immunity in adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinelli, M I S; Fisberg, M; de Moraes-Pinto, M I

    2007-02-01

    Tetanus and diphtheria vaccines are of special concern in adolescents because boosters are necessary for adequate maintenance of protection and are often omitted. We assessed serum levels of tetanus and diphtheria antibodies in adolescents and their association with vaccination status. From May to October 2001, we evaluated the vaccination records of 208 adolescents aged 10 to 20 years in São Paulo, Brazil. Antibodies to tetanus and diphtheria were detected using double-antigen ELISA and vaccination records were analyzed according to the guidelines of the Brazilian National Immunization Program. All adolescents had received complete primary vaccinations against tetanus and diphtheria, but 23.1% of them had not received a booster dose in the last 10 years. All adolescents were immune to tetanus and 88.9% were fully protected (antibodies (3)0.1 IU/mL). One individual (0.5%) was non-immune to diphtheria and 86% were fully protected against the disease. Adolescents with up-to-date vaccination records had higher antibody levels than those with not up-to-date records for tetanus (0.763 vs 0.239 IU/mL, t-test: P diphtheria (0.366 vs 0.233 IU/mL, t-test: P = 0.014). Full immunity against tetanus (antibodies (3)0.1 IU/mL) was higher among individuals with up-to-date vaccination (93.1%) when compared to those with not up-to-date records (75%, Fisher's exact test: P = 0.001). All adolescents had received basic immunization in childhood and were protected against tetanus and diphtheria. However, these data indicate that more emphasis should be placed on the tetanus-diphtheria booster in order to avoid a decay in antibody levels.

  10. Tetanus and diphtheria immunity in adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I.S Dinelli

    Full Text Available Tetanus and diphtheria vaccines are of special concern in adolescents because boosters are necessary for adequate maintenance of protection and are often omitted. We assessed serum levels of tetanus and diphtheria antibodies in adolescents and their association with vaccination status. From May to October 2001, we evaluated the vaccination records of 208 adolescents aged 10 to 20 years in São Paulo, Brazil. Antibodies to tetanus and diphtheria were detected using double-antigen ELISA and vaccination records were analyzed according to the guidelines of the Brazilian National Immunization Program. All adolescents had received complete primary vaccinations against tetanus and diphtheria, but 23.1% of them had not received a booster dose in the last 10 years. All adolescents were immune to tetanus and 88.9% were fully protected (antibodies ³0.1 IU/mL. One individual (0.5% was non-immune to diphtheria and 86% were fully protected against the disease. Adolescents with up-to-date vaccination records had higher antibody levels than those with not up-to-date records for tetanus (0.763 vs 0.239 IU/mL, t-test: P < 0.0001 and diphtheria (0.366 vs 0.233 IU/mL, t-test: P = 0.014. Full immunity against tetanus (antibodies ³0.1 IU/mL was higher among individuals with up-to-date vaccination (93.1% when compared to those with not up-to-date records (75%, Fisher's exact test: P = 0.001. All adolescents had received basic immunization in childhood and were protected against tetanus and diphtheria. However, these data indicate that more emphasis should be placed on the tetanus-diphtheria booster in order to avoid a decay in antibody levels.

  11. Gamma ionization of Phagicola longa (Trematoda:Heterophyidae) in Mugilidae (pisces) in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, S.A.; Wiendl, F.M.; Almeida Dias, E.R.; Arthur, V.; Daniotti, C. (Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil))

    The mullet (Mugilidae) is a fish caught in large quantities in brackish and marine waters of the southern Brazilian coast, which in consequence of its raw consumption as ''sashimi'', a typical Japanese dish, has led to ten cases of human infection by Phagicola longa in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The mullet acts as a second intermediate host for the parasite, as in human heterophyiasis in the Near and Far East. In order to control these infections under commercial storage conditions and in raw consumption, the radiolysis of P. longa was studied in three mullet species - the silver mullet (Mugil curema), the grey mullet (M. platanus) and the ''paratipema'' (Mugil sp.) -subjected to ionization ranging from 1.0 to 10.0 kGy (2.21 kGy/h). It was observed that 1.0 and 2.0 kGy caused a motility decrease in silver mullet parasites from 100% to 15% and 17%, and that doses of 4.0 and 10.0 kGy caused metacercaria inviability. The parasite motility decreased in the grey mullet treated with doses of 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 kGy, from 56% to 31%, 9%, 18% and 5%, respectively, 4.0 kGy tending to be the control dose for P. Longa. This dose also controls other metacercaria found in the ''parati-pema'', without changing the odor, color or appearance of the treated mullet. (author).

  12. Disability life expectancy for the elderly, city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2000: gender and educational differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Machado, Carla Jorge; do Nascimento Rodrigues, Roberto

    2007-05-01

    There is evidence that 'health life expectancy' (expected number of years to be lived in health) differs by socioeconomic status. Time spent in health or disability plays a critical role in the use of health care services. The objective of this study was to estimate 'disability life expectancy' by age, gender and education attainment for the elderly of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in the year 2000. Data came from the SABE database, population censuses and mortality statistics (SEADE Foundation). Life expectancy with disability was calculated using Sullivan's method on the basis of the current probability of death and prevalence of disability by educational level. The prevalence of disability increased with age, for both sexes and both levels of educational attainment studied. Men showed a lower prevalence of disability, in general, and persons with lower educational attainment showed a higher prevalence of disability. Regarding life expectancy, women could expect to live longer than men, with and without disability. For both sexes, the percentage of life expectancy lived with disability decreased with increasing educational attainment. With increasing educational attainment, the sex differences in the percentage of remaining years to be lived with disability increased for most ages. Finally, the percentage of remaining years to be lived with disability increased with age for males and females, except for males with high educational attainment between the ages 70-75 and 75-80. The results may serve as a guide for public policies in the country, since health problems faced by older persons, such as disability, are the result of a number of past experiences during their life-times, such as health care, housing conditions, hygiene practices and education. Education influences health behaviours and is related, to some extent, to all these factors. Therefore, improvements in education for the disadvantaged may improve health.

  13. Temperature, air pollution, and mortality from myocardial infarction in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Sharovsky R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in daily mortality from myocardial infarction has been observed in association with meteorological factors and air pollution in several cities in the world, mainly in the northern hemisphere. The objective of the present study was to analyze the independent effects of environmental variables on daily counts of death from myocardial infarction in a subtropical region in South America. We used the robust Poisson regression to investigate associations between weather (temperature, humidity and barometric pressure, air pollution (sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and inhalable particulate, and the daily death counts attributed to myocardial infarction in the city of São Paulo in Brazil, where 12,007 fatal events were observed from 1996 to 1998. The model was adjusted in a linear fashion for relative humidity and day-of-week, while nonparametric smoothing factors were used for seasonal trend and temperature. We found a significant association of daily temperature with deaths due to myocardial infarction (P < 0.001, with the lowest mortality being observed at temperatures between 21.6 and 22.6ºC. Relative humidity appeared to exert a protective effect. Sulfur dioxide concentrations correlated linearly with myocardial infarction deaths, increasing the number of fatal events by 3.4% (relative risk of 1.03; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.05 for each 10 µg/m³ increase. In conclusion, this study provides evidence of important associations between daily temperature and air pollution and mortality from myocardial infarction in a subtropical region, even after a comprehensive control for confounding factors.

  14. Prevalence of mental disorders among prisoners in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Sergio Baxter Andreoli

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the prison population in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Through stratified random sampling, 1.192 men and 617 women prisoners were evaluated for the presence of psychiatric disorders by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, 2.1 version, according to definitions and criteria of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. The prevalence estimates of mental disorders and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated and adjusted for sample design through complex sample analysis. RESULTS: Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates differed between genders. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of any mental disorder was, respectively, 68.9% and 39.2% among women, and 56.1% and 22.1% among men. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of anxious-phobic disorders was, respectively, 50% and 27.7% among women and 35.3% and 13.6% among men, of affective disorders was 40% and 21% among women and 20.8% and 9.9% among men, and of drug-related disorders was 25.2% and 1.6% among women and 26.5% and 1.3% among men. For severe mental disorders (psychotic, bipolar disorders, and severe depression, the lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates were, respectively, 25.8% and 14.7% among women, and 12.3% and 6.3% among men. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale epidemiological study performed with the prison population in Brazil, revealed high rates of psychiatric disorders among men and women. Many similarities, as well as some differences, were found between our results and those of studies conducted in other countries. The differences observed are more likely due to the peculiarities of the prison systems in each country than to the diagnostic criteria adopted in the studies. This fact reinforces the importance of conducting such studies as part of planning and development of appropriate policies for the particular mental health needs of specific prison populations.

  15. Modern foraminiferal facies in a subtropical estuarine channel, Bertioga, São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, P.P.B.; Eichler, B.B.; De Miranda, L. B.; Rodrigues, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Numerical analyses of modern foraminiferal abundance and environmental data from the Bertioga Channel (Sa??o Paulo, Brazil) reveal multiple biofacies within an overall paralic setting. Despite its fisheries, mariculture and attraction to tourists, the environmental state of Bertioga Channel remains poorly studied. The present investigation is an attempt to partly fill this gap; the parameters examined include depth, salinity, temperature, organic carbon, sulfur content and bottom sediment type. Muddy sediments with high organic carbon content derived from land drainage are found in the inner parts of the channel, whereas sandy sediment dominates the areas adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean. In the eastern entrance to the channel, sandy sediment contain species of Rotaliida from Facies 1 (including Elphidium discoidale, Elphidium poeyanum, Hanzawaia boueana, Pararotalia cananeiaensis and Nonionella atlantica), reflecting normal marine salinity. Sediments with high percentages of silt and clay in polyhaline and eurybaline environments of the eastern part and Itapanhau?? River contain Facies 2, which includes Ammonia beccarii and Pararotalia cananeiaensis. In the western entrance and central, western and eastern parts, where salinities vary from 18 to 30 psu and the sediments contain both low and high organic carbon, the foraminifera from Facies 3 are dominated by Quinqueloculina milletti, Arenoparrella mexicana, Pararotalia cananeiaensis, Ammonia beccarii, Buliminella elegantissima, Elphidium sp., Elphidium excavatum, Elphidium gunteri and Elphidium poeyanum. In mesohaline and polyhaline waters of the central part, the organic-carbon-rich silt and clay contain Facies 4, which includes Ammonia beccarii, Pararotalia cananeiaensis, Elphidium excavatum and Elphidium sp. Most of organic-carbon-enriched, silty-clay substrates that are subject to the highest fresh-water discharge and high bottom temperatures support two different assemblages: one of mostly Rotaliina and the

  16. Sobre o encontro de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 em dois municípios do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil The finding of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 in two counties of S.Paulo State, Brazil

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    Horácio Manuel Santana Teles

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o encontro de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 em dois municípios do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil: Capital do Estado (São Paulo e Ribeirão Preto. No primeiro foram capturados exemplares melânicos na Represa Billings; no segundo, indivíduos albinos que colonizavam um aquário de peixes ornamentais.This study reports the finding of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 in two counties of the State of S. Paulo (Brazil: in the capital (S.Paulo itself and in Ribeirão Preto. In the former melanic snails were collected from the Billings reservoir, in the latter collection was made of albinic specimens which had established a colony in an aquarium.

  17. Knowledge about epilepsy among health professionals: a cross-sectional survey in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito-Silva, Ana Amélia; Sousa, Bolivar Saldanha; Gomes da Silva, Sergio; Souza-Vancini, Maria Iones; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Cabral, Francisco Romero; de Lima, Cristiano; Barbosa de Lira, Claudio Andre

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the epilepsy knowledge among health professionals in São Paulo, Brazil. Design This is a cross-sectional study. Participants Professionals with academic degrees in physical education (n=134), nutrition (n=116), medicine (n=100), psychology (n=53), nursing (n=122) and physiotherapy (n=99) who lived in São Paulo City, Brazil. Primary and secondary outcome measures Knowledge of health professionals about epilepsy. Methods Professionals with academic degrees in physical education (n=134), nutrition (n=116), medicine (n=100), psychology (n=53), nursing (n=122) and physiotherapy (n=99) who lived in São Paulo City, Brazil, were invited to participate in the study. The subjects (n=624) answered a questionnaire composed of 25 simple closed-ended questions from three areas: personal, educational and knowledge. Results Out of all subjects, 88.5% (n=552) had a postgraduate education, while 11.5% (n=72) had only an undergraduate degree. The authors found that physical educators, nutritionists and physiotherapists received lower scores on their epilepsy knowledge than other health professionals. Conclusions Health professionals are considered better-educated group inside the society, especially with regards to healthcare issues. Thus, it is important they also have an accurate and correct knowledge about epilepsy. The findings of the present study indicate an imperative improvement in education about epilepsy, as well as an inclusion of formal programmes for epilepsy education especially for non-medical professionals. An improvement in epilepsy education might contribute to an improvement in epilepsy care and management. PMID:22517981

  18. Acid rain: a case study at the Universidade de Sao Paulo campus, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Chuva acida: estudo de caso no campus USP/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Patricia

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena called acid rain is considered, by many researchers, one of the most serious environmental problem. This work has the aim of showing, in a theoretical and practical study, the problems caused by the atmospheric-pollutant emission, through natural or anthropogenic sources. In a period of 1 year (nov/94-nov/95), it was realized a practical work on rainwater, which consisted of collecting and, afterwards, analysing some physical and chemical parameters of this water, such as acidity, ionic concentrations, etc, with the purpose of characterizing the rainwater in Cidade Universitaria (SP, Brazil). After ending the practical part, it was possible to observe a 1,236.71 mm/y pluviosity, characterized by rainy summer and dry winter. The chemical-constituent-concentration analysis show us the predominance of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}, and a continental-origin water). The region of sao Paulo (Brazil), site of this study, is one of the largest metropolitan and industrialized areas of the world, which includes 18 million people, beside to an enormous industrial and vehicular complex. The acidity in the rain water is a complex problem and it must be treated by a range of disciplines to have a better comprehension of the cause/effects of the acid rain. (author) 96 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Human toxocariasis: incidence among residents in the outskirts of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Anaruma Filho Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of estimating the incidence of infection by Toxocara among residents in the outskirts of Campinas (State of São Paulo, Brazil two serological surveys, using ELISA anti-Toxocara tests, were performed in January 1999 and January 2000, involving, respectively, 138 and 115 individuals, 75 of which examined in both occasions. Among this group 67 individuals did not show the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in 1999, and 12 presented seroconversion in the second survey, revealing an annual incidence rate of 17.9%.

  20. [Aquatic macrophytes from a marginal lake of the Embu-mirim river, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyruth, Z

    1992-08-01

    In the years 1984/1985, limnological surveys were carried out at a marginal pond of the Embu-mirim river belonging to the hydrographic basin of Guarapiranga Reservoir (S. Paulo, Brazil), in order to obtain data for the determination of physical, chemical and biological parameters. Results obtained from the study of the aquatic macrophytes and their relationships with other environmental parameters are analyzed. Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, the dominant macrophyte, was observed in several water bodies of that basin, including the river it self, thus favoring an evaluation of its behavior in similar water bodies of the basin.

  1. Type specimens of Hymenoptera deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (excluding Aculeata

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    Helena C. Onody

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper lists the type specimens of Hymenoptera, excluding Aculeata, deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. We record all labels contents and also additional information from MZSP registers, published material, and other available sources. High resolution photographs of holotypes, lectotypes and syntypes are available through links to Specimage - the image database of The Ohio State University, where they are archived. The collection comprises a total of 332 type-specimens (32 holotypes, 266 paratypes, 12 syntypes, 20 paralectotypes and two lectotypes of eight superfamilies, 18 families, 31 subfamilies, 43 genera and 83 species.

  2. Infection of Amblyomma ovale with Rickettsia species Atlantic rainforest in Serra do Mar, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; McIntosh, Douglas; Furusawa, Guilherme P; Flausino, Walter; Rozental, Tatiana; Lemos, Elba R S; Landulfo, Gabriel A; Faccini, João Luiz H

    2016-10-01

    Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, that is considered to represent a genetic variant of Rickettsia parkeri, are confirmed as being capable of infecting humans in Brazil. This study reports the detection and characterization, by PCR and nucleotide sequencing, of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rain forest in Amblyomma ovale parasitizing a human, in ticks infesting dogs and in free-living ticks collected from the environment where the human infestation was recorded. The data contribute to our knowledge of infection rates in A. ovale with Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest and identified an additional location in the state of São Paulo populated with ticks infected with this emerging pathogen.

  3. Genetic characterization of Cacipacoré virus from ticks collected in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, Glauciane Garcia; Amarilla, Alberto Anastacio; de Souza, William Marciel; Fumagalli, Marcílio Jorge; de Figueiredo, Mário Luis Garcia; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Badra, Soraya Jabur; Setoh, Yin Xiang; Khromykh, Alexander A; Aquino, Victor Hugo; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2017-02-20

    Cacipacoré virus (CPCV) is a potential emerging virus classified in the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. In the present study, we present the genetic characterization of a CPCV isolated from ticks (Amblyomma cajennense) collected from a sick capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in São Paulo State, Brazil. The CPCV isolate shares the typical genomic organization of flaviviruses with 10,857 nucleotides in length and a single open reading frame of 10,284 nucleotides encoding a polyprotein of 3,427 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CPCV is unique, as a potentially tick-borne virus, in the Japanese encephalitis virus serogroup.

  4. Reproductive cycle of the swimming crab Portunus spinimanus Latreille (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura from Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Sandro Santos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses some reproductive aspects of Portunus spinimanus Latreille, 1819, a crab usually commercialized in Ubatuba region. Monthly otter-trawl collections were taken for two years along the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. The reproductive period was studied based on the frequency of ovigerous females in the population along the year; the frequency of physiologically mature swimming crabs and the type of spawn. The condition of development of ovigerous females ovary was associated with the stage of eggs development. This species presents continuous reproduction in Ubatuba region and total spawn, but with successive broods, which suggests a multiple spawn during the reproduction period.

  5. [Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in bromeliads grown in the Bauru Municipal Botanical Gardens, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Viviane Camila de; Almeida, Luiz Carlos de

    2017-01-23

    The aim of this study was to observe the occurrence of mosquito larvae, especially Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, in the tanks and axillae of bromeliads at the Bauru Municipal Botanical Gardens, São Paulo, Brazil, highlighting the epidemiological implications for the use of these plants. The majority of the larvae belonged to mosquitos from genus Culex, with only occasional findings of A. aegypti and A. albopictus. The use of screens for protection of the plants, exposure to sunlight, and larger amounts of water in the tanks may have influenced the occurrence and grouping of larvae.

  6. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy calves from the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meireles, Marcelo V; de Oliveira, Fernando P; Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício P; Coelho, William M D; Mendes, Luiz Cláudio N

    2011-09-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a common protozoan disease observed in a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including ruminants. Cattle can be a potential reservoir of Cryptosporidium spp., leading to environmental contamination with oocysts of zoonotic species. The molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from cattle from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, was accomplished using nested polymerase chain reaction for amplification of fragments of the 18S rRNA gene and the glycoprotein GP60 gene, following sequencing of amplified fragments. Positivity for Cryptosporidium was found in 10.7% (21/196) of the samples. Four species of Cryptosporidium were identified: C. andersoni, C. bovis, C. parvum subtype IIaA15G2R1, and C. ryanae. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of infection by C. ryanae and C. parvum IIaA15G2R1 in cattle from Brazil.

  7. New rare cave minerals from the Perolas-Santana karst system (Sào Paulo State, Brazil.

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    Forti Paolo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Perolas-Santana karst system (Sào Paulo State, Brazil has been partially studied from the mineralogical point of view. The present paper will contribute to the knowledge of the minerals in these caves, describing the occurrence of euhedral celestite crystals and of a rather rare mineral for a cavern environment: lithiophorite. Thanks to these new discoveries the Perolas-Santana karst system becomes one of the most important in Brazil from a mineralogical point of view. Finally, the result of the chemical analyses carried out on this newly discovered Monoxyhydroxide put in evidence a zonation in the distribution of the different elements which may be related to several subsequent depositional events characterized by solutions with a chemical content variable in time.

  8. Hipovitaminose A em comunidades do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Vitamin A deficiency in communities of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Maria José Roncada

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados inquéritos nutricionais completos (de consumo de alimentos, bioquímico e clínico referentes à deficiência de vitamina A em onze comunidades do Estado de São Paulo. O inquérito alimentar mostrou consumo muito baixo de alimentos fontes de vitamina A, tanto de origem animal como vegetal. O inquérito bioquímico mostrou alta prevalência de níveis plasmáticos de vitamina A classificados como "deficiente" e "baixo". O inquérito clínico mostrou baixos coeficientes de prevalência para lesões oculares, principalmente as mais graves. Embora nem a cegueira, nem as lesões oculares graves constituissem um problema de Saúde Pública, a maioria dessas populações corria o risco de que tais lesões viessem a se tornar um problema.Eleven communities of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, were surveyed for vitamin A deficiency, through food consumption survey, clinical survey and biochemical survey. The food consumption survey showed very low consumption of vitamin A rich foods, both animal and vegetable. The biochemical survey showed high prevalence of low and deficient plasma levels of vitamin A (ICNND classification. The clinical survey showed low prevalence rates for ocular lesions, specially the more severe ones. Although neither blindness nor severe ocular lesions are a Public Health problem the majority of populations are at risk of such lesions becoming a problem in the future.

  9. Cetacean records along São Paulo state coast, Southeastern Brazil

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    Marcos César de Oliveira Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The São Paulo state (SP coast (23º18'S, 44º42'W; 25º14'S, 48º01'W is of approximately 600 km in length, bordering the Western Atlantic Ocean, in southeastern Brazil. Cetacean sightings and strandings have long been observed throughout this area. Scattered data from scientific publications, skeletal remains in museums, photographs and articles from newspaper files, universities and aquaria have been organised and updated since 1993. Field investigations on strandings and sightings have also been conducted. A total of 29 cetacean species have been recorded, including 7 baleen whales (Mysticeti and 22 toothed whales (Odontoceti, as follows: Balaenoptera physalus, B. borealis, B. edeni, B. acutorostrata, B. bonaerensis, Megaptera novaeangliae, Eubalaena australis, Physeter macrocephalus, Kogia breviceps, K. sima, Berardius arnuxii, Mesoplodon europaeus, M. mirus, Ziphius cavirostris, Orcinus orca, Feresa attenuata, Globicephala melas, G. macrorhynchus, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus capensis, Lagenodelphis hosei, Steno bredanensis, Tursiops truncatus, Stenella frontalis, S. longirostris, S. coeruleoalba, Lissodelphis peronii, Sotalia guianensis and Pontoporia blainvillei. Several species have been observed only once and include strays from their areas of common distribution, as well as species with known preferences for offshore distribution. Others, such as P. blainvillei and S. guianensis, are common coastal dwellers year-round. Z. cavirostris, P. crassidens and L. hosei are reported for the first time on the SP coast.A costa do Estado de São Paulo (SP (23º18'S, 44º42'O; 25º14'S, 48º01'O apresenta aproximadamente 600 km de extensão voltada para o Oceano Atlântico Ocidental no sudeste do Brasil. Registros de encalhes e de avistamentos de cetáceos vêm sendo realizados ao longo desse litoral. Desde 1993, dados obtidos em literatura científica, material osteológico encontrado em museus, fotografias e artigos de arquivos de jornais

  10. Ozone Concentrations Patterns over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli, C. R.; Carvalho, V. S.; Martins, L. D.; Freitas, E. D.; Andrade, M.

    2009-05-01

    Eleven years of ozone concentrations were analyzed in order to characterize the tropospheric ozone behavior since 1996 up to 2006 over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP). MASP covers an area of 8.051 square kilometers, where approximately 19 million people live, and represents the most important economic region of Brazil. The main sources of pollutants in the MASP are the vehicles, which are responsible for more than 95% of CO, NOX and HC emission according to the São Paulo State Environmental Agency (CETESB). These pollutants are strictly correlated with ozone formation through a complex mechanism that depends mainly on a nonlinear mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The ozone concentrations are also affected by meteorological conditions, as solar radiation that will be important for the photolysis, and by transport processes from/to other regions. The established maximum hourly National Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone is frequently violated in the MASP. According to CETESB, during the last five years the annual average of NAAQS violations was 65 days. It is important to emphasize that during this period a substantial increase in the number of vehicles was observed. So far, there is no study available in the literature which evaluates the complete historical time series of the ozone concentration data collected in the air quality monitoring network of the MASP. In this study, data from 12 air quality monitoring stations distributed over the MASP were evaluated. In general, annual mean concentrations of primary pollutants decreased on the last two decades mostly due to the Brazilian Vehicular Emission Control Program (PROCONVE). The program by itself was responsible for a drop of almost 70% of vehicular emissions. However, ozone annual mean concentrations do not reveal the same trend. Among 10 air quality monitoring sites four of it presented a reduction of ozone concentration values while the others six presented

  11. The invasive spotted-wing Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae has been found in the city of São Paulo (Brazil

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    Carlos Ribeiro Vilela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The invasive spotted-wing Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae has been found in the city of São Paulo (Brazil. Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931, the cherry fly or spotted-wing Drosophila, a pest species from the Oriental and southeastern Palaearctic regions belonging to the melanogaster group, invaded the Nearctic and western countries of the Palaearctic regions late last decade (2008 and, more recently (2013, the southern Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. Early in 2014 it was reared from blueberries produced in São Joaquim, state of Santa Catarina, that were bought at a São Paulo city grocery store. Despite being a cold-adapted species, after having arrived to the southeastern state of São Paulo, this invasive fly will probably expand its territory to other Brazilian states and South American countries through trade of cultivated soft skin small fruits, such as blueberries and strawberries, as well as naturally through the use of small wild fruits as breeding sites.

  12. Preliminary report on management of neonatal jaundice in maternity clinics of São Paulo city, Brazil

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    Fernando Bastos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia remains aproblem because it can lead to sequelae in both children and adults. Theobjective of this study was to evaluate how neonatal jaundice is treatedin maternity hospitals in the city of São Paulo. Methods: Prospective andtransversal study on maternity hospitals in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Aquestionnaire was applied to doctors working at neonatal wards withinmaternity hospitals in the city of São Paulo, divided into public (n = 6 andprivate maternity clinics (n = 18. The results obtained from the differentitems of the questionnaire were then compared. Statistical analysis wasperformed using the Student’s t test, chi-square test and Mann-Whitneytest when appropriate, and a p value < 0.005 was considered significant.Results: There were no significant differences between the two typesof maternity hospitals in relation to the treatment method for neonataljaundice. However, among private maternities there were some that didnot have written guidelines (5/17 and those that performed exchangetransfusion (3/18. Teaching was significantly more present amongpublic (100% than private maternity hospitals (17.6%. The mean serumbilirubin levels to initiate treatment did not show significant differencesbetween the two types of maternities. Some clinical practices in use bymaternity hospitals are not evidence based. Conclusions: The presentdata were considered preliminary and showed that further research inthe area is required and if our findings are confirmed, indicate the needfor continuous medical education on the part of health professionals incharge of newborns.

  13. The impact of epidemic violence on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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    Wagner Silva Ribeiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Violence and other traumatic events, as well as psychiatric disorders are frequent in developing countries, but there are few population studies to show the actual impact of traumatic events in the psychiatric morbidity in low and middle-income countries (LMIC. AIMS: To study the relationship between traumatic events and prevalence of mental disorders in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey carried out in 2007-2008 with a probabilistic representative sample of 15- to 75-year-old residents in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. RESULTS: The sample comprised 3744 interviews. Nearly 90% of participants faced lifetime traumatic events. Lifetime prevalence of any disorders was 44% in Sao Paulo and 42.1% in Rio de Janeiro. One-year estimates were 32.5% and 31.2%. One-year prevalence of traumatic events was higher in Rio de Janeiro than Sao Paulo (35.1 vs. 21.7; p<0.001. Participants from Rio de Janeiro were less likely to have alcohol dependence (OR = 0.55; p = 0.027, depression (OR = 0.6; p = 0.006 generalized anxiety (OR = 0.59; p = 0.021 and post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.62; p = 0.027. Traumatic events correlated with all diagnoses--e.g. assaultive violence with alcohol dependence (OR = 5.7; p<0.001 and with depression (OR = 1.7; p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that psychiatric disorders and traumatic events, especially violence, are extremely common in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, supporting the idea that neuropsychiatric disorders and external causes have become a major public health priority, as they are amongst the leading causes of burden of disease in low and middle-income countries. The comparison between the two cities regarding patterns of violence and psychiatric morbidity suggests that environmental factors may buffer the negative impacts of traumatic events. Identifying

  14. Status of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) as a pest of coconut in the state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D C; de Moraes, G J; Dias, C T S

    2012-08-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is one of the main pests of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of the coconut mite and other mites on coconut palms in the state of São Paulo and to estimate the possible role of predatory mites in the control of this pest. The effect of cultivated genotypes and sampling dates on the mite populations was also estimated. We sampled attached fruits, leaflets, inflorescences, and fallen fruits. The coconut mite was the main phytophagous mite found on attached and fallen fruits, with average densities of 110.0 and 20.5 mites per fruit, respectively. The prevalent predatory mites on attached and fallen fruits were Proctolaelaps bulbosus Moraes, Reis & Gondim Jr. and Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram), both Melicharidae. On leaflets, the tenuipalpids Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijsks) and Tenuipalpus coyacus De Leon and the tetranychid Oligonychus modestus (Banks) were the predominant phytophagous mites. On both leaflets and inflorescences, the predominant predatory mites belonged to the Phytoseiidae. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), predators widely associated with the coconut mite in northeastern Brazil and several other countries, were not found. The low densities of the coconut mite in São Paulo could be related to prevailing climatic conditions, scarcity of coconut plantations (hampering the dispersion of the coconut mite between fields), and to the fact that some of the genotypes cultivated in the region are unfavorable for its development.

  15. Assessment of ametryn contamination in river water, river sediment, and mollusk bivalves in São Paulo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacomini, Analu Egydio; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Avelar, Wagner Eustáquio Paiva; Bonato, Pierina Sueli

    2011-04-01

    São Paulo state, Brazil, is one of the main areas of sugar cane agriculture in the world. Herbicides, in particular, ametryn, are extensively used in this extensive area, which implies that this herbicide is present in the environment and can contaminate the surface water by running off. Thereby, residues of ametryn were analyzed in samples of river water an river sediment and in freshwater bivalves obtained from the rivers Sapucaí, Pardo and Mogi-Guaçu in São Paulo State, Brazil. Samples were taken in the winter of 2003 and 2004 in two locations in each river. The specimens of freshwater bivalves collected and analyzed were Corbicula fluminea, an exotic species, and Diplodon fontaineanus, a native species. Additionally, the evaluation of the ability of bioconcentration and depuration of ametryn by the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea was also performed. Ametryn concentrations in the samples were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Residues of ametryn in water (50 ng/L) and in freshwater bivalves (2-7 ng/g) were found in the Mogi-Guaçu River in 2004, and residues in river sediments were found in all rivers in 2003 and 2004 (0.5-2 ng/g). The observation of the aquatic environment through the analysis of these matrixes, water, sediment, and bivalves, revealed the importance of the river sediment in the accumulation of the herbicide ametryn, which can contaminate the biota.

  16. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br; Nogueira, C.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saiki, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Milian, F.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, M. [Instituto de Botanica, Av. Miguel Stefano No. 3687, CEP 04301-012, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad plant able to absorb water and nutrients directly from the air. For this reason this species was selected to carry out a monitoring study of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Five consecutive transplantation experiments (8 weeks each) were performed in 10 sites of the city, submitted to different sources of air pollution (industrial, vehicular), using plants collected from an unpolluted area. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Traffic-related elements such as Zn and Ba presented high concentrations in exposure sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and may be associated to vehicular sources. For Zn and Co the highest contents were related to industrial zones and can be associated to the presence of anthropogenic emission sources. The rare earth elements, Fe and Rb, probably have soil particles as main source. - This paper is the first work on the use of biomonitors to assess metal pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, the biggest city in Latin America.

  17. Correlation of fungi and endotoxin with PM2.5 and meteorological parameters in atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degobbi, Cristiane; Lopes, Fernanda D. T. Q. S.; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Muñoz, Julian Esteban; Saldiva, Paulo H. N.

    2011-04-01

    Particulate matter, especially PM2.5, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory diseases. Studies that focus on the chemical composition of the material are frequent in the literature, but those that characterize the biological fraction are rare. The objectives of this study were to characterize samples collected in Sao Paulo, Brazil on the quantity of fungi and endotoxins associated with PM2.5, correlating with the mass of particulate matter, chemical composition and meteorological parameters. We did that by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regressions. The results have shown that fungi and endotoxins represent significant portion of PM2.5, reaching average concentrations of 772.23 spores μg -1 of PM2.5 (SD: 400.37) and 5.52 EU mg -1 of PM2.5 (SD: 4.51 EU mg -1), respectively. Hyaline basidiospores, Cladosporium and total spore counts were correlated to factor Ba/Ca/Fe/Zn/K/Si of PM2.5 ( p Endotoxin was positively correlated with the atmospheric temperature ( p < 0.05). This study has shown that bioaerosol is present in considerable amounts in PM2.5 in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Some fungi were correlated with soil particle resuspension and mass of particulate matter. Therefore, the relative contribution of bioaerosol in PM2.5 should be considered in future studies aimed at evaluating the clinical impact of exposure to air pollution.

  18. Biomarkers as indicators of fungal biomass in the atmosphere of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emygdio, Ana Paula Mendes; Andrade, Maria de Fátima; Gonçalves, Fabio Luiz Teixeira; Engling, Guenter; Zanetti, Rafael Henrique de Souza; Kumar, Prashant

    2017-09-04

    The biogenic aerosol contribution to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) mass concentration is usually neglected due to the difficulty in identifying its components, although it can be significant. In the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP)-Brazil, several studies have been performed to identify sources for PM, revealing vehicular emissions and soil re-suspension as the main identified sources. The organic fraction has been related primarily to biomass burning (BB) and fuel combustion, although there is significant presence of green areas in the city which render biogenic emissions as an additional source of organic carbon (OC). The objectives of this work are to (i) characterise the composition of the PM10 (ii) estimate the relative mass contribution of fungal spores to PM concentrations with sizes smaller than 10μm (PM10) in MASP and (iii) assess the main sources of PM10. To achieve these objectives, we measured markers of biogenic sources and BB, during the fall-winter transition, which along with other constituents, such as ions, organic/elemental carbon, elemental composition and fungal spore concentrations, help assess the PM10 sources. We used receptor models to identify distinct source-related PM10 fractions and conversion factors to convert biomarker concentrations to fungal mass. Our results show the mean contributions of fungal aerosol to PM10 and OC mass were 2% and 8%, respectively, indicating the importance of fungal spores to the aerosol burden in the urban atmosphere. Using specific rotation factor analysis, we identified the following factors contributing to PM: soil re-suspension, biogenic aerosol, secondary inorganic aerosol, vehicular emissions and BB/isoprene-related secondary organic aerosol (I-SOA). BB/I-SOA was the main source representing 28% of the PM10 mass, while biogenic aerosol explained a significant (11%) fraction of the PM10 mass as well. Our findings suggest that primary biogenic aerosol is an important fraction of PM10 mass

  19. Spatial variability studies in São Paulo, Brazil along the last twenty five years

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    Sidney Rosa Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil properties vary in space due to many causes. For this reason it is wise to know the magnitude and behaviour of the variability for adequate data analysis and decision making. Our work on spatial variability of soil properties in São Paulo, Brazil began in 1982 with a very simple soil sampling in a small field. Much progress has been made since then on sampling designs, field equipment and methods, and mostly on computation equipment and softwares. This paper reports the results corresponding to some aspects of this progress, as far as the field, analysis and computation work are concerned. The objective of this study was to illustrate the use of geostatistics in data analysis for three sampling conditions on long term no-tillage system. The analysis is done on a wide range of field scales, variables, sampling schemes as well as repeating sampling scheme for the same variable in different years. Semivariograms are compared for the same variables in different scales and sampling dates and depths as to provide a guide for sampling spacing and number of samples. Normalized crop yield parameters for many years are used in the discussion of time variability and on the use of yield maps to locate management zones. The time of the year in which measurements of soil physical properties are made affected the results both in terms of descriptive statistical and spatial dependence parameters. Crop yields changed (soybean decrease and maize increase with time of no-tillage but the real cause was not identified. The length of time with no-tillage affected the range of dependence for the main crops (increased for soybean, maize and oats and therefore increased the size of the homogeneous management zones. The evolution of the sampling grid from 20 m with 63 sampling points to 10 m with 302 sampling points allowed for a much better knowledge of the spatial variability of crop yields but it had the reverse effect on the spatial variability of soil physical

  20. Antifouling activity of seaweed extracts from Guarujá, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Heloisa Elias Medeiros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine biofouling historically constitutes one of the major constraints faced by mankind in its oceanic activities. The search for alternatives to TBT-based antifouling paints has led several researchers to focus efforts in the development of environmentally friendly natural compounds. This work has contributed with this search, testing the antifouling potential of crude organic extracts from four seaweed species collected at Praia Branca, Guarujá district, São Paulo, Brazil. Throughout laboratory antifouling assays in which the attachment of a common fouling organism, the brown mussel Perna perna, was employed, antifouling activity (p A incrustação biológica constitui, historicamente, um dos maiores problemas encontrados pelo homem em suas atividades no mar. A busca por alternativas a tintas antiincrustantes contendo tributilestanho (TBT tem levado diversos pesquisadores a concentrar esforços no desenvolvimento de substâncias naturais menos danosas à biota marinha. Este trabalho procurou contribuir com essa busca, testando o potencial antiincrustante de quatro diferentes espécies de macroalgas da Praia Branca, município de Guarujá, SP. Através de testes antiincrustantes em laboratório utilizando a fixação de um organismo incrustante comum, o mexilhão Perna perna, foi constatado que os extratos de Jania rubens (Rhodophyta, Cryptonemiales e Bryothamnion seaforthii (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales, à concentração natural, apresentaram atividade antiincrustante significativa (p < 0,05, enquanto Dictyopteris delicatula (Phaeophyta, Dictyotales e Heterosiphonia gibbesii (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales não demonstraram eficiência na inibição da fixação de bissos do molusco. Das algas que indicaram potencial atividade contra a incrustação, J. rubens apresentou melhor desempenho em relação a B. seaforthii. Futuras investigações em campo serão necessárias para a obtenção de resultados que possam refletir melhor as condições naturais

  1. Survey of volatile organic compounds associated with automotive emissions in the urban airshed of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, Maribel; Pleil, Joachim D.; Hartlage, Thomas A.; Lucia Guardani, M.; Helena Martins, M.

    The Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP), Brazil, is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world (population 17 million, approx.) and relies heavily on alcohol-based fuels for automobiles. It is estimated that about 40% of the total volume of fuel is ethanol with some vehicles using pure ethanol and others a gasoline/ethanol blend. As such, São Paulo is an excellent example of an oxygenates-dominated airshed of mobile sources and is most likely indicative of the future in heavily populated areas in the US such as Los Angeles where "oxy-fuels" are becoming an important replacement for the conventional pure petroleum-based fuels. In this work, we surveyed the ambient air to identify and quantify the organic compounds associated with the evaporative and exhaust emissions of these fuels and to begin to understand the potential for human exposure. Because this was an initial test without detailed prior knowledge of the airshed of the area, we applied two different air sampling methods for various time periods to assess the ambient concentrations of a variety of polar and nonpolar volatile organic compounds (VOCs). For quality assurance (QA), we collected all the samples in duplicate (whole-air samples in Summa canisters and adsorbent-based samples on Perkin-Elmer Air Toxics tubes) at various flow rates to test performance. All samples were collected over identical time frames, typically for 1-, 2-, and 4-h periods per day at six different locations over a period of 1 week. Overall São Paulo results demonstrate that mean concentrations of single-ring aromatics are 2-3 times higher, volatile aldehydes are 5-10 times higher, and simple alcohols 10-100 times higher as compared to results of a recent study performed by EPA in the Los Angeles basin. C 4-C 11n-alkanes were only slightly elevated in São Paulo.

  2. Reproduction and management of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ucididae at Iguape, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO S. SANT'ANNA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mangrove crab Ucides cordatus is one of the most exploited crustaceans in Brazil. The present study investigated the breeding season of this species and the period of the “andada” phenomenon, when the crabs are active outside their burrows and perform agonistic behaviors. Furthermore related them to environmental factors, in a mangrove on the coast of Brazil, with inferences about management of this crab. The crabs reproduced from October through February. The “andada” occurred from November through February, with typical characteristics in the first two months, during the full and new moon periods, and was influenced positively by the air and soil temperature, luminosity, and tidal amplitude, and negatively by salinity. Based on the results of the present study, the period when the “andada” occurs in other parts of Brazil could be defined, which will aid in managing this fishery. For Iguape, state of São Paulo, Brazil, we suggest a legal off-season for both sexes in December or during the full and new moon, including January.

  3. Living conditions and access to health services by Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Cássio Silveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bolivian immigrants in Brazil experience serious social problems: precarious work conditions, lack of documents and insufficient access to health services. The study aimed to investigate inequalities in living conditions and access to health services among Bolivian immigrants living in the central area of São Paulo, Brazil, using a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews with 183 adults. According to the data, the immigrants tend to remain in Brazil, thus resulting in an aging process in the group. Per capita income increases the longer the immigrants stay in the country. The majority have secondary schooling. Work status does not vary according to time since arrival in Brazil. The immigrants work and live in garment sweatshops and speak their original languages. Social networks are based on ties with family and friends. Access to health services shows increasing inclusion in primary care. The authors conclude that the immigrants' social exclusion is decreasing due to greater access to documentation, work (although precarious, and the supply of health services from the public primary care system.

  4. The mental health of Korean immigrants in São Paulo, Brazil Saúde mental dos imigrantes coreanos em São Paulo, Brasil

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    Sam Kang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the frequency of lifetime mental disorders among Korean immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Snowball sampling with multiple focuses was used to recruit Korean immigrants older than 18 years and living in São Paulo. A total of 324 Korean immigrants were selected and their mental status was evaluated using a structured interview, namely the Portuguese or the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1. The diagnoses of mental disorders were made according to the ICD-10. The frequency of any lifetime psychiatric disorder was 41.9%. The frequencies of main disorders were: anxiety disorder, 13% (post-traumatic stress disorder, 9.6%; mood disorder, 8.6%; somatoform disorders, 7.4%; dissociative disorder, 4.9%; psychotic disorder, 4.3%; eating disorder, 0.6%; any substance (tobacco, alcohol, drugs use disorder, 23.1%. The frequency of any psychiatric disorder except alcohol and tobacco use disorders was 26.2%. Korean immigrants have more psychiatric disorders than the Korean population in Korea, particularly post-traumatic stress disorder, and almost the same rate as the Brazilian population. Mental health authorities should promote a healthier integration and the development of culturally sensitive mental health programs for Korean immigrants.Este estudo verificou a freqüência de transtornos psiquiátricos em uma comunidade de imigrantes coreanos na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. A amostragem snowball com vários focos foi utilizada para contatar os imigrantes coreanos, acima de 18 anos e residentes em São Paulo. Foram selecionados 324 sujeitos, cuja saúde mental foi avaliada por meio de uma entrevista estruturada, Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1, nas versões em português e coreano. Foi utilizado o critério de diagnóstico CID-10. A freqüência de algum diagnóstico psiquiátrico na vida foi de 41,9%. As freqüências de principais diagnósticos na vida foram

  5. Briófitas de praias do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Bryophytes from sea-shores of the São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Sandra Regina Visnadi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho compõe-se de uma lista de briófitas, um grupo de plantas ausente em ambientes marinhos, porém ocorrente em condições arenosas e salinas e sob ação das ondas e dos ventos nas praias de Ubatuba, Bertioga e Peruíbe, no Estado de São Paulo. O material coletado encontra-se depositado nos herbários SP e HRCB. As 108 exsicatas com 67 amostras de hepáticas e 59 amostras de musgos incluem 25 famílias, 49 gêneros e 77 espécies de briófitas. Os maiores números de gêneros e espécies foram observados em Lejeuneaceae e Lejeunea, respectivamente, entre as hepáticas. O mesmo pode ser dito para Orthotrichaceae e Bryum, quanto aos musgos. São citadas 29 espécies, pela primeira vez, para determinados tipos de substratos como solo, casca de arbustos e rochas. As hepáticas Ceratolejeunea laetefusca (Austin R.M. Schust., Colura ulei Ast., Lejeunea bermudiana (A. Evans R.M. Schust. e os musgos Calymperes afzelii Sw., Fissidens serratus Müll. Hal. e Weissia controversa Hedw. são citados pela primeria vez para o Estado de São Paulo. As hepáticas superaram os musgos em número de gêneros e espécies. Todas as espécies listadas são citadas pela primeira vez para praias.This paper is a list of the bryophytes found in sandy and saline conditions under action of waves and winds of sea-shores in Ubatuba, Bertioga and Peruíbe Municipalities, São Paulo State, Brazil. The group does not exist in marine environments. The material is deposited in SP and HRCB herbarium. The 108 exsiccatae with 67 samples of hepatics and 59 samples of mosses include 25 families, 49 genera and 77 species of bryophytes. Concerning to hepatics, the largest number of genera and species were found in Lejeuneaceae and Lejeunea, respectively. The same was observed on Orthotrichaceae and Bryum for mosses. Twenty-nine species are cited for the first time for these kind of substrates as soil, bark of shrubs and rocks. The hepatics Ceratolejeunea laetefusca (Austin R

  6. A sazonalidade do tromboembolismo venoso no clima subtropical de São Paulo Seasonal variation of venous thromboembolism in the subtropical climate of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Daniela Kleinfelder

    2009-03-01

    is known about such interference in our latitude. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether there are seasonal variations in venous thromboembolism in a hospital-based population in São Paulo, Brazil, which has subtropical climate. METHODS: Medical records of patients admitted to Hospital da Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo with the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary thromboembolism were reviewed from January 1996 to October 2003. Cases were grouped in trimesters (first trimester = January, February and March; second trimester = April, May and June; third trimester = July, August and September; fourth trimester = October, November and December. They were also grouped as to warm and cold months, according to mean temperature (warm months = October through April; cold months = May through September. RESULTS: A total of 955 cases of venous thromboembolism were found during the study period. The ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis, showing no significant difference in the occurrence of venous thromboembolism considering the four trimesters. Separate analysis of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism incidence showed no differences either. Comparing warm and cold months, there was an increased incidence of deep venous thrombosis during warm months (p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney test. CONCLUSION: Venous thromboembolism is not clearly related to climatic variations. The influence of climate and temperature on blood coagulability is poorly understood and needs to be further studied.

  7. Radiation protection in radiology services in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Protecao radiologica nos servicos de radiologia do Municipio de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senise, Paulo H.; Silva, Ezequiel; Ruzene, Anderson A.; Braga, Adriano C.; Spirgatis, Armim, E-mail: paulo.senise@fidi.org.br, E-mail: ezequieI.siIva@fidi.org.br, E-mail: anderson.ruzene@fidi.org.br, E-mail: adriano.braga@fidi.org.br, E-mail: armim.spirgatis@fidi.org.br [Fundacao lnstituto de Pesquisa e Estudo de Diagnostico por Imagem (FIDI), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, Regina B., E-mail: regina.bitelli@fidi.org.br [Instituto de Pesquisa e Ensino em Medicina Diagnostica e Terapeutica (IPmed), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    The FIDI company providing service to local health care system is responsible for managing part of the services diagnostic imaging of Sao Paulo in the South and Southeast ( 60 % ), Eastern ( 20 % ) and Midwest (20 %), Brazil. The generation of images in the municipal net is performed in conventional manner. Since 2009 works a maintenance associated with the verification of the performance of radiological equipment (annual) and processing (monthly) one. In 2008, on the occasion of the agreement between the city hall and FIDI, conditions were evaluated for radiological protection in 52 care units of the municipality. Were carried out verification tests of performance in conventional equipment, mammographic and tomographic equipment, in 138 and 71 analog processors, according to current legislation. In 2008 , 33 % of the devices had technical problems that prevented its operation. Currently only 3.4 % of the 91 are in radiological equipment maintenance. In 2008 the majority of radiological equipment had more than 10 years of manufacturing, while today fixed equipment have been replaced by new ones and therefore the use of mammography and generally have 2 to 3 years of manufacture . Currently the 31 processors are operative in 2008, 28 % were out of order. The replacement of most of the equipment associated with program quality and preventive/corrective maintenance has kept the service in accordance with the law. (author)

  8. Cambios en el uso de la tierra y de la infraestructura en la región de San Miguel Paulo (Sao Paulo, Brasil durante 1968-1999

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    Vanessa Meloni Massara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available El artículo tiene como objetivo el estudio de una zona periférica de São Paulo, en términos de cambios en el uso del suelo en paralelo con el despliegue de infraestructura de red en un intento de vincular la ocupación urbana a las mejoras en los servicios prioritarios como el abastecimiento de agua y recogida de aguas residuales. Es posible concluir que las primeras áreas ocupadas como el centro histórico y se expandió la ciudad, recibió los servicios más rápidamente, lo que indica que no sólo los factores como la densidad de población puede influir en las redes de distribución.Palabras clave: Sao Paulo (Brasil; el uso de la tierra; infraestructura___________________________AbstractThe paper aims to study a peripheral area of São Paulo in terms of changes in land use in parallel with the deployment of network infrastructure in an attempt to link the urban occupation to improvements in priority services such as water supply and sewage collection. It is possible to conclude that first occupied areas as the historical center and expanded the city, received services more quickly, indicating that not only factors such as density population can influence the distribution networks.Keywords: city of São Paulo (Brasil; land use; infrastructure.

  9. A catalogue of the types of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker

    2015-02-12

    Following a recommendation of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, a catalogue of the type specimens of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) held in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (MZUSP) is provided, with information on 30 type specimens (including 14 primary types) of 17 Neotropical species.

  10. Alternatives for the Training of Skilled Industrial Labor in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Program of Studies in Non-Formal Education, Supplementary Series. Paper No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukomski, Michael

    The study deals with the development of skilled industrial manpower in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and with the Federal government's SENAI (Service Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial) industrial apprenticeship and trainign program. An analysis of six variables among lathe setter-operators showed that: present work situations among the operators varied…

  11. First description of necrosis in leaves and pseudo-bulbs of Oncidium orchids caused by Burkholderia gladioli in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A necrosis of orchid leaves and pseudobulbs was observed in a commercial orchid nursery in Mogi das Cruzes, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The symptoms were water-soaked, brown lesions that can develop into large areas of necrosis that extend throughout the entire plant, ultimately causing death. Bacteria were...

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas caviae CH129, a Marine-Derived Bacterium Isolated from the Coast of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso Vargas, Nadia Catalina; Zimpel, Cristina Kraemer; Pessoa, Adalberto; Rivera, Irma Nelly Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas caviae CH129, a marine-derived bacterium isolated from the coast of São Paulo state, Brazil. Genomic analysis revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in binding, transport, and chitin metabolism and different virulence-associated factors. PMID:27908996

  13. Species of Syllis Savigny in Lamarck, 1818 (Polychaeta: Syllidae) living in corals in the state of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matos Nogueira, de João Miguel; San Martin, Guillermo

    2002-01-01

    Eleven species of Syllis Lamarck, 1818 found in living coral heads of Mussismilia hispida (Verrill, 1868) in the State of São Paulo (Brazil) are reported and described, based on detailed analysis under stereo-, light, and scanning electron microscopes. Comments on the identity of each species are pr

  14. Lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires and industrial emissions in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landulfo, E.; Jorge, Maria Paulete M. P.; Held, Gerhard; Guardani, Roberto; Steffens, Juliana; dos Anjos F. Pinto, Sergio; Andre, Iara R.; Garcia, Gilberto; Lopes, F. J. S.; Mariano, Glauber L.; da Costa, Renata F.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.

    2010-10-01

    Brazil has an important role in the biomass burning, with the detection of approximately 100,000 burning spots in a single year (2007). Most of these spots occur in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the dry season (from August to november) and these emissions reach the southeast of the country, a highly populated region and with serious urban air pollution problems. With the growing demand on biofuels, sugarcane is considerably expanding in the state of Sao Paulo, being a strong contributor to the bad air quality in this region. In the state of Sao Paulo, the main land use are pasture and sugarcane crop, that covers around 50% and 10% of the total area, respectively. Despite the aerosol from sugarcane burning having reduced atmospheric residence time, from a few days to some weeks, they might get together with those aerosol which spread over long distances (hundreds to thousands of kilometers). In the period of June through February 2010 a LIDAR observation campaign was carried in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in order to observe and characterize optically the aerosols from two distinct sources, namely, sugar cane biomass burning and industrial emissions. For this purpose 2 LIDAR systems were available, one mobile and the other placed in a laboratory, both working in the visible (532 nm) and additionally the mobile system had a Raman channel available (607 nm). Also this campaign counted with a SODAR, a meteorological RADAR specially set up to detect aerosol "echoes" and gas-particle analyzers. To guarantee a good regional coverage 4 distinct sites were available to deploy the instruments, 2 in the near field of biomass burning activities (Rio Claro and Bauru), one for industrial emissions (Cubatao) and others from urban sources (Sao Paulo). The whole campaign provide the equivalent of 30 days of measurements which allowed us to get aerosol optical properties such as backscattering/extinction coefficients, scatter and LIDAR ratios, those were used to

  15. Pre-travel malaria chemoprophylaxis counselling in a public travel medicine clinic in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Tânia do Socorro Souza; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Alves, Jessé Reis; Lacerda, Marcus; Lopes, Marta Heloisa

    2017-02-07

    Malaria is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in the world and represents a threat to travellers visiting endemic areas. Chemoprophylaxis is the prevention measure used in travel medicine, avoiding clinical manifestations and protecting against the development of severe disease and death. Retrospective and descriptive analysis of malaria prevention data in travellers was recorded from a travel medicine clinic in São Paulo, Brazil, between January 2006 and December 2010. All the medical records of travellers, who had travelled to areas with risk of disease transmission, including Brazil, were analysed. Demographic characteristics of travellers, travel details and recommendations for preventing malaria were also seen. During the study period, 2836 pre-travel consultations were carried out on 2744 individuals (92 were consulted twice). The most common reasons for travelling were tourism and work. The most common destinations were Africa (24.5%), Europe (21.2%), Asia (16.6%) and locations within Brazil (14.9%). In general prophylaxis against malaria was recommended in 10.3% of all the consultations. African destinations vs Asian, Brazilian and other destinations and length of stay ≤30 days were independently associated with the higher odds of chemoprophylaxis recommendation after the logistic regression. The prophylaxis against malaria was recommended in 10.3% of the consultations. The authors believe that a coherent measure of malaria prevention in Brazil and for international travellers would be to recommend for all parts of the North Brazil, avoidance of mosquito bites and immediate consultation of a physician in case of fever during or after the journey is recommended.

  16. Rhizopogon (Rhizopogonaceae: hypogeous fungi in exotic plantations from the State of São Paulo, Brazil Rhizopogon (Rhizopogonaceae: fungos hipógeos em plantações exóticas no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Iuri Goulart Baseia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey on the genus Rhizopogon, associated with roots of exotic trees in State of São Paulo (Brazil, was undertaken from January /1999 to September/2000. Three species were identified: R. luteolus Fr., R. roseolus Corda sensu A. H. Smith and R. rubescens Tul. This is the first report of R. luteolus and R. roseolus from Brazil.Um estudo sobre o gênero Rhizopogon, associado com raízes de árvores exóticas no Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, foi realizado de Janeiro/1999 até Setembro/2000. Três espécies foram identificadas: R. luteolus Fr., R. roseolus Corda sensu A. H. Smith e R. rubescens Tul. Este é o primeiro registro de R.. luteolus e R.. roseolus para o Brasil.

  17. Canal*Motoboy, São Paulo (Brazil: communication for social change Canal*Motoboy, São Paulo (Brasil: Comunicación para el cambio social

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    Alisson DIAS GOMES

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, reference media faces the alternative media propagation, which uses different means and it is based on the work of independent producers who target the information democratization in every possible format at no cost and created by «common citizens». The Canal*Motoboy, a project by the Catalan Antoni Abad, is an example of this kind of communication. He aims to consolidate an open structure in order to give voice to motoboys from São Paulo (SP, Brazil. After being properly trained and by using their multimedia cell phones, they register their routine on Canal*Motoboy website. This article analyzes the progress of this project, based on the communication for social change, once the right to freedom of expression, historically, has been expropriated from citizens on account of the expansion of communication conglomerates. The methodological approach will consist of observation and deep interview technique, as well as literature review.En la actualidad, los medios de comunicación se contraponen a la propagación de los medios alternativos dirigidos a la democratización de informaciones generadas por ciudadanos comunes. El Canal*Motoboy constituye un ejemplo de esa modalidad de comunicación. Su propuesta es consolidar una estructura abierta para dar voz al colectivo de motoboys de São Paulo (SP en Brasil. Debidamente entrenados y recurriendo al teléfono móvil multimedia, registran su día-a-día en el website Canal*Motoboy. Este artículo analiza este proyecto, a partir de la concepción de la comunicación para el cambio social, una vez que el derecho a la libertad de expresión, históricamente, ha sido expropiado a los ciudadanos por cuenta de la expansión de los conglomerados comunicacionales. Además de la revisión de literatura, el objeto de estudio se ha abordado desde una perspectiva cualitativa a través de la técnica de observación y de entrevista en profundidad para las informaciones de actores del colectivo.

  18. Onuphidae (Annelida, Polychaeta da região de Ubatuba, litoral norte do estado de São Paulo, Brasil Onuphidae (Annelida, Polychaeta from Ubatuba, north coast of the São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Eloisa H Morgado

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten species of onuphid polychaetes were identified from the sublitoral of Ubatuba, on the coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil: Diopatra cuprea (Bosc, 1802; Diopatra tridentata Hartman, 1944; Kinhergonuphis difficilis (Fauchald, 1982; Kinhergonuphis fauchaldi Lana, 1991; Kinhergonuphis orensanzi (Fauchald, 1982; Kinhergonuphis tenuis (Hansen, 1882; Mooreonuphis nebulosa (Moore, 1911; Mooreonuphis pallidula (Hartman, 1965; Mooreonuphis intermedia (Kinberg, 1865; Onuphis dibranchiala Willey, 1905. A discussion on the characteristics of the species found and related species is also provided.

  19. Características do uso de métodos anticoncepcionais no Estado de São Paulo Aspects of anticontraception methods used on São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Elisabeth Meloni Vieira

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar dados coletados pela Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde, de 1996, sobre o uso de métodos anticoncepcionais no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Os dados obtidos foram analisados comparativamente com os do Brasil e com os de outra pesquisa similar realizada em 1986. Foi examinado o uso de métodos anticoncepcionais entre mulheres não-solteiras (casadas ou em coabitação, focalizando-se idade, número de filhos, escolaridade, idade na esterilização feminina e momento da esterilização. Para análise estatística, utilizaram-se o teste t-Student e o teste não-paramétrico de Kendall. RESULTADOS: Diferentemente do Brasil, houve estabilização dos índices de esterilização feminina no Estado de São Paulo no período estudado. Observou-se um mesmo padrão de uso de métodos no Brasil e em São Paulo: até os 30 anos, o método predominante foi a pílula; e, depois dos 30 anos, predominou a esterilização feminina, que aumenta com o número de filhos e diminui com a escolaridade. O uso de métodos masculinos aumentou nos últimos anos, sendo maior em São Paulo, que também apresenta maior diversidade no uso de métodos reversíveis. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar das diferenças, o uso predominante de apenas dois métodos anticoncepcionais, em São Paulo e no Brasil, reflete distorções na oferta do planejamento familiar e na saúde reprodutiva no contexto da nova regulamentação do planejamento familiar.OBJECTIVE: To analyze data on contraceptive use in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, collected by the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS conducted in 1996. METHODS: The study data were compared to 1986 DHS and 1996 data on the Brazilian population. Contraceptive use among married or cohabiting women was evaluated focusing on age, number of children, schooling, and age and timing of female sterilization. Statistical analysis was performed using Student t-test and Kendall's non-parametric test. RESULTS: Unlike data on

  20. Determination of metals by neutron activation analysis in soils collected near the Bandeirantes road, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Determinacao de metais em solos proximos a Rodovia dos Bandeirantes, Sao Paulo, por ativacao neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Morcelli, Claudia P.R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br, clprm@uol.com.br; Sigolo, Joel B. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: jbsigolo@usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The elements As, Ba, Co, Cr, Sb, Se and Zn were determined in roadside soils collected at the Bandeirantes road, in Sao Paulo, Brazil. This road was selected due to its traffic density (about 30,000 vehicles daily). Sampling was made at 4 sites, at about 30-50 km from Sao Paulo, with varying traffic volumes and driving styles (stop/start vs. constant speed). Soil samples were collected along transects perpendicular to the traffic-lane, in a depth range of 0- 5 cm and at distances of 40, 140, 240, 340, 440 and 540 cm from the roadway. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used as analytical technique. The Co and Se concentration levels agreed with reference values for soils in Sao Paulo, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). The results obtained for the elements Ba, Cr, Sb and Zn near the road showed concentration levels much higher than the values considered as reference values for soils in Sao Paulo, indicating that these elements are directly influenced by traffic conditions and distance. The element As presented higher concentrations than reference values in sampling points distant from the road, indicating a different anthropogenic source. (author)

  1. Alien shrimps in evidence: new records of the genus Athanas Leach, 1814 on the coast of São Paulo, southern Brazil (Caridea: Alpheidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Alexandre O.; Simões, Sabrina M.; Costa, Rogério C.; Mantelatto, Fernando L.

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence of two alien alpheid shrimps of the genus Athanas Leach, 1814 [in Leach 1813-1814], the Indo-West Pacific A. dimorphus Ortmann, 1894 and the Eastern Atlantic A. nitescens (Leach, 1813 [in Leach 1813-1814]), on the coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is reported. The presence of A. dimorphus extends the range of this species in the western Atlantic farther to the south in Brazil, whereas A. nitescens is reported for the first time in the western Atlantic, representing the second alien alpheid species on this side of the Atlantic and the twenty-first decapod crustacean introduced in Brazil. We provide morphological accounts of the material examined and illustrate the most important diagnostic characters of both species. An overview of the possible mechanisms of their introduction on the coast of São Paulo is also provided.

  2. FAP Group Supervision: Reporting Educational Experiences at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielenska, Regina Christina; Oshiro, Claudia Kami Bastos

    2012-01-01

    The present article describes and analyzes educational experiences related to the teaching of FAP for psychology graduate students and psychiatry residents at the University of Sao Paulo. The first experience involved psychology graduate students and includes an example of the shaping process occurring within the supervisor-supervisee…

  3. Leishmania mexicana in Didelphis marsupialis aurita in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    E. L. A. Yoshida

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi identificada pela primeira vez a presença de L. mexicana em Didelphis marsupialis aurita, no Estado de São Paulo — Município de Conchas, através de caracterização bioquímica.

  4. Gender differences in life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy among older adults in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond Andrade, Flávia Cristina; Guevara, Pilar Egüez; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; de Oliveira Duarte, Yeda Aparecida; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    research on life expectancy has demonstrated the negative impact of disability on the health of older adults and its differential effects on women as evidenced by their higher disabled life expectancy (DLE). The goal of the present study was to investigate gender differences in total life expectancy (TLE), disability-free life expectancy (DFLE), and DLE; examine gender differences on personal care assistance among older adults in São Paulo, Brazil; and discuss the implications for public policies. the sample was drawn from two waves (2000, 2006) of the dataset of Salud, Bienestar, y Envejecimiento, a large longitudinal study conducted in São Paulo (n = 2,143). The study assessed disability using the activities of daily living (ADL). The interpolation of Markov Chain method was used to estimate gender differences in TLE, DLE, and DFLE. TLE at age 60 years was approximately 5 years longer for women than men. Women aged 60 years were expected to live 28% of their remaining lives-twice the percentage for men-with at least one ADL disability. These women also lived more years (M = 0.71, SE = 0.42) with three or more ADL disabilities than men (M = 0.82, SE = 0.16). In terms of personal care assistance, women received more years of assistance than men. among older adults in São Paulo, women lived longer lives but experienced a higher and more severe disability burden than men. In addition, although women received more years of personal assistance than men, women experienced more unmet care assistance needs.

  5. Smectite in mangrove soils of the State of São Paulo, Brazil Esmectitas em solos de mangue no Estado de São Paulo

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    Valdomiro Severino de Souza-Júnior

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Smectitic clay minerals are frequently identified in mangrove soils, but there is little information about their types and origins. Besides their importance in the agronomical and geotechnical areas, smectites play an important environmental role by adsorbing nutrients, organic pollutants and heavy metals. Smectites found in mangrove soils can be of marine or continental detrital origin, or of neoformation origin. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify the types of smectites present in the State of São Paulo mangrove soils (Brazil, and to relate them to their possible origins. Soil samples were taken in five mangroves along the State of Sao Paulo State coast line. The mineral composition of the clay fraction was identified by X-ray Diffractometry (XRD applying the Greene-Kelly test and by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Highlighting the peaks in the 3,560 cm-1 band and in the region near 798 and 820 cm-1, there was a predominance of nontronite in the soil at the Sítio Grande River, Pai Matos Island, Caranguejo Island and Itapanhaú River mangroves, and possibly a lower concentration of ferric montmorillonite in the Escuro River mangrove. Since the continental sediments in these environments are very poor in smectite, the origin of these minerals in the mangrove soils studied is related to sedimentation left by past marine transgressions, to neoformation processes, or yet to a combination of both origins.Minerais de argila esmectíticos são freqüentemente identificados em solos de manguezais, mas são escassas as informações sobre os tipos encontrados e suas origens. A despeito da importância para a agronomia e geotecnia, as esmectitas desempenham também importante papel no âmbito ambiental, atuando na adsorção de nutrientes, poluentes orgânicos e metais pesados. Esmectitas em solos de manguezais podem ser de origem detrítica, marinha ou continental, e também de neoformação. Assim, este estudo objetivou

  6. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk produced in dairy farms in São Paulo state, Brazil

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    Helena Fagundes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in milk produced in 37 farms located in the regions of Ribeirão Preto and São Carlos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Two-hundred and eight samples of milk from individual cows showing subclinical mastitis, and 37 samples of bulk tank milk were analyzed. S. aureus strains were detected in 18 (7.3% milk samples: 14 (6.7% from samples of individual cows, and 4 (10.8% from bulk tank milk. Two individual milk samples (14.3% and two bulk milk samples contained enterotoxigenic S. aureus. PFGE analysis revealed the genetic heterogeneity of the strains isolated from raw milk, which presented to 13 S. aureus patterns. Results confirmed the potential transmission of staphylococcal food poisoning to consumers via milk of cows affected by subclinical mastitis, mainly when raw milk is ingested.

  7. [Teenage pregnancy rates and socioeconomic characteristics of municipalities in São Paulo State, Southeast Brazil: a spatial analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Roza, Daiane Leite da; Caccia-Bava, Maria do Carmo Gullaci Guimarães; Achcar, Jorge Alberto; Dal-Fabbro, Amaury Lelis

    2011-05-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a common public health problem worldwide. The objective of this ecological study was to investigate the spatial association between teenage pregnancy rates and socioeconomic characteristics of municipalities in São Paulo State, Southeast Brazil. We used a Bayesian model with a spatial distribution following a conditional autoregressive (CAR) form based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. We used data from the Live Birth Information System (SINASC) and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Early pregnancy was more frequent in municipalities with lower per capital gross domestic product (GDP), higher poverty rate, smaller population, lower human development index (HDI), and a higher percentage of individuals with State social vulnerability index of 5 or 6 (more vulnerable). The study demonstrates a significant association between teenage pregnancy and socioeconomic indicators.

  8. Occurrence of the invasive species Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia, Corbiculidae in the Sapucaí River (São Paulo, Brazil

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    Marina Peixoto Vianna

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are gaining increasing importance due to the ecological damage and economic impacts caused by the invaders. Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 is an invasive exotic bivalve introduced into Brazil in the 1970’s, and it has colonized the major rivers of the south and southeast. This species, owing to its adaptations to the environment, speed of colonization and reproductive success among others parameters, quickly occupies the substrates preferred by the natives. The present study registers its occurrence in Sapucaí River, São Paulo State. Samples were taken at two different sites of the river with different substrates, one sandy and another muddy. Granulometric analysis and determination of the organic matter content of the sediment were then conducted. The individuals captured in sandy sediment showed higher densities, higher average size, and therefore higher average biomass.

  9. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild rodents and marsupials from the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Solange Maria Gennari

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects a large spectrum of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Small rodents and marsupials play an important role in the epidemiology of T. gondii because they are sources of infection for domestic and feral cats. Serum samples from 151 rodents and 48 marsupials, captured in the Atlantic Forest, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, were analyzed for the presence of T. gondii antibodies. Antibodies detected by the modified agglutination test (MAT ≥ 25 were found in 8.6% (13/151 of the rodents and 10.4% (5/48 of the marsupials, with titers ranging from 25 to 6400 and from 25 to 3200, respectively for the rodents and marsupials. Three of the eight species of rodents (Akodon spp., Oligoryzomys nigripesand Rattus norvegicus, and one from the four marsupial species (Didelphis aurita presented positive animals. T. gondii was described for the first time in the rodent Oligoryzomys nigripes.

  10. Spatial distribution of dengue incidence and socio-environmental conditions in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, José Vilton; Donalisio, Maria Rita; Silveira, Liciana Vaz de Arruda

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of dengue risk and its association with socio-environmental conditions. This was an ecological study of the counts of autochthonous dengue cases in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, in the year 2007, aggregated according to 47 coverage areas of municipal health centers. Spatial models for mapping diseases were constructed with Bayesian hierarchical models, based on Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA). The analyses were stratified according to two age groups, 0 to 14 years and above 14 years. The results indicate that the spatial distribution of dengue risk is not associated with socio-environmental conditions in the 0 to 14 year age group. In the age group older than 14 years, the relative risk of dengue increases significantly as the level of socio-environmental deprivation increases. Mapping of socio-environmental deprivation and dengue cases proved to be a useful tool for data analysis in dengue surveillance systems.

  11. Energy balance in the Cerrado of Ecological Station of Assis – Assis, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Edson Xavier Fernandes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the net radiation partitioning (Rn between latent heat (LE and sensible heat fluxes (H and its relationship with water availability (rain in an area with Cerrado vegetation in the state São Paulo, Brazil. Heat fluxes follow the energy standard available in the environment, with higher values during the rainy season and lower values in the dry season. However, in the dry season, increased sensible heat flux over the latent heat flux was observed, which could be due to the lower water availability in the environment. Similar studies that have examined the dynamics of natural systems can contribute to the development of public policies for preservation and conservation of natural resources in a context in which the man-nature relationship is marked by imbalances in view of the form of use of natural resources based on predatory model adopted by society over the past 200 years.

  12. [The sexual behavior of adolescents in some schools in the city of Embu, São Paulo, Brazil].

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    Brêtas, José Roberto da Silva; Ohara, Conceição Vieira da Silva; Jardim, Dulcilene Pereira

    2008-12-01

    It is a descriptive, qualitative study aimed at identifying some aspects related to teenagers' sexual behavior. The subjects of the study were 920 adolescents aged 10 to 19, who were attending primary and secondary schools in the region of Santo Eduardo, municipality of Embu, São Paulo, Brazil. The data were collected through a questionnaire with 28 structured questions. The results show that 77% of adolescents liked their bodies, 71% looked for information about sexuality, and 35% thought their parents were the primary source of information; 26% of them said they had an active sexual life, 79% had had the first sexual intercourse at the age of 14 or younger, and 81% used condoms. The results of the study emphasize the importance of providing sexual guidance for adolescents in order to encourage prevention attitudes.

  13. [Evaluation of personal protective equipment used by malathion sprayers in dengue control in São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Thais Salomão; Papini, Solange; Vieira, Eliane; Luchini, Luiz Carlos

    2014-03-01

    Malathion insecticide in vegetable oil is used to control Aedes aegypti and is applied by spraying, which requires the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). The current study assessed the capacity of PPE suits to retain malathion. The study monitored field spraying in São Paulo, Brazil. Before each spraying, feminine sanitary napkins were placed under and upon the PPE suit in the chest, back, and forearms. After spraying, the sanitary napkins were removed, labeled, and submitted to extraction under mechanical agitation. The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. Presence of malathion in sanitary napkins under PPE suits was observed after spraying and before washing the suits. The findings indicate that sprayers are exposed to malathion, even when they use new PPE suits.

  14. Social Marketing for Women's Health Campaigns: An Analysis in the Abc Region, Greater São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Edson Coutinho da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify and evaluate the Social Marketing principles (and practices in women’s health programme in the ABC Region, located in the Greater São Paulo, Brazil. The Social Marketing orientation seeks to potentialise public health campaigns using five principles: customer focus; focus on the benefits to customers; endeavour to create value; involving the whole organisation in the process; being aware that customers are different. In methodological terms, this research is exploratory and descriptive through a single case study, the ABC region; nine interviews have been carried out with health managers of women's health programmes in the three cities of the region. The qualitative methods were used to report the results. The authors of this study verified that Social Marketing strategies are present in women's health campaigns, but, not all processes and in the expected way, by the proposed the Social Marketing plan. 

  15. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. Oocysts in raw sewage and creek water in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Farias Eveline Wilma Coutinho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium has emerged as one of the most important contaminants of water, causing waterborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. To monitor and understand the public health significance of this pathogen in environmental samples, several methods have been developed to isolate and detect Cryptosporidium oocysts. The purpose of this study was to perform the first investigation on the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in raw sewage and creek water in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The oocysts were concentrated by flocculation and membrane filtration. The results showed the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in all wastewater samples analyzed, indicating a possible risk for dissemination of these pathogens in aquatic environment and in the community.

  16. A survey of body practices and primary health care in a district of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Yara M. Carvalho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study surveyed the profile of people who did or did not take part in programs and activities in primary healthcare units in the Butantã district, the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The rationale for the study was the concept of body practice understood as a practice of health and care. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied to 1090 individuals mostly middle-aged housewives. Only 5.78% of respondents were enrolled in some program and activities, mainly walking and stretching. There was a consensus between participants and non-participants on the importance of initiatives geared to care for the body and attention to health. The difficulties for having access to programs and the lack of options in the health public service were pointed out as the main obstacles for a greater involvement by local population.

  17. Faunistic survey of sandstone caves from Altinópolis region, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Douglas Zeppelini Filho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of eight sandstone caves of the region of Altinópolis, (Serra Geral Arenitic Speleological province, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil was surveyed. Our results improve the previous faunistic knowledge of the region, recording 15 new occurrences for Brazilian caves and 26 for Brazilian sandstone caves. The fauna is characterized by a large number of detritivores/omnivores such as crickets and cockroaches, and several predators like spiders and heteropterans in bat guano.A fauna de oito cavernas areníticas da região de Altinópolis (província espeleológica arenítica da Serra Geral, Estado de São Paulo, Sudeste do Brasil foi amostrada. Nossos resultados aumentaram o conhecimento faunístico prévio da região, com o registro de 15 novas ocorrências para cavernas brasileiras e 26 para cavernas brasileiras em arenito. A fauna é caracterizada por um grande número de detritívoros/carnívoros tais como grilos e baratas, diversos predadores tais como aranhas e heterópteros no guano de morcego.

  18. List of documented bird species from the municipality of Ubatuba, state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Rick Simpson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although preliminary surveys have been conducted at the Atlantic Forest of Ubatuba, there is no list of documented bird records from this coastline municipality. To organize such a compilation, we searched the literature and a number of different sources for all documented records of birds from Ubatuba, state of São Paulo. We further carried out a 7-year non-systematic bird inventory in different regions and elevations to document the species within the municipality. The total number of documented bird species is 417, 11% of which are endemic to Brazil. Another 26% are Atlantic Forest endemics and as many as 60 species are under threat categories, including near-threatened birds, in the state. Some 49 species of 27 families are reported from the municipality but still lack documentation. Considering historical records, no species have extinguished from the municipality. Ubatuba is one of the most studied regions along Serra do Mar in São Paulo regarding its ornithology, but there are still high-elevational gaps that will yield significant additions of species to the area with increasing surveying efforts.

  19. Transmitted Drug Resistance among People Living with HIV/Aids at Major Cities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

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    Joao Leandro Paula Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR is an important public health issue. In Brazil, low to intermediate resistance levels have been described. We assessed 225 HIV-1 infected, antiretroviral naïve individuals, from HIV Reference Centers at two major metropolitan areas of Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo and Campinas, the state that concentrates most of the Brazilian Aids cases. TDR was analyzed by Stanford Calibrated Population Resistance criteria (CPR, and mutations were observed in 17 individuals (7.6%, 95% CI: 4.5%–11.9%. Seventy-six percent of genomes (13/17 with TDR carried a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI resistance mutation, mostly K103N/S (9/13, 69%, potentially compromising the preferential first-line therapy suggested by the Brazilian HIV Treatment Guideline that recommends efavirenz-based combinations. Moreover, 6/17 (35% had multiple mutations associated with resistance to one or more classes. HIV-1 B was the prevalent subtype (80%; other subtypes include HIV-1 F and C, mosaics BC, BF, and single cases of subtype A1 and CRF02_AG. The HIV Reference Center of Campinas presented more cases with TDR, with a significant association of TDR with clade B infection (P<0.05.

  20. Spatio-temporal variability of sugarcane yield efficiency in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Fabio Ricardo Marin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the spatial and temporal variability of sugarcane yield efficiency and yield gap in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, throughout 16 growing seasons, considering climate and soil as main effects, and socioeconomic factors as complementary. An empirical model was used to assess potential and attainable yields, using climate data series from 37 weather stations. Soil effects were analyzed using the concept of production environments associated with a soil aptitude map for sugarcane. Crop yield efficiency increased from 0.42 to 0.58 in the analyzed period (1990/1991 to 2005/2006 crop seasons, and yield gap consequently decreased from 58 to 42%. Climatic factors explained 43% of the variability of sugarcane yield efficiency, in the following order of importance: solar radiation, water deficit, maximum air temperature, precipitation, and minimum air temperature. Soil explained 15% of the variability, considering the average of all seasons. There was a change in the correlation pattern of climate and soil with yield efficiency after the 2001/2002 season, probably due to the crop expansion to the west of the state during the subsequent period. Socioeconomic, biotic and crop management factors together explain 42% of sugarcane yield efficiency in the state of São Paulo.

  1. Effect of management practices on screw-worm among sheep in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, N G; Amarante, A F; Padovani, C R

    1998-06-01

    The screw-worm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), whose larvae develop in wild and domestic animals as well as in man, is one of the major causes of myiasis in Brazil. Sheep raising is expanding in the state of São Paulo, where information about the infestation of screw-worm is necessary for appropriate control measures. The present data were obtained from questionnaires sent to all sheep breeders belonging to Associacão Paulista de Criadores de Ovinos--ASPACO (São Paulo State Association of Sheep Breeders). Response reliability was tested by random visits paid to 10.6% of the respondents. The results show that screw-worm is the most frequent ectoparasite in the flocks and is responsible for the greatest economic losses. Its occurrence is strongly associated with flock size, reaching 100% in flocks consisting of more than 500 animals. Infestation is higher in spring and summer and lowest in the fall. The number of cases increases in the presence of some management practices such as tail amputation. Furthermore, several other associations between the indicators surveyed were also found to be significant. The data obtained will permit the elaboration of strategies for the control of this parasitosis.

  2. Management of gillnet fisheries in the south coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Jocemar T; Pereira, Alineide L C

    2014-09-01

    Gillnetting is one of the most practiced fishing methods adopted in the South of Brazil and has been increasingly expanding over the last years. This paper presents the characterization of the activity and discusses its management, in accordance to results from the discussions on the development of regulations on net fisheries in the South Coast Marine Protected Area (APAMLS) in the state of São Paulo. Gillnet fleets are formed by small-scale boats, with low autonomy, and lower fishing capacity, when compared to boats from other ports in the South and Southeast. However, the number of fishing units is high, reaching 1,709 units operating in the South coast of São Paulo in 2010. This kind of fleet uses several types of gillnets, and the activity may be classified according to the fishery type (industrial, coastal artisanal and estuarine artisanal). The activity was discussed in the APAMLS and the fishing industry, with the participation of all segments, and a proposal for gillnetting regulation was reached. The results suggested that gillnet length for industrial fisheries should be reduced by 30%. It must be emphasized that without effective inspection measures leading the fishing industry to believe in the enforcement of the proposal, private interests of the most influential political sectors may cause the process to retrocede.

  3. Two-year follow-up study of elderly residents in S. Paulo, Brazil: methodology and preliminary results

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    Ramos Luiz R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous cross-sectional studies have shown a high prevalence of chronic disease and disability among the elderly. Given Brazil's rapid aging process and the obvious consequences of the growing number of old people with chronic diseases and associated disabilities for the provision of health services, a need was felt for a study that would overcome the limitations of cross-sectional data and shed some light on the main factors determining whether a person will live longer and free of disabling diseases, the so-called successful aging. The methodology of the first follow-up study of elderly residents in Brazil is presented. METHOD: The profile of the initial cohort is compared with previous cross-sectional data and an in-depth analysis of nonresponse is carried out in order to assess the validity of future longitudinal analysis. The EPIDOSO (`Epidemiologia do Idoso' Study conducted a two-year follow-up of 1,667 elderly people (65+, living in S. Paulo. The study consisted of two waves, each consisting of household, clinical, and biochemical surveys. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In general, the initial cohort showed a similar profile to previous cross-sectional samples in S. Paulo. There was a majority of women, mostly widows, living in multigenerational households, and a high prevalence of chronic illnesses, psychiatric disturbances, and physical disabilities. Despite all the difficulties inherent in follow-up studies, there was a fairly low rate of nonresponse to the household survey after two years, which did not actually affect the representation of the cohort at the final household assessment, making unbiased longitudinal analysis possible. Concerning the clinical and blood sampling surveys, the respondents tended to be younger and less disabled than the nonrespondents, limiting the use of the clinical and laboratory data to longitudinal analysis aimed at a healthier cohort. It is worth mentioning that gender, education, family

  4. Surtos populacionais de Bemisia tabaci no estado de São Paulo Outbreaks of Bemisia tabaci in the São Paulo State, Brazil

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    André Luiz Lourenção

    1994-01-01

    : Aleyrodidae infesting vegetables and ornamental plants in some localities of São Paulo State, Brazil, has been observed. High densities of this insect were verified on tomato, broccoli, egg-plant and squash; in some cases, tomato and squash presented the whitefly-related disorders named tomato irregular repening and squash silverleaf. Weeds, mainly Sida rhombifolia L., Sonchus oleraceus L., Solanum viarum Dun. and Ipomoea acuminata Roem. & Schult., showed high whitefly colonization. At the Holambra county intensive colonizations were recorded on or-namental plants, mainly Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. and Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. (poinsettia. Daily insecticide applications did not reduce the insect infestations. Other crops, such as bean and cotton, were also infested. The disorders and type of infestations are similar to what has been observed in the U.S.A. In this country, the ability of certain populations of B. tabaci to induce the silverleaf disorder of squash and to colonize poinsettia intensely, among other characteristics, has been used to distinguish the "poinsettia strain" or "B strain". However, based on genomic and crossing/mating behavior studies, some investigators have considered that these two strains represent different species. In view of the similarity of the infestations and disorders that are occurring in the U.S.A., and more recently in São Paulo State, it is very likely that the "B strain" (or the new species has been introduced in Brazil.

  5. Aids-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: a retrospective study in a referral center in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, José E; Penalva de Oliveira, Augusto C; Fink, Maria Cristina D S; Pannuti, Cláudio S; Trujillo, J Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Few data are available about progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) from Brazil. The objectives of this study were to describe the main features of patients with PML and estimate its frequency among AIDS patients with central nervous system (CNS) opportunistic diseases admitted to the Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas, São Paulo, Brazil, from April 2003 to April 2004. A retrospective and descriptive study was performed. Twelve (6%) cases of PML were identified among 219 patients with neurological diseases. The median age of patients with PML was 36 years and nine (75%) were men. Nine (75%) patients were not on antiretroviral therapy at admission. The most common clinical manifestations were: focal weakness (75%), speech disturbances (58%), visual disturbances (42%), cognitive dysfunction (42%), and impaired coordination (42%). The median CD4+ T-cell count was 45 cells/microL. Eight (67%) of 12 patients were laboratory-confirmed with PML and four (33%) were possible cases. Eleven (92%) presented classic PML and only one case had immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS)-related PML. In four (33%) patients, PML was the first AIDS-defining illness. During hospitalization, three patients (25%) died as a result of nosocomial pneumonia and nine (75%) were discharged to home. Cases of PML were only exceeded by cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, and CNS tuberculosis, the three more frequent neurologic opportunistic infections in Brazil. The results of this study suggest that PML is not an uncommon HIV-related neurologic disorder in a referral center in Brazil.

  6. The prevalence of physical activity and its associated effects among students in the São Paulo public school network, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leonardo José; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Andrade, Douglas Roque; Azevedo, Mário; Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Matsudo, Sandra Marcela Mahecha

    2016-04-01

    The current study evaluated physical activity (PA) level and its associated effects among students in the public network of São Paulo, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was taken using a representative sample of students in São Paulo public school system. International Physical Activity Questionnaire determined PA level. Students who reported at least 300 minutes/week of PA were considered active. The independente variables were: gender, age, body mass index, education, region, recognition of the Agita São Paulo program. The prevalence of regular PA was 71.7%. Males (PR = 1.09, 95% CIs = 1.04 -1.15) at least 17 years old (PR = 1.16, 95% CIs 1.09-1.24) in their 3rd year of high school (PR = 1.20, 95% CIs = 1.12-1.29) who resided in the Midwest region (PR = 1.27, 95% CIs 1.16-1.38) were most likely to be active. Males at least 17 years old in their 3rd year of high school who lived in the Midwest and recognized the Agita São Paulo/Agita Galera program had higher levels of PA. São Paulo students presented a high level of PA. Moreover, males older than 17 years, attending their 3rd year of high school, who lived in the Midwest region, and recognized the Agita São Paulo/Agita Galera program were the most likely to be more active.

  7. Be-7 and Pb-210 deposition measured in rainfall in the city of São Paulo - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damatto, S.; Souza, J. M.; Frujuele, J. V.; Máduar, M. F.; Pecequilo, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    The short-lived cosmogenic isotope Be-7 (T1/2 = 53.3 d) and the natural daughter product of Ra-222, Pb-210 (T1/2 = 22.3 y) have been widely used as tracer soil erosion, transport processes in watershed and chronometers in the environment. These isotopes have also been utilized to determine the aerosol residence time as well as removal rates of aerosols. The concentrations of these radionuclides were determined in samples of rainfall during the period of April 2011 to July 2013 at Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares - IPEN's campus located in the city of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. The sampling site is approximately 10 km west from downtown São Paulo (23o32'S - 46o37'W at 760 m above sea level). Climate in the area is temperate tropical with dry period in winter and rainy in summer with the annual rainfall ranged from 443 mm to 2081 mm. The annual average temperature is 19.1oC, showing minimum and maximum of 15.3oC and 24.9oC, respectively. Be-7 was measured by non-destructive gamma-ray spectrometry and Pb-210 was measured by beta gross counting in a gas flow proportional detector, after radiochemistry procedure. For gamma-ray spectrometry a coaxial Be-layer HPGe detector with 25% relative efficiency, 2.09 keV resolution at 1.33 MeV and associated electronic devices were used, with live counting time varying from 100,000 s to 300,000 s. The spectra were acquired by multichannel analyzer Ethernim and, for the analysis, WinnerGamma software was used. The obtained results for both radionuclides in all samples show that they present a similar behavior with zones of analogous latitude, but in Northern hemisphere, in spite of São Paulo city being situated in low latitudes of Southern hemisphere. The concentrations displayed clearly seasonal variations with higher values in spring and summer time and with the amount of precipitation.

  8. Assessment of biomass burnings activity with the synergy of sunphotometric and LIDAR measurements in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, G. L.; Lopes, F. J. S.; Jorge, M. P. P. M.; Landulfo, E.

    2010-11-01

    In the period of July-November of 2007 an aerosol profiling campaign was carried out with a backscattering LIDAR system in São Paulo, Brazil (23° 33‧S, 46° 44‧W). The goals of this campaign were to perform an aerosol long period observation in the lower atmosphere (up to 10 km) and extract correlations among the microphysical properties obtained from different plataforms, as well to pinpoint events where strong indications of biomass burning plumes were present above the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and still impact quality reports emitted by ground stations provided by the local environmental agency. In this context the present study aims to investigate the impact that this type of aerosol has on the environment of São Paulo when active fires in South America are observed in close and remote areas. Besides the LIDAR system, an AERONET Sunphotometer was used to help in characterizing the aerosol optical properties. Ten cases were selected as an identification of biomass burning layer entrance and after they were confirmed by NOAA-12 AVHRR sensor and 5-day Hysplit generated backtrajectories. A statistical analysis was carried out for analysis of the extinction-to-backscattering ratio (LIDAR ratio - LR) together with the sunphotometer retrieved Angström Exponent (AE) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) data. The observed layer sources were potentially from remote regions as the South Amazon basin and the north portion of Argentina and closer parts of São Paulo state related to sugar cane harvesting activities. The biomass burning plume heights were between 3 and 8 km. It has been found that LR, AE and AOD values ranged from 44 to 147 sr, from 0.85 to 1.58 and from 0.14 to 0.53, respectively. In a case study for September 7, 2007, an air mass with influence of biomass burning reached the city of São Paulo leading to a LR of 59 sr. Despite the AOD value of 0.33, the aerosol size distribution analysis showed a higher amount of fine particulate matter in

  9. Ocorrência de Scapholeberis armata freyi Dumont & Pensaert (Crustácea, Anomopoda, Daphniidae no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurrence of Scapholeberis armata freyi Dumont & Pensaert (Crustácea, Anomopoda, Daphniidae in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Lourdes M.A. Elmoor-Loureiro

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, Scapholeberis armata freyi Dumont & Pensaert, 1983 is registered in São Paulo State. The previously suggested occurrence of this species in Brazil is confirmed.

  10. BOTHROPS JARARACUSSU: A NEW RECORD FOR THE MUNICIPALITY OF SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

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    Silara Fatima Batista

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops jararacussu is a terrestrial snake, predominantly nocturnal, and mainly found in forested areas. Our objective was to provide the first record of B.jararacussu for the municipality of São Paulo, in the highland of Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM, Núcleo Curucutu. The register ocurred through monthly samplings in the Núcleo Curucutu, during one year. The specimen was found in a transitional area of Atlantic upper montane forest and Pinus sp. reforestation. It represents a new altitude record (>800m in a well-preserved area, reiterating the importance of this park for the maintenance of biodiversity in this municipality and evinces the region potential to house rare species in São Paulo highland.

  11. Geologic mapping of the Bauru Group in Sao Paulo state by LANDSAT images. [Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Godoy, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    The occurrence of the Bauru Group in Sao Paulo State was studied, with emphasis on the western plateau. Regional geological mapping was carried out on a 1:250.000 scale with the help of MSS/LANDSAT images. The visual interpretation of images consisted basically of identifying different spectral characteristics of the geological units using channels 5 and 7. Complementary studies were made for treatment of data with an Interative Image (I-100) analyser in order to facilitate the extraction of information, particularly for areas where visual interpretation proved to be difficult. Regional characteristics provided by MSS/LANDSAT images, coupled with lithostratigraphic studies carried out in the areas of occurrence of Bauru Group sediments, enabled the homogenization of criteria for the subdivision of this group. A spatial distribution of the mapped units was obtained for the entire State of Sao Paulo and results were correlated with proposed stratigraphic divisions.

  12. Use of medicines by persons with disabilities in São Paulo state areas, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Shamyr Sulyvan de Castro; Americo Focesi Pelicioni; Chester Luiz Galvão Cesar; Luana Carandina; Marilisa Berti de Azevedo Barros; Maria Cecilia Goi Porto Alves; Moisés Goldbaum

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar o consumo de medicamentos e os principais grupos terapêuticos consumidos por pessoas com deficiências físicas, auditivas ou visuais. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal em que foram analisados dados do Inquérito Multicêntrico de Saúde no Estado de São Paulo (ISA-SP) em 2002 e do Inquérito de Saúde no Município de São Paulo (ISA-Capital), realizado em 2003. Os entrevistados que referiram deficiências foram estudados segundo as variáveis que compõem o banco de dados: área, sexo, rend...

  13. Tropical Daoism: transplant of Daoism to Brazil through the Taoist Society of Brazil and the Taoist Society of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Oliva da Costa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Daoism is a religion of Chinese origins that since the 19th century started to have contact with the Brazilian culture, beneath the Orientalism force.  Since the second half of the 20th century, we see a second wave of Daoism spread, albeit indirectly. In the 1970s the Wǔ family – Wu Jyh Cherng within them (Wǔ Zhìchéng – migrates from Taiwan to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In the 1990s, this Taiwanese naturalized Brazilian priest of the Way of the Celestial Masters founded the Daoist Society of Brazil (Sociedade Taoísta do Brasil - STB along Brazilians, and later the Daoist Society in São Paulo (Sociedade Taoísta SP - ST-SP, which is our object of study. The goal here was to analyze the Daoism transplantation process in Brazil through the STB and ST-SP. In addition to a systematization of the authors regarding the transplantation of religions theory, we were based on the theory of cultural hybridization, and a set of interpreters of Brazilian culture and Brazilian religion. We created the central hypothesis that in the STB and ST-SP the Daoism would be increasingly a hybrid result of the Brazilian religious matrix and an ideal model of Daoist linked to China. Methodologically, we conducted an extensive and constant literature review, and we refer to primary printed sources, virtual and audiovisual sources, participatory research, semi-structured interviews and informal conversations. With these data, we performed an analysis using the theoretical framework, which allowed us to confirm the central hypothesis. We also wove systematic contributions on: the presence and the type of Daoism entry in Brazil, identification of socio-historical phases of STB and ST-SP, and several observations about the process and results of transplantation of this Daoist group, such as the accommodation of the Brazilian religious demands on the liturgical rituals of these institutions.

  14. Resistance of Aedes aegypti from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, to organophosphates insecticides

    OpenAIRE

    Macoris Maria de Lourdes G; Andrighetti Maria Teresa M; Takaku Luiz; Glasser Carmen M; Garbeloto Vanessa C; Bracco José Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Since the reintroduction of Aedes aegypti in the state of São Paulo, in the middle of the 1980-decade, organophosphate insecticides are being used to control the dengue vector. In 1996, an annual program for monitoring the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to the insecticides was implemented. Some of the results of this monitoring program are presented. Ae. aegypti populations from ten localities have been submitted to bioassays with the diagnostic dose of temephos and fenitrothion. Only two (Mar...

  15. Childhood Adversity and Adult Onset of Hypertension and Heart Disease in São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Parrish, Canada; Surkan, Pamela J; Martins, Silvia S.; Gattaz, Wagner F.; Andrade, Laura Helena; Viana, Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey and logistic regression models, we studied how childhood neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and family violence were related to adult hypertension and heart disease. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, child physical abuse was associated with hypertension and heart disease, whereas family violence was associated with hypertension. Efforts to curb child physical abuse could potentially reduce subsequent hypertension and...

  16. Does São Paulo need a foreign policy? Hegemony, diplomacy and paradiplomacy in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Marcelo de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    This article argues, on the one hand, that the hegemonic condition of the state of São Paulo in the the Brazilian federation incites it to practice an endogenous paradiplomatic action; on the other hand, it alleges that this endogenous paradiplomatic action coincides with a phenomenon of des-concentration (and not of federalization) of the national diplomacy. The conclusion is that if the gradual desconcentration of the Brazilian diplomacy demands a consistent effort of the endogenous paradip...

  17. Helminthic Parasites of Chickens (Gallus Domesticus in Different Regions of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Brazilian poultry industry is an outstanding national and international agribusiness sector. Among the Brazilian states, São Paulo is the largest producer of commercial eggs and the fourth largest producer and exporter of chicken meat. Alternatively, semi-intensive and/or organic poultry production have also obtained a significant share of the domestic market as a result of consumer demand. Helminths affect the performance of the birds, causing significant direct or indirect losses. The objective of the present study was to identify the main helminth species present in chickens reared in 17 municipalities of the state of São Paulo. In total, 359 adult birds were investigated. The birds were reared in different housing systems and were obtained from 69 farms in the selected regions. The birds were submitted to procedures for the detection and identification of helminth parasites, following international standards. The evaluation of the small intestine employed the Mello-Campos method (Mello & Campos, 1974, which allows better recovery of cestode scolices attached to the intestinal mucosa. Stereomicroscopy was used to evaluate the collected materials, and light microscopy was used to identify the species based on their morphological characteristics. The following helminth species were diagnosed in chickens reared in 17 municipalities of the state of São Paulo: nematodes (Ascaridia galli, Capillaria sp., Cheilospirura hamulosa, Heterakis gallinarum, Oxyspirura mansoni, and Strongyloides sp., cestodes (Amoebotaenia cuneata, Choanotaenia infundibulum, Hymenolepis sp., Raillietina cesticillus, Raillietina echinobothrida, and Raillietina tetragona, and trematodes (Zygocotyle lunata and Postharmostomum commutatum.

  18. Biomass burning aerosol in the State of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, L. L. S.; Artaxo, P.; Martinelli, L. A.; Camargo, P. B.; Ferraz, E. S. B.

    2003-04-01

    A detailed aerosol source apportionment study has been performed in three sites in State of São Paulo with different land-use: sugarcane crops, cattle, urban area and forest. During the summer and winter, the period when sugarcane is burned every year, PM10 has been sampled during day and night in a period of 48 hours, using stacked filters units collecting fine and coarse particulate mode, providing mass, BC and elemental concentration for each aerosol mode. The concentrations of around 20 elements were determined using particle induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE). Ion chromatography was used to determine up to 11 water-soluble ion components. Highest levels of pollutants have been measured around the sugarcane crops, where the annual PM10 concentration (57.1"45.2µgm-3) exceeds of the other urban and industrialized areas and the BC concentration is significantly higher during the sugarcane burning period (4.2"2.2 µgm-3) than the rest of the year (2.0"1.0 µgm-3). The main sources of the aerosol are correlated to the land cover. Factor and cluster analysis showed the main source int the State of São Paulo is biomass burning, followed by soil dust, biogenic emissions and industrial emissions. The sampling and analytical procedures applied in this study showed the sugarcane burning and agricultural practices are the main source of inhalable particulate, possibly altering the aerosol concentration in some places of the State of São Paulo.

  19. Description of six autochthonous cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in Pedregulho (São Paulo, Brazil

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    Cássia Regina de Abreu

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is an infectious disease of chronic, emerging and zoonotic nature that presents various degrees of severity. In Brazil, this illness is caused by Leishmania infantum (Leishmania chagasi, which is transmitted by the bite of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, and dogs are its main reservoir. Given the increasing spread of this disease across Brazil, the aim of this study was to report on six cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis, diagnosed in June 2013, in the city of Pedregulho, State of São Paulo, considered to be a non-endemic area and free of phlebotomine sand flies. The diagnosis was based on clinical signs of the patients and additional tests (serological and parasitological. It was concluded that the diagnosis of leishmaniasis is complex because the clinical signs are similar to other systemic diseases, thus justifying the importance of parasitological test of bone marrow, considered "gold standard", in the confirmation of the disease. In addition, the area was not, until now, considered risk place, despite notification.

  20. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovronick, Noah; França, Daniela; Alonso, Marcelo; Almeida, Claudia; Longo, Karla; Freitas, Saulo; Rudorff, Bernardo; Wilkinson, Paul

    2016-07-11

    It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil's high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone was 3.0 μg/m³ and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol) scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline.

  1. [Primary healthcare: a multidimensional study on challenges and potential in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region (SP, Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Luiza Sterman; Ibanhes, Lauro Cesar; Boaretto, Roberta Cristina; Castro, Iracema Ester do Nascimento; Telesi Júnior, Emilio; Cortizo, Carlos Tato; Fausto, Márcia Cristina Rodrigues; do Nascimento, Vânia Barbosa; Kayano, Jorge

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents some results of a case study in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (SP, Brazil) as part of a multicentric study conducted in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The aim is to evaluate Primary Health Care (PHC) as a strategy to achieve integrated and universal healthcare systems. The methodological approach was based on five analytical dimensions: stewardship capability; financing; provision; comprehensiveness and intersectoral approach. The techniques included literature review, document analysis and interviews with key informants: policy makers; managers, experts, users and professionals. The results were organized in response to the challenges and possibilities of PHC as a structural system according to the five dimensions. The following emerged from the interviews: different interpretations on the concept and role of PHC and a consensus as the gateway to the system; weaknesses in funding; challenges in health workforce administration and the need for new legal-institutional design for regional management. The potential aspects were: broader coverage/universality, PHC as the basis for the organization of the system; connection with the territory and understanding specific population needs.

  2. A combined method for evaluating radon and progeny in waters and its use at Guarani aquifer, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, D.M. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), IGCE-Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: dbonotto@rc.unesp.br; Mello, C.B. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), IGCE-Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    A combined method for evaluating radon ({sup 222}Rn) and progeny ({sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi) in water was developed by using inexpensive alpha scintillation counting and gamma ray spectrometry through NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. A groundwater sample collected at the Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif in Brazil was submitted to the technique in order to assure its applicability by comparing the volumetric activities by different methods. Similar volumetric activity was determined for {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi in the sample analyzed that is compatible with the expected condition of radioactive equilibrium between these nuclides. The combined method was successfully used to analyze groundwater samples from Guarani aquifer in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, and the results of the measurements indicated that {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi provide useful information concerning the evaluation of the drinking water quality in terms of radiological aspects. This is because they are directly identified in the water samples, without the need of requiring the assumption of the establishment of the transient equilibrium condition with its parent {sup 222}Rn.

  3. [Assessment of the cervical cancer screening in the Family Health Strategy in Amparo, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Diama Bhadra Andrade Peixoto do; Morais, Sirlei Siani; Pimenta, Aparecida Linhares; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Uterine cervical cancer mortality has not been declining. The territorial distribution and registration of families in Brazil's Family Health Strategy help identify women that have performed a Pap smear or that have not had one for more than three years. This study analyzed whether cervical cancer screening in Amparo, São Paulo State, Brazil, made progress in complying with the prevailing guidelines during the seven years of experience with the Strategy. The annual examination rate remained high, with a slight trend towards greater intervals between follow-up tests. Distribution of tests tended to increase in the 40-59-year age bracket and decrease in the over-60 age group, while annual coverage tended to decrease. The proportions of excess tests varied from 61.2% to 65.5%. Concluding, the upgrading of cervical cancer screening was slight, and did not change the opportunistic pattern of follow-up tests. Considering that community health agents can act to increase the coverage of these measures, it is essential to train them for this work.

  4. No association between low birth weight and cardiovascular risk factors in early adulthood: evidence from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filumena Maria Gomes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A growing literature suggests that low birth weight increases the risk of poor health outcomes in adulthood. We tested this hypothesis among young adults living in São Paulo State, Brazil. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To identify the effects of low birth weight on young adulthood outcomes, a medical assessment of 297 individuals born between 1977 and 1989 was conducted at a primary care unit in São Paulo State, Brazil. We analyzed body mass index (BMI, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, fasting glucose and total cholesterol levels using linear and logistic regressions. Low birth was negatively associated with BMI (β = -2.0, 95% CI: -3.69, -0.27, p = 0.02, fasting glucose levels (β = -1.9, 95% CI: -3.9, -0.07, p = 0.05, waist-hip ratio (β = -0.03, 95% CI: -0.07, -0.01, p = 0.10, systolic blood pressure (β = -3.32, 95% CI: -7.60, 0.96, p = 0.12, and total cholesterol levels (β = -3.19, 95% CI: -16.43, 10.05, p = 0.636. Low birth weight was also associated with lower odds of young adults being overweight and obese, but neither association was statistically significant. Weight gain in the first 12 months of life was associated with higher adult BMI (β = 0.79, 95% CI: -0.0455, 1.623, p = 0.064 and blood pressure (β = 2.79, 95% CI: 0.22, 5.35, p = 0.034. No associations were found between low birth weight and early life (catch-up growth. CONCLUSIONS: Low birth weight was not associated with poor health outcomes among young adults in Brazil. These results appear inconsistent with the original Barker hypothesis, but will need to be corroborated in larger samples with longer follow-ups to allow a more general evaluation of the validity of the hypothesis in low and middle income countries.

  5. 77 FR 51759 - U.S. Medical Mission to Brazil; Sao Paulo, Brazil, May 21-24, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... healthcare sector, the market should grow. Approximately 80% of all products used in hospitals have no..., the U.S. Commercial Service sees the market for home healthcare products growing dramatically during... largest medical equipment market in South America. The total market for medical equipment in Brazil...

  6. Inatividade física e fatores associados em adultos, São Paulo, Brasil Physical inactivity and associated factors in adults, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luane Margarete Zanchetta

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar prevalências de inatividade física e fatores associados, e exercícios e esportes praticados segundo escolaridade em 2.050 adultos de 18 a 59 anos de idade - Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional com amostra estratificada e em múltiplos estágios. A inatividade física global foi aferida pelo International Physical Activity questionary - IPAQ short version, e por questão sobre prática regular de atividade física no lazer. A análise dos dados levou em conta o desenho amostral. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de inatividade física no lazer foi maior entre as mulheres. Já a inatividade física pelo IPAQ foi maior entre os homens. Modelos de regressão múltipla de Poisson indicaram, nos homens, menor inatividade física pelo IPAQ nos solteiros e separados, estudantes e aqueles que não possuíam carro. A inatividade física no lazer foi maior nos homens acima de 40 anos e com menor escolaridade ou apenas estudantes. A inatividade física pelo IPAQ, nas mulheres, foi mais prevalente entre as com maior escolaridade, ocupações menos qualificadas e viúvas; a inatividade física no lazer diminuiu com o aumento da idade e da escolaridade. Entre as modalidades praticadas no lazer, a caminhada foi a mais prevalente nas mulheres e o futebol nos homens. A maioria das modalidades foi diretamente associada à escolaridade; aproximadamente 25% dos indivíduos com mais de 12 anos de estudo praticava caminhada. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados sugerem que intervenções e políticas públicas de promoção da atividade física devem considerar diferenças socioeconômicas, de gênero, bem como as modalidades e o contexto em que a atividade física é praticada.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of overall and leisure time physical inactivity and associated factors and types of exercises or sports modalities according to schooling in 2,050 adults from 18 to 59 years of age - state of São Paulo

  7. Amphetamine, cocaine and cannabinoids use among truck drivers on the roads in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyton, V; Sinagawa, D M; Oliveira, K C B G; Schmitz, W; Andreuccetti, G; De Martinis, B S; Yonamine, M; Munoz, D R

    2012-02-10

    Drugs are important risk factors for traffic accidents. In Brazil, truck drivers report using amphetamines to maintain their extensive work schedule and stay awake. These drugs can be obtained without prescription easily on Brazilian roads. The use of these stimulants can result in health problems and can be associated with traffic accidents. There are Brazilian studies that show that drivers use drugs. However, these studies are questionnaire-based and do not always reflect real-life situations. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the prevalence of drug use by truck drivers on the roads of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, during 2009. Drivers of large trucks were randomly stopped by police officers on the interstate roads during morning hours. After being informed of the goals of the study, the drivers gave written informed consent before providing a urine sample. In addition, a questionnaire concerning sociodemographic characteristics and health information was administered. Urine samples were screened for amphetamines, cocaine, and cannabinoids by immunoassay and the confirmation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Of the 488 drivers stopped, 456 (93.4%) provided urine samples, and 9.3% of them (n=42) tested positive for drugs. Amphetamines were the most commonly found (n=26) drug, representing 61.9% of the positive samples. Ten cases tested positive for cocaine (23.8%), and five for cannabinoids (11.9%). All drivers were male with a mean age of 40 ± 10.8 years, and 29.3% of them reported some health problem (diabetes, high blood pressure and/or stress). A high incidence of truck drivers who tested positive for drug use was found, among other reported health problems. Thus, there is an evident need to promote a healthier lifestyle among professional drivers and a need for preventive measures aimed at controlling the use of drugs by truck drivers in Brazil.

  8. Does São Paulo need a foreign policy? Hegemony, diplomacy and paradiplomacy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida MEDEIROS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article argues, on the one hand, that the hegemonic condition of the state of São Paulo in the the Brazilian federation incites it to practice an endogenous paradiplomatic action; on the other hand, it alleges that this endogenous paradiplomatic action coincides with a phenomenon of des-concentration (and not of federalization of the national diplomacy. The conclusion is that if the gradual desconcentration of the Brazilian diplomacy demands a consistent effort of the endogenous paradiplomacy, this does not mean that, for the maximization of the profits, the exogenous paradiplomacy does not have to be implemented.

  9. Serological evidence of exposure to tick-borne agents in opossums (Didelphis spp.) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de; Spolidorio, Mariana Granziera; Yoshinari, Natalino Hajime; Matushima, Eliana Reiko; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Horta, Mauricio Claudio

    2016-06-07

    This work involved a serological investigation of tick-borne pathogens in opossums in eight municipalities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Serum samples from 109 opossums (91 Didelphis aurita and 18 Didelphis albiventris) were tested to detect antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii (Taiaçu strain, 1:64 cut-off) and Ehrlichia canis (São Paulo strain, 1:40 cut-off), by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA); and against Borrelia burgdorferi (strain G39/40) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The presence of antibodies to anti-R. rickettsii, anti-E. canis and anti-B. burgdorferi was detected in 32 (29.35%), 16 (14.67%) and 30 (27.52%) opossums, respectively. Opossum endpoint titers ranged from 64 to 1,024 for R. rickettsii, from 40 to 160 for E. canis, and from 400 to >51,200 for B. burgdorferi. These serological results suggest that opossums have been exposed to Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia spp., and B. burgdorferi-related agents in the state of São Paulo. Our study underscores the need for further research about these agents in this study area, in view of the occurrence of Spotted Fever and Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome disease in humans in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

  10. The influence of atmospheric particles on the elemental content of vegetables in urban gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais

    2016-09-01

    Although urban horticulture provides multiple benefits to society, the extent to which these vegetables are contaminated by the absorption of chemical elements derived from atmospheric deposition is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of air pollution on leafy vegetables in community gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Vegetable seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (collard greens) and Spinacia oleracea (spinach) obtained in a non-polluted rural area and growing in vessels containing standard uncontaminated soil were exposed for three consecutive periods of 30, 60 and 90 days in 10 community gardens in Sao Paulo and in one control site. The concentrations of 17 chemical elements (traffic-related elements and those essential to plant biology) were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Tillandsia usneoides L. specimens were used as air plant biomonitors. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Pb found in vegetables were compared to the recommended values for consumption. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to cluster the elemental concentrations, and Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were employed to evaluate the association of the factor scores from each PCA component with variables such as local weather, traffic burden and vertical barriers adjacent to the gardens. We found significant differences in the elemental concentrations of the vegetables in the different community gardens. These differences were related to the overall traffic burden, vertical obstacles and local weather. The Pb and Cd concentrations in both vegetables exceeded the limit values for consumption after 60 days of exposure. A strong correlation was observed between the concentration of traffic-related elements in vegetables and in Tillandsia usneoides L. An exposure response was observed between traffic burden and traffic-derived particles absorbed in the vegetables. Traffic-derived air pollution directly influences the absorption of

  11. Cadmium background concentrations to establish reference quality values for soils of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Vinicius Henrique; de Abreu, Cleide Aparecida; Coelho, Ricardo Marques; Melo, Leônidas Carrijo Azevedo

    2014-03-01

    Proper assessment of soil cadmium (Cd) concentrations is essential to establish legislative limits. The present study aimed to assess background Cd concentrations in soils from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to correlate such concentrations with several soil attributes. The topsoil samples (n = 191) were assessed for total Cd contents and for other metals using the USEPA 3051A method. The background concentration was determined according to the third quartile (75th). Principal component analysis, Spearman correlation, and multiple regressions between Cd contents and other soil attributes (pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), clay content, sum of bases, organic matter, and total Fe, Al, Zn, and Pb levels) were performed. The mean Cd concentration of all 191 samples was 0.4 mg kg(-1), and the background concentration was 0.5 mg kg(-1). After the samples were grouped by parent material (rock origin) and soil type, the background Cd content varied, i.e., soils from igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks harbored 1.5, 0.4, and 0.2 mg kg(-1) of Cd, respectively. The background Cd content in Oxisols (0.8 mg kg(-1)) was higher than in Ultisols (0.3 mg kg(-1)). Multiple regression demonstrated that Fe was primarily attributed to the natural Cd contents in the soils (R (2) = 0.79). Instead of a single Cd background concentration value representing all São Paulo soils, we propose that the concentrations should be specific for at least Oxisols and Ultisols, which are the primary soil types.

  12. Reemergence of yellow fever: detection of transmission in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Stramandinoli Moreno

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Following yellow fever virus (YFV isolation in monkeys from the São José do Rio Preto region and two fatal human autochthonous cases from the Ribeirão Preto region, State of São Paulo, Brazil, two expeditions for entomological research and eco-epidemiological evaluation were conducted. METHODS: A total of 577 samples from humans, 108 from monkeys and 3,049 mosquitoes were analyzed by one or more methods: virus isolation, ELISA-IgM, RT-PCR, histopathology and immunohistochemical. RESULTS: Of the 577 human samples, 531 were tested by ELISA-IgM, with 3 positives, and 235 were inoculated into mice and 199 in cell culture, resulting in one virus isolation. One sample was positive by histopathology and immunohistochemical. Using RT-PCR, 25 samples were processed with 4 positive reactions. A total of 108 specimens of monkeys were examined, 108 were inoculated into mice and 45 in cell culture. Four virus strains were isolated from Alouattacaraya. A total of 931 mosquitoes were captured in Sao Jose do Rio Preto and 2,118 in Ribeirão Preto and separated into batches. A single isolation of YFV was derived from a batch of 9 mosquitoes Psorophoraferox, collected in Urupês, Ribeirão Preto region. A serological survey was conducted with 128 samples from the municipalities of São Carlos, Rincão and Ribeirão Preto and 10 samples from contacts of patients from Ribeirão Preto. All samples were negative by ELISA-IgM for YFV. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the circulation of yellow fever, even though sporadic, in the Sao Paulo State and reinforce the importance of vaccination against yellow fever in areas considered at risk.

  13. Sleep habits and complaints of adults in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in 1987 and 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.N. Pires

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the prevalence of complaints of insomnia, excessive diurnal sleepiness, parasomnias, and sleep habits of the adult population in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, estimated in surveys carried out in 1987 and 1995. Representative samples of 1000 adult residents per survey were interviewed using a validated structured sleep questionnaire, the "UNIFESP Sleep Questionnaire". Difficulty maintaining sleep, difficulty initiating sleep and early morning awakening, occurring at least three times a week, were reported in 1987 and 1995, by 15.8/27.6, 13.9/19.1, and 10.6/14.2% of the interviewees, respectively, significantly increasing throughout time. These sleep problems were more often found among women. Frequencies of excessive diurnal sleepiness and sleep attacks were unchanged comparing 1987 with 1995 (4.5 vs 3.8 and 3.1 vs 3.0%, respectively. Parasomnia complaints remained unchanged, with the exception of leg cramps, which doubled in prevalence from 1987 to 1995 (2.6 to 5.8%. Snoring was the most common parasomnia (21.5% in 1995, reported more often by men than by women, and somnambulism was the least common (approximately 1%. Besides sleeping slightly less, interviewees went to bed and woke up later in 1995. Approximately 12% of the subjects in both surveys had consulted a physician due to sleep problems and 3.0% reported habitual use of sleep-promoting substances in 1995. Overall, there was a significant increase in insomnia complaints from 1987 to 1995 in the general population of the city of São Paulo. This major change over a little under a decade should be considered as an important public health issue.

  14. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, and Neospora caninum in capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, from São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the importance of capybara. Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, as reservoirs for parasites of zoonotic or veterinary importance. Sera from 63 capybaras, from 6 counties in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, were examined for antibodies to Trypanosoma cruel, Leishmania infantum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Sarcacystis neurona, and Neospora caninum using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. Five (8%) of the 63 capybaras had antibodies to T cruzi epimastigotes. None of the sampl...

  15. Study of the relationship between Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti egg and adult densities, dengue fever and climate in Mirassol, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Margareth Regina Dibo; Ana Patricia Chierotti; Mariana Silveira Ferrari; Adriano Luis Mendonça; Francisco Chiaravalloti Neto

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Aedes aegypti egg and adult density indices, dengue fever and climate in Mirassol, state of São Paulo, Brazil, between November 2004-November 2005. Weekly collections of adults and eggs were made using, respectively, manual aspirators and oviposition traps that produced four entomological indices (positivity and average of females and eggs). Weekly incidence coefficients were calculated based on dengue cases. Each week, the dat...

  16. On-road emissions of carbonyls from vehicles powered by biofuel blends in traffic tunnels in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Thiago; Souza, Kely Ferreira de; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Carvalho, Lilian Rothschild Franco de

    2015-05-01

    On-road emissions of carbonyls from the current vehicle fleet of Brazil were determined in two experimental campaigns, conducted in traffic tunnels located in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), in southeastern Brazil. Among carbonyl species, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant in all sampling periods. In Brazil, heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) run on a blend of 95% regular diesel/5% biodiesel from soy, whereas light-duty vehicles (LDVs) run on gasohol (75-80% gasoline/20-25% ethanol) or hydrous ethanol. We found that HDVs showed the highest overall carbonyl emissions, although LDVs were responsible for high emissions of acetaldehyde. In comparison with LDVs in California, which are powered by 90% gasoline/10% ethanol, LDVs in Brazil were found to emit 352% and 263% more formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

  17. Dengue and the risk of urban yellow fever reintroduction in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massad Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose a mathematical method for the estimation of the Basic Reproduction Number, R0, of urban yellow fever in a dengue-infested area. METHODS: The method is based on the assumption that, as the same vector (Aedes aegypti causes both infections, all the quantities related to the mosquito, estimated from the initial phase of dengue epidemic, could be applied to yellow fever dynamics. It is demonstrated that R0 for yellow fever is, on average, 43% lower than that for dengue. This difference is due to the longer dengue viremia and its shorter extrinsic incubation period. RESULTS: In this study the analysis was expanded to the epidemiological situation of dengue in São Paulo in the year 2001. The total number of dengue cases increased from 3,582 in 2000 to 51,348 in 2001. It was then calculated R0 for yellow fever for every city which have shown R0 of dengue greater than 1. It was also estimated the total number of unprotected people living in highly risky areas for urban yellow fever. CONCLUSIONS: Currently there is a great number of non-vaccinated people living in Aedes aegypti infested area in the state of São Paulo.

  18. Evaluation of the air quality benefits of the subway system in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cacilda Bastos Pereira da; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Amato-Lourenço, Luis Fernando; Rodrigues-Silva, Fernando; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri

    2012-06-30

    Air pollution is a severe problem in major urban areas due to increasing numbers of vehicles, reduced road capacity and few investments in public transportation, especially in developing countries. Public transportation has a special role in avoiding congestion and consequent environmental and health impacts but is considered expensive. The objective of this paper was to analyze the benefits of the São Paulo subway in terms of the air pollution in the city through strikes events, analyzing both the health outcomes and the related economic burden. For the strike events, increases in air pollutant concentrations during the strike day was observed when compared to a similar day in terms of day of the week and meteorological conditions. Increases in mortality were also observed and the associated economic burden calculated. Despite the elevated construction and operation costs of the subway, when environment and social values are considered, cost-benefit analysis results would indicate a worthwhile investment. The consideration of these aspects is essential to sustainable transportation analyses, and in the case of the São Paulo subway, our analysis clearly demonstrated the important role of this system in the city's environmental, social and economic attributes.

  19. Estimation of turbulence production by nocturnal low level jets in Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beu, Cassia M. L.; Marques, Márcia T. A.; Nakaema, Walter M.; Sakagami, Yoshiaki; Santos, Pedro A. A.; Moreira, A. C. de C. A.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    Two Doppler lidars were recently used to collect data from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) in Sao Paulo city (23°32'S, 46°38'W). The measurement campaign was carried out from December-2015 to February-2016, during the summer, which is the rainy season. Although Sao Paulo is the main city of a huge metropolitan region with more than 11 million of inhabitants and 7 millions of vehicles, according to the government agencies, the lack of PBL observational data is still a limitation for the atmospheric dispersion studies. Therefore, this work should contribute to the comprehension of PBL mechanisms and also for future atmospheric modeling studies. The data revealed that the nocturnal low-level jets (LLJs) frequently occurred along those 3 months, but its height is highly variable, from 100 m up to 650 m. It was also seen that the nocturnal LLJs can extend for several hours, right before the sunset until sunrise. This work aims to investigate the turbulence production by the nocturnal LLJs and its influence into the stable boundary layer (SBL).

  20. Dengue and the risk of urban yellow fever reintroduction in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Massad

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose a mathematical method for the estimation of the Basic Reproduction Number, R0, of urban yellow fever in a dengue-infested area. METHODS: The method is based on the assumption that, as the same vector (Aedes aegypti causes both infections, all the quantities related to the mosquito, estimated from the initial phase of dengue epidemic, could be applied to yellow fever dynamics. It is demonstrated that R0 for yellow fever is, on average, 43% lower than that for dengue. This difference is due to the longer dengue viremia and its shorter extrinsic incubation period. RESULTS: In this study the analysis was expanded to the epidemiological situation of dengue in São Paulo in the year 2001. The total number of dengue cases increased from 3,582 in 2000 to 51,348 in 2001. It was then calculated R0 for yellow fever for every city which have shown R0 of dengue greater than 1. It was also estimated the total number of unprotected people living in highly risky areas for urban yellow fever. CONCLUSIONS: Currently there is a great number of non-vaccinated people living in Aedes aegypti infested area in the state of São Paulo.

  1. Molecular epidemiology of influenza A(H1N1PDM09 hemagglutinin gene circulating in São Paulo State , Brazil: 2016 anticipated influenza season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Corrêa de Oliveira Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Compared to previous years, seasonal influenza activity commenced early in São Paulo State, Brazil, Southern hemisphere during the 2016 year. In order to investigate the genetic pattern of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in the State of Sao Paulo a total of 479 respiratory samples, collected in January by Sentinel Surveillance Units, were screened by real-time RT-PCR. A total of 6 Influenza viruses A(H1N1pdm09 presenting ct values ≤ 30 were sequenced following phylogenetic analysis. The present study identified the circulation of the new 6B.1 subgroup (A/Sao Paulo/10-118/2016 and A/Sao Paulo/3032/2016. In addition, influenza A(H1N1pdm09 group 6B has also been identified during January in the State of Sao Paulo. Despite amino acid changes and changes in potential glycosylation motifs, 6B.1 viruses were well inhibited by the reference ferret antiserum against A/California/07/2009 virus, the A(H1N1pdm09 component of the vaccine for the 2016 influenza season.

  2. Educational and sex differentials in life expectancies and disability-free life expectancies in São Paulo, Brazil, and urban areas in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Andrade, Flávia Cristina Drumond

    2013-08-01

    To estimate transition probabilities between disability states, total life expectancy, and the latter's decomposition into years spent disabled and disability-free by age, sex, and education among older adults in São Paulo, Brazil, and urban areas in Mexico. Applied a micro-simulation method (Interpolative Markov Chains) using longitudinal data. We found large between-country educational differences in incidence of and recovery from disability with higher rates in Mexico than in São Paulo, but no differences in mortality. Older adults in Mexico spent longer time being disability-free than in São Paulo for both levels of education. Males and females in São Paulo spent a larger fraction of their remaining life disabled at every age than their counterparts in urban areas in Mexico. There were educational differences in the prevalence of disability in São Paulo and urban areas in Mexico, and significant educational differences in disability incidence and recovery across sites.

  3. A cross-cultural comparison of eating behaviors and home food environmental factors in adolescents from São Paulo (Brazil) and Saint Paul-Minneapolis (US).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estima, Camilla C P; Bruening, Meg; Hannan, Peter J; Alvarenga, Marle S; Leal, Greisse V S; Philippi, Sonia T; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Describe cross-cultural differences in nutrition-related factors among adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil and St Paul-Minneapolis, US. Two large-population-based studies with cross-cultural comparisons. Twelve São Paulo and 10 St Paul-Minneapolis high schools in 2009-2010. A total of 1,148 adolescents from São Paulo and 1,632 adolescents from St Paul-Minneapolis. Meal consumption, family meals, fast-food consumption, and home food availability. Binomial regressions, weighted for age distributions and adjusted for gender, were used to compare identical measures from each sample. Generally, São Paulo adolescents reported healthier nutritional outcomes than St Paul-Minneapolis adolescents. São Paulo adolescents were 7 times less likely to report high fast-food consumption than St Paul-Minneapolis adolescents (P culture. Interventions are needed to encourage youth and their families to maintain these patterns. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolamento de myxovirus parainfluenza 3 de gado bovino no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Isolation of Myxovirus parainfluenza type 3 from cattle in S. Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto N. Candeias

    1971-12-01

    Full Text Available Faz-se referência ao isolamento, em São Paulo, de 4 cêpas de Myxovirus parainfluenza do tipo 3, do tecido pulmonar de gado bovino com lesões de pneumonia, que se mostraram antigenicamente semelhantes à cêpa bovina SF-4. Uma das cêpas isoladas mostrou certa relação antigênica com a cêpa humana HA-1.The isolation of Myxovirus parainfluenza type 3 from cattle with pneumonia, in S. Paulo, Brazil, is reported. All the strains isolated appeared to be antigenically related to the bovine strain SF-4. It was possible to establish a certain degree of antigenic relationship between the human strain HA-1 and one of the bovine strains isolated.

  5. Inspection on rural electrification cooperatives in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil - a step for the regularization; Inspecao de cooperativas de eletrificacao rural em Sao Paulo - um passo para sua regularizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazzini, Luiz Henrique Alves; Kurahassi, Luiz Fernando; Ribeiro, Fernando Selles [Sao Paulo Univ. , SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia]. E-mail: pazzini@pea.usp.br; Fernandes Filho, Guilherme Eugenio Filippo [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: gfilippo@feg.unesp.br

    2000-07-01

    The state of Sao Paulo counts, now, with seventeen cooperatives of rural electrification that assist several areas of the state. Those agents of the electric sector are, in Brazil, going by a regularization process coordinated by ANEEL (Agencia Nacional das Empresas de Energia Eletrica) - the Brazilian electric energy agency. In Sao Paulo that process is being driven by the CSPE (Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia) - the Brazilian energy public service commission. One of the stages of that process was the inspection of the cooperatives, accomplished during the year of 1999 by five teams from UNESP and from USP. This paper describes the methodology used in those inspections and presents the main data. It concludes that the service rendered by the cooperatives is of good quality, and, than smaller is the cooperative, better is the attendance. It also the need of technological advancements that the cooperatives will have to accomplish if they want to participle in a competitive and regularity market. (author)

  6. Dispersal of Lutzomyia longipalpis and expansion of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Agda Maria; Vieira, Carolina Portugal; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Rodas, Lilian Aparecida Colebrusco; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a neglected disease, is a serious public health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the sensitivity of Lutzomyia longipalpis and canine VL (CVL) autochthony early detection and describe the spatial and temporal dispersal of vector and expansion of VL in a Brazilian state. We obtained data on the leishmaniasis vector and VL cases in São Paulo State (SP), Brazil, from the Division of Endemic Disease Control and from the Epidemiological Surveillance Center of the São Paulo State Department of Health. Data were analyzed for 645 municipalities and 63 microregions and presented as thematic and flow maps. Following the verified presence of L. longipalpis in Araçatuba in 1997, the first autochthonous cases of canine VL (CVL) (1998) and of human VL (HVL) (1999) in São Paulo were reported, both in Araçatuba. From 1997 to 2014, the urban presence of the leishmaniasis vector was verified in 167 (25.9%) municipalities with cases of CVL reported in 108 (16.7%) and cases of HVL in 84 (13%). The sensitivities for vector presence early detection in relation to the identification of CVL and HVL autochthony were, respectively, equal to 76.4 and 92.5%. The sensitivity for CVL autochthony early detection in relation to the HVL autochthony identification was 75.8%. Vector dispersal and expansion of CVL and HVL were from the northwest to the southeast of the state, primarily flanking the Marechal Rondon highway at a constant rate of progression of 10, seven, and six new municipalities affected per year, respectively. We concluded that the sensitivity for vector presence and CVL autochthony presented reasonable accuracy and most of the time the vector presence and, specially, the CVL and HVL autochthony were identified in the main cities of the microregions of SP. Vector dispersal and expansion of VL started in 1997 near the state border of SP with the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. It has advanced

  7. Seasonal and diurnal variation of NOx-O3 in the troposphere of São Paulo State (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, C. D.; Cardoso, A. A.

    2006-05-01

    attributed to the higher emission of NOx and volatile organic compounds during biomass burning. These values are similar to the concentrations observed in huge urban cities such as São Paulo, and are close to the national standard of air quality of São Paulo State (Brazil). However, the reduction of O3 precursors emission in the region is expected with the minimization and elimination of burn procedure in the sugar cane plantations up to the year 2021.

  8. Homicídios e desigualdades sociais no Município de São Paulo Social inequality and homicide rates in Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Pinheiro Gawryszewski

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A relação entre renda e mortalidade por violência vem sendo estudada nos últimos anos. A Síntese de Indicadores Sociais 2002, lançada pelo IBGE, refere que o traço mais marcante da sociedade brasileira é a desigualdade. O propósito do estudo é testar a associação entre as taxas de homicídios e alguns indicadores de saúde e socioeconômicos. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico, de corte transversal. Foram analisados dados do Município de São Paulo, ano 2000, quanto a coeficientes de homicídios e cinco indicadores: taxa de mortalidade infantil, renda média do chefe de família, percentual de adolescentes de 15 a 17 anos que não freqüentavam a escola, percentual de adolescentes grávidas de 14 a 17 anos e densidade demográfica. Para testar essas associações foram utilizados o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson e a regressão linear múltipla. RESULTADOS: O coeficiente de homicídios foi 57,3/100.000. A correlação entre taxas de homicídios e renda média foi negativa e forte (r=-0,65. Maiores coeficientes foram encontrados nos distritos com menor renda e menores naqueles com maiores rendas. Para o percentual de adolescentes que não freqüentavam a escola (r=0,68 e para o percentual de adolescentes grávidas (r=0,67 a associação encontrada foi positiva e forte. Para a taxa de mortalidade infantil a correlação encontrada foi r=0,24 (para todos pOBJECTIVE: The relation between income and mortality due to violence has been studied in recent years. The Synthesis of Social Indicators of 2002 [Síntese de Indicadores Sociais, 2002], published by The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE, states that one of the most outstanding characteristic of Brazilian society is inequality. The proposal of this ecological study was to test the association between homicide rates, and some health and socioeconomic indicators. METHODS: This is an ecological cross-sectional study. Data regarding Sao Paulo City, Brazil in

  9. Effects of human trampling on a rocky shore fauna on the Sao Paulo coast, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, M N; Rosso, S

    2009-11-01

    Increased tourist activity in coastal regions demands management strategies to reduce impacts on rocky shores. The highly populated coastal areas in southeastern Brazil are an example of degradation caused by development of industry and tourism. Among different shore impacts, trampling has been intensively studied, and may represent a significant source of stress for intertidal fauna. A randomised blocks design was applied to experimentally study the effects of two different trampling intensities on richness, diversity, density and biomass of the rocky shore fauna of Obuseiro beach, Guarujá, southeastern Brazil. Blocks were distributed in two portions of the intertidal zone, dominated respectively by Chthamalus bisinuatus (Cirripedia) and Isognomon bicolor (Bivalvia). Blocks were trampled over three months, simulating the vacation period in Brazil and were monitored for the following nine months. Results indicate that Chthamalus bisinuatus is vulnerable to trampling impacts. Richness, diversity and turn-over index tended to be higher in trampled plots four months after trampling ceased. In general, results agree with previous trampling studies, suggesting that even low intensities of trampling may cause some impact on intertidal communities. Management strategies should include isolation of sensitive areas, construction of boardwalks, visitor education and monitoring programmes. In Brazil, additional data obtained from experimental studies are necessary in order to achieve a better understanding of trampling impacts on rocky shore communities.

  10. Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in dogs from Cotia county, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOPPERT Adriana Marques

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs sera samples collected from Cotia County, São Paulo were tested using indirect immunoenzymatic test (ELISA in order to study Lyme disease serology in dogs. ELISA method was standardized and G39/40 North American strain of Borrelia burgdorferi was used as antigen. Positive results were confirmed employing the Western blotting technique. Because of the possibility of cross-reactions, sera were also tested for different serological strains of Leptospira interrogans and L. biflexa using microscopic sera agglutination test. Twenty-three of 237 (9.7% serum samples were positive in the ELISA; 20 of them (86.9% were confirmed by the Western blotting, what suggests that Cotia may be a risk area for Lyme disease. Although 4 samples (1.7% were positive for Lyme disease and leptospirosis, no correlation was found between the results (X² = 0.725; p = 0.394 what suggests absence of serological cross reactivity.

  11. [Homicide mortality, socioeconomic development, and police violence in the city of São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Cardia, Nancy; de Mesquita Neto, Paulo; Dos Santos, Patrícia Carla; Adorno, Sérgio

    2008-04-01

    To analyze the association between police violence and homicide mortality rates taking into consideration the effect of contextual variables. This was an environmental, cross-sectional study that included the 96 census districts in the City of São Paulo. The association between the variables was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation and simple and multiple regression analysis. Univariate analysis revealed a strong and significant association between homicide mortality coefficients and all the indicators of socioeconomic development and police violence. After controlling for potential confounding factors, the association between police violence and homicide mortality coefficients remained strong and significant. This significance was lost only after control for the size of the resident population. The results indicate that police action that violates basic human rights is not the right answer to urban violence. The combination of homicides from interpersonal violence and deaths from police violence results in negative socialization and promotes further violence.

  12. Rubella vaccination in women of childbearing age in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Rita Donalisio; Caroline Senicato; Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo Francisco; Marilisa Berti de Azevedo Barros

    2013-01-01

    As mulheres em idade reprodutiva são a população de maior interesse para a prevenção da síndrome da rubéola congênita. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a prevalência de vacinação contra rubéola em mulheres e identificar fatores associados e motivos da não adesão. Trata-se de estudo transversal de base populacional, realizado em Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, em 2008/2009, com amostra por conglomerados e em dois estágios. Das 778 mulheres de 10 a 49 anos, 83,8% (IC95%: 79,6-88,0) referiram vac...

  13. HUMAN CYCLOSPORIASIS DIAGNOSIS: REPORT OF A CASE IN SÃO PAULO, SP, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Otaviani Di Pietro Fernandes

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of the human cyclosporiasis is reported in São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Cyclospora cayetanensis has been identified in the feces of a patient by a modified Kinyoun staining method, with later sporulation in a solution of 2.5% potassium dichromate. The probability that this parasite is the eventual cause of gastrointestinal disturbances in the country was stimulated by this finding, which was arrived at by a simple technique. It had been kept in mind that the disease was expressing itself mainly among immunocompromised patients, whose number is increasing; especially in those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, which is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV.É relatado o diagnóstico de ciclosporíase humana em São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Cyclospora cayetanensis foi encontrada nas fezes de um indivíduo através de exame pelo método de coloração de Kinyoun modificado, com posterior esporulação em dicromato de potássio a 2,5%. Esta verificação deve estimular a necessidade de considerar a ciclosporíase como eventual causa de distúrbios gastrointestinais no país, podendo ela ser reconhecida até mesmo por meio de técnica razoavelmente simples. Foi ainda lembrado que esta parasitose vem adquirindo expressividade sobretudo pelo fato de não raramente acometer imunodeprimidos, agora cada vez mais numerosos em especial como decorrência da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV, que causa a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS.

  14. Elevated risk for HIV-1 infection in adolescents and young adults in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cristina Bassichetto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have sought to describe HIV infection and transmission characteristics around the world. Identification of early HIV-1 infection is essential to proper surveillance and description of regional transmission trends. In this study we compare people recently infected (RI with HIV-1, as defined by Serologic Testing Algorithm for Recent HIV Seroconversion (STARHS, to those with chronic infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects were identified from 2002-2004 at four testing sites in São Paulo. Of 485 HIV-1-positive subjects, 57 (12% were defined as RI. Of the participants, 165 (34.0% were aware of their serostatus at the time of HIV-1 testing. This proportion was statistically larger (p59 years-old age strata (p<0.001. The majority of study participants were male (78.4%, 25 to 45 years-old (65.8%, white (63.2%, single (61.7%, with family income of four or more times the minimum wage (41.0%, but with an equally distributed educational level. Of those individuals infected with HIV-1, the predominant route of infection was sexual contact (89.4%, with both hetero (47.5% and homosexual (34.5% exposure. Regarding sexual activity in these individuals, 43.9% reported possible HIV-1 exposure through a seropositive partner, and 49.4% reported multiple partners, with 47% having 2 to 10 partners and 37.4% 11 or more; 53.4% of infected individuals reported condom use sometimes; 34.2% reported non-injecting, recreational drug use and 23.6% were reactive for syphilis by VDRL. Subjects younger than 25 years of age were most vulnerable according to the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, we evaluated RI individuals and discovered that HIV-1 has been spreading among younger individuals in São Paulo and preventive approaches should, therefore, target this age stratum.

  15. Shield calculation of project for instrument calibration integrated laboratory of IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Calculo das blindagens do projeto de um laboratorio integrado de calibracao de instrumentos no IPEN - Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Gustavo A.S.J.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: gustavaobarros@gmail.co, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work performed the shield calculation of the future rooms walls of the five X-ray equipment of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, which will be constructed in project of laboratory enlargement. The obtained results by application of a calculation methodology from an international regulation have shown that the largest thickness of shielding (25.7 cm of concrete or 7.1 mm of lead) will be of the wall which will receive the primary beam of the equipment with a 320 kV voltage. The cost/benefit analysis indicated the concrete as the best material option for the shielding

  16. Studies on energy conservation for buildings of the electrical engineering of the Polytechnical School - Sao Paulo State University - Sao Paulo, Brazil; Estudos de conservacao de energia para predios da engenharia eletrica da EPUSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidel, Marco Antonio; Maki, Clayton Massatoshi; Fereira Segundo, Nestor Candido; Morales Udaeta, Miguel Edgar [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Grupo de Energia]. E-mail: udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper identifies and quantifies the potential of electric power conservation by end using of the buildings of electrical engineering at Polytechnic School of Sao Paulo University (EPUSP), SP, Brazil, aiming the increasing of energetic efficiency. The paper presents the results of the energetic diagnostic performed at the EPUSP Electric Engineering. The final using of lighting, air conditioning in the windows and microcomputers were analysed. The obtained results demonstrates the existence of a large potential of energy conservation, mainly related to the lighting end use.

  17. Sanitary surveillance of ionizing radiations use in health services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil; O controle sanitario do uso das radiacoes ionizantes em servicos de saude no Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldred, Martha Aurelia; Eduardo, Maria Bernardete de Paula; Goncalves Junior, Nelson [Secretaria de Estado da Saude de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Vigilancia Sanitaria

    1997-12-31

    An evaluation of the Sanitarian Surveillance actions developed at Sao Paulo State, Brazil, concerning the control of ionizing radiation is presented. Aspects such as technical standards, inspection forms, assessment and quality assurance programs, in the fields of medical and dental radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine are discussed. A program is also introduced for sample monitoring of these instruments. A set of protocol with criteria to be used in quality assurance programs, including equipment and procedures is presented. Participation of several societies of specialists and consumer defense organizations in the elaboration of technical regulations has contributed to concrete adoption by health care services 19 refs.

  18. Prediction of ground-level ozone concentration in São Paulo, Brazil: Deterministic versus statistic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshyaripour, G.; Brasseur, G.; Andrade, M. F.; Gavidia-Calderón, M.; Bouarar, I.; Ynoue, R. Y.

    2016-11-01

    Two state-of-the-art models (deterministic: Weather Research and Forecast model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) and statistic: Artificial Neural Networks: (ANN)) are implemented to predict the ground-level ozone concentration in São Paulo (SP), Brazil. Two domains are set up for WRF-Chem simulations: a coarse domain (with 50 km horizontal resolution) including whole South America (D1) and a nested domain (with horizontal resolution of 10 km) including South Eastern Brazil (D2). To evaluate the spatial distribution of the chemical species, model results are compared to the Measurements of Pollution in The Troposphere (MOPITT) data, showing that the model satisfactorily predicts the CO concentrations in both D1 and D2. The model also reproduces the measurements made at three air quality monitoring stations in SP with the correlation coefficients of 0.74, 0.70, and 0.77 for O3 and 0.51, 0.48, and 0.57 for NOx. The input selection for ANN model is carried out using Forward Selection (FS) method. FS-ANN is then trained and validated using the data from two air quality monitoring stations, showing correlation coefficients of 0.84 and 0.75 for daily mean and 0.64 and 0.67 for daily peak ozone during the test stage. Then, both WRF-Chem and FS-ANN are deployed to forecast the daily mean and peak concentrations of ozone in two stations during 5-20 August 2012. Results show that WRF-Chem preforms better in predicting mean and peak ozone concentrations as well as in conducting mechanistic and sensitivity analysis. FS-ANN is only advantageous in predicting mean daily ozone concentrations considering its significantly lower computational costs and ease of development and implementation, compared to that of WRF-Chem.

  19. Occurrence and sorption of fluoroquinolones in poultry litters and soils from São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Rafael Marques Pereira; Figueira, Rafael Fernandes; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Regitano, Jussara Borges

    2012-08-15

    Animal production is one of the most expressive sectors of Brazilian agro-economy. Although antibiotics are routinely used in this activity, their occurrence, fate, and potential impacts to the local environment are largely unknown. This research evaluated sorption-desorption and occurrence of four commonly used fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, and enrofloxacin) in poultry litter and soil samples from São Paulo State, Brazil. The sorption-desorption studies involved batch equilibration technique and followed the OECD guideline for pesticides. All compounds were analyzed by HPLC, using fluorescence detector. Fluoroquinolones' sorption potential to the poultry litters (K(d) ≤65 L kg(-1)) was lower than to the soil (K(d) ~40,000 L kg(-1)), but was always high (≥69% of applied amount) indicating a higher specificity of fluoroquinolones interaction with soils. The addition of poultry litter (5%) to the soil had not affected sorption or desorption of these compounds. Desorption was negligible in the soil (≤0.5% of sorbed amount), but not in the poultry litters (up to 42% of sorbed amount). Fluoroquinolones' mean concentrations found in the poultry litters (1.37 to 6.68 mg kg(-1)) and soils (22.93 μg kg(-1)) were compatible to those found elsewhere (Austria, China, and Turkey). Enrofloxacin was the most often detected compound (30% of poultry litters and 27% of soils) at the highest mean concentrations (6.68 mg kg(-1) for poultry litters and 22.93 μg kg(-1) for soils). These results show that antibiotics are routinely used in poultry production and might represent one potential source of pollution to the environment that has been largely ignored and should be further investigated in Brazil.

  20. Prevalence of diphtheria and tetanus antibodies and circulation of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in São Paulo, Brazil

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    K.G. Divino-Goes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of routine vaccination against tetanus and diphtheria in Brazil has decreased the incidence and changed the epidemiology of both diseases. We then investigated the prevalence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae carrier status and diphtheria and tetanus immunity in São Paulo, Brazil. From November 2001 to March 2003, 374 individuals were tested for the presence of C. diphtheriae in the naso-oropharynx and of serum diphtheria and tetanus antibodies. Participants were all healthy individuals without acute or chronic pathologies and they were stratified by age as follows: 0-12 months and 1-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-24, 25-39, 40-59, and ³60 years. Antibodies were assessed using a double-antigen ELISA. C. diphtheriae species were identified by biochemical analysis and toxigenicity was assessed by the Elek test. For diphtheria, full protection (antibodies ³0.1 IU/mL was present in 84% of the individuals, 15% had basic protection (antibodies ³0.01 and <0.1 IU/mL and 1% were susceptible (antibodies <0.01 IU/mL. Full tetanus protection (antibodies ³0.1 IU/mL was present in 79% of the participants, 18% had basic protection (antibodies ³0.01 and <0.1 IU/mL and 3% were susceptible (antibodies <0.01 IU/mL. The geometric mean of diphtheria and tetanus antibodies reached the highest values at 5-9 years and decreased until the 40-59-year age range, increasing again in individuals over 60 years. Three participants (0.8% were carriers of C. diphtheriae, all non-toxigenic strains. The present results demonstrate the clear need of periodic booster for tetanus and diphtheria vaccine in adolescents and adults after primary immunization in childhood.

  1. Prevalence of diphtheria and tetanus antibodies and circulation of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divino-Goes, K G; Moraes-Pinto, M I de; Dinelli, M I S; Casagrande, S T; Bonetti, T C S; Andrade, P R; Weckx, L Y

    2007-12-01

    The introduction of routine vaccination against tetanus and diphtheria in Brazil has decreased the incidence and changed the epidemiology of both diseases. We then investigated the prevalence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae carrier status and diphtheria and tetanus immunity in São Paulo, Brazil. From November 2001 to March 2003, 374 individuals were tested for the presence of C. diphtheriae in the naso-oropharynx and of serum diphtheria and tetanus antibodies. Participants were all healthy individuals without acute or chronic pathologies and they were stratified by age as follows: 0-12 months and 1-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-24, 25-39, 40-59, and > or =60 years. Antibodies were assessed using a double-antigen ELISA. C. diphtheriae species were identified by biochemical analysis and toxigenicity was assessed by the Elek test. For diphtheria, full protection (antibodies > or =0.1 IU/mL) was present in 84% of the individuals, 15% had basic protection (antibodies > or =0.01 and antibodies antibodies > or =0.1 IU/mL) was present in 79% of the participants, 18% had basic protection (antibodies > or =0.01 and antibodies diphtheria and tetanus antibodies reached the highest values at 5-9 years and decreased until the 40-59-year age range, increasing again in individuals over 60 years. Three participants (0.8%) were carriers of C. diphtheriae, all non-toxigenic strains. The present results demonstrate the clear need of periodic booster for tetanus and diphtheria vaccine in adolescents and adults after primary immunization in childhood.

  2. Comparison of empirical and data driven hydrometeorological hazard models on coastal cities of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga-Vicente, A.; Friedel, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Every year thousands of people are affected by floods and landslide hazards caused by rainstorms. The problem is more serious in tropical developing countries because of the susceptibility as a result of the high amount of available energy to form storms, and the high vulnerability due to poor economic and social conditions. Predictive models of hazards are important tools to manage this kind of risk. In this study, a comparison of two different modeling approaches was made for predicting hydrometeorological hazards in 12 cities on the coast of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1994 to 2003. In the first approach, an empirical multiple linear regression (MLR) model was developed and used; the second approach used a type of unsupervised nonlinear artificial neural network called a self-organized map (SOM). By using twenty three independent variables of susceptibility (precipitation, soil type, slope, elevation, and regional atmospheric system scale) and vulnerability (distribution and total population, income and educational characteristics, poverty intensity, human development index), binary hazard responses were obtained. Model performance by cross-validation indicated that the respective MLR and SOM model accuracy was about 67% and 80%. Prediction accuracy can be improved by the addition of information, but the SOM approach is preferred because of sparse data and highly nonlinear relations among the independent variables.

  3. Schistosomal myeloradiculopathy in a low-prevalence area: 27 cases (14 autochthonous in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

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    André Ricardo Ribas Freitas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR is a form of schistosomiasis that is not linked with a high worm burden but rather is found in patients who have been sporadically exposed to Schistosoma mansoni. This paper aims to determine the occurrence of SMR in a low-endemic area with urban transmission in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. A retrospective study was performed, identifying confirmed cases in the two largest public hospitals on the region. Patients were diagnosed with SMR using standardised criteria, common clinical parameters, evidence of schistosomal infection and exclusion of other causes of myelopathy. A total of 27 patients were identified; 19 (85.2% were men and four (14.8% were women, ranging from 13-57 years of age (mean = 31.2; standard deviation = 12.8. Patients were classified as autochthonous (n = 14; 51.9% or allochthonous (n = 11; 40.7% and epidemiological data could not be obtained for two patients (7.4%. The clinical parameters of these patients were not different from previous studies. The sensitivity of serum immune reactions, cerebrospinal fluid immune reactions and parasitological stool examinations in identifying infected individuals was 87.5%, 93.8% and 40%, respectively. The epidemiological importance of these findings and their relationship with the control policies of schistosomiasis are discussed.

  4. Schistosomal myeloradiculopathy in a low-prevalence area: 27 cases (14 autochthonous) in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, André Ricardo Ribas; Oliveira, Augusto César Penalva; Silva, Luiz Jacintho

    2010-07-01

    Schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR) is a form of schistosomiasis that is not linked with a high worm burden but rather is found in patients who have been sporadically exposed to Schistosoma mansoni. This paper aims to determine the occurrence of SMR in a low-endemic area with urban transmission in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. A retrospective study was performed, identifying confirmed cases in the two largest public hospitals on the region. Patients were diagnosed with SMR using standardised criteria, common clinical parameters, evidence of schistosomal infection and exclusion of other causes of myelopathy. A total of 27 patients were identified; 19 (85.2%) were men and four (14.8%) were women, ranging from 13-57 years of age (mean = 31.2; standard deviation = 12.8). Patients were classified as autochthonous (n = 14; 51.9%) or allochthonous (n = 11; 40.7%) and epidemiological data could not be obtained for two patients (7.4%). The clinical parameters of these patients were not different from previous studies. The sensitivity of serum immune reactions, cerebrospinal fluid immune reactions and parasitological stool examinations in identifying infected individuals was 87.5%, 93.8% and 40%, respectively. The epidemiological importance of these findings and their relationship with the control policies of schistosomiasis are discussed.

  5. Fertility and reproductive history of sterilized and non-sterilized women in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Maria José Duarte Osis

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article compares sterilized and non-sterilized women in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive history, and cohabitation status. Women from 30 to 49 years of age and residing in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, were interviewed with a pre-tested and structured questionnaire: 236 women sterilized at least five years before the interview and 236 non-sterilized women. The sterilized women were significantly more likely to be married or cohabiting, to be younger when they began cohabiting, and to have been in the union longer than the non-sterilized women. They also began childbearing at an earlier age and had a history of more pregnancies and more live births than non-sterilized women. Factors associated with a history of 3 or more live births at the time of the interview were surgical sterilization, younger age at first childbirth, older age at the interview, recognition of fewer contraceptive methods, and lower per capita income. The article concludes that sterilization generally appears to be the consequence of higher fertility in a group of women who initiate childbearing early in life, although its role in preventing these women from having even larger families may also have a demographic impact.

  6. Detecting trends in 10-day rainfall amounts at five sites in the state ofSão Paulo, Brazil

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    Gabriel Constantino Blain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporal distribution of the rainfall events within a crop growing season plays a crucial role on the crop yield. In this way, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the presence of climate trends in the 10-day rainfall totalsobtained from five weather stations in the State of São Paulo, Brazil (1951-2012.The autocorrelation function, the Run test and the Durbin-Watson test indicateda lack of significant serial correlation in theseseries. The wavelet analysis revealed no conclusive evidence of periodicities in the temporal variability of this variable. According to the Mann-Kendall test, most of the 10-day rainfall amounts obtained from the five weather stations shows no significant trends. However, for the locations of States Campinas, Pindorama and Ribeirão Preto, the significant decreasing trends observed during the 2nd and 3rd ten days of October suggests a possible change in the climatic patterns of these locations, which may be linked to a delay in the return of the rainy season.

  7. Using Cluster Analysis and ICP-MS to Identify Groups of Ecstasy Tablets in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Camila; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Togni, Loraine Rezende; da Costa, José Luiz; Campiglia, Andres Dobal; Barbosa, Fernando; Barbosa, Rommel Melgaço

    2017-02-15

    The variations found in the elemental composition in ecstasy samples result in spectral profiles with useful information for data analysis, and cluster analysis of these profiles can help uncover different categories of the drug. We provide a cluster analysis of ecstasy tablets based on their elemental composition. Twenty-five elements were determined by ICP-MS in tablets apprehended by Sao Paulo's State Police, Brazil. We employ the K-means clustering algorithm along with C4.5 decision tree to help us interpret the clustering results. We found a better number of two clusters within the data, which can refer to the approximated number of sources of the drug which supply the cities of seizures. The C4.5 model was capable of differentiating the ecstasy samples from the two clusters with high prediction accuracy using the leave-one-out cross-validation. The model used only Nd, Ni, and Pb concentration values in the classification of the samples. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Isolation of Leptospira santarosai, serovar guaricura from buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis in Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Vasconcellos Silvio A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In April 1998 urine samples from adult female buffaloes were collected in a farm located in Registro, Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo State, Brazil. The urine samples obtained after furosemide injection were immediately transported to the laboratory in liquid modified EMJH medium and seeded, by the serial dilution technique, into Fletcher's or modified EMJH-0.2% agar, both of them with 5-fluorouracil 100mg/mL. The intraperitoneoum inoculation of 0.5 mL was also performed with each urine sample in young, adult hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. All samples seeded directly in culture medium were contaminated. The hamsters did not show any sign of disease and were killed at the 21st post inoculation day. At this time kidney cultures of these animals were performed and from one of them, one leptospira strain (M04-98 was isolated, identified as belonging to serogroup Sejroe by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT with a panel of 36 rabbit sera against serovars representative for the pathogenic serogroups. Subsequently, MAT was carried out with antisera against the 19 reference strains of serogroup Sejroe, revealing a close relationship with serovar guaricura. Afterwards the MAT was done with a panel of 18 monoclonal antibodies representative for serovars of serogroup Sejroe. The histogram closely resembled that of serovar guaricura. So Cross Agglutination Absorption Test (CAAT was carried out with the buffalo isolate and serovar guaricura, supporting the relationship between the buffalo isolate and serovar guaricura.

  9. Factors associated with time free of oral candidiasis in children living with HIV/AIDS, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira Konstantyner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, recurrence of thrush is common in children living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with time spent free of oral candidiasis using survival analysis for recurrent events. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 287 children treated between 1985 and 2009 at a reference center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The Prentice, Williams and Peterson model for recurrent events was used for the investigation of factors associated with the time free of oral candidiasis. The following factors were associated with the time patients were free of oral candidiasis: moderate immunodepression (HR = 2.5; p = 0.005, severe immunodepression (HR = 3.5; p < 0.001, anemia (HR = 3.3; p < 0.001, malnutrition (HR = 2.6; p = 0.004, hospitalization (HR = 2.2; p < 0.001, monotherapy (HR = 0.5; p = 0.006, dual therapy (HR = 0.3; p < 0.001 and triple therapy/highly active antiretroviral therapy (HR = 0.1; p < 0.001. The method analyzed in the present study proved useful for the investigation of recurrent events in patients living with HIV/AIDS.

  10. Tuberculosis in the twentieth century: time-series mortality in São Paulo, Brazil, 1900-97

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    José Leopoldo Ferreira Antunes

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize tuberculosis mortality trends in the Municipality of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1900 to 1997. Standardized tuberculosis mortality rates and proportional mortality ratios were calculated and stratified by gender and age group based on data provided by government agencies. These measures were submitted to time-series analysis. We verified distinct trends: high mortality and a stationary trend from 1900 to 1945, a heavy reduction in mortality (7.41% per year from 1945 to 1985, and a resumption of increased mortality (4.08% per year from 1985 to 1995. In 1996 and 1997 we observed a drop in tuberculosis mortality rates, which may be indicating a new downward trend for the disease. The period from 1945 to 1985 witnessed a real reduction in tuberculosis, brought about by social improvements, the introduction of therapeutic resources, and expansion of health services. Recrudescence of tuberculosis mortality from 1985 to 1995 may reflect the increasing prevalence of Mycobacterium and HIV co-infection, besides loss of quality in specific health programs.

  11. Climate change and future scenarios for palisade grass production in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    André Santana Andrade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze future scenarios for palisade grass yield subjected to climate change for the state of São Paulo, Brazil. An empirical crop model was used to estimate yields, according to growing degree-days adjusted by one drought attenuation factor. Climate data from 1963 to 2009 of 23 meteorological stations were used for current climate conditions. Downscaled outputs of two general circulation models were used to project future climate for the 2013-2040 and 2043-2070 periods, considering two contrasting scenarios of temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration increase (high and low. Annual dry matter yield should be from 14 to 42% higher than the current one, depending on the evaluated scenario. Yield variation between seasons (seasonality and years is expected to increase. The increase of dry matter accumulation will be higher in the rainy season than in the dry season, and this result is more evident for soils with low-water storage capacity. The results varied significantly between regions (60%. Despite their higher climate potential, warmer regions will probably have a lower increase in future forage production.

  12. Wet-bulb globe temperature index estimation using meteorological data from São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Paulo Alves; Ruas, Álvaro Cézar; Bitencourt, Daniel Pires

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that excessive heat exposure causes heat disorders and can lead to death in some situations. Evaluation of heat stress on workers performing indoor and outdoor activities is, nowadays, conducted worldwide by wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index, which calculation parameters are dry-bulb, natural wet-bulb, and globe temperatures, which must be measured at the same time and in location where the worker is conducting his/her activities. However, for some activities performed in large outdoor areas such as those of agricultural ones, it is not feasible to measure directly those temperatures in all work periods and locations where there are workers. Taking this into account, this work aims to introduce a WBGT index estimation using atmospheric variables observed by automatic meteorological stations. In order to support our estimation method, we used, as a test-bed, data recorded in the State of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. By adding the cloudiness factor in the calculation through measurement of solar radiation, the algorithm proved to be as efficient as those mentioned in this work. It was found that this method is viable, with WBGT-estimated values obtained from meteorological data measured by stations with a distance of less than 80 km. This estimate can be used for monitoring heat stress in real time as well as to investigate heat-related disorders and agricultural work.

  13. Microscopic analysis of "prato", "mussarela" and "mineiro" cheese sold in street markets of the City of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

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    Marlene Correia

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cheese should be produced from ingredients of good quality and processed under hygienic conditions. Further, cheese should be transported, stored and sold in an appropriate manner in order to avoid, among other things, the incorporation of extraneous materials (filth of biological origin or otherwise, in contravention of the relevant food legislation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the hygienic conditions of "prato", "mussarela", and "mineiro" cheeses sold at the street food markets in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Forty-seven samples of each of the three types of cheese were collected during the period from March, 1993 to February, 1994. The Latin square was used as a statistical model for sampling and random selection of the street markets from which to collect the cheese samples. The samples were analysed for the presence of extraneous matters outside for which purpose the samples were washed and filtered and inside, for which the methodology of enzymathic digestion of the sample with pancreatine, followed by filtering,was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Of the 141 samples analysed, 75.9% exhibited at least one sort of extraneous matters. For the "prato" and "mussarela" cheeses, the high number of contaminated samples was due mainly to extraneous matters present inside the cheese, whereas in the "mineiro" cheese, besides the internal filth, 100% of the samples had external filth.

  14. Microscopic analysis of "prato", "mussarela" and "mineiro" cheese sold in street markets of the City of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

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    Correia Marlene

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cheese should be produced from ingredients of good quality and processed under hygienic conditions. Further, cheese should be transported, stored and sold in an appropriate manner in order to avoid, among other things, the incorporation of extraneous materials (filth of biological origin or otherwise, in contravention of the relevant food legislation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the hygienic conditions of "prato", "mussarela", and "mineiro" cheeses sold at the street food markets in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Forty-seven samples of each of the three types of cheese were collected during the period from March, 1993 to February, 1994. The Latin square was used as a statistical model for sampling and random selection of the street markets from which to collect the cheese samples. The samples were analysed for the presence of extraneous matters outside for which purpose the samples were washed and filtered and inside, for which the methodology of enzymathic digestion of the sample with pancreatine, followed by filtering,was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Of the 141 samples analysed, 75.9% exhibited at least one sort of extraneous matters. For the "prato" and "mussarela" cheeses, the high number of contaminated samples was due mainly to extraneous matters present inside the cheese, whereas in the "mineiro" cheese, besides the internal filth, 100% of the samples had external filth.

  15. Socioeconomic inequalities and exposure to traffic-related air pollution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Mateus Habermann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a leading public health concern. In addition, poor populations have been reported as showing increased exposure to such pollution. The current study thus aimed to evaluate the socioeconomic status of the population exposed to vehicle-related air pollution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The study used data from the 2010 Census on head-of-household’s mean monthly income and the percentage of households connected to the sewage system. Exposure to air pollutants was estimated according to traffic density in the census tract plus a 200m surrounding buffer. The relationship between exposure and socioeconomic variables was analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Exposure increased with increasing socioeconomic status (p < 0.001. The population with the highest socioeconomic status lives in the most polluted areas of the city. However, place of residence alone is not capable of measuring exposure. The study suggests that future epidemiological studies include other indicators of vulnerability.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Haemophilus influenzae isolated from patients with meningitis in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Casagrande S.T.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1989 to 1995, a total of 391 Haemophilus influenzae isolates were recovered from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of hospitalized patients in São Paulo, Brazil. The majority of strains were isolated from infants aged less than 5 years. Strains belonging to biotype I (64.7%, biotype II (34.5% and biotype IV (0.76% were detected. Ninety-nine percent of these strains were serotype b. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined for ampicillin, chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone. The ß-lactamase assay was performed for all strains. The rate of ß-lactamase producer strains ranged from 10 to 21.4% during a period of 7 years, with an overall rate of 13.8%. Of the 391 strains analyzed, none was ß-lactamase negative ampicillin resistant (BLNAR. A total of 9.7% of strains showed resistance to both ampicillin and chloramphenicol; however, 4% of them were resistant to ampicillin only and 2% to chloramphenicol. All strains were susceptible to ceftriaxone and the MIC90 was 0.007 µg/ml, suggesting that ceftriaxone could be an option for the treatment of bacterial meningitis in pediatric patients who have not been screened for drug sensitivity.

  17. Prevalence of Toxocara infection in schoolchildren from the Butantã region, São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Alderete, Jussara M S; Jacob, Cristina M A; Pastorino, Antonio C; Elefant, Guita R; Castro, Ana P M; Fomin, Angela B F; Chieffi, Pedro P

    2003-07-01

    Visceral larva migrans syndrome by Toxocara affects mainly children between 2 and 5 years of age, it is generally asymptomatic, and the seroprevalence varies from 3 to 86% in different countries. A total of 399 schoolchildren from 14 public schools of the Butantã region, São Paulo city, Brazil, were evaluated by Toxocara serology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Epidemiological data to the Toxocara infection obtained from a protocol were submitted to multiple logistic regression analysis for a risk profile definition. Blood was collected on filter paper by finger puncture, with all samples tested in duplicate. Considering titers > or = 1/160 as positive, the seroprevalence obtained was 38.8%. Among infected children, the mean age was 9.4 years, with a similar distribution between genders. A significant association was observed with the presence of onychophagia, residence with a dirty backyard, living in a slum, previous wheezing episodes, school attended, and family income (p or = 5 minimum salaries represented a protective factor, although of low relevance. Toxocara eggs were found in at least one of the soil samples obtained from five schools, with high prevalence of Toxocara infections, indicating the frequent soil contamination by this agent.

  18. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Scovronick, Noah; França, Daniela; Alonso, Marcelo; Almeida, Claudia; Longo, Karla; Freitas, Saulo; Rudorff, Bernardo; Wilkinson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil’s high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone was 3.0 μg/m3 and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol) scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline. PMID:27409628

  19. Control of parasitic infections among school children in the peri-urban area of Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Regina Coeli Cunha Dórea

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Tide prevalence of intestinal parasitosis ivas investigated in a primaiy school located in Rubiâo Júnior, a peri-urban district of Botucatu, São Paulo slate, Brazil, in order to assess the effect of treatment and practical measures of prophylaxis in the control of parasitic infections among 7-to- 18-year-old school children of a low socio-economic status. The first series of parasitological examinations included 219 school children, ef which 123 (56.1 % were found to be infected with one or more parasite species. Eighty- four children canying pathogenic parasites were submitted to various anti-parasitic treatment schedules. We re-evaluated 15 (89 % students after 4 to 6 months post- chemotherapy. The results indicate that the combination of treatment with prophylactic measures has been successful in the control of parasitic infections, since reinfection rates were generally low ( 73-1 % in children infected with most parasite species. The reasons for the apparent failure in the control of infections caused by Hymenolepis nana and Strongyloides stercoralis are discussed.

  20. Determination of urinary biomarkers for assessment of short-term human exposure to aflatoxins in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Alessandra V; Tonin, Fernando G; Souto, Pollyana C M C; Privatti, Rafaela T; Oliveira, Carlos A F

    2014-07-08

    In the present study, a longitudinal assessment was carried out to evaluate the short-term human exposure to aflatoxins in Pirassununga region, São Paulo, Brazil, by determination of urinary aflatoxins by a liquid chromatography coupled to mass sprectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. Sixteen volunteers with ages ranging from 14 to 55 years old were instructed to collect the early morning first urine four times every three months, from June 2011 to March 2012, totaling 64 samples. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was found in 39 samples (61%) at levels ranging from 0.19 to 12.7 pg·mg-1 creatinine (mean: 1.2 ± 2.0 pg·mg-1 creatinine). Residues of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and aflatoxicol were not identified in any urine sample. No significant difference was found among the AFM1 mean levels in urine samples collected in the four sampling periods. The levels of AFM1 found in urine samples indicate a low short-term exposure of the population studied to aflatoxins through the diet, although further investigations are needed to assess other long-term biomarkers of exposure to AFB1.

  1. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in birds from the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennari, S M; Ogrzewalska, M; Soares, H S; Saraiva, D G; Pinter, A; Labruna, M B; Dubey, J P

    2014-02-24

    Avian are considered important intermediate hosts for Toxoplasma gondii because they serve as source of infection for Felidae, which shed environmentally resistant oocysts after ingesting infected tissues. Little is known of epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in wild birds. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 202 wild birds of 37 species captured in seven small areas of the Atlantic Forest, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and provided information on possible associated risk factors. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT) and found in 73 (36.1%) of 202 birds with titers of 1:5 in 16 samples, 1:10 in 26 samples, 1:20 in 17 samples, 1:40 in 10 samples, 1:80 in three samples, and 1:160 in one sample. No association was observed between T. gondii seropositivity and the local where the birds were collected. Seropositivity was higher in birds that lived on the forest floor (pbirds (p=0.007; U=3939.0). T. gondii antibodies were reported for the first time in 23 species of birds enlarging the host range of this parasite. Notably, T. gondii antibodies were found in 83.3% (15/18) of the Rufous-bellied Thrush (Turdus rufiventris).

  2. Weathering processes and dating of soil profiles from São Paulo State, Brazil, by U-isotopes disequilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Jiménez-Rueda, Jairo Roberto; Fagundes, Isabella Cruz; Filho, Carlos Roberto Alves Fonseca

    2017-01-01

    This study reports the use of the U-series radionuclides (238)U and (234)U for dating two soil profiles. The soil horizons developed over sandstones from Tatuí and Pirambóia formations at the Paraná sedimentary basin, São Paulo State, Brazil. Chemical data in conjunction with the (234)U/(238)U activity ratios (AR's) of the soil horizons allowed investigating the U-isotopes mobility in the shallow oxidizing environment. Kaolinization and laterization processes are taking place in the profiles sampled, as they are especially common in regions characterized by a wet and dry tropical climate and a water table that is close to the surface. These processes are implied by inverse significant correlations between silica and iron in both soil profiles. Iron oxides were also very important to retain uranium in the two sites investigated, helping on the understanding of the weathering processes acting there. (238)U and its progeny (234)U permitted evaluating the processes of physical and chemical alteration, allowing the suggestion of a possible timescale corresponding to the Middle Pleistocene for the development of the more superficial soil horizons.

  3. Geographic information system and multilevel analysis: gingival status among 12-year-old schoolchildren in São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Pereira, Stela Márcia; Pardi, Vanessa; Cortellazzi, Karine L; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Vettorazzi, Carlos Alberto; Ferraz, Sílvio F B; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate gingival and calculus status among schoolchildren 12 years of age using a geographic information system and multilevel analysis. A total of 1 002 schoolchildren were selected from 18 municipal districts by means of cluster sampling, from among 25 public and private schools in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil, in 2005. Examinations were carried out by a single calibrated examiner utilizing the criteria of the World Health Organization, as well as the Community Periodontal Index. Social, economic, and behavioral variables were recorded with the use of a questionnaire and were used in the individual analysis (first level). The variables "percentage of heads of families without income" and "percentage of illiterate heads of families" were used in the contextual analysis (second level). A geographic information system was constructed for mapping the distribution of gingival bleeding. The variables were visually distinguished in the maps and demonstrated a tendency toward better gingival health in the central areas of the city, which are recognized as more privileged. On the contextual level, only the "percentage of illiterate heads of families" was significantly associated to gingival bleeding. The study confirms better oral health status among schoolchildren from privileged families, but does not confirm the data regarding "income." The individuals from areas in which the heads of family did not have income were not associated to a higher prevalence of gingival problems. This suggests that these individuals are reasonably protected from the impact of social privation due to the actions of public health care services in the municipality.

  4. Chemical Analysis of Suspected Unrecorded Alcoholic Beverages from the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Giuseppina Negri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study analyzed 152 samples of alcoholic beverages collected from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil, using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID and mass spectrometry (GC-MS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES. The methanol content varied from 20 to 180 ppm in 28 samples, and the limit of the accepted level of 200 ppm was exceeded in only one sample. High content of cyanide derivatives and ethyl carbamate, above the accepted level of 150 ppb, was observed in 109 samples. Carbonyl compounds were also observed in 111 samples, showing hydroxy 2-propanone, 4-methyl-4-hepten-3-one, furfural, and 2-hydroxyethylcarbamate as main constituents. Copper was found at concentrations above 5 ppm in 26 samples; the maximum value observed was 28 ppm. This work evaluated the human health risk associated with the poor quality of suspected unrecorded alcohols beverages.

  5. Economic analysis of vaccination to control bovine brucellosis in the States of Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, A J S; Rocha, F; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Telles, E O; Grisi Filho, J H H; Ferreira Neto, J S; Zylbersztajn, D; Dias, R A

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that causes important economic losses in Brazil, and the country has therefore established a national program for its control and eradication. Using data generated in the last national brucellosis survey, we conducted an economic analysis in two Brazilian States with different brucellosis status, Mato Grosso (with high prevalence) and Sao Paulo (with low prevalence). The economic analysis was based on the calculation of the additional benefits and costs of controlling bovine brucellosis through the vaccination of heifers aged between 3 and 8 months with S19 vaccine, considering maximal and minimal impacts of the disease. The analysis showed that vaccinating 90% of the replacement heifers aged 3-8 months of age offers the best economic performance in a vaccination program against bovine brucellosis if compared to vaccination rates of 70% and 80%. Moreover, regions with higher prevalences of bovine brucellosis would experience significant economic advantages when implementing a vaccination strategy to control the disease. This economic analysis will allow decision makers to plan more economically effective vaccination programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reliability of food labels from products marketed in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil.

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    Lobanco, Cássia Maria; Vedovato, Gabriela Milhassi; Cano, Cristiane Bonaldi; Cano, Cristiane; Bastos, Deborah Helena Markowicz

    2009-06-01

    To assess reliability of information about nutritional facts stated on labels of foods marketed. A total of 153 industrialized foods, usually consumed by children and adolescents and marketed in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 2001 and 2005, were analyzed. Nutrient contents stated on labels were compared to the results obtained from official (physical-chemical) analytical methods, considering the 20% variability tolerated by the current legislation to approve or reject samples. Means, standard deviations, 95% confidence intervals for the nutrients analyzed, and the distribution of percentage frequency of samples rejected were calculated. All salty products analyzed showed non-compliance of dietary fiber, sodium and saturated fat content. Sweet products showed variation between zero and 36% of rejection due to their dietary fiber content. More than half (52%) of cookies were rejected due to their saturated fat content. Nutrients associated with obesity and its health problems were those showing the highest proportions of non-compliance. Lack of reliability of label information in the samples analyzed violates the regulations of the Resolution of the Collegiate Board of Directors RDC 360/03 and the rights guaranteed by the Nutritional and Food Safety Law and Consumer Protection Code. High indices of non-compliance of nutritional data were found on labels of foods aimed at children and adolescents, indicating the urgent need for surveillance practices and other nutritional labeling measures.

  7. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Noah Scovronick

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil’s high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and ozone was 3.0 μg/m3 and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline.

  8. Chemical-mineralogical characterization of C&D waste recycled aggregates from São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Angulo, S C; Ulsen, C; John, V M; Kahn, H; Cincotto, M A

    2009-02-01

    This study presents a methodology for the characterization of construction and demolition (C&D) waste recycled aggregates based on a combination of analytical techniques (X-ray fluorescence (XRF), soluble ions, semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) selective dissolution). These combined analytical techniques allow for the estimation of the amount of cement paste, its most important hydrated and carbonated phases, as well as the amount of clay and micas. Details of the methodology are presented here and the results of three representative C&D samples taken from the São Paulo region in Brazil are discussed. Chemical compositions of mixed C&D aggregate samples have mostly been influenced by particle size rather than the visual classification of C&D into red or grey and geographical origin. The amount of measured soluble salts in C&D aggregates (0.15-25.4mm) is lower than the usual limits for mortar and concrete production. The content of porous cement paste in the C&D aggregates is around 19.3% (w/w). However, this content is significantly lower than the 43% detected for the C&D powders (waste, as well as poorly burnt red ceramic. Since only about 50% of the measured CaO is combined with CO(2), the powders have potential use as raw materials for the cement industry.

  9. Spatial distribution of dengue incidence and socio-environmental conditions in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, 2007

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    José Vilton Costa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of dengue risk and its association with socio-environmental conditions. This was an ecological study of the counts of autochthonous dengue cases in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, in the year 2007, aggregated according to 47 coverage areas of municipal health centers. Spatial models for mapping diseases were constructed with Bayesian hierarchical models, based on Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA. The analyses were stratified according to two age groups, 0 to 14 years and above 14 years. The results indicate that the spatial distribution of dengue risk is not associated with socio-environmental conditions in the 0 to 14 year age group. In the age group older than 14 years, the relative risk of dengue increases significantly as the level of socio-environmental deprivation increases. Mapping of socio-environmental deprivation and dengue cases proved to be a useful tool for data analysis in dengue surveillance systems.

  10. Gamma ionization of Phagicola longa (Trematoda:Heterophyidae) in Mugilidae (pisces) in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Antunes, S. A.; Wiendl, F. M.; Almeida Dias, E. R.; Arthur, V.; Daniotti, C.

    1993-07-01

    The mullet (Mugilidae) is a fish caught in large quantities in brackish and marine waters of the southern Brazilian coast, which in consequence of its raw consumption as "sashimi", a typical Japanese dish, has led to ten cases of human infection by Phagicola longa in São Paulo, Brazil. The mullet acts as a second intermediate host for the parasite, as in human heterophysiasis in the Near and Far East. In order to control these infections under commercial storage conditions and in raw consumption, the radiolysis of P. longa was studied in three mullet species-the silver mullet ( Mugil curema), the grey mullet ( M. platanus) and the "paratipema" ( Mugil sp.) - subjected to ionization ranging from 1.0 to 10.0 kGy (2.21 kGy/h). It was observed that 1.0 and 2.0 kGy caused a motility decrease in silver mullet parasites from 100% to 15% and 17%, and that doses of 4.0 and 10.0 kGy caused metacercaria inviability. The parasite motility decreased in the grey mullet treated with doses of 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 kGy, from 56% to 31%, 9%, 18% and 5%, respectively, 4.0 kGy tending to be the control dose for P. longa. This dose also controls other metacercaria found in the "parati-pema", without changing the odor, color or appearance of the treated mullet.

  11. Factors influencing HPV vaccine delivery by healthcare professionals at public health posts in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Downing, Daniella; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Baker, Misha L; Dias De Oliveira Chiang, Ellen; Villa, Luisa L; Eluf Neto, Jose; Evans, Dabney P; Bednarczyk, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    To assess the association between Brazilian healthcare providers' characteristics and their knowledge, perceptions, and practices regarding the HPV vaccine. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at five public health posts in São Paulo between July 28 and August 8, 2014. Healthcare professionals directly involved in patient care were asked to complete a written survey. Factors associated with routine verification of HPV vaccination status were evaluated using Poisson regression. Among 200 participants included, 74 (38.5%) reported never and 70 (36.5%) reported always asking about HPV immunization status. Doctors were significantly less likely to report always asking than were community health agents (5/39 [12.8%] vs 32/60 [53.3%]; adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 0.25 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.91]). Knowledge about the correct dosing schedule was associated with always rather than never verifying vaccination status (aPR 2.46 [95% CI 1.06-5.70]). Knowledge and attitude played secondary roles in influencing HPV vaccine verification. Community health agents were crucial for vaccine promotion; continued education and support of this group is essential for the sustained success of HPV immunization efforts in Brazil. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  12. Prevalence of Toxocara infection in schoolchildren from the Butantã region, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Jussara MS Alderete

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral larva migrans syndrome by Toxocara affects mainly children between 2 and 5 years of age, it is generally asymptomatic, and the seroprevalence varies from 3 to 86% in different countries. A total of 399 schoolchildren from 14 public schools of the Butantã region, São Paulo city, Brazil, were evaluated by Toxocara serology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Epidemiological data to the Toxocara infection obtained from a protocol were submitted to multiple logistic regression analysis for a risk profile definition. Blood was collected on filter paper by finger puncture, with all samples tested in duplicate. Considering titers > 1/160 as positive, the seroprevalence obtained was 38.8%. Among infected children, the mean age was 9.4 years, with a similar distribution between genders. A significant association was observed with the presence of onychophagia, residence with a dirty backyard, living in a slum, previous wheezing episodes, school attended, and family income (p 5 minimum salaries represented a protective factor, although of low relevance. Toxocara eggs were found in at least one of the soil samples obtained from five schools, with high prevalence of Toxocara infections, indicating the frequent soil contamination by this agent.

  13. Assessment of Copper and Zinc in Soils of a Vineyard Region in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Gláucia Cecília Gabrielli dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This soil acidification may increase the bioavailability of copper (Cu and zinc (Zn in soils. The objective of this study was to verify the concentrations of Cu and Zn in soils of a vineyard region, including sample acidification, to simulate acid rain. The study was developed in an area of vineyard cultivation, with an adjacent land having other crops grown, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Soil samples were collected and GPS located under different uses and coverings. The extracted solutions used to determine the available Cu and Zn forms were diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA, pH 7.3, and calcium chloride 0.01 M. The total forms were obtained by HNO3 digestion. The amounts of Cu and Zn extracted using DTPA were considered high in most of the samples and were greater in the areas cultivated with vineyards that had received fungicide applications for several decades. The total forms were higher in vineyard soils. The amounts of Cu and Zn extracted using CaCl2 did not have good correlation with vineyards or with other metals' forms. The results confirmed that the soil was enriched with Cu and Zn due to the management of the vineyards with chemicals for several decades.

  14. Equity of access to Pap smears: population-based study in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Vivian Mae Schmidt Lima Amorim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of the Papanicolaou exam among women aged 20 to 59 years in the city of Campinas (state of São Paulo, Brazil and to analyze associations between this test and affiliation to private health insurance plans as well as socioeconomic/demographic variables and health-related behavior. METHOD: To do so, a population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out. Statistical analyses took the study design into account. RESULTS: Despite the significant socioeconomic differences between women with and without private health plans, no differences between these groups were found regarding having been submitted to the Papanicolaou test. In fact no differences were found as to socioeconomic and health variables analyzed. Among all variables analyzed, only marital status was significantly associated with having undergone the test. The Brazilian public health system accounted for 55.7% of the exams. CONCLUSION: The present findings indicate social equity in the city of Campinas regarding the preventive exam for cervical cancer in the age group studied.

  15. Associated Injuries in Patients with Maxillofacial Trauma at the Hospital São Vicente de Paulo, Passo Fundo, Brazil

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    João Matheus Scherbaum Eidt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to identify the occurrence, type and severity of body injuries associated in patients with facial trauma, referred to the Hospital São Vicente de Paulo (HSVP in the city of Passo Fundo - RS, Brazil.Material and Methods: The study analyzed medical records of 1385 patients who were treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at HSVP during the period from 1991 to 2010.Results: According to the results of this study we observed that 35% of cases of facial fractures were associated with a body injury. It was recorded a higher incidence of facial fractures in the male population (82.6%, aged between 20 and 39 years. The main etiologic factors for this association were car accidents, falls and assaults. Most fractures were recorded in the mandible and the main body injury found was the abrasion associated in some region of the body, however, when considering fractures of the face middle third the main body injury was more associated with cranioencephalic trauma.Conclusions: Concomitant injuries in areas other than the face should be expected first and foremost after high-speed trauma mechanisms and in association with severe facial fractures. The results underscore the importance of multiprofessional collaboration in diagnosis and sequencing of treatment who have sustained facial fractures.

  16. Metazoan parasites of Plagioscion squamosissimus, an invasive species in the Tietê River, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ivan Moura Lapera

    Full Text Available Abstract This study focused on the characterization and analysis of communities and infra-communities of metazoan parasites of Plagioscion squamosissimus caught in Promissão Reservoir in the Tietê River in Borborema (21°39′58”S, 49°8′49”W, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Fifty adult specimens caught by professional fishermen in March 2015 were necropsied. The fish presented an average standard length of 25.2 ± 2.2 cm and average weight of 328.82 ± 89.03 g. A total of 5,227 specimens of metazoan parasites were collected: 2,880 (55.1% adult Diplectanum piscinarius (Monogenoidea: Diplectanidae and 2,347 (44.9% Austrodiplostomum compactum metacercariae (Digenea, Diplostomidae, both with 100% prevalence and mean abundance of 57.6 and 46.9, respectively. Parasite diversity was low (species richness = 2, with a Simpson index (D equal to 0.505, and low values of Brillouin (HB = 0.687 and Margalef diversity (I = 0.117 indices. Berger-Parker’s index of dominance (p = 0.551 indicated a slight dominance of the monogenean parasite D. piscinarius. There was a positive correlation, assessed by Pearson coefficient between parasite abundance of D. piscinarius and standard length (r = 0.43 and weight (r = 0.51 of hosts.

  17. [Variables associated with sedentary leisure time in the elderly in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil].

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    Zaitune, Maria Paula do Amaral; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Carandina, Luana; Goldbaum, Moisés

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of sedentary leisure time (no type of leisure-time exercise once a week or more) among the elderly in the city of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, according to demographic and socioeconomic factors, other health-related behaviors, and the presence of morbidity. This was a population-based cross-sectional study with multiple-stage sampling. Data analysis considered the sample design. Prevalence of sedentary leisure time was 70.9%, and the prevalence ratio was significantly higher than 1.0 for the elderly with lower socioeconomic status (1.31: 1.11-1.55), smokers (1.39: 1.23-1.57), those with common mental disorders (1.20: 1.04-1.39), and females (1.16: 1.00-1.35). Prevalence of walking was 23.5%, followed by fitness or bodybuilding programs (3.8%), and swimming or water aerobics (3.6%). The results show the need to develop global action for health-related behaviors in order for this approach to succeed. Attention should focus on the elderly with common mental disorders and those with lower socioeconomic status to ensure equity in health promotion practices.

  18. The sarsaparilla market in the state of São Paulo (Brazil and the challenges of cultivation

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    Marli K.M. Soares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to present information about the sarsaparilla sold in establishments in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, assess the genetic diversity of Smilax brasiliensis Spreng., Smilacaceae, and examine the growing conditions and productivity of five species of Smilax. The amount of sarsaparilla sold per month at most pharmacies was 0.4 kg on average. Herbal stores and markets sold averages of 9 kg and 8 kg per month, respectively. The weight of the underground biomass of S. fluminensis (188.3 g is significantly higher than those of other species (28.3-79.6 g. The study demonstrated that high genetic diversity among the Smilax brasiliensis plants belonging to the CPQBA germplasm bank, which was confirmed by the results of the genotyping study that used a SSR marker on S. brasiliensis. The high consumption of sarsaparilla and the low yield of young plants cultivated from seeds with high genetic variability reinforce the need for further studies on the production of Smilax species.

  19. Selection and genetic gains for juvenile traits in progenies of Hevea in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Paulo de Souza Gonçalves

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Five yield traits were investigated in three-year-old progenies from open-pollinated rubber trees [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss Muell.-Arg.]. Twenty progenies were evaluated in a randomized, complete block design replicated three times using 10 plants per linear plot at the North Central Experimental Station in Pindorama, São Paulo State, Brazil. The characters evaluated included the average yield of rubber, growth vigor, bark thickness, total number of latex vessel rings and latex vessel size. Highly significant (p were 37%, 35%, 69%, 10% and 16%, respectively. Significant positive genotypic and phenotypic correlations were found between the yield of rubber and growth vigor (r g = 0.73, r p = 0.70, bark thickness (r g = 0.70**, r p = 0.75** and the total number of latex vessel rings (r g = 0.64, r p = 0.80. There was no relationship between yield and latex vessel size, growth vigor or total number of latex vessel rings. Based on these data, selecting the best two out of 20 progenies would result in a genetic gain of 12.3% and 6.8% for yield of rubber and growth vigor, respectively. The two best individual ortets within each progeny would result in a genetic gain of 27.7% and 9.1%, with a total gain of 40% and 16% for these two traits, respectively.

  20. Severe Weather Caused by Heat Island and Sea Breeze Effects in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Felipe Vemado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP is one of the most populated regions of the planet with one of the largest impervious regions as well. This research work aims to characterize MASP heat island (HI effect and its interaction with the local sea breeze (SB inflow in rainfall amounts and deep convection. The combined SB-HI produces direct circulation over the MASP and produces severe weather and socioeconomic impacts. All SB-HI episodes between 2005 and 2008 are identified and analyzed with surface and upper air measurements, weather radar, and satellite data. The current work indicates that intense SB-HI episodes are related to air and dew point temperatures above 30°C and 20°C, respectively, right after the passage of the SB front over MASP. Results indicate that the precipitation related to SB-HI episodes is up to 600 mm or about four times higher than that in rural or less urbanized areas in its surroundings. Measurements indicate that 74% of SB-HI episodes are related to NW winds in earlier afternoon hours. Moving cold fronts in southern Brazil tend to intensify the SB-HI circulation in MASP. A conceptual model of these patterns is presented in this paper.

  1. Factors associated with time free of oral candidiasis in children living with HIV/AIDS, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantyner, Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira; Silva, Aline Medeiros da; Tanaka, Luana Fiengo; Marques, Heloísa Helena de Sousa; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    In clinical practice, recurrence of thrush is common in children living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with time spent free of oral candidiasis using survival analysis for recurrent events. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 287 children treated between 1985 and 2009 at a reference center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The Prentice, Williams and Peterson model for recurrent events was used for the investigation of factors associated with the time free of oral candidiasis. The following factors were associated with the time patients were free of oral candidiasis: moderate immunodepression (HR = 2.5; p = 0.005), severe immunodepression (HR = 3.5; p < 0.001), anemia (HR = 3.3; p < 0.001), malnutrition (HR = 2.6; p = 0.004), hospitalization (HR = 2.2; p < 0.001), monotherapy (HR = 0.5; p = 0.006), dual therapy (HR = 0.3; p < 0.001) and triple therapy/highly active antiretroviral therapy (HR = 0.1; p < 0.001). The method analyzed in the present study proved useful for the investigation of recurrent events in patients living with HIV/AIDS.

  2. Do Childhood Adversities Predict Suicidality? Findings from the General Population of the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Bruno Mendonça Coêlho

    Full Text Available Childhood adversities have been associated with a number of medical and psychiatric outcomes. However, the reported effects that specific childhood adversities have on suicidality vary across studies.This was a cross-sectional, stratified, multistage area probability investigation of a general population in Brazil, designated the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey. The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview was applied in 5037 individuals ≥ 18 years of age, in order to assess 12 different adversities occurring during childhood and/or adolescence, as well as to look for associations between those adversities and subsequent suicidality in different age strata.Over half of the respondents reported at least one childhood adversity. Only physical abuse was consistently associated with suicide attempts in all subsequent life stages (OR = 2.1. Among adults 20-29 years of age, the likelihood of a suicide attempt was correlated with parental divorce, whereas suicidal ideation was associated with prior sexual abuse. Among adults over 30 years of age, physical illness and economic adversity emerged as relevant childhood adversities associated with suicide attempts, whereas sexual abuse, family violence, and economic adversity were associated with suicidal ideation.Childhood adversities, especially physical abuse, are likely associated with unfavorable consequences in subsequent years. For suicidality across a lifespan, the role of different childhood adversities must be examined independently.

  3. Salmonella spp. in meat-type quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    OC de Freitas Neto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study Salmonella spp. was surveyed in four flocks of meat-type quails reared in a farm that also had processing plant on site, located in the region of Bastos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Meconium samples of one-day-old quail chicks were collected from transport cardboard boxes. Cecal content was collected on days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 of rearing. At 36 days of age, birds were slaughtered in the farm's processing plant, where two samples of water from the scalding and the chilling tanks and four carcasses per flock were collected. All samples were examined for Salmonella spp. using traditional bacteriological methods. Salmonella spp. was present in meconium samples of three flocks and in cecal feces of the four flocks. This bacterium was also isolated in the chiller water and in the carcasses of three of the evaluated flocks and in the scalding water of one flock. In this study, S. enterica subspecies enterica 4, 5, 12; S. Corvalis; S. Give; S. Lexington; S. Minnesota; S. Schwarzengrund; S. Rissen and S. Typhimurium were the eight serovars identified.

  4. Intimate partner violence among undergraduate students of two universities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Tânia Aldrighi Flake

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of violence in intimate relationships, suffered or perpetrated, was estimated among undergraduate students, be it physical, psychological and sexual, describing the overlap between them. This is an original study and there is scarce literature on this matter in Brazil. Men and women were investigated and some issues on gender violence were discussed. METHODS: The study is part of the multicenter survey "International Study of Violence in Dating - IDVS" conducted in 2002 - 2003, using its standardized instrument. A total of 362 students, from two universities in the state of São Paulo, one public and one private, answered the self-reported questionnaire, being 37% male and 63% female, mean age of 20 years old. Suffered and perpetrated intimate partner violence during life was examined. RESULTS: Among all interviewees, 75.9% suffered and 76.4% perpetrated some kind of violence throughout life. Psychological violence was the most prevalent type, followed by sexual violence, both suffered and perpetrated. The great superposition between suffered and perpetrated violence (83.9% reflects the reciprocity of aggression, with no observed difference between men and women. The results of this study are consistent with previous literature on dating violence, which shows high prevalence of suffered and perpetrated violence, besides reciprocity for both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: Intervention actions at this stage of intimate relationships may potentially impact on subsequent marital partnership situations.

  5. Challenges for energy efficiency in the buildings sector in the Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Desafios para eficiencia energetica no setor de edificios no estado de Sao Paulo

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    Matos, Maria Ines; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], email: vparente@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The consumption of energy in the building sector accounts for more than one third of the total final electricity consumption in Sao Paulo State. Considering that, the development of policy measures aiming at the promotion of energy efficiency in the sector should be encouraged. Analysed data reveals the continuing rise of energy consumption resulting form the high number of new buildings and the rising standards of the population in consequence of economic development. Besides this, the retrofit of old buildings presents a huge potential for energy savings. The article analyses and suggests the use of Building Codes as a suitable policy instrument for the Sao Paulo Sate reality. (author)

  6. First household survey on drug abuse in São Paulo, Brazil, 1999: principal findings

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    José Carlos Fernandes Galduróz

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: In order to establish prevention programs regarding psychotropic drug use that are adapted to specific populations it is, first of all, important to have data on the realities of such consumption. Single data points are not enough for drawing up a profile of society in relation to drugs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this household survey was to determine the incidence of illegal drug, alcohol, tobacco and psychotropic medication use, and thus the number of persons dependent on drugs, alcohol and nicotine, and to evaluate their perception regarding how easy it is to obtain psychotropic drugs. TYPE OF STUDY: Epidemiological survey. SETTING: All of the 24 cities in the State of Sao Paulo with more 200,000 inhabitants participated in the study. METHOD: The sampling was constructed from weighted probabilistic stratified conglomerates obtained via two-stage selection. In each municipality sampled, census sectors (generally 200-300 households were first selected. Then, households and a respondent were selected to provide information from his/her point of view. The SAMHSA questionnaire (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration of the U.S. Department of Public Health was used, after translation and adaptation to Brazilian conditions. RESULTS: A total of 2,411 persons aged 12-65 years old were interviewed, of whom 39.9% weremen. Lifetime use of any psychotropic drug other than alcohol and tobacco was 11.6%: much less than in the U.S. (34.8%. The alcohol dependence rate was 6%, similar to findings from other countries. Marijuana was the illegal drug most cited as used daily (6.6%: a prevalence much lower than in the U.S. (32.0%. Inhalant use was next in frequency of use (2.7%: about 10 times less than in the United Kingdom (20%. Cocaine use (2.1% was about 5 times less than in the U.S. (10.6%. There was no report of heroin use, although there was a surprisingly high perception regarding the ease of obtaining heroin: 38.3% said it was

  7. Mental disorders in megacities: findings from the Sao Paulo megacity mental health survey, Brazil.

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    Laura Helena Andrade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: World population growth is projected to be concentrated in megacities, with increases in social inequality and urbanization-associated stress. São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA provides a forewarning of the burden of mental disorders in urban settings in developing world. The aim of this study is to estimate prevalence, severity, and treatment of recently active DSM-IV mental disorders. We examined socio-demographic correlates, aspects of urban living such as internal migration, exposure to violence, and neighborhood-level social deprivation with 12-month mental disorders. METHODS AND RESULTS: A representative cross-sectional household sample of 5,037 adults was interviewed face-to-face using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, to generate diagnoses of DSM-IV mental disorders within 12 months of interview, disorder severity, and treatment. Administrative data on neighborhood social deprivation were gathered. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate individual and contextual correlates of disorders, severity, and treatment. Around thirty percent of respondents reported a 12-month disorder, with an even distribution across severity levels. Anxiety disorders were the most common disorders (affecting 19.9%, followed by mood (11%, impulse-control (4.3%, and substance use (3.6% disorders. Exposure to crime was associated with all four types of disorder. Migrants had low prevalence of all four types compared to stable residents. High urbanicity was associated with impulse-control disorders and high social deprivation with substance use disorders. Vulnerable subgroups were observed: women and migrant men living in most deprived areas. Only one-third of serious cases had received treatment in the previous year. DISCUSSION: Adults living in São Paulo megacity had prevalence of mental disorders at greater levels than similar surveys conducted in other areas of the world. Integration of mental health promotion

  8. Atmospheric impacts of vehicular emissions in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Artaxo, P. P.; Brito, J. F.; Rizzo, L. V.; Godoy, J.; Godoy, M. L.; Alves, N. D.

    2013-12-01

    São Paulo is a large megacity (18 million people) with 7 million vehicles, with a peculiar vehicle fleet with significant ethanol emissions. A mixture of 24% of ethanol in the gasoline and a large fraction of vehicles running pure ethanol in flex fuel vehicles makes the city particularly interesting from the point of view of aerosol formation. A long term experiment was designed to analyze the physico-chemical properties of aerosols in São Paulo, as well as to apportion aerosol sources, with emphasis on vehicular emissions. Aerosol size distribution in the size range of 10 to 600 nm were measured with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). Optical properties are being measured with a TSI Nephelometer and a Thermo MAAP (Multi Angle Absorption Photometer). The composition of fine and coarse mode aerosols are being measured with XRF analysis and a Sunset instrument measure organic and elemental carbon in quartz filters. An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) is used to characterize organic aerosols, in parallel with a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) to determine VOC concentrations. The measured total particle concentration typically varies between 10,000 and 50,000 per cm-3 being the lowest late in the night and highest around noon after peak vehicle emissions. Clear diurnal patterns in aerosol optical properties were observed. Scattering and absorption coefficients typically range between 20 and 100 Mm-1 at 450 nm, and between 10 to 40 Mm-1 at 637 nm, respectively, both of them peaking at 7:00 local time, the morning rush hour. The corresponding single scattering albedo varies between 0.50 and 0.85, indicating a significant contribution of primary absorbing particles to the aerosol population. During the first month a total of seven new particle formation events were observed with growth rates ranging from 9 to 25 nm h-1. Interestingly enough there were also events where condensed vapors were evaporating from the condensed phase thus

  9. Masculinidade e vulnerabilidade ao HIV de homens heterossexuais, São Paulo, SP Masculinity and vulnerability to HIV among heterosexual men in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Iara Guerriero

    2002-08-01

    . METHODS: A qualitative survey was conducted among bus drivers and members of the Work Accident Prevention Committee of a public transportation company in São Paulo city, Brazil. Ten individual interviews and four safe sex workshops were tape-recorded and transcribed, and their contents were categorized and discussed in thematic blocks: sexuality, infidelity, condom use, and sexually transmitted diseases and Aids. RESULTS: Aspects that make heterosexual men more vulnerable to HIV are as follows: feeling strong and immune to disease; engaging in impetuous, risky behaviors; inability of refusing a woman; belief that men need sex more than women do and that their sexual desire cannot be controlled. Men's infidelity is considered a natural behavior while women's infidelity is a result of to her partner's inaptitude. It's up to men to make the decision of using or not condom and women can only ask them to use it in order to avoid pregnancy. The refusal to use condoms is related to: aesthetical and economical reasons, fear of failing erection, loss of sensibility for both men and women. Interviewees do not consider themselves vulnerable to either HIV or STDs and have little knowledge about the modes of infection. CONCLUSIONS: An aspect that favors prevention in this population men are expected to be responsible and good providers for their families. Thus condom use could be advocated as a contraceptive method and to avoid "bringing diseases home". It is important to know the different conceptions of masculinity to be able to intervene as they are related to increased vulnerability to HIV and could lead a way to better promoting prevention in this population.

  10. EDITORIAL: Selected Papers from RIAO/OPTILAS 2007 (Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, 21 26 October 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Niklaus; Frejlich, Jaime

    2008-10-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the 6th Ibero-American Conference on Optics and the 9th Latin-American Meeting on Optics, Lasers and Applications (RIAO/OPTILAS'07) that was held in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, 21-26 October 2007. The RIAO/OPTILAS conferences are held every three years in Latino-American and Iberian countries and focus on senior and young researchers as well as students working in all areas of optics, mainly in these countries, but warmly welcoming participants from all over the world. The RIAO/OPTILAS'07 conference followed the one held in Venezuela in 2004 and precedes the next one already arranged to be held in Peru in 2010. The most active countries in the regions such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Spain, Colombia and Venezuela have registered a large number of participants but other countries in the regions such as Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Peru, Portugal and Uruguay have also sent a representative number of participants. About 7% of the registered participants came from Europe, the USA and the Middle East. It was very stimulating to realize that about 44% of the accepted registered participants were students. An international committee was in charge of selecting the best student posters and ten students were awarded with prizes offered by organizations (SPIE, Wiley & Sons) and individuals. There were 7 plenary invited talks given by high quality researchers from Argentina, Germany, Israel, Italy, Mexico and Ukraine and 12 invited contributions from Brazil, Finland, Italy, Spain, UK and Uruguay. The Book of Abstracts recorded 471 communications divided into 15 different topics with 160 oral communications in three parallel sessions and 311 posters in two special sessions. We are particularly grateful to SPIE, OSA and ICTP who have provided us with important financial support mainly devoted to supporting the participation of students in this conference. We also acknowledge financial and organizational support from Brazilian federal

  11. Mamíferos não-voadores do campus "Luiz de Queiroz", Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, Brasil Non-volant mammals of campus "Luiz de Queiroz", University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, Brazil

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    Carla Gheler-Costa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The remaining portion of the Atlantic Forest within the State of Sao Paulo is highly fragmented and most of the remainders are wrapped up in an essentially agricultural mosaic. This study aims at the local surveying of non-volant mammals, including their distribution and relative abundance within the human-altered environments of campus "Luiz de Queiroz", University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil, an urbanized area bordered by two highways and the Piracicaba River. The landscape of the study area is characterized by a mosaic of small forest fragments surrounded by pastures, agriculture, and planted forests. Small mammals were captured from February to October, 2001, with an effort of 7056 day-traps, sampling the most representative environments of the campus: planted Eucalyptus (L'Héritier and Pinus (Shaw forests, native forest fragment, meadow, rubber tree (Hevea sp. plantation, agriculture and pasture area. Occurrence of medium and large frame mammals was recorded daily (morning and afternoon from November of 2000 to October of 2001 along a trail set up to merge the studied environments. Sixteen species of non-volant mammals were recorded, ten of medium or big body-size, and six of small body-size. Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 and coati (Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766 were the most abundant species.

  12. Sôbre o encontro de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 detected in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o encontro de Lutzomyia longipalpis na localidade denominada Bairro do Arado, município de Salto de Pirapora, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Trata-se do primeiro registro concreto da presença dessa espécie em território paulista. Sugere-se a necessidade de investigar o significado epidemiológico dêsse achado.Lutzomyia longipalpis was found at the rural area named "Bairro do Arado", Salto de Pirapora County, São Paulo State, Brazil. This vector of visceral leihmaniasis is by the first time, surely recorded in the São Paulo State. The specimens were found in a chicken house built on rocks for observing the possibility of Triatoma arthurneivai colonization in artificial ecotopes. This suggests that the sandfly breeding places will possibly be found between or under the stones harbouring that triatomid bug. The necessity of epidemiological studies related to this found is emphasized.

  13. A novel point mutation in a class IV glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variant (G6PD São Paulo and polymorphic G6PD variants in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Raimundo Antonio G. Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used red cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activity to screen for G6PD-deficient individuals in 373 unrelated asymptomatic adult men who were working with insecticides (organophosphorus and carbamate in dengue prevention programs in 27 cities in São Paulo State, Brazil. Twenty-one unrelated male children suspected of having erythroenzymopathy who were attended at hospitals in São Paulo city were also studied. Fifteen of the 373 adults and 12 of the 21 children were G6PD deficient. G6PD gene mutations were investigated in these G6PD-deficient individuals by using PCR-RFLP, PCR-SSCP analysis and DNA sequencing. Twelve G6PD A-202A/376G and two G6PD Seattle844C, as well as a new variant identified as G6PD São Paulo, were detected among adults, and 11 G6PD A-202A/376G and one G6PD Seattle844C were found among children. The novel mutation c.660C > G caused the replacement of isoleucine by methionine (I220M in a region near the dimer interface of the molecule. The conservative nature of this mutation (substitution of a nonpolar aliphatic amino acid for another one could explain why there was no corresponding change in the loss of G6PD activity (64.5% of normal activity in both cases.

  14. Rainfall estimation from microwave links in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Gaona, Manuel Felipe; Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall estimation from microwave link networks has been successfully demonstrated in countries such as the Netherlands, Israel and Germany. The path-averaged rainfall intensity can be computed from the signal attenuation between cell phone towers. Although this technique is still in development, it offers great opportunities to retrieve rainfall rates at high spatiotemporal resolutions very close to the ground surface. High spatiotemporal resolutions and closer-to-ground measurements are highly appreciated, especially in urban catchments where high-impact events such as flash-floods develop in short time scales. We evaluate here this rainfall measurement technique for a tropical climate, something that has hardly been done previously. This is highly relevant since many countries with few surface rainfall observations are located in the tropics. The test-bed is the Brazilian city of São Paulo. The performance of 16 microwave links was evaluated, from a network of 200 links, for the last 3 months of 2014. The open software package RAINLINK was employed to obtain link rainfall estimates. The evaluation was done through a dense automatic gauge network. Results are promising and encouraging, especially for short links for which a high correlation (> 0.9) and a low bias (< 5%) were obtained.

  15. The first two cases of Cyclospora in dogs, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Lúcia Eiko Oishi YAI

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyclospora cayetanensis is a coccidium which has been identified in diarrheal feces or immunocompetent individuals or in AIDS patients. The main aspects related to its epidemiology and pathogeny have not been solved so far, as well as the possibility of human infection by this protozoan being a zoonosis. We describe in this work the first case identifying the Cyclospora in dogs. Our findings, notwithstanding their preliminary characteristics, could suggest that besides untreated water, other transmission means, along with contact with dogs, there could be important factors in the human diarrhea associated with CyclosporaPrimeiros dois casos de Cyclospora em cães, São Paulo, Brasil Cyclospora cayetanensis é um coccídeo que tem sido identificado em fezes diarréicas de indivíduos imunocompetentes e em pacientes com Aids. Os principais aspectos relacionados à sua epidemiologia e patogenia ainda não estão bem elucidados, bem como a possibilidade da infecção humana por este protozoário ser uma zoonose. Neste trabalho, descrevemos os primeiros casos de identificação de Cyclospora em cães. Nossos achados, embora preliminares, podem sugerir que além de água não tratada, outras formas de transmissão, assim como contato com cães, possam ser importantes na doença diarréica humana associada com Cyclospora

  16. Rabies diagnosis and serology in bats from the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Marilene Fernandes de Almeida

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bats are one of the most important reservoirs and vectors of the rabies virus in the world. METHODS: From 1988 to 2003, the Zoonosis Control Center in São Paulo City performed rabies diagnosis on 5,670 bats by direct immunofluorescent test and mouse inoculation test. Blood samples were collected from 1,618 bats and the sera were analyzed using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test to confirm rabies antibodies. RESULTS: Forty-four (0.8% bats were positive for rabies. The prevalence of rabies antibodies was 5.9% using 0.5IU/ml as a cutoff. Insectivorous bats (69.8% and bats of the species Molossus molossus (51.8% constituted the majority of the sample; however, the highest prevalence of antibodies were observed in Glossophaga soricina (14/133, Histiotus velatus (16/60, Desmodus rotundus (8/66, Artibeus lituratus (5/54, Nyctinomops macrotis (3/23, Tadarida brasiliensis (3/48, Carollia perspicillata (3/9, Eumops auripendulus (2/30, Nyctinomops laticaudatus (2/16, Sturnira lilium (2/17 and Eumops perotis (1/13. The prevalence of rabies antibodies was analyzed by species, food preference and sex. CONCLUSIONS: The expressive levels of antibodies associated with the low virus positivity verified in these bats indicate that rabies virus circulates actively among them.

  17. Spectral behavior of some modal soil profiles from São Paulo State, Brazil

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    José Alexandre Melo Demattê

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing has a high potential for environmental evaluation. However, a necessity exists for a better understanding of the relations between the soil attributes and spectral data. The objective of this work was to analyze the spectral behavior of some soil profiles from the region of Piracicaba, São Paulo State, using a laboratory spectroradiometer (400 to 2500 nm. The relations between the reflected electromagnetic energy and the soil physical, chemical and mineralogical attributes were analyzed, verifying the spectral variations of soil samples in depth along the profiles with their classification and discrimination. Sandy soil reflected more, presenting a spectral curve with an ascendant form, opposite to clayey soils. The 1900 nm band discriminated soil with 2:1 mineralogy from the 1:1 and oxidic soils. It was possible to detect the presence of kaolinite, gibbsite, hematite and goethite in the soils through the descriptive aspects of curves, absorption features and reflectance intensity. A relation exists between the weathering stage and spectral data. The evaluation of the superficial and subsuperficial horizon samples allowed characterizing and discriminating the analytical variability of the profile, helping to soil distinguishing and classification.

  18. Immunization status of residents in pediatrics at the Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Mariana Bernardi Viviani Silveira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination of health care workers is an efficient way to reduce the risk of occupational infection and to prevent nosocomial transmission to vulnerable patients. Despite this, achieving high immunization rates among those professionals is a challenge. We assessed the immunization status of Residents in Pediatrics at the Federal University of São Paulo from June to December 2008. Their immunization records were checked and evaluated according to the Brazilian Immunization Schedule for health care workers. Considering all required vaccines, only 3.1% of the 64 Residents were up-to-date with their immunizations. Influenza was the vaccine with the lowest uptake (3.1% and measles and rubella were diseases with the highest evidence of immunity (62.5% each. Only 37.5% of Residents had received three hepatitis B vaccine doses with a subsequent serology confirming seroconversion. Moreover, the vast majority of Residents in Pediatrics who were not up-to-date were unaware of the fact. Both medical schools and Pediatric Residence programs should not only offer information but also check vaccination records in an effort to keep their healthcare workers´ vaccinations up-to-date.

  19. Three years of seasonal dose assessment from outdoors gamma exposure in Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.; Sanches, Matias P.; Betti, Flavio; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: janetegc@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Measurements of external (outdoors) gamma exposure from natural background radiation have been used to estimate the average annual doses in Sao Paulo city. Twelve monitoring stations were placed in different regions of the town including both urban (where building materials are present) and outskirts areas. Seasonally surveys observing the four seasons from 2008 to 2010 have been carried out. The data were drawn from a 3-month sampling using the thermoluminescent dosimetry. The effective doses values are quite similar (slightly higher during the winter), so it can be considered that these results are not under significant influence (or variability) of seasonal environmental conditions like temperature, wind or rain. Dose values over the three years period, from Vila Carrao district, exclusively an urban location with mostly no green areas, present the highest values, while the lower values were always obtained for Tucuruvi district, near the biggest urban forest, Parque Estadual da Cantareira. Over the assessed period, the mean of the average annual effective doses was 1.3 {+-} 0.1 mSv.y{sup -1}. For the same period, the average annual background from nuclear and radioactive facility at IPEN was 0.75 {+-} 0.12 mSv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  20. Rickettsia infection in five areas of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Maurício C Horta

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated rickettsial infection in animals, humans, ticks, and fleas collected in five areas of the state of São Paulo. Eight flea species (Adoratopsylla antiquorum antiquorum, Ctenocephalides felis felis, Polygenis atopus, Polygenis rimatus, Polygenis roberti roberti, Polygenis tripus, Rhopalopsyllus lugubris, and Rhopalopsyllus lutzi lutzi, and five tick species (Amblyomma aureolatum, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma dubitatum, Ixodes loricatus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were collected from dogs, cats, and opossums. Rickettsia felis was the only rickettsia found infecting fleas, whereas Rickettsia bellii was the only agent infecting ticks, but no animal or human blood was shown to contain rickettsial DNA. Testing animal and human sera by indirect immunofluorescence assay against four rickettsia antigens (R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. felis, and R. bellii, some opossum, dog, horse, and human sera reacted to R. rickettsii with titers at least four-fold higher than to the other three rickettsial antigens. These sera were considered to have a predominant antibody response to R. rickettsii. Using the same criteria, opossum, dog, and horse sera showed predominant antibody response to R. parkeri or a very closely related genotype. Our serological results suggest that both R. rickettsii and R. parkeri infected animals and/or humans in the studied areas.

  1. Electron spin resonance dating of shells from the sambaqui (shell mound) Capelinha, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Kinoshita, A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica; Universidade do Sagrado Coracao, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Figuty, L. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia. Setor de Arqueologia; Baffa, O. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica

    2006-03-15

    Capelinha is a fluvial sambaqui (Brazilian Shell Mound) located in the Ribeira Valley in the State of Sao Paulo that is being studied. It is one of the oldest sambaquis located along a river dated so far in this region. The use of ESR to date other shells stimulated our group to apply this method to the Capelinha site. Shells from land snails (Megalobulimus sp.) obtained in two levels of excavations were analyzed; one of them was in contact with a skeleton that was dated by C-14. The archaeological doses obtained were (8.05{+-}0.07) Gy and (9.50{+-}0.03) Gy. Since the last site was previously dated by C-14 (Beta -Analytics, Beta 153988) giving: 8860 +/- 60 years BP (conventional age) and 10180 to 9710 years BP (calibrated age), the archaeological dose found for this shell was used to determine the local rate of (0.93 to 0.98) mGy/year, that aggress with other surveys done in the region. Using this dose rate the age of the second shell was found to be 8.14 to 8.73 ky BP that agrees with the stratigraphy of the site. (author)

  2. A quantitative risk assessment model for Vibrio parahaemolyticus in raw oysters in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho, Paulo de S Costa; Destro, Maria T; Franco, Bernadette D G M; Landgraf, Mariza

    2014-06-16

    A risk assessment of Vibrio parahaemolyticus associated with raw oysters produced and consumed in São Paulo State was developed. The model was built according to the United States Food and Drug Administration framework for risk assessment. The outcome of the exposure assessment estimated the prevalence and density of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in raw oysters from harvest to consumption. The result of the exposure step was combined with a Beta-Poisson dose-response model to estimate the probability of illness. The model predicted that the average risks per serving of raw oysters were 4.7×10(-4), 6.0×10(-4), 4.7×10(-4) and 3.1×10(-4) for spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the most influential variables on the risk of illness were the total density of V. parahaemolyticus at harvest, transport temperature, relative prevalence of pathogenic strains and storage time at retail. Only storage time under refrigeration at retail showed negative correlation with the risk of illness.

  3. Sedimentation of the Cretaceous Bauru Group in São Paulo, Paraná Basin, Brazil

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    de Paula e Silva, Flavio; Kiang, Chang Hung; Caetano-Chang, Maria Rita

    2009-07-01

    The post-basaltic sediments of the Cretaceous Bauru Group in the Paraná Basin cover an area of 117,000 km 2 in São Paulo State, and are subdivided into the Caiuá, Pirapozinho, Santo Anastácio, Birigüi, Araçatuba, Adamantina and Marília formations. The sedimentation of Bauru Group was controlled by a combination of post-basaltic tectonism (responsible for the migration of the depocenters), erosion and climatic changes. Three main depositional phases are separated by two erosive/non-depositional phases defining depositional sequences. The fluvial-lacustrine deposition represented by the Caiuá/Pirapozinho formations (first sequence), initially filled the basaltic substratum troughs. After an erosional interval, the Santo Anastácio Formation was deposited and overlapped (eastward) underlying beds (second sequence). Renewed erosion and tectonism initiated the last depositional sequence, with the migration of the depocenter to the Queiroz depression. High topographic gradients initially favored the accumulation of fluvial deposits of braided systems of the Birigüi Formation. With the enlarging of the depositional area, a lacustrine system was formed (Araçatuba Formation) and overlapped by a fluvial system with progradation of lacustrine deltas (Adamantina Formation). The sedimentation of the Bauru Group ceased with deposition of marginal fans of Marília Formation.

  4. Pertussis booster vaccine for adolescents and young adults in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Angela Carvalho Freitas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a model to assess different strategies of pertussis booster vaccination in the city of São Paulo. METHODS: A dynamic stationary age-dependent compartmental model with waning immunity was developed. The "Who Acquires Infection from Whom" matrix was used to modeling age-dependent transmission rates. There were tested different strategies including vaccine boosters to the current vaccination schedule and three of them were reported: (i 35% coverage at age 12, or (ii 70% coverage at age 12, and (iii 35% coverage at age 12 and 70% coverage at age 20 at the same time. RESULTS: The strategy (i achieved a 59% reduction of pertussis occurrence and a 53% reduction in infants while strategy (ii produced 76% and 63% reduction and strategy (iii 62% and 54%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Pertussis booster vaccination at age 12 proved to be the best strategy among those tested in this study as it achieves the highest overall reduction and the greatest impact among infants who are more susceptible to pertussis complications.

  5. Mortalidade em migrantes - japoneses residentes no município de São Paulo, Brasil, 1990 Mortality in migrants - Japanese residents in the City of S.Paulo, Brazil, 1980

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    Sabina L. D. Gotlieb

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar o padrão de mortalidade dos imigrantes japoneses (isseis e de seus descendentes (nisseis/sanseis, residentes no Município de São Paulo, com o do Japão, local de origem, e o do Município de São Paulo, local de destino destes migrantes, em 1980. Os principais grupos de causas de morte foram basicamente semelhantes para estas populações, sendo que os maiores coeficientes padronizados foram os de São Paulo. A única exceção foi o risco de morrer por neoplasmas, maior no Japão. Os isseis (ambos os sexos apresentaram riscos com valores intermediários para as Doenças das Glândulas Endocrinas e do Metabolismo e para as Doenças do Aparelho Respiratório; para as isseis, o risco de morrer por Doenças do Aparelho Circulatório também foi intermediário. Nos demais grupos de causa, os isseis apresentaram os menores riscos de morrer. Os riscos de morrer por Câncer do Estômago, Mama e Próstata, Diabetes Mellitus, Doenças Isquêmicas do Coração, Doenças Cerebrovasculares, Homicídios e Suicídios permitiram concluir que os isseis estão paulatinamente afastando-se do padrão de morte do Japão e tendendo ao de São Paulo. Surgem hipóteses de que estejam ocorrendo mudanças socio-culturais nos migrantes e haja predominância de atuação de fatores de risco ambientais e não de genéticos, na incidência e na mortalidade desses agravos à saúde.The mortality patterns of Japanese migrants (issei and their descendants (nissei/sansei resident in the City of S.Paulo, Brazil, are compared with those of their native country (Japan and their place of adoption (S. Paulo, in 1980. The mortality data were obtained from death certificates for the issei and nissei/sansei populations and from official tabulations for deaths in Japan and S.Paulo. The population estimates were based upon the S.Paulo and Japanese censuses. The age-standardized populations were calculated according to the Jowett method. The five leading causes of

  6. [Anti-toxoplasma antibodies in bovine serums in Jaboticabal County; São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A J; Avila, F A; Kassai, N; Paulillo, A C; Barbosa da Silva, M; Galesco, H

    1978-01-01

    Sera of 204 cows in Jaboticabal, S.P., Brazil were examined by indirect immunofluorescent test for detecting anti-Toxoplasma antibody. Assuming titers from 1:64 as indicative of toxoplasmic infection it was observed 32.3% of positive reactions. The antibody titers even to 1:256 represented 7.8% of the reacting animals. The serological titers varied from 1:64 to 1:256. No clinical story could be correlated with the reacting animals and no isolation was performed.

  7. Location study of thermoelectric in Sao Paulo's State, Brazil; Estudo de localizacao de termoeletricas no Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadigas, Eliane Aparecida F.A.; Reis, Lineu Belico dos [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas; Ramos, Dorel Soares; Vieira, Silas [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: eliane@pea.usp.br

    1999-07-01

    The article presents the results of studies developed to identify, locate and order thermoelectric generation options through costs increasing. This evaluation considered just options of Sao Paulo, a Brazilian state. The used methodology and the main parameters and variables which influence in the projects economic activity are introduced in the article. A software denominated SAEGET was also used.

  8. Chytridiales (Chytridiomycota do Parque Estadual da Serra da Cantareira, SP, Brasil Chytridiales (Chytridiomycota from Serra da Cantareira State Park, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Cristiane de Almeida Nascimento

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Para o estudo da diversidade de Chytridiales, coletas mensais de água e solo foram realizadas, de junho/2005 a junho/2006, no Parque Estadual da Serra da Cantareira, Estado de São Paulo. O isolamento destes fungos foi realizado por meio do método de iscagem múltipla de amostras de água e solo, em laboratório, com substratos celulósicos, quitinosos e queratinosos. Dezenove espécies foram identificadas, sendo quatro novas ocorrências para o Brasil, Cladochytrium setigerum Karling, Diplophlyctis intestina (Schenk J. Schröt, Rhizophydium macroporosum Karling e Solutoparies pythii Whiffen ex W.H. Blackw. & Powell, e Septochytrium willoughbyi Dogma primeira citação para o Estado de São Paulo.A study of Chytridiales diversity was based on water and soil samples collected monthly from June/2005 to June/2006 in the Serra da Cantareira State Park, São Paulo State. The isolation of these fungi was carried out in the laboratory treating the water and soil samples by the multiple baiting technique with cellulosic, chitinous and keratinous substrates. Nineteen species were identified with four new citations for Brazil, Cladochytrium setigerum Karling, Diplophlyctis intestina (Schenk J. Schröt, Rhizophydium macroporosum Karling and Solutoparies pythii Whiffen ex W.H. Blackw. & Powell. Septochytrium willoughbyi Dogma is recorded for the first time in São Paulo State.

  9. Shallow seismic reflectors and upper Quaternary sea levei changes in the Ubatuba region, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil

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    Michel Michaelovitch de Mahiques

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between shallow seismic Wlits and Quaternary sea level changes in Southeastern Brazil is based on boomer profiles and core data ftom the Ubatuba region, northern São Paulo coast. In Flamengo and Palmas bays, the intecpretation of seismic lines revealed the occurrence of four sedimentary units, separated by regionally correlated reflectors. The upper two Wlits correspond to Late Pleistocene and Holocene deposits. The lowermost sedimentary units were correlated to the older Quaternary transgressive events. These deposits, which have not yet been described for this area, can presently be fOWld on the Rio Grande do Sul coastal plain. In the Boqueirão Strait, two erosional events in the sedimentary strata have been associated with the Cananéia (maximum at 120,000 yr. B.P. and Santos (maximum at 5,100 yr. B.P. sea-level rise events.A partir de registros sísmicos, obtidos por "OOomer" e dados de um testemunho, foi estabelecida uma relação entre Wlidades sísmicas rasas e variações relativas do nível do mar no Quaternário, na região de Ubatuba, litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo. A intecpretação das linhas sísmicas revelou a ocorrência de quatro Wlidades sísmicas, associadas a seqüências sedimentares, separadas por refletores sísmicos de expressão regional. As duas unidades superiores correspondem a depósitos do Pleistoceno Superior e Holoceno, e encontram correspondência em outras áreas do planeta. Na região do Boqueirão, dois eventos erosivos são associados com os últimos eventos de subida do nível do mar. As unidades sedimentares inferiores são correlacionáveis a eventos transgressivos mais antigos, que não haviam sido ainda referidos para a área.

  10. Characterization of Black Spot Zones for Vulnerable Road Users in São Paulo (Brazil and Rome (Italy

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    Cláudia A. Soares Machado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-motorized transportation modes, especially cycling and walking, offer numerous benefits, including improvements in the livability of cities, healthy physical activity, efficient urban transportation systems, less traffic congestion, less noise pollution, clean air, less impact on climate change and decreases in the incidence of diseases related to vehicular emissions. Considering the substantial number of short-distance trips, the time consumed in traffic jams, the higher costs for parking vehicles and restrictions in central business districts, many commuters have found that non-motorized modes of transportation serve as viable and economical transport alternatives. Thus, local governments should encourage and stimulate non-motorized modes of transportation. In return, governments must provide safe conditions for these forms of transportation, and motorized vehicle users must respect and coexist with pedestrians and cyclists, which are the most vulnerable users of the transportation system. Although current trends in sustainable transport aim to encourage and stimulate non-motorized modes of transportation that are socially more efficient than motorized transportation, few to no safety policies have been implemented regarding vulnerable road users (VRU, mainly in large urban centers. Due to the spatial nature of the data used in transport-related studies, geospatial technologies provide a powerful analytical method for studying VRU safety frameworks through the use of spatial analysis. In this article, spatial analysis is used to determine the locations of regions that are characterized by a concentration of traffic accidents (black zones involving VRU (injuries and casualties in São Paulo, Brazil (developing country, and Rome, Italy (developed country. The black zones are investigated to obtain spatial patterns that can cause multiple accidents. A method based on kernel density estimation (KDE is used to compare the two cities and show

  11. Control of parasitic infections among school children in the peri-urban area of Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Regina Coeli Cunha Dórea

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Tide prevalence of intestinal parasitosis ivas investigated in a primaiy school located in Rubiâo Júnior, a peri-urban district of Botucatu, São Paulo slate, Brazil, in order to assess the effect of treatment and practical measures of prophylaxis in the control of parasitic infections among 7-to- 18-year-old school children of a low socio-economic status. The first series of parasitological examinations included 219 school children, ef which 123 (56.1 % were found to be infected with one or more parasite species. Eighty- four children canying pathogenic parasites were submitted to various anti-parasitic treatment schedules. We re-evaluated 15 (89 % students after 4 to 6 months post- chemotherapy. The results indicate that the combination of treatment with prophylactic measures has been successful in the control of parasitic infections, since reinfection rates were generally low ( 73-1 % in children infected with most parasite species. The reasons for the apparent failure in the control of infections caused by Hymenolepis nana and Strongyloides stercoralis are discussed.Prôcedeu-se o estudo da prevalência de enteroparasitoses entre escolares de 7 a 18 anos, de condições sõcio-econômicas baixas e residentes no distritoperi-urbano de Rubião Júnior, município de Botucatu, São Paulo, com o objetivo de analisar o papel de medidas profiláticas e terapêuticas no controle das parasitoses diagnosticadas. Dos 219 alunos estudados na primeira avaliação parasitolõgica, 123 (56.1% mostraram-se positivos para unia ou mais parasitoses. O tratamento foi aplicado para 84 escolares, por serem estes portadores de parasitos patogênicos. A segunda avaliação parasitolõgica foi realizada 4 a 6 meses após o tratamento em 75 (89% escolares. Os resultados indicam que o uso combinado do tratamento e medidas profiláticas foi capaz de limitar a ocorrência de novas infecções para níveis 73-1% foram encontradas para a maioria das parasitoses, exceto

  12. Groundwater resources in the State of São Paulo (Brazil: the application of indicators

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    Ricardo Hirata

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Indicators, for groundwater resources, have mostly been employed to define the present status and the degradation tendency, regarding both quantity (under- or overexploitation and quality (natural and anthropic contamination. This work presents the application of indicators in order to draw a picture of the groundwater resources situation in the 22 Water Resource Management Units (WRMU of the State of São Paulo. The seven Indicators (I1 to I7 applied provide a general overview of groundwater dependence (I1, I2, availability (I3, I4, and quality (I5, I6, I7. Considering public supply (Indicator 1, one observes that 9 WRMUs show high (>50% of the population supplied by groundwater, 6, intermediate (49-25%, and 7, low (Indicadores, para recursos hídricos subterrâneos, têm sido utilizados principalmente para a avaliação da situação atual e tendência de degradação, com relação tanto à quantidade (sub- ou super-exploração como à qualidade (contaminações natural e antrópica. Neste sentido, este trabalho apresenta a aplicação de indicadores com o objetivo de obter um quadro geral da situação dos recursos hídricos nas 22 Unidades de Gerenciamento de Recursos Hídricos (UGRHI do Estado de São Paulo. Foram aplicados 7 indicadores (I1 a I7 com o objetivo de fornecer uma visão geral com relação à dependência (I1 e I2, disponibilidade (I3 e I4, e qualidade (I5, I6 e I7 da água subterrânea. No que se refere ao abastecimento público (indicador 1, 9 UGRHIs apresentam alta ( > 50% da população é suprida por água subterrânea, 6, intermediária (49 a 25% e 7, baixa ( < 24% dependência do recurso hídrico subterrâneo. Os indicadores 3 e 4 mostram que o recurso ainda apresenta grande potencial para explotações adicionais na maioria das UGRHIs, no entanto há evidências de superexploração nas bacias do Alto Tietê, Turvo/Grande e Pardo e baixa disponibilidade nas bacias do Alto Tietê, Piracicaba/Capivari/Jundiaí, e Turvo

  13. Assessment of the landslide and flood risks in São Paulo City, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Bianca; Listo, Fabrízio

    2010-05-01

    In Brazilian cities, especially during summer, the landslides and floods cause disaster and economic losses. Aricanduva basin is one of the most critical in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (RMSP), where many types of morphodynamic processes occur. This is the largest river basin in São Paulo City. The current situation is characterized by intense urbanization, soil sealing and consequent reduction of soil infiltration, increasing the frequency of flood events in this area. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to map risk areas of landslides and floods in the sub-basin Limoeiro, located in the head of the Aricanduva basin. For mapping the risk areas, we prepared a record field to floods and landslides, based on several studies. Initially, it were identified the natural indicators (vegetation, topography, surface cover and drainage) and anthropogenic (urban pattern, soil cover, building types, occupation density, road conditions, infrastructure, drainage systems, distance between houses and slope, at the top and base, and the drainage channel). On the second step of this research, we identified the evidences of mass movements (scars, cracks, subsidence, trees, poles and inclined walls). Thus, on the basis of this analysis it was possible to define the risk probability: R1 (low or no risk), R2 (moderate), R3 (high) and, R4 (very high). Subsequently, by means of oblique photographs (taken from helicopter flight) it was possible to define risk areas in the basin. In all the sectors identified, were recorded approximately 903 urban settlements. The results showed that from the 25 sectors of risk, 14 sectors (56%) presented landslide risk and 11 (44%), flood risk. Of the sectors that showed landslide risk areas, 21% have very high probability (R4), 21% high (R3), 29% moderate (R2) and 29% low (R1). The sectors at flood risk presented 45% of very high probability (R4), 10% high (R3), 18% moderate (R2) and 27% low (R1). There is large presence of sediments from

  14. Bee communities (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) of the "Cerrado" ecosystem in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andena, S R; Nascimento, F S; Bispo, P C; Mechi, M R; Mateus, S; Bego, L R

    2009-07-07

    Five surveys of the bee communities in four "Cerrado" ecosystem reserves in São Paulo State were compared for species richness and similarity. These areas are fragment vegetation reser-ves located in the Cerrado Corumbataí Reserve (Corumbataí), Jataí Ecological Park (Luiz Antônio), Cajuru (Cajuru), and Vassununga State Park - "Gleba de Cerrado de Pé-de-Gigante" (Santa Rita do Passa Quatro). The methodology consisted of capturing bees foraging on flowers along transects, though with small differences between surveys. These "cerrado" areas have a large number of species of native bees, which are important pollinators in several Brazilian ecosystems. The community of bees varied among these different fragments. Based on 500 individuals (standardized by rarefaction), Cajuru, Corumbataí 1 and Corumbataí 2 were the areas with highest species richness, and Jataí and Pé-de-Gigante had the lowest species richness in the bee communities. The bee faunas of Corumbataí 2 and Pé-de-Gigante had the highest similarity, forming a group with the bee fauna of Cajuru. The bee faunas of Corumbataí 1 and Jataí were isolated from this group. We found that the bee species richness and similarity found in these "cerrado" areas cannot be explained by general factors such as the size of the fragment, the species richness of plants and the distance between the areas. Therefore, we suppose that local factors that differ among areas, such as interactions between populations, and competition and interference from surrounding areas influence and determine bee species richness and similarity in these reserves.

  15. [Yellow fever: reemerging in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascheretti, Melissa; Tengan, Ciléa H; Sato, Helena Keiko; Suzuki, Akemi; de Souza, Renato Pereira; Maeda, Marina; Brasil, Roosecelis; Pereira, Mariza; Tubaki, Rosa Maria; Wanderley, Dalva M V; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas

    2013-10-01

    To describe the investigation of a sylvatic yellow fever outbreak in the state of Sao Paulo and the main control measures undertaken. This is a descriptive study of a sylvatic yellow fever outbreak in the Southwestern region of the state from February to April 2009. Suspected and confirmed cases in humans and in non-human primates were evaluated. Entomological investigation in sylvatic environment involved capture at ground level and in the tree canopy to identify species and detect natural infections. Control measures were performed in urban areas to control Aedes aegypti . Vaccination was directed at residents living in areas with confirmed viral circulation and also at nearby cities according to national recommendation. Twenty-eight human cases were confirmed (39.3% case fatality rate) in rural areas of Sarutaiá, Piraju, Tejupá, Avaré and Buri. The deaths of 56 non-human primates were also reported, 91.4% were Allouatta sp. Epizootics was confirmed in two non-human primates in the cities of Itapetininga and Buri. A total of 1,782 mosquitoes were collected, including Haemagogus leucocelaenus , Hg. janthinomys/capricornii , and Sabethes chloropterus, Sa. purpureus and Sa. undosus . Yellow fever virus was isolated from a group of Hg. Leucocelaenus from Buri. Vaccination was carried out in 49 cities, with a total of 1,018,705 doses. Nine serious post-vaccination adverse events were reported. The cases occurred between February and April 2009 in areas with no recorded yellow fever virus circulation in over 60 years. The outbreak region occurred outside the original recommended vaccination area with a high percentage of susceptible population. The fast adoption of control measures interrupted the human transmission within a month and the confirmation of viral circulation in humans, monkeys and mosquitoes. The results allowed the identification of new areas of viral circulation but further studies are required to clarify the dynamics of the spread of this disease.

  16. Transmitted Drug Resistance Among Recently Diagnosed Adults and Children in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Paula Morena de Souza; Ferreira, João Leandro de Paula; Coelho, Luana Portes Ozório; Cavalcanti, Jaqueline de Souza; Lopes, Giselle Ibette Silva Lopez; Matsuda, Elaine Monteiro; Almeida, Flávia Jacqueline; Almeida, Valéria Correia; Campeas, Alexandre Ely; Junior, Luiz Carlos Pereira; Brígido, Luís Fernando de Macedo

    2015-12-01

    Transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) have been a constant threat to treatment efficacy. We evaluated TDRM in plasma RNA of 217 antiretroviral therapy-naive patients from sites in the São Paulo metropolitan area, collected from 2012 to 2014. The partial HIV-1 polymerase region was sequenced using Big Dye terminators at an ABI 3130 Genetic Analyzer. TDRM was defined according to the Stanford database calibrated population resistance (CPR v.6.0), but other drug resistance mutations (DRM) considered at the IAS list (IAS, 2014) and at the Stanford HIV Database Genotyping Resistance Interpretation (GRI-HIVdb) were also described. Out of 78% (170/217) of patients with information on the time of diagnosis, most (83%, 141/170) had been recently diagnosed, with the first positive HIV serology at a median of 58 days (IQR 18-184). Subtype B predominated (70%), followed by subtype F (10%), BF (7.5%), C (7.5%), and BC (5%). TDRMs were observed in 9.2% (20/217, CI 95% 5.9% to 13.6%), mostly (5.2%) to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) antiretroviral class. Among children and adolescents, only a single patient showed TDRMs. Additional non-CPR mutations were observed: 11.5% (25/217) according to IAS or 4.6% (10/217) according to GRI-HIVdb. Overall, 23.5% (51/217) of the cases had one or more DRM identified. TDRM prevalence differed significantly among some sites. These trends deserve continuous and systematic surveillance, especially with the new policies of treatment as prevention being implemented in the country.

  17. Three new species of Mesabolivar (Aranea, Pholcidae from leaf litter in urban environments in the city of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Três espécies novas de Mesabolivar (Araneae, Pholcidae da serapilheira de ambiente urbano da cidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil

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    Éwerton O. Machado

    Full Text Available In this study we describe three new litter inhabiting species of Mesabolivar González-Sponga, 1998 from nine urban forest remnants in the metropolitan region of the city of São Paulo, Brazil: M. forceps, M. mairyara and M. cavicelatus. In three of these remnants, we conduced a three year sampling using pitfall traps. Mesabolivar forceps sp. nov. was the most abundant pholcid (n=273 adults, always present in the samples, but with highest numbers in spring and summer. Mesabolivar mairyara sp. nov. was the second most abundant species (n=32, but the majority of individuals were collected in March 2001. Only three individuals of M. cavicelatus sp. nov. were collected.Neste trabalho são descritas três espécies novas de Mesabolivar González-Sponga, 1998 coletadas na serapilheira de nove remanescentes florestais urbanos da região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo: M. forceps, M. mairyara e M. cavicelatus. Foram realizadas amostragens com armadilhas de solo, durante três anos, em três remanescentes urbanos da cidade de São Paulo, onde M. forceps sp. nov. foi a espécie mais abundante (n=273, apresentando maior abundância na primavera e verão, mas sempre presente nas coletas. Mesabolivar mairyara sp. nov. foi a segunda espécie mais abundante (n=32, com a maioria dos indivíduos coletados em março/2001. Foram coletados somente três indivíduos de M. cavicelatus sp. nov.

  18. Bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae, Nycteribiidae) parasitic on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) at Parque Estadual da Cantareira, São Paulo, Brazil: parasitism rates and host-parasite associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertola, Patrícia Beloto; Aires, Caroline Cotrim; Favorito, Sandra Elisa; Graciolli, Gustavo; Amaku, Marcos; Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo

    2005-02-01

    A total of 443 bat flies belonging to the families Nycteribiidae and Strelidae, were collected on 22 species of bats (Molossidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae) from Parque Estadual da Cantareira (São Paulo, Brazil), between January, 2000 and January, 2001. Eighteen new occurrences of bat flies were recorded on Anoura geoffroyi (Anastrebla caudiferae), Glossophaga soricina (A. caudiferae), Sturnira lilium (Trichobius phyllostomae, T. furmani, and Paraeuctenodes similis), Artibeus lituratus (A. caudiferae), A. fimbriatus (Megistopoda proxima), A. obscurus (Metelasmus pseudopterus), Myotis nigricans (M. proxima, M. aranea, Paratrichobius longicrus), M. ruber (Anatrichobius passosi, Joblingia sp.), M. levis (A. passosi), M. albescens (A. passosi, Basilia andersoni), and Histiotus velatus (M. aranea). Seven new occurrences were recorded for the state of São Paulo, increasing the range for T. tiptoni, T. furmani, M. proxima, Aspidoptera falcata, A. caudiferae, A. modestini and B. andersoni. The relationships between parasitism and host sex, reproductive stage, age hyperparasitism by fungi are discussed.

  19. A public health risk assessment for yellow fever vaccination: a model exemplified by an outbreak in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Freitas Ribeiro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method to analyse the 2009 outbreak in the region of Botucatu in the state of São Paulo (SP, Brazil, when 28 yellow fever (YF cases were confirmed, including 11 deaths. At the time of the outbreak, the Secretary of Health of the State of São Paulo vaccinated one million people, causing the death of five individuals, an unprecedented number of YF vaccine-induced fatalities. We apply a mathematical model described previously to optimise the proportion of people who should be vaccinated to minimise the total number of deaths. The model was used to calculate the optimum proportion that should be vaccinated in the remaining, vaccine-free regions of SP, considering the risk of vaccine-induced fatalities and the risk of YF outbreaks in these regions.

  20. A public health risk assessment for yellow fever vaccination: a model exemplified by an outbreak in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Tengan, Ciléa; Sato, Helena Keico; Spinola, Roberta; Mascheretti, Melissa; França, Ana Cecilia Costa; Port-Carvalho, Marcio; Pereira, Mariza; Souza, Renato Pereira de; Amaku, Marcos; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Lopez, Luis Fernandez; Massad, Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    We propose a method to analyse the 2009 outbreak in the region of Botucatu in the state of São Paulo (SP), Brazil, when 28 yellow fever (YF) cases were confirmed, including 11 deaths. At the time of the outbreak, the Secretary of Health of the State of São Paulo vaccinated one million people, causing the death of five individuals, an unprecedented number of YF vaccine-induced fatalities. We apply a mathematical model described previously to optimise the proportion of people who should be vaccinated to minimise the total number of deaths. The model was used to calculate the optimum proportion that should be vaccinated in the remaining, vaccine-free regions of SP, considering the risk of vaccine-induced fatalities and the risk of YF outbreaks in these regions.

  1. [Quality of life, work management, and career planning as a primary care technology in the Unified National Health System in São Paulo State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaz, Francisco Antonio de Castro; Vieira, Nelson Passagem; Cortizo, Carlos Tato; Junqueira, Virgínia; dos Santos, Ana Paula Lopes; Santos, Fabio Souza

    2010-02-01

    This article discusses the concept of quality of life in and at work, linked to health work management based on the evaluation of a work management instrument: the Career, Job, and Wage Plan. The aim was to analyze the plan as a work management technology in primary care in the Unified National Health System (SUS). The article discusses the plan in three municipalities in São Paulo State, Brazil: São Paulo, Guarulhos, and Campinas, in compliance with guidelines issued by the National Health Council in 2006, and using a qualitative survey conducted in 2007-2008. The study presents the findings from research in eight municipalities, based on interviews with managers, users (represented by Health Councils), and health workers and health sector trade unionists. The article concludes that this is still an incipient public management policy issue, with limited command by users, trade unionists, and health workers in the target municipalities, heavily populated 'hub cities' in the health regions.

  2. Bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae, Nycteribiidae parasitic on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera at Parque Estadual da Cantareira, São Paulo, Brazil: parasitism rates and host-parasite associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Beloto Bertola

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 443 bat flies belonging to the families Nycteribiidae and Strelidae, were collected on 22 species of bats (Molossidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae from Parque Estadual da Cantareira (São Paulo, Brazil, between January, 2000 and January, 2001. Eighteen new occurrences of bat flies were recorded on Anoura geoffroyi (Anastrebla caudiferae, Glossophaga soricina (A. caudiferae, Sturnira lilium (Trichobius phyllostomae, T. furmani, and Paraeuctenodes similis, Artibeus lituratus (A. caudiferae, A. fimbriatus (Megistopoda proxima, A. obscurus (Metelasmus pseudopterus, Myotis nigricans (M. proxima, M. aranea, Paratrichobius longicrus, M. ruber (Anatrichobius passosi, Joblingia sp., M. levis (A. passosi, M. albescens (A. passosi, Basilia andersoni, and Histiotus velatus (M. aranea. Seven new occurrences were recorded for the state of São Paulo, increasing the range for T. tiptoni, T. furmani, M. proxima, Aspidoptera falcata, A. caudiferae, A. modestini and B. andersoni. The relationships between parasitism and host sex, reproductive stage, age hyperparasitism by fungi are discussed.

  3. Coinfection by Strongyloides stercoralis in blood donors infected with human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 in São Paulo city, Brazil

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    Pedro P Chieffi

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of coinfection with Strongyloides stercoralis and human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTML-1 was determined in 91 blood donors examined at the blood bank of a large hospital in São Paulo city, Brazil. As control group 61 individuals, not infected by HTLV-1, were submitted to the same techniques for the diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection. In HTLV-1 infected patients the frequency of S. stercoralis infection was 12.1%; on the other hand, the control group showed a frequency significantly lower of S. stercoralis infection (1.6%, suggesting that HTLV-1 patients shoud be considered as a high risk group for strongyloidiasis in São Paulo city.

  4. Pollen spectrum of propolis samples from São Paulo State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i3.18389

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    Ricardo Oliveira Orsi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The pollen spectrum of propolis is a good indicative of the phytogeographical origin of the bee product and the local flora available for bee visiting. The present study aimed to perform pollen analysis of propolis produced by Apis mellifera L., in the São Paulo State, Brazil. Propolis samples were directly obtained from beekeepers and slides were prepared for qualitative and quantitative analysis of pollen after propolis extraction. According to the results twenty-eight types of pollen were found and distributed in fifteen botanical families. Pollens from Mimosoideae and Myrtaceae types were found in all samples. In São Paulo State, there is a wide variety of vegetal sources which are components of the final propolis composition.   

  5. Physico-chemical properties of aerosols in Sao Paulo, Brazil and mechanisms of secondary organic aerosol formation.

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    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Varanda Rizzo, Luciana; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Godoy, Jose Marcus

    2013-04-01

    Megacities emissions are increasingly becoming a global issue, where emissions from the transportation sector play an increasingly important role. Sao Paulo is a megacity with a population of about 18 million people, 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. As a result of the vehicular and industrial emissions, the air quality in Sao Paulo is bellow WMO standards for aerosol particles and ozone. Many uncertainties are found on gas- and particulate matter vehicular emission factors and their following atmospheric processes, e.g. secondary organic aerosol formation. Due to the uniqueness of the vehicular fuel in Brazil, largely based on ethanol use, such characterization currently holds further uncertainties. To improve the understanding of the role of this unique emission characteristics, we are running a source apportionment study in Sao Paulo focused on the mechanisms of organic aerosol formation. One of the goals of this study is a quantitative aerosol source apportionment focused on vehicular emissions, including ethanol and gasohol (both fuels used by light-duty vehicles). This study comprises four sampling sites with continuous measurements for one year, where trace elements and organic aerosol are being measured for PM2.5 and PM10 along with real-time NOx, O3, PM10 and CO measurements. Aerosol optical properties and size distribution are being measured on a rotation basis between sampling stations. Furthermore, a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) are used to measure in real time VOCs and aerosol composition, respectively. Trace elements were measured using XRF and OC/EC analysis was determined with a Sunset OC/EC instrument. A TSI Nephelometer with 3 wavelengths measure light scattering and a MAAP measure black carbon. Results show aerosol number concentrations ranging between 10,000 and 35,000 cm-3, mostly concentrated in the nucleation and Aitken modes, with a peak in size at 80

  6. Ambient concentrations and insights on organic and elemental carbon dynamics in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Monteiro dos Santos, Djacinto A.; Brito, Joel F.; Godoy, José Marcus; Artaxo, Paulo

    2016-11-01

    The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) is a megacity with about 20 million people and about 8 million vehicles, most of which are fueled with a significant fraction of ethanol - making it a unique case worldwide. This study presents organic and elemental carbon measurements using thermal-optical analysis from quartz filters collected in four sampling sites within the SPMA. Overall Organic Carbon (OC) concentration was comparable at all sites, where Street Canyon had the highest concentration (3.37 μg m-3) and Park site the lowest (2.65 μg m-3). Elemental Carbon (EC), emitted as result of incomplete combustion, has been significantly higher at the Street Canyon site (6.11 μg m-3) in contrast to all other three sites, ranging from 2.25 μg m-3 (Downtown) to 1.50 μg m-3 (Park). For all sampling sites, the average OC:EC ratio are found on the lower bound (urban site. An approach for apportionment between primary and secondary organic carbon based on primary OC:EC ratio was evaluated. The secondary OC was estimated to be 30-40% of total OC concentrations throughout the various sampling sites. The organic carbon dynamics has been further studied using each of the thermally-derived organic carbon fractions. Each of these has been studied regarding their correlation with EC and the correlation between different sites. The analyses have identified that the OC3 and OC4, i.e., the carbon fraction which evolves from the filter at temperatures above 450 °C, presents a regional behavior, with high correlation among all sites. Conversely, OC1, the first fraction to evolve, has depicted a more local characteristic. Furthermore, the fraction of OC which becomes char during the temperature increase under inert atmosphere (the Pyrolytic Carbon-PC) has been the only fraction not to present a significant correlation with EC. Since that EC is assumed to be a primary emission marker, it indicates that PC is not significant in traffic emissions. This study provided innovative

  7. Traffic Related Air Quality Trends in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Perez-Martinez, P.; Andrade, M. D. F.

    2014-12-01

    An air quality based approach is used to determine pollutant-trends of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOX), ozone (O3) and particle matter (PM10) mostly from road transport sources in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP) for the years 2000-2013. Road transport sources included flex (gasoline and ethanol) cars and motorcycles and diesel trucks and buses. Air pollutant concentrations for the transport sources were measured and related with the fuel sales by the emission factors (EFs) expressed in grams of pollutant per kilometer driven or unit of fuel consumed. Over the 14- year time period, pollutant concentrations of NOX, CO and PM10 decreased by 0.65, 0.37 and 0.71% month-1, respectively. Oppossitely during this time, fuel sales of gasoline, ethanol and diesel increased by 0.26, 1.96 and 0.38% month-1. Flex engines are the prevalent road source of CO, oppositely to diesel ones which appear to be the major source of NOX and PM10. Decrease in air pollutants are partially offset by the increment of fuel sales and related transport activity. For CO, there have been steep decreases in pollutant concentrations (rate of -5 parts per billion, ppb, month-1) for gasoline and ethanol engines between 2000 and 2013. Similarly, diesel related NOX and PM10 concentrations decreased but at slower time rates (-0.25 and -0.09 ppb month-1). Rates uncertainties are larger for diesel pollutants (coefficient of determination R of -0.47 and -0.41) than for gasoline and ethanol related CO (R equal to -0.72). This paper led to the following conclusions: (1) concentrations of gasoline and ethanol related CO, estimated by air quality network measurements, decreased at steeper rate than diesel pollutants NOX and PM10, (2) transport source contributions to the O3 formation differ significantly through the time period focus of this work, with higher contributions coming from gasoline and ethanol engines at the beinning of the reviewed period (2000-2007) and from diesel engines

  8. [Privatization of health care management through Social Organizations in the city of São Paulo, Brazil: description and analysis of regulation].

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    Contreiras, Henrique; Matta, Gustavo Corrêa

    2015-02-01

    The article describes and discusses privatization of the municipal health system in São Paulo, Brazil, from an administrative and political perspective. The methodology consisted of a literature review and analysis of legislation and public documents. The study showed that although legislation governing the so-called "Social Organizations" (OS) in Brazil dates to the year 2006, half of the administrative privatization is still regulated by a previous provisional instrument in the form of an "agreement" ("convênio" in Portuguese). In 2011, 61% of services were administered by private organizations, which received 44% of the health budget in 2012. The twenty participating organizations include five of the ten largest health care companies in Brazil. Inspection agencies have detected flaws in the management contracts, but the "agreements" (convênios) are subject to less rigorous control and have proven invisible to inspection. Finally, the legal framework is unstable. The study uses the experience in São Paulo as the basis for discussing the political versus technical nature of private management in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS).

  9. Presence of antibodies against H5, H7 and H9 influenza A virus in wild birds in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    E de Sousa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the natural reservoirs of the avian influenza (AI virus have been extensively studied in many countries, there is a clear lack of information on this subject in South America, particularly in Brazil. The objective of this study was to conduct a serological survey for H5, H7 and H9 antibodies to AI-subtype viruses in wild birds in the state of São Paulo , Brazil. Serum samples were tested using the hemagglutination-inhibition assay. Out of the 31 wild birds sampled between January and December of 2006, seven (22.58%, were seropositive for H5, H7 and H9; four (12.90% were seropositive for H5 and H7; 13 (41.94%, were seropositive only for H7; three (9.7%, were seropositive only for H9; and four (12.90% were negative for all three hemagglutinin subtypes. These results indicate that AI viruses belonging to H5, H7 and H9 subtypes circulate among wild birds in the state of São Paulo in the form of either concurrent or consecutive infections. This study contributes to the knowledge of AI epidemiology in Brazil, and stresses the need of further detailed and long-term epidemiological and ecological investigation to determine the current status of this virus.

  10. Cisticercose humana diagnosticada em hospital geral, São Paulo, SP (Brasil Human cysticercosis in a general hospital in S.Paulo, Brazil

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    Aluízio de Barros Barreto Machado

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo de pacientes internados no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brasil, no período de 7 anos (1979 a 1985, tendo sido diagnosticados 260 casos de cisticercose, correspondendo a 0,2% do total estudado. Os dados obtidos mostraram uma distribuição aproximadamente igual quanto ao sexo e o acometimento maior na faixa etária de 20 a 50 anos (53,8%. A neurocisticercose foi a forma mais freqüente e seu elevado percentual (91,5% foi atribuído às características da população estudada. Apesar do recente desenvolvimento da tecnologia diagnostica e terapêutica específicas, o tempo de permanência hospitalar médio foi de 35 dias e a letalidade média de 14,6%, apontando para a necessidade de medidas profiláticas através de programas de saúde pública.In this retrospective study of 126,968 in-patients at the Hospital das Clínicas of S. Paulo Medical School, S. Paulo, from 1979 to 1985, cysticercosis was diagnosed in 260 (0.2% of them Epidemiological data obtained from these 260 patients showed a dose distribution with regard to sex, and the age group from 20 to 50 years old was the most affected (53.8%. Neurocysticercosis was the most frequent and the high rate (91.5% was understood to be due to the characteristics of specific the patients studied. Despite the recent development of the diagnostic and therapeutic technology, the average length of hospitalization was 35 days and the rate of lethality 14.6%, pointing to the need for preventive measures on the part of public health programs.

  11. Socio-Environmental and Hematological Profile of Landfill Residents (São Jorge Landfill–Sao Paulo, Brazil)

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    Palmeira Wanderley, Vivianni; Affonso Fonseca, Fernando Luiz; Vala Quiaios, André; Nuno Domingues, José; Paixão, Susana; Figueiredo, João; Ferreira, Ana; de Almeida Pinto, Cleonice; da Silva, Odair Ramos; Alvarenga, Rogério; Machi Junior, Amaury; Luiz Savóia, Eriane Justo; Daminello Raimundo, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    We are experiencing an unprecedented urbanization process that, alongside physical, social and economic developments, has been having a significant impact on a population’s health. Due to the increase in pollution, violence and poverty, our modern cities no longer ensure a good quality of life so they become unhealthy environments. This study aims to assess the effect of social, environmental and economic factors on the hematologic profile of residents of Santo André’s landfill. In particular, we will assess the effect of social, economic, and environmental factors on current and potential disease markers obtained from hematological tests. The research method is the observational type, from a retrospective cohort, and by convenience sampling in Santo André in the Greater ABC (municipalities of Santo André, São Bernardo do Campo and São Caetano do Sul, southeast part of the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil). The study determined a socio-environmental profile and the hematologic diseases screening related to a close location to the landfill. The disease manifests itself within a broad spectrum of symptoms that causes changes in blood count parameters. The objective of this work is to show that there is an association between social, environmental and economic factors and a variety of serious disease outcomes that may be detected from blood screening. A causal study of the effect of living near the landfill on these disease outcomes would be a very expensive and time-consuming study. This work we believe is sufficient for public health officials to consider policy and attempt remediation of the effects of living near a landfill. PMID:28085053

  12. Sampling strategies for tropical forest nutrient cycling studies: a case study in São Paulo, Brazil

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    G. Sparovek

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The precise sampling of soil, biological or micro climatic attributes in tropical forests, which are characterized by a high diversity of species and complex spatial variability, is a difficult task. We found few basic studies to guide sampling procedures. The objective of this study was to define a sampling strategy and data analysis for some parameters frequently used in nutrient cycling studies, i. e., litter amount, total nutrient amounts in litter and its composition (Ca, Mg, Κ, Ν and P, and soil attributes at three depths (organic matter, Ρ content, cation exchange capacity and base saturation. A natural remnant forest in the West of São Paulo State (Brazil was selected as study area and samples were collected in July, 1989. The total amount of litter and its total nutrient amounts had a high spatial independent variance. Conversely, the variance of litter composition was lower and the spatial dependency was peculiar to each nutrient. The sampling strategy for the estimation of litter amounts and the amount of nutrient in litter should be different than the sampling strategy for nutrient composition. For the estimation of litter amounts and the amount of nutrients in litter (related to quantity a large number of randomly distributed determinations are needed. Otherwise, for the estimation of litter nutrient composition (related to quality a smaller amount of spatially located samples should be analyzed. The determination of sampling for soil attributes differed according to the depth. Overall, surface samples (0-5 cm showed high short distance spatial dependent variance, whereas, subsurface samples exhibited spatial dependency in longer distances. Short transects with sampling interval of 5-10 m are recommended for surface sampling. Subsurface samples must also be spatially located, but with transects or grids with longer distances between sampling points over the entire area. Composite soil samples would not provide a complete

  13. Drinking patterns and alcohol use disorders in Sao Paulo, Brazil: the role of neighborhood social deprivation and socioeconomic status.

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    Camila Magalhães Silveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research conducted in high-income countries has investigated influences of socioeconomic inequalities on drinking outcomes such as alcohol use disorders (AUD, however, associations between area-level neighborhood social deprivation (NSD and individual socioeconomic status with these outcomes have not been explored in Brazil. Thus, we investigated the role of these factors on drink-related outcomes in a Brazilian population, attending to male-female variations. METHODS: A multi-stage area probability sample of adult household residents in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area was assessed using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI (n = 5,037. Estimation focused on prevalence and correlates of past-year alcohol disturbances [heavy drinking of lower frequency (HDLF, heavy drinking of higher frequency (HDHF, abuse, dependence, and DMS-5 AUD] among regular users (RU; odds ratio (OR were obtained. RESULTS: Higher NSD, measured as an area-level variable with individual level variables held constant, showed an excess odds for most alcohol disturbances analyzed. Prevalence estimates for HDLF and HDHF among RU were 9% and 20%, respectively, with excess odds in higher NSD areas; schooling (inverse association and low income were associated with male HDLF. The only individual-level association with female HDLF involved employment status. Prevalence estimates for abuse, dependence, and DSM-5 AUD among RU were 8%, 4%, and 8%, respectively, with excess odds of: dependence in higher NSD areas for males; abuse and AUD for females. Among RU, AUD was associated with unemployment, and low education with dependence and AUD. CONCLUSIONS: Regular alcohol users with alcohol-related disturbances are more likely to be found where area-level neighborhood characteristics reflect social disadvantage. Although we cannot draw inferences about causal influence, the associations are strong enough to warrant future longitudinal alcohol studies to

  14. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from cheese manufacturing plants in São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Barancelli, Giovana V; Camargo, Tarsila M; Gagliardi, Natália G; Porto, Ernani; Souza, Roberto A; Campioni, Fabio; Falcão, Juliana P; Hofer, Ernesto; Cruz, Adriano G; Oliveira, Carlos A F

    2014-03-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese and in the environment of three small-scale dairy plants (A, B, C) located in the Northern region state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to characterize the isolates using conventional serotyping and PFGE. A total of 393 samples were collected and analyzed from October 2008 to September 2009. From these, 136 came from dairy plant A, where only L. seeligeri was isolated. In dairy plant B, 136 samples were analyzed, and L. innocua, L. seeligeri and L. welshimeri were isolated together with L. monocytogenes. In dairy plant C, 121 samples were analyzed, and L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were isolated. Cheese from dairy plants B and C were contaminated with Listeria spp, with L. innocua being found in Minas frescal cheese from both dairy plants, and L. innocua and L. monocytogenes in Prato cheese from dairy plant C. A total of 85 L. monocytogenes isolates were classified in 3 serotypes: 1/2b, 1/2c, and 4b, with predominance of serotype 4b in both dairy plants. The 85 isolates found in the dairy plants were characterized by genomic macrorestriction using ApaI and AscI with Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Macrorestriction yielded 30 different pulsotypes. The presence of indistinguishable profiles repeatedly isolated during a 12-month period indicated the persistence of L. monocytogenes in dairy plants B and C, which were more than 100 km away from each other. Brine used in dairy plant C contained more than one L. monocytogenes lineage. The routes of contamination were identified in plants B and C, and highlighted the importance of using molecular techniques and serotyping to track L. monocytogenes sources of contamination, distribution, and routes of contamination in dairy plants, and to develop improved control strategies for L. monocytogenes in dairy plants and dairy products.

  15. Ethnopharmacological survey among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest of Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Rodrigues Eliana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how people of diverse cultural backgrounds have traditionally used plants and animals as medicinal substances during displacements is one of the most important objectives of ethnopharmacological studies. An ethnopharmacological survey conducted among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest remnants (Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil is presented herein. Methods Ethnographical methods were used to select and interview the migrants, and botanical and zoological techniques were employed to collect the indicated resources. Results We interviewed five migrants who described knowledge on 12 animals and 85 plants. Only 78 plants were present in Diadema, they belong to 37 taxonomic families; 68 were used exclusively for medicinal purposes, whereas 10 were reported to be toxic and/or presented some restriction of use. These taxa were grouped into 12 therapeutic categories (e.g., gastrointestinal disturbances, inflammatory processes or respiratory problems based on the 41 individual complaints cited by the migrants. While the twelve animal species were used by the migrants to treat nine complaints; these were divided into six categories, the largest of which related to respiratory problems. None of the animal species and only 57 of the 78 plant species analysed in the present study were previously reported in the pharmacological literature; the popular knowledge concurred with academic findings for 30 of the plants. The seven plants [Impatiens hawkeri W. Bull., Artemisia canphorata Vill., Equisetum arvensis L., Senna pendula (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. H.S. Irwin & Barneby, Zea mays L., Fevillea passiflora Vell. and Croton fuscescens Spreng] and the two animals (Atta sexdens and Periplaneta americana that showed maintenance of use among migrants during their displacement in Brazilian territory, have not been studied by pharmacologists yet. Conclusions Thus, they should be highlighted and focused in further pharmacology

  16. Occurrence of Ancylostoma in dogs, cats and public places from Andradina city, São Paulo state, Brazil.

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    Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini do; Apolinário, Juliana de Carvalho; Coelho, Natalia Marinho Dourado; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and intensity of Ancylostoma spp. in 33 dogs and 52 cats by means of coproparasitological examinations and parasitological necropsy, and assess the presence of contaminated feces with eggs of that parasite in public places of Andradina Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. Willis-Mollay and Sedimentation methods indicated Ancylostoma spp. eggs in 87.8% (29/33) dogs and 94.2% (49/52) cats. The species A. caninum and A. braziliense were found in 63.6% (21/33) and 30.3% (10/33) of dogs, respectively. Considering cats, 67.3% (35/52) were parasitized by A. braziliense, 21.1% (11/52) by A. caninum, and 9.6% (5/52) by A. tubaeforme. Forty-two canine fecal samples were collected from public environments, including 23 squares/gardens and 19 streets/sidewalks. Positive samples for Ancylostoma spp. accounted for 64.3% (27/42); squares/gardens had 60.9% (14/23) positive samples, and streets and sidewalks, 68.4% (13/19). No association was observed between the number of Ancylostoma spp parasites and age, sex and breed of the animals and also the ratio of EPG counts and the parasitic intensity observed at necropsy (p > 0.05). Based on the high occurrence of hookworm in dogs and cats in this study, the treatment with anti helminthics are needed even in those animals with negative stool tests, besides adopting control of the number of animals in public places, in order to decrease the likelihood of environmental contamination, since this parasite represents a potential hazard to human and animal health.

  17. The impact of AIDS, immigration and housing overcrowding on tuberculosis deaths in São Paulo, Brazil, 1994-1998.

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    Antunes, J L; Waldman, E A

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to describe the distribution of tuberculosis (TB) mortality by area in the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1994 to 1998, and to evaluate its statistical association with several population characteristics. We surveyed TB deaths grouped by residential area, at the district level, and we calculated the rates for these areas standardized by gender and age groups. We applied simultaneous autoregressive--SAR regression analysis (autocorrelated errors model) in order to fit a "stepwise" model correlating TB deaths with the variables of interest. Significant associations were found between TB mortality rates and AIDS mortality rates, overcrowding at the household level, social development (expressed by a socioeconomic index), and rates of foreign immigration and immigration from other Brazilian States. Regression analysis allowed us to estimate the frequency of TB deaths virtually attributable to co-infection with HIV at 22.37% (95% confidence interval: 12.15-41.17%). TB death rates and utilization of public health services were not statistically associated, suggesting a reduced effectiveness of programs directed at control of the disease. The correlation between TB death rates and deprivation, measured by the socioeconomic index, indicates higher mortality in underprivileged areas. The significance of the association between housing overcrowding and TB deaths, in contrast to the absence of association with district-level overcrowding, indicates that prolonged contact is needed for disease transmission. Although the influx of foreigners and national migrants to the city diminished after the 1980s, immigration rates have been significantly correlated with TB mortality, suggesting greater vulnerability of these population segments to the disease.

  18. Prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics of women with induced abortion in a population sample of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Milena Goulart Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims at estimating the prevalence of women with induced abortion among women of childbearing age (15-49 years who had any previous pregnancy, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in the last quarter of 2008, and identifying the sociodemographic characteristics (SC associated with it. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out. The dependent variable was dichotomized as: no abortion and induced abortion. The independent variables were: age, paid work/activity, familial monthly income, schooling, marital status, contraceptive use and number of live births. Statistical analysis was performed using log-binomial regression models with approximation of Poisson to estimate the prevalance ratios (PR. Results: Of all women with any previous pregnancy (n = 683, 4.5% (n = 31 reported induced abortion. The final multivariate model showed that having now between 40 and 44 years (PR = 2.76, p = 0.0043, being single (PR = 2.79, p = 0.0159, having 5 or more live births (PR = 3.97, p = 0.0013, current oral contraception or IUD use (PR = 2.70, p = 0.454 and using a "non effective" (or of low efficacy contraceptive method (PR = 4.18, p = 0.0009 were sociodemographic characteristics associated with induced abortion in this population. Conclusions: Induced abortion seems to be used to limit fertility, more precisely after having reached the desired number of children. The inadequate use or non-use of effective contraceptive methods, and / or the use of contraceptives " non effective", exposed also the women to the risk of unintended pregnancies and, therefore, induced abortions. In addition, when faced with a pregnancy, single women were more likely to have an abortion than married women.

  19. Sources of atmospheric acidity in an agricultural-industrial region of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Da Rocha, G. O.; Franco, A.; Allen, A. G.; Cardoso, A. A.

    2003-04-01

    Surface-based measurements of atmospheric formic acid (HCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and nitric acid (HNO3) were made in central São Paulo State, Brazil, between April 1999 and March 2000. Mean concentrations were 9.0 ppb (HCOOH), 1.3 ppb (CH3COOH), 4.9 ppb (SO2), 0.3 ppb (HCl), and 0.5 ppb (HNO3). Concentrations in sugar cane burning plumes were 1160-4230 ppb (HCOOH), 360-1750 ppb (CH3COOH), 10-630 ppb (SO2), 4-210 ppb (HCl), and 14-90 ppb (HNO3). Higher ambient concentrations of SO2, HCl and HNO3 were measured during the burning season (May-November). Concentrations of SO2 and HCl increased during the evening, and of HCOOH and CH3COOH were lowest in the morning, with peak levels in the afternoon. Ratios obtained between different species showed either nighttime maxima (SO2/HCOOH, SO2/CH3COOH, SO2/HNO3, CH3COOH/HNO3, SO2/HCl and HCOOH/HNO3), daytime maxima (HCOOH/HCl, CH3COOH/HCl and HNO3/HCl), or no clear trends (HCOOH/CH3COOH). Correlation analysis showed that SO2 and HCl were primary emissions from biomass burning and road transport; HCOOH, HNO3 and CH3COOH were products of photochemistry; HCOOH and CH3COOH were emitted directly during combustion as well as from biogenic sources. Biomass burning affected atmospheric acidity on a regional scale, while vehicular emissions had greater impact in urban and adjacent areas. Atmospheric ammonia levels were insufficient to neutralize atmospheric acidity, which was mainly removed by deposition to the surface.

  20. Occurrence of Ancylostoma in dogs, cats and public places from Andradina city, São Paulo state, Brazil

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    Willian Marinho Dourado Coelho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and intensity of Ancylostoma spp. in 33 dogs and 52 cats by means of coproparasitological examinations and parasitological necropsy, and assess the presence of contaminated feces with eggs of that parasite in public places of Andradina Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. Willis-Mollay and Sedimentation methods indicated Ancylostoma spp. eggs in 87.8% (29/33 dogs and 94.2% (49/52 cats. The species A. caninum and A. braziliense were found in 63.6% (21/33 and 30.3% (10/33 of dogs, respectively. Considering cats, 67.3% (35/52 were parasitized by A. braziliense, 21.1% (11/52 by A. caninum, and 9.6% (5/52 by A. tubaeforme. Forty-two canine fecal samples were collected from public environments, including 23 squares/gardens and 19 streets/sidewalks. Positive samples for Ancylostoma spp. accounted for 64.3% (27/42; squares/gardens had 60.9% (14/23 positive samples, and streets and sidewalks, 68.4% (13/19. No association was observed between the number of Ancylostoma spp parasites and age, sex and breed of the animals and also the ratio of EPG counts and the parasitic intensity observed at necropsy (p > 0.05. Based on the high occurrence of hookworm in dogs and cats in this study, the treatment with anti helminthics are needed even in those animals with negative stool tests, besides adopting control of the number of animals in public places, in order to decrease the likelihood of environmental contamination, since this parasite represents a potential hazard to human and animal health.

  1. Reproductive characteristics of captive greater rhea (Rhea americana males reared in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    PAA Góes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rheas (Rhea americana belongs to the ratite group. Considering the commercial significance of this birds, some techniques, such as semen collection, were standardized. In this study, 107 male rheas (3 to 4 years of age reared in commercial farms in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were used. Semen was collected during the breeding and off-breeding seasons of 2001, 2002, and 2003. Bird hierarchical behavior was observed. Birds were restrained performed using a box and a black hood. Semen was collected by digital pressure on the base of the phallus, which size was measured, and the presence or absence of spiral shape was observed. Immediately after collection, semen samples were evaluated for volume, motility, sperm concentration, and morphology. In a limited number of birds, blood samples were collected to measure testosterone levels. Among the 69 birds studied during the breeding season, 44 presented large phalluses, out of which 26 showed spiral shape. The method of semen collection was efficient. The following semen parameter results were obtained: volume (0.68 ±0.14 ml, motility (61.11±11.54%, sperm concentration (3.29±1.33 x10(9 sptz/ml, and number of spermatozoa per ejaculate (2.40±1.38x10(9 sptz/ml. Morphological abnormalities were analyzed and recorded. Testosterone levels were statistically different (p = 0.0161 between the breeding and non-breeding season (53.28±18.41 ng/ml and 5:57±3.81 ng/ml, respectively. Variations in phallus size were also found between the breeding and non-breeding seasons. Larger phalluses and higher testosterone levels were correlated with dominant behavior. The results of the present experiment confirmed that it is possible to collect semen from rheas, allowing the future use of biotechnologies such as artificial insemination.

  2. A novel air quality analysis and prediction system for São Paulo, Brazil to support decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshyaripour, Gholam Ali; Brasseur, Guy; Andrade, Maria Fatima; Gavidia-Calderón, Mario; Bouarar, Idir

    2016-04-01

    The extensive economic development and urbanization in southeastern Brazil (SEB) in recent decades have notably degraded the air quality with adverse impacts on human health. Since the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) accommodates the majority of the economic growth in SEB, it overwhelmingly suffers from the air pollution. Consequently, there is a strong demand for developing ever-better assessment mechanisms to monitor the air quality and to assist the decision makers to mitigate the air pollution in MASP. Here we present the results of an air quality modeling system designed for SEB with focuses on MASP. The Weather Research and Forecast model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used considering the anthropogenic, biomass-burning and biogenic emissions within a 1000×1500 km domain with resolution of 10 km. FINN and MEGAN are used for the biomass-burning and biogenic emissions, respectively. For the anthropogenic emissions we use a local bottom-up inventory for the transport sector and the HTAPv2 global inventory for all other sectors. The bottom-up inventory accounts for the traffic patterns, vehicle types and their emission factors in the area and thus could be used to evaluate the effect of changes in these parameters on air quality in MASP. The model outputs are compered to the satellite and ground-based observations for O3 and NOx. The results show that using the bottom-up or top-down inventories individually can result in a huge deviation between the predictions and observations. On the other hand, combining the inventories significantly enhances the forecast accuracy. It also provides a powerful tool to quantify the effects of traffic and vehicle emission policies on air quality in MASP.

  3. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in a low-income community in the São Paulo municipality, SP, Brazil Soroprevalência de toxoplasmose em comunidade de baixa renda da municipalidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil

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    Fabio de Moraes Francisco

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common zoonoses worldwide. The seroprevalence for T. gondii in human population from Brazil might range from 40 to 80%. The aim of this paper was to study the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in children from age one to 15 living in a low socioeconomic community, named community of Jardim São Remo in the year of 2002. The community is located in the West area of São Paulo municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 110 (32.4%, CI 95%: 27.5 - 37.7 of the 339 children tested with indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. The titration of the samples revealed 29 children with serum titer equal to 16, 14 children with 32, 18 children with 64, 21 children with 128, 20 children with 256 and eight children with serum titer > 512. The age dependence of the prevalence of T. gondii infection and the association between seroprevalence for T. gondii and seroprevalence for T. canis suggest that the infection is chiefly postnatal. Seroconversion in infant population of community Jardim São Remo occurs in children as young as two years old, earlier than in the children attended at health centers of São Paulo city. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in children from Jardim São Remo was compared to the prevalence in children from other urban centers of Brazil.A toxoplasmose é uma das zoonoses mais comuns em todo o mundo. Estima-se que a soroprevalência desta enfermidade na população humana do Brasil esteja entre 40 e 80%. O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a soroprevalência para a infecçção pelo T. gondii em crianças entre um e 15 anos de idade em uma comunidade de baixa renda denominada comunidade Jardim São Remo, durante o ano de 2002. A comunidade estudada localiza-se na região Oeste do município de São Paulo, no estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Anticorpos contra T. gondii foram encontrados em 110 (32,4% IC 95%: 27.5 - 37.7 das 339 crianças submetidas ao teste de

  4. Mayaro virus: imported cases of human infection in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, Terezinha Lisieux M; Santos, Cecília L S; Suzuki, Akemi; Petrella, Selma M C; Bisordi, Ivani; Nagamori, Adélia H; Marti, Antonia T; Santos, Raimundo N; Fialho, Danya M; Lavigne, Shirlene; Buzzar, Marcia R; Rocco, Iray M

    2007-01-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV) is an arbovirus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) enzootic in tropical South America and maintained in a sylvan cycle involving wild vertebrates and Haemagogus mosquitoes. MAYV cases occur sporadically in persons with a history of recent activities inside or around forests. This paper reports three cases of MAYV fever detected in men infected in Camapuã, MS, Brazil. Serum samples collected at four days and two months after the onset of the symptoms and examined by hemagglutination inhibition test, revealed monotypic seroconversion to MAYV. Isolation of the virus was obtained from one of the samples by inoculation of the first blood samples into newborn mice. A suspension of the infected mouse brain was inoculated into C6/36 cells culture and the virus was identified by indirect immunofluorescent assay with alphavirus polyclonal antibodies. RT-PCR, performed with RNA extracted from the supernatant of C6/36 infected cells in the presence of alphavirus generic primers as well as specific MAYV primers, confirmed these results. The reported cases illustrate the importance of laboratory confirmation in establishing a correct diagnosis. Clinical symptoms are not always indicative of a disease caused by an arbovirus. Also MAYV causes febrile illness, which may be mistaken for dengue.

  5. Mutagenic effect of methanol in gas station operators from Sao Paulo/Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gattas, G.J.F.; Cardoso, L.A.; Faria, M.M. [Ethics and Occupational Medicine-FMUSP, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [and others

    1997-10-01

    The frequency of micronucleus (MN) in oral scamous cells of 76 gas station operators was investigated. Subjects were exposed to a fuel called MEG a mix of 33% methanol, 60% ethanol and 7% gasoline. In Brazil the ethyl alcohol, extracted from sugar cane have been used as a fuel since 70`s. In November 1991, for economical reasons, the MEG fuel was introduced in big cities. The MN frequency was evaluated in three different periods: before MEG introduction (1989), and twice after MEG utilization (1992 and 1995). Some individuals were analyzed more than one time. For each individual the frequency of MN was performed in 2000 oral cells. Statistical analysis through non parametric tests revealed a highly significant increase (P=0.001) in the frequency of MN before (1.38/2000 cells) and immediately after methanol introduction (3.0/2000 cells). The frequency of MN returned to be normal (1.4/2000 cells), in the third evaluation when the exposition to methanol decreased. It should represent genetic risk for individuals under occupational exposure and for the population as a whole when methanol has been introduced as a large-scale fuel.

  6. Epidemiology of leptospirosis at Sorocaba Zoo, São Paulo state, Southeastern Brazil

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    Leila S. Ullmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is considered a worldwide distributed zoonosis, caused by the bacteria Leptospira spp. Since several species of wildlife animals are reportedly reservoirs, the aim of the present study was to know the epidemiology of leptospirosis at the Sorocaba Zoo, Southern Brazil. Serum samples of wild mammals from Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Didelphimorphia, Diprotodontia, Perissodactyla, Pilosa, Primates, Proboscidea and Rodentia orders, kept in captivity as well as from zoological staff were assayed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT. Whole blood, urine and tissue samples from wild mammals and synanthropic animals were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. An epidemiological survey was applied to evaluate the risk factors for animal infection and staff level of knowledge on leptospirosis. A total of 13/229 (5.68%; CI95% 3.37-9.47% serum samples from wild mammals were reagent on MAT. Serology from synanthropic animals, zoo staff and molecular analysis of animal samples were all negative. Leptospirosis knowledge of zoo park staff was considered medium. In conclusion, leptospiral infection occurs at the studied zoo but due to the low occurrence found, the lowest reported in literature, wild captive mammals do not act as source of infection of leptospirosis to other animals and human beings.

  7. Old age, migration, and poverty in the shantytowns of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-sherlock, P

    1998-01-01

    This study examines the potential relationships between socioeconomic change, public policy, and the welfare of elderly people in Brazil. It focuses on one particular aspect of socioeconomic change: the flow of migrants from the countryside to the cities. Three interrelated aspects of older peoples¿ welfare were identified and examined in turn. These include their economic welfare and access to pensions, their access to health care, and their social status. In addition, a conceptual framework for the relationships is presented. Using microlevel research, the study finds that the outlined conceptual framework is of relevance to the experiences of poor elderly people living in shantytowns. Socioeconomic change and public policy had an important effect on older peoples¿ quality of life. It is also noted that rapid migration and the existence of formal pension programs had not undermined informal support for older people in poor urban areas, and family support was still the principal source of income. However, there were elements of the migration experience, such as its timing, that sometimes influenced the quality of life of older people. Further research as well as pilot projects addressing the needs of vulnerable individuals that are located in the poorest urban districts are recommended.

  8. Ecological aspects of helminth fauna of Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (aves: Spheniscidae), from the Northern Coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    GC. Rezende; P. Baldassin; H. Gallo; RJ Silva

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the helminth fauna found in the Magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus, relating parasite population and community ecological parameters to life aspects of the host species. The study involved 237 specimens of S. magellanicus taken from the northern shore of the state of São Paulo (23° 46' S, 45° 57' W) and southern shore of the state of Rio de Janeiro (23° 02' S, 44° 13' W), Brazil. The following helminth fauna were found: the nematode Contra...

  9. Catalogue of Opiliones (Arachnida) types deposited in the Arachnida and Myriapoda collection of the Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronato-Ribeiro, Amanda; Pinto-Da-Rocha, Ricardo; Rheims, Cristina Anne

    2013-01-01

    A catalogue of the Opiliones types of the "Instituto Butantan", São Paulo, Brazil is given, surveying the collection after severe fire damaged in 2010. Of a total of 91 species with type material listed for the collection, 69 could be located, and 22 are considered lost. The species are arranged according to their families and genera. The collection of Salvador de Toledo Piza Jr., housed at the Museu de Zoologia "Luiz de Queiroz", was donated to the Instituto Butantan in 2009. These types received a new accession number and are listed under this new affiliation for the first time.

  10. Biological aspects of Schizodon nasutus Kner, 1858 (Characiformes, Anostomidae in the low Sorocaba river basin, São Paulo state, Brazil

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    GA. Villares Junior

    Full Text Available Four biological aspects of Schizodon nasutus in the low Sorocaba river basin, São Paulo, Brazil were analysed. These were accomplished during the year seasons. The fish diet and the feeding activity were investigated by studying the repletion index, which showed no significant differences between seasons. The food items analysed by frequency of occurrence and dominance showed a predominance of vegetable items in the diet. The reproduction, analysed by using the gonadosomatic index, indicated that the reproductive period occurs during the summer period when temperatures are higher and rainfalls are more intense. The amount of accumulated fat and condition factor varied according to reproduction, especially for females.

  11. Landslide susceptibility mapping in the coastal region in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvala, R. C.; Camarinha, P. I.; Canavesi, V.

    2013-05-01

    The exposure of populations in risk areas is a matter of global concern, because it is a determining factor for the natural disasters occurrences. Furthermore, it has also been observed an intensification of extreme hydrometeorological events that has triggered disasters in various parts of the globe, further increasing the need for monitoring and alerting for natural disasters, aiming the safeguarding of life and minimize economic losses. Accordingly, different methodologies for risk assessment have been proposed, focusing on the specific natural hazards. Particularly for Brazil, which has economic axis of development in the regions near the coast, it is common to observe the process of urbanization advancing on steep slopes of the mountain regions. This characteristic causes the population exposure to the natural hazards related to the mass movements, which the landslides stood out as the cause of many deaths and economic losses every year. Thus, prior to risk analysis (when human occupation intersect with natural hazard), it is essential to analyze the susceptibility, which reflects the physical and environmental conditions that trigger for such phenomena. However, this task becomes a major challenge due to the difficulty of finding databases with good quality. In this context, this paper presents a methodology based only on spatial information in the public domain, integrated into a Geographic Information System free, in order to analyze the landslides susceptibility. In a first effort, we evaluated four counties of Southeastern Brazil - Santos, Cubatão, Caraguatatuba and Ubatuba - located in a region that includes the rugged reliefs of Serra do Mar and the transition to the coastal region, that have historic of disasters related. It is noteworthy that the methodology takes into account many variables that was weighted and crossed by Fuzzy Gamma technique, such as: topography (horizontal and vertical curvature of the slopes), geology, geomorphology, slope

  12. Spatial clustering and local risk of leprosy in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Antônio Carlos Vieira; Yamamura, Mellina; Arroyo, Luiz Henrique; Popolin, Marcela Paschoal; Chiaravalloti Neto, Francisco; Palha, Pedro Fredemir; Uchoa, Severina Alice da Costa; Pieri, Flávia Meneguetti; Pinto, Ione Carvalho; Fiorati, Regina Célia; Queiroz, Ana Angélica Rêgo de; Belchior, Aylana de Souza; Dos Santos, Danielle Talita; Garcia, Maria Concebida da Cunha; Crispim, Juliane de Almeida; Alves, Luana Seles; Berra, Thaís Zamboni; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre

    2017-02-01

    Although the detection rate is decreasing, the proportion of new cases with WHO grade 2 disability (G2D) is increasing, creating concern among policy makers and the Brazilian government. This study aimed to identify spatial clustering of leprosy and classify high-risk areas in a major leprosy cluster using the SatScan method. Data were obtained including all leprosy cases diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2013. In addition to the clinical variable, information was also gathered regarding the G2D of the patient at diagnosis and after treatment. The Scan Spatial statistic test, developed by Kulldorff e Nagarwalla, was used to identify spatial clustering and to measure the local risk (Relative Risk-RR) of leprosy. Maps considering these risks and their confidence intervals were constructed. A total of 434 cases were identified, including 188 (43.31%) borderline leprosy and 101 (23.28%) lepromatous leprosy cases. There was a predominance of males, with ages ranging from 15 to 59 years, and 51 patients (11.75%) presented G2D. Two significant spatial clusters and three significant spatial-temporal clusters were also observed. The main spatial cluster (p = 0.000) contained 90 census tracts, a population of approximately 58,438 inhabitants, detection rate of 22.6 cases per 100,000 people and RR of approximately 3.41 (95%CI = 2.721-4.267). Regarding the spatial-temporal clusters, two clusters were observed, with RR ranging between 24.35 (95%CI = 11.133-52.984) and 15.24 (95%CI = 10.114-22.919). These findings could contribute to improvements in policies and programming, aiming for the eradication of leprosy in Brazil. The Spatial Scan statistic test was found to be an interesting resource for health managers and healthcare professionals to map the vulnerability of areas in terms of leprosy transmission risk and areas of underreporting.

  13. Aedes aegypti entomological indices in an endemic area for dengue in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

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    Eliane A Favaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the most productive types of properties and containers for Aedes aegypti and the spatial distribution of entomological indices. METHODS: Between December 2006 and February 2007, the vector's immature forms were collected to obtain entomological indices in 9,875 properties in the Jaguare neighborhood of Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP, Southeastern Brazil. In March and April 2007, a questionnaire about the conditions and characteristics of properties was administered. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with the presence of pupae at the properties. Indices calculated per block were combined with a geo-referenced map, and thematic maps of these indices were obtained using statistical interpolation. RESULTS: The properties inspected had the following Ae. aegypti indices: Breteau Index = 18.9, 3.7 larvae and 0.42 pupae per property, 5.2 containers harboring Ae. aegypti per hectare, 100.0 larvae and 11.6 pupae per hectare, and 1.3 larvae and 0.15 pupae per inhabitant. The presence of yards, gardens and animals was associated with the presence of pupae. CONCLUSIONS: Specific types of properties and containers that simultaneously had low frequencies among those positive for the vector and high participation in the productivity of larvae and pupae were not identified. The use of indices including larval and pupal counts does not provide further information beyond that obtained from the traditional Stegomyia indices in locations with characteristics similar to those of São José do Rio Preto. The indices calculated per area were found to be more accurate for the spatial assessment of infestation. The Ae. aegypti infestation levels exhibited extensive spatial variation, indicating that the assessment of infestation in micro areas is needed.

  14. Artificial and natural radioactivity in edible mushrooms from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, L P; Maihara, V A; Silva, P S C; Figueira, R C L

    2012-11-01

    Environmental biomonitoring has demonstrated that organisms such as crustaceans, fish and mushrooms are useful to evaluate and monitor both ecosystem contamination and quality. Particularly, some mushroom species have a high capacity to retain radionuclides and some toxic elements from the soil and the air. The potential of mushrooms to accumulate radionuclides in their fruit-bodies has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide composition in edible mushrooms, in Brazil. Artificial ((137)Cs) and natural radioactivity ((40)K, (22)(6)Ra, (2)(28)Ra) were determined in 17 mushroom samples from 3 commercialized edible mushroom species. The edible mushrooms collected were Agaricus sp., Pleurotus sp. and Lentinula sp. species. The activity measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry. The levels of (137)Cs varied from 1.45 ± 0.04 to 10.6 ± 0.3 Bq kg(-1), (40)K levels varied from 461 ± 2 to 1535 ± 10 Bq kg(-1), (2)(26)Ra levels varied from 14 ± 3 to 66 ± 12 Bq kg(-1) and (228)Ra levels varied from 6.2 ± 0.2 to 54.2 ± 1.7 Bq kg(-1). (137)Cs levels in Brazilian mushrooms are in accordance with the radioactive fallout in the Southern Hemisphere. The artificial and natural activities determined in this study were found to be below the maximum permissible levels as established by national legislation. Thus, these mushroom species can be normally consumed by the population without any apparent risks to human health.

  15. Biologia populacional de Emerita brasiliensis Schmitt (Crustacea, Hippidae na Praia Vermelha do Norte, Ubatuba (São Paulo, Brasil Population biology of Emerita brasiliensis Schmitt (Crustacea, Hippidae in Vermelha do Norte beach, Ubatuba (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelly Makoto Nakagaki

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerita brasiliensis Schmitt, 1935 is a common mole crab called "tatuíra" in Brazil, with distribution from Espírito-Santo State (Brazil to Buenos Aires Province (Argentina. Specimens were collected bimonthly from May/1992 through March/1993 with 4mm siffers mesh, in the intertidal region at Vermelha do Norte Beach, Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. The animals were sexed and measured with a precision caliper of 0.1 mm (Cl = carapace length. Males presented cl amplitude from 3.4-17.3mm (13.2±2.1mm, and females from 13.8-26.3mm (20.5±1.8mm, showing a well-defined sexual dimorfism for this variable. The population presented a smaller incidence of males in relation to females (0.54:1.00, however in May/1992 an inverse pattern occurred (1.84:1.00. Ovigerous females were present in all samples with exception of May and September/1992 with greater frequencies in July/1992 and January/1993. It is probable that female maturity occurs is reached with 17mm CL, the smallest size in wich ovigerous females were found.

  16. Benthic macrofauna of sandy intertidal zone at Santos estuarine system, São Paulo, Brazil

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    T.N. Corbisier

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, faunal density, species diversity and zonation patterns of benthic macrofauna, as well as its relation to sediment characteristics were examined and compared in three sandy beaches on the polyhaline area at Santos estuarine system in the State of São Paulo. Samples were collected quarterly during one year (July/1977 - May/1978. Low, mean and high intertidal levels were sampled. Polyehaetes dominated the fauna, both in terms of numbers of species and numbers of individuals. The community structure of Ponta da Praia beach was characterized by high density, low diversity (H' and evenness (J', due to the dominance of the spionid Scolelepis squamata. At Vicente de Carvalho the fauna was characterized by the dominance of the polyehaetes Laeonereis acuta and Capitella capitata and presented low density, high diversity and evenness. At Bertioga Channel, intermediate values were observed and the fauna was dominated by Scololepis squamata andLaeonereis acuta. The sediment texture was responsible for those figures, although some differences in diversity may be explained by differences in wave energy. The low number of crustaceans and molluscs suggests the effect of the estuarine pollution upon the fauna. The zonation pattern of both species distribution and community structure differed at the studied sites; it was not correlated with sediment characteristics which were relatively uniform down shore; however, the lowest diversity was observed at the high level in all sites.Neste trabalho foi estudada a macrofauna bentônica da zona entremarés arenosa da área polihalina do sistema estuarino de Santos. A composição em espécies, densidade e diversidade e o padrão de zonação da fauna foram analisados e comparados, bem como sua relação com as características do sedimento em três praias arenosas. As amostras foram coletadas trimestralmente durante o período de um ano (julho/1977 - maio/1978. Em cada local, foram amostrados os n

  17. Spatio-temporal tracking and phylodynamics of an urban dengue 3 outbreak in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Adriano Mondini

    Full Text Available The dengue virus has a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of approximately 10.700 nucleotides with a single open reading frame that encodes three structural (C, prM, and E and seven nonstructural (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5 proteins. It possesses four antigenically distinct serotypes (DENV 1-4. Many phylogenetic studies address particularities of the different serotypes using convenience samples that are not conducive to a spatio-temporal analysis in a single urban setting. We describe the pattern of spread of distinct lineages of DENV-3 circulating in São José do Rio Preto, Brazil, during 2006. Blood samples from patients presenting dengue-like symptoms were collected for DENV testing. We performed M-N-PCR using primers based on NS5 for virus detection and identification. The fragments were purified from PCR mixtures and sequenced. The positive dengue cases were geo-coded. To type the sequenced samples, 52 reference sequences were aligned. The dataset generated was used for iterative phylogenetic reconstruction with the maximum likelihood criterion. The best demographic model, the rate of growth, rate of evolutionary change, and Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA were estimated. The basic reproductive rate during the epidemics was estimated. We obtained sequences from 82 patients among 174 blood samples. We were able to geo-code 46 sequences. The alignment generated a 399-nucleotide-long dataset with 134 taxa. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that all samples were of DENV-3 and related to strains circulating on the isle of Martinique in 2000-2001. Sixty DENV-3 from São José do Rio Preto formed a monophyletic group (lineage 1, closely related to the remaining 22 isolates (lineage 2. We assumed that these lineages appeared before 2006 in different occasions. By transforming the inferred exponential growth rates into the basic reproductive rate, we obtained values for lineage 1 of R(0 = 1.53 and values for

  18. The expansion of sugar cane cultivation in the Sao Paulo state, Brazil; A expansao da cultura canavieira no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lora, Beatriz Acquaro; Monteiro, Maria Beatriz C.A.

    2008-07-01

    The present work aimed at analyze the sugar cane culture expansion in substitution to the other cultures in the Sao Paulo state from available georeferred and statistical data. The results had evidenced clear expansion of the sugar cane culture in the state, having totalized a growth of 26.04% in the period from 2003 to 2006, with expressive increase in the regions of President Prudente, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Barretos and Marilia that had, each one, more than 40% of increase in the period. Concomitantly it had reduction of the maize areas in the studied region and pasture areas stability, followed of a small increase of the cattle heads number. (author)

  19. Viability and molecular authentication of Coccidioides spp. isolates from the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo culture collection, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Sarah Desirée Barbosa; Vidal, Mônica Scarpelli Martinelli; Sousa, Maria da Glória Teixeira de; Del Negro, Gilda Maria Barbaro

    2013-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is an emerging fungal disease in Brazil; adequate maintenance and authentication of Coccidioides isolates are essential for research into genetic diversity of the environmental organisms, as well as for understanding the human disease. Seventeen Coccidioides isolates maintained under mineral oil since 1975 in the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo (IMTSP) culture collection, Brazil, were evaluated with respect to their viability, morphological characteristics and genetic features in order to authenticate these fungal cultures. Only five isolates were viable after almost 30 years, showing typical morphological characteristics, and sequencing analysis using Coi-F and Coi-R primers revealed 99% identity with Coccidioides genera. These five isolates were then preserved in liquid nitrogen and sterile water, and remained viable after two years of storage under these conditions, maintaining the same features.

  20. Coexistence of antibodies to tick-borne agents of babesiosis and Lyme borreliosis in patients from Cotia county, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Yoshinari Natalino Hajime

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a case of coinfection caused by pathogens of Lyme disease and babesiosis in brothers. This was the first case of borreliosis in Brazil, acquired in Cotia County, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Both children had tick bite history, presented erythema migrans, fever, arthralgia, mialgia, and developed positive serology (ELISA and Western-blotting directed to Borrelia burgdorferi G 39/40 and Babesia bovis antigens, mainly of IgM class antibodies, suggestive of acute disease. Also, high frequencies of antibodies to B. bovis was observed in a group of 59 Brazilian patients with Lyme borreliosis (25.4%, when compared with that obtained in a normal control group (10.2% (chi-square = 5.6; p < 0.05. Interestingly, both children presented the highest titers for IgM antibodies directed to both infective diseases, among all patients with Lyme borreliosis.

  1. Coexistence of antibodies to tick-borne agents of babesiosis and Lyme borreliosis in patients from Cotia county, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinari, Natalino Hajime; Abrão, Milena Garcia; Bonoldi, Virginia Lúcia Nazário; Soares, Cleber Oliveira; Madruga, Claudio Roberto; Scofield, Alessandra; Massard, Carlos Luis; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique

    2003-04-01

    This paper reports a case of coinfection caused by pathogens of Lyme disease and babesiosis in brothers. This was the first case of borreliosis in Brazil, acquired in Cotia County, State of S o Paulo, Brazil. Both children had tick bite history, presented erythema migrans, fever, arthralgia, mialgia, and developed positive serology (ELISA and Western-blotting) directed to Borrelia burgdorferi G 39/40 and Babesia bovis antigens, mainly of IgM class antibodies, suggestive of acute disease. Also, high frequencies of antibodies to B. bovis was observed in a group of 59 Brazilian patients with Lyme borreliosis (25.4%), when compared with that obtained in a normal control group (10.2%) (chi-square = 5.6; p < 0.05). Interestingly, both children presented the highest titers for IgM antibodies directed to both infective diseases, among all patients with Lyme borreliosis.

  2. Occurrence of Cryptosporidial Oocysts and Giardia Cysts in Bottled Mineral Water Commercialized in the City of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    RMB Franco

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of bottled mineral water has significantly increased in Brazil so that it is in the interest of public health to determine the parasitological and microbiological status of some brands of Brazilian mineral water available in the town of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. For this purpose, detection of protozoa by direct immunofluorescence technique and microbiological parameters were determined for each specimen after membrane filtration. Giardia cysts were not present while cryptosporidial oocysts were detected in two samples. The counts of protozoa varied from 0.2 to 0.5 oocysts/l. The detected level of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and heterotrophic bacteria reflected the level of organic enrichment of the water.

  3. Viability and molecular authentication of Coccidioides spp. isolates from the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo culture collection, Brazil

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    Sarah Desirée Barbosa Cavalcanti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis is an emerging fungal disease in Brazil; adequate maintenance and authentication of Coccidioides isolates are essential for research into genetic diversity of the environmental organisms, as well as for understanding the human disease. Seventeen Coccidioides isolates maintained under mineral oil since 1975 in the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo (IMTSP culture collection, Brazil, were evaluated with respect to their viability, morphological characteristics and genetic features in order to authenticate these fungal cultures. Only five isolates were viable after almost 30 years, showing typical morphological characteristics, and sequencing analysis using Coi-F and Coi-R primers revealed 99% identity with Coccidioides genera. These five isolates were then preserved in liquid nitrogen and sterile water, and remained viable after two years of storage under these conditions, maintaining the same features.

  4. Geoprocessing applied to the assessment of environmental noise: a case study in the city of Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Samuel Barsanelli; Lourenço, Roberto Wagner

    2011-01-01

    Noise mapping has been used as an instrument for assessment of environmental noise, helping to support decision making on urban planning. In Brazil, urban noise is not yet recognized as a major environmental problem by the government. Besides, cities that have databases to drive acoustic simulations, making use of advanced noise mapping systems, are rare. This study sought an alternative method of noise mapping through the use of geoprocessing, which is feasible for the Brazilian reality and for other developing countries. The area chosen for the study was the central zone of the city of Sorocaba, located in São Paulo State, Brazil. The proposed method was effective in the spatial evaluation of equivalent sound pressure level. The results showed an urban area with high noise levels that exceed the legal standard, posing a threat to the welfare of the population.

  5. Consumo de leite de vaca e anemia na infância no Município de São Paulo Cow's milk consumption and childhood anemia in the city of São Paulo, southern Brazil

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    Renata Bertazzi Levy-Costa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência de consumo de leite de vaca sobre o risco de anemia em menores de cinco anos. MÉTODOS: Estudou-se amostra domiciliar de menores de cinco anos do Município de São Paulo (n=584 em 1995 e 1996. O diagnóstico de anemia (hemoglobina OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of the consumption of cow's milk on the risk of anemia during childhood in the city of São Paulo. METHODS: We have studied a probabilistic sample (n=584 of underfive children living in the city of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, between 1995 and 1996. Anemia (hemoglobin <11g/dl was diagnosed using capillary blood obtained by fingertip puncture. The cow's milk content and the density of heme and nonheme iron in the child's diet were obtained using 24-hour recall questionnaires. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to study the association between cow's milk content in the diet and hemoglobin concentration or risk of anemia, and included statistical control for potential confounders (age, sex, birthweight, presence of intestinal parasites, family income, and mother's schooling. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 45.2% and the mean contribution of milk to the total caloric content of the children's diets was 22.0%. The association between milk consumption and risk of anemia remained significant, even after considering the dilutive effect of milk consumption on the density of iron in the diet, thus indicating a possible inhibitor effect of milk on the absorption of the iron present in the other foods ingested by the child. CONCLUSIONS: The relative participation of cow's milk in the child's diet showed a significant positive association with risk of anemia in children between ages six and 60 months, regardless of the density of iron in the diet.

  6. Detection of porcine circovirus genotypes 2a and 2b in aborted foetuses from infected swine herds in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    de Castro Alessandra MMG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 has been associated with several disease complexes, including reproductive failure. The aim of this study was to identify the subtypes of PCV2 that are associated with reproductive failure in pigs from the State of São Paulo, Brazil and to investigate co-infections with other infectious organisms. Findings Samples of 168 aborted foetuses or mummified foetuses from five farrow-to-finish swine farms known to be infected with PCV2 and located in the State of São Paulo were tested for PCV2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Positive samples were additionally tested for porcine parvovirus (PPV, Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. by PCR. PCV2 was detected in 18 of the samples (10.7%. PPV, Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp were found in 2, 10 and 0 cases, respectively. Eleven PCV2 strains were sequenced and determined to be either genotype 2a (n = 1 or 2b (n = 10. Conclusions The findings indicate that the frequency of PCV2 infections in aborted porcine foetuses from the State of São Paulo is rather low (10.7% and that co-infection with other pathogens is common and may be involved in PCV2 associated reproductive failure. No repeatable, characteristic amino acid motifs for regions of the PCV2 capsid protein seemed to be associated with abortion in sows.

  7. [Transfusional Chagas infection detected in the program for the control of Chagas disease in the state of São Paulo (Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderley, D M; de Carvalho, M E; Mantegazza, E; Yasumaru, S; Barata, L C

    1992-06-01

    A system of surveillance for Chagas' disease aiming at a systematic investigation of the occurrence of triatominae in human dwellings in S. Paulo, Brazil was proposed. It included a serological survey of residents in house considered to be potential breeding places for blood-sucking triatomines. Serologically positive cases were observed to be distributed in age groups from 19 years of age upwards. Case-investigation revealed that the infection had been acquired either in S. Paulo in the past or recently in other States. A serologically positive (titre = 128 - IgG) case of an 8-year-old male child, was detected by the In direct Fluorescent Antibody Technique (IFAT). In S. Paulo State natural transmission is now of low probability. An epidemiological investigation disclosed the fact that this was a case of blood transfusion infection. The donor was found to be serologically positive (IFAT, titre = 1024 - IgG). His case-history was typical of vector transmitted infection. It is worthy of note that blood had been donated by this patient in four instances, without his condition having been diagnosed. The necessity of organizing an integrated Public Health Service to take more efficient care of such cases is stressed.

  8. Malófagos (Phthiraptera recolhidos de aves silvestres no Zoológico de São Paulo, SP, Brasil Chewing lice (Phthiraptera from wild birds in the São Paulo Zoo, State of São Paulo, SP, Brazil

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    Michel P. Valim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e oito espécies de malófagos foram recolhidas de aves silvestres no acervo do Zoológico de São Paulo durante o ano de 2003. Vinte e três foram identificadas ao nível de espécie e cinco ao nível genérico. Os relatos de novas espécies no Brasil e novas associações parasitárias para a literatura são discutidos.Twenty-eight species of chewing lice were recovered from wild birds in the São Paulo Zoo during 2003. Twenty-three were identified to species level and five to the generic level. New species records for Brazil and new host-lice associations are discussed.

  9. Phytoplankton of the portion of the Paranapanema River to be dammed for construction of the Rosana Hydroelectric Plant, Sao Paulo State, Southern Brazil; Fitoplancton do trecho a represar do Rio Paranapanema (Usina Hidreletrica de Rosana), Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicudo, Carlos E. de M.; Bicudo, Denise de C.; Castro, Ana Alice J. de; Picelli-Vicentim, M. Marcina [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ficologia

    1992-12-31

    The phytoplankton community of the 120 Km long portion of the Paranapanema River located between the Salto Grande Hydroelectric Plant reservoir and the river mouth at the Parana River is surveyed. This part of the river will be dammed for construction of the Rosana hydroelectric System in the State of Sao Paulo, southern Brazil. An inventory was completed for 4 collecting stations, and based on the study of 48 samples gathered bimonthly during the period from November 1985 to September 1986. Each collection is represented by a net concentrated and a raw total phytoplankton sample. Except for the Bacillariophyceae, study of which is still in progress, the other classes present were the following in order of their local representation: Chlorophyceae with 23 taxa, Zygnemaphyceae (= Cyanophyceae) with 9, Tribophyceace (= Xanthophyceae) with 2 each one, and Oedogoniophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Chrysophyceae with a single taxon each, to a total of 55 taxa identified. (author) 27 refs., 6 figs.

  10. História da saúde pública no Estado de São Paulo History of public health in the S. Paulo State, Brazil

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    Rodolfo dos Santos Mascarenhas

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Estuda-se a história, através da evolução dos serviços estaduais de saúde pública em São Paulo, desde 1891 até o presente. Dois vultos se destacam: Emílio Ribas e Geraldo de Paula Souza. Emílio Ribas conseguiu debelar no fim do século passado surtos epidêmicos de febre amarela, febre tifóide, varíola e cólera e, na Capital, malária. Prova, em um grupo de voluntários, no qual foi o primeiro, a transmissão, por vector, de febre amarela, repetindo, um ano depois, a experiência norte-americana em Cuba. Funda o Instituto Butantã, entregando-o a outro cientista, Vital Brasil. Paula Souza reorganiza, em 1925, o Serviço Sanitário do Estado, introduzindo o centro de saúde, a educação sanitária, a visitação domiciliaria. Lidera, posteriormente, no SESI, a assistência médica, odontológica, alimentar e social do operário. Em junho de 1947 foi criada a Secretaria da Saúde Pública e da Assistência Social cujo primeiro titular foi o Dr. José Q. Guimarães. Deu-se ênfase à implantação de campanhas de erradicação ou controle de doenças transmissíveis (malária, chagas, poliomielite, variola, etc. e à reforma total da Secretaria da Saúde iniciada em 1970.The history through the evolution of the estate public health services in S. Paulo from 1891 till 1971 was studied. Two public health leaders are distinguished: Emilio Ribas and Geraldo de Paula Souza. At the end of the later century Emilio Ribas succeeded in overcoming outbreaks of epidemics, such as yellow fever, smallpox, cholera and malaria in the city of S. Paulo. In a group of volunteers he experimented the transmission of yellow fever by vector, and one year after the American experience in Cuba. He set up the Institute Butantã and placed it in the hands of another great scientist, Vital Brasil. In 1925 Paula Souza reorganizes the Sanitary Service of the State, introducing the health center, public health education, home visits and so on. Later, in the SESI

  11. História da saúde pública no Estado de São Paulo History of Public Health in the S. Paulo State, Brazil

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    Rodolfo dos Santos Mascarenhas

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Estuda-se a história, através da evolução dos serviços estaduais de saúde pública em São Paulo, desde 1891 até o presente. Dois vultos se destacam: Emílio Ribas e Geraldo de Paula Souza. Emílio Ribas conseguiu debelar no fim do século passado surtos epidêmicos de febre amarela, febre tifóide, varíola e cólera e, na Capital, malária. Prova, em um grupo de voluntários, no qual foi o primeiro, a transmissão, por vector, de febre amarela, repetindo, um ano depois, a experiência norte-americana em Cuba. Funda o Instituto Butantã, entregando-o a outro cientista, Vital Brasil. Paula Souza reorganiza, em 1925, o Serviço Sanitário do Estado, introduzindo o centro de saúde, a educação sanitária, a visitação domiciliaria. Lidera, posteriormente, no SESI, a assistência médica, odontológica, alimentar e social do operário. Em junho de 1947 foi criada a Secretaria da Saúde Pública e da Assistência Social cujo primeiro titular foi o Dr. José Q. Guimarães. Deu-se ênfase à implantação de campanhas de erradicação ou controle de doenças transmissíveis (malária, chagas, poliomielite, variola, etc. e à reforma total da Secretaria da Saúde iniciada em 1970.The history through the evolution of the estate public health services in S. Paulo from 1891 till 1971 was studied. Two public health leaders are distinguished: Emilio Ribas and Geraldo de Paula Souza. At the end of the later century Emilio Ribas succeeded in overcoming outbreaks of epidemics, such as yellow fever, smallpox, cholera and malaria in the city of S. Paulo. In a group of volunteers he experimented the transmission of yellow fever by vector, and one year after the American experience in Cuba. He set up the Institute Butantã and placed it in the hands of another great scientist, Vital Brasil. In 1925 Paula Souza reorganizes the Sanitary Service of the State, introducing the health center, public health education, home visits and so on. Later, in the SESI

  12. Difteria: situação imunitária de uma população infantil urbana de São Paulo, SP, Brasil Diphtheria: immunity in an infant population in the city of S. Paulo, SP, Brazil

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    Hideyo Iizuka

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available A verificação do teor de anticorpos antidiftéricos provenientes de 130 crianças de 7 a 10 anos de idade, do município de São Paulo, Brasil, revelou 31, 14 e 5% de indivíduos susceptíveis nas idades de 7, 8 e 9 anos, respectivamente. Todas as crianças de 10 anos de idade apresentaram proteção contra a difteria, revelando teor de antitoxina circulante em níveis superiores a 0,01 UI/ml. O teor médio de antitoxina diftérica encontrada variou de 0,0385 a 0,1315 UI/ml de soro, na população examinada.An ascertainment of the level diphtheria antibodies in 130 children, 7 to 10 years old, in the city of S. Paulo (Brazil, revealed susceptibility in 31% of the 7-year-olds, 14% in the eight-year-olds, and 5% in the nine-year-olds. All ten-year-olds had protective circulating antitoxin at levels superior to 0.01 IU/ml. Analysis of the results thus showed that susceptibility varies inversely to age. In the population examined, the mean diphtheric antitoxin content oscillated between 0.0385 and 0.1315 IU/ml of serum.

  13. Piranha attacks in dammed streams used for human recreation in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Ataques de piranhas em riachos represados usados para atividades de lazer, no Estado de São Paulo

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    Vidal Haddad Junior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, attacks by piranhas have become a common problem in dammed portions of rivers and streams in the State of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. In two outbreaks recorded in two neighboring counties in the Northwest region of the state, 74 bathers were bitten. Only one bite per person was recorded during a short period of the year. The bites were related to parental care and/or defense of spawning territory, which confirms previous studies and demystify the attacks by these legendary fish, as they are perceived by most people. Placement of fine mesh nets and removal of aquatic vegetation stopped the attacks.Ataques por piranhas vêm se tornando um problema comum em trechos represados de rios e córregos no estado de São Paulo, Sudeste do Brasil. Em dois surtos ocorridos em dois municípios vizinhos no noroeste do estado, 74 banhistas foram mordidos. Uma mordida por pessoa foi registrada, em curto período do ano. As mordidas estão relacionadas a cuidado parental e/ou defesa do território de desova, o que reforça estudos anteriores e desmistifica os ataques por este peixe lendário, da maneira como são popularmente percebidos. A colocação de redes de malha fina e a remoção de vegetação aquática cessaram os ataques.

  14. Biologia e manejo de capivaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris no Parque Estadual Alberto Löfgren, São Paulo, Brasil. Biology and management of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris in Alberto Löfgren State Park, São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Hugo da Fonseca Alves PEREIRA

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Observações comportamentais visando aomanejo de capivaras foram realizadas no ParqueEstadual Alberto Löfgren, município de São Paulo,SP, Brasil. Para tanto, se acompanhou um grupo decapivaras de vida livre dessa Unidade de Conservação.Após a contagem do número de indivíduos e daanálise das interações intraespecíficas, foi realizadoo primeiro manejo destes animais no Parque.O controle dos carrapatos provenientes das capivarastambém foi abordado.Behavioral observations with the purposeof capybara management were carried out in theAlberto Löfgren State Park, county of São Paulo,Brazil. A group of wild capybaras of this site werefollowed. After counting the individuals numberand analyzing the intraespecific interactions,the first management approach was performed.The control of ticks dispersed by capybaras wasalso discussed.

  15. Occurrence of Dinarmus basalis in Callosobruchus analis in stored soybean in São Paulo, Brazil Ocorrência de Dinarmus basalis (Rondani em Callosobruchus analis (F. em soja armazenada em São Paulo, Brasil

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    Valmir Antonio Costa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Callosobruchus analis (F. is considered an important pest in several countries in Africa, Asia and Oceania. It has been observed infesting seeds belonging to 15 Leguminosae genera, including peanut, bean, chickpea, pea, cowpea, and soybean. One of its main natural enemies is the parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, whose control efficiency has already been demonstrated in several studies. This paper records the occurrence of C. analis and its parasitoid, D. basalis, in stored soybean of the state of São Paulo, Brazil.Callosobruchus analis (F. é uma praga de expressão econômica em diversos países da África, Ásia e Oceania. Já foi observado infestando sementes de espécies de leguminosas pertencentes a 15 gêneros, incluindo-se culturas como amendoim, grão-de-bico, feijão, ervilha, caupi e soja. Um de seus inimigos naturais mais importantes é o parasitóide Dinarmus basalis (Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, cuja eficiência de controle já foi demonstrada em vários estudos. Neste trabalho registra-se a ocorrência de C. analis e de seu parasitóide, D. basalis, em grãos armazenados de soja no estado de São Paulo.

  16. Distribuição de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 (Pulmonata, Planorbidae no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Notes on the distribution of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 (Pulmonata, Planorbidae in the S. Paulo State, Brazil

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    Horacio Manuel Santana Teles

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentadas informações atualizadas sobre a distribuição geográfcia de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 no Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, em razão do importante papel que tal espécie de planorbídeo desempenha na epidemiologia da esquistossomose mansônica. Registrou-se que a maior área colonizada por B. glabrata corresponde à região abrangida pelos municípios dos limites oeste-sudoeste do Estado, enquadrada na bacia hidrográfica do Rio Paranapanema. São comentados os prováveis mecanismos envolvidos na dispersão do caramujo.It is reported the present distribution of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 in the S. Paulo State. The presence of this intermediate host of schistosomiasis is at the present time recorded in 27 municipalities. This snail had been identified as the most important transmissor of the disease in several places in Brazil. The probable dispersion mechanisms involved in the distribution of the snail are commented on.

  17. Drug consumption among medical students in São Paulo, Brazil: influences of gender and academic year Consumo de drogas entre estudantes de medicina em São Paulo: influências de gênero e ano letivo

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    Lucio Garcia de Oliveira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze alcohol, tobacco and other drug use among medical students. METHOD: Over a five-year period (1996-2001, we evaluated 457 students at the Universidade de São Paulo School of Medicine, located in São Paulo, Brazil. The students participated by filling out an anonymous questionnaire on drug use (lifetime, previous 12 months and previous 30 days. The influence that gender and academic year have on drug use was also analyzed. RESULTS: During the study period, there was an increase in the use of illicit drugs, especially inhalants and amphetamines, among the medical students evaluated. Drug use (except that of marijuana and inhalants was comparable between the genders, and academic year was an important influencing factor. DISCUSSION: Increased inhalant use was observed among the medical students, especially among males and students in the early undergraduate years. This is suggestive of a specific behavioral pattern among medical students. Our findings corroborate those of previous studies. CONCLUSION: Inhalant use is on the rise among medical students at the Universidade de São Paulo School of Medicine. Because of the negative health effects of illicit drug use, further studies are needed in order to deepen the understanding of this phenomenon and to facilitate the development of preventive measures.OBJETIVO: Analisar o consumo de álcool, tabaco e outras drogas entre os estudantes de Medicina da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo dentro de um período de cinco anos (1996-2001. MÉTODO: Participaram 457 universitários que responderam a um questionário anônimo sobre o uso de drogas (medidas: uso na vida, nos últimos 12 meses e nos últimos 30 dias. A influência do gênero e do ano letivo do universitário sobre o uso de drogas também foi analisada. RESULTADOS: Em cinco anos, houve um aumento do uso de drogas ilegais entre os estudantes de Medicina da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo

  18. Zoneamento climático de Pinus tecunumanii para fins de plantio experimental no estado de São Paulo Climatic zoning of Pinus tecunumanii for experimental stands establishment in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Luiz Eduardo Mantovani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O Pinus tecunumanii apresenta boa adaptação edafoclimática no Brasil e vem sendo plantado experimentalmente nos biomas mata atlântica e cerrado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as estações experimentais climaticamente homogêneas do estado de São Paulo para nortear a implantação de plantios experimentais de Pinus tecunumanii e, futuramente, os plantios comerciais. Foram selecionadas 30 áreas experimentais, em diferentes regiões do Estado de São Paulo, sendo que os dados climáticos referentes a cada estação foram organizados em planilhas e submetidos à análise multivariada, cujos resultados foram avaliados a partir de dendrogramas. As exigências climáticas da espécie foram verificadas em literatura científica e nos resultados obtidos de plantios experimentais. Toda a área do Estado de São Paulo se mostrou apta para plantios experimentais com as espécies de baixa altitude, exceto a área correspondente à estação de Campos do Jordão, devido à frequente ocorrência de geadas. A espécie também pode ser plantada nas estações de Angatuba, Buri, Pirajú, Itapeva, Avaré, Itapetininga e Itararé , exceto em áreas de baixada, onde existe o acúmulo de ar frio. Nas áreas mais quentes, tais como o norte / noroeste do estado, poderão ser efetuados testes para florescimento precoce, o que pode ser bastante útil para otimizar o tempo necessário para o melhoramento da espécie.Pinus tecunumanii has good adaptation to edafoclimatic regions of Brazil and these pinus have been cultivated on Savanna and Atlantic Forest biomes. The objective of this study was to identify climate homogeneous experimental stations of the Forest Institute of São Paulo and indicate places where it is possible to establish progeny and clone tests for breeding and further commercial plantation of this specie. It was selected 30 experimental areas at São Paulo state and climatic data for each meteorological station nearest of these areas

  19. Crescimento e estado nutricional de crianças e adolescentes de Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brasil Growth and nutritional status of children and adolescents in the city of Presidente Prudente, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ismael Forte Freitas Júnior

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar peso, altura, índice de massa corporal (IMC e prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade de crianças e adolescentes de Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados 1327 jovens (692 masculino e 635 feminino com idade de 7 a 19 anos. Os dados foram coletados com o mesmo equipamento e seguindo procedimento padrão descrito na literatura. O teste t de Student para variáveis independentes foi utilizado para as comparações entre sexo (pOBJECTIVES: to evaluate the weight, height, and Body Mass Index (BMI of children and adolescents, in addition to the prevalence of overweight and obesity, in the city of Presidente Prudente, State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: a sample of 1327 subjects (692 male and 635 female aged 7-19 years were evaluated. The data were collected using the same equipment and following standard procedures described in literature. A Student's t test was used to compare independent variables (p<0.05. Percentiles were calculated using SPSS, version 10.0 and plotted using Minitab, version 14.0. The 85 and 95 percentiles were used for classification of overweight and obesity, and were analysed in relation to two more internationally accepted studies. RESULTS: the weight and height are higher than in other studies carried out in Brazil and similar to those in a number of developed countries. The BMI figures revealed a high prevalence of overweight, and obesity, mainly in the male group between 7 and 10 years. This prevalence was less marked in the female group, especially among adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: the growth of this sample is above that observed in other Brazilian regions, and comparable to some developed countries. However, the BMI indicates a high prevalence of overweight and obesity.

  20. Media and Cultural Consumption by Young Students in the City of São Paulo, Brazil: Evidences of Digital Divide, Possibilities of Cosmopolitanism

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    Wilson Roberto Bekesas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the initial findings of a Brazilian project, which is part of an international research group, studying youth cultures in the age of globalization. It aims to develop a comparative study from the cultural perspective of globalization on the construction of aesthetic cosmopolitanism among young people from France, Canada, Australia, and Brazil. Our aim here specifically is to understand the cultural consumption of young students from São Paulo and their uses of different media for this matter, in hybrid forms (mainly digital. The analysis of empirical data presented is built upon 52 exploratory questionnaires and 40 interviews conducted with young students (from 18 to 24 year old living in São Paulo, Brazil. In order to understand the Brazilian context in this analysis, we performed a triangulation with secondary data from “Brazilian digital youth” by IBOPE (2012 and “Connected youth” by Telefonica Foundation/USP (2014. Based on the analysis, we reflect on two central topics: 1 evidence of a digital divide, according to their socio-economic profile and their access to information/entertainment, and 2 possibilities of cosmopolitan encounters, through the consumption of international cultural products and the search of information regarding other countries and cultures.

  1. Analysis in crab tissues and in sediment of estuary from Iguape (Sao Paulo, Brazil) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

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    Salvador, Marcos J. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mjsalvador1531@yahoo.com.br; Sawazaki, David T.A.; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A. Domingues [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas], E-mail: david_tatsuo@hotmail.com, E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo], E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Hattori, Gustavo Y. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Benjamin Constant (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias], E-mail: hattori@ufam.edu.br

    2007-07-01

    We report the use of Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF) as a technique for macro, micro and trace elements determination in the tissues of the crab Ulcides cordatus and in the sediments from the Iguape estuary (Sao Paulo, Brazil) for environmental pollution control and toxicological evaluation. The analyses were performed on the U. cordatus (muscles and hepatopancreas) and on sediments from 24 sites of the Iguape estuary (Sao Paulo, Brazil). Tissues and sediments samples were analyzed by SRTXRF after digestion in an open system, using Ga as internal standard. Potassium (K), Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, and Ba were the elements detected in crab hepatopancreas at concentration ranging from 0.516 (Mn) to 2061 (K) mug/g. Muscles samples presented the elements K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr at concentrations ranging from 0.043 (Ni) to 1917 (K) mug/g. Potassium (K), Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Sn, Ce, and Pb were the elements detected in the sediment samples with concentration between 3.8 (Cu) and 14628 (Fe)mug/g. (author)

  2. Isolation of yellow fever virus (YFV from naturally infectied Haemagogus (Conopostegus leucocelaenus (diptera, cukicudae in São Paulo State, Brazil, 2009

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    Renato Pereira de Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available After detecting the death of Howlers monkeys (genus Alouatta and isolation of yellow fever virus (YFV in Buri county, São Paulo, Brazil, an entomological research study in the field was started. A YFV strain was isolated from newborn Swiss mice and cultured cells of Aedes albopictus - C6/36, from a pool of six Haemagogus (Conopostegus leucocelaenus (Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes (Dyar & Shannon collected at the study site. Virus RNA fragment was amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. The MCC Tree generated showed that the isolated strain is related to the South American I genotype, in a monophyletic clade containing isolates from recent 2008-2010 epidemics and epizootics in Brazil. Statistical analysis commonly used were calculated to characterize the sample in relation to diversity and dominance and indicated a pattern of dominance of one or a few species. Hg. leucocelaenus was found infected in Rio Grande do Sul State as well. In São Paulo State, this is the first detection of YFV in Hg. leucocelaenus.

  3. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements in soils and vegetables from the macroregion of São Paulo, Brazil: availability for plant uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos-Araujo, Sabrina Novaes; Alleoni, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú

    2016-02-01

    The occurrence and accumulation of heavy metals or so-called potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in soils and plants have driven long-standing concerns about the adverse effects such metals have on the environment and human health. Furthermore, contaminated food products are known to be a leading source of exposure to heavy metals for the general population. It is crucial to accurately assess the concentrations of metals in crops and the bioavailable contents of these elements in the soil. The state of São Paulo is the largest consumer market of horticultural products in Brazil with production focused essentially on urban and industrial areas, which greatly increases the degree of exposure to contaminants. The objective of the authors in this study was to evaluate the soil-plant relationships between concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in vegetable and garden soils in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. To accomplish this, 200 soil (0-20 cm) and plant samples were collected from 25 species in the production areas. With the exception of Cd, there was positive correlation between pseudototals (USEPA 3051a) and bioavailable contents (extracted with DTPA) of heavy metals. However, the Cd and Pb contents in plants were not significantly correlated with any of the variables studied. All random forest and tree models proved to be good predictors of results generated from a regression model and provided useful information including covariates that were important for specifically forecasting Zn concentration in plants.

  4. Chemical characterization of organic particulate matter from on-road traffic in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayuri Oyama, Beatriz; de Fátima Andrade, Maria; Herckes, Pierre; Dusek, Ulrike; Röckmann, Thomas; Holzinger, Rupert

    2016-11-01

    This study reports emission of organic particulate matter by light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on three different fuel types: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol, E25), hydrated ethanol (E100), and diesel (with 5 % biodiesel). The experiments were performed at two tunnels: Jânio Quadros (TJQ), where 99 % of the vehicles are LDVs, and RodoAnel Mário Covas (TRA), where up to 30 % of the fleet are HDVs. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively. The samples were analyzed by thermal-desorption proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS) and by thermal-optical transmittance (TOT). Emission factors (EFs) for organic aerosol (OA) and organic carbon (OC) were calculated for the HDV and the LDV fleet. We found that HDVs emitted more PM2.5 than LDVs, with OC EFs of 108 and 523 mg kg-1 burned fuel for LDVs and HDVs, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDVs and LDVs exhibited distinct features. Unique organic tracers for gasoline, biodiesel, and tire wear have been tentatively identified. nitrogen-containing compounds contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning or fast secondary production. Additionally, 70 and 65 % of the emitted mass (i.e. the OA) originates from oxygenated compounds from LDVs and HDVs, respectively. This may be a consequence of the high oxygen content of the fuel. On the other hand, additional oxygenation may occur during fuel combustion. The high fractions of nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds show that chemical processing close to the engine / tailpipe region is an important factor influencing primary OA emission. The thermal-desorption analysis showed that HDVs emitted compounds with higher volatility, and with mainly oxygenated and longer

  5. Drug-related disorders and the criminal and clinical background of the prison population of Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

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    Maíra Mendes dos Santos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between drug (DAD and alcohol (AAD abuse and dependency and criminal and clinical background by gender of prisoners in São Paulo, Brazil. METHOD: Cross-sectional study, random sample stratified by administrative district, from which prisons and prisoners were selected via random, multistage sampling. Psychiatric diagnoses were made with the CIDI 2.1. Lifetime prevalence and 95% CI were calculated and adjusted via analysis of complex samples. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was carried out with four categories of dependent variables: presence AAD; presence DAD; presence of another mental disorder; no mental disorders. For female alcohol and drug abuse and dependency (ADAD were combined into a single category. RESULTS: The sample was composed by 1809 interviewed prisoners (1192 men and 617 women. Prevalence of DAD and AAD was 25.2% and 15.6%, respectively, among female prisoners, and 26.5% and 18.5% among males. Male prisoners with DAD were more likely to have a criminal record as an adolescent (OR 2.17, to be a repeat offender (OR 2.85, and to have committed a property crime (OR 2.18. Prisoners with AAD were repeat offenders (OR 2.18. Among female prisoners, ADAD was associated with repeat offenses (OR 3.39, a criminal record as an adolescent (OR 9.24, a clinical or infectious condition (OR 5.09, another health problem (OR 3.04, and violent crime (OR 2.5. CONCLUSION: The study confirmed an association between drug-use disorders and the criminal and clinical background in the study population. Prisoners with such disorders were more likely to be repeat offenders and to have a criminal record as adolescents. Among female prisoners disorders were also associated with violent crime and health problems, while among males they were associated with property crime. These patterns in clinical and criminal backgrounds illustrate the need for social rehabilitation programs and specific medical treatment for

  6. Size-segregated particulate matter inside residences of elderly in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalin, Bruna; Kumar, Prashant; Micadei, Kaonan; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Gonçalves, Fabio L. T.

    2017-01-01

    The elderly population spend relatively more time indoors and is more sensitive to air pollution-related health risks but there is limited information on the quality of the air they breathe inside their residences. The objectives of this work are to (i) characterise mass of size-segregated particulate matter (PM) in elderly residences in Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP) in Brazil, (ii) assess the impact of the meteorological parameters on the behaviour of indoor PM concentrations, (iii) evaluate the indoor and outdoor relationship of PM mass concentration, and (iv) estimate the respiratory deposition doses (RDD). To achieve these objectives, we measured mass concentrations of size-segregated particles in 59 elderly residences in MASP. The measurements were made in the 0.25-10 μm size range in 5 size bins using a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler. We evaluated the mass concentration of particles using a gravimetric method and compared our PM10 (sum of all size bins) and PM2.5 (sum of all size bins, except PM10-2.5) concentrations against the 24 h mean guidelines recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). Our results show the mean PM10 and PM2.5 measured in elderly residences in MASP as 35.2 and 27.4 μg m-3, respectively. PM2.5 and PMtotal PM10, respectively, clearly suggesting a significantly high exposure to fine particles by the elderly. About 13 and 43% of the measurements exceeded the WHO's PM10 and PM2.5 guidelines, respectively. The samples were clustered into five groups to found the behaviour of indoor PM. The cluster representing the residences with higher PM concentration in all size bins are predominantly residences near the heavy traffic areas during the non-precipitation days. About 68% of residences showed the highest fraction of PMcontrol of indoor sources in the elderly residences to limit adverse health effects of particulate matter, especially fine particles, on elderly.

  7. Factors Affecting the 7Be Concentration in Surface Air Over a Long Period of Monitoring in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damatto, S.; Maduar, M.; Pecequilo, B.; Nogueira, P.; Nisti, M.

    2014-12-01

    Beryllium-7 (T1/2 = 53.3 days), a cosmogenic radionuclide produced continuosly in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation reactions with oxygen and nitrogen can be found in different compartments of the environment and its concentration is influenced by several factors, such as, temperature, precipitation, air velocity, air masses, altitude and as well as latitude. It is quickly attached to aerosols after its formation, becoming a useful tool to study the dynamics of aerosol particles in the atmosphere. Long-term measurements of the spatial and temporal variation of 7Be allows assessment of the influence of these factors. Data of 7Be concentrations in rainfall, air surface, soil and sediments are very well reported in Northern Hemisphere; however these same results are limited in Southern Hemisphere. During a period of 13 years, from October 2001 to October 2014, 7Be concentration was measured every 15 days in surface air at Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN), in the city of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. IPEN campus is located approximately 10 km west from downtown of the city of São Paulo, which is situated on a plateau in Southeastern Brazil, at latitude 23°33'58.27"S and longitude 46°44'14.82"W and an average altitude of 760m above sea level. The climate in the area is temperate tropical with dry period in winter and rainy in summer. The concentrations of 7Be in air filters were measured by non-destructive g-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Be-layer HPGe detector with 15% relative efficiency and live counting time ranged from 100,000s to 250,000 s. The results obtained were correlated to seasons, rainfall, temperature and sunspot number. The concentrations displayed clearly seasonal variations with higher values in spring and summer time and with the amount of precipitation.

  8. [Prevalence of untreated caries in deciduous teeth in urban and rural areas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos Mello, Tatiana Ribeiro; Antunes, Jose Leopoldo Ferreira; Waldman, Eliseu Alves

    2008-02-01

    To describe the prevalence of dental caries in children with deciduous teeth in urban and rural areas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify associated factors. The study included 24 744 children (5-7 years of age) examined as part of an epidemiological survey on oral health carried out in the state of São Paulo (Levantamento Epidemiológico de Saúde Bucal do Estado de São Paulo). Multilevel analysis was used to investigate whether the prevalence of untreated caries was associated with the sociodemographic characteristics of the children examined or with the socioeconomic aspects of the participating cities. Being black or brown (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.27), attending school in rural areas (adjusted OR=1.88), and attending public school (adjusted OR=3.41) were identified as determinants for an increased probability of presenting deciduous teeth with untreated caries. Being a female (adjusted OR=0.83) was identified as a protective factor. The negative coefficients obtained for second-level independent variables indicate that the oral health profile of the cities included in the study were positively impacted by a higher municipal human development index (beta=-0.47) and fluoridated drinking water (beta=-0.32). The prevalence of untreated caries is influenced by individual and sociodemographic factors. The present study provides epidemiological information concerning the rural areas in the state of São Paulo. This information is useful for strategic planning and for establishing guidelines for oral health actions in local health systems, thereby contributing to oral health equity.

  9. Pesticides in the propolis at São Saulo State, Brazil=Pesticidas na própolis do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Silvia Maria Alves Gomes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for propolis has caused a raise in its production. However, an increasingly pesticide-dependent agriculture is a great concern with regard to bees, their produce and environmental contamination. Current analysis evaluates the presence of pesticides (organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates, herbicides, fungicides and acaricides in samples of propolis from the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Beekeepers from several localities in the state provided samples of propolis (50, which were collected, stored in non-toxic plastic bags and maintained in a freezer for analyses. Possible pesticide residues were examined by gas chromatography method but no pesticide residues were detected in the examined propolis samples. Propolis analyzed in the state of São Paulo did not show any pesticide contamination.A crescente procura pela própolis tem ocasionado aumento em sua produção. Entretanto, uma agricultura cada vez mais dependente de pesticidas representa preocupação com relação à contaminação ambiental, além das abelhas e seus produtos. Neste sentido, a proposta do presente trabalho foi avaliar a presença de pesticidas (organoclorados, organofosforados, piretroides, carbamatos, herbicidas, fungicidas e acaricidas em amostras de própolis do Estado de São Paulo. Apicultores de diversas localidades do Estado forneceram amostras de própolis (50. Estas foram coletadas, armazenadas em sacos plásticos atóxicos e mantidas em freezer até as análises. Os possíveis resíduos de pesticidas foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa. Não foi observada a presença dos pesticidas analisados nas amostras. Neste caso, a própolis analisada no Estado de São Paulo não apresentou contaminação por pesticidas.

  10. Scenario of distributed energetic resources in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil; O cenario dos recursos energeticos distribuidos no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burani, Geraldo Francisco; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Fujii, Ricardo Junqueira; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia], e-mail: udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper aims to assess the viability of the use of distributed resources for power production inside the state of Sao Paulo, taking into account its different forms, advantages and drawbacks. To accomplish the assessment and using de integrated energy resources planning, the full cost accounting for energy resources was applied to each administrative region of the state, which allowed a greater focus without jeopardizing the final results. The analysis were performed considering the usage of the most prospective energy sources such as wind, solar, natural gas, hydro and biomass generation; the results show that when the different aspects of each type of distributed generation are taken into account the renewable forms of energy generation are likely to be more competitive, when compared to traditional forms of generation. (author)

  11. Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to antimicrobials in São Paulo, Brazil: clinical features and serotypes Resistência antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae em São Paulo, Brasil: quadro clínico e sorotipos

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    Anna Sara S. Levin

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available To study resistance to antimicrobials, serotypes and clinical features of S. pneumoniae in S. Paulo, Brazil, 50 patients with a positive culture were evaluated: 7 were considered carriers and 43 had pneumococcal infections. Pneumonia and meningitis were the most commom infections. Mortality was 34% and underlying diseases were present in 70%. Relative resistance to penicillin occurred in 24% and complete resistance was not detected. Resistance to tetracycline was 32% and to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim 32%; one strain had intermediate susceptibility to erythromycin; no resistance was present for chloramphenicol, rifampin or vancomycin. Resistance to at least one of the drugs tested occurred in 62%. Results by the E-test for penicillin were similar to those by the agar dilution method. There were 24 different serotypes and 74% of the strains belonged to the 23-valent vaccine including all the penicillin-resistant strains. In this study S. pneumoniae caused severe infections and presented a high resistance rate to commonly used antimicrobials. Routine surveillance of resistance and the use of vaccination, as well as the restriction of inappropriate use of antimicrobials, are recommended in São Paulo, Brazil.Com a finalidade de estudar resistência a antimicrobianos, sorotipos e quadro clínico de Streptococcus pneumoniae em São Paulo, Brasil, foram avaliados 50 pacientes com culturas positivas: 7 foram considerados portadores e 43 infectados. Pneumonia e meningite foram as infecções mais freqüentes. A letalidade foi de 34% e doenças de base estiveram presentes em 70%. Resistência relativa a penicilina ocorreu em 24% e a resistência completa não foi detectada. Resistência a tetraciclina ocorreu em 32% e a sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim em 32% e houve uma cepa com sensibilidade intermediária a eritromicina. Não houve resistência a cloranfenicol, rifampicina ou vancomicina. Em 62% dos casos houve resistência a pelo menos uma das drogas

  12. Teor de ácido cianídrico em variedades de mandioca cultivadas em quintais do estado de São Paulo Cyanide contents in cassava cultivars used for "in natura" consumption in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    José Osmar Lorenzi

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available No Estado de São Paulo, além das culturas comerciais que destinam sua produção às indústrias de transformação ou aos mercados hortifrutigranjeiros, a mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz é muito difundida em culturas denominadas de "fundo de quintal". Nesse caso, muitas variedades são cultivadas e utilizadas precipuamente para consumo doméstico, tendo o presente trabalho por objetivo avaliar a amplitude de variação do seu teor de ácido cianídrico (HCN. Foram analisadas raízes de 206 variedades originárias de uma coleta sistemática realizada em 126 municípios paulistas, utilizando-se o método de Liebig, com maceração por 24 horas. Os resultados mostraram que a amplitude máxima de variação do ácido cianídrico foi de 16 a 482 mg.kg-1 na polpa crua das raízes. A maioria das variedades (67,0% apresentou até 100 mg.kg-1 de HCN, que, apesar de alto em relação aos citados na literatura, sugere que possa ser considerado o limite superior de segurança para variedades de mesa.Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is widely cultivated in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, mostly as raw material for industrial purposes (production of cassava flour, starch, etc.. A small proportion of cassava production is destinated to "in natura" consumption, obtained essentially from backyard plantations. In this case, many varieties are used, with unknown cyanide contents, which can cause severe human intoxication. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the cyanide content range of these varieties. Roots of 206 varieties, collected at 126 sites in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed as to their cyanide contents, using the Liebig method, with maceration for a 24-hour period. Results showed a cyanide content variation from 16 to 482 mg.kg-1 of HCN in the tuber root fresh pulps. On the other hand, most of the varieties (67% under testing presented root cyanide contents below 100 mg.kg-1. So, this cyanide content may be considered as

  13. Correlates of substance use during adolescent pregnancy in São Paulo, Brazil Correlatos do uso de substâncias durante a gravidez na adolescência em São Paulo, Brasil

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    Marco Antonio Bessa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of cocaine and marijuana use during adolescent pregnancy in São Paulo-SP, Brazil, with psychiatric disorders, social status and sexual history. METHOD: One thousand pregnant adolescents were assessed by using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and sociodemographic and socio-economic questionnaire at the obstetric center of a public hospital in São Paulo. Hair samples were collected for analysis. RESULTS: The following data were associated with cocaine and/or marijuana use during the third trimester of the pregnancy: being younger than 14 years of age, having a history of more than 3 sexual partners, and having psychiatric disorders, specifically, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and somatoform disorder. CONCLUSION: In early adolescence pregnancy, having 3 or more sexual partners in life for this population is significantly associated with the use of cocaine or marijuana during gestation. This association suggests that specific intervention programs should target these young women.OBJETIVO: Investigar, numa população de gestantes adolescentes de uma maternidade pública de São Paulo-SP, Brasil, a associação entre o consumo de cocaína e maconha durante a gravidez com distúrbios psiquiátricos, status social e história sexual. MÉTODO: Mil adolescentes grávidas foram avaliadas por meio do Composite International Diagnostic Interview e de um questionário sociodemográfico e socioeconômico no centro obstétrico de um hospital público de São Paulo. Destas, foi colhida amostra para análise de fios de cabelo. RESULTADOS: Os seguintes dados foram associados com o uso de cocaína e/ou maconha durante o terceiro trimestre de gravidez: ter menos de 14 anos, ter história de mais do que três parceiros sexuais e ter transtornos psiquiátricos, em especial, transtorno afetivo bipolar, transtorno do estresse pós-traumático e transtorno somatoforme. CONCLUSÃO: Na popula

  14. Prevalence of Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae in sheep from the São Paulo Central region, Brazil Prevalência de Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae em ovinos da região Central de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Bruna Fernanda da Silva

    Full Text Available The heads of 139 slaughtered sheep were examined with the aim of determining Oestrus ovis prevalence and infestation intensity in the central region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Heads from slaughtered sheep were examined and the first (L1, second (L2 and third (L3 O. ovis larval instars were recovered from the nasal and sinus cavities. O. ovis larvae were detected in 13.7% of the sheep analyzed. The monthly mean intensity of infestation ranged from 1 to 10.2 larvae per infested head, with general mean intensity of 4.5 larvae/infested head. Of the total of 85 larvae, 21.2% were L1, 37.6% L2 and 41.2% L3. In conclusion, all different O. ovis larvae instars were recovered from slaughtered animals, which demonstrates the existence of favorable climatic conditions for the fly activity and larval development of O. ovis in sheep raised in the Central region of the State of São Paulo.Com o objetivo de determinar a prevalência e intensidade de infestação por larvas de Oestrus ovis na região Central do Estado de São Paulo, 139 cabeças de ovinos obtidas de um abatedouro foram examinadas. As larvas O. ovis foram recuperadas da cavidade nasal e seios frontais, identificadas de acordo com o estádio larval e quantificadas. As larvas de O. ovis foram detectadas em 13,7% das cabeças examinadas e a intensidade média mensal de infestação variou entre 1 a 10,2 larvas/cabeça infestada, com média geral de 4,5 larvas/cabeça infestada. Do total de 85 larvas recuperadas, 21,2% eram larvas de primeiro estádio (L1, 37,6% de segundo (L2 e 41,2% de terceiro (L3. Em conclusão, todos os diferentes instares larvais de O. ovis foram recuperados de animais abatidos, o que demonstra a existência de condições climáticas favoráveis para a atividade da mosca bem como o desenvolvimento larval em ovinos criados na região Central do Estado de São Paulo.

  15. Viabilidade econômica da irrigação da manga para o Estado de São Paulo Economic viability of irrigation of mango for the São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Flávio F. Blanco

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O Estado de São Paulo é o maior produtor de manga do Brasil e a maior parte dos pomares ainda não possui sistema de irrigação, embora esta técnica apresente grande potencial para elevar a produtividade média de manga no estado. No presente trabalho, utilizou-se uma metodologia para avaliação da viabilidade econômica da implantação de sistemas de irrigação em pomares de manga em produção, a qual foi aplicada para diferentes localidades do Estado de São Paulo. Os resultados mostraram que o custo de aquisição do equipamento de irrigação, associado à sua vida útil, é o fator de maior sensibilidade na análise de viabilidade. A cobrança pela utilização da água não inviabilizou a implantação do sistema de irrigação, tendo pouca influência sobre o incremento necessário de produtividade.The State of São Paulo is the largest producer of mango in Brazil, but most of the orchards do not have an irrigation system yet and this technique presents a great potential to raise the mean productivity of mango in this State. A methodology was used in the present study for evaluation of the economic viability of installation of an irrigation system in mango orchards, which was applied for different localities of the State of São Paulo. Results showed that the acquisition price of the irrigation system, associated with its durability, is the most important factor to be considered in the viability analysis. The water charging for the use did not turn unfeasible the implantation of irrigation system and had little influence on the yield increment necessary to cover additional costs.

  16. Air Quality Impairment Associated to Local and Regional Pollutants Sources in the Megacity of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, M.

    2007-05-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), with more than 19 million inhabitants in 2006, about 2000 major industrial facilities, and more than 7 million vehicles based on diesel, gasoline, and ethanol, has 8051 km2. MASP is one of the biggest urban agglomerate in the world. Associated to its dimension many important problems appear and among them the bad air quality is one of the most important due to the human health effects. MASP is the richest area in Brazil representing 17% of Brazilian GNP in 2000. Not only the high pollutants concentration but also the accentuated modification of the land use in the area resulted in bad quality of life characterized by local and regional climate modification, as for instance the light rain suppression and the increase of the heavier rain. In MASP the air pollution has worsened due to the cumulative effects of population growth, industrialization and increased vehicle use. Currently there are about 7.2 million passenger and commercial vehicles: 93.5% light- duty and 6.5% heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Of the light-duty vehicles, approximately 76.3% burn a mixture of 78-80% (v/v) gasoline and 22% ethanol (referred to as gasohol), and 17.2% use hydrated ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% water), these data were obtained from the Sao Paulo Environmental Protection Agency. Over the past several years, ambient ozone concentrations in the MASP have reached levels of more than five times that considered protective of public health by the World Health Organization. In the wintertime, ozone levels routinely exceed the 160 ug/m3 hourly Brazilian National Ambient Air-Quality Standard. About 90% of the O3 precursors in the MASP atmosphere are emitted by the vehicle fleet. According to the official state EI of HC (hydrocarbons) emissions from mobile sources, 22% are from gasohol-powered vehicles, 15% from diesel-powered vehicles, 6% from ethanol-powered vehicles and 5% from motorcycles. In addition, a significant contribution to HC emissions comes

  17. Epidemiological characterization of patients at a tuberculosis hospital in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Rodolpho Telarolli Junior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize, from the epidemiological, demographic and social point of view, patients with tuberculosis hospitalized at a hospital in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Data sources were obtained from the hospital records of 114 patients who were discharged from the hospital in 2010. Of the 114 patients, 82.5% were men and 80% were between 20 and 49 years old. Only 16.7% were married or cohabiting; the remaining lived alone. In terms of schooling, 85.2% had completed elementary school, 9.7% of patients were homeless, and only 3.5% were working before being hospitalized. Hospitalization between 1 and 6 months (61% predominated, as well as the number of patients who were discharged because they were cured or discharged to continue their treatment on an outpatient basis. (69.4% The mortality rate among the patients was 7.9% and the co-morbidity of TB/HIV was 9.7%. Only one case was not of pulmonary tuberculosis and 5.3% were multidrug resistant. In relation to co-prevalence, alcoholism (71.0%, drug addiction (15.8%, and hepatitis C (12.3% predominate. The hospitalization of patients with tuberculosis has little to do with the disease; it is mainly associated with the lifestyles of the patients, such as the use of illicit drugs and alcohol, the absence of residency and other factors. Mortality was higher in this group of people compared to those who had received outpatient treatment. This situation can be addressed with an early diagnosis of the disease through the primary health care network.Keywords: Tuberculosis. Hospitalization. Risk Factors. Epidemiology. RESUMOCaracterização epidemiológica dos pacientes internados em um hospital de tuberculose do Estado de São Paulo, BrasilCaracterizar do ponto de vista epidemiológico, demográfico e social os doentes de tuberculose internados em 2010, e um hospital do Estado de São  Paulo, Brasil. A fonte de dados utilizada foram os prontuários hospitalares dos

  18. O ensino profissionalizante na imperial cidade de são Paulo, Brasil (1823-1889 - Vocational education in the imperial city of São Paulo, Brazil (1823-1889

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    Lincoln Etchebéhère-Júnior, Sandra Farto Botelho Trufem

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Constitui objetivo deste trabalho a realização de um resgate histórico no  sentido  de demonstrar  que  o  Ensino  Profissionalizante,  hoje significativamente  valorizado e  discutido,  não  se configura como novidade  na história educacional de nossa província. Desde a  época da  Imperial Cidade de São  Paulo  existiram  varias  iniciativas no sentido de estabelecê-lo, de modo geral com história bem sucedida, de tal modo que alguns deles constituíram-se em embriões de afamadas escolas ou faculdades atuais. Palavras-chave: ensino profissionalizante; período     imperial; província de São Paulo.   VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN THE IMPERIAL CITY OF SAO PAULO, BRAZIL (1823  - 1889 Abstract The objective of this work is the realization of a historical rescue of the Vocational Education, now significantly enhanced and discussed as a novelty in the educational history of our province. Since of the time of the Imperial City of São Paulo, there were several initiatives to  establish it,  in  general with successful history, so that  some of them  consisted  in  the  embryos of  many  renowned schools  and colleges today. Keywords: vocational education; the imperial period; the province of Sao Paulo.   EDUCACIÓN  PROFESIONAL  EN LA CIUDAD IMPERIAL DE SÃO PAULO, BRASIL (1823  - 1889 Resumen Objetivo de este trabajo es la realización de un histórico en el sentido de mostrar  que la  enseñanza  profesional,  ahora  mucho  mayor  y discutido,  no  está  diseñado   como  una   novedad  en  la  historia educativa de nuestra provincia. Desde la época de la imperial ciudad de São Paulo había varias iniciativas para su creación, en general con la historia de éxito, por lo que algunos de ellos consistió en embriones de muchas escuelas e universidades de renombre hoy en día. Palabras -clave:  formación   profesional;  la   época   imperial;  la provincia de Sao Paulo.   L

  19. Elevada porcentagem de blastocistose em escolares de São Paulo, SP Blastocystosis: a high proportion of cases found in schoolchildren of São Paulo, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Vicente Amato Neto

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Em exame parasitológico de fezes de 227 alunos de escola pública de São Paulo (SP, encontramos 87 (38,3% positivas para Blastocystis hominis. A blastocistose ainda suscita controvérsias e indefinições, merecedoras de esclarecimentos sobretudo para evitar contratempos no âmbito da saúde pública e das atenções médico-assistenciais.As a part of medical assistance activities, parasitological examination of fecal samples from 227 school children from a public institution of São Paulo (SP revealed a rather high proportion of results positive for Blastocystis hominis. Other protozoan and worm species were markedly scarcer, a peculiar situation according to our judgement. It is acknowledged that blastocystosis is still largely an indefinite and controversial subject, which deserves adequate analysis to avoid drawbacks in the sphere of action of public health and general medical assistance.

  20. Three year seroepidemiological study of varicella-zoster virus in São Paulo, Brazil Três anos de estudo soroepidemiológico do vírus varicela-zoster em São Paulo, Brasil

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    Ana Lúcia Frugis YU

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey of varicella has been carried out in children attending the public school network of São Paulo city, Brazil, from 1992 to 1994. This study was performed in order to establish the age related prevalence of antibodies against varicella-zoster virus (VZV and its age specific transmission dynamics pattern in these children. Among 2500 schools in the city of São Paulo public network, 304 were randomly selected; 7 children of a given age (ranging from 1 to 15 years were randomly selected in each school, and blood samples were obtained by fingerprick into filter paper. Blood eluates were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to VZV by ELISA. Proportion of seropositivity were calculated for each age group. Samples consisted of 1768 individuals in 1992, 1758 in 1993, and 1817 in 1994, resulting in 5343 eluates. A high proportion of seropositive children from 1 to 3 years of age was observed, ascending until 10 years of age and reaching a plateau around 90% afterwards. VZV transmission in this community was similar along the three years of the study. In children attending public schools in the city of São Paulo, contact with VZV occurs in early childhood. If immunization against VZV is considered it should be introduced as soon as possible.Um estudo sorológico para varicela foi realizado em crianças matriculadas na rede pública de ensino da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, entre 1992 e 1994. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a soroprevalência idade-dependente de anticorpos contra o vírus varicela-zoster (VVZ e definir sua dinâmica de transmissão nestas crianças. Foram selecionadas, ao acaso, 304 escolas entre os 2500 equipamentos da Rede Pública de Educação e Bem Estar Social na cidade de São Paulo; foram sorteadas em cada escola 7 crianças de determinada idade (de 1 a 15 anos, e o sangue colhido em papel de filtro. Os eluatos foram avaliados para anticorpos contra o vírus varicela zoster através de técnica de ELISA. A

  1. Aspectos epidemiológicos do tétano no estado de São Paulo (Brasil, 1989 Epidemiology of tetanus in S. Paulo State (Brazil, 1989

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    Julio Litvoc

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available O tétano integra o elenco das doenças de notificação compulsoria no Estado de São Paulo, desde 1978, e o seu comportamento, desde então, revela as seguintes tendências: incidência declinante, embora ainda superior a existentes em áreas de maior riqueza social, e letalidade elevada, ainda que constante. Neste contexto, estudou-se 133 casos de tétano acidental ocorridos em residentes do Estado de São Paulo, em 1989, investigados e confirmados pelo Sistema de Vigilância Epidemiológica. As informações analisadas são as que constam da ficha epidemiológica do referido Sistema. A incidência foi de 0,41 por 100.000 habitantes e a letalidade de 44,36%. A partir da interpretação dos dados descritivos foi possível identificar a existência de grupos sob maior risco: pessoas idosas, residentes nas regiões noroeste e oeste do Estado, e pertencentes às categorias ocupacionais de "atividades domésticas", "lavrador" e "aposentados", propondo-se, desse modo, que sejam objeto de atenção especial, ao lado dos já conhecidos grupos de gestantes e crianças. Destaca-se ainda a existência de 18,3% de casos nos quais não se identificou um traumatismo em data definida (como, por exemplo, os doentes com lesões por Tunga penetrans. Em relação ao tempo, a maior incidência ocorreu no mês de maio. Examinou-se, também, a letalidade ocorrida no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP (HC-FMUSP, o único do Estado a manter Unidade de Terapia Intensiva destinada especificamente ao tetânico, comparando-a com a letalidade ocorrida no conjunto dos Hospitais do Estado; a letalidade no HCFMUSP foi de 34,5% e no Conjunto dos Hospitais de 49,5%, sendo que esta diferença não se revelou significante, estatisticamente. Discutiu-se os requisitos necessários para um aprofundamento do estudo do papel da atenção médica na evolução do doente com tétano - destacando-se a necessidade de se considerar, simultaneamente, a gravidade da

  2. Palynology of the paleozoic coals in the Sao Paulo state, Brazil. II -The Monte Mor coal; Palinologia dos carvoes paleozoicos do estado de Sao Paulo. II - O carvao de Monte Mor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Paulo Alves de [Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. Geologico]. E-mail: psouza@usp.br; Saad, Antonio Roberto [Universidade Guarulhos, SP (Brazil); Lima, Murilo Rodolfo de

    1997-12-01

    This paper is a second contribution to the palynological study of the Palaeozoic coals of the Itarare Subgroup in Sao Paulo state, in the Northeast Parana Basin, Brazil. It comprises a systematic description of twenty-six species of spores and pollen grains from coal and silty-coal samples of Monte Mor, from where only macrofloristic data are well known. Among the taxa studied, three are reported for the first time from the Parana Basin. Punctatisporites resolutus Playford, 1971 and Apiculiretusispora sp. cf. A. coalescens Menendez and Azcuy, 1973. The majority of the taxa studied from Monte Mor has also been reported in the Buri and Aracoiaba da Serra assemblages, suggesting that the Monte Mor deposits are correlative with the latter assemblages, thus placing the three in the informal 'Pre-G' interval. Outside Brazil, the sole possibility of palynological correlation is with the Carboniferous palynozones of the Paganzo Basin, Argentina. A Westphalian age is attributed to the Monte Mor coal, as had been suggested for those from Buri and Aracoiaba da Serra. The frequencies of the main morpho graphic groups are presented in order to give paleoecological information. Some geological and stratigraphic aspects are also discussed. (author)

  3. [The Instituto Oceanográfico da Universidade de São Paulo: a chapter in the emergence and firm establishment of the oceanographic sciences in Brazil, 1946-1969].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Alex Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Historians of science have yet to study the process by which the oceanographic sciences emerged and became firmly established in Brazil. The main goal of this article is to offer a preliminary analysis of this process by focusing on the contribution of the Instituto Paulista de Oceanografia (Paulista Institute of Oceanography), Brazil's first institution for oceanographic research; it was founded in 1946 and became part of the University of São Paulo in 1951, at which time it was renamed the Instituto Oceanográfico da Universidade de São Paulo (Oceanographic Institute of the University of São Paulo). The analysis centers on the role of three scientists who were on the facility's early research staff: Wladimir Besnard, Ingvar Emilsson, and Marta Vannucci.

  4. A new species of Homalocerus Schoenherr from the Atlantic coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil (Coleoptera, Belidae, Belinae, with notes on color pattern and on the sclerites of the internal sac

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    Sergio A. Vanin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Homalocerus Schoenherr from the Atlantic coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil (Coleoptera, Belidae, Belinae, with notes on color pattern and on the sclerites of the internal sac. Homalocerus bimaculatus sp. nov. (type locality: Brazil, São Paulo is described and illustrated, and comments on the sclerites of the internal sac of aedeagus and on color pattern are provided. The new species is compared to other similar species of the genus, being distinguished by having three clusters of carmine pubescence on pronotum and two lateral whitish oval spots located slightly before the middle of each elytron. Six species of Homalocerus, including the new one, are known from the State of São Paulo. The previously published identification key for species of Homalocerus is updated to include H. bimaculatus.

  5. 77 FR 13560 - U.S. Education Mission to Brazil; Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil, August 30...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ..., engineering and mathematics. Students then return to Brazil to complete their degrees. \\1\\ Bureau of Western... Information U.S. Commercial Service in Brazil Patricia S. Marega, Business Development Specialist, S o...

  6. Apolipoprotein E4 and Alzheimer's disease in São Paulo - Brazil Apolipoproteina E 4 e doença de Alzheimer em São Paulo - Brasil

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    Osvaldo P. Almeida

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Several recently published studies showed the existence of an association between the allele ε4 of the apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's disease (AD in developed countries. We examined this association in 55 patients with possible or probable AD and 56 elderly controls referred to outpatient clinics at the "Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo" and "Centro de Saúde Escola da Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo". The allele ε4 was significantly more frequent among patients than controls (20.9% vs 8.9%, p=0.038. Thirty-six percent of the cases presented with at least one allele ε4 compared with only 17.9% of the controls (p=0.027. The presence of at least one ε4 allele increased by 2.63 times the risk of subjects being diagnosed as suffering from AD. All three ε4ε4 patients were male and had a pre-senile onset of the disease. There was no significant difference between senile and pre-senile cases (41.9% vs 29.2%, p=0.326 nor between men and women (36.0% vs 36.7%, p=0.959 regarding their risk of being ε4. The age at onset of symptoms did not differ among the different genotype groups, although ε4ε4 cases showed a consistent trend for earlier onset. When only patients with the diagnosis of "probable AD" were included in the analysis (n=43, we observed that 22.1% of the alleles were e4, a rate that was significantly higher than the 8.9% of controls (p=0.024. This study supports the association between the presence of the ε4 allele and AD and extend this finding to Brazilian patients. Nonetheless, the presence of this allele is not necessary nor sufficient for the development of the disease and it is possible that its contribution to the pathogenesis of the disorder depends on the subject's ethnic group.Vários estudos publicados durante os últimos dois anos demonstraram a existência de uma forte associação entre o alelo ε4 da apolipoproteina E e a doença de Alzheimer (AD

  7. Evaluation of the impacts of the gas aid program in Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos impactos do programa do auxilio-gas no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Thiago Pamplona [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FEARP-USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PIPGE/USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the coverage and the economic impact of the Federal Government Program Aid Gas (Auxilio Gas) , started in the year of 2002. The evaluation covers only the state of Sao Paulo, using as source the Research of Familiar Budgets of IBGE 2002/2003. To evaluate the coverage of 'Aid-Gas' the targeted population is compared with the population that effectively received the benefit. To evaluate the economic impact of the program a test of significance of dummy variable that differentiate weight gas consumption on income for those attended by the program, controlled by Working-Leser function that models the covariates of gas expenses. A low coverage of the program was evidenced, only 32,098 families had received the benefit (4,01%) out of 786.929 families targeted group, those with per capita income was inferior the half minimum wage. The economic impact had mixed results. In one hand program beneficiaries would spend a larger percentage of income with gas consumption than those not reached; on the other hand, they would have access larger quantities of the product. If the food consumption and the gas consumption are correlated, and the families not benefited by the program are rationed, it is possible to confirm that the introduction of the program would increase welfare of families. (author)

  8. Vitrification of galvanic solid wastes: solutions for the east area of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Vitrificacao de residuos solidos galvanicos: solucao para a zona leste de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Cleiton dos Santos; Castanho, Sonia Regina Homem de Mello [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Galvanic solid waste have elevated levels of heavy metals and usually are stocked in the industry, creating a worrisome environmental liabilities. This disturbing fact is aggravated in areas densely populated as the area east of Sao Paulo, which has a pole of industrial electroplating of chrome. The present paper, we describe and provide a technological option for the disposal of waste generated by this activity using techniques that allow the incorporation of these in a glass matrix. The wastes were characterized by XRF, EDS, ICP-AES, AAS, DTA/TGA, XRD and SEM-FEG and embedded in glass and frits made from the system SiO{sub -}CaO-Na{sub O}, with additions of up to 30% by weight. The results of the analysis of residues showed the majority presence of Ni, Cr, B, Cu, Ca and S. The resulting glasses showed that heavy metals were incorporated into its structure and probably replacing the Ca and Na. In addition, the products showed specific colors indicating the possibility of use in some segments of manufacturing in ceramics with glazes, loading and pigments. (author)

  9. Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associated with briophytes in Brotas, State of São Paulo, Brazil Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associadas a briófitas em Brotas, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Guilherme Rossi Gorni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosses and liverworts can be colonized by various invertebrates, including fresh water oligochaete worms. However, little information is available on the habits and habitats of this oligochaetes in Brazil. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the occurrence of naidids in mosses, as well as to broaden the knowledge about the habitats of these oligochaetes. Sampling of bryophytes adhered to rock substrates in the rapids of the Jacaré Pepira River (municipality of Brotas, São Paulo, Brazil and to a vertical rock wall of a waterfall near the river revealed 191 Naididae individuals of the species Naiscommunis Piguet, 1906, Pristinellajenkinae (Stephenson, 1931 and Pristinellamenoni (Aiyer, 1929. We believe this to be the first record of naidids associated with mosses in Brazil.Musgos e hepáticas podem ser colonizados por diversos invertebrados, incluindo os vermes Oligochaeta. Contudo, existe pouca informação na literatura brasielira sobre os hábitos e hábitats destes oligoquetos. Portanto, o presente trabalho foi realizado para examinar a ocorrência de naidídeos em musgos, bem como aumentar o conhecimento dos habitats destes anelídeos. A coleta de briófitas aderidas a substratos rochosos nas corredeiras do Rio Jacaré Pepira (Brotas-SP e à parede rochosa vertical de uma cachoeira localizada nas proximidades do referido rio revelou 191 indivíduos de três espécies de Naididae: Naiscommunis Piguet, 1906, Pristinellajenkinae (Stephenson, 1931 e Pristinellamenoni (Aiyer, 1929. Acredita-se que este seja o primeiro registro de Naididae vivendo em briófitas no Brasil.

  10. Epidemiology of unsafe abortion in a poverty stricken environment Favela Inajar de Souza, São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fusco, Carmen L. B.; Solange Andreoni; Rebeca de Souza e Silva

    2008-01-01

    Procurou-se, neste trabalho, comparar os Resultados de Pesquisa recente, realizada em São Paulo, Brasil, país em que o aborto é ilegal em quase todas as circunstâncias, com dados referentes a Cuba, país onde o aborto é legal e seguro, dispondo de registros confiáveis. Essa pesquisa foi sediada em uma comunidade da Zona Norte da cidade de São Paulo, Favela Inajar de Souza: um estudo transversal que teve por objetivo estimar a freqüência de Abortos Inseguros, bem como determinar as característi...

  11. Geochemical and stable isotopic evolution of the Guarani Aquifer System in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sracek, Ondra; Hirata, Ricardo

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to explain geochemical and stable isotopes trends in the Brazilian unit of the Guarani Aquifer System (Botucatu and Piramboia aquifers) in São Paulo State, Brazil. Trends of dissolved species concentrations and geochemical modeling indicated a significant role of cation exchange and dissolution of carbonates in downgradient evolution of groundwater chemistry. Loss of calcium by the exchange for sodium drives dissolution of carbonates and results in Na-HCO3 type of groundwater. The cation-exchange front moves downgradient at probably much slower rate compared to the velocity of groundwater flow and at present is located near to the cities of Sertãozinho and Águas de Santa Barbara (wells PZ-34 and PZ-148, respectively) in a shallow confined area, 50-70 km from the recharge zone. Part of the sodium probably enters the Guarani Aquifer System. together with chloride and sulfate from the underlying Piramboia Formation by diffusion related to the dissolution of evaporates like halite and gypsum. High concentrations of fluorine (up to 13.3 mg/L) can be explained by dissolution of mineral fluoride also driven by cation exchange. However, it is unclear if the dissolution takes place directly in the Guarani Aquifer System or in the overlying basaltic Serra Geral Formation. There is depletion in δ2H and δ18O values in groundwater downgradient. Values of δ13C(DIC) are enriched downgradient, indicating dissolution of calcite under closed system conditions. Values of δ13C(DIC) in deep geothermal wells are very high (>-6.0‰) and probably indicate isotopic exchange with carbonates with δ13C about -3.0‰. Future work should be based on evaluation of vertical fluxes and potential for penetration of contamination to the Guarani Aquifer System. Résumé. Cet article a pour objet d'expliquer l'évolution de la géochimie et des isotopes stables dans l'unité brésilienne du système aquifère du Guarani (aquifères de Botucatu et Piramboia), dans

  12. Prevalência de defeitos de fechamento de tubo neural no Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo Prevalence of neural tube defects in Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Luiz Fernando C. Nascimento

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural no Vale do Paraíba paulista e identificar possíveis fatores maternos e neonatais associados a tais defeitos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo transversal com dados secundários obtidos na Secretaria Estadual da Saúde referentes aos nascimentos ocorridos em 2004 no Vale do Paraíba paulista, que compreende 35 municípios e conta com população de 2 milhões de habitantes. Anencefalia, encefalocele e espina bífida (mielocele e mielomeningocele foram considerados defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural. As variáveis maternas foram: idade, escolaridade, cor da pele, número de consultas no pré-natal, número de filhos vivos e relato de óbito fetal prévio. As variáveis relativas ao recém-nascido foram: peso, idade gestacional e escore de Apgar. Realizou-se comparação das médias por meio do teste t de Student e obtiveram-se os valores das razões de chance com intervalos de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 33.653 nascidos vivos. Trinta e oito recém-nascidos com o defeito foram encontrados (1,13/1.000 nascidos vivos, sendo 23 casos de espina bífida. Houve associação com baixo peso ao nascimento, prematuridade e menores escores de Apgar de cinco minutos. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência desta anomalia foi inferior à de outros estudos nacionais e sua presença esteve associada ao baixo peso, à prematuridade e à baixa vitalidade ao nascer.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of neural tube defects in Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify possible maternal and neonatal variables associated with these defects. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used secondary records of the Health Department of São Paulo State related live births during 2004 in Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil. This region has 35 cities and 2 million inhabitants. Anencephaly, encephalocele and spina bifida (myelocele and myelomeningocele were considered as neural tube

  13. Cataract prevalence in Central-West region of São Paulo State, Brazil Prevalência de catarata na região centro-oeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Gabriel Arantes Carlos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Cataract is considered the main preventable cause of blindness and visual impairment mainly in poor countries. This study was done to evaluate if cataract is still an important cause of blindness in Central-West region of State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a systematically randomized sample of households in five cities located in Central-West region of São Paulo State, Brazil. The sample consisted of 4,229 individuals (8,458 eyes of all ages. All household members were considered eligible. They were submitted to a complete ophthalmological examination (visual acuity with and without visual correction, biomicroscopy, fundoscopy, tonometry, and refractometry. Cataract diagnosis was given to eyes presenting lens opacity in biomicroscopy exam, according to Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II. Eye with a best correction, presenting visual deficiency or blindness caused by cataract was considered after excluded other pathologies that decrease visual acuity (VA. We considered as visual deficiency eyes with 0.05 OBJETIVO: A catarata é a principal causa tratável de cegueira e deficiência visual em países subdesenvolvidos. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar se a catarata continua sendo uma importante causa de cegueira no centro-oeste do Estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Um estudo transversal, de caráter observacional, realizado em cinco cidades da região centro-oeste do Estado de São Paulo, para as quais o centro de referência é a cidade de Botucatu. A amostra estabelecida para este estudo, de forma aleatória, seria composta por 5.555 indivíduos, sendo que foram examinados 4.229 indivíduos (8.458 olhos, ou seja, 78% da amostra pretendida. Os indivíduos foram submetidos a um exame oftalmológico completo que consistia em avaliação da acuidade visual (com e sem correção, tonometria, biomicroscopia, fundoscopia e exame refracional. O diagnóstico de catarata foi dado aos

  14. Yellow fever epizootics in non-human primates, São Paulo state, Brazil, 2008-2009 Epizootias de febre amarela em primatas não humanos no estado de São Paulo, Brasil, 2008-2009

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    Eduardo Stramandinoli Moreno

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, the expansion of Sylvatic Yellow Fever (YF has been observed in the southeast of Brazil, being detected in areas considered silent for decades. Epizootics in non-human primates (NHPs are considered sentinel events for the detection of human cases. It is important to report epizootic events that could have impact on the conservation status of susceptible species. We describe the epizootics in NHPs, notified in state of São Paulo, Brazil, between September 2008 to August 2009. Ninety-one epizootic events, involving 147 animals, were reported in 36 counties. Samples were obtained from 65 animals (44.2%. Most of the epizootics (46.6% were reported between March and April, the same period during which human cases of YF occurred in the state. Biological samples were collected from animals found dead and were sent to Instituto Adolfo Lutz, in São Paulo. Two samples, collected in two counties without an indication for YF vaccination, were positive for the virus. Another 48 animals were associated with YF by clinical-epidemiological linkage with laboratory confirmed cases. Because the disease in human and NHPs occurred in the same period, the detection of the virus in NHPs did not work as sentinel, but aided in the delineation of new areas of risk.Desde 2000, vem sendo observada a expansão da febre amarela (FA no Sudeste do Brasil, sendo detectados casos em áreas consideradas silenciosas por décadas. Epizootias em primatas não humanos (NHPs são considerados eventos sentinela para a detecção de casos humanos. É importante relatar eventos epizoóticos que podem ter impacto sobre o estado de conservação de espécies sensíveis. Descrevemos as epizootias, notificadas em NHPs no estado de São Paulo, Brasil, entre setembro de 2008 a agosto de 2009. Noventa e um eventos epizoóticos, envolvendo 147 animais, foram notificados em 36 municípios. As amostras foram obtidas a partir de 65 animais (44,2%. A maioria das epizootias (46,6% foram

  15. Air contaminants and litter fall decomposition in urban forest areas: The case of São Paulo - SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamano Ferreira, Maurício; Portella Ribeiro, Andreza; Rodrigues Albuquerque, Caroline; Ferreira, Ana Paula do Nascimento Lamano; Figueira, Rubens César Lopes; Lafortezza, Raffaele

    2017-05-01

    Urban forests are usually affected by several types of atmospheric contaminants and by abnormal variations in weather conditions, thus facilitating the biotic homogenization and modification of ecosystem processes, such as nutrient cycling. Peri-urban forests and even natural forests that surround metropolitan areas are also subject to anthropogenic effects generated by cities, which may compromise the dynamics of these ecosystems. Hence, this study advances the hypothesis that the forests located at the margins of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP), Brazil, have high concentrations of atmospheric contaminants leading to adverse effects on litter fall stock. The production, stock and decomposition of litter fall in two forests were quantified. The first, known as Guarapiranga forest, lies closer to the urban area and is located within the MRSP, approximately 20km from the city center. The second, Curucutu forest, is located 70km from the urban center. This forest is situated exactly on the border of the largest continuum of vegetation of the Atlantic Forest. To verify the reach of atmospheric pollutants from the urban area, levels of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu) adsorbed on the litter fall deposited on the soil surface of the forests were also quantified. The stock of litter fall and the levels of heavy metals were generally higher in the Guarapiranga forest in the samples collected during the lower rainfall season (dry season). Non-metric multidimensional scaling multivariate analysis showed a clear distinction of the sample units related to the concentrations of heavy metals in each forest. A subtle difference between the units related to the dry and rainy seasons in the Curucutu forest was also noted. Multivariate Analysis of Variance revealed that both site and season of the year (dry or rainy) were important to differentiate the quantity of heavy metals in litter fall stock, although the analysis did not show the interaction between these two

  16. Epífitas vasculares do Parque Estadual de Porto Ferreira, São Paulo, Brasil. Vascular epiphytes from Porto Ferreira State Park, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mendes MARCUSSO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O Parque Estadual de Porto Ferreira – PEPF já foi alvo de diversos estudos florísticos, contudo, nenhum deles inventariou exclusivamente a flora epifítica vascular. Neste estudo realizamos o levantamento florístico das epífitas vasculares nos diferentes tipos de vegetação desta Unidade de Conservação e comparamos a similaridade florística com outras localidades do interior do Estado de São Paulo, em Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, Cerradão e florestas ribeirinhas. Na área, foram inventariadas as epífitas vasculares nos três tipos de vegetação: Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Aluvial – FESA, Floresta Estacional Semidecidual – FES e Cerradão – CER, através de observações e coletas durante o período de um ano. Foram registradas 66 espécies, 32 gêneros e oito famílias, sendo a FESA (46 espécies o tipo de vegetação que apresentou a maior riqueza, seguido da FES (44 e CER (18. Orchidaceae foi a família mais rica na FESA e FES, enquanto no CER foi Bromeliaceae. A categoria ecológica mais abundante em ambas as áreas foi a das holoepífitas obrigatórias. As comparações da similaridade demonstraram que o CER do PEPF tem maior similaridade florística com o CER de Luís Antônio, situada na mesma bacia hidrográfica, enquanto as áreas de CER a oeste formaram outro grupo, e a FESA e FES demonstraram ter maior similaridade com as florestas de Botucatu. O presente estudo registrou um incremento de 42 espécies de epífitas vasculares para o PEPF, demonstrando a importância de inventários direcionados a determinados hábitos. In Porto Ferreira State Park – PEPF some floristic studies were carried out, although none of them aimed exclusively to the vascular epiphytes. In this study, we carried out the floristic survey of vascular epiphytes in three vegetational types of the PFSP: Seasonal Semideciduous Alluvial Forest – FESA, Seasonal Semideciduous Forest – FES and “Cerradão” – CE, during one year. We

  17. Aglutininas antileptospíricas em búfalos do Vale do Ribeira, Estado de São Paulo Anti-leptospire agglutinins in buffaloes from Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Hélio Langoni

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas aglutininas antileptospíricas em 403 amostras de soro de búfalos, provenientes de sete Municípios do Vale do Ribeira, Estado de São Paulo, coletadas no período de janeiro de 1992 a junho de 1993. Utilizou-se o teste de soroaglutinação microscópica, considerando-se positivas as amostras cujo título fosse igual ou superior a 100. O maior título encontrado foi 1600 para o sorovar bratislava (1 amostra, seguido de 800 para wolffi (4 amostras. Do total, 152 (37,7% das amostras foram positivas, sendo que, dentre os sorovares testados, a prevalência em ordem decrescente foi: wolffi (68, 44,8%, icterohaemorrhagiae (51, 33,6%, hardjo (51, 33,6%, castellonis (25, 16,5%, djasiman (12, 7,9%, grippotyphosa (10, 6,6%, pomona (8, 5,2%, bratislava (6, 4,0%, copenhageni (5, 3,3% e tarassovi (4, 2,7%.A total of 403 buffaloes serum samples from seven counties of Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo State, Brazil, obtained between January 1992 and June 1993, were studied to determine the prevalence of anti-leptospire agglutinins using the microscopic serum agglutination test. A titre of 100 and above was considered positive. The highest titre found was 1600 to the sorovar bratislava (one sample, followed by 800 to wolffi (4 samples. 152 (37.7% samples from the total were positive to the serovars tested, and their prevalence, in decreasing order, was: wolffi (68, 44.8%, icterohaemorrhagiae (51, 33.6%, hardjo (51, 33.6%, castellonis (25, 16.5%, djasiman (12, 7.9%, grippotyphosa (10, 6.6%, pomona (8, 5.2%, bratislava (6, 4.0%, copenhageni (5, 3.3% and tarassovi (4, 2.7%.

  18. Produtos de pesca e contaminantes químicos na água da Represa Billings, São Paulo (Brasil Fishing yield and chemical contamination of the water of the Billings Reservoir, S. Paulo (Brazil

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    Aristides Almeida Rocha

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available Através da análise dos surfactantes determinados pelo método colorimétrico com azul de metileno, e dos metais pesados determinados por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica, como o cádmio, chumbo, cobre, cromo, mercúrio e zinco, foi caracterizada a poluição na Represa Billings, SP (Brasil, enfatizando a qualidade sanitária da água e a contaminação dos peixes. Com base nos dados coligidos, é mostrado o perigo potencial que representa o consumo do pescado proveniente da Billings, se bem que a pesca comercial esteja hoje praticamente restrita às cabeceiras dos braços dos rios Capivari e Pequeno, na junção próxima a Ribeirão Pires e nos braços dos rios Curucutu e Taquacetuba. Os dados da CEAGESP - Companhia de Entreposto de Armazéns Gerais do Estado de São Paulo - indicam que, no ano de 1980, apenas 64 toneladas de peixe provieram de São Bernardo do Campo.Data on detergents and heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, copper, chromium, mercury and zinc are used in order to estimate pollution and sanitary quality of water as well as contamination of fish from Billings Reservoir, SP, Brazil. The results of this work are a warning with regard to the potential risk of human consumption of fish from that Reservoir, even though commercial fishing is now practically restricted to the riverheads of the affluents of the rivers Capivari and Pequeno near Ribeirão Pires and along the rivers Curucutu and Taquacetuba. Data from CEAGESP (Companhia de Entreposto de Armazéns Gerais do Estado de São Paulo show that in 1980 only 64 tons of fish came from S. Bernardo do Campo.

  19. Detecção e tratamento de pacientes amblíopes na cidade de São Paulo, SP (Brasil Detection and treatment of amblyopic patients in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Samir Jacob Bechara

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados retrospectivamente cem pacientes amblíopes de uma clínica particular na cidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil, escolhidos aleatoriamente, com idades variando de 3 a 48 anos. Foram pesquisados: idade de detecção, meio de detecção, idade de início do tratamento e regularidade do retorno ao consultório. A maior parte dos casos (65% foi detectada antes dos 7 anos de idade e dentre estes, somente 10,8% iniciaram tratamento após os 8 anos de idade. Entre aqueles que iniciaram antes dos 7 anos de idade, 44,8% retornaram irregularmente ou não retornaram. A ambliopia foi detectada predominantemente pelos pais ou pelo oftalmologista, e raramente pelo pediatra ou na escola. Os autores discutem estas observações e propõem recomendações para melhorar os resultados terapêuticos na ambliopia.This report presents retrospective data concerning 100 amblyopic patients in São Paulo, Brazil, including: the age of detection, means of detection, age in which therapy was started and follow-up of the patients. Even though most of the cases (65% had been detected before the age of 7 years, 10.8% of them started the therapy only after 8 years of age, when the treatment of amblyopia may not be so successful. Among the patients who started their therapy before the age of 7 years, 44.8% of them returned only irregularly or didn't return at all. The amblyopia was detected, in the majority of cases, by the parents or the ophthalmologist, and rarely by the pediatrician or at school. The authors discuss such observations, and propose some ways ot improve the therapeutic results in amblyopia.

  20. Alguns grupos de microrganismos em manteigas vendidas no município de São Paulo Microorganism groups found in butter sold in the City of S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Stelito Assis dos Reis Filho

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram colhidas 105 amostras de manteiga de 5 marcas diferentes vendidas em supermercados da cidade de São Paulo (Brasil com a finalidade de verificar as condições microbiológicas de manteigas e compará-las com os padrões recomendados. Semanalmente foi colhida uma amostra de cada marca, durante 21 semanas. A partir da parte aquosa de cada amostra, foram realizadas as contagens de bactérias mesófilas e psicrófilas (em ágar padrão e ágar gelisato, coliformes, proteolíticas e de bolores e leveduras e os resultados comparados com alguns parâmetros propostos por vários pesquisadores. Os valores obtidos nas contagens dos vários grupos de microrganismos estudados, em muitos casos podem ser considerados altos, os quais podem ser resultado do processamento e/ou conservação, realizados em condições não satisfatórias.One hundred and five samples of five different brands of butter in the supermarkets of the City of S. Paulo, Brazil were brought in for testing every week for 21 weeks. From the aqueous phase, counts were made for mesophilic and psichrophilic (using the standard plate count, agar and gelysate agar, coliform, proteolytic, and lipolytic bacteria, as well as for yeasts and molds. Results were compared with parameters proposed by several researchers. In many cases, the count values can be considered high, but these high counts may be due to inadequate processing and/or inadequate storage.

  1. AVAILABILITY OF WATER RESOURCES OF PIRACICABA RIVER BASIN, SAO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL = DISPONIBILIDADE HÍDRICA DA BACIA DO RIO PIRACICABA, ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO, BRASIL

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    Gabriela de Paula

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the water availability of the Piracicaba river basin, comparing water consumption data, both actual and future, with the analyses of outflows (monthly average, minimum and maximum figures from the existing DAEE/CTH monitoring program. Extensive analysis was carried out of existing information, both in relation to consumption as well as of user profile, in scientific publications, technical reports, and water availability plans and the information was brought up-to-date with the help of the relevant government regulatory bodies and interviews with consumers. The Piracicaba river basin has a drainage area of 12,400 Km2, of which 90% is situated in the State of Sao Paulo, with the remaining 10% being in the States of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. The Piracicaba river basin’s population comes to a total of 3.1 million people (SEADE 1998. The average water availability in the basin is 165m3/s, dropping to 40 m3/s in periods of drought. The Cantareira System, which carries the waters of the basin to Sao Paulo’s Metropolitan Region, has not been maintaining the minimum outflow (40m3/s established for the Piracicaba River. Urban usage (11.2 m3/s and industrial usage (9.9 m3/s account for 81% of the water consumption in the Piracicaba Basin, while usage for irrigation purposes represents a further 19% (25m3/s. There is a trend towards stabilization in terms of industrial consumption and growth in urban consumption (+2% per year and in consumption for irrigation purposes (+1.34% per year, resulting in a yearly increase in demand of 0.35 m3/s. An examination of river surface discharge levels suggests that the Jaguari river sub basin has the highest discharge values available, 23.4 m3/s. During just 13% of the year, this river does not have a sufficient level of discharge to maintain an outflow rate of 40m3/s in the Piracicaba river, near the city bearing the same name. = O presente artigo visa avaliar a

  2. Algumas perspectivas para análise da gestão da saúde no estado de São Paulo (Brasil Some perspectives for the analysis of health management in São Paulo State (Brazil

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    Regina Célia Ermel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo visa refletir sobre as reformas efetuadas na Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo (SES ante as propostas teóricas de gestão. Realizou-se uma breve pesquisa bibliográfica, na base de dados Lilacs e Scielo. Selecionaram-se 22 fontes bibliográficas pertencentes ao período de 1993 a 2007. Os resultados mostraram que as principais tendências no que concerne à administração pública gerencial são representadas pela separação entre funções políticas e administrativas, distinção entre atividades exclusivas de estado das que podem ser realizadas por outros agentes, ênfase do controle dos procedimentos para controle dos produtos, atribuição clara de resultados, definição de formas de prestação de contas, governabilidade e governança. Concluiu-se que a redefinição e o direcionamento das diversas funções de gestão da SES possibilitaram a continuidade dos processos de descentralização com o intuito de que a cobertura das ações de saúde fosse ampliada diminuindo as desigualdades de atenção e promovendo a equidade nos processos de saúde através de uma gestão articulada entre o estado e os municípios.The current study aims to reflect the changes made in Secretaria do Estado da Saúde de São Paulo (SES (São Paulo's Health State Secretariat, Brazil related to the theoretical management proposals. A brief bibliography research was done, in Lilacs and Scielo databases. Twenty two bibliography sources from the period of 1993 to 2007 were selected. The results have shown that the main trends in the management of public administration are represented by the separation between the political and administrative functions, distinction between state exclusive activities from the ones that can be accomplished by other workers, emphasis of procedure control to product control, clear result attribution, definition of rendering account forms, governability and governing. It has been concluded that the

  3. Occurrence of Theileria equi in horses raised in the Jaboticabal microregion, São Paulo State, Brazil Ocorrência de Theileria equi em equinos criados na microrregião de Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Cristiane Divan Baldani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood and serum samples from 170 horses raised in the Jaboticabal microregion, São Paulo State, Brazil, were collected and tested by microscopic examination of blood smears, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR for Theileria equi infections. The association among the test results was verified by the McNemar test. During the examination of thin blood smears, parasites were detected in six (3.52% horses. Anti-T. equi antibodies were detected in 100% sera samples, with titers ranging between 1:80 and 1:5120. The nPCR based on the T. equi merozoite antigen gene (EMA-1 allowed the visualization of specie-specific amplified product in 108 (63.53% horses. All six samples judged positive microscopically were also positive for nPCR. Statistical analysis indicated general disagreement (p Amostras de sangue e soro de 170 equinos criados na microrregião de Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, foram coletadas e avaliadas pelo exame direto em esfregaço sanguíneo, reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI e nested reação em cadeia da polimerase (nPCR para a detecção de infecções por Theileria equi. A concordância dos resultados entre os testes de diagnóstico foi verificada pelo teste de McNemar. Durante o exame dos esfregaços sanguíneos, parasitos foram detectados em seis (3,52% equinos. Anticorpos anti-T. equi foram detectados em 100% das amostras de soros, com títulos variando entre 1:80 e 1:5120. O nPCR, baseado na sequência do gene do antígeno de merozoíto de T. equi (EMA-1, permitiu a visualização de produtos de amplificação espécie-específico em 108 (63,53% equinos. Houve diferença altamente significativa (p < 0,0001 entre RIFI e nPCR; RIFI e esfregaço sanguíneo; e nPCR e esfregaço na detecção do parasito. O resultado do presente estudo indica que a infecção por T. equi está amplamente distribuída entre os equinos na microrregião de Jaboticabal, região Nordeste

  4. Consumo alimentar de vitaminas e minerais em adultos residentes em área metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil Vitamin and mineral intake of adults resident in an area of metropolitan S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Gustavo Velásquez-Meléndez

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Propôs-se calcular a composição quantitativa e a densidade nutricional de vitaminas e sais minerais da dieta habitual, em relação ao sexo e idade, em população de adultos residentes no Município de Cotia, Estado de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foi realizado inquérito através do histórico alimentar em população de adultos residentes em área metropolitana de São Paulo, Município de Cotia. A partir de uma subamostra de 548 indivíduos, com idades compreendidas entre 20 e 88 anos. Foi calc