WorldWideScience

Sample records for san joaquin kit

  1. Climate change and other stressors change modeled population size and hybridization potential for San Joaquin kit fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    The San Joaquin kit fox was once widely distributed across the southern San Joaquin Valley, but agriculture and development have replaced much of the endangered subspecies’ habitat. We modeled impacts of climate change, land-use change, and rodenticide exposure on kit fox p...

  2. Analysis of the Causes of a Decline in the San Joaquin Kit Fox Population on the Elk Hills, Naval Petroleum Reserve #1, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing the availability of the final report, Analysis of the Causes of a Decline in the San Joaquin Kit Fox Population on the Elk Hills, Naval Petroleum Reserve #1, California. This report describes a causal assessment of the decline in the abundance of San Joaq...

  3. Blood characteristics of San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standley, W.G.; McCue, P.M.

    1992-09-01

    Hematology, serum chemistry, and prevalence of antibodies against selected, pathogens in a San Joaquin kit fox population (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California, in 1989 and 1990. Samples from 18 (10 female, 8 male) adult kit foxes were used to establish normal hematology and serum chemistry values for this population. Average values were all within the normal ranges reported for kit foxes in other locations. Three hematology parameters had significant differences between male and female values; males had higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts, and lower lymphocyte counts. There were no significant differences between serum chemistry values from male and female foxes. Prevalence of antibodies was determined from serum samples from 47 (26 female, 21 male) adult kit foxes and eight (4 female, 4 male) juveniles. Antibodies were detected against five of the eight pathogens tested: canine parvovirus, Toxoplasma gondii Leptospira interrogans, canine distemper virus, and canine hepatitis virus. Antibodies were not detected against Brucella, canis, Coccidioides immitis, or Yersinia pestis.

  4. Reproduction of the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) on Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, K.A.; Berry, W.H.; Standley, W.G.; O'Farrell, T.P.

    1992-09-01

    The reproduction of a San Joaquin kit fox population (Vulpes velox macrotis) was investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California, from November 1988 through September 1991. Of 38 vixens radiocollared prior to parturition, 12 (32%) were successful in raising pups from conception to the point where pups were observed above ground. No yearling vixens were known tb be reproductively active. The mean litter size during 1989 - 1991 was 3.0 (n = 21, SE = 0.28) and ranged from one to six pups. Both the proportion of vixens successfully raising pups and the mean litter size observed at Camp Roberts during this study were lower than those reported at other locations. Sex ratios of kit fox pups were male biased two of the three years, but did not differ statistically from 1:1 throughout the study. Whelping was estimated to occur between February 15 and March 5. Results of this study support previous reports that kit foxes are primarily monogamous, although one case of polygamy may have occurred. Both the proportion of dispersing radiocollared juveniles (26%) and the mean dispersal distance (5.9 km) of juveniles at Camp Roberts appeared low compared to other locations

  5. Riparian Habitat - San Joaquin River

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The immediate focus of this study is to identify, describe and map the extent and diversity of riparian habitats found along the main stem of the San Joaquin River,...

  6. Serologic survey for disease in endangered San Joaquin kit fox, Vulpes macrotis mutica, inhabiting the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve, Kern County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCue, P.M.; O' Farrell, T.P.

    1986-07-01

    Serum from endangered San Joaquin kit foxes, Vulpes macrotis mutica, and sympatric wildlife inhabiting the Elk Hills Petroleum Reserve, Kern County, and Elkhorn Plain, San Luis Obispo County, California, was collected in 1981 to 1982 and 1984, and tested for antibodies against 10 infectious disease pathogens. Proportions of kit fox sera containing antibodies against diseases were: canine parvovirus, 100% in 1981 to 1982 and 67% in 1984; infectious canine hepatitis, 6% in 1981 to 1982 and 21% in 1984; canine distemper, 0 in 1981 to 1982 and 14% in 1984; tularemia, 8% in 1981 to 1982 and 31% in 1984; Brucella abortus, 8% in 1981 to 1982 and 3% in 1984; Brucella canis, 14% in 1981 to 1982 and 0 in 1984; toxoplasmosis, 6% in 1981 to 1982; coccidioidomycosis, 3% in 1981 to 1982; and plague and leptospirosis, 0 in 1981 to 1982. High population density, overlapping home ranges, ability to disperse great distances, and infestation by ectoparasites were cited as possible factors in the transmission and maintenance of these diseases in kit fox populations.

  7. Effects of military-authorized activities on the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, W.H.; Standley, W.G.; O`Farrell, T.P.; Kato, T.T.

    1992-10-01

    The effects of military-authorized activities on San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site from 1988 to 1991. Military-authorized activities included military training exercises, facilities maintenance, new construction, controlled burning, livestock grazing, and public-access hunting. Positive effects of the military included habitat preservation, preactivity surveys, and natural resources management practices designed to conserve kit foxes and their habitat. Perceived negative effects such as entrapment in dens, shootings during military exercises, and accidental poisoning were not observed. Foxes were observed in areas being used simultaneously by military units. Authorized activities were known to have caused the deaths of three of 52 radiocollared foxes recovered dead: one became entangled in concertina wire, one was believed shot by a hunter, and one was struck by a vehicle. Entanglement in communication wire may have contributed to the death of another radiocollared fox that was killed by a predator. Approximately 10% of kit fox dens encountered showed evidence of vehicle traffic, but denning sites did not appear to be a limiting factor for kit foxes.

  8. Results of analyses of fur samples from the San Joaquin Kit Fox and associated soil and water samples from the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Tupman, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II; Rosen, A.E.; Beauchamp, J.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Kato, T.T. (EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether analysis of the elemental content of fur from San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and of water and soil from kit fox habitats could be used to make inferences concerning the cause of an observed decline in the kit fox population on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Fur samples that had been collected previously from NPR-1, another oil field (NPR-2), and two sites with no oil development were subjected to neutron activation analysis. In addition, soil samples were collected from the home ranges of individual foxes from undisturbed portions of major soil types on NPR-1 and from wastewater samples were collected from tanks and sumps and subjected to neutron activation analysis. Most elemental concentrations in fur were highest at Camp Roberts and lowest on the undeveloped portions of NPR-I. Fur concentrations were intermediate on the developed oil fields but were correlated with percent disturbance and with number of wells on NPR-1 and NPR-2. The fact that most elements covaried across the range of sites suggests that some pervasive source such as soil was responsible. However, fur concentrations were not correlated with soft concentrations. The kit foxes on the developed portion of NPR-1 did not have concentrations of elements in fur relative to other sites that would account for the population decline in the early 1980s. The oil-related elements As, Ba, and V were elevated in fox fur from oil fields, but only As was sufficiently elevated to suggest a risk of toxicity in individual foxes. However, arsenic concentrations suggestive of sublethal toxicity were found in only 0.56% of foxes from developed oil fields, too few to account for a population decline.

  9. San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Center, located at the University of California-Davis, researchers will investigate the properties of particles that...

  10. Paleohydrogeology of the San Joaquin basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.M.; Garven, G.; Boles, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Mass transport can have a significant effect on chemical diagenetic processes in sedimentary basins. This paper presents results from the first part of a study that was designed to explore the role of an evolving hydrodynamic system in driving mass transport and chemical diagenesis, using the San Joaquin basin of California as a field area. We use coupled hydrogeologic models to establish the paleohydrogeology, thermal history, and behavior of nonreactive solutes in the basin. These models rely on extensive geological information and account for variable-density fluid flow, heat transport, solute transport, tectonic uplift, sediment compaction, and clay dehydration. In our numerical simulations, tectonic uplift and ocean regression led to large-scale changes in fluid flow and composition by strengthening topography-driven fluid flow and allowing deep influx of fresh ground water in the San Joaquin basin. Sediment compaction due to rapid deposition created moderate overpressures, leading to upward flow from depth. The unusual distribution of salinity in the basin reflects influx of fresh ground water to depths of as much as 2 km and dilution of saline fluids by dehydration reactions at depths greater than ???2.5 km. Simulations projecting the future salinity of the basin show marine salinities persisting for more than 10 m.y. after ocean regression. Results also show a change from topography-to compaction-driven flow in the Stevens Sandstone at ca. 5 Ma that coincides with an observed change in the diagenetic sequence. Results of this investigation provide a framework for future hydrologic research exploring the link between fluid flow and diagenesis.

  11. 76 FR 5276 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the... protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen dioxide...

  12. 76 FR 52623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... respiratory and cardiovascular disease, decreased lung function, visibility impairment, and damage to... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of...

  13. 75 FR 28509 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ..., aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease, decreased lung function, visibility impairment, and... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of...

  14. 76 FR 37044 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... premature mortality, aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease, decreased lung function... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of...

  15. Geological literature on the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, J.C.; Trollman, W.M.; Denman, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    The following list of references includes most of the geological literature on the San Joaquin Valley and vicinity in central California (see figure 1) published prior to January 1, 1973. The San Joaquin Valley comprises all or parts of 11 counties -- Alameda, Calaveras, Contra Costa, Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, and Tulare (figure 2). As a matter of convenient geographical classification the boundaries of the report area have been drawn along county lines, and to include San Benito and Santa Clara Counties on the west and Mariposa and Tuolumne Counties on the east. Therefore, this list of geological literature includes some publications on the Diablo and Temblor Ranges on the west, the Tehachapi Mountains and Mojave Desert on the south, and the Sierra Nevada Foothills and Mountains on the east.

  16. 76 FR 45212 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... proposing to approve San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Rule 3170... the environment. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District SJVUAPCD is an extreme...

  17. Modeling pesticide loadings from the San Joaquin watershed into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Zhang, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is an ecologically rich, hydrologically complex area that serves as the hub of California's water supply. However, pesticides have been routinely detected in the Delta waterways, with concentrations exceeding the benchmark for the protection of aquatic life. Pesticide loadings into the Delta are partially attributed to the San Joaquin watershed, a highly productive agricultural watershed located upstream. Therefore, this study aims to simulate pesticide loadings to the Delta by applying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to the San Joaquin watershed, under the support of the USDA-ARS Delta Area-Wide Pest Management Program. Pesticide use patterns in the San Joaquin watershed were characterized by combining the California Pesticide Use Reporting (PUR) database and GIS analysis. Sensitivity/uncertainty analyses and multi-site calibration were performed in the simulation of stream flow, sediment, and pesticide loads along the San Joaquin River. Model performance was evaluated using a combination of graphic and quantitative measures. Preliminary results indicated that stream flow was satisfactorily simulated along the San Joaquin River and the major eastern tributaries, whereas stream flow was less accurately simulated in the western tributaries, which are ephemeral small streams that peak during winter storm events and are mainly fed by irrigation return flow during the growing season. The most sensitive parameters to stream flow were CN2, SOL_AWC, HRU_SLP, SLSUBBSN, SLSOIL, GWQMN and GW_REVAP. Regionalization of parameters is important as the sensitivity of parameters vary significantly spatially. In terms of evaluation metric, NSE tended to overrate model performance when compared to PBIAS. Anticipated results will include (1) pesticide use pattern analysis, (2) calibration and validation of stream flow, sediment, and pesticide loads, and (3) characterization of spatial patterns and temporal trends of pesticide yield.

  18. 76 FR 9709 - Water Quality Challenges in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Water Quality Challenges in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary AGENCY... the San Francisco Bay/ Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary (Bay Delta Estuary) in California. EPA is... programs to address recent significant declines in multiple aquatic species in the Bay Delta Estuary. EPA...

  19. Timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and southern resource areas of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and Southern Resource Areas of California, which include Alpine, Amador, Calaveras, Fresno, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Los Angeles, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, Mono, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Tulare, and Tuolumne Counties. Data were collected as part...

  20. Groundwater quality in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Western San Joaquin Valley is one of the study units being evaluated. 

  1. Examining Dimethyl Sulfide Emissions in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, D.; Hughes, S.; Blake, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Dimethyl Sulfide (DMS) is a sulfur-containing compound that leads to the formation of aerosols which can lead to the formation of haze and fog. Whole air samples were collected on board the NASA C-23 Sherpa aircraft during the 2017 Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) over dairies and agricultural fields in the San Joaquin Valley. Analysis of the samples indicate average DMS concentrations of 23 ± 9 pptv, with a maximum concentration of 49 pptv. When compared with DMS concentrations from previous SARP missions (2009-2016), 2017 by far had the highest frequency of elevated DMS in this region. For this study, agricultural productivity of this region was analyzed to determine whether land use could be contributing to the elevated DMS. Top down and bottom up analysis of agriculture and dairies were used to determine emission rates of DMS in the San Joaquin Valley. Correlations to methane and ethanol were used to determine that DMS emissions were strongly linked to dairies, and resulted in R2 values of 0.61 and 0.43, respectively. These values indicate a strong correlation between dairies and DMS emissions. Combined with NOAA HySPLIT back trajectory data and analysis of ground air samples, results suggest that the contribution of dairies to annual DMS emissions in the San Joaquin Valley exceeds those from corn and alfalfa production.

  2. 75 FR 1715 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD) portion of the...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control...

  3. 78 FR 53113 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; California; San Joaquin Valley; Contingency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ...] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; California; San Joaquin Valley; Contingency Measures for... California to address Clean Air Act nonattainment area contingency measure requirements for the 1997 annual... Air Act Requirements for Contingency Measures III. Review of the Submitted San Joaquin Valley PM 2.5...

  4. 76 FR 56132 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of... did the State submit? B. Are there other versions of this rule? C. What is the purpose of the...

  5. 77 FR 214 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the... used by the California Air Resources Board and air districts for evaluating air pollution control...

  6. 76 FR 47076 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control...

  7. 76 FR 56134 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of... preempt Tribal law. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control...

  8. 75 FR 60623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approval and limited disapproval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... 30, 2008) \\2\\; and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) Rule 74.15 (as amended...

  9. 75 FR 57862 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the... section 307(b)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control...

  10. 76 FR 69135 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  11. 76 FR 56706 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

  12. Chemical analyses for selected wells in San Joaquin County and part of Contra Costa County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeter, Gail L.

    1980-01-01

    The study area of this report includes the eastern valley area of Contra Costa County and all of San Joaquin County, an area of approximately 1,600 square miles in the northern part of the San Joaquin Valley, Calif. Between December 1977 and December 1978, 1,489 wells were selectively canvassed. During May and June in 1978 and 1979, water samples were collected for chemical analysis from 321 of these wells. Field determinations of alkalinity, conductance, pH, and temperature were made, and individual constituents were analyzed. This report is the fourth in a series of baseline data reports on wells in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys. (USGS)

  13. In the San Joaquin Valley, hardly a sprinkle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holson, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    California has declared its six-year drought over, but in the San Joaquin Valley, center of the state's $18.5 billion agriculture industry, it lives on. The two weeks of strong rain this winter that swelled reservoirs and piled snow on the mountains is only trickling toward the region's nearly 20,000 farms. Federal water officials are under heavy pressure from the Environmental Protection Agency, which wants to improve water quality, and are worried about the plight of endangered fish in the Sacramento River. So, on March 12 they announced they will send farmers only 40% of the water allotments they got before the drought. The rest is being held against possible shortages. For the once-green valley, another year without water has brought many farmers perilously close to extinction

  14. 2007 California Department of Water Resources Topographic LiDAR: San Joaquin Delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from LIDAR flights of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta conducted during late January and February of 2007. The work was conducted under contract...

  15. 76 FR 38340 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... also harm human health and the environment by causing, among other things, premature mortality, aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease, visibility impairment, and damage to vegetation and... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...

  16. Proposed Strategy for San Joaquin River Basin Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Proposed Strategy for San Joaquin River Basin Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment was published in 2010, and a Strawman Proposal was developed in 2012 by the Coalition for Urban/Rural Environmental Stewardship, California Water Resources Board, EPA.

  17. Modeling pesticide diuron loading from the San Joaquin watershed into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta using SWAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huajin; Luo, Yuzhou; Potter, Christopher; Moran, Patrick J; Grieneisen, Michael L; Zhang, Minghua

    2017-09-15

    Quantifying pesticide loading into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of northern California is critical for water quality management in the region, and potentially useful for biological weed control planning. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to model streamflow, sediment, and pesticide diuron loading in the San Joaquin watershed, a major contributing area to the elevated pesticide levels in the downstream Delta. The Sequential Uncertainty Fitting version 2 (SUFI-2) algorithm was employed to perform calibration and uncertainty analysis. A combination of performance measures (PMs) and standardized performance evaluation criteria (PEC) was applied to evaluate model performance, while prediction uncertainty was quantified by 95% prediction uncertainty band (95PPU). Results showed that streamflow simulation was at least "satisfactory" at most stations, with more than 50% of the observed data bracketed by the 95PPU. Sediment simulation was rated as at least "satisfactory" based on two PMs, and diuron simulation was judged as "good" by all PMs. The 95PPU of sediment and diuron bracketed about 40% and 30% of the observed data, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between the diuron loads, and precipitation, streamflow, and the current and antecedent pesticide use. Results also showed that the majority (>70%) of agricultural diuron was transported during winter months, when direct exposure of biocontrol agents to diuron runoff is limited. However, exposure in the dry season could be a concern because diuron is relatively persistent in aquatic system. This study not only provides valuable information for the development of biological weed control plan in the Delta, but also serves as a foundation for the continued research on calibration, evaluation, and uncertainty analysis of spatially distributed, physically based hydrologic models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 78 FR 39597 - Safety Zone; Hilton Fourth of July Fireworks, San Joaquin River, Venice Island, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Zone; Hilton Fourth of July Fireworks, San Joaquin River, Venice Island, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Hilton Fourth of July Fireworks in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility...'' W (NAD83) for the Hilton Fourth of July Fireworks in 33 CFR 165.1191, Table 1, Item number 17. This...

  19. 76 FR 59254 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... on a proposed approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control...

  20. 76 FR 56116 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... on a proposed approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental...

  1. 76 FR 56114 - Interim Final Determination to Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Determination to Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... on a proposed approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental...

  2. Isotopic Evidence of Nitrate Sources and its Relationship to Algae in the San Joaquin River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S. R.; Kendall, C.; Young, M. B.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Borglin, S. E.; Kratzer, C. R.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Schmidt, C.; Rollog, M. E.

    2007-12-01

    Many competing demands have been placed on the San Joaquin River including deep water shipping, use as agricultural and drinking water, transport of agricultural and urban runoff, and recreation. These long-established demands limit the management options and increase the importance of understanding the river dynamics. The relationships among sources of water, nitrate, and algae in the San Joaquin River must be understood before management decisions can be made to optimize aquatic health. Isotopic analyses of water samples collected along the San Joaquin River in 2005-2007 have proven useful in assessing these relationships: sources of nitrate, the productivity of the San Joaquin River, and the relationship between nitrate and algae in the river. The San Joaquin River receives water locally from wetlands and agricultural return flow, and from three relatively large tributaries whose headwaters are in the Sierra Nevada. The lowest nitrate concentrations occur during periods of high flow when the proportion of water from the Sierra Nevada is relatively large, reflecting the effect of dilution from the big tributaries and indicating that a large fraction of the nitrate is of local origin. Nitrogen isotopes of nitrate in the San Joaquin River are relatively high (averaging about 12 per mil), suggesting a significant source from animal waste or sewage and/or the effects of denitrification. The d15N of nitrate varies inversely with concentration, indicating that these high isotopic values are also a local product. The d15N values of nitrate from most of the local tributaries is lower than that in the San Joaquin suggesting that nitrate from these tributaries does not account for a significant fraction of nitrate in the river. The source of the non-tributary nitrate must be either small unmeasured surface inputs or groundwater. To investigate whether groundwater might be a significant source of nitrate to the San Joaquin River, groundwater samples are being collected

  3. Vertebrate fauna of the San Joaquin Experimental Range, California: a checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas F. Newman; Don A. Duncan

    1973-01-01

    This report updates an earlier checklist, published in 1955, of vertebrate fauna found on the San Joaquin Experimental Range, in Madera County, California. Nineteen new species have been recorded since 1955. This report records the occurrences of seven fish, eight amphibians, 19 reptiles, 38 mammals, and 149 buds. References to research on individual species are...

  4. 77 FR 745 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0547; FRL-9480-1] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Correction In rule document 2011-33660 appearing on pages 214-217 in the issue of Wednesday, January 4, 2012, make the following corrections...

  5. The "Roar of Chatter" in the Library at San Joaquin Delta College. Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard B.

    Quiet signs and verbal cautioning by library staff do not decrease library noise levels as revealed by two tests using sound measuring equipment at San Joaquin Delta College. The levels in fact increased, confirming previous opinions that signs and staff intervention have little effect on patron behavior. Test methods, data, and five references…

  6. 76 FR 35167 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0312; FRL-9319-8] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations...

  7. Proposed Approval of California Air Plan Revision; San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District; Reasonably Available Control Technology Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA isproposing to approve revisions to the SJVUAPCD portion of the California SIP applying to the San Joaquin Valley of California concerning demonstration regarding RACT requirements for the 2008 8-hour ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS)

  8. 76 FR 69895 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; California; 2008 San Joaquin Valley PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... Board, 1001 I Street, Sacramento, California 95812 San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District.../reasonably available control technology demonstration, reasonable further progress demonstration, attainment... 5, 2015 and approving commitments to measures and reductions by the SJV Unified Air Pollution...

  9. 75 FR 24408 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions were proposed in the Federal Register on January 22, 2010 and concern oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from residential water heaters. We are approving a local rule that regulates this emission source under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  10. 77 FR 35327 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the manufacture of polystyrene, polyethylene, and polypropylene products. We are approving a local rule that regulates these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act). We are taking comments on this proposal and plan to follow with a final action.

  11. 77 FR 66548 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ...EPA is approving revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This action was proposed in the Federal Register on April 26, 2012 and concerns oxides of nitrogen (NOX) from solid fuel fired boilers. We are approving a local rule that regulates these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  12. 75 FR 10690 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ...EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions were proposed in the Federal Register on December 18, 2009 and concern reduction of animal matter and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from crude oil production, cutback asphalt, and petroleum solvent dry cleaning. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  13. 77 FR 24883 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern oxides of nitrogen (NOX) from solid fuel fired boilers, steam generators and process heaters. We are approving a local rule that regulates these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act). We are taking comments on this proposal and plan to follow with a final action.

  14. 77 FR 35329 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from crude oil production sumps and refinery wastewater separators. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act). We are taking comments on this proposal and plan to follow with a final action.

  15. Selenium and other elements in freshwater fishes from the irrigated San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, M.K.; Jennings, M.R.; May, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    Arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) were measured in composite whole-body samples of five fishes — bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and Sacramento blackfish (Orthodon microlepidotus) — from the San Joaquin River system to determine if concentrations were elevated from exposure to agricultural subsurface (tile) drainage. Except for Cr, the concentrations of these elements in fishes from one or more sites were elevated; however, only Se approached concentrations that may adversely affect survival, growth, or reproduction in warm water fishes. Moreover, only Se among the four measured elements exhibited a geographic (spatial) pattern that coincided with known inflows of tile drainage to the San Joaquin River and its tributaries. Historical data from the Grassland Water District (Grasslands; a region exposed to concentrated tile drainage) suggested that concentrations of Se in fishes were at maximum during or shortly after 1984 and have been slightly lower since then. The recent decline of Se concentrations in fishes from the Grasslands could be temporary if additional acreages of irrigated lands in this portion of the San Joaquin Valley must be tile-drained to protect agricultural crops from rising groundwater tables.

  16. Impacts of habitat loss, climate change and pesticide exposure on kit fox populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background / Question / Methods The San Joaquin kit fox is an endangered sub-species in decline due primarily to loss of habitat. This small, desert-adapted fox was once widely distributed across the floor of the southern San Joaquin Valley, but agriculture and development have ...

  17. Adaptive Management Methods to Protect the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Water Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David

    2016-01-01

    The California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is the hub for California's water supply, conveying water from Northern to Southern California agriculture and communities while supporting important ecosystem services, agriculture, and communities in the Delta. Changes in climate, long-term drought, water quality changes, and expansion of invasive aquatic plants threatens ecosystems, impedes ecosystem restoration, and is economically, environmentally, and sociologically detrimental to the San Francisco Bay/California Delta complex. NASA Ames Research Center and the USDA-ARS partnered with the State of California and local governments to develop science-based, adaptive-management strategies for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The project combines science, operations, and economics related to integrated management scenarios for aquatic weeds to help land and waterway managers make science-informed decisions regarding management and outcomes. The team provides a comprehensive understanding of agricultural and urban land use in the Delta and the major water sheds (San Joaquin/Sacramento) supplying the Delta and interaction with drought and climate impacts on the environment, water quality, and weed growth. The team recommends conservation and modified land-use practices and aids local Delta stakeholders in developing management strategies. New remote sensing tools have been developed to enhance ability to assess conditions, inform decision support tools, and monitor management practices. Science gaps in understanding how native and invasive plants respond to altered environmental conditions are being filled and provide critical biological response parameters for Delta-SWAT simulation modeling. Operational agencies such as the California Department of Boating and Waterways provide testing and act as initial adopter of decision support tools. Methods developed by the project can become routine land and water management tools in complex river delta systems.

  18. Dissolved pesticide concentrations entering the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, California, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, James L.; McWayne, Megan; Sanders, Corey; Hladik, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Surface-water samples were collected from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers where they enter the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey for a suite of 99 current-use pesticides and pesticide degradates. Samples were collected twice per month from May 2012 through July 2013 and from May 2012 through April 2013 at the Sacramento River at Freeport, and the San Joaquin River near Vernalis, respectively. Samples were analyzed by two separate laboratory methods by using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Method detection limits ranged from 0.9 to 10.5 nanograms per liter (ng/L). A total of 37 pesticides and degradates were detected in water samples collected during the study (18 herbicides, 11 fungicides, 7 insecticides, and 1 synergist). The most frequently detected pesticides overall were the herbicide hexazinone (detected in 100 percent of the samples); 3,4-dichloroaniline (97 percent), which is a degradate of the herbicides diuron and propanil; the fungicide azoxystrobin (83 percent); and the herbicides diuron (72 percent), simazine (66 percent), and metolachlor (64 percent). Insecticides were rarely detected during the study. Pesticide concentrations varied from below the method detection limits to 984 ng/L (hexazinone). Twenty seven pesticides and (or) degradates were detected in Sacramento River samples, and the average number of pesticides per sample was six. The most frequently detected compounds in these samples were hexazinone (detected in 100 percent of samples), 3,4-dichloroaniline (97 percent), azoxystrobin (88 percent), diuron (56 percent), and simazine (50 percent). Pesticides with the highest detected maximum concentrations in Sacramento River samples included the herbicide clomazone (670 ng/L), azoxystrobin (368 ng/L), 3,4-dichloroaniline (364 ng/L), hexazinone (130 ng/L), and propanil (110 ng/L), and all but hexazinone are primarily associated with

  19. Concept Paper for Real-Time Temperature and Water QualityManagement for San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2004-12-20

    The San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration Program (SJRRP) has recognized the potential importance of real-time monitoring and management to the success of the San Joaquin River (SJR) restoration endeavor. The first step to realizing making real-time management a reality on the middle San Joaquin River between Friant Dam and the Merced River will be the installation and operation of a network of permanent telemetered gauging stations that will allow optimization of reservoir releases made specifically for fish water temperature management. Given the limited reservoir storage volume available to the SJJRP, this functionality will allow the development of an adaptive management program, similar in concept to the VAMP though with different objectives. The virtue of this approach is that as management of the middle SJR becomes more routine, additional sensors can be added to the sensor network, initially deployed, to continue to improve conditions for anadromous fish.

  20. Characterizing Drought Impacted Soils in the San Joaquin Valley of California Using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, L. M.; Miller, D.; Roberts, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    California's San Joaquin Valley is an extremely agriculturally productive region of the country, and understanding the state of soils in this region is an important factor in maintaining this high productivity. In this study, we quantified changing soil cover during the drought and analyzed spatial changes in salinity, organic matter, and moisture using unique soil spectral characteristics. We used data from the Airborne Visible / Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) from Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) campaign flights in 2013 and 2014 over the San Joaquin Valley. A mixture model was applied to both images that identified non- photosynthetic vegetation, green vegetation, and soil cover fractions through image endmembers of each of these three classes. We optimized the spectral library used to identify these classes with Iterative Endmember Selection (IES), and the images were unmixed using Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA). Maps of soil electrical conductivity, organic matter, soil saturated moisture, and field moisture were generated for the San Joaquin Valley based on indices developed by Ben-Dor et al. [2002]. Representative polygons were chosen to quantify changes between years. Maps of spectrally distinct soils were also generated for 2013 and 2014, in order to determine the spatial distribution of these soil types as well as their temporal dynamics between years. We estimated that soil cover increased by 16% from 2013-2014. Six spectrally distinct soil types were identified for the region, and it was determined that the distribution of these soil types was not constant for most areas between 2013 and 2014. Changes in soil pH, electrical conductivity, and soil moisture were strongly tied in the region between 2013 and 2014.

  1. 75 FR 2796 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ...EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions were proposed in the Federal Register on June 16, 2009 and concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from coating of metal parts, large appliances, metal furniture, motor vehicles, mobile equipment, cans, coils, organic solvent cleaning, and storage and disposal related to such operations. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  2. 77 FR 66429 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), oxides of sulfur (SOX), and particulate matter (PM) emissions from glass melting furnaces. We are approving a local rule that regulates these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act). We are taking comments on this proposal and plan to follow with a final action.

  3. 76 FR 16696 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ...EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions were proposed in the Federal Register on November 5, 2010 and concern oxides of nitrogen (NOX), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of sulfur (SO2) and particulate matter emissions from boilers, steam generators and process heaters greater than 5.0 MMbtu/hour. We are approving a local rule that regulates these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  4. Variation in Spring Nearshore Resident Fish Species Composition and Life Histories in the Lower San Joaquin Watershed and Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry R. Brown

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Providing freshwater to human populations while protecting or rehabilitating ecosystem health is a significant challenge to water resource managers and requires accurate knowledge of aquatic resources. Previous studies of fish assemblages in the San Francisco Estuary and watershed have focused on specific habitat types, water bodies, or geographic subregions. In this study, we use seining data from two monitoring programs to provide an integrated view of spring nearshore resident fish species composition and life history characteristics in five regions: the San Joaquin River, the upper Sacramento River, the lower Sacramento River, the northern Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (North Delta, and the Interior Delta. Data for the period March-May from 1994 to 2002, showed that spring species composition of the San Joaquin River was very different from the other four regions. Total catch in the San Joaquin River was dominated by small, short-lived batch spawning alien species (93%, particularly red shiner Cyprinella lutrensis (>75% of total catch. The upper and lower Sacramento River were very similar in species composition and life history characteristics and less dominated by alien fish (

  5. Real-time management of water quality in the San Joaquin River Basin, California.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Karkoski, J.

    1997-09-01

    In the San Joaquin River Basin, California, a realtime water quality forecasting model was developed to help improve the management of saline agricultural and wetland drainage to meet water quality objectives. Predicted salt loads from the water quality forecasting model, SJRIODAY, were consistently within +- 11 percent of actual, within +- 14 percent for seven-day forecasts, and with in +- 26 percent for 14-day forecasts for the 16-month trial period. When the 48 days dominated by rainfall/runoff events were eliminated from the data set, the error bar decreased to +- 9 percent for the model and +- 11 percent and +- 17 percent for the seven-day and 14-day forecasts, respectively. Constraints on the use of the model for salinity management on the San Joaquin River include the number of entities that control or influence water quality and the lack of a centralized authority to direct their activities. The lack of real-time monitoring sensors for other primary constituents of concern, such as selenium and boron, limits the application of the model to salinity at the present time. A case study describes wetland drainage releases scheduled to coincide with high river flows and significant river assimilative capacity for salt loads.

  6. Thermal history of rocks in southern San Joaquin Valley, California: evidence from fission-track analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, N.D.; Naeser, C.W.; McCulloh, T.H.

    1990-01-01

    Fission-track analysis has been used to study the thermal and depositional history of the subsurface Tertiary sedimentary rocks on both sides of the active White Wolf reverse fault in the southern San Joaquin Valley. The distinctly different thermal histories of the rocks in the two structural blocks are clearly reflected in the apatite fission-track data, which suggest that rocks in the rapidly subsiding basin northwest of the fault have been near their present temperature for only about 1 m.y. compared with about 10 m.y. for rocks southeast of the fault. These estimates of heating time agree with previous estimates for these rocks. Zircon fission-track data indicate that the Tertiary sediments were derived from parent rocks of more than one age. However, from at least the Eocene to late Miocene or Pliocene, the major sediment source was rocks related to the youngest Sierra Nevada Mesozoic intrusive complexes, which are presently exposed east and south of the southern San Joaquin Valley. -from Authors

  7. Understanding Particulate Matter Dynamics in the San Joaquin Valley during DISCOVER-AQ, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, G.; Zhang, X.; Kim, H.; Parworth, C.; Pusede, S. E.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Cohen, R. C.; Zhang, Q.; Cappa, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Air quality in the California San Joaquin Valley (SJV) during winter continues to be the worst in the state, failing EPA's 24-hour standard for particulate matter. Despite our improved understanding of the sources of particulate matter (PM) in the valley, air-quality models are unable to predict PM concentrations accurately. We aim to characterize periods of high particulate matter concentrations in the San Joaquin Valley based on ground and airborne measurements of aerosols and gaseous pollutants, during the DISCOVER-AQ campaign, 2013. A highly instrumented aircraft flew across the SJV making three transects in a repeatable pattern, with vertical spirals over select locations. The aircraft measurements were complemented by ground measurements at these locations, with extensive chemically-speciated measurements at a ground "supersite" at Fresno. Hence, the campaign provided a comprehensive three-dimensional view of the particulate and gaseous pollutants around the valley. The vertical profiles over the different sites indicate significant variability in the concentrations and vertical distribution of PM around the valley, which are most likely driven by differences in the combined effects of emissions, chemistry and boundary layer dynamics at each site. The observations suggest that nighttime PM is dominated by surface emissions of PM from residential fuel combustion, while early morning PM is strongly influenced by mixing of low-level, above-surface, nitrate-rich layers formed from dark chemistry overnight to the surface.

  8. Sturgeon in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Watershed: New Insights to Support Conservation and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peter Klimley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2015v13iss4art1The goal of a day-long symposium on March 3, 2015, Sturgeon in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Watershed: New Insights to Support Conservation and Management, was to present new information about the physiology, behavior, and ecology of the green (Acipenser medirostris and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus to help guide enhanced management and conservation efforts within the Sacramento–San Joaquin watershed. This symposium identified current unknowns and highlighted new electronic tracking technologies and physiological techniques to address these knowledge gaps. A number of presentations, each reviewing ongoing research on the two species, was followed by a round-table discussion, in which each of the participants was asked to share recom-mendations for future research on sturgeon in the watershed. This article presents an in-depth review of the scientific information presented at the sympo-sium with a summary of recommendations for future research.

  9. Occurrence and distribution of dissolved pesticides in the San Joaquin River basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panshin, Sandra Yvonne; Dubrovsky, Neil M.; Gronberg, JoAnn M.; Domagalski, Joseph L.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of pesticide application, hydrology, and chemical and physical properties on the occurrence of pesticides in surface water in the San Joaquin River Basin, California, were examined. The study of pesticide occurrence in the highly agricultural San Joaquin?Tulare Basins is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. One hundred forty-three water samples were collected throughout 1993 from sites on the San Joaquin River and three of its tributaries: Orestimba Creek, Salt Slough, and the Merced River. Of the 83 pesticides selected for analysis in this study, 49 different compounds were detected in samples from the four sites and ranged in concentration from less than the detection limit to 20 micrograms per liter. All but one sample contained at least one pesticide, and more than 50 percent of the samples contained seven or more pesticides. Six compounds were detected in more than 50 percent of the samples: four herbicides (dacthal, EPTC, metolachlor, and simazine) and two insecticides (chlorpyrifos and diazinon). None of the measured concentrations exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water criteria, and many of the measured concentrations were very low. The concentrations of seven pesticides exceeded criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life: azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, diuron, malathion, and trifluralin. Overall, some criteria for protection of aquatic life were exceeded in a total of 97 samples. Factors affecting the spatial patterns of occurrence of the pesticides in the different subbasins included the pattern of application and hydrology. Seventy percent of pesticides with known application were detected. Overall, 40 different pesticides were detected in Orestimba Creek, 33 in Salt Slough, and 26 in the Merced River. Samples from the Merced River had a relatively low number of detections, despite the high number (35) of pesticides applied, owing to the

  10. 75 FR 71145 - San Joaquin River Restoration Program: Reach 4B, Eastside Bypass, and Mariposa Bypass Channel and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ..., Eastside Bypass, and Mariposa Bypass Channel and Structural Improvements Project, Merced County, CA AGENCY... on the effects of the proposed Reach 4B, Eastside Bypass, and Mariposa Bypass Channel and Structural... Mariposa Bypass with the San Joaquin River (generally referred to as Reach 4B1). The improvements will...

  11. Quaternary geology of Alameda County, and parts of Contra Costa, Santa Clara, San Mateo, San Francisco, Stanislaus, and San Joaquin counties, California: a digital database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helley, E.J.; Graymer, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Alameda County is located at the northern end of the Diablo Range of Central California. It is bounded on the north by the south flank of Mount Diablo, one of the highest peaks in the Bay Area, reaching an elevation of 1173 meters (3,849 ft). San Francisco Bay forms the western boundary, the San Joaquin Valley borders it on the east and an arbitrary line from the Bay into the Diablo Range forms the southern boundary. Alameda is one of the nine Bay Area counties tributary to San Francisco Bay. Most of the country is mountainous with steep rugged topography. Alameda County is covered by twenty-eight 7.5' topographic Quadrangles which are shown on the index map. The Quaternary deposits in Alameda County comprise three distinct depositional environments. One, forming a transgressive sequence of alluvial fan and fan-delta facies, is mapped in the western one-third of the county. The second, forming only alluvial fan facies, is mapped in the Livermore Valley and San Joaquin Valley in the eastern part of the county. The third, forming a combination of Eolian dune and estuarine facies, is restricted to the Alameda Island area in the northwestern corner of the county.

  12. Physical characteristics of the lower San Joaquin River, California, in relation to white sturgeon spawning habitat, 2011–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marineau, Mathieu D.; Wright, Scott A.; Whealdon-Haught, Daniel R.; Kinzel, Paul J.

    2017-07-19

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service confirmed that white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) recently spawned in the lower San Joaquin River, California. Decreases in the San Francisco Bay estuary white sturgeon population have led to an increased effort to understand their migration behavior and habitat preferences. The preferred spawning habitat of other white sturgeon (for example, those in the Columbia and Klamath Rivers) is thought to be areas that have high water velocity, deep pools, and coarse bed material. Coarse bed material (pebbles and cobbles), in particular, is important for the survival of white sturgeon eggs and larvae. Knowledge of the physical characteristics of the lower San Joaquin River can be used to preserve sturgeon spawning habitat and lead to management decisions that could help increase the San Francisco Bay estuary white sturgeon population.Between 2011 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, assessed selected reaches and tributaries of the lower river in relation to sturgeon spawning habitat by (1) describing selected spawning reaches in terms of habitat-related physical characteristics (such as water depth and velocity, channel slope, and bed material) of the lower San Joaquin River between its confluences with the Stanislaus and Merced Rivers, (2) describing variations in these physical characteristics during wet and dry years, and (3) identifying potential reasons for these variations.The lower San Joaquin River was divided into five study reaches. Although data were collected from all study reaches, three subreaches where the USFWS collected viable eggs at multiple sites in 2011–12 from Orestimba Creek to Sturgeon Bend were of special interest. Water depth and velocity were measured using two different approaches—channel cross sections and longitudinal profiles—and data were collected using an acoustic Doppler current profiler.During the first year of data collection (water

  13. Subsidence due to Excessive Groundwater Withdrawal in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, F.; Harter, T.; Sneed, M.

    2011-12-01

    Francis Corbett1, Thomas Harter1 and Michelle Sneed2 1Department of Land Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis. 2U.S. Geological Survey Western Remote Sensing and Visualization Center, Sacramento. Abstract: Groundwater development within the Central Valley of California began approximately a century ago. Water was needed to supplement limited surface water supplies for the burgeoning population and agricultural industries, especially within the arid but fertile San Joaquin Valley. Groundwater levels have recovered only partially during wet years from drought-induced lows creating long-term groundwater storage overdraft. Surface water deliveries from Federal and State sources led to a partial alleviation of these pressure head declines from the late 1960s. However, in recent decades, surface water deliveries have declined owing to increasing environmental pressures, whilst water demands have remained steady. Today, a large portion of the San Joaquin Valley population, and especially agriculture, rely upon groundwater. Groundwater levels are again rapidly declining except in wet years. There is significant concern that subsidence due to groundwater withdrawal, first observed at a large scale in the middle 20th century, will resume as groundwater resources continue to be depleted. Previous subsidence has led to problems such as infrastructure damage and flooding. To provide a support tool for groundwater management on a naval air station in the southern San Joaquin Valley (Tulare Lake Basin), a one-dimensional MODFLOW subsidence model covering the period 1925 to 2010 was developed incorporating extensive reconstruction of historical subsidence and water level data from various sources. The stratigraphy used for model input was interpreted from geophysical logs and well completion reports. Gaining good quality data proved problematic, and often values needed to be estimated. In part, this was due to the historical lack of awareness/understanding of

  14. Social Disparities in Drinking Water Quality in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, I.; Balazs, C.; Hubbard, A.; Morello-Frosch, R.

    2011-12-01

    Social Disparities in Drinking Water Quality in California's San Joaquin Valley Carolina Balazs, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Alan Hubbard and Isha Ray Little attention has been given to research on social disparities and environmental justice in access to safe drinking water in the USA. We examine the relationship between nitrate and arsenic concentrations in community water systems (CWS) and the ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics of their customers. We hypothesized that systems in the San Joaquin Valley that serve a higher proportion of minority (especially Latino) residents, and/or lower socioeconomic status (proxied by rates of home ownership) residents, have higher nitrate levels and higher arsenic levels. We used water quality monitoring datasets (1999-2001) to estimate nitrate as well as arsenic levels in CWS, and source location and Census block group data to estimate customer demographics. We found that percent Latino was associated with a .04 mg NO3/L increase in a CWS' estimated nitrate ion concentration (95% CI, -.08, .16) and rate of home ownership was associated with a .16 mg NO3/L decrease (95% CI, -.32, .002). We also found that each percent increase in home ownership rate was associated with a .30 ug As/L decrease in arsenic concentrations (pcompliance burdens in accordance with EPA standards fell most heavily on socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Selected References Cory DC, Rahman T. 2009. Environmental justice and enforcement of the safe drinking water act: The arizona arsenic experience. Ecological Economics 68: 1825-1837. Krieger N, Williams DR, Moss NE. 1997. Measuring social class in us public health research: Concepts, methodologies, and guidelines. Annual Review of Public Health 18(341-378). Moore E, Matalon E, Balazs C, Clary J, Firestone L, De Anda S, Guzman, M. 2011. The human costs of nitrate-contaminated drinking water in the San Joaquin Valley. Oakland, CA: Pacific Institute. Morello-Frosch R, Pastor M, Sadd J. 2001

  15. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the northern San Joaquin Basin, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 2,079 square mile Northern San Joaquin Basin (Northern San Joaquin) study unit was investigated from December 2004 through February 2005 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 that was passed by the State of California and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Northern San Joaquin study unit was the third study unit to be designed and sampled as part of the Priority Basin Project. Results of the study provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw (untreated) groundwater, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 61 wells in parts of Alameda, Amador, Calaveras, Contra Costa, San Joaquin, and Stanislaus Counties; 51 of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based approach to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 10 of the wells were sampled to increase spatial density and provide additional information for the evaluation of water chemistry in the study unit (understanding/flowpath wells). The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) assessed in this study are defined by the depth intervals of the wells in the California Department of Public Health database for each study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource; and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors

  16. Groundwater quality in the Madera and Chowchilla subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s untreated groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Madera and Chowchilla subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley constitute one of the study units being evaluated. The Madera-Chowchilla study unit is about 860 square miles and consists of the Madera and Chowchilla groundwater subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley Basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Shelton and others, 2009). The study unit has hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 11 to 15 inches, most of which occurs between November and February. The main surface-water features in the study unit are the San Joaquin, Fresno, and Chowchilla Rivers, and the Madera and Chowchilla canals. Land use in the study unit is about 69 percent (%) agricultural, 28% natural (mainly grasslands), and 3% urban. The primary crops are orchards and vineyards. The largest urban area is the city of Madera. The primary aquifer system is defined as those parts of the aquifer corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. In the Madera-Chowchilla study unit, these wells typically are drilled to depths between 200 and 800 feet, consist of a solid casing from land surface to a depth of about 140 to 400 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing. Water quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from that in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer system. The primary aquifer system in the study unit consists of Quaternary-age alluvial-fan and fluvial deposits that were formed by the rivers draining the Sierra Nevada. Sediments consist of gravels, sands

  17. Dissolved Pesticide Concentrations Detected in Storm-Water Runoff at Selected Sites in the San Joaquin River Basin, California, 2000-2001

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orlando, James L; Kuivila, Kathryn M; Whitehead, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    ...) and the University of California Davis Bodega Marine Laboratory (BML) water samples were collected at three sites within the San Joaquin River Basin of California and analyzed for dissolved pesticides...

  18. Data release for persistence of historical population structure in an endangered species despite near-complete biome conversion in California’s San Joaquin Desert

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The recency of large-scale land conversion in California’s San Joaquin Desert raises the probability that the region’s numerous endemic species still retain genetic...

  19. Phytoplankton Regulation in a Eutrophic Tidal River (San Joaquin River, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan D. Jassby

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available As in many U.S. estuaries, the tidal San Joaquin River exhibits elevated organic matter production that interferes with beneficial uses of the river, including fish spawning and migration. High phytoplankton biomass in the tidal river is consequently a focus of management strategies. An unusually long and comprehensive monitoring dataset enabled identification of the determinants of phytoplankton biomass. Phytoplankton carrying capacity may be set by nitrogen or phosphorus during extreme drought years but, in most years, growth rate is light-limited. The size of the annual phytoplankton bloom depends primarily on river discharge during late spring and early summer, which determines the cumulative light exposure in transit downstream. The biomass-discharge relationship has shifted over the years, for reasons as yet unknown. Water diversions from the tidal San Joaquin River also affect residence time during passage downstream and may have resulted in more than a doubling of peak concentration in some years. Dam construction and accompanying changes in storage-and-release patterns from upstream reservoirs have caused a long-term decrease in the frequency of large blooms since the early 1980s, but projected climate change favors a future increase. Only large decreases in nonpoint nutrient sources will limit phytoplankton biomass reliably. Growth rate and concentration could increase if nonpoint source management decreases mineral suspensoid load but does not decrease nutrient load sufficiently. Small changes in water storage and release patterns due to dam operation have a major influence on peak phytoplankton biomass, and offer a near-term approach for management of nuisance algal blooms.

  20. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Conflict: Strategic Insights for California's Policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazezi, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta - a major water supply source in California and a unique habitat for many native and invasive species--is on the verge of collapse due to a prolonged conflict over how to manage the Delta. There is an urgent need to expedite the resolution of this conflict because the continuation of the status quo would leave irreversible environmental consequences for the entire state. In this paper a systematic technique is proposed for providing strategic insights into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta conflict. Game theory framework is chosen to systematically analyze behavioral characteristics of decision makers as well as their options in the conflict with respect to their preferences using a formal mathematical language. The Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR), a recent game-theoretic technique, is applied to model and analyze the Delta conflict in order to better understand the options, preferences, and behavioral characteristics of the major decision makers. GMCR II as a decision support system tool based on GMCR concept is used to facilitate the analysis of the problem through a range of non-cooperative game theoretic stability definitions. Furthermore, coalition analysis is conducted to analyze the potential for forming partial coalitions among decision makers, and to investigate how forming a coalition can influence the conflict resolution process. This contribution shows that involvement of the State of California is necessary for developing an environmental-friendly resolution for the Delta conflict. It also indicates that this resolution is only achievable through improving the fragile levee systems and constructing a new water export facility.

  1. Evaluating the Aquatic Habitat Potential of Flooded Polders in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Durand

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss4art4Large tracts of land in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta are subsided due to agricultural practices, creating polders up to 10 m below sea level that are vulnerable to flooding. As protective dikes breach, these become shallow, open water habitats that will not resemble any historical state. I investigated physical and biotic drivers of novel flooded polder habitat, using a Native Species Benefit Index (NSBI to predict the nature of future Delta ecosystems. Results suggest that flooded polders in the north Delta will have the ecology and fish community composition of a tidal river plain, those in the Cache-Lindsey Complex will have that of a tidal backwater, those in the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers a brackish estuary, and those in the south Delta a fresh water lake. Flooded east-side Delta polders will likely be a transitional zone between south Delta lake-like ecosystems and north Delta tidal river plains. I compared each regional zone with the limited available literature and data on local fish assemblies to find support for NSBI predictions. Because flood probabilities and repair prioritization analyses suggest that polders in the south Delta are most likely to flood and be abandoned, without extensive intervention, much of the Delta will become a freshwater lake ecosystem, dominated by alien species. Proactive management of flooded tracts will nearly always hedge risks, save money and offer more functional habitats in the future; however, without proper immediate incentives, it will be difficult to encourage strong management practices.

  2. Executive Summary -- assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California, 2003: Chapter 1 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Scheirer, Allegra Hosford; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; French, Christopher D.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the oil and gas resource potential of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California (fig. 1.1). The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each Total Petroleum System defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock type and maturation and hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined five total petroleum systems and ten assessment units within these systems. Undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively estimated for the ten assessment units (table 1.1). In addition, the potential was estimated for further growth of reserves in existing oil fields of the San Joaquin Basin.

  3. Population Structure of Xylella fastidiosa Associated with Almond Leaf Scorch Disease in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; Islam, Md Sajedul; Cabrera-La Rosa, Juan C; Civerolo, Edwin L; Groves, Russell L

    2015-06-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes disease in many commercial crops, including almond leaf scorch (ALS) disease in susceptible almond (Prunus dulcis). In this study, genetic diversity and population structure of X. fastidiosa associated with ALS disease were evaluated. Isolates obtained from two almond orchards in Fresno and Kern County in the San Joaquin Valley of California were analyzed for two successive years. Multilocus simple-sequence repeat (SSR) analysis revealed two major genetic clusters that were associated with two host cultivars, 'Sonora' and 'Nonpareil', respectively, regardless of the year of study or location of the orchard. These relationships suggest that host cultivar selection and adaptation are major driving forces shaping ALS X. fastidiosa population structure in the San Joaquin Valley. This finding will provide insight into understanding pathogen adaptation and host selection in the context of ALS disease dynamics.

  4. Spatial trends and impairment assessment of mercury in sport fish in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melwani, A.R.; Bezalel, S.N.; Hunt, J.A.; Grenier, J.L.; Ichikawa, G.; Heim, W.; Bonnema, A.; Foe, C.; Slotton, D.G.; Davis, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    A three-year study was conducted to examine mercury in sport fish from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. More than 4000 fish from 31 species were collected and analyzed for total mercury in individual muscle filets. Largemouth bass and striped bass were the most contaminated, averaging 0.40 μg/g, while redear sunfish, bluegill and rainbow trout exhibited the lowest (<0.15 μg/g) concentrations. Spatial variation in mercury was evaluated with an analysis of covariance model, which accounted for variability due to fish size and regional hydrology. Significant regional differences in mercury were apparent in size-standardized largemouth bass, with concentrations on the Cosumnes and Mokelumne rivers significantly higher than the central and western Delta. Significant prey-predator mercury correlations were also apparent, which may explain a significant proportion of the spatial variation in the watershed. - Regional differences in sport fish mercury were found in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.

  5. Factors influencing the biogeochemistry of sedimentary carbon and phosphorus in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, E.B.; Delaney, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    This study characterizes organic carbon (Corganic) and phosphorus (P) geochemistry in surface sediments of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California. Sediment cores were collected from five sites on a sample transect from the edge of the San Francisco Bay eastward to the freshwater Consumnes River. The top 8 cm of each core were analyzed (in 1-cm intervals) for Corganic, four P fractions, and redox-sensitive trace metals (uranium and manganese). Sedimentary Corganic concentrations and Corganic:P ratios decreased, while reactive P concentrations increased moving inland in the Delta. The fraction of total P represented by organic P increased inland, while that of authigenic P was higher bayward than inland reflecting increased diagenetic alteration of organic matter toward the bayward end of the transect. The redox indicator metals are consistent with decreasing sedimentary suboxia inland. The distribution of P fractions and C:P ratios reflect the presence of relatively labile organic matter in upstream surface sediments. Sediment C and P geochemistry is influenced by site-specific particulate organic matter sources, the sorptive power of the sedimentary material present, physical forcing, and early diagenetic transformations presumably driven by Corganic oxidation. ?? 2005 Estuarine Research Federation.

  6. 77 FR 24857 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ...EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset sanctions and to defer the imposition of highway sanctions based on a proposed approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP) published elsewhere in this Federal Register. The revisions concern SJVUAPCD Rule 4352, Solid Fuel Fired Boilers, Steam Generators and Process Heaters.

  7. Concentrations and loads of suspended sediment-associated pesticides in the San Joaquin River, California and tributaries during storm events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, M.L.; Domagalski, Joseph L.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    Current-use pesticides associated with suspended sediments were measured in the San Joaquin River, California and its tributaries during two storm events in 2008. Nineteen pesticides were detected: eight herbicides, nine insecticides, one fungicide and one insecticide synergist. Concentrations for the herbicides (0.1 to 3000 ng/g; median of 6.1 ng/g) were generally greater than those for the insecticides (0.2 to 51 ng/g; median of 1.5 ng/g). Concentrations in the tributaries were usually greater than in the mainstem San Joaquin River and the west side tributaries were higher than the east side tributaries. Estimated instantaneous loads ranged from 1.3 to 320 g/day for herbicides and 0.03 to 53 g/day for insecticides. The greatest instantaneous loads came from the Merced River on the east side. Instantaneous loads were greater for the first storm of 2008 than the second storm in the tributaries while the instantaneous loads within the San Joaquin River were greater during the second storm. Pesticide detections generally reflected pesticide application, but other factors such as physical-chemical properties and timing of application were also important to pesticide loads.

  8. Technical Analysis of In-Valley Drainage Management Strategies for the Western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    The western San Joaquin Valley is one of the most productive farming areas in the United States, but salt-buildup in soils and shallow groundwater aquifers threatens this area?s productivity. Elevated selenium concentrations in soils and groundwater complicate drainage management and salt disposal. In this document, we evaluate constraints on drainage management and implications of various approaches to management considered in: *the San Luis Drainage Feature Re-Evaluation (SLDFRE) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (about 5,000 pages of documentation, including supporting technical reports and appendices); *recent conceptual plans put forward by the San Luis Unit (SLU) contractors (i.e., the SLU Plans) (about 6 pages of documentation); *approaches recommended by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (SJVDP) (1990a); and *other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) models and analysis relevant to the western San Joaquin Valley. The alternatives developed in the SLDFRE EIS and other recently proposed drainage plans (refer to appendix A for details) differ from the strategies proposed by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (1990a). The Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) in March 2007 signed a record of decision for an in-valley disposal option that would retire 194,000 acres of land, build 1,900 acres of evaporation ponds, and develop a treatment system to remove salt and selenium from drainwater. The recently proposed SLU Plans emphasize pumping drainage to the surface, storing approximately 33% in agricultural water re-use areas, treating selenium through biotechnology, enhancing the evaporation of water to concentrate salt, and identifying ultimate storage facilities for the remaining approximately 67% of waste selenium and salt. The treatment sequence of reuse, reverse osmosis, selenium bio-treatment, and enhanced solar evaporation is unprecedented and untested at the scale needed to meet plan requirements. All drainage management strategies that have been proposed

  9. Winters-Domengine Total Petroleum System—Northern Nonassociated Gas Assessment Unit of the San Joaquin Basin Province: Chapter 21 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford Scheirer, Allegra; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2008-01-01

    The Northern Nonassociated Gas Assessment Unit (AU) of the Winters-Domengine Total Petroleum System of the San Joaquin Basin Province consists of all nonassociated gas accumulations in Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene sandstones located north of township 15 South in the San Joaquin Valley. The northern San Joaquin Valley forms a northwest-southeast trending asymmetrical trough. It is filled with an alternating sequence of Cretaceous-aged sands and shales deposited on Franciscan Complex, ophiolitic, and Sierran basement. Eocene-aged strata unconformably overlie the thick Cretaceous section, and in turn are overlain unconformably by nonmarine Pliocene-Miocene sediments. Nonassociated gas accumulations have been discovered in the sands of the Panoche, Moreno, Kreyenhagen, andDomengine Formations and in the nonmarine Zilch formation of Loken (1959) (hereafter referred to as Zilch formation). Most hydrocarbon accumulations occur in low-relief, northwest-southeast trending anticlines formed chiefly by differential compaction of sediment and by northeast southwest directed compression during the Paleogene (Bartow, 1991) and in stratigraphic traps formed by pinch out of submarine fan sands against slope shales. To date, 176 billion cubic feet (BCF) of nonassociated recoverable gas has been found in fields within the assessment unit (table 21.1). A small amount of biogenic gas forms near the surface of the AU. Map boundaries of the assessment unit are shown in figures 21.1 and 21.2; in plan view, this assessment unit is identical to the Northern Area Nonassociated Gas play 1007 considered by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in its 1995 National Assessment (Beyer, 1996). The AU is bounded on the east by the mapped limits of Cretaceous sandstone reservoir rocks and on the west by the east flank of the Diablo Range. The southern limit of the AU is the southernmost occurrence of nonassociated thermogenic-gas accumulations. The northern limit of the AU corresponds to the

  10. Generation of hydrogen peroxide from San Joaquin Valley particles in a cell-free solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM and adverse health effects. One proposed mechanism of PM-mediated health effects is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS – e.g., superoxide (O2, hydrogen peroxide (HOOH, and hydroxyl radical (OH – followed by oxidative stress. There are very few quantitative, specific measures of individual ROS generated from PM, but this information would help to more quantitatively address the link between ROS and the health effects of PM. To address this gap, we quantified the generation of HOOH by PM collected at an urban (Fresno and rural (Westside site in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV of California during summer and winter from 2006 to 2009. HOOH was quantified by HPLC after extracting the PM in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS solution with or without 50 μM ascorbate (Asc. Our results show that the urban PM generally generates much more HOOH than the rural PM but that there is no apparent seasonal difference in HOOH generation. In nearly all of the samples the addition of a physiologically relevant concentration of Asc greatly enhances HOOH formation, but a few of the coarse PM samples were able to generate a considerable amount of HOOH in the absence of added Asc, indicating the presence of unknown reductants. Normalized by air volume, the fine PM (PM2.5 generally makes more HOOH than the corresponding coarse PM (PMcf, i.e., 2.5 to 10 μm, primarily because the mass concentration of PM2.5 is much higher than that of PMcf. However, normalized by PM mass, the coarse PM typically generates more HOOH than the fine PM. The amount of HOOH produced by SJV PM is reduced on average by (78 ± 15% when the transition metal chelator desferoxamine (DSF is added to the extraction solution, indicating that transition metals play a dominant role in HOOH

  11. Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) monitoring techniques in the Sacramento--San Joaquin Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    Various methods have been used to monitor the striped bass population in the Sacramento--San Joaquin Estuary. Sampling in the spring with towed plankton nets has provided an adequate description of spawning time and area, but this sampling has not adequately measured egg standing crops and larva and post-larva mortality rates. Tow-net sampling effectively measures the abundance of young in midsummer. A midwater-trawl survey is satisfactory for measuring the abundance of young in the fall but not in the winter. Techniques have not been fully evaluated for monitoring one-year-old bass. Catch-per-unit-effort data from sportfishing party boats were useful for monitoring two-year-olds, until a change in angling regulations increased recruitment age. The Petersen method and indices developed from party-boat catches are the best methods for monitoring bass that are three years old and older. Long-term trends in catch can be monitored through postcard surveys and party-boat catches

  12. Log analysis in the shallow oil sands of the San Joaquin Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohs, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    Many fields in the San Joaquin Valley of California produce oil from a depth of 2,500 ft or less. During the period of primary production in these fields, evaluation of potential pay intervals from logs was restricted to examination of ES logs and correlation. With the introduction of secondary and tertiary recovery techniques the need for more and better answers, more quickly available, became apparent. However, several log-analysis problems had to be resolved. Formation evaluation using well logs was complicated by the shaliness of the sand intervals, the low and variable salinity of the formation waters, and the presence of low-pressure-gas (depleted) zones in many of the shallow sands. Solutions to these problems have required more modern logging programs and interpretation techniques. Logs available for the evaluation of these sands are the dual induction-laterolog, the compensated formation density log, the compensated neutron log, and the microlaterolog or proximity log. With this suite of logs it is possible to determine the shale content, porosity, saturation in the flushed zone, and water saturation of the sand, and to locate the low-pressure-gas sands and depleted zones. In cases where freshwater and oil are interlayered, it is possible to tell which sands contain oil and which contain only water. Because a quick interpretation is required, wellsite techniques are called for. These will be described

  13. Conceptual model of sedimentation in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhamer, David H.; Wright, Scott A.; Drexler, Judith Z.

    2012-01-01

    Sedimentation in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta builds the Delta landscape, creates benthic and pelagic habitat, and transports sediment-associated contaminants. Here we present a conceptual model of sedimentation that includes submodels for river supply from the watershed to the Delta, regional transport within the Delta and seaward exchange, and local sedimentation in open water and marsh habitats. The model demonstrates feedback loops that affect the Delta ecosystem. Submerged and emergent marsh vegetation act as ecosystem engineers that can create a positive feedback loop by decreasing suspended sediment, increasing water column light, which in turn enables more vegetation. Sea-level rise in open water is partially countered by a negative feedback loop that increases deposition if there is a net decrease in hydrodynamic energy. Manipulation of regional sediment transport is probably the most feasible method to control suspended sediment and thus turbidity. The conceptual model is used to identify information gaps that need to be filled to develop an accurate sediment transport model.

  14. Aircraft Observations of Nitrous Oxide (N2O) in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, S.; Herrera, S.; Pusede, S.

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture is the largest source of anthropogenic nitrous oxide (N2O) in the U.S. While it is generally known which processes produce N2O, there is considerable uncertainty in controls over N2O emissions. Factors that determine N2O fluxes, such as soil properties and manure management, are highly variable in space and time, and, as a result, it has proven difficult to upscale chamber-derived soil flux measurements to regional spatial scales. Aircraft observations provide a regional picture of the N2O spatial distribution, but, because N2O is very long-lived, it is challenging to attribute measured concentrations of N2O to distinct local sources, especially over areas with complex and integrated land use. This study takes advantage of a novel aircraft N2O dataset collected onboard the low-flying, slow-moving NASA C-23 Sherpa in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California, a region with a variety of N2O sources, including dairies, feedlots, fertilized cropland, and industrial facilities. With these measurements, we link observed N2O enhancements to specific sources at sub-inventory spatial scales. We compare our results with area-weighted emission profiles obtained by integrating detailed emission inventory data, agricultural statistics, and GIS source mapping.

  15. Environmental and indoor study of Radon concentration in San Joaquin area, Queretaro, Mexico, first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinojo Alonso, N.A.; Kotsarenko, A.; Yutsis, V.; Hernandez Silva, G.; Perego, P.; Fazio, M.; Grimalsky, V.; Koshevaya, S.; Foglia, F.; Cortes Silva, A.; García Martínez, R.; Martínez Reyes, J.; Norini, G.; Groppelli, G.

    2013-01-01

    A highly contaminated zone with a maximum over 57,000 Bq/m 3 was discovered in a populated community “Agua de Venados” during the 2009–2011 soil Radon survey in San Joaquin, Queretaro State, Mexico. The indoor Radon monitoring accomplished in 2 different époques in a nearby 4 dwellings has shown an increased Radon hazard in 1 of the 4 buildings (about 300 Bq/m 3 ) during a rainy season and highly elevated indoor Radon levels (over 400 Bq/m 3 ) already in 3 buildings during a dry season. The averaged diurnal indoor Radon variations are in a correlation with the atmospheric pressure and the air humidity and are independent on the air temperature. The maximum indoor Radon hazard for dwellings is estimated for the morning interval 5–10 a.m. - Highlights: ► Emanative zone of 57,000 Bq/m 3 was found in area “Agua de Venados”. ► Indoor Radon level in a nearby dwellings elevates during a dry season. ► Maximum risk for residents was estimated during the daily interval 5–10 a.m

  16. Collaboration, Participation and Technology: The San Joaquin Valley Cumulative Health Impacts Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan K. London

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Community-university partnerships have been shown to produce significant value for both sets of partners by providing reciprocal learning opportunities, (rebuilding bonds of trust, and creating unique venues to formulate and apply research that responds to community interests and informs collaborative solutions to community problems. For such partnerships to be mutually empowering, certain design characteristics are necessary. These include mutual respect for different modes and expressions of knowledge, capacity-building for all parties, and an environment that promotes honest and constructive dialogue about the inevitable tensions associated with the interplay of power/knowledge. This article explores an innovative case of community-university partnerships through participatory action research involving a coalition of environmental justice and health advocates, the San Joaquin Valley Cumulative Health Impacts Project, and researchers affiliated with the University of California, Davis. In particular, we examine how participatory GIS and community mapping can promote co-learning and interdependent science. Keywords Community-based participatory research, environmental justice, Public Participation Geographic Information System

  17. Quantifying anthropogenic contributions to century-scale groundwater salinity changes, San Joaquin Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jeffrey; Jurgens, Bryant; Fram, Miranda S.

    2018-01-01

    Total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations in groundwater tapped for beneficial uses (drinking water, irrigation, freshwater industrial) have increased on average by about 100 mg/L over the last 100 years in the San Joaquin Valley, California (SJV). During this period land use in the SJV changed from natural vegetation and dryland agriculture to dominantly irrigated agriculture with growing urban areas. Century-scale salinity trends were evaluated by comparing TDS concentrations and major ion compositions of groundwater from wells sampled in 1910 (Historic) to data from wells sampled in 1993-2015 (Modern). TDS concentrations in subregions of the SJV, the southern (SSJV), western (WSJV), northeastern (NESJV), and southeastern (SESJV) were calculated using a cell-declustering method. TDS concentrations increased in all regions, with the greatest increases found in the SSJV and SESJV. Evaluation of the Modern data from the NESJV and SESJV found higher TDS concentrations in recently recharged (post-1950) groundwater from shallow (soil amendments combined. Bicarbonate showed the greatest increase among major ions, resulting from enhanced silicate weathering due to recharge of irrigation water enriched in CO2 during the growing season. The results of this study demonstrate that large anthropogenic changes to the hydrologic regime, like massive development of irrigated agriculture in semi-arid areas like the SJV, can cause large changes in groundwater quality on a regional scale.

  18. Improving Aquatic Plant Management in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Potter, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Management of aquatic weeds in complex watersheds and river systems present many challenges to assessment, planning and implementation of management practices for floating and submerged aquatic invasive plants. The Delta Region Areawide Aquatic Weed Project (DRAAWP), a USDA sponsored area-wide project, is working to enhance planning, decision-making and operational efficiency in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Satellite and airborne remote sensing are used map (area coverage and biomass), direct operations, and assess management impacts on plant communities. Archived satellite records going are used to review results from previous climate and management events and aide in developing long-term strategies. Modeling at local and watershed scales provides insight into land-use effects on water quality. Plant growth models informed by remote sensing are being applied spatially across the Delta to balance location and type of aquatic plant, growth response to altered environments, phenology, environmental regulations, and economics in selection of management practices. Initial utilization of remote sensing tools developed for mapping of aquatic invasive weeds improved operational efficiency by focusing limited chemical use to strategic areas with high plant-control impact and incorporating mechanical harvesting when chemical use is restricted. These assessment methods provide a comprehensive and quantitative view of aquatic invasive plants communities in the California Delta, both spatial and temporal, informed by ecological understanding with the objective of improving management and assessment effectiveness.

  19. 1995 Integrated Monitoring Study: Fog measurements in the Southern San Joaquin Valley - preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, J. Jr.; Bator, A.; Sherman, D.E. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Fogs were sampled at three ground-based stations in the southern portion of California`s San Joaquin Valley as part of the winter component of the 1995 Integrated Monitoring Study (IMS95). The three sampling sites included two urban locations (Bakersfield and Fresno) and one rural location (near the Kern Wildlife Refuge). Both bulk and drop size-fractionated samples were collected at each site. Several fog events were sampled, with three periods of extensive fog coverage that included all three sampling sites. Results of preliminary data analysis are presented. Fog collected at the sites was generally quite basic. Most bulk fog samples had pH values above 6 reflecting strong inputs from ammonia. Occasional strong sulfur plumes at Bakersfield, however, tended to lower the fog pH. Aside from these periods, nitrate was generally present at much higher concentrations in the fog than sulfate. Decreases in fogwater loadings of major species over the course of one extended fog episode at Fresno suggest significant deposition was occurring to the surface, consistent with observations of substantial droplet fluxes to exposed surfaces during that period. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. 1995 Integrated Monitoring Study: Fog measurements in the Northern San Joaquin Valley - preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, J. Jr.; Bator, A.; Sherman, D.E. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Vertical gradients in fog chemistry and physics were measured from a 430 m television broadcast tower in the northern San Joaquin Valley near Walnut Grove, California. Fog was collected on the ground and at two elevations on the tower using Caltech Active Strand Cloudwater Collectors Version 2 (CASCC2). Work was conducted as part of the 1995 Integrated Monitoring Study (IMS95). Results will be used to evaluate the need to make measurements aloft in future regional studies of fog processing of atmospheric particles and for testing whether vertically resolved fog models provide realistic simulations of fog physics and chemistry above the ground. Two fog/low cloud events were sampled during the tower study. Preliminary results show concentrations of major species in the fogwater typically decreasing with altitude, while liquid water contents increase. Fogwater loadings of major species, the total amount of a species in the aqueous phase per unit air volume, were observed to increase with altitude. Major species concentrations were typically quite stable at a given elevation, while significant decreases were observed over time in liquid water content. Fogwater concentrations of soluble hydroperoxides were highest near the surface and increased with time after sunrise and were observed to coexist in the high pH fog with S(IV). Time lapse video footage of the top of the fog/cloud layer revealed a very dynamic interface, suggesting entrainment of material from the clear air into the fog/cloud may be significant. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Agricultural pesticide use and adverse birth outcomes in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ashley E; Gaines, Steven D; Deschênes, Olivier

    2017-08-29

    Virtually all agricultural communities worldwide are exposed to agricultural pesticides. Yet, the health consequences of such exposure are poorly understood, and the scientific literature remains ambiguous. Using individual birth and demographic characteristics for over 500 000 birth observations between 1997-2011 in the agriculturally dominated San Joaquin Valley, California, we statistically investigate if residential agricultural pesticide exposure during gestation, by trimester, and by toxicity influences birth weight, gestational length, or birth abnormalities. Overall, our analysis indicates that agricultural pesticide exposure increases adverse birth outcomes by 5-9%, but only among the population exposed to very high quantities of pesticides (e.g., top 5th percentile, i.e., ~4200 kg applied over gestation). Thus, policies and interventions targeting the extreme right tail of the pesticide distribution near human habitation could largely eliminate the adverse birth outcomes associated with agricultural pesticide exposure documented in this study.The health consequences of exposure to pesticides are uncertain and subject to much debate. Here, the effect of exposure during pregnancy is investigated in an agriculturally dominated residential area, showing that an increase in adverse birth outcomes is observed with very high levels of pesticide exposure.

  2. Size, Composition, and Sources of Health Relevant Particulate Matter in the San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Walter Allan

    Particulate Matter (PM) is an environment contaminant that has been associated with adverse health effects in epidemiological and toxicological studies. Atmospheric PM is made up of a diverse array of chemical species that are emitted from multiple sources across a range of aerodynamic diameters spanning several orders of magnitude. The focus of the present work was the characterization of ambient PM with aerodynamic diameters below 1.8 mum (PM1.8) in 6 size sub-fractions including PM0.1. Chemical species measured included organic carbon, elemental carbon, water soluble ions, trace metals, and organic molecular markers in urban and rural environments in the San Joaquin Valley. These measurements were used to determine differences in relative diurnal size distributions during a severe winter stagnation event, seasonal changes in PM size and composition, and the source origin of carbonaceous PM. This size-resolved information was used to calculate lung deposition patterns of health relevant PM species to evaluate seasonal differences in PM dose. By accurately calculating PM dose, researchers are able to more directly link ambient PM characterization data with biological endpoints. All of these results are used to support ongoing toxicological health effects studies. These types of analyses are important as this type of information may assist regulators with developing control strategies to reduce health effects caused by particulate air pollution.

  3. An Overview of Multi-Dimensional Models of the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. MacWilliams

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss4art2Over the past 15 years, the development and application of multi-dimensional hydrodynamic models in San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta has transformed our ability to analyze and understand the underlying physics of the system. Initial applications of three-dimensional models focused primarily on salt intrusion, and provided a valuable resource for investigating how sea level rise and levee failures in the Delta could influence water quality in the Delta under future conditions. However, multi-dimensional models have also provided significant insights into some of the fundamental biological relationships that have shaped our thinking about the system by exploring the relationship among X2, flow, fish abundance, and the low salinity zone. Through the coupling of multi-dimensional models with wind wave and sediment transport models, it has been possible to move beyond salinity to understand how large-scale changes to the system are likely to affect sediment dynamics, and to assess the potential effects on species that rely on turbidity for habitat. Lastly, the coupling of multi-dimensional hydrodynamic models with particle tracking models has led to advances in our thinking about residence time, the retention of food organisms in the estuary, the effect of south Delta exports on larval entrainment, and the pathways and behaviors of salmonids that travel through the Delta. This paper provides an overview of these recent advances and how they have increased our understanding of the distribution and movement of fish and food organisms. The applications presented serve as a guide to the current state of the science of Delta modeling and provide examples of how we can use multi-dimensional models to predict how future Delta conditions will affect both fish and water supply.

  4. Recent research on the hydrodynamics of the Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta and north San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burau, J.R.; Monismith, S.G.; Stacey, M.T.; Oltmann, R.N.; Lacy, J.R.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    This article presents an overview of recent findings from hydrodynamic research on circulation and mixing in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta) (Figure 1) and North San Francisco Bay (North Bay) (Figure 2). For the purposes of this article, North Bay includes San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Suisun Bay. The findings presented are those gained from field studies carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the Interagency Ecological Program (IEP), and Stanford University beginning about 1993. The premise behind these studies was that a basic understanding of circulation and mixing patterns in the Bay and Delta is an essential part of understanding how biota and water quality are affected by natural hydrologic variability, water appropriation, and development activities. Data collected for the field studies described in this article have significantly improved our understanding of Bay and Delta hydrodynamics. Measured flows ,in the Delta have provided valuable information on how water moves through the Delta's network of channels and how export pumping affects flows. Studies of the shallows and shallow-channel exchange processes conducted in Honker Bay have shown that the water residence time in Honker Bay is much shorter than previously reported (on the order of hours to several tidal cycles instead ofweeks). Suisun Bay studies have provided data on hydrodynamic transport and accumulation mechanisms that operate primarily in the channels. The Suisun Bay studies have caused us to revise our understanding of residual circulation in the channels of North Bay and of "entrapment" mechanisms in the low salinity zone. Finally, detailed tidal and residual (tidally averaged) time-scale studies of the mechanisms that control gravitational circulation in the estuary show that density-driven transport in the channels is governed by turbulence time-scale (seconds) interactions between the mean flow and stratification. The hydrodynamic research

  5. Distribution and movements of female northern pintails radiotagged in San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Jarvis, Robert L.; Gilmer, David S.

    2002-01-01

    To improve understanding of northern pintail (Anas acuta) distribution in central California (CCA), we radiotagged 191 Hatch-Year (HY) and 228 After-Hatch-Year (AHY) female northern pintails during late August-early October, 1991-1993, in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) and studied their movements through March each year. Nearly all (94.3%) wintered in CCA, but 5.7% went to southern California, Mexico, or unknown areas; all that went south left before hunting season. Of the 395 radiotagged pintails that wintered in CCA, 83% flew from the SJV north to other CCA areas (i.e., Sacramento Valley [SACV], Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta [Delta], Suisun Marsh, San Francisco Bay) during September-January; most went during December. Movements coincid- ed with start of hunting seasons and were related to pintail age, mass, capture location, study year, and weather. Among pintails with less than average mass, AHY individuals tended to leave the SJV earlier than HY individuals. Weekly distribution was similar among capture locations and years but a greater percentage of pintails radiotagged in Tulare Basin (south part of SJV) were known to have (10.3% vs. 0.9%) or probably (13.8% vs. 4.6%) wintered south of CCA than pintails radiotagged in northern SJV areas (i.e., Grassland Ecological Area [EA] and Mendota Wildlife Area [WA]). Also, a greater percentage of SJV pintails went to other CCA areas before hunting season in the drought year of 1991-1992 than later years (10% vs. 3-5%). The percent of radiotagged pintails from Grass- land EA known to have gone south of CCA also was greater during 1991-1992 than later years (2% vs. 0%), but both the known (19% vs. 4%) and probable (23% vs. 12%) percent from Tulare Basin that went south was greatest during 1993-1994, when availability of flooded fields there was lowest. The probability of pintails leaving the SJV was 57% (95% CI = 8-127%) greater on days with than without rain, and more movements per bird out of SJV occurred in years

  6. Isotopic and Chemical Analysis of Nitrate Sources and Cycling in the San Joaquin River Near Stockton, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S. R.; Kendall, C.; Bemis, B.; Wankel, S.; Bergamaschi, B.; Kratzer, C.; Dileanis, P.; Erickson, D.; Avery, E.; Paxton, K.

    2002-12-01

    Fish migration through the deep-water channel in the San Joaquin River at Stockton, California is inhibited by low oxygen concentrations during the summer months. The cause for this condition appears to be stagnation and decomposition of algae with attendant oxygen consumption. Algae growth in the San Joaquin River is promoted by nutrients entering the river mainly in the form of nitrate. Possible significant sources of nitrate include soil, fertilizer from agriculture, manure from dairy operations, and N derived from municipal sewage. A 2000 CALFED pilot study investigated the sources and cycling of nitrate at four sites along the San Joaquin River upstream of Stockton using the carbon and nitrogen isotopes of total dissolved and particulate organic matter, together with hydrological measurements and various concentration data, including chlorophyll-a. The nitrate source, its relationship to phytoplankton, and the effect of the nitrate source and cycling on the N isotopic composition of dissolved and particulate organic matter were the primary concerns of the study. The d15N values of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) were used as a proxy for nitrate d15N because nitrate comprised about 90% of DON. Chlorophyll-a and C:N ratios indicated that the particulate organic matter (POM) consisted largely of plankton and therefore the d15N of POM was used as a proxy for the d15N of plankton. A tentative interpretation of the pilot study was that nitrate was a major nutrient for the plankton and the nitrate was of anthropogenic origin, possibly sewage or animal waste. To test these assumptions and interpretations, we are currently analyzing a set of samples collected in 2001. In addition to the previous sample types, a subset of samples will be measured directly for nitrate d15N to assess the validity of using d15N of DON as a proxy for nitrate.

  7. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Mt. Pinos and San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Ask any astronomer where the best stargazing site in Southern California is, and chances are they'll say Mt. Pinos. In this perspective view generated from SRTM elevation data the snow-capped peak is seen rising to an elevation of 2,692 meters (8,831 feet), in stark contrast to the flat agricultural fields of the San Joaquin valley seen in the foreground. Below the summit, but still well away from city lights, the Mt. Pinos parking lot at 2,468 meters (8,100 feet) is a popular viewing area for both amateur and professional astronomers and astro-photographers. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times.The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.Distance to Horizon: 176 kilometers (109 miles) Location: 34.83 deg. North lat., 119.25 deg. West lon. View: Toward the Southwest Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 SRTM, December 14, 1984 Landsat

  8. Processes Affecting Agricultural Drainwater Quality and Organic Carbon Loads in California's Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Deverel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available From 2000 to 2003 we quantified drain flow, drain-and ground-water chemistry and hydrogeologic conditions on Twitchell Island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The primary objective was to quantify processes affecting organic carbon concentrations and loads in agricultural drainage water. We collected physical and chemical data in southern and northern areas: TN and TS, respectively. Corn grew in both areas during the spring and summer. The peat soils in the TN area are more decomposed than those in the TS area. Results elucidate processes affecting drain flow and concentrations under varying hydrologic conditions. During May through November, groundwater flows from the permanently saturated zone to drainage ditches, and the resulting average drainage-water quality and dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentration was similar to the groundwater; the median DOC loads in the TN and TS study areas ranged from 9 to 27 g C/ha-day. The major ion chemistry and stable isotope data confirmed that groundwater was the primary source of drainflow. In contrast, during December through April the drainwater is supplied from the shallow, variably saturated soil-zone. The DOC concentrations, major-ion chemistry, and stable isotope data indicate that the shallow-zone water is partially evaporated and oxidized. Higher flows and DOC concentrations during these months result in higher median DOC loads, which ranged from 84 to 280 g C/ha-day. During December through April, increasing groundwater levels in the shallow peat layers and mobilization of organic carbon result in high drain flow and increased trihalomethane precursor concentrations and loads. On a per mass DOC basis, drain water collected during high flow periods is less likely to form THMs than during low flow periods. However, the high flows and subsequent high concentrations contribute to substantially higher trihalomethane precursor and DOC loads.

  9. Data related uncertainty in near-surface vulnerability assessments for agrochemicals in the San Joaquin Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loague, Keith; Blanke, James S; Mills, Melissa B; Diaz-Diaz, Ricardo; Corwin, Dennis L

    2012-01-01

    Precious groundwater resources across the United States have been contaminated due to decades-long nonpoint-source applications of agricultural chemicals. Assessing the impact of past, ongoing, and future chemical applications for large-scale agriculture operations is timely for designing best-management practices to prevent subsurface pollution. Presented here are the results from a series of regional-scale vulnerability assessments for the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Two relatively simple indices, the retardation and attenuation factors, are used to estimate near-surface vulnerabilities based on the chemical properties of 32 pesticides and the variability of both soil characteristics and recharge rates across the SJV. The uncertainties inherit to these assessments, derived from the uncertainties within the chemical and soil data bases, are estimated using first-order analyses. The results are used to screen and rank the chemicals based on mobility and leaching potential, without and with consideration of data-related uncertainties. Chemicals of historic high visibility in the SJV (e.g., atrazine, DBCP [dibromochloropropane], ethylene dibromide, and simazine) are ranked in the top half of those considered. Vulnerability maps generated for atrazine and DBCP, featured for their legacy status in the study area, clearly illustrate variations within and across the assessments. For example, the leaching potential is greater for DBCP than for atrazine, the leaching potential for DBCP is greater for the spatially variable recharge values than for the average recharge rate, and the leaching potentials for both DBCP and atrazine are greater for the annual recharge estimates than for the monthly recharge estimates. The data-related uncertainties identified in this study can be significant, targeting opportunities for improving future vulnerability assessments. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America

  10. Land subsidence in the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, 2007-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Michelle; Brandt, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Rapid land subsidence was recently measured using multiple methods in two areas of the San Joaquin Valley (SJV): between Merced and Fresno (El Nido), and between Fresno and Bakersfield (Pixley). Recent land-use changes and diminished surface-water availability have led to increased groundwater pumping, groundwater-level declines, and land subsidence. Differential land subsidence has reduced the flow capacity of water-conveyance systems in these areas, exacerbating flood hazards and affecting the delivery of irrigation water. Vertical land-surface changes during 2007–2014 were determined by using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS), and extensometer data. Results of the InSAR analysis indicate that about 7600 km2 subsided 50–540 mm during 2008–2010; CGPS and extensometer data indicate that these rates continued or accelerated through December 2014. The maximum InSAR-measured rate of 270 mm yr−1 occurred in the El Nido area, and is among the largest rates ever measured in the SJV. In the Pixley area, the maximum InSAR-measured rate during 2008–2010 was 90 mm yr−1. Groundwater was an important part of the water supply in both areas, and pumping increased when land use changed or when surface water was less available. This increased pumping caused groundwater-level declines to near or below historical lows during the drought periods 2007–2009 and 2012–present. Long-term groundwater-level and land-subsidence monitoring in the SJV is critical for understanding the interconnection of land use, groundwater levels, and subsidence, and evaluating management strategies that help mitigate subsidence hazards to infrastructure while optimizing water supplies.

  11. Air Pollution, Neighbourhood Socioeconomic Factors, and Neural Tube Defects in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Amy M; Yang, Wei; Carmichael, Suzan L; Tager, Ira B; Lurmann, Frederick; Hammond, S Katharine; Shaw, Gary M

    2015-11-01

    Environmental pollutants and neighbourhood socioeconomic factors have been associated with neural tube defects, but the potential impact of interaction between ambient air pollution and neighbourhood socioeconomic factors on the risks of neural tube defects is not well understood. We used data from the California Center of the National Birth Defects Study and the Children's Health and Air Pollution Study to investigate whether associations between air pollutant exposure in early gestation and neural tube defects were modified by neighbourhood socioeconomic factors in the San Joaquin Valley of California, 1997-2006. There were 5 pollutant exposures, 3 outcomes, and 9 neighbourhood socioeconomic factors included for a total of 135 investigated associations. Estimates were adjusted for maternal race-ethnicity, education, and multivitamin use. We present below odds ratios (ORs) that exclude 1 and a chi-square test of homogeneity P-value of <0.05. We observed increased odds of spina bifida comparing the highest to lowest quartile of particulate matter <10 μm (PM10 ) among those living in a neighbourhood with: (i) median household income of less than $30 000 per year [OR 5.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7, 15.3]; (ii) more than 20% living below the federal poverty level (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1, 6.0); and (iii) more than 30% with less than or equal to a high school education (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4, 7.4). The ORs were not statistically significant among those higher socioeconomic status (SES) neighbourhoods. Our results demonstrate effect modification by neighbourhood socioeconomic factors in the association of particulate matter and neural tube defects in California. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Historic, Recent, and Future Subsidence, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Deverel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To estimate and understand recent subsidence, we collected elevation and soils data on Bacon and Sherman islands in 2006 at locations of previous elevation measurements. Measured subsidence rates on Sherman Island from 1988 to 2006 averaged 1.23 cm/year (0.5 in/yr and ranged from 0.7 to 1.7 cm/year (0.3 to 0.7 in/year. Subsidence rates on Bacon Island from 1978 to 2006 averaged 2.2 cm/year (0.9 in/yr and ranged from 1.5 to 3.7 cm/year (0.6 to 1.5 in/yr. Changing land-management practices and decreasing soil organic matter content have resulted in decreasing subsidence rates. On Sherman Island, rates from 1988 to 2006 were about 35% of 1910 to 1988 rates. For Bacon Island, rates from 1978 to 2006 were about 40% less than the 1926-1958 rates. To help understand causes and estimate future subsidence, we developed a subsidence model, SUBCALC, that simulates oxidation and carbon losses, consolidation, wind erosion, and burning and changing soil organic matter content. SUBCALC results agreed well with measured land-surface elevation changes. We predicted elevation decreases from 2007 to 2050 will range from a few centimeters to over 1.3 m (4.3 ft. The largest elevation declines will occur in the central Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. From 2007 to 2050, the most probable estimated increase in volume below sea level is 349,956,000 million cubic meters (281,300 acre-feet. Consequences of this continuing subsidence include increased drainage loads of water quality constituents of concern, seepage onto islands, and decreased arability.

  13. Water savings from reduced alfalfa cropping in California's Upper San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. K.; Gray, J.

    2017-12-01

    Water and food and forage security are inextricably linked. In fact, 90% of global freshwater is consumed for food production. Food demand increases as populations grow and diets change, making water increasingly scarce. This tension is particularly acute, contentious, and popularly appreciated in California's Central Valley, which is one of the most important non-grain cropping areas in the United States. While the water-intensive production of tree nuts like almonds and pistachios has received the most popular attention, it is California's nation-leading alfalfa production that consumes the most water. Alfalfa, the "Queen of Forages" is the preferred feedstock for California's prodigious dairy industry. It is grown year-round, and single fields can be harvested more than four times a year; a practice which can require in excess of 1.5 m of irrigation water. Given the water scarcity in the region, the production of alfalfa is under increasing scrutiny with respect to long-term sustainability. However, the potential water savings associated with alternative crops, and various levels of alfalfa replacement have not been quantified. Here, we address that knowledge gap by simulating the ecohydrology of the Upper San Joaquin's cropping system under various scenarios of alfalfa crop replacement with crops of comparable economic value. Specifically, we use the SWAT model to evaluate the water savings that would be realized at 33%, 66%, and 100% alfalfa replacement with economically comparable, but more water efficient crops such as tomatoes. Our results provide an important quantification of the potential water savings under alternative cropping systems that, importantly, also addresses the economic concerns of farmers. Results like these provide critical guidance to farmers and land/water decision makers as they plan for a more sustainable and productive agricultural future.

  14. Facilitating Adaptive Management in California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Wiens

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss2art3Uncertainties in understanding ecosystems increase the risk that management will fail to achieve desired results. Adaptive management is a structured, iterative application of science-based knowledge to reduce uncertainties and build flexibility into decision-making. However, adaptive management is more easily planned than implemented, and it is only beginning to be applied in the California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. We draw from two assessments of adaptive management in the Delta and examples of its use elsewhere to suggest how the process can be facilitated. Although a highly structured adaptive-management process may not always be needed, several elements are essential. Adaptive management should begin by clearly identifying the problem, goals, and objectives; recognizing uncertainties; identifying decision points and alternative approaches; recognizing when adjustments are needed and having the flexibility to make them; and considering societal and political constraints. Model complexity should be matched to that of the system and management needs; experiments can help unravel causal relationships. Monitoring, analyses, and syntheses require comprehensive data-management systems. More frequent and organized communications among scientists, managers, stakeholders, and decision-makers are necessary. We propose the establishment of an “Adaptive Management Team” to coordinate efforts across the management spectrum of the Delta and to provide guidance and link individual projects to shared approaches and experiences. Reliable long-term support will be needed to assess results of management actions, adjust approaches where improvement is likely, and strive toward the legislated goals of enhancing the Delta ecosystem while also providing reliable water supplies to much of California, and doing both these things in a manner that protects values of the Delta as a place where people live and

  15. Levee Vertical Land Motion Changes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telling, J. W.; Brooks, B. A.; Glennie, C. L.; Ericksen, T. L.; Knowles, N.

    2017-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is home to numerous islands that provide economically and agriculturally important land. However, the island interiors are sinking and most sit below sea level, making the levee roads that surround the islands vital for their continued health and productivity. Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data over the islands was collected in 2007 by the California Department of Water Resources and mobile LiDAR data was collected along the levee roads on Bacon, Bouldin, Jersey, and Brannan-Andrus Islands in 2015 and 2016 by the USGS. These datasets provide high resolution topographic models with 8 year separation that can be used to examine topographic change along the levees. A cross-section of each dataset was output along the approximate centerline of the levee road, so that profiles of the 2007 and 2015/2016 LiDAR observations could be compared. Regions of levee road subsidence and of levee road construction and reinforcement on the order of 0-3 centimeters per year were evident in locations around the islands. There is a high degree of spatial variability of these rates even for individual islands. These results were compared to the levee road maps published by the CA Delta Stewardship Council and it was found that the regions of reinforcement and subsidence did not always align between the published maps and the LiDAR data. Additionally, the levee road heights and rates of change, in regions of road subsidence, were compared to sea level rise projections to evaluate the risk that rising sea level may pose to the islands in the future.

  16. Anthropogenic Methane Emissions in California's San Joaquin Valley: Characterizing Large Point Source Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, F. M.; Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Aubrey, A. D.; Falk, M.; Holland, L.; Hook, S. J.; Hulley, G. C.; Johnson, W. R.; Kuai, L.; Kuwayama, T.; Lin, J. C.; Thorpe, A. K.; Worden, J. R.; Lauvaux, T.; Jeong, S.; Fischer, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Methane is an important atmospheric pollutant that contributes to global warming and tropospheric ozone production. Methane mitigation could reduce near term climate change and improve air quality, but is hindered by a lack of knowledge of anthropogenic methane sources. Recent work has shown that methane emissions are not evenly distributed in space, or across emission sources, suggesting that a large fraction of anthropogenic methane comes from a few "super-emitters." We studied the distribution of super-emitters in California's southern San Joaquin Valley, where elevated levels of atmospheric CH4 have also been observed from space. Here, we define super-emitters as methane plumes that could be reliably detected (i.e., plume observed more than once in the same location) under varying wind conditions by airborne thermal infrared remote sensing. The detection limit for this technique was determined to be 4.5 kg CH4 h-1 by a controlled release experiment, corresponding to column methane enhancement at the point of emissions greater than 20% above local background levels. We surveyed a major oil production field, and an area with a high concentration of large dairies using a variety of airborne and ground-based measurements. Repeated airborne surveys (n=4) with the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer revealed 28 persistent methane plumes emanating from oil field infrastructure, including tanks, wells, and processing facilities. The likelihood that a given source type was a super-emitter varied from roughly 1/3 for processing facilities to 1/3000 for oil wells. 11 persistent plumes were detected in the dairy area, and all were associated with wet manure management. The majority (11/14) of manure lagoons in the study area were super-emitters. Comparing to a California methane emissions inventory for the surveyed areas, we estimate that super-emitters comprise a minimum of 9% of inventoried dairy emissions, and 13% of inventoried oil emissions in this region.

  17. Economic Costs and Adaptations for Alternative Regulations of California's Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy K. Tanaka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Stacy K. Tanaka, Christina R. Connell–Buck, Kaveh Madani, Josue Medellín-Azuara, Jay R. Lund, and Ellen Hanakdoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2014v9iss2art4Water exports from California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta are an environmental concern because they reduce net outflows of fresh water from the Delta, and can entrain fish and disrupt flows within the Delta. If exports were no longer pumped from within the Delta, the regulatory issue becomes one of maintaining appropriate flows into and out of the Delta. This paper presents the results of two sets of hydro-economic optimization modeling runs, which were developed to represent a range of modified Delta operations and their economic and operational effects on California’s water supply system. The first set of runs represents decreasing export capacity from the Delta. The second set increases minimum net Delta outflow (MNDO requirements. The hydro-economic model seeks the least–cost statewide water management scheme for water supply, including a wide range of resources and water management options. Results show that reducing exports or increasing MNDO requirements increase annual average statewide water scarcity, scarcity costs, and operating costs (from greater use of desalination, wastewater recycling, water treatment, and pumping. Effects of reduced exports are especially concentrated in agricultural communities in the southern Central Valley because of their loss of access to overall water supply exports and their ability to transfer remaining water to southern California. Increased outflow requirements increase water scarcity and associated costs throughout California. For an equivalent amount of average Delta outflows, statewide costs increase more rapidly when exports alone are reduced than when minimum outflow requirements are increased and effects are more widely distributed statewide.

  18. Social disparities in nitrate-contaminated drinking water in California's San Joaquin Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Carolina; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Hubbard, Alan; Ray, Isha

    2011-09-01

    Research on drinking water in the United States has rarely examined disproportionate exposures to contaminants faced by low-income and minority communities. This study analyzes the relationship between nitrate concentrations in community water systems (CWSs) and the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics of customers. We hypothesized that CWSs in California's San Joaquin Valley that serve a higher proportion of minority or residents of lower socioeconomic status have higher nitrate levels and that these disparities are greater among smaller drinking water systems. We used water quality monitoring data sets (1999-2001) to estimate nitrate levels in CWSs, and source location and census block group data to estimate customer demographics. Our linear regression model included 327 CWSs and reported robust standard errors clustered at the CWS level. Our adjusted model controlled for demographics and water system characteristics and stratified by CWS size. Percent Latino was associated with a 0.04-mg nitrate-ion (NO3)/L increase in a CWS's estimated NO3 concentration [95% confidence interval (CI), -0.08 to 0.16], and rate of home ownership was associated with a 0.16-mg NO3/L decrease (95% CI, -0.32 to 0.002). Among smaller systems, the percentage of Latinos and of homeownership was associated with an estimated increase of 0.44 mg NO3/L (95% CI, 0.03-0.84) and a decrease of 0.15 mg NO3/L (95% CI, -0.64 to 0.33), respectively. Our findings suggest that in smaller water systems, CWSs serving larger percentages of Latinos and renters receive drinking water with higher nitrate levels. This suggests an environmental inequity in drinking water quality.

  19. Social Disparities in Nitrate-Contaminated Drinking Water in California’s San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Hubbard, Alan; Ray, Isha

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research on drinking water in the United States has rarely examined disproportionate exposures to contaminants faced by low-income and minority communities. This study analyzes the relationship between nitrate concentrations in community water systems (CWSs) and the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics of customers. Objectives: We hypothesized that CWSs in California’s San Joaquin Valley that serve a higher proportion of minority or residents of lower socioeconomic status have higher nitrate levels and that these disparities are greater among smaller drinking water systems. Methods: We used water quality monitoring data sets (1999–2001) to estimate nitrate levels in CWSs, and source location and census block group data to estimate customer demographics. Our linear regression model included 327 CWSs and reported robust standard errors clustered at the CWS level. Our adjusted model controlled for demographics and water system characteristics and stratified by CWS size. Results: Percent Latino was associated with a 0.04-mg nitrate-ion (NO3)/L increase in a CWS’s estimated NO3 concentration [95% confidence interval (CI), –0.08 to 0.16], and rate of home ownership was associated with a 0.16-mg NO3/L decrease (95% CI, –0.32 to 0.002). Among smaller systems, the percentage of Latinos and of homeownership was associated with an estimated increase of 0.44 mg NO3/L (95% CI, 0.03–0.84) and a decrease of 0.15 mg NO3/L (95% CI, –0.64 to 0.33), respectively. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that in smaller water systems, CWSs serving larger percentages of Latinos and renters receive drinking water with higher nitrate levels. This suggests an environmental inequity in drinking water quality. PMID:21642046

  20. Internal acid buffering in San Joaquin Valley fog drops and its influence on aerosol processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Jeffrey L.; Hoag, Katherine J.; Rao, Xin; Pandis, Spyros N.

    Although several chemical pathways exist for S(IV) oxidation in fogs and clouds, many are self-limiting: as sulfuric acid is produced and the drop pH declines, the rates of these pathways also decline. Some of the acid that is produced can be buffered by uptake of gaseous ammonia. Additional internal buffering can result from protonation of weak and strong bases present in solution. Acid titrations of high pH fog samples (median pH=6.49) collected in California's San Joaquin Valley reveal the presence of considerable internal acid buffering. In samples collected at a rural location, the observed internal buffering could be nearly accounted for based on concentrations of ammonia and bicarbonate present in solution. In samples collected in the cities of Fresno and Bakersfield, however, significant additional, unexplained buffering was present over a pH range extending from approximately four to seven. The additional buffering was found to be associated with dissolved compounds in the fogwater. It could not be accounted for by measured concentrations of low molecular weight ( C1- C3) carboxylic acids, S(IV), phosphate, or nitrophenols. The amount of unexplained buffering in individual fog samples was found to correlate strongly with the sum of sample acetate and formate concentrations, suggesting that unmeasured organic species may be important contributors. Simulation of a Bakersfield fog episode with and without the additional, unexplained buffering revealed a significant impact on the fog chemistry. When the additional buffering was included, the simulated fog pH remained 0.3-0.7 pH units higher and the amount of sulfate present after the fog evaporated was increased by 50%. Including the additional buffering in the model simulation did not affect fogwater nitrate concentrations and was found to slightly decrease ammonium concentrations. The magnitude of the buffering effect on aqueous sulfate production is sensitive to the amount of ozone present to oxidize S

  1. Dispersion Mechanisms of a Tidal River Junction in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla T. Gleichauf

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2014v12iss4art1In branching channel networks, such as in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, junction flow dynamics contribute to dispersion of ecologically important entities such as fish, pollutants, nutrients, salt, sediment, and phytoplankton. Flow transport through a junction largely arises from velocity phasing in the form of divergent flow between junction channels for a portion of the tidal cycle. Field observations in the Georgiana Slough junction, which is composed of the North and South Mokelumne rivers, Georgiana Slough, and the Mokelumne River, show that flow phasing differences between these rivers arise from operational, riverine, and tidal forcing. A combination of Acoustic Doppler Current Profile (ADCP boat transecting and moored ADCPs over a spring–neap tidal cycle (May to  June 2012 monitored the variability of spatial and temporal velocity, respectively. Two complementary drifter studies enabled assessment of local transport through the junction to identify small-scale intrajunction dynamics. We supplemented field results with numerical simulations using the SUNTANS model to demonstrate the importance of phasing offsets for junction transport and dispersion. Different phasing of inflows to the junction resulted in scalar patchiness that is characteristic of MacVean and Stacey’s (2011 advective tidal trapping. Furthermore, we observed small-scale junction flow features including a recirculation zone and shear layer, which play an important role in intra-junction mixing over time scales shorter than the tidal cycle (i.e., super-tidal time scales. The study period spanned open- and closed-gate operations at the Delta Cross Channel. Synthesis of field observations and modeling efforts suggest that management operations related to the Delta Cross Channel can strongly affect transport in the Delta by modifying the relative contributions of tidal and riverine flows, thereby

  2. Remote Sensing Soil Salinity Map for the San Joaquin Vally, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudiero, E.; Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Soil salinization is a major natural hazard to worldwide agriculture. We present a remote imagery approach that maps salinity within a range (i.e., salinities less than 20 dS m-1, when measured as the electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract), accuracy, and resolution most relevant to agriculture. A case study is presented for the western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV), California, USA (~870,000 ha of farmland) using multi-year Landsat 7 ETM+ canopy reflectance and the Canopy Response Salinity Index (CRSI). Highly detailed salinity maps for 22 fields (542 ha) established from apparent soil electrical conductivity directed sampling were used as ground-truth (sampled in 2013), totaling over 5000 pixels (30×30 m) with salinity values in the range of 0 to 35.2 dS m-1. Multi-year maximum values of CRSI were used to model soil salinity. In addition, soil type, elevation, meteorological data, and crop type were evaluated as covariates. The fitted model (R2=0.73) was validated: i) with a spatial k-folds (i.e., leave-one-field-out) cross-validation (R2=0.61), ii) versus salinity data from three independent fields (sampled in 2013 and 2014), and iii) by determining the accuracy of the qualitative classification of white crusted land as extremely-saline soils. The effect of land use change is evaluated over 2396 ha in the Broadview Water District from a comparison of salinity mapped in 1991 with salinity predicted in 2013 from the fitted model. From 1991 to 2013 salinity increased significantly over the selected study site, bringing attention to potential negative effects on soil quality of shifting from irrigated agriculture to fallow-land. This is cause for concern since over the 3 years of California's drought (2010-2013) the fallow land in the WSJV increased from 12.7% to 21.6%, due to drastic reduction in water allocations to farmers.

  3. Bathymetric survey and digital elevation model of Little Holland Tract, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Alexander G.; Lacy, Jessica R.; Stevens, Andrew W.; Carlson, Emily M.

    2016-06-10

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a bathymetric survey in Little Holland Tract, a flooded agricultural tract, in the northern Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the “Delta”) during the summer of 2015. The new bathymetric data were combined with existing data to generate a digital elevation model (DEM) at 1-meter resolution. Little Holland Tract (LHT) was historically diked off for agricultural uses and has been tidally inundated since an accidental levee breach in 1983. Shallow tidal regions such as LHT have the potential to improve habitat quality in the Delta. The DEM of LHT was developed to support ongoing studies of habitat quality in the area and to provide a baseline for evaluating future geomorphic change. The new data comprise 138,407 linear meters of real-time-kinematic (RTK) Global Positioning System (GPS) elevation data, including both bathymetric data collected from personal watercraft and topographic elevations collected on foot at low tide. A benchmark (LHT15_b1) was established for geodetic control of the survey. Data quality was evaluated both by comparing results among surveying platforms, which showed systematic offsets of 1.6 centimeters (cm) or less, and by error propagation, which yielded a mean vertical uncertainty of 6.7 cm. Based on the DEM and time-series measurements of water depth, the mean tidal prism of LHT was determined to be 2,826,000 cubic meters. The bathymetric data and DEM are available at http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7RX9954. 

  4. GPS-seismograms reveal amplified shaking in California's San Joaquin Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, I. A.

    2014-12-01

    The March 10, 2014, the Mw6.8 Ferndale earthquake occurred off the coast of Northern California, near the Mendocino Triple Junction. Aftershocks suggest a northeast striking fault plane for the strike-slip earthquake, oriented such that the California coast is roughly perpendicular to the rupture plane. Consequently, large amplitude Love waves were observed at seismic stations and continuous GPS stations throughout Northern California. While GPS is less sensitive then broadband instruments, in Northern California their station density is much higher, potentially providing valuable detail. A total of 269 GPS stations that have high-rate (1 sps) data available were used to generate GPS-seismograms. These include stations from the Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO, operated by UNAVCO), and the USGS, Menlo Park. The Track software package was used to generate relative displacements between pairs of stations, determined using Delaunay triangulation. This network-based approach allows for higher precision than absolute positioning, because common noise sources, in particular atmospheric noise, are cancelled out. A simple least-squares network adjustment with a stable centroid constraint is performed to transform the mesh of relative motions into absolute motions at individual GPS stations. This approach to generating GPS-seismograms is validated by the good agreement between time series records at 16 BARD stations that are co-located with broadband seismometers from the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN). While the distribution of peak dynamic displacements is dominated in long periods by the radiation pattern, at shorter periods other patterns become visible. In particular, stations in the San Joaquin Delta (SJD) region show higher peak dynamic displacements than those in surrounding areas, as well as longer duration shaking. SJD stations also have higher dynamic displacements on the radial component than surrounding

  5. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Madera–Chowchilla and Kings subbasins, San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2018-01-08

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Program’s Priority Basin Project assesses the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Many households and small communities in the Madera– Chowchilla and Kings subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley rely on private domestic wells for their drinking-water supplies.

  6. Assessment of interim flow water-quality data of the San Joaquin River restoration program and implications for fishes, California, 2009-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Marissa L.; Brown, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    After more than 50 years of extensive water diversion for urban and agriculture use, a major settlement was reached among the U.S. Departments of the Interior and Commerce, the Natural Resources Defense Council, and the Friant Water Users Authority in an effort to restore the San Joaquin River. The settlement received Federal court approval in October 2006 and established the San Joaquin River Restoration Program, a multi-agency collaboration between State and Federal agencies to restore and maintain fish populations, including Chinook salmon, in the main stem of the river between Friant Dam and the confluence with the Merced River. This is to be done while avoiding or minimizing adverse water supply effects to all of the Friant Division contractors that could result from restoration flows required by the settlement. The settlement stipulates that water- and sediment-quality data be collected to help assess the restoration goals. This report summarizes and evaluates water-quality data collected in the main stem of the San Joaquin River between Friant Dam and the Merced River by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for the San Joaquin River Restoration Program during 2009-11. This summary and assessment consider sampling frequency for adequate characterization of variability, sampling locations for sufficient characterization of the San Joaquin River Restoration Program restoration reach, sampling methods for appropriate media (water and sediment), and constituent reporting limits. After reviewing the water- and sediment-quality results for the San Joaquin River Restoration Program, several suggestions were made to the Fisheries Management Work Group, a division of the San Joaquin River Restoration Program that focuses solely on the reintroduction strategies and health of salmon and other native fishes in the river. Water-quality results for lead and total organic carbon exceeded the Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program Basin Plan Objectives for the San Joaquin Basin

  7. Site Response and Basin Waves in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Boatwright, John

    2013-01-01

    The Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta is an inland delta at the western extent of the Central Valley. Levees were built around swampy islands starting after the Civil War to reclaim these lands for farming. Various studies show that these levees could fail in concert from shaking from a major local or regional earthquake resulting in salty water from the San Francisco Bay contaminating the water in the Delta. We installed seismographs around the Delta and on levees to assess the contribution of site response to the seismic hazard of the levees. Cone penetrometer testing shows that the upper 10 s of meters of soil in the Delta have shear‐wave velocities of about 200  m/s, which would give a strong site response. Seismographs were sited following two strategies: pairs of stations to compare the response of the levees to nearby sites, and a more regional deployment in the Delta. Site response was determined in two different ways: a traditional spectral ratio (TSR) approach of S waves using station BDM of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Net as a reference site, and using SH/SV ratios of noise (or Nakamura’s method). Both estimates usually agree in spectral character for stations whose response is dominated by a resonant peak, but the most obvious peaks in the SH/SV ratios usually are about two‐thirds as large as the main peaks in the TSRs. Levee sites typically have large narrow resonances in the site response function compared to sites in the farmland of the Delta. These resonances, at a frequency of about 1–3 Hz, have amplitudes of about 15 with TSR and 10–12 with Nakamura’s method. Sites on farmland in the Delta also have amplifications, but these are typically broader and not as resonant in appearance. Late (slow) Rayleigh waves were recorded at stations in the Delta, have a dominant period of about one second, and are highly monochromatic. Results from a three‐station array at the Holland Marina suggest that they have a phase velocity of about

  8. Levee Seepage Detection in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Using Polarimetric SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, K.; Jones, C. E.; Bekaert, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta's extensive levee system protects over 2,800 km2 of reclaimed lands and serves as the main irrigation and domestic water supply for the state of California. However, ongoing subsidence and disaster threats from floods and earthquakes make the Delta levee system highly vulnerable, endangering water supplies for 23 million California residents and 2.5 million acres of agricultural land. Levee failure in the Delta can cause saltwater intrusion from San Francisco Bay, reducing water quality and curtailing water exports to residents, commercial users, and farmers. To protect the Delta levee system, it is essential to search for signs of seepage in which water is piping through or beneath levees, which can be associated with deformation of the levees themselves. Until now, in-situ monitoring has largely been applied, however, this is a time-consuming and expensive approach. We use data acquired with NASA's UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) airborne radar instrument to identify and characterize levee seepages and associated land subsidence through advanced remote sensing technologies. The high spatial resolution of UAVSAR can help to direct surveys to areas that are likely to be experiencing damage. UAVSAR is an L-band airborne sensor with high signal-to-noise ratio, repeat flight track accuracy, and spatial resolution of 7x7 m2 (for multi-looked products) that is necessary for detailed levee monitoring. The adaptability of radar instruments in their ability to see through smoke, haze, and clouds during the day or night, is especially relevant during disaster events, when cloud cover or lack of solar illumination inhibits traditional visual surveys of damage. We demonstrate the advantages of combining polarimetric radar imagery with geographic information systems (GIS) datasets in locating seepage features along critical levee infrastructure in the Delta for 2009-2016. The ability to efficiently locate potential

  9. Implications for future survival of delta smelt from four climate change scenarios for the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry R.; Bennett, William A.; Wagner, R. Wayne; Morgan-King, Tara; Knowles, Noah; Feyrer, Frederick; Schoellhamer, David H.; Stacey, Mark T.; Dettinger, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the position of the low salinity zone, a habitat suitability index, turbidity, and water temperature modeled from four 100-year scenarios of climate change were evaluated for possible effects on delta smelt Hypomesus transpacificus, which is endemic to the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. The persistence of delta smelt in much of its current habitat into the next century appears uncertain. By mid-century, the position of the low salinity zone in the fall and the habitat suitability index converged on values only observed during the worst droughts of the baseline period (1969–2000). Projected higher water temperatures would render waters historically inhabited by delta smelt near the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers largely uninhabitable. However, the scenarios of climate change are based on assumptions that require caution in the interpretation of the results. Projections like these provide managers with a useful tool for anticipating long-term challenges to managing fish populations and possibly adapting water management to ameliorate those challenges.

  10. Landsat-based monitoring of crop water demand in the San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Trout, T.; Wang, D.; Melton, F. S.

    2010-12-01

    Fresh water resources are becoming increasingly scarce in California due to urbanization, environmental regulation, and groundwater depletion. The strain is projected to worsen under various climate change scenarios and is exacerbated by declining water delivery infrastructure. It is estimated that irrigated agriculture currently commands more than 70% of the state’s water supply, and many growers are striving to improve water use efficiency in order to help maintain the state’s rich agricultural heritage. Remote sensing technology offers the potential to monitor cropland evapotranspiration (ET) regionally, while making farm-based irrigation scheduling more practical, convenient, and possibly more accurate. Landsat5-TM imagery was used in this study to monitor basal crop evapotranspiration (ETcb), which is primarily related to plant transpiration, for several San Joaquin Valley fields throughout the 2008 growing season. A ground-based digital camera was used to measure fractional cover of 48 study fields planted to 18 different crop types (row crops, grains, orchard, and vineyard) of varying maturity over 12 dates coinciding with Landsat overpasses. Landsat L1T terrain-corrected images were atmospherically corrected to surface reflectance by an implementation of the Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS), then converted to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) on a per-pixel basis. A strong linear relationship between NDVI and fractional cover was observed (r2=0.96), and a resulting conversion equation was used to transform all imagery to fractional cover. Conversion equations previously developed by use of weighting lysimeters were then used to transform fractional cover to basal crop coefficient (Kcb; ratio of crop transpiration plus a small diffusive soil evaporation component to reference ET). Finally, measurements of grass reference ET (ETo) from the California Irrigation Management Information System were used to

  11. Challenges Facing the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta: Complex, Chaotic, or Simply Cantankerous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N. Luoma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2015v13iss3art7Freshwater is a scarce and precious resource in California; its overall value is being made clear by the current severe drought. The Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta is a critical node in a complex water supply system that extends throughout much of the western U.S. wherein demand is exceeding supply. The Delta also underpins a major component of the U.S. economy, helps feed a substantial part of the country, is a unique and valuable ecological resource, and is a place with a rich cultural heritage. Sustaining the Delta is a problem that manifests itself in many dimensions including the physical structure of the Delta, the conflicting demands for water, changing water quality, rapidly evolving ecological character, and high institutional complexity. The problems of the California Delta are increasingly complex, sometimes chaotic, and always contentious. There is general agreement that current management will sustain neither the Delta ecosystem nor high-quality water exports, as required under the Delta Reform Act, so there is a renewed urgency to address all dimensions of the problem aggressively. Sustainable management of the Delta ecosystem and California’s highly variable water supply, in the face of global climate change, will require bold political decisions that include adjustments to the infrastructure but give equal emphasis to chronic overuse and misuse of water, promote enhanced efficiency of water use, and facilitate new initiatives for ecosystem recovery. This new approach will need to be underpinned by collaborative science that supports ongoing evaluation and re-adjustment of actions. Problems like the Delta are formally “wicked" problems that cannot be “solved” in the traditional sense, but they can be managed with appropriate knowledge and flexible institutions. Where possible, it is advisable to approach major actions incrementally, with an eye toward avoiding

  12. September-March survival of female northern pintails radiotagged in San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, J.P.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    To improve understanding of pintail ecology, we radiotagged 191 hatch-year (HY) and 228 after-hatch-year (AHY) female northern pintails (Anas acuta) in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV), and studied their survival throughout central California, USA, during September-March, 1991-1994. We used adjusted Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) values to contrast known-fate models and examine variation in survival rates relative to year, interval, wintering region (AJV, other central California), pintail age, body mass at capture, capture date, capture area, and radio type. The best-fitting model included only interval x year and age x body mass; the next 2 best-fitting models also included wintering region and capture date. Hunting caused 83% of the mortalities we observed, and survival was consistently lower during hunting than nonhunting intervals. Nonhunting and hunting mortality during early winter was highest during the 1991-1992 drought year. Early-winter survival improved during the study along with habitat conditions in the Grassland Ecological Area (EA), where most radiotagged pintails spent early winter. Survival was more closely related to body mass at capture for HY than AHY pintails, even after accounting for the later arrival (based on capture date) of HY pintails, suggesting HY pintails are less adept at improving their condition. Thus, productivity estimates based on harvest age ratios may be biased if relative vulnerability of HY and AHY pintails is assumed to be constant because fall body condition of pintails may vary greatly among years. Cumulative winter survival was 75.6% (95% CI = 68.3% to 81.7%) for AHY and 65.4% (56.7% to 73.1%) for HY female pintails. Daily odds of survival in the cotton-agriculture landscape of the SJV were -21.3% (-40.3% to +3.7%) lower than in the rice-agriculture landscape of the Sacramento Valley (SACV) and other central California areas. Higher hunting mortality may be 1 reason pintails have declined more in SJV than in SACV.

  13. Control strategies for the reduction of airborne particulate nitrate in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeman, Michael J.; Ying, Qi; Kaduwela, Ajith

    The effect of NO x, volatile organic compound (VOC), and NH 3 emissions control programs on the formation of particulate ammonium nitrate in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) was examined under the typical winter conditions that existed on 4-6 January, 1996. The UCD/CIT photochemical transport model was used for this study so that the source origin of primary particulate matter and secondary particulate matter could be identified. When averaged across the entire SJV, the model results predict that 13-18% of the reactive nitrogen (NO y=NO x+reaction products of NO x) emitted from local sources within the SJV was converted to nitrate at the ground level. Each gram of NO x emitted locally within the SJV (expressed as NO 2) produced 0.23-0.31 g of particulate ammonium nitrate (NH 4NO 3), which is much smaller than the maximum theoretical yield of 1.7 g of NH 4NO 3 per gram of NO 2. The fraction of reactive nitrogen converted to nitrate varied strongly as a function of location. Urban regions with large amounts of fresh NO emissions converted little reactive nitrogen to nitrate, while remote areas had up to 70% conversion (equivalent to approximately 1.2 g of NH 4NO 3 per gram of NO 2). The use of a single spatially averaged ratio of NH 4NO 3/NO x as a predictor of how changes to NO x emissions would affect particulate nitrate concentrations would not be accurate at all locations in the SJV under the conditions studied. The largest local sources of particulate nitrate in the SJV were predicted to be diesel engines and catalyst equipped gasoline engines under the conditions experienced on 6 January, 1996. Together, these sources accounted for less than half of the ground-level nitrate aerosol in the SJV. The remaining fraction of the aerosol nitrate originated from reactive nitrogen originally released upwind of the SJV. The majority of this upwind reactive nitrogen was already transformed to nitrate by the time it entered the SJV. The effect of local emissions controls on

  14. Assessing the solubility controls on vanadium in groundwater, northeastern San Joaquin Valley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The solubility controls on vanadium (V) in groundwater were studied due to concerns over possible harmful health effects of ingesting V in drinking water. Vanadium concentrations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley ranged from 25 μg/L) and lowest in samples collected from anoxic groundwater (70% 2VO4−. Adsorption/desorption reactions with mineral surfaces and associated oxide coatings were indicated as the primary solubility control of V5+ oxyanions in groundwater. Environmental data showed that V concentrations in oxic groundwater generally increased with increasing groundwater pH. However, data from adsorption isotherm experiments indicated that small variations in pH (7.4–8.2) were not likely as an important a factor as the inherent adsorption capacity of oxide assemblages coating the surface of mineral grains. In suboxic groundwater, accurate SM modeling was difficult since Eh measurements of source water were not measured in this study. Vanadium concentrations in suboxic groundwater decreased with increasing pH indicating that V may exist as an oxycationic species [e.g. V(OH)3+]. Vanadium may complex with dissolved inorganic and organic ligands under suboxic conditions, which could alter the adsorption behavior of V in groundwater. Speciation modeling did not predict the existence of V-inorganic ligand complexes and organic ligands were not collected as part of this study. More work is needed to determine processes governing V solubility under suboxic groundwater conditions. Under anoxic groundwater conditions, SM predicts that aqueous V exists as the uncharged V(OH)3 molecule. However, exceedingly low V concentrations show that V is sparingly soluble in anoxic conditions. Results indicated that V may be precipitating as V3+- or mixed V3+/Fe3+-oxides in anoxic groundwater, which is consistent with results of a previous study. The fact that V appears insoluble in anoxic (Fe reducing) redox conditions indicates that the behavior of V is different than

  15. Influence of EDTA on the electrochemical removal of mercury (II) in soil from San Joaquin, Queretaro, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, I.; Serrano, T.; Perez, J. J.; Bustos, E. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S. C., Parque Tecnologico Queretaro, Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo, 76703 Queretaro (Mexico); Hernandez, G.; Solis, S. [UNAM, Campus Juriquilla, Centro de Geociencias, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, 76230 Queretaro (Mexico); Garcia, R. [UNAM, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Pi, T., E-mail: ebustos@cideteq.mx [UNAM, Instituto de Geologia, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    The removal of mercury from soil and Ca-bentonite was performed using electrochemical treatment adding ethylendiamine-tetra acetic acid (EDTA) as a complexing agent to improve the electrochemical removal of Hg (II) in soil from San Joaquin, Queretaro, Mexico. During the electrokinetic treatment in the presence of 0.1 M EDTA, most of Hg (II) migrates toward the anode obtaining the highest removal efficiencies close to 70% in bentonite after 9 h. Using 0.1 M HCl only 65% efficiency was attained after 13 h in the cathodic side. EDTA formed a negatively charged stable complex that migrates to the cathode by the application of the electrokinetic treatment across Hg - EDTA synthesized complex. Finally, the predominant crystallographic structures of the samples were examined using X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  16. Childhood asthma, air quality, and social suffering among Mexican Americans in California's San Joaquin Valley: "Nobody talks to us here".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Norah Anita; Pepper, David

    2009-10-01

    Nearly one in five Mexican American children residing in California's San Joaquin Valley (the Valley) in 2007 had an asthma attack at some point in their life. Numerous epidemiological studies have suggested that compared with other ethnic groups and Latino subgroups residing in the United States, Mexican origin children have the lowest rates of pediatric asthma. Ethnographic research conducted in central California, however, suggests otherwise. Known for its agricultural produce, extreme poverty, and poor air quality, the Valley is a magnet for the Mexican immigrant farm worker population. We conducted an exploratory ethnographic study to examine health disparities, social suffering, and childhood asthma in the Valley. Many Valley residents believe that their children's health concerns are being ignored. Open-ended interviews uncovered a largely rural community suffering not only from the effects of childhood asthma but the inability to have their experiences taken seriously.

  17. Determination of bench-mark elevations at Bethel Island and vicinity, Contra Costa and San Joaquin counties, California, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, J.C.; Ikehara, M.E.; McCaffrey, William F.

    1988-01-01

    Elevations of 49 bench marks in the southwestern part of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta were determined during October and November 1987. A total of 58 miles of level lines were run in the vicinity of Bethel Island and the community of Discovery Bay. The datum of these surveys is based on a National Geodetic Survey bench mark T934 situated on bedrock 10.5 mi east of Mount Diablo and near Marsh Creek Reservoir. The accuracy of these levels, based on National Geodetic Survey standards, was of first, second, and third order, depending on the various segments surveyed. Several bench marks were noted as possibly being stable, but most show evidence of instability. (USGS)

  18. Recreation Value of Water to Wetlands in the San Joaquin Valley: Linked Multinomial Logit and Count Data Trip Frequency Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Michael; Loomis, John

    1992-10-01

    The recreational benefits from providing increased quantities of water to wildlife and fisheries habitats is estimated using linked multinomial logit site selection models and count data trip frequency models. The study encompasses waterfowl hunting, fishing and wildlife viewing at 14 recreational resources in the San Joaquin Valley, including the National Wildlife Refuges, the State Wildlife Management Areas, and six river destinations. The economic benefits of increasing water supplies to wildlife refuges were also examined by using the estimated models to predict changing patterns of site selection and overall participation due to increases in water allocations. Estimates of the dollar value per acre foot of water are calculated for increases in water to refuges. The resulting model is a flexible and useful tool for estimating the economic benefits of alternative water allocation policies for wildlife habitat and rivers.

  19. Influence of EDTA on the electrochemical removal of mercury (II) in soil from San Joaquin, Queretaro, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, I.; Serrano, T.; Perez, J. J.; Bustos, E.; Hernandez, G.; Solis, S.; Garcia, R.; Pi, T.

    2014-01-01

    The removal of mercury from soil and Ca-bentonite was performed using electrochemical treatment adding ethylendiamine-tetra acetic acid (EDTA) as a complexing agent to improve the electrochemical removal of Hg (II) in soil from San Joaquin, Queretaro, Mexico. During the electrokinetic treatment in the presence of 0.1 M EDTA, most of Hg (II) migrates toward the anode obtaining the highest removal efficiencies close to 70% in bentonite after 9 h. Using 0.1 M HCl only 65% efficiency was attained after 13 h in the cathodic side. EDTA formed a negatively charged stable complex that migrates to the cathode by the application of the electrokinetic treatment across Hg - EDTA synthesized complex. Finally, the predominant crystallographic structures of the samples were examined using X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  20. Factors motivating Latino college students to pursue STEM degrees on CSU campuses in the southern San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Gabriel

    The purpose of this study was to determine what factors were motivating Latino/a students in the southern San Joaquin Valley to pursue STEM degrees and whether these factors were specific to the Latino/a culture. A 12-question survey was administered to STEM majors at California State University, Bakersfield and California State University, Fresno and interviews were conducted with those survey respondents who agreed to be part of the process. The results of the survey suggested that factors such as STEM subject matter, STEM career knowledge, the possibility of a high paying salary, high school STEM grades, and family influence were significant in motivating Latino/a students to pursue STEM degrees. The results of the Chi Square Test suggested the Latino/a students' responses about college STEM degree granting statistics, the possibility of a high salary, and the effects of setbacks were significantly different to those of their non-Latino/a counterparts.

  1. Design and implementation of an emergency environmental responsesystem to protect migrating salmon in the lower San Joaquin River,California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Jacobs, Karl C.

    2006-01-30

    In the past decade tens of millions of dollars have beenspent by water resource agencies in California to restore the nativesalmon fishery in the San Joaquin River and its major tributaries. Anexcavated deep water ship channel (DWSC), through which the river runs onits way to the Bay/Delta and Pacific Ocean, experiences episodes of lowdissolved oxygen which acts as a barrier to anadromous fish migration anda threat to the long-term survival of the salmon run. An emergencyresponse management system is under development to forecast theseepisodes of low dissolved oxygen and to deploy measures that will raisedissolved oxygen concentrations to prevent damage to the fisheryresource. The emergency response management system has been designed tointeract with a real-time water quality monitoring network and is servedby a comprehensive data management and forecasting model toolbox. TheBay/Delta and Tributaries (BDAT) Cooperative Data Management System is adistributed, web accessible database that contains terabytes ofinformation on all aspects of the ecology of the Bay/Delta and upperwatersheds. The complexity of the problem dictates data integration froma variety of monitoring programs. A unique data templating system hasbeen constructed to serve the needs of cooperating scientists who wish toshare their data and to simplify and streamline data uploading into themaster database. In this paper we demonstrate the utility of such asystem in providing decision support for management of the San JoaquinRiver fishery. We discuss how the system might be expanded to havefurther utility in coping with other emergencies and threats to watersupply system serving California's costal communities.

  2. PEAT ACCRETION HISTORIES DURING THE PAST 6000 YEARS IN MARSHES OF THE SACRAMENTO - SAN JOAQUIN DELTA, CALIFORNIA, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drexler, J Z; de Fontaine, C S; Brown, T A

    2009-07-20

    Peat cores were collected in 4 remnant marsh islands and 4 drained, farmed islands throughout the Sacramento - San Joaquin Delta of California in order to characterize the peat accretion history of this region. Radiocarbon age determination of marsh macrofossils at both marsh and farmed islands showed that marshes in the central and western Delta started forming between 6030 and 6790 cal yr BP. Age-depth models for three marshes were constructed using cubic smooth spline regression models. The resulting spline fit models were used to estimate peat accretion histories for the marshes. Estimated accretion rates range from 0.03 to 0.49 cm yr{sup -1} for the marsh sites. The highest accretion rates are at Browns Island, a marsh at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Porosity was examined in the peat core from Franks Wetland, one of the remnant marsh sites. Porosity was greater than 90% and changed little with depth indicating that autocompaction was not an important process in the peat column. The mean contribution of organic matter to soil volume at the marsh sites ranges from 6.15 to 9.25% with little variability. In contrast, the mean contribution of inorganic matter to soil volume ranges from 1.40 to 8.45% with much greater variability, especially in sites situated in main channels. These results suggest that marshes in the Delta can be viewed as largely autochthonous vs. allochthonous in character. Autochthonous sites are largely removed from watershed processes, such as sediment deposition and scour, and are dominated by organic production. Allochthonous sites have greater fluctuations in accretion rates due to the variability of inorganic inputs from the watershed. A comparison of estimated vertical accretion rates with 20th century rates of global sea-level rise shows that currently marshes are maintaining their positions in the tidal frame, yet this offers little assurance of sustainability under scenarios of increased sea-level rise in

  3. Evaluating a Radar-Based, Non Contact Streamflow Measurement System in the San Joaquin River at Vernalis, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.; Costa, John E.; Plant, William J.; Spicer, Kurt R.; Haeni, F. Peter; Melcher, Nick B.; Keller, William C.; Hayes, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Accurate measurement of flow in the San Joaquin River at Vernalis, California, is vital to a wide range of Federal and State agencies, environmental interests, and water contractors. The U.S. Geological Survey uses a conventional stage-discharge rating technique to determine flows at Vernalis. Since the flood of January 1997, the channel has scoured and filled as much as 20 feet in some sections near the measurement site resulting in an unstable stage-discharge rating. In response to recent advances in measurement techniques and the need for more accurate measurement methods, the Geological Survey has undertaken a technology demonstration project to develop and deploy a radar-based streamflow measuring system on the bank of the San Joaquin River at Vernalis, California. The proposed flow-measurement system consists of a ground-penetrating radar system for mapping channel geometries, a microwave radar system for measuring surface velocities, and other necessary infrastructure. Cross-section information derived from ground penetrating radar provided depths similar to those measured by other instruments during the study. Likewise, surface-velocity patterns and magnitudes measured by the pulsed Doppler radar system are consistent with near surface current measurements derived from acoustic velocity instruments. Since the ratio of surface velocity to mean velocity falls to within a small range of theoretical value, using surface velocity as an index velocity to compute river discharge is feasable. Ultimately, the non-contact radar system may be used to make continuous, near-real-time flow measurements during high and medium flows. This report documents the data collected between April 14, 2002 and May 17, 2002 for the purposes of testing this radar based system. Further analyses of the data collected during this field effort will lead to further development and improvement of the system.

  4. Persistence of historical population structure in an endangered species despite near-complete biome conversion in California's San Joaquin Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Jonathan Q; Wood, Dustin A; Westphal, Michael F; Vandergast, Amy G; Leaché, Adam D; Saslaw, Lawrence R; Butterfield, H Scott; Fisher, Robert N

    2017-07-01

    Genomic responses to habitat conversion can be rapid, providing wildlife managers with time-limited opportunities to enact recovery efforts that use population connectivity information that reflects predisturbance landscapes. Despite near-complete biome conversion, such opportunities may still exist for the endemic fauna and flora of California's San Joaquin Desert, but comprehensive genetic data sets are lacking for nearly all species in the region. To fill this knowledge gap, we studied the rangewide population structure of the endangered blunt-nosed leopard lizard Gambelia sila, a San Joaquin Desert endemic, using restriction site-associated DNA (RAD), microsatellite and mtDNA data to test whether admixture patterns and estimates of effective migration surfaces (EEMS) can identify land areas with high population connectivity prior to the conversion of native xeric habitats. Clustering and phylogenetic analyses indicate a recent shared history between numerous isolated populations and EEMS reveals latent signals of corridors and barriers to gene flow over areas now replaced by agriculture and urbanization. Conflicting histories between the mtDNA and nuclear genomes are consistent with hybridization with the sister species G. wislizenii, raising important questions about where legal protection should end at the southern range limit of G. sila. Comparative analysis of different data sets also adds to a growing list of advantages in using RAD loci for genetic studies of rare species. We demonstrate how the results of this work can serve as an evolutionary guidance tool for managing endemic, arid-adapted taxa in one of the world's most compromised landscapes. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Persistence of historical population structure in an endangered species despite near-complete biome conversion in California's San Joaquin Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Wood, Dustin A.; Westphal, Michael F.; Vandergast, Amy; Leache, Adam D.; Saslaw, Lawrence; Butterfield, H. Scott; Fisher, Robert N.

    2017-01-01

    Genomic responses to habitat conversion can be rapid, providing wildlife managers with time-limited opportunities to enact recovery efforts that use population connectivity information that reflects predisturbance landscapes. Despite near-complete biome conversion, such opportunities may still exist for the endemic fauna and flora of California's San Joaquin Desert, but comprehensive genetic data sets are lacking for nearly all species in the region. To fill this knowledge gap, we studied the rangewide population structure of the endangered blunt-nosed leopard lizard Gambelia sila, a San Joaquin Desert endemic, using restriction site-associated DNA (RAD), microsatellite and mtDNA data to test whether admixture patterns and estimates of effective migration surfaces (EEMS) can identify land areas with high population connectivity prior to the conversion of native xeric habitats. Clustering and phylogenetic analyses indicate a recent shared history between numerous isolated populations and EEMS reveals latent signals of corridors and barriers to gene flow over areas now replaced by agriculture and urbanization. Conflicting histories between the mtDNA and nuclear genomes are consistent with hybridization with the sister species G. wislizenii, raising important questions about where legal protection should end at the southern range limit of G. sila. Comparative analysis of different data sets also adds to a growing list of advantages in using RAD loci for genetic studies of rare species. We demonstrate how the results of this work can serve as an evolutionary guidance tool for managing endemic, arid-adapted taxa in one of the world's most compromised landscapes.

  6. Mapping deep aquifer salinity trends in the southern San Joaquin Valley using borehole geophysical data constrained by chemical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, J.; Shimabukuro, D.; Stephens, M.; Chang, W. H.; Ball, L. B.; Everett, R.; Metzger, L.; Landon, M. K.

    2016-12-01

    The California State Water Resources Control Board and the California Division of Oil, Gas and Geothermal Resources are collaborating with the U.S. Geological Survey to map groundwater resources near oil fields and to assess potential interactions between oil and gas development and groundwater resources. Groundwater resources having salinity less than 10,000 mg/L total dissolved solids may be classified as Underground Sources of Drinking Water (USDW) and subject to protection under the federal Safe Drinking Water Act. In this study, we use information from oil well borehole geophysical logs, oilfield produced water and groundwater chemistry data, and three-dimensional geologic surfaces to map the spatial distribution of salinity in aquifers near oil fields. Salinity in the southern San Joaquin Valley is controlled primarily by depth and location. The base of protected waters occurs at very shallow depths, often 1,500 meters, in the eastern part of the San Joaquin Valley where higher runoff from the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada provide relatively abundant aquifer recharge. Stratigraphy acts as a secondary control on salinity within these broader areas. Formations deposited in non-marine environments are generally fresher than marine deposits. Layers isolated vertically between confining beds and cut off from recharge sources may be more saline than underlying aquifers that outcrop in upland areas on the edge of the valley with more direct connection to regional recharge areas. The role of faulting is more ambiguous. In some areas, abrupt changes in salinity may be fault controlled but, more commonly, the faults serve as traps separating oil-bearing strata that are exempt from USDW regulations, from water-bearing strata that are not exempt.

  7. Use of ground-water reservoirs for storage of surface water in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G.H.; Lofgren, B.E.; Mack, Seymour

    1964-01-01

    The San Joaquin Valley includes roughly the southern two-thirds of the Central Valley of California, extending 250 miles from Stockton on the north to Grapevine at the foot of the Tehachapi Mountains. The valley floor ranges in width from 25 miles near Bakersfield to about 55 miles near Visalia; it has a surface area of about 10,000 square miles. More than one-quarter of all the ground water pumped for irrigation in the United States is used in this highly productive valley. Withdrawal of ground water from storage by heavy pumping not only provides a needed irrigation water supply, but it also lowers the ground-water level and makes storage space available in which to conserve excess water during periods of heavy runoff. A storage capacity estimated to be 93 million acre-feet to a depth of 200 feet is available in this ground-water reservoir. This is about nine times the combined capacity of the existing and proposed surface-water reservoirs in the San Joaquin Valley under the California Water Plan. The landforms of the San Joaquin Valley include dissected uplands, low plains and fans, river flood plains and channels, and overflow lands and lake bottoms. Below the land surface, unconsolidated sediments derived from the surrounding mountain highlands extend downward for hundreds of feet. These unconsolidated deposits, consisting chiefly of alluvial deposits, but including some widespread lacustrine sediments, are the principal source of ground water in the valley. Ground water occurs under confined and unconfined conditions in the San Joaquin Valley. In much of the western, central, and southeastern parts of the valley, three distinct ground-water reservoirs are present. In downward succession these are 1) a body of unconfined and semiconfined fresh water in alluvial deposits of Recent, Pleistocene, and possibly later Pliocene age, overlying the Corcoran clay member of the Tulare formation; 2) a body of fresh water confined beneath the Corcoran clay member, which

  8. Tomographic Rayleigh wave group velocities in the Central Valley, California, centered on the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jon B.; Erdem, Jemile; Seats, Kevin; Lawrence, Jesse

    2016-04-01

    If shaking from a local or regional earthquake in the San Francisco Bay region were to rupture levees in the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta, then brackish water from San Francisco Bay would contaminate the water in the Delta: the source of freshwater for about half of California. As a prelude to a full shear-wave velocity model that can be used in computer simulations and further seismic hazard analysis, we report on the use of ambient noise tomography to build a fundamental mode, Rayleigh wave group velocity model for the region around the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta in the western Central Valley, California. Recordings from the vertical component of about 31 stations were processed to compute the spatial distribution of Rayleigh wave group velocities. Complex coherency between pairs of stations was stacked over 8 months to more than a year. Dispersion curves were determined from 4 to about 18 s. We calculated average group velocities for each period and inverted for deviations from the average for a matrix of cells that covered the study area. Smoothing using the first difference is applied. Cells of the model were about 5.6 km in either dimension. Checkerboard tests of resolution, which are dependent on station density, suggest that the resolving ability of the array is reasonably good within the middle of the array with resolution between 0.2 and 0.4°. Overall, low velocities in the middle of each image reflect the deeper sedimentary syncline in the Central Valley. In detail, the model shows several centers of low velocity that may be associated with gross geologic features such as faulting along the western margin of the Central Valley, oil and gas reservoirs, and large crosscutting features like the Stockton arch. At shorter periods around 5.5 s, the model's western boundary between low and high velocities closely follows regional fault geometry and the edge of a residual isostatic gravity low. In the eastern part of the valley, the boundaries of the low

  9. Tomographic Rayleigh-wave group velocities in the Central Valley, California centered on the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Erdem, Jemile; Seats, Kevin; Lawrence, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    If shaking from a local or regional earthquake in the San Francisco Bay region were to rupture levees in the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta then brackish water from San Francisco Bay would contaminate the water in the Delta: the source of fresh water for about half of California. As a prelude to a full shear-wave velocity model that can be used in computer simulations and further seismic hazard analysis, we report on the use of ambient noise tomography to build a fundamental-mode, Rayleigh-wave group velocity model for the region around the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta in the western Central Valley, California. Recordings from the vertical component of about 31 stations were processed to compute the spatial distribution of Rayleigh wave group velocities. Complex coherency between pairs of stations were stacked over 8 months to more than a year. Dispersion curves were determined from 4 to about 18 seconds. We calculated average group velocities for each period and inverted for deviations from the average for a matrix of cells that covered the study area. Smoothing using the first difference is applied. Cells of the model were about 5.6 km in either dimension. Checkerboard tests of resolution, which is dependent on station density, suggest that the resolving ability of the array is reasonably good within the middle of the array with resolution between 0.2 and 0.4 degrees. Overall, low velocities in the middle of each image reflect the deeper sedimentary syncline in the Central Valley. In detail, the model shows several centers of low velocity that may be associated with gross geologic features such as faulting along the western margin of the Central Valley, oil and gas reservoirs, and large cross cutting features like the Stockton arch. At shorter periods around 5.5s, the model’s western boundary between low and high velocities closely follows regional fault geometry and the edge of a residual isostatic gravity low. In the eastern part of the valley, the boundaries

  10. Optimizing reserve expansion for disjunct populations of San Joaquin kit fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Haight; Brian Cypher; Patrick A. Kelly; Scott Phillips; Katherine Ralls; Hugh P. Possingham

    2004-01-01

    Expanding habitat protection is a common strategy for species conservation. We present a model to optimize the expansion of reserves for disjunct populations of an endangered species. The objective is to maximize the expected number of surviving populations subject to budget and habitat constraints. The model accounts for benefits of reserve expansion in terms of...

  11. Timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and southern California resource areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Hiserote; Joel Moen; Charles L. Bolsinger

    1986-01-01

    This report is one of five that provide timber resource statistics for 57 of the 58 counties in California (San Francisco is excluded). This report presents statistics from a 1982-84 inventory of the timber resources of Alpine, Amador, Calaveras, Fresno, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Los Angeles, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, Mono, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San...

  12. Groundwater quality in the Western San Joaquin Valley study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    Water quality in groundwater resources used for public drinking-water supply in the Western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV) was investigated by the USGS in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) as part of its Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The WSJV includes two study areas: the Delta–Mendota and Westside subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley groundwater basin. Study objectives for the WSJV study unit included two assessment types: (1) a status assessment yielding quantitative estimates of the current (2010) status of groundwater quality in the groundwater resources used for public drinking water, and (2) an evaluation of natural and anthropogenic factors that could be affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water distributors.The status assessment was based on data collected from 43 wells sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project (USGS-GAMA) in 2010 and data compiled in the SWRCB Division of Drinking Water (SWRCB-DDW) database for 74 additional public-supply wells sampled for regulatory compliance purposes between 2007 and 2010. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and SWRCB-DDW regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a spatially weighted, grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources used for public drinking water that has concentrations for particular constituents or class of constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale within the WSJV study unit, and permits comparison of the two study areas to other areas assessed by the GAMA Priority Basin Project

  13. Late Holocene forest dynamics, volcanism, and climate change at Whitewing Mountain and San Joaquin Ridge, Mono County, Sierra Nevada, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; John C. King; Robert D. Westfall; Harry A. Alden; Diane L. Delany

    2006-01-01

    Deadwood tree stems scattered above treeline on tephra-covered slopes of Whitewing Mtn (3051 m) and San Joaquin Ridge (3122 m) show evidence of being killed in an eruption from adjacent Glass Creek Vent, Inyo Craters. Using tree-ring methods, we dated deadwood to AD 815-1350 and infer from death dates that the eruption occurred in late summer AD 1350. Based on wood...

  14. Identifying sources of dissolved organic carbon in agriculturally dominated rivers using radiocarbon age dating: Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickman, James O.; DiGiorgio, Carol L.; Davisson, M. Lee; Lucero, Delores M.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    We used radiocarbon measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to resolve sources of riverine carbon within agriculturally dominated landscapes in California. During 2003 and 2004, average Δ14C for DOC was −254‰ in agricultural drains in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, −218‰ in the San Joaquin River, −175‰ in the California State Water Project and −152‰ in the Sacramento River. The age of bulk DOC transiting the rivers of California’s Central Valley is the oldest reported for large rivers and suggests wide-spread loss of soil organic matter caused by agriculture and urbanization. Using DAX 8 adsorbent, we isolated and measured 14C concentrations in hydrophobic acid fractions (HPOA); river samples showed evidence of bomb-pulse carbon with average Δ14C of 91 and 76‰ for the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers, respectively, with older HPOA, −204‰, observed in agricultural drains. An operationally defined non-HPOA fraction of DOC was observed in the San Joaquin River with seasonally computed Δ14C values of between −275 and −687‰; the source of this aged material was hypothesized to be physically protected organic-matter in high clay-content soils and agrochemicals (i.e., radiocarbon-dead material) applied to farmlands. Mixing models suggest that the Sacramento River contributes about 50% of the DOC load in the California State Water Project, and agricultural drains contribute approximately one-third of the load. In contrast to studies showing stabilization of soil carbon pools within one or two decades following land conversion, sustained loss of soil organic matter, occurring many decades after the initial agricultural-land conversion, was observed in California’s Central Valley.

  15. Formation of hydroxyl radical from San Joaquin Valley particles extracted in a cell-free surrogate lung fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that the adverse health effects from ambient particulate matter (PM are linked to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS by PM in cardiopulmonary tissues. While hydroxyl radical (OH is the most reactive of the ROS species, there are few quantitative studies of OH generation from PM. Here we report on OH formation from PM collected at an urban (Fresno and rural (Westside site in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV of California. We quantified OH in PM extracts using a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS solution with or without 50 μM ascorbate (Asc. The results show that generally the urban Fresno PM generates much more OH than the rural Westside PM. The presence of Asc at a physiologically relevant concentration in the extraction solution greatly enhances OH formation from all the samples. Fine PM (PM2.5 generally makes more OH than the corresponding coarse PM (PMcf, i.e. with diameters of 2.5 to 10 μm normalized by air volume collected, while the coarse PM typically generates more OH normalized by PM mass. OH production by SJV PM is reduced on average by (97 ± 6 % when the transition metal chelator desferoxamine (DSF is added to the extraction solution, indicating a dominant role of transition metals. By measuring calibration curves of OH generation from copper and iron, and quantifying copper and iron concentrations in our particle extracts, we find that PBS-soluble copper is primarily responsible for OH production by the SJV PM, while iron often makes a significant contribution. Extrapolating our results to expected burdens of PM-derived OH in human lung lining fluid suggests that typical daily PM exposures in the San Joaquin Valley are unlikely to result in a high amount of pulmonary OH, although high

  16. Modeling the long-term fate of agricultural nitrate in groundwater in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Campbell, Bruce G.; Widdowson, Mark A.; Landon, Mathew K.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater systems used for human water supplies is a major environmental problem in many parts of the world. Fertilizers containing a variety of reduced nitrogen compounds are commonly added to soils to increase agricultural yields. But the amount of nitrogen added during fertilization typically exceeds the amount of nitrogen taken up by crops. Oxidation of reduced nitrogen compounds present in residual fertilizers can produce substantial amounts of nitrate which can be transported to the underlying water table. Because nitrate concentrations exceeding 10 mg/L in drinking water can have a variety of deleterious effects for humans, agriculturally derived nitrate contamination of groundwater can be a serious public health issue. The Central Valley aquifer of California accounts for 13 percent of all the groundwater withdrawals in the United States. The Central Valley, which includes the San Joaquin Valley, is one of the most productive agricultural areas in the world and much of this groundwater is used for crop irrigation. However, rapid urbanization has led to increasing groundwater withdrawals for municipal public water supplies. That, in turn, has led to concern about how contaminants associated with agricultural practices will affect the chemical quality of groundwater in the San Joaquin Valley. Crop fertilization with various forms of nitrogen-containing compounds can greatly increase agricultural yields. However, leaching of nitrate from soils due to irrigation has led to substantial nitrate contamination of shallow groundwater. That shallow nitrate-contaminated groundwater has been moving deeper into the Central Valley aquifer since the 1960s. Denitrification can be an important process limiting the mobility of nitrate in groundwater systems. However, substantial denitrification requires adequate sources of electron donors in order to drive the process. In many cases, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon

  17. Decision analysis framing study; in-valley drainage management strategies for the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy; Coleman, James

    2010-01-01

    Constraints on drainage management in the western San Joaquin Valley and implications of proposed approaches to management were recently evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The USGS found that a significant amount of data for relevant technical issues was available and that a structured, analytical decision support tool could help optimize combinations of specific in-valley drainage management strategies, address uncertainties, and document underlying data analysis for future use. To follow-up on USGS's technical analysis and to help define a scientific basis for decisionmaking in implementing in-valley drainage management strategies, this report describes the first step (that is, a framing study) in a Decision Analysis process. In general, a Decision Analysis process includes four steps: (1) problem framing to establish the scope of the decision problem(s) and a set of fundamental objectives to evaluate potential solutions, (2) generation of strategies to address identified decision problem(s), (3) identification of uncertainties and their relationships, and (4) construction of a decision support model. Participation in such a systematic approach can help to promote consensus and to build a record of qualified supporting data for planning and implementation. In December 2008, a Decision Analysis framing study was initiated with a series of meetings designed to obtain preliminary input from key stakeholder groups on the scope of decisions relevant to drainage management that were of interest to them, and on the fundamental objectives each group considered relevant to those decisions. Two key findings of this framing study are: (1) participating stakeholders have many drainage management objectives in common; and (2) understanding the links between drainage management and water management is necessary both for sound science-based decisionmaking and for resolving stakeholder differences about the value of proposed drainage management solutions. Citing

  18. Trends in nutrient concentrations, loads, and yields in streams in the Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Santa Ana Basins, California, 1975-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, Charles R.; Kent, Robert; Seleh, Dina K.; Knifong, Donna L.; Dileanis, Peter D.; Orlando, James L.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive database was assembled for the Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Santa Ana Basins in California on nutrient concentrations, flows, and point and nonpoint sources of nutrients for 1975-2004. Most of the data on nutrient concentrations (nitrate, ammonia, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus) were from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System database (35.2 percent), the California Department of Water Resources (21.9 percent), the University of California at Davis (21.6 percent), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's STOrage and RETrieval database (20.0 percent). Point-source discharges accounted for less than 1 percent of river flows in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, but accounted for close to 80 percent of the nonstorm flow in the Santa Ana River. Point sources accounted for 4 and 7 percent of the total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads, respectively, in the Sacramento River at Freeport for 1985-2004. Point sources accounted for 8 and 17 percent of the total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads, respectively, in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis for 1985-2004. The volume of wastewater discharged into the Santa Ana River increased almost three-fold over the study period. However, due to improvements in wastewater treatment, the total nitrogen load to the Santa Ana River from point sources in 2004 was approximately the same as in 1975 and the total phosphorus load in 2004 was less than in 1975. Nonpoint sources of nutrients estimated in this study included atmospheric deposition, fertilizer application, manure production, and tile drainage. The estimated dry deposition of nitrogen exceeded wet deposition in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys and in the basin area of the Santa Ana Basin, with ratios of dry to wet deposition of 1.7, 2.8, and 9.8, respectively. Fertilizer application increased appreciably from 1987 to 2004 in all three California basins, although manure production increased in the

  19. Phenology of spotted wing drosophila in the San Joaquin Valley varies by season, crop and nearby vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Haviland

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The spotted wing drosophila, first detected in California in 2008, has become a major insect pest in caneberries and sweet cherries, causing commercial crop losses. Managing it is challenging because it has many other hosts, including riparian and backyard fruit plantings, and it increases rapidly, with generations overlapping one another. In our study we monitored trap captures in two parts of the San Joaquin Valley, within sweet cherry orchards and in nearby locations. Captures of adult flies showed two main periods of activity — spring and fall — and low captures in the winter (except for citrus and evergreen riparian areas and summer. On many occasions during the year, trap captures were higher outside of the cherry orchards than within them. Additionally, early in the season, when decisions about control programs are being made, the sex ratio of captured flies in cherries was strongly female-biased. The results suggest that during the weeks leading up to harvest growers should experiment by placing traps in different environments surrounding their orchards to determine SWD activity and potential pest pressure locally, and monitor for both male and female flies.

  20. Nature of uranium contamination in the agricultural drainage water evaporation ponds of the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, M.C.; Amrhein, C.; Bradford, G.

    1997-01-01

    Evaporation ponds used for agricultural subsurface drainage water disposal in the Tulare Lake Bed (TLB) of the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA have elevated levels of U. Waterfowl which inhabit and forage the ponds and surrounding areas are threatened by exposure to U. The ponds, which receive irrigation drainage waters and seasonal rain, are subject to wetting and drying periods. The periods result in the accumulation of decaying algae and other organic material in surface sediments. Sediment and waters in the ponds were sampled to determine what factors control U solubility and sediment U concentrations. Data from a 1990 study conducted by Chilcott et al. in 1989 on the TLB ponds were used to help identify what factors may control U solubility. Pond sediment U concentrations decreased abruptly with depth and surface sediment U concentrations were related to dissolved Ca:HCO 3 ratios. Pond algal U bioaccumulation was favored in waters with high Ca:HCO 3 ratios, which had lower pH values and carbonate alkalinities than waters with low CA:HCO 3 ratios. Ponds with high salinities and high carbonate alkalinities contained the highest aqueous U concentrations relative to other TLB ponds. Sediment total organic carbon (TOC) was correlated with sediment U concentrations, suggesting that U is bound to organic matter. The source of TOC is most likely from algae deposition. (author)

  1. Dynamic modeling of organophosphate pesticide load in surface water in the northern San Joaquin Valley watershed of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Yuzhou [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, 325000 (China); Zhang Xuyang [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Liu Xingmei [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Ficklin, Darren [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Zhang Minghua [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, 325000 (China)], E-mail: mhzhang@ucdavis.edu

    2008-12-15

    The hydrology, sediment, and pesticide transport components of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) were evaluated on the northern San Joaquin Valley watershed of California. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients for monthly stream flow and sediment load ranged from 0.49 to 0.99 over the watershed during the study period of 1992-2005. The calibrated SWAT model was applied to simulate fate and transport processes of two organophosphate pesticides of diazinon and chlorpyrifos at watershed scale. The model generated satisfactory predictions of dissolved pesticide loads relative to the monitoring data. The model also showed great success in capturing spatial patterns of dissolved diazinon and chlorpyrifos loads according to the soil properties and landscape morphology over the large agricultural watershed. This study indicated that curve number was the major factor influencing the hydrology while pesticide fate and transport were mainly affected by surface runoff and pesticide application and in the study area. - Major factors governing the instream loads of organophosphate pesticides are magnitude and timing of surface runoff and pesticide application.

  2. Dynamic modeling of organophosphate pesticide load in surface water in the northern San Joaquin Valley watershed of California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yuzhou; Zhang Xuyang; Liu Xingmei; Ficklin, Darren; Zhang Minghua

    2008-01-01

    The hydrology, sediment, and pesticide transport components of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) were evaluated on the northern San Joaquin Valley watershed of California. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients for monthly stream flow and sediment load ranged from 0.49 to 0.99 over the watershed during the study period of 1992-2005. The calibrated SWAT model was applied to simulate fate and transport processes of two organophosphate pesticides of diazinon and chlorpyrifos at watershed scale. The model generated satisfactory predictions of dissolved pesticide loads relative to the monitoring data. The model also showed great success in capturing spatial patterns of dissolved diazinon and chlorpyrifos loads according to the soil properties and landscape morphology over the large agricultural watershed. This study indicated that curve number was the major factor influencing the hydrology while pesticide fate and transport were mainly affected by surface runoff and pesticide application and in the study area. - Major factors governing the instream loads of organophosphate pesticides are magnitude and timing of surface runoff and pesticide application

  3. The effect of submerged aquatic vegetation expansion on a declining turbidity trend in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestir, E.L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Jonathan Greenberg,; Morgan-King, Tara L.; Ustin, S.L.

    2016-01-01

    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) has well-documented effects on water clarity. SAV beds can slow water movement and reduce bed shear stress, promoting sedimentation and reducing suspension. However, estuaries have multiple controls on turbidity that make it difficult to determine the effect of SAV on water clarity. In this study, we investigated the effect of primarily invasive SAV expansion on a concomitant decline in turbidity in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. The objective of this study was to separate the effects of decreasing sediment supply from the watershed from increasing SAV cover to determine the effect of SAV on the declining turbidity trend. SAV cover was determined by airborne hyperspectral remote sensing and turbidity data from long-term monitoring records. The turbidity trends were corrected for the declining sediment supply using suspended-sediment concentration data from a station immediately upstream of the Delta. We found a significant negative trend in turbidity from 1975 to 2008, and when we removed the sediment supply signal from the trend it was still significant and negative, indicating that a factor other than sediment supply was responsible for part of the turbidity decline. Turbidity monitoring stations with high rates of SAV expansion had steeper and more significant turbidity trends than those with low SAV cover. Our findings suggest that SAV is an important (but not sole) factor in the turbidity decline, and we estimate that 21–70 % of the total declining turbidity trend is due to SAV expansion.

  4. Innovation in monitoring: The U.S. Geological Survey Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, California, flow-station network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burau, Jon; Ruhl, Cathy; Work, Paul A.

    2016-01-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) installed the first gage to measure the flow of water into California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta from the Sacramento River in the late 1800s. Today, a network of 35 hydro-acoustic meters measure flow throughout the delta. This region is a critical part of California’s freshwater supply and conveyance system. With the data provided by this flow-station network—sampled every 15 minutes and updated to the web every hour—state and federal water managers make daily decisions about how much freshwater can be pumped for human use, at which locations, and when. Fish and wildlife scientists, working with water managers, also use this information to protect fish species affected by pumping and loss of habitat. The data are also used to help determine the success or failure of efforts to restore ecosystem processes in what has been called the “most managed and highly altered” watershed in the country.

  5. Concentrations of chlorinated organic compounds in biota and bed sediment in streams of the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L.R.

    1997-01-01

    Samples of resident biota and bed sediments were collected in 1992 from 18 sites on or near the floor of the San Joaquin Valley, California, for analysis of 33 organochlorine compounds. The sites were divided into five groups on the basis of physiographic region and land use. Ten compounds were detected in tissue, and 15 compounds were detected in bed sediment. The most frequently detected compound in both media was p,p'-DDE. Concentrations of ??DDT (sum of o,p'- and p, p' forms of DDD, DDE, and DDT) were statistically different among groups of sites for both tissue and sediment (Kruskal- Wallis, p TOC) normalized concentrations were significantly correlated with specific conductance and pH (p TOC in sediment. The results of this study did not indicate any clear advantage to using either bed sediment or tissues in studies of organochlorine chemicals in the environment. Some guidelines for protection of fish and wildlife were exceeded. Concentrations of organochlorine chemicals in biota, and perhaps sediment, have declined from concentrations measured in the 1970s and 1980s, but remain high compared to other regions of the United States.

  6. Temporal trends in concentrations of DBCP and nitrate in groundwater in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, K.R.; Dubrovsky, N.M.; Shelton, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Temporal monitoring of the pesticide 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) and nitrate and indicators of mean groundwater age were used to evaluate the transport and fate of agricultural chemicals in groundwater and to predict the long-term effects in the regional aquifer system in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California. Twenty monitoring wells were installed on a transect along an approximate groundwater flow path. Concentrations of DBCP and nitrate in the wells were compared to concentrations in regional areal monitoring networks. DBCP persists at concentrations above the US Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level (MCL) at depths of nearly 40 m below the water table, more than 25 years after it was banned. Nitrate concentrations above the MCL reached depths of more than 20 m below the water table. Because of the intensive pumping and irrigation recharge, vertical flow paths are dominant. High concentrations (above MCLs) in the shallow part of the regional aquifer system will likely move deeper in the system, affecting both domestic and public-supply wells. The large fraction of old water (unaffected by agricultural chemicals) in deep monitoring wells suggests that it could take decades for concentrations to reach MCLs in deep, long-screened public-supply wells, however. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  7. Effects of lamellae size distributions from 40Ar/39Ar on sedimentary thermo-chronology in the San Joaquin Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepsen, A.-M.; Lerche, I.; Thomsen, R.O.

    1990-01-01

    A model description is provided for the release of 40 Ar/ 39 Ar from detrital microclines which specifically includes the effects of grain size distributions, thus allowing smaller grains to release argon faster than the more retentive larger grains. The model also includes the effects of sedimentary thermal history after burial influencing the pre-depositional 40 Ar/ 30 Ar ratio. Application of the model to the measured age spectra from six depths in the Tejon Block and four in the Basin Block of the San Joaquin Basin demonstrates that the grain size distribution effect plays a major role in masking the extraction of thermal history information from the observed age spectra. In addition, the grain size effect is not systematic with depth, and other competing effects, such as isotopic fractionation of diffusion coefficients, multi-provenance depositional supply, and variable concentrations of 40 Ar and 39 K per microcline at burial deposition time, make the extraction of thermal history information even more difficult. (author)

  8. The ammonium nitrate particle equivalent of NOx emissions for wintertime conditions in Central California's San Joaquin Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockwell, W.R.; Watson, J.G.; Robinson, N.F.; Sylte, W.W.

    2000-01-01

    A new method has been developed to assess the aerosol particle formation reactivity of nitrogen oxide (NO x ) emissions. The method involves using a photochemical box model with gas-phase photochemistry, aerosol production and deposition to calculate the ammonium nitrate particle equivalent of NO x emissions. The yields of ammonium nitrate particles used in the box model were determined from parametric simulations made with an equilibrium model that calculated the fraction of nitric acid that reacts to produce ammonium nitrate from the temperature, relative humidity and ammonium-to-nitrate ratios. For the wintertime conditions of emissions and meteorology in the San Joaquin Valley of central California, approximately 80% of the moles of nitric acid produced was found to be in the particulate nitrate phase and about 33% of the moles of emitted NO x was converted to particulate nitrate. The particle equivalent of NO x emissions was found to be on the order of 0.6 g of ammonium nitrate for each gram of NO x emitted (the mass of NO x calculated as NO 2 ). This estimate is in reasonable agreement with an analysis of field measurements made in central California. (author)

  9. The Association of Ambient Air Pollution and Traffic Exposures With Selected Congenital Anomalies in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Amy M.; Tager, Ira B.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Lurmann, Frederick; Shaw, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital anomalies are a leading cause of infant mortality and are important contributors to subsequent morbidity. Studies suggest associations between environmental contaminants and some anomalies, although evidence is limited. We aimed to investigate whether ambient air pollutant and traffic exposures in early gestation contribute to the risk of selected congenital anomalies in the San Joaquin Valley of California, 1997–2006. Seven exposures and 5 outcomes were included for a total of 35 investigated associations. We observed increased odds of neural tube defects when comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of exposure for several pollutants after adjusting for maternal race/ethnicity, education, and multivitamin use. The adjusted odds ratio for neural tube defects among those with the highest carbon monoxide exposure was 1.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 3.2) compared with those with the lowest exposure, and there was a monotonic exposure-response across quartiles. The highest quartile of nitrogen oxide exposure was associated with neural tube defects (adjusted odds ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.8). The adjusted odds ratio for the highest quartile of nitrogen dioxide exposure was 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.7). Ozone was associated with decreased odds of neural tube defects. Our results extend the limited body of evidence regarding air pollution exposure and adverse birth outcomes. PMID:23538941

  10. Future impacts of distributed power generation on ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutukuru, Satish; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jacob; Dabdub, Donald

    2011-12-01

    Distributed power generation-electricity generation that is produced by many small stationary power generators distributed throughout an urban air basin-has the potential to supply a significant portion of electricity in future years. As a result, distributed generation may lead to increased pollutant emissions within an urban air basin, which could adversely affect air quality. However, the use of combined heating and power with distributed generation may reduce the energy consumption for space heating and air conditioning, resulting in a net decrease of pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions. This work used a systematic approach based on land-use geographical information system data to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of distributed generation emissions in the San Joaquin Valley Air Basin of California and simulated the potential air quality impacts using state-of-the-art three-dimensional computer models. The evaluation of the potential market penetration of distributed generation focuses on the year 2023. In general, the air quality impacts of distributed generation were found to be small due to the restrictive 2007 California Air Resources Board air emission standards applied to all distributed generation units and due to the use of combined heating and power. Results suggest that if distributed generation units were allowed to emit at the current Best Available Control Technology standards (which are less restrictive than the 2007 California Air Resources Board standards), air quality impacts of distributed generation could compromise compliance with the federal 8-hr average ozone standard in the region.

  11. Erratum dated 2014 June 25: Fate and Transport of Three Pharmaceuticals in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minta M. Schaefer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs are found in surface waters worldwide. Wastewater treatment plant effluent is a major source of these contaminants. The Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta (Delta is a unique aquatic ecosystem, a source of drinking water for over 25 million Californians, and a primary source of water for Central Valley agriculture. The sharp decline of four pelagic fish species in the Delta in the last decade is just one of several indicators that the ecosystem is severely impaired. Several wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs discharge into the Delta, directly or through tributaries. The presence of PPCPs in the Delta has received very little attention relative to the immense effort underway to rehabilitate the ecosystem. This study determined concentrations of PPCPs in the Sacramento River in the vicinity of the Sacramento Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant using passive sampler monitoring. These data were used to estimate loads of three of the detected pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, fluoxetine, and trimethoprim from nine other WWTPs that discharge to the Delta. The 2-D, finite element, Resource Management Associates (RMA Delta Model was then applied to determine the distribution that might result from these discharges. The model was run for the 2006, 2007, and 2009 water years. Results indicate that it is feasible that WWTP discharges could result in chronic presence of these pharmaceuticals at low ng L-1 levels at all 45 model output locations and, therefore, aquatic organisms within the Delta may be continually exposed to these contaminants.

  12. Investigating Particle Transport and Fate in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta Using a Particle-Tracking Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim J. Kimmerer

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Movements of pelagic organisms in the tidal freshwater regions of estuaries are sensitive to the movements of water. In the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta—the tidal freshwater reach of the San Francisco Estuary—such movements are key to losses of fish and other organisms to entrainment in large water-export facilities. We used the Delta Simulation Model-2 hydrodynamic model and its particle tracking model to examine the principal determinants of entrainment losses to the export facilities and how movement of fish through the Delta may be influenced by flow. We modeled 936 scenarios for 74 different conditions of flow, diversions, tides, and removable barriers to address seven questions regarding hydrodynamics and entrainment risk in the Delta. Tide had relatively small effects on fate and residence time of particles. Release location and hydrology interacted to control particle fate and residence time. The ratio of flow into the export facilities to freshwater flow into the Delta (export:inflow or EI ratio was a useful predictor of entrainment probability if the model were allowed to run long enough to resolve particles’ ultimate fate. Agricultural diversions within the Delta increased total entrainment losses and altered local movement patterns. Removable barriers in channels of the southern Delta and gates in the Delta Cross Channel in the northern Delta had minor effects on particles released in the rivers above these channels. A simulation of losses of larval delta smelt showed substantial cumulative losses depending on both inflow and export flow. A simulation mimicking mark–recapture experiments on Chinook salmon smolts suggested that both inflow and export flow may be important factors determining survival of salmon in the upper estuary. To the extent that fish behave passively, this model is probably suitable for describing Delta-wide movement, but it is less suitable for smaller scales or alternative configurations of the Delta.

  13. Adaptive Management Using Remote Sensing and Ecosystem Modeling in Response to Climate Variability and Invasive Aquatic Plants for the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Water Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David; Potter, Christopher; Zhang, Minghua; Madsen, John

    2017-01-01

    The California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is the hub for California's water supply and supports important ecosystem services, agriculture, and communities in Northern to Southern California. Expansion of invasive aquatic plants in the Delta coupled with impacts of changing climate and long-term drought is detrimental to the San Francisco Bay/California Delta complex. NASA Ames Research Center and the USDA-ARS partnered with the State of California to develop science-based, adaptive-management strategies for invasive aquatic plant in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Specific mapping tools developed utilizing satellite and airborne platforms provide regular assessments of population dynamics on a landscape scale and support both strategic planning and operational decision making for resource managers. San Joaquin and Sacramento River watersheds water quality input to the Delta is modeled using the Soil-Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and a modified SWAT tool has been customized to account for unique landscape and management of agricultural water supply and drainage within the Delta. Environmental response models for growth of invasive aquatic weeds are being parameterized and coupled with spatial distribution/biomass density mapping and water quality to study ecosystem response to climate and aquatic plant management practices. On the water validation and operational utilization of these tools by management agencies and how they are improving decision making, management effectiveness and efficiency will be discussed. The project combines science, operations, and economics related to integrated management scenarios for aquatic weeds to help land and water resource managers make science-informed decisions regarding management and outcomes.

  14. Adaptive Management Using Remote Sensing and Ecosystem Modeling in Response to Climate Variability and Invasive Aquatic Plants for the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Water Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, D.; Potter, C. S.; Zhang, M.; Madsen, J.

    2017-12-01

    The California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is the hub for California's water supply and supports important ecosystem services, agriculture, and communities in Northern and Southern California. Expansion of invasive aquatic plants in the Delta coupled with impacts of changing climate and long-term drought is detrimental to the San Francisco Bay/California Delta complex. NASA Ames Research Center and the USDA-ARS partnered with the State of California to develop science-based, adaptive-management strategies for invasive aquatic plant management in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Specific mapping tools developed utilizing satellite and airborne platforms provide regular assessments of population dynamics on a landscape scale and support both strategic planning and operational decision making for resource managers. San Joaquin and Sacramento River watersheds water quality input to the Delta is modeled using the Soil-Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and a modified SWAT tool has been customized to account for unique landscape and management of agricultural water supply and drainage within the Delta. Environmental response models for growth of invasive aquatic weeds are being parameterized and coupled with spatial distribution/biomass density mapping and water quality to study ecosystem response to climate and aquatic plant management practices. On the water validation and operational utilization of these tools by management agencies and how they improve decision making, management effectiveness and efficiency will be discussed. The project combines science, operations, and economics related to integrated management scenarios for aquatic weeds to help land and water resource managers make science-informed decisions regarding management and outcomes.

  15. Nest-site habitat of cavity-nesting birds at the San Joaquin Experimental Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn L. Purcell; Jared. Verner

    2008-01-01

    Detailed information about the nesting habitats of birds, including those needed for successful nesting, can provide a better understanding of the ecological factors that permit coexistence of different species and may aid in conservation efforts. From 1989 through 1994, we studied the nesting habitat of secondary cavity-nesting birds in oak woodlands at the San...

  16. Estimating juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) abundance from beach seine data collected in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta and San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Kirsch, Joseph E.; Hendrix, A. Noble

    2016-06-17

    Resource managers rely on abundance or density metrics derived from beach seine surveys to make vital decisions that affect fish population dynamics and assemblage structure. However, abundance and density metrics may be biased by imperfect capture and lack of geographic closure during sampling. Currently, there is considerable uncertainty about the capture efficiency of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by beach seines. Heterogeneity in capture can occur through unrealistic assumptions of closure and from variation in the probability of capture caused by environmental conditions. We evaluated the assumptions of closure and the influence of environmental conditions on capture efficiency and abundance estimates of Chinook salmon from beach seining within the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta and the San Francisco Bay. Beach seine capture efficiency was measured using a stratified random sampling design combined with open and closed replicate depletion sampling. A total of 56 samples were collected during the spring of 2014. To assess variability in capture probability and the absolute abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon, beach seine capture efficiency data were fitted to the paired depletion design using modified N-mixture models. These models allowed us to explicitly test the closure assumption and estimate environmental effects on the probability of capture. We determined that our updated method allowing for lack of closure between depletion samples drastically outperformed traditional data analysis that assumes closure among replicate samples. The best-fit model (lowest-valued Akaike Information Criterion model) included the probability of fish being available for capture (relaxed closure assumption), capture probability modeled as a function of water velocity and percent coverage of fine sediment, and abundance modeled as a function of sample area, temperature, and water velocity. Given that beach seining is a ubiquitous sampling technique for

  17. 234U/238U and δ87Sr in peat as tracers of paleosalinity in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexler, J.Z.; Paces, J.B.; Alpers, C.N.; Windham-Myers, L.; Neymark, L.A.; Bullen, T.D.; Taylor, H.E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Concentrations and isotopic values of Sr and U in peat were used to trace paleosalinity. • A three-end-member mixing model was constructed using values from water sources. • Paleosalinity of peat samples was determined relative to that of end members. • δ 87 Sr values were altered during and after the California Gold Rush period. • Oligohaline and freshwater marshes have long existed in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the history of paleosalinity over the past 6000+ years in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta), which is the innermost part of the San Francisco Estuary. We used a combination of Sr and U concentrations, δ 87 Sr values, and 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios (AR) in peat as proxies for tracking paleosalinity. Peat cores were collected in marshes on Browns Island, Franks Wetland, and Bacon Channel Island in the Delta. Cores were dated using 137 Cs, the onset of Pb and Hg contamination from hydraulic gold mining, and 14 C. A proof of concept study showed that the dominant emergent macrophyte and major component of peat in the Delta, Schoenoplectus spp., incorporates Sr and U and that the isotopic composition of these elements tracks the ambient water salinity across the Estuary. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of Sr and U in the three main water sources contributing to the Delta (seawater, Sacramento River water, and San Joaquin River water) were used to construct a three-end-member mixing model. Delta paleosalinity was determined by examining variations in the distribution of peat samples through time within the area delineated by the mixing model. The Delta has long been considered a tidal freshwater marsh region, but only peat samples from Franks Wetland and Bacon Channel Island have shown a consistently fresh signal (<0.5 ppt) through time. Therefore, the eastern Delta, which occurs upstream from Bacon Channel Island along the San Joaquin River and its

  18. Distribution and Joint Fish-Tag Survival of Juvenile Chinook Salmon Migrating through the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Christopher M.; Perry, Russell W.; Adams, Noah S.

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry was used to obtain the movement histories of 915 juvenile fall-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) through the lower San Joaquin River and Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, in 2008. Data were analyzed within a release-recapture framework to estimate survival, route distribution, and detection probabilities among three migration pathways through the Delta. The pathways included the primary route through the San Joaquin River and two less direct routes (Old River and Turner Cut). Strong inferences about survival were limited by premature tag failure, but estimates of fish distribution among migration routes should be unaffected by tag failure. Based on tag failure tests (N = 66 tags), we estimated that only 55-78 percent of the tags used in this study were still functioning when the last fish was detected exiting the study area 15 days after release. Due to premature tag failure, our 'survival' estimates represent the joint probability that both the tag and fish survived, not just survival of fish. Low estimates of fish-tag survival could have been caused by fish mortality or fish travel times that exceeded the life of the tag, but we were unable to differentiate between the two. Fish-tag survival through the Delta (from Durham Ferry to Chipps Island by all routes) ranged from 0.05 +or- 0.01 (SE) to 0.06 +or- 0.01 between the two weekly release groups. Among the three migration routes, fish that remained in the San Joaquin River exhibited the highest joint fish-tag survival (0.09 +or- 0.02) in both weeks, but only 22-33 percent of tagged fish used this route, depending on the week of release. Only 4-10 percent (depending on week) of tagged fish traveled through Turner Cut, but no tagged fish that used this route were detected exiting the Delta. Most fish (63-68 percent, depending on week of release) migrated through Old River, but fish-tag survival through this route (0.05 +or- 0.01) was only about one-half that of fish that

  19. Crecimiento y propiedades fisico-mecanicas de la madera de teca (Tectona grandis de 17 anos de edad en San Joaquin de Abangares, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Castro

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth and physical-mechanical properties of 17 years old teak (Tectona grandis growing in San Joaquin, Abangares, Costa Rica. The national and international market of forest products, from certifieddad. managment forests and plantations, is increasingly more demanding as to the standards and characteristics of high quality. The physicalmecanicas mechanical properties of the teak (Tectona grandis, growing in San Joaqufn de Abangares, Costa Rica, at 30 m and 100 16´ north latitude, are determined according to the ASTM standard Destudiadas 143-83. The physical properties of teak timber studied were: basic specific weight, radial, tangential and volumetric contractions, contraction ratio, dry and green density and point of fiber saturation. The mechanical properties studied were: static flexure, shear, hardness, parallel and perpendicular compression. Also included were comparisons with teak timber harvested in other places and latitudes, as well as other hardwood species. The coefficient of variation of the basic specific weight of the San Joaquin de Abangares teak (3.4% is half that of the Quepos teak (7% and almost one third of the average of 50 species (10%, which is an...

  20. Assessing the sources and magnitude of diurnal nitrate variability in the San Joaquin River (California) with an in situ optical nitrate sensor and dual nitrate isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Brian A.; Downing, Bryan D.; Kendall, Carol; Dahlgren, Randy A.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Saraceno, John Franco; Spencer, Robert G. M.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    1. We investigated diurnal nitrate (NO3−) concentration variability in the San Joaquin River using an in situ optical NO3− sensor and discrete sampling during a 5‐day summer period characterized by high algal productivity. Dual NO3− isotopes (δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3) and dissolved oxygen isotopes (δ18ODO) were measured over 2 days to assess NO3− sources and biogeochemical controls over diurnal time‐scales.2. Concerted temporal patterns of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and δ18ODOwere consistent with photosynthesis, respiration and atmospheric O2 exchange, providing evidence of diurnal biological processes independent of river discharge.3. Surface water NO3− concentrations varied by up to 22% over a single diurnal cycle and up to 31% over the 5‐day study, but did not reveal concerted diurnal patterns at a frequency comparable to DO concentrations. The decoupling of δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3isotopes suggests that algal assimilation and denitrification are not major processes controlling diurnal NO3− variability in the San Joaquin River during the study. The lack of a clear explanation for NO3− variability likely reflects a combination of riverine biological processes and time‐varying physical transport of NO3− from upstream agricultural drains to the mainstem San Joaquin River.4. The application of an in situ optical NO3− sensor along with discrete samples provides a view into the fine temporal structure of hydrochemical data and may allow for greater accuracy in pollution assessment.

  1. Documentation of a groundwater flow model (SJRRPGW) for the San Joaquin River Restoration Program study area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traum, Jonathan A.; Phillips, Steven P.; Bennett, George L.; Zamora, Celia; Metzger, Loren F.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the potential effects of restoration flows on existing drainage problems, anticipated as a result of the San Joaquin River Restoration Program (SJRRP), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), developed a groundwater flow model (SJRRPGW) of the SJRRP study area that is within 5 miles of the San Joaquin River and adjacent bypass system from Friant Dam to the Merced River. The primary goal of the SJRRP is to reestablish the natural ecology of the river to a degree that restores salmon and other fish populations. Increased flows in the river, particularly during the spring salmon run, are a key component of the restoration effort. A potential consequence of these increased river flows is the exacerbation of existing irrigation drainage problems along a section of the river between Mendota and the confluence with the Merced River. Historically, this reach typically was underlain by a water table within 10 feet of the land surface, thus requiring careful irrigation management and (or) artificial drainage to maintain crop health. The SJRRPGW is designed to meet the short-term needs of the SJRRP; future versions of the model may incorporate potential enhancements, several of which are identified in this report. The SJRRPGW was constructed using the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW and was built on the framework of the USGS Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM) within which the SJRRPGW model domain is embedded. The Farm Process (FMP2) was used to simulate the supply and demand components of irrigated agriculture. The Streamflow-Routing Package (SFR2) was used to simulate the streams and bypasses and their interaction with the aquifer system. The 1,300-square mile study area was subdivided into 0.25-mile by 0.25-mile cells. The sediment texture of the aquifer system, which was used to distribute hydraulic properties by model cell, was refined from that used in the CVHM to better represent

  2. An introduction to high-frequency nutrient and biogeochemical monitoring for the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Downing, Bryan D.

    2017-07-11

    Executive SummaryThis report is the first in a series of three reports that provide information about high-frequency (HF) nutrient and biogeochemical monitoring in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta of northern California (Delta). This first report provides an introduction to the reasons for and fundamental concepts behind collecting HF measurements, and describes the benefits associated with a real-time, continuous, HF, multi-parameter water quality monitoring station network that is co-located with flow stations. It then provides examples of how HF nutrient measurements have improved our understating of nutrient sources and cycling in aquatic systems worldwide, followed by specific examples from the Delta. These examples describe the ways in which HF instrumentation may be used for both fixed-station and spatial assessments. The overall intent of this document is to describe how HF measurements currently (2017) are being used in the Delta to examine the relationship between nutrient concentrations, nutrient cycling, and aquatic habitat conditions.The second report in the series (Downing and others, 2017) summarizes information about HF nutrient and associated biogeochemical monitoring in the northern Delta. The report synthesizes data available from the nutrient and water quality monitoring network currently operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in this ecologically important region of the Delta. In the report, we present and discuss the available data at various timescales—first, at the monthly, seasonal, and inter-annual timescales; and, second, for comparison, at the tidal and event (for example, storms, reservoir releases, phytoplankton blooms) timescales. As expected, we determined that there is substantial variability in nitrate concentrations at short timescales within hours, but also significant variability at longer timescales such as months or years. This multi-scale, high variability affects calculation of fluxes and loads, indicating that HF

  3. Updates on Water Use of Pistachio Orchards Grown in the San Joaquin Valley of California on Saline Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaria, Daniele; Marino, Giulia; Whiting, Michael; Sanden, Blake; Ferguson, Louise; Lampinen, Bruce; Kent, Eric; Snyder, Richard; Grattan, Stephen; Little, Cayle

    2017-04-01

    Pistachio acreage is rapidly expanding in California thanks to its economic profitability and capacity to grow and produce in salt-affected soils. Our team at University of California is updating information on actual water use (ET) of mature pistachio orchards grown on saline soils under micro-irrigation methods. Actual Evapotranspiration (ETa) and Crop Coefficients (Ka) were determined for the 2015 and 2016 crop seasons on four pistachio orchards grown in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) on grounds with increasing levels of soil-water salinity, using the residual of energy balance method with a combination of eddy covariance and surface renewal equipment. Tree canopy cover, light interception, and plant water status across the orchards were also measured and evaluated. Our preliminary results show that salinity strongly affects the tree water use, resulting in 10-30% less ET for medium to high salt-affected soils. Salinity also showed a strong effect on tree water status and light interception, as suggested by values of the Midday Stem Water Potential (ΨSWP) around 10 to 15-bar lower in salt-affected than in the control orchard, and by the intercepted Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) decreasing from 75% in the control orchard to 25% in the severely salt affected grounds. The crop coefficient values we observed in this study are lower than those commonly used for irrigation scheduling in the SJV, suggesting that pistachio growers could better tailor irrigation management to the actual site-specific orchard conditions (e.g. canopy features and soil-water salinity) if they are provided updated information. Improved irrigation practices could likely lead to significant water savings and thus improve the resource-efficiency and competitiveness of pistachio production in the SJV. Keywords: Pistacia vera L., salinity, stem water potential, surface renewal, canopy cover.

  4. A Note on the Effect of Wind Waves on Vertical Mixing in Franks Tract, Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L. Jones

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional numerical model that simulates the effects of whitecapping waves was used to investigate the importance of whitecapping waves to vertical mixing at a 3-meter-deep site in Franks Tract in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta over an 11-day period. Locally-generated waves of mean period approximately 2 s were generated under strong wind conditions; significant wave heights ranged from 0 to 0.3 m. A surface turbulent kinetic energy flux was used to model whitecapping waves during periods when wind speeds > 5 m s-1 (62% of observations. The surface was modeled as a wind stress log-layer for the remaining 38% of the observations. The model results demonstrated that under moderate wind conditions (5–8 m s-1 at 10 m above water level, and hence moderate wave heights, whitecapping waves provided the dominant source of turbulent kinetic energy to only the top 10% of the water column. Under stronger wind (> 8 m s-1, and hence larger wave conditions, whitecapping waves provided the dominant source of turbulent kinetic energy over a larger portion of the water column; however, this region extended to the bottom half of the water column for only 7% of the observation period. The model results indicated that phytoplankton concentrations close to the bed were unlikely to be affected by the whitecapping of waves, and that the formation of concentration boundary layers due to benthic grazing was unlikely to be disrupted by whitecapping waves. Furthermore, vertical mixing of suspended sediment was unlikely to be affected by whitecapping waves under the conditions experienced during the 11-day experiment. Instead, the bed stress provided by tidal currents was the dominant source of turbulent kinetic energy over the bottom half of the water column for the majority of the 11-day period.

  5. Distribution and Habitat Associations of California Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis cortuniculus in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danika C. Tsao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2015v13iss4art4Past studies documenting the distribution and status of state “Threatened" California black rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus; hereafter black rail have largely omitted the Sacramento—San Joaquin Delta (hereafter Delta. During March to May of 2009–2011, we conducted call–playback surveys to assess the status of the species within a wide range of wetland habitats of the central Delta region. We detected black rails at 21 of 107 discrete wetland sites, primarily on in-channel islands with dense cover. To better understand the habitat and land cover characteristics, we developed a model of habitat suitability from these occurrence data and a fine-scale vegetation and land use dataset using MaxEnt. We also evaluated differences in the size of wetlands at sites where black rails were detected versus where they were not. Through surveys and quantitative modeling, we found black rail presence differed from other regions within California and Arizona, in that it was positively associated with tall (1 to 5 m emergent vegetation interspersed with riparian shrubs. Specific plants correlated with black rail presence included emergent wetland (Bolboschoenus acutus, B. californicus, B. acutus, Typha angustifolia, T. latifolia, Phragmites australis and riparian (Salix exigua, S. lasiolepis, Rosa californica, Rubus discolor, Cornus sericea species. Median patch size was significantly larger and perimeter-to-area ratios were significantly lower at wetland sites where black rails were found. These results provide a preliminary characterization of black rail habitat in the Delta region and highlight the need for better understanding of this listed species’ population size and habitat use in the region, in light of anticipated climate change effects and proposed large-scale restoration in the Delta.

  6. Ammonia and Methane Dairy Emission Plumes in the San Joaquin Valley of California from Individual Feedlot to Regional Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David J.; Sun, Kang; Pan, Da; Zondlo, Mark A.; Nowak, John B.; Liu, Zhen; Diskin, Glenn; Sachse, Glen; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Ferrare, Richard; hide

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions are highly uncertain, with high spatiotemporal variability and a lack of widespread in situ measurements. Regional NH3 emission estimates using mass balance or emission ratio approaches are uncertain due to variable NH3 sources and sinks as well as unknown plume correlations with other dairy source tracers. We characterize the spatial distributions of NH3 and methane (CH4) dairy plumes using in situ surface and airborne measurements in the Tulare dairy feedlot region of the San Joaquin Valley, California, during the NASA Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality 2013 field campaign. Surface NH3 and CH4 mixing ratios exhibit large variability with maxima localized downwind of individual dairy feedlots. The geometric mean NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio derived from surface measurements is 0.15 +/- 0.03 ppmv ppmv-1. Individual dairy feedlots with spatially distinct NH3 and CH4 source pathways led to statistically significant correlations between NH3 and CH4 in 68% of the 69 downwind plumes sampled. At longer sampling distances, the NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio decreases 20-30%, suggesting the potential for NH3 deposition as a loss term for plumes within a few kilometers downwind of feedlots. Aircraft boundary layer transect measurements directly above surface mobile measurements in the dairy region show comparable gradients and geometric mean enhancement ratios within measurement uncertainties, even when including NH3 partitioning to submicron particles. Individual NH3 and CH4 plumes sampled at close proximity where losses are minimal are not necessarily correlated due to lack of mixing and distinct source pathways. Our analyses have important implications for constraining NH3 sink and plume variability influences on regional NH3 emission estimates and for improving NH3 emission inventory spatial allocations.

  7. Resource intensification and osteoarthritis patterns: changes in activity in the prehistoric Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheverko, Colleen M; Bartelink, Eric J

    2017-10-01

    Ethnohistoric accounts and archaeological research from Central California document a shift from the use of lower-cost, high-ranked resources (e.g., large game) toward the greater use of higher-cost, low-ranked resources (e.g., acorns and small seeds) during the Late Holocene (4500-200 BP). The subsistence transition from higher consumption of large game toward an increased reliance on acorns was likely associated with increases in levels of logistical mobility and physical activity. This study predicts that mobility and overall workload patterns changed during this transition to accommodate new food procurement strategies and incorporate new dietary resources during the Late Holocene in Central California. Osteoarthritis prevalence was scored in the shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee of adult individuals (n = 256) from seven archaeological sites in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region. Comparisons were made between osteoarthritis prevalence, sex, age-at-death, and time period using ANCOVAs. The results of this study indicate significant increases in osteoarthritis prevalence in the hip of adult males and females during the Late Period (1200-200 BP), even after correcting for the cumulative effects of age. No differences were observed between the sexes or between time periods for the shoulder, elbow, and knee joints. The temporal increase in hip osteoarthritis supports the hypothesis that there was an increasing need for greater logistical mobility over time to procure key resources away from the village sites. Additionally, the lack of sex differences in osteoarthritis prevalence may suggest that females and males likely performed similar levels of activity during these periods. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Evaluation of the potential for artificial ground-water recharge in eastern San Joaquin County, California; Phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1987-01-01

    Infiltration tests were used to evaluate the potential of basin spreading surface water as a means of artificially recharging the aquifer system in eastern San Joaquin County, California. Two infiltration sites near Lockeford and Linden were selected on the basis of information collected during the first two phases of the study. Data from the infiltration tests indicate that the two sites are acceptable for recharge by the basin-spreading method. Infiltration rates ranged between 6.7 and 10.5 ft/day near Lockeford and between 2.6 and 11.2 ft/day near Linden. Interpretation of these data is limited by lack of information on the response of the saturated zone during testing and by the inherent difficulty in extrapolating the results of small-scale tests to larger long-term operations. Lithology is a major factor that controls infiltration rates at the test sites. The unsaturated zone is characterized by heterogeneous layers of coarse- and fine- grained materials. Clay layers of low hydraulic conductivity commonly form discontinuous lenses that may cause a transient perched water table to develop during recharge. Water level measurements from wells screened in the unsaturated zone indicate that the perched water table could reach the land surface after 2 and 5 months of recharge near Lockeford and Linden, respectively. These figures probably represent the minimum time necessary for saturation of the land. Another major factor that affects infiltration rates is the quality of the recharge water, particularly the suspended sediment content. The clogging action of suspended sediment may be minimized by: (1) pretreatment of recharge water in a settling pond, (2) adherence to a routine program of monitoring and maintenance, and (3) proper design of the recharge facility. Other factors that affect infiltration rates include basin excavation technique, basin shape, and maintenance procedures. Efficient operation of the recharge facility requires careful attention to the

  9. Determining Water Quality Trends in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Watershed in the Face of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynett, K.; Azimi-Gaylon, S.; Doidic, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and Suisun Marsh (Delta) is the largest estuary on the West Coast of the Americas and is a resource of local, State, and national significance. The Delta is simultaneously the most critical component of California's water supply, a primary focus of the state's ecological conservation measures, and a vital resource deeply imperiled by degraded water quality. Delta waterbodies are identified as impaired by salinity, excess nutrients, low dissolved oxygen, pathogens, pesticides, heavy metals, and other contaminants. Climate change is expected to exacerbate the impacts of existing stressors in the Delta and magnify the challenges of managing this natural resource. A clear understanding of the current state of the watershed is needed to better inform scientists, decision makers, and the public about potential impacts from climate change. The Delta Watershed Initiative Network (Delta WIN) leverages the ecological benefits of healthy watersheds, and enhances, expands and creates opportunities for greater watershed health by coordinating with agencies, established programs, and local organizations. At this critical junction, Delta WIN is coordinating data integration and analysis to develop better understanding of the existing and emerging water quality concerns. As first steps, Delta WIN is integrating existing water quality data, analyzing trends, and monitoring to fill data gaps and to evaluate indicators of climate change impacts. Available data will be used for trend analysis; Delta WIN will continue to monitor where data is incomplete and new questions arise. Understanding how climate change conditions may affect water quality will be used to inform efforts to build resilience and maintain water quality levels which sustain aquatic life and human needs. Assessments of historical and new data will aid in recognition of potential climate change impacts and in initiating implementation of best management practices in collaboration with

  10. Variability of indicator values for ozone production sensitivity: a model study in Switzerland and San Joaquin Valley (California)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreani-Aksoyoglu, S.; Keller, J.; Prevot, A.S.H.; Chenghsuan Lu; Chang, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The threshold values of indicator species and ratios delineating the transition between NO x and VOC sensitivity of ozone formation are assumed to be universal by various investigators. However, our previous studies suggested that threshold values might vary according to the locations and conditions. In this study, threshold values derived from various model simulations at two different locations (the area of Switzerland by UAM Model and San Joaquin Valley of Central California by SAQM Model) are examined using a new approach for defining NO x and VOC sensitive regimes. Possible definitions for the distinction of NO x and VOC sensitive ozone production regimes are given. The dependence of the threshold values for indicators and indicator ratios such as NO y , O 3 /NO z , HCHO/NO y , and H 2 O 2 /HNO 3 on the definition of NO x and VOC sensitivity is discussed. Then the variations of threshold values under low emission conditions and in two different days are examined in both areas to check whether the models respond consistently to changes in environmental conditions. In both cases, threshold values are shifted similarly when emissions are reduced. Changes in the wind fields and aging of the photochemical oxidants seem to cause the day-to-day variation of the threshold values. O 3 /NO z and HCHO/NO y indicators are predicted to be unsatisfactory to separate the NO x and VOC sensitive regimes. Although NO y and H 2 O 2 /HNO 3 provide a good separation of the two regimes, threshold values are affected by changes in the environmental conditions studied in this work. (author)

  11. Mapping Evapotranspiration in the Sacramento San Joaquin Delta using simulated ECOSTRESS Thermal Data: Validation and Inter-comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, A.; Jin, Y.; He, R.; Hulley, G.; Fisher, J.; Lee, C. M.; Rivera, G.; Hook, S. J.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Kent, E. R.; Paw U, K. T.; Gao, F.; Lund, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Irrigation accounts for 80% of human freshwater consumption, and most of it return to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration (ET). In California, where our water resources are limited and heavily utilized, the need for a cost-effective, timely, and consistent spatial estimate of crop ET, from the farm to watershed level, is becoming increasingly important. The ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS), to be launched in mid-2018, will provide the most detailed and accurate temperature measurements ever acquired from space and thus unique opportunities for estimating ET at the farm scale. We simulated the ECOSTRESS thermal data at a 70 m resolution using VIIRS thermal observations and ASTER emissivity data in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region for the 2016 water year. Three remote sensing based ET methods were then applied to estimate ET using simulated ECOSTRESS data and optical data from Landsat and VIIRS, including Priestley-Taylor approaches developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) and by UC Davis (PT-UCD), and the Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC) model. We compared these three sets of ET estimates with field measurements at sixteen sites over five crop types (Alfalfa, Corn, Pasture, Tomato, and Beardless Wheat). Good agreement was found between satellite-based estimates and field measurements. Our results demonstrate that thermal data from the upcoming ECOSTRESS mission will reduce the uncertainty in ET estimates. A continuous monitoring of the dynamics and spatial heterogeneity of consumptive water use at a field scale will help prepare and inform to adaptively manage water, canopy, and planting density to maximize yield with least amount of water.

  12. Plant community, primary productivity, and environmental conditions following wetland re-establishment in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.L.; Fujii, R.

    2010-01-01

    Wetland restoration can mitigate aerobic decomposition of subsided organic soils, as well as re-establish conditions favorable for carbon storage. Rates of carbon storage result from the balance of inputs and losses, both of which are affected by wetland hydrology. We followed the effect of water depth (25 and 55 cm) on the plant community, primary production, and changes in two re-established wetlands in the Sacramento San-Joaquin River Delta, California for 9 years after flooding to determine how relatively small differences in water depth affect carbon storage rates over time. To estimate annual carbon inputs, plant species cover, standing above- and below-ground plant biomass, and annual biomass turnover rates were measured, and allometric biomass models for Schoenoplectus (Scirpus) acutus and Typha spp., the emergent marsh dominants, were developed. As the wetlands developed, environmental factors, including water temperature, depth, and pH were measured. Emergent marsh vegetation colonized the shallow wetland more rapidly than the deeper wetland. This is important to potential carbon storage because emergent marsh vegetation is more productive, and less labile, than submerged and floating vegetation. Primary production of emergent marsh vegetation ranged from 1.3 to 3.2 kg of carbon per square meter annually; and, mid-season standing live biomass represented about half of the annual primary production. Changes in species composition occurred in both submerged and emergent plant communities as the wetlands matured. Water depth, temperature, and pH were lower in areas with emergent marsh vegetation compared to submerged vegetation, all of which, in turn, can affect carbon cycling and storage rates. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  13. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule Groundwater Basins and adjacent highlands areas, Southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-01-18

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule groundwater basins and adjacent highlands areas of the southern San Joaquin Valley constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  14. Sensitivity of agricultural runoff loads to rising levels of CO{sub 2} and climate change in the San Joaquin Valley watershed of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ficklin, Darren L.; Luo Yuzhou; Luedeling, Eike; Gatzke, Sarah E. [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Zhang Minghua, E-mail: mhzhang@ucdavis.ed [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to assess the impact of climate change on sediment, nitrate, phosphorus and pesticide (diazinon and chlorpyrifos) runoff in the San Joaquin watershed in California. This study used modeling techniques that include variations of CO{sub 2}, temperature, and precipitation to quantify these responses. Precipitation had a greater impact on agricultural runoff compared to changes in either CO{sub 2} concentration or temperature. Increase of precipitation by +-10% and +-20% generally changed agricultural runoff proportionally. Solely increasing CO{sub 2} concentration resulted in an increase in nitrate, phosphorus, and chlorpyrifos yield by 4.2, 7.8, and 6.4%, respectively, and a decrease in sediment and diazinon yield by 6.3 and 5.3%, respectively, in comparison to the present-day reference scenario. Only increasing temperature reduced yields of all agricultural runoff components. The results suggest that agricultural runoff in the San Joaquin watershed is sensitive to precipitation, temperature, and CO{sub 2} concentration changes. - Agricultural runoff is significantly affected by changes in precipitation, temperature, and atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration.

  15. Changes in sediment and organic carbon accumulation in a highly-disturbed ecosystem: The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (California, USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Lerberg, Elizabeth J.; Dickhut, Rebecca M.; Kuehl, Steven A.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Wakeham, Stuart G.

    2009-01-01

    We used the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta CA (Delta, hereafter) as a model system for understanding how human activities influence the delivery of sediment and total organic carbon (TOC) over the past 50-60 years. Sediment cores were collected from sites within the Delta representing the Sacramento River (SAC), the San Joaquin River (SJR), and Franks Tract (FT), a flooded agricultural tract. A variety of anthropogenic tracers including 137 Cs, total DDE (ΣDDE) and brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) congeners were used to quantify sediment accumulation rates. This information was combined with total organic carbon (TOC) profiles to quantify rates of TOC accumulation. Across the three sites, sediment and TOC accumulation rates were four to eight-fold higher prior to 1972. Changes in sediment and TOC accumulation were coincident with completion of several large reservoirs and increased agriculture and urbanization in the Delta watershed. Radiocarbon content of TOC indicated that much of the carbon delivered to the Delta is 'pre-aged' reflecting processing in the Delta watershed or during transport to the sites rather than an input of predominantly contemporary carbon (e.g., 900-1400 years BP in surface sediments and 2200 yrs BP and 3610 yrs BP at the base of the SJR and FT cores, respectively). Together, these data suggest that human activities have altered the amount and age of TOC accumulating in the Delta since the 1940s.

  16. Sensitivity of agricultural runoff loads to rising levels of CO2 and climate change in the San Joaquin Valley watershed of California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ficklin, Darren L.; Luo Yuzhou; Luedeling, Eike; Gatzke, Sarah E.; Zhang Minghua

    2010-01-01

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to assess the impact of climate change on sediment, nitrate, phosphorus and pesticide (diazinon and chlorpyrifos) runoff in the San Joaquin watershed in California. This study used modeling techniques that include variations of CO 2 , temperature, and precipitation to quantify these responses. Precipitation had a greater impact on agricultural runoff compared to changes in either CO 2 concentration or temperature. Increase of precipitation by ±10% and ±20% generally changed agricultural runoff proportionally. Solely increasing CO 2 concentration resulted in an increase in nitrate, phosphorus, and chlorpyrifos yield by 4.2, 7.8, and 6.4%, respectively, and a decrease in sediment and diazinon yield by 6.3 and 5.3%, respectively, in comparison to the present-day reference scenario. Only increasing temperature reduced yields of all agricultural runoff components. The results suggest that agricultural runoff in the San Joaquin watershed is sensitive to precipitation, temperature, and CO 2 concentration changes. - Agricultural runoff is significantly affected by changes in precipitation, temperature, and atmospheric CO 2 concentration.

  17. Modeling tidal freshwater marsh sustainability in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta under a broad suite of potential future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Kathleen M.; Drexler, Judith Z.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the adaptation and application of a one-dimensional marsh surface elevation model, the Wetland Accretion Rate Model of Ecosystem Resilience (WARMER), to explore the conditions that lead to sustainable tidal freshwater marshes in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. We defined marsh accretion parameters to encapsulate the range of observed values over historic and modern time-scales based on measurements from four marshes in high and low energy fluvial environments as well as possible future trends in sediment supply and mean sea level. A sensitivity analysis of 450 simulations was conducted encompassing a range of eScholarship provides open access, scholarly publishing services to the University of California and delivers a dynamic research platform to scholars worldwide. porosity values, initial elevations, organic and inorganic matter accumulation rates, and sea-level rise rates. For the range of inputs considered, the magnitude of SLR over the next century was the primary driver of marsh surface elevation change. Sediment supply was the secondary control. More than 84% of the scenarios resulted in sustainable marshes with 88 cm of SLR by 2100, but only 32% and 11% of the scenarios resulted in surviving marshes when SLR was increased to 133 cm and 179 cm, respectively. Marshes situated in high-energy zones were marginally more resilient than those in low-energy zones because of their higher inorganic sediment supply. Overall, the results from this modeling exercise suggest that marshes at the upstream reaches of the Delta—where SLR may be attenuated—and high energy marshes along major channels with high inorganic sediment accumulation rates will be more resilient to global SLR in excess of 88 cm over the next century than their downstream and low-energy counterparts. However, considerable uncertainties exist in the projected rates of sea-level rise and sediment avail-ability. In addition, more research is needed to constrain future

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration potential in restored freshwater marshes in the Sacramento San-Joaquin Delta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, S. H.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Oikawa, P. Y.; Matthes, J. H.; Dronova, I.; Anderson, F. E.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Wetlands can be effective carbon sinks due to limited decomposition rates in anaerobic soil. As such there is a growing interest in the use of restored wetlands as biological carbon sequestration projects for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction programs. However, using wetlands to offset emissions requires accurate accounting of both carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) exchange since wetlands are also sources of CH4. To date few studies have quantified CO2 and CH4 exchange from restored wetlands or assessed how these fluxes vary during ecosystem development. In this study, we report on multiple years of eddy covariance measurements of CO2 and CH4 fluxes from two restored freshwater marshes of differing ages (one restored in 1997 and the other in 2010) in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, CA. Measurements at the younger restored wetland started in October 2010 and began in April 2011 at the older site. The younger restored wetland showed considerable year-to-year variability in the first 4 years following restoration, with CO2 uptake ranging from 12 to 420 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1. Net CO2 uptake at the older wetland was overall greater than at the younger site, ranging from 292 to 585 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1. Methane emissions were on average higher at the younger wetland (46 g C-CH4 m-2 yr-1) relative to the older one (33 g C-CH4 m-2 yr-1). In terms of the GHG budgets (assuming a global warming potential of 34), the younger wetland was consistently a GHG source, emitting on average 1439 g CO2 eq m-2 yr-1, while the older wetland was a GHG sink in two of the years of measurement (sequestering 651 and 780 g CO2 eq m-2 yr-1 in 2012 and 2013, respectively) and a source of 750 g CO2 eq m-2 yr-1 in 2014. This study highlights how dynamic CO2 and CH4 fluxes are in the first years following wetland restoration and suggests that restored wetlands have the potential to act as GHG sinks but this may depend on time since restoration.

  19. Implications for sustainability of a changing agricultural mosaic in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, C. E.; Deverel, S. J.; Jacobs, P.; Kelsey, R.

    2015-12-01

    Transformed from the largest wetland system on the west coast of the United States to agriculture, the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is an extreme teaching example of anthropogenic threats to sustainability. For over 6,000 years, over 280,000 ha of intertidal freshwater marsh accreted due to seal level rise and sediment deposition. Farming of organic soils since 1850 resulted in land subsidence caused primarily by oxidation. Over 2 billion cubic meters of soil were lost resulting in elevations on Delta islands ranging from -1 to -8 m and increased risk of levee failures and water supply disruption. Alteration of water flows and habitat caused dramatic declines in aquatic species. A cycle in which oxidation of organic soils leads to deepening of drainage ditches to maintain an aerated root zone which in turn results in sustained oxidation and subsidence is perpetuated by the momentum of the status quo despite evidence that agricultural practices are increasingly unsustainable. Flooding of the soils breaks the oxidation/subsidence cycle. We assessed alternate land uses and the carbon market as a potential impetus for change. Using the peer-reviewed and locally calibrated SUBCALC model, we estimated net global warming potential for a range of scenarios for a representative island, from status quo to incorporating significant proportions of subsidence-mitigating land use. We analyzed economic implications by determining profit losses or gains when a simulated GHG offset market is available for wetlands using a regional agricultural production and economic optimization model, We estimated baseline GHG emissions at about 60,000 tons CO2-e per year. In contrast, modeled implementation of rice and wetlands resulted in substantial emissions reductions to the island being a net GHG sink. Subsidence would be arrested or reversed where these land uses are implemented. Results of economic modeling reveal that conversion to wetlands can have significant negative farm financial

  20. Civilizing the Conversation? Using Surveys to Inform Water Management and Science in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, E.; Phillips Chappelle, C.

    2013-12-01

    Improving ecosystem outcomes in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is a complex, high-stakes water resource management challenge. The Delta is a major hub for water supply conveyance and a valued ecological resource. Yet long-term declines in native fish populations have resulted in severe legal constraints on water exports and fueled growing public debates about the roles and responsibilities of flow modification and other sources of ecosystem stress. Meanwhile, scientific uncertainty, and the inability of the scientific community to effectively communicate what *is* known, has frustrated policymakers and encouraged 'combat science' - the commissioning and use of competing scientific opinions in the courtroom. This paper summarizes results from a study designed to inform the policy process through the use of confidential surveys of scientific researchers (those publishing in peer-reviewed journals, n=122) and engaged stakeholders and policymakers (n=240). The surveys, conducted in mid-2012, sought respondents' views on the sources of ecosystem stress and priority ecosystem management actions. The scientist survey is an example of the growing use of expert elicitation to address gaps in the scientific literature, particularly where there is uncertainty about priorities for decisionmaking (e.g., Cvitanovic et al. 2013, J. of Env. Mgmt; McDaniels et al. 2012, Risk Analysis). The stakeholder survey is a useful complement, enabling the identification of areas of consensus and divergence among stakeholder groups and between these groups and scientific experts. The results suggest such surveys are a promising tool for addressing complex water management problems. We found surprisingly high agreement among scientists on the relative roles of stressors and the most promising management actions; they emphasized restoring more natural processes through habitat and flow actions within the watershed, consistent with 'reconciliation ecology' approaches (Rosenzweig 2003

  1. Subsidence Reversal in a Re-established Wetland in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L. Miller

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The stability of levees in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is threatened by continued subsidence of Delta peat islands. Up to 6 meters of land-surface elevation has been lost in the 150 years since Delta marshes were leveed and drained, primarily from oxidation of peat soils. Flooding subsided peat islands halts peat oxidation by creating anoxic soils, but net accumulation of new material in restored wetlands is required to recover land-surface elevations. We investigated the subsidence reversal potential of two 3 hectare, permanently flooded, impounded wetlands re-established on a deeply subsided field on Twitchell Island. The shallower wetland (design water depth 25 cm was almost completely colonized by dense emergent marsh vegetation within two years; whereas, the deeper wetland (design water depth 55 cm which developed spatially variable depths as a result of heterogeneous colonization by emergent vegetation, still had some areas remaining as open water after nine years. Changes in land-surface elevation were quantified using repeated sedimentation-erosion table measurements. New material accumulating in the wetlands was sampled by coring. Land-surface elevations increased by an average of 4 cm/yr in both wetlands from 1997 to 2006; however, the rates at different sites in the wetlands ranged from -0.5 to +9.2 cm/yr. Open water areas of the deeper wetland without emergent vegetation had the lowest rates of land-surface elevation gain. The greatest rates occurred in areas of the deeper wetland most isolated from the river water inlets, with dense stands of emergent marsh vegetation (tules and cattails. Vegetated areas of the deeper wetland in the transition zones between open water and mature emergent stands had intermediate rates of land-surface gain, as did the entire shallower wetland. These results suggest that the dominant component contributing to land-surface elevation gain in these wetlands was accumulation of organic matter, rather

  2. Riverine Nutrient Trends in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Basins, California: A Comparison to State and Regional Water Quality Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Schlegel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/1015447/sfews.2015v13iss4art2Non-point source (NPS contaminant control strategies were initiated in California in the late 1980s under the authority of the State Porter–Cologne Act and eventually for the development of total maximum daily load (TMDL plans, under the federal Clean Water Act. Most of the NPS TMDLs developed for California’s Central Valley (CV region were related to pesticides, but not nutrients. Efforts to reduce pesticide loads and concentrations began in earnest around 1990. The NPS control strategies either encouraged or mandated the use of management practices (MPs. Although TMDLs were largely developed for pesticides, the resultant MPs might have affected the runoff of other potential contaminants (such as nutrients. This study evaluates the effect of agricultural NPS control strategies implemented in California’s CV before and between 1990 and 2013, on nutrients, by comparing trends in surface-water concentrations and loads. In general, use of MPs was encouraged during a “voluntary” period (1990 to 2004 and mandated during an “enforcement” period (2004 to 2013. Nutrient concentrations, loads, and trends were estimated by using a recently developed Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS model. Sufficient total phosphorus (TP, total nitrogen (TN, and nitrate (NO3 data were available to compare the voluntary and enforcement periods for twelve sites within the lower Sacramento and San Joaquin basins. Ammonia concentrations and fluxes were evaluated at a subset of these sites. For six of these sites, flow-normalized mean annual concentrations of TP or NO3 decreased at a faster rate during the enforcement period than during the voluntary period. Concentration changes during similar years and ranges of flow conditions suggest that MPs designed for pesticides may also have reduced nutrient loads. Results show that enforceable NPS policies, and accelerated MP implementation

  3. Erosion characteristics and horizontal variability for small erosion depths in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhamer, David H.; Manning, Andrew J.; Work, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Erodibility of cohesive sediment in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (Delta) was investigated with an erosion microcosm. Erosion depths in the Delta and in the microcosm were estimated to be about one floc diameter over a range of shear stresses and times comparable to half of a typical tidal cycle. Using the conventional assumption of horizontally homogeneous bed sediment, data from 27 of 34 microcosm experiments indicate that the erosion rate coefficient increased as eroded mass increased, contrary to theory. We believe that small erosion depths, erosion rate coefficient deviation from theory, and visual observation of horizontally varying biota and texture at the sediment surface indicate that erosion cannot solely be a function of depth but must also vary horizontally. We test this hypothesis by developing a simple numerical model that includes horizontal heterogeneity, use it to develop an artificial time series of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) in an erosion microcosm, then analyze that time series assuming horizontal homogeneity. A shear vane was used to estimate that the horizontal standard deviation of critical shear stress was about 30% of the mean value at a site in the Delta. The numerical model of the erosion microcosm included a normal distribution of initial critical shear stress, a linear increase in critical shear stress with eroded mass, an exponential decrease of erosion rate coefficient with eroded mass, and a stepped increase in applied shear stress. The maximum SSC for each step increased gradually, thus confounding identification of a single well-defined critical shear stress as encountered with the empirical data. Analysis of the artificial SSC time series with the assumption of a homogeneous bed reproduced the original profile of critical shear stress, but the erosion rate coefficient increased with eroded mass, similar to the empirical data. Thus, the numerical experiment confirms the small-depth erosion hypothesis. A linear

  4. Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis for Streamflow Prediction Using Different Objective Functions and Optimization Algorithms: San Joaquin California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M.; Negahban-Azar, M.

    2017-12-01

    The hydrologic models usually need to be calibrated against observed streamflow at the outlet of a particular drainage area through a careful model calibration. However, a large number of parameters are required to fit in the model due to their unavailability of the field measurement. Therefore, it is difficult to calibrate the model for a large number of potential uncertain model parameters. This even becomes more challenging if the model is for a large watershed with multiple land uses and various geophysical characteristics. Sensitivity analysis (SA) can be used as a tool to identify most sensitive model parameters which affect the calibrated model performance. There are many different calibration and uncertainty analysis algorithms which can be performed with different objective functions. By incorporating sensitive parameters in streamflow simulation, effects of the suitable algorithm in improving model performance can be demonstrated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) modeling. In this study, the SWAT was applied in the San Joaquin Watershed in California covering 19704 km2 to calibrate the daily streamflow. Recently, sever water stress escalating due to intensified climate variability, prolonged drought and depleting groundwater for agricultural irrigation in this watershed. Therefore it is important to perform a proper uncertainty analysis given the uncertainties inherent in hydrologic modeling to predict the spatial and temporal variation of the hydrologic process to evaluate the impacts of different hydrologic variables. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and uncertainty of the calibrated parameters for predicting streamflow. To evaluate the sensitivity of the calibrated parameters three different optimization algorithms (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting- SUFI-2, Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation- GLUE and Parameter Solution- ParaSol) were used with four different objective functions (coefficient of determination

  5. Electrical resistivity investigation of fluvial geomorphology to evaluate potential seepage conduits to agricultural lands along the San Joaquin River, Merced County, California, 2012–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groover, Krishangi D.; Burgess, Matthew K.; Howle, James F.; Phillips, Steven P.

    2017-02-08

    Increased flows in the San Joaquin River, part of the San Joaquin River Restoration Program, are designed to help restore fish populations. However, increased seepage losses could result from these higher restoration flows, which could exacerbate existing drainage problems in neighboring agricultural lands and potentially damage crops. Channel deposits of abandoned river meanders that are hydraulically connected to the river could act as seepage conduits, allowing rapid and widespread water-table rise during restoration flows. There is a need to identify the geometry and properties of these channel deposits to assess their role in potential increased seepage effects and to evaluate management alternatives for reducing seepage. Electrical and electromagnetic surface geophysical methods have provided a reliable proxy for lithology in studies of fluvial and hyporheic systems where a sufficient electrical contrast exists between deposits of differing grain size. In this study, direct-current (DC) resistivity was used to measure subsurface resistivity to identify channel deposits and to map their subsurface geometry. The efficacy of this method was assessed by using DC resistivity surveys collected along a reach of the San Joaquin River in Merced County, California, during the summers of 2012 and 2013, in conjunction with borings and associated measurements from a hydraulic profiling tool. Modeled DC resistivity data corresponded with data from cores, hand-auger samples, a hydraulic profiling tool, and aerial photographs, confirming that DC resistivity is effective for differentiating between silt and sand deposits in this setting. Modeled DC resistivity data provided detailed two-dimensional cross-sectional resistivity profiles to a depth of about 20 meters. The distribution of high-resistivity units in these profiles was used as a proxy for identifying areas of high hydraulic conductivity. These data were used subsequently to guide the location and depth of wells

  6. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southeast San Joaquin Valley, 2005-2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,800 square-mile Southeast San Joaquin Valley study unit (SESJ) was investigated from October 2005 through February 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The SESJ study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SESJ, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Fresno, Tulare, and Kings Counties, 83 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 16 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths or across alluvial fans (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells, and the results

  7. San Joaquin River Up-Stream DO TMDL Project Task 4: MonitoringStudy Interim Task Report #3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringfellow, William; Borglin, Sharon; Dahlgren, Randy; Hanlon,Jeremy; Graham, Justin; Burks, Remie; Hutchinson, Kathleen

    2007-03-30

    The purpose of the Dissolved Oxygen Total Maximum Daily LoadProject (DO TMDLProject) is to provide a comprehensive understanding ofthe sources and fate of oxygen consuming materials in the San JoaquinRiver (SJR) watershed between Channel Point and Lander Avenue (upstreamSJR). When completed, this study will provide the stakeholders anunderstanding of the baseline conditions of the basin, provide input foran allocation decision, and provide the stakeholders with a tool formeasuring the impact of any waterquality management program that may beimplemented as part of the DO TMDL process. Previous studies haveidentified algal biomass as the most significant oxygen-demandingsubstance in the DO TMDL Project study-area between of Channel Point andLander Ave onthe SJR. Other oxygen-demanding substances found in theupstream SJR include ammonia and organic carbon from sources other thanalgae. The DO TMDL Project study-area contains municipalities, dairies,wetlands, cattle ranching, irrigated agriculture, and industries thatcould potentially contribute biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to the SJR.This study is designed to discriminate between algal BOD and othersources of BOD throughout the entire upstream SJR watershed. Algalbiomass is not a conserved substance, but grows and decays in the SJR;hence, characterization of oxygen-demanding substances in the SJR isinherently complicated and requires an integrated effort of extensivemonitoring, scientific study, and modeling. In order to achieve projectobjectives, project activities were divided into a number of Tasks withspecific goals and objectives. In this report, we present the results ofmonitoring and research conducted under Task 4 of the DO TMDL Project.The major objective of Task 4 is to collect sufficient hydrologic (flow)and water quality (WQ) data to characterize the loading of algae, otheroxygen-demanding materials, and nutrients fromindividual tributaries andsub-watersheds of the upstream SJR between Mossdale and

  8. Designing a high-frequency nutrient and biogeochemical monitoring network for the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Downing, Bryan D.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Pellerin, Brian A.

    2017-07-11

    Executive SummaryThis report is the third in a series of three reports that provide information about how high-frequency (HF) nutrient monitoring may be used to assess nutrient inputs and dynamics in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California (Delta). The purpose of this report is to provide the background, principles, and considerations for designing an HF nutrient-monitoring network for the Delta to address high-priority, nutrient-management questions. The report starts with discussion of the high-priority management questions to be addressed, continues through discussion of the questions and considerations that place demands and constraints on network design, discusses the principles applicable to network design, and concludes with the presentation of three example nutrient-monitoring network designs for the Delta. For three example network designs, we assess how they would address high-priority questions that have been identified by the Delta Regional Monitoring Program (Delta Regional Monitoring Program Technical Advisory Committee, 2015).This report, along with the other two reports of this series (Kraus and others, 2017; Downing and others, 2017), was drafted in cooperation with the Delta Regional Monitoring Program to help scientists, managers, and planners understand how HF data improve our understanding of nutrient sources and sinks, drivers, and effects in the Delta. The first report in the series (Kraus and others, 2017) provides an introduction to the reasons for and fundamental concepts behind using HF monitoring measurements, including a brief summary of nutrient status and trends in the Delta and an extensive literature review showing how and where other research and monitoring programs have used HF monitoring to improve our understanding of nutrient cycling. The report covers the various technologies available for HF nutrient monitoring and presents the different ways HF monitoring instrumentation may be used for both fixed station and spatial

  9. Diazinon and chlorpyrifos loads in precipitation and urban and agricultural storm runoff during January and February 2001 in the San Joaquin River basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Celia; Kratzer, Charles R.; Majewski, Michael S.; Knifong, Donna L.

    2003-01-01

    The application of diazinon and chlorpyrifos on dormant orchards in 2001 in the San Joaquin River Basin was 24 percent less and 3.2 times more than applications in 2000, respectively. A total of 16 sites were sampled during January and February 2001 storm events: 7 river sites, 8 precipitation sites, and 1 urban storm drain. The seven river sites were sampled weekly during nonstorm periods and more frequently during storm runoff from a total of four storms. The monitoring of storm runoff at a city storm drain in Modesto, California, occurred simultaneously with the collection of precipitation samples from eight sites during a January 2001 storm event. The highest concentrations of diazinon occurred during the storm periods for all 16 sites, and the highest concentrations of chlorpyrifos occurred during weekly nonstorm sampling for the river sites and during the January storm period for the urban storm drain and precipitation sites. A total of 60 samples (41 from river sites, 10 from precipitation sites, and 9 from the storm drain site) had diazinon concentrations greater than 0.08 ?g/L, the concentration being considered by the California Department of Fish and Game as its criterion maximum concentration for the protection of aquatic habitats. A total of 18 samples (2 from river sites, 9 from precipitation sites, and 7 from the storm drain site) exceeded the equivalent California Department of Fish and Game guideline of 0.02 ?g/L for chlorpyrifos. The total diazinon load in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis during January and February 2001 was 23.8 pounds active ingredient; of this amount, 16.9 pounds active ingredient were transported by four storms, 1.06 pounds active ingredient were transported by nonstorm events, and 5.82 pounds active ingredient were considered to be baseline loads. The total chlorpyrifos load in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis during January and February 2001 was 2.17 pounds active ingredient; of this amount, 0.702 pound active

  10. Groundwater-quality data in the Western San Joaquin Valley study unit, 2010 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Landon, Matthew K.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 2,170-square-mile Western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March to July 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The WSJV study unit was the twenty-ninth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Western San Joaquin Valley study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as parts of aquifers corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the WSJV study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the WSJV study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 58 wells in 2 study areas (Delta-Mendota subbasin and Westside subbasin) in Stanislaus, Merced, Madera, Fresno, and Kings Counties. Thirty-nine of the wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 19 wells were selected to aid in the understanding of aquifer-system flow and related groundwater-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], low-level fumigants, and pesticides and pesticide degradates

  11. Ozone Laminae and Their Entrainment Into a Valley Boundary Layer, as Observed From a Mountaintop Monitoring Station, Ozonesondes, and Aircraft Over California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faloona, I. C.; Conley, S. A.; Caputi, D.; Trousdell, J.; Chiao, S.; Eiserloh, A. J., Jr.; Clark, J.; Iraci, L. T.; Yates, E. L.; Marrero, J. E.; Ryoo, J. M.; McNamara, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    The San Joaquin Valley of California is wide ( 75 km) and long ( 400 km), and is situated under strong atmospheric subsidence due, in part, to the proximity of the midlatitude anticyclone of the Pacific High. The capping effect of this subsidence is especially prominent during the warm season when ground level ozone is a serious air quality concern across the region. While relatively clean marine boundary layer air is primarily funneled into the valley below the strong subsidence inversion at significant gaps in the upwind Coast Range mountains, airflow aloft also spills over these barriers and mixes into the valley from above. Because this transmountain flow occurs under the influence of synoptic subsidence it tends to present discrete, laminar sheets of differing air composition above the valley boundary layer. Meanwhile, although the boundary layers tend to remain shallow due to the prevailing subsidence, orographic and anabatic venting of valley boundary layer air around the basin whips up a complex admixture of regional air masses into a "buffer layer" just above the boundary layer (zi) and below the lower free troposphere. We present scalar data of widely varying lifetimes including ozone, methane, NOx, and thermodynamic observations from upwind and within the San Joaquin Valley to better explain this layering and its subsequent erosion into the valley boundary layer via entrainment. Data collected at a mountaintop monitoring station on Chews Ridge in the Coast Range, by coastal ozonesondes, and aircraft are analyzed to document the dynamic layering processes around the complex terrain surrounding the valley. Particular emphasis will be made on observational methods whereby distal ozone can be distinguished from the regional ozone to better understand the influence of exogenous sources on air quality in the valley.

  12. Land subsidence along the Delta-Mendota Canal in the northern part of the San Joaquin Valley, California, 2003-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Michelle; Brandt, Justin; Solt, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Extensive groundwater withdrawal from the unconsolidated deposits in the San Joaquin Valley caused widespread aquifer-system compaction and resultant land subsidence from 1926 to 1970—locally exceeding 8.5 meters. The importation of surface water beginning in the early 1950s through the Delta-Mendota Canal and in the early 1970s through the California Aqueduct resulted in decreased pumping, initiation of water-level recovery, and a reduced rate of compaction in some areas of the San Joaquin Valley. However, drought conditions during 1976–77 and 1987–92, and drought conditions and regulatory reductions in surface-water deliveries during 2007–10, decreased surface-water availability, causing pumping to increase, water levels to decline, and renewed compaction. Land subsidence from this compaction has reduced freeboard and flow capacity of the Delta-Mendota Canal, the California Aqueduct, and other canals that deliver irrigation water and transport floodwater. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the San Luis and Delta-Mendota Water Authority, assessed land subsidence in the vicinity of the Delta-Mendota Canal as part of an effort to minimize future subsidence-related damages to the canal. The location, magnitude, and stress regime of land-surface deformation during 2003–10 were determined by using extensometer, Global Positioning System (GPS), Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), spirit leveling, and groundwater-level data. Comparison of continuous GPS, shallow extensometer, and groundwater-level data, combined with results from a one-dimensional model, indicated the vast majority of the compaction took place beneath the Corcoran Clay, the primary regional confining unit. Land-surface deformation measurements indicated that much of the northern portion of the Delta-Mendota Canal (Clifton Court Forebay to Check 14) was fairly stable or minimally subsiding on an annual basis; some areas showed

  13. A compilation of U.S. Geological Survey pesticide concentration data for water and sediment in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta region: 1990–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Beginning around 2000, abundance indices of four pelagic fishes (delta smelt, striped bass, longfin smelt, and threadfin shad) within the San Francisco Bay and Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta began to decline sharply (Sommer and others, 2007). These declines collectively became known as the pelagic organism decline (POD). No single cause has been linked to this decline, and current theories suggest that combinations of multiple stressors are likely to blame. Contaminants (including current-use pesticides) are one potential stressor being investigated for its role in the POD (Anderson, 2007). Pesticide concentration data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at multiple sites in the delta region over the past two decades are critical to understanding the potential effects of current-use pesticides on species of concern as well as the overall health of the delta ecosystem. In April 2010, a compilation of contaminant data for the delta region was published by the State Water Resources Control Board (Johnson and others, 2010). Pesticide occurrence was the major focus of this report, which concluded that “there was insufficient high quality data available to make conclusions about the potential role of specific contaminants in the POD.” The report cited multiple sources; however, data collected by the USGS were not included in the publication even though these data met all criteria listed for inclusion in the report. What follows is a summary of publicly available USGS data for pesticide concentrations in surface water and sediments within the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta region from the years 1990 through 2010. Data were retrieved though the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) database, a publicly available online-data repository (U.S. Geological Survey, 1998), and from published USGS reports (also available online at http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/). The majority of the data were collected in support of two long term USGS monitoring programs

  14. Recent Advances in Understanding Flow Dynamics and Transport of Water-Quality Constituents in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Schoellhamer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss4art1This paper, part of the collection of research comprising the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, describes advances during the past decade in understanding flow dynamics and how water-quality constituents move within California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta (Delta. Water-quality constituents include salinity, heat, oxygen, nutrients, contaminants, organic particles, and inorganic particles. These constituents are affected by water diversions and other human manipulations of flow, and they greatly affect the quantity and quality of benthic, pelagic, and intertidal habitat in the Delta. The Pacific Ocean, the Central Valley watershed, human intervention, the atmosphere, and internal biogeochemical processes are all drivers of flow and transport in the Delta. These drivers provide a conceptual framework for presenting recent findings. The tremendous expansion of acoustic and optical instruments deployed in the Delta over the past decade has greatly improved our understanding of how tidal variability affects flow and transport. Sediment is increasingly viewed as a diminishing resource needed to sustain pelagic habitat and tidal marsh, especially as sea level rises. Connections among the watershed, Delta, and San Francisco Bay that have been quantified recently highlight that a landscape view of this system is needed, rather than consideration of each region in isolation. We discuss interactions of multiple drivers and information gaps.

  15. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the central-eastside San Joaquin Basin, 2006: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,695-square-mile Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin (Central Eastside) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Central Eastside study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. During March through June 2006, samples were collected from 78 wells in Stanislaus and Merced Counties, 58 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 20 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along groundwater-flow paths (understanding wells). Water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database also were used for the assessment.An assessment of the current status of the groundwater quality included collecting samples from wells for analysis of anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring constituents such as major ions and trace elements. The assessment of status is intended to characterize the quality of untreated-groundwater resources within the primary aquifer system, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. The primary aquifer system (hereinafter, primary aquifer) is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the CDPH database for the Central Eastside study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or

  16. Modeling a Sustainable Salt Tolerant Grass-Livestock Production System under Saline Conditions in the Western San Joaquin Valley of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Kaffka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity and trace mineral accumulation threaten the sustainability of crop production in many semi-arid parts of the world, including California’s western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV. We used data from a multi-year field-scale trial in Kings County and related container trials to simulate a forage-grazing system under saline conditions. The model uses rainfall and irrigation water amounts, irrigation water quality, soil, plant, and atmospheric variables to predict Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. growth, quality, and use by cattle. Simulations based on field measurements and a related container study indicate that although soil chemical composition is affected by irrigation water quality, irrigation timing and frequency can be used to mitigate salt and trace mineral accumulation. Bermuda grass yields of up to 12 Mg dry matter (DM·ha−1 were observed at the field site and predicted by the model. Forage yield and quality supports un-supplemented cattle stocking rates of 1.0 to 1.2 animal units (AU·ha−1. However, a balance must be achieved between stocking rate, desired average daily gain, accumulation of salts in the soil profile, and potential pollution of ground water from drainage and leaching. Using available weather data, crop-specific parameter values and field scale measurements of soil salinity and nitrogen levels, the model can be used by farmers growing forages on saline soils elsewhere, to sustain forage and livestock production under similarly marginal conditions.

  17. Residential Agricultural Pesticide Exposures and Risk of Neural Tube Defects and Orofacial Clefts Among Offspring in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Roberts, Eric M.; Kegley, Susan E.; Padula, Amy M.; English, Paul B.; Shaw, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether early gestational exposures to pesticides were associated with an increased risk of anencephaly, spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP), or cleft palate only. We used population-based data along with detailed information from maternal interviews. Exposure estimates were based on residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications during early pregnancy. The study population derived from the San Joaquin Valley, California (1997–2006). Analyses included 73 cases with anencephaly, 123 with spina bifida, 277 with CLP, and 117 with cleft palate only in addition to 785 controls. A total of 38% of the subjects were exposed to 52 chemical groups and 257 specific chemicals. There were relatively few elevated odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals that excluded 1 after adjustment for relevant covariates. Those chemical groups included petroleum derivatives for anencephaly, hydroxybenzonitrile herbicides for spina bifida, and 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides and dithiocarbamates-methyl isothiocyanate for CLP. The specific chemicals included 2,4-D dimethylamine salt, methomyl, imidacloprid, and α-(para-nonylphenyl)-ω-hydroxypoly(oxyethylene) phosphate ester for anencephaly; the herbicide bromoxynil octanoate for spina bifida; and trifluralin and maneb for CLP. Adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.6 to 5.1. Given that such odds ratios might have arisen by chance because of the number of comparisons, our study showed a general lack of association between a range of agricultural pesticide exposures and risks of selected birth defects. PMID:24553680

  18. Determination of pesticides associated with suspended sediments in the San Joaquin River, California, USA, using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, B.A.; Baston, D.S.; Crepeau, K.L.; Kuivila, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    An analytical method useful for the quantification of a range of pesticides and pesticide degradation products associated with suspended sediments was developed by testing a variety of extraction and cleanup schemes. The final extraction and cleanup methods chosen for use are suitable for the quantification of the listed pesticides using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry and the removal of interfering coextractable organic material found in suspended sediments. Methylene chloride extraction followed by Florisil cleanup proved most effective for separation of coextractives from the pesticide analytes. Removal of elemental sulfur was accomplished with tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfite. The suitability of the method for the analysis of a variety of pesticides was evaluated, and the method detection limits (MDLs) were determined (0.1-6.0 ng/g dry weight of sediment) for 21 compounds. Recovery of pesticides dried onto natural sediments averaged 63%. Analysis of duplicate San Joaquin River suspended-sediment samples demonstrated the utility of the method for environmental samples with variability between replicate analyses lower than between environmental samples. Eight of 21 pesticides measured were observed at concentrations ranging from the MDL to more than 80 ng/g dry weight of sediment and exhibited significant temporal variability. Sediment-associated pesticides, therefore, may contribute to the transport of pesticides through aquatic systems and should be studied separately from dissolved pesticides.

  19. Effect of Climate Extremes, Seasonal Change, and Agronomic Practices on Measured Evapotranspiration and CO2 Exchange in Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta Alfalfa Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, J.; Kent, E. R.; Leinfelder-Miles, M.; Paw U, K. T.; Little, C.; Lambert, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Evapotranspiration and CO2 exchange was measured in five alfalfa fields in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta region from 2016 to 2017 using eddy covariance and surface renewal methods. Seasonal changes of evapotranspiration and CO2 fluxes were compared between 2016, a drought year, and 2017, a high rainfall year. Additionally, changes in evapotranspiration and CO2 flux were investigated across various agronomic considerations, such as irrigation methods (border-check flood and sub-surface), stand life, and herbicide programs. Components of the energy balance, including net radiation, latent heat, ground heat flux, and sensible heat, were evaluated considering correlations to wind speed measured by three sonic anemometers, irrigation frequency, and crop cutting cycle. Comparisons between two different types of radiometers were also carried out. Under drought conditions, we observed higher amounts of evapotranspiration in a field having a stand life of less than two years of age compared to older stands, and in a sub-surface irrigated field compared to flood irrigated fields.

  20. Ion exchange and trace element surface complexation reactions associated with applied recharge of low-TDS water in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNab, Walt W.; Singleton, Michael J.; Moran, Jean E.; Esser, Bradley K.

    2009-01-01

    Stable isotope data, a dissolved gas tracer study, groundwater age dating, and geochemical modeling were used to identify and characterize the effects of introducing low-TDS recharge water in a shallow aerobic aquifer affected by a managed aquifer recharge project in California's San Joaquin Valley. The data all consistently point to a substantial degree of mixing of recharge water from surface ponds with ambient groundwater in a number of nearby wells screened at depths above 60 m below ground surface. Groundwater age data indicate that the wells near the recharge ponds sample recently recharged water, as delineated by stable O and C isotope data as well as total dissolved solids, in addition to much older groundwater in various mixing proportions. Where the recharge water signature is present, the specific geochemical interactions between the recharge water and the aquifer material appear to include ion exchange reactions (comparative enrichment of affected groundwater with Na and K at the expense of Ca and Mg) and the desorption of oxyanion-forming trace elements (As, V, and Mo), possibly in response to the elevated pH of the recharge water

  1. Effect of tides, river flow, and gate operations on entrainment of juvenile salmon into the interior Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Brandes, Patricia L.; Burau, Jon R.; Sandstrom, Philip T.; Skalski, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha emigrating from natal tributaries of the Sacramento River, California, must negotiate the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (hereafter, the Delta), a complex network of natural and man-made channels linking the Sacramento River with San Francisco Bay. Fish that enter the interior and southern Delta—the region to the south of the Sacramento River where water pumping stations are located—survive at a lower rate than fish that use alternative migration routes. Consequently, total survival decreases as the fraction of the population entering the interior Delta increases, thus spurring management actions to reduce the proportion of fish that are entrained into the interior Delta. To better inform management actions, we modeled entrainment probability as a function of hydrodynamic variables. We fitted alternative entrainment models to telemetry data that identified when tagged fish in the Sacramento River entered two river channels leading to the interior Delta (Georgiana Slough and the gated Delta Cross Channel). We found that the probability of entrainment into the interior Delta through both channels depended strongly on the river flow and tidal stage at the time of fish arrival at the river junction. Fish that arrived during ebb tides had a low entrainment probability, whereas fish that arrived during flood tides (i.e., when the river's flow was reversed) had a high probability of entering the interior Delta. We coupled our entrainment model with a flow simulation model to evaluate the effect of nighttime closures of the Delta Cross Channel gates on the daily probability of fish entrainment into the interior Delta. Relative to 24-h gate closures, nighttime closures increased daily entrainment probability by 3 percentage points on average if fish arrived at the river junction uniformly throughout the day and by only 1.3 percentage points if 85% of fish arrived at night. We illustrate how our model can be used to

  2. Using remote sensing to monitor past changes and assess future scenarios for the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta waterways, California USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria J.; Hestir, Erin; Khanna, Shruti; Ustin, Susan L.

    2017-04-01

    Historically, deltas have been extensively affected both by natural processes and human intervention. Thus, understanding drivers, predicting impacts and optimizing solutions to delta problems requires a holistic approach spanning many sectors, disciplines and fields of expertise. Deltas are ideal model systems to understand the effects of the interaction between social and ecological domains, as they face unprecedented disturbances and threats to their biological and ecological sustainability. The challenge for deltas is to meet the goals of supporting biodiversity and ecosystem processes while also provisioning fresh water resources for human use. We provide an overview of the last 150 years of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River delta, where we illustrate the parallel process of an increase in disturbances, by particularly zooming in on the current cascading effects of invasive species on geophysical and biological processes. Using remote sensing data coupled with in situ measurements of water quality, turbidity, and species presence we show how the spread and persistence of aquatic invasive species affects sedimentation processes and ecosystem functioning. Our results show that the interactions between the biological and physical conditions in the Delta affect the trajectory of dominance by native and invasive aquatic plant species. Trends in growth and community characteristics associated with predicted impacts of climate change (sea level rise, warmer temperatures, changes in the hydrograph with high winter and low summer outflows) do not provide simple predictions. Individually, the impact of specific environmental changes on the biological components can be predicted, however it is the complex interactions of biological communities with the suite of physical changes that make predictions uncertain. Systematic monitoring is critical to provide the data needed to document and understand change of these delta systems, and to identify successful adaptation

  3. Multi-year coupled biogeochemical and biophysical impacts of restoring drained agricultural peatlands to wetlands across the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemes, K. S.; Eichelmann, E.; Chamberlain, S.; Knox, S. H.; Oikawa, P.; Sturtevant, C.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2017-12-01

    Globally, delta ecosystems are critical for human livelihoods, but are at increasingly greater risk of degradation. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (`Delta') has been subsiding dramatically, losing close to 100 Tg of carbon since the mid 19th century due in large part to agriculture-induced oxidation of the peat soils through drainage and cultivation. Efforts to re-wet the peat soils through wetland restoration are attractive as climate mitigation activities. While flooded wetland systems have the potential to sequester significant amounts of carbon as photosynthesis outpaces aerobic respiration, the highly-reduced conditions can result in significant methane emissions. This study will utilize three years (2014-2016) of continuous, gap-filled, CO2 and CH4 flux data from a mesonetwork of seven eddy covariance towers in the Delta to compute GHG budgets for the restored wetlands and agricultural baseline sites measured. Along with biogeochemical impacts of wetland restoration, biophysical impacts such as changes in reflectance, energy partitioning, and surface roughness, can have significant local to regional impacts on air temperature and heat fluxes. We hypothesize that despite flooded wetlands reducing albedo, wetland land cover will cool the near-surface air temperature due to increased net radiation being preferentially partitioned into latent heat flux and rougher canopy conditions allowing for more turbulent mixing with the atmosphere. This study will investigate the seasonal and diurnal patterns of turbulent energy fluxes and the surface properties that drive them. With nascent policy mechanisms set to compensate landowners and farmers for low emission land use practices beyond reforestation, it is essential that policy mechanisms take into consideration how the biophysical impacts of land use change could drive local to regional-scale climatic perturbations, enhancing or attenuating the biogeochemical impacts.

  4. A millennial-scale record of Pb and Hg contamination in peatlands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Judith Z; Alpers, Charles N; Neymark, Leonid A; Paces, James B; Taylor, Howard E; Fuller, Christopher C

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we provide the first record of millennial patterns of Pb and Hg concentrations on the west coast of the United States. Peat cores were collected from two micro-tidal marshes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California. Core samples were analyzed for Pb, Hg, and Ti concentrations and dated using radiocarbon and (210)Pb. Pre-anthropogenic concentrations of Pb and Hg in peat ranged from 0.60 to 13.0μgg(-1)and from 6.9 to 71ngg(-1), respectively. For much of the past 6000+ years, the Delta was free from anthropogenic pollution, however, beginning in ~1425CE, Hg and Pb concentrations, Pb/Ti ratios, Pb enrichment factors (EFs), and HgEFs all increased. Pb isotope compositions of the peat suggest that this uptick was likely caused by smelting activities originating in Asia. The next increases in Pb and Hg contamination occurred during the California Gold Rush (beginning ~1850CE), when concentrations reached their highest levels (74μgg(-1) Pb, 990ngg(-1) Hg; PbEF=12 and HgEF=28). Lead concentrations increased again beginning in the ~1920s with the incorporation of Pb additives in gasoline. The phase-out of lead additives in the late 1980s was reflected in changes in Pb isotope ratios and reductions in Pb concentrations in the surface layers of the peat. The rise and subsequent fall of Hg contamination was also tracked by the peat archive, with the highest Hg concentrations occurring just before 1963CE and then decreasing during the post-1963 period. Overall, the results show that the Delta was a pristine region for most of its ~6700-year existence; however, since ~1425CE, it has received Pb and Hg contamination from both global and regional sources. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers confirm selective incorporation of petroleum in soil and kangaroo rat liver samples near an oil well blowout site in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, I.; Lu, S.T.; Lee, R.P.; Warrick, G.

    1996-01-01

    Following an accidental oil well blow out at an oil field in the western part of the San Joaquin Valley, soil samples and specimens of Heermann's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni) were collected from two oil-impacted areas and one control area. Fingerprinting by GC-MS and quantitative evaluation of metabolized petroleum hydrocarbons was performed on oil, soil extracts, and rat livers. A liver from a domestically raised rabbit was used as an experimental control. The results show that there is no significant incorporation of PAHs or low molecular weight n-alkanes (C 13 --C 25 ) into the liver tissues. The C 25 --C 35 n-alkane range for all soil samples, kangaroo rat livers, and rabbit liver, is dominated by a high abundance of C 27 , C 29 , C 31 , and C 33 hydrocarbons typical of epicuticular plant waxes. In all liver tissue samples, squalene, the cholesterol precursor, is the dominant hydrocarbon. Although evidence is lacking for metabolism of PAHs and paraffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, very strong evidence is available for incorporation of a set of polycyclic hydrocarbons (biomarkers) belonging to the terpane, sterane, and monoaromatic and triaromatic sterane families, identified by ion monitoring at 191, 217, 253, and 231 m/z, respectively. Because these hydrocarbons are not known to exist in the biosphere, but are only synthesized during oil- and coal-forming processes, their presence in the liver samples constitutes proof for crude oil incorporation into tissues. This conclusion is further substantiated by the selective incorporation of only the 20S enantiomer of C 28 and C 29 steranes and aromatic steranes into the livers, with the exclusion of the 20R enantiomer. The results from the study conclusively demonstrate that polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers provide excellent indices for proof of petroleum exposure and metabolism in some terrestrial herbivores

  6. Organic Carbon and Disinfection Byproduct Precursor Loads from a Constructed, Non-Tidal Wetland in California's Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Fleck

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Wetland restoration on peat islands in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta will change the quality of island drainage waters entering the Delta, a primary source of drinking water in California. Peat island drainage waters contain high concentrations of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC and organic precursors to drinking water disinfection byproducts, such as trihalomethanes (THMs. We quantified the net loads of DOC, POC, and THM-precursors from a constructed subsidence mitigation wetland on Twitchell Island in the Delta to determine the change in drainage water quality that may be caused by conversion of agricultural land on peat islands to permanently flooded, non-tidal wetlands. Creation of permanently flooded wetlands halts oxidative loss of the peat soils and thereby may mitigate the extensive land-surface subsidence of the islands that threatens levee stability in the Delta. Net loads from the wetland were dominated by DOC flushed from the oxidized shallow peat soil layer by seepage flow out of the wetland. The permanently flooded conditions in the overlying wetland resulted in a gradual evolution to anaerobic conditions in the shallow soil layer and a concomitant decrease in the flow could be minimized by reducing the hydraulic gradient between the wetland and the adjacent drainage ditch. Estimates of net loads from the wetland assuming efflux of surface water only were comparable in magnitude to net loads from nearby agricultural fields, but the wetland and agricultural net loads had opposite seasonal variations. Wetland surface water net loads of DOC, POC, and THM-precursors were lower during the winter months when the greatest amounts of water are available for diversion from the Delta to drinking water reservoirs.

  7. A millennial-scale record of Pb and Hg contamination in peatlands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Judith; Alpers, Charles N.; Neymark, Leonid; Paces, James B.; Taylor, Howard E.; Fuller, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we provide the first record of millennial patterns of Pb and Hg concentrations on the west coast of the United States. Peat cores were collected from two micro-tidal marshes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California. Core samples were analyzed for Pb, Hg, and Ti concentrations and dated using radiocarbon, 210Pb, and 137Cs. Pre-anthropogenic concentrations of Pb and Hg in peat ranged from 0.60 to 13.0 µg g-1and from 6.9 to 71 ng g-1, respectively. For much of the past 6000+ years, the Delta was free from anthropogenic pollution, however, beginning in ~1425 CE, Hg and Pb concentrations, Pb/Ti ratios, Pb enrichment factors (EFs), and HgEFs all increased. Pb isotope compositions of the peat suggest that this uptick was likely caused by smelting activities originating in Asia. The next increases in Pb and Hg contamination occurred during the California Gold Rush (beginning ~1850 CE), when concentrations reached their highest levels (74 µg g-1 Pb, 990 ng g-1 Hg; PbEF = 12 and HgEF = 28). Lead concentrations increased again beginning in the ~1920s with the incorporation of Pb additives in gasoline. The phase-out of lead additives in the late 1980s was reflected in Pb isotope ratios and reductions in Pb concentrations in the surface layers of the peat. The rise and fall of Hg contamination was also tracked by the peat archive, with the highest Hg concentrations occurring just before 1963 CE and then decreasing during the post-1963 period. Overall, the results show that the Delta was a pristine region for most of its ~6700-year existence; however, since ~1425 CE, it has received Pb and Hg contamination from both global and regional sources.

  8. Losses of Sacramento River Chinook Salmon and Delta Smelt to Entrainment in Water Diversions in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim J. Kimmerer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pumping at the water export facilities in the southern Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta kills fish at and near the associated fish-salvage facilities. Correlative analyses of salvage counts with population indices have failed to provide quantitative estimates of the magnitude of this mortality. I estimated the proportional losses of Sacramento River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus to place these losses in a population context. The estimate for salmon was based on recoveries of tagged smolts released in the upper Sacramento River basin, and recovered at the fish-salvage facilities in the south Delta and in a trawling program in the western Delta. The proportion of fish salvaged increased with export flow, with a mean value around 10% at the highest export flows recorded. Mortality was around 10% if pre-salvage losses were about 80%, but this value is nearly unconstrained. Losses of adult delta smelt in winter and young delta smelt in spring were estimated from salvage data (adults corrected for estimated pre-salvage survival, or from trawl data in the southern Delta (young. These losses were divided by population size and accumulated over the respective seasons. Losses of adult delta smelt were 1–50% (median 15% although the highest value may have been biased upward. Daily losses of larvae and juveniles were 0–8%, and seasonal losses accumulated were 0–25% (median 13%. The effect of these losses on population abundance was obscured by subsequent 50-fold variability in survival from summer to fall.

  9. Chemistry of uranium in evaporation pond sediment in the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, using x-ray fluorescence and XANES techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, M.C.; Amrhein, C.; Bertsch, P.M.; Hunter, D.B.

    1997-01-01

    Evaporation ponds in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV), CA, used for the disposal of irrigation drainage waters, contain elevated levels of uranium. The ponds are filled periodically and support algae which upon evaporation become incorporated in the sediments as layers of decaying organic matter. This rich source of organic matter promotes reducing conditions in the sediments. Our research was conducted to characterize oxidation/reduction reactions that affect soluble and sediment U(IV)/U(VI) concentrations in the SJV ponds. Studies were done to (1) determine soluble U(Vl)/U(IV) in waters in contact with a pond sediment subjected to changes in redox status, (2) observe U solid oxidation state as a reducing pond sediment underwent (in vitro) oxidation, and (3) determine U solid oxidation state with respect to depth in pond surface sediment layers. Low pressure ion-exchange chromatography with an eluent of 0.125 M H 2 C 2 O 4 /0.25 M HNO 3 was used for the separation of U(IV) and U(VI) oxidation states in the drainage waters. Soluble U(VI) and U(IV) coexisted in sediment suspensions exposed to changes in redox potential (Eh) (-260 mV to +330 mV), and U(VI) was highly soluble in the oxidized, surface pond sediments. X-ray near edge absorption spectroscopy (XANES) showed that the U solid phases were 25% U(IV) and 75% U(VI) and probably a mixed solid [U 3 O 8(s) ] in highly reducing pond sediments. Sediment U(IV) increased slightly with depth in the surface pond sediment layers suggesting a gradual reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) with time. Under oxidized conditions, this mixed oxidation-state solid was highly soluble. 59 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the two southern San Joaquin Valley study units, 2005-2006 - California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the southern San Joaquin Valley was investigated from October 2005 through March 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. There are two study units located in the southern San Joaquin Valley: the Southeast San Joaquin Valley (SESJ) study unit and the Kern County Subbasin (KERN) study unit. The GAMA Priority Basin Project in the SESJ and KERN study units was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifers. The status assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 and 2006 by the USGS from 130 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. Data was collected from an additional 19 wells for the understanding assessment. The aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the CDPH database for the SESJ and KERN study units. The status assessment of groundwater quality used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of untreated groundwater resources within the primary aquifers in the SESJ and KERN study units, not the quality of drinking water delivered to consumers. Although the status assessment applies to untreated groundwater, Federal and California regulatory and non-regulatory water-quality benchmarks that apply to drinking water are used

  11. Mercury in the mix: An in situ mesocosm approach to assess relative contributions of mercury sources to methylmercury production and bioaccumulation in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, J.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Kraus, T. E. C.; Ackerman, J.; Stumpner, E. B.; DeWild, J.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.; Tate, M.; Ogorek, J.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is considered one of the greatest threats to the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the San Francisco Estuary ecosystems. This threat is driven by the transformation of Hg, deposited in the Delta from erosion of upstream historic mining debris and atmospheric deposition, by native bacteria into the more toxic and biologically available form, methylmercury (MeHg), in the wetlands and sediment of the Delta. To effectively manage this threat, a quantitative understanding of the relative contribution of the different Hg sources to MeHg formation is needed. Mass balance estimates indicate as much as 99% of the Hg entering the Delta arrives via tributary inputs. Of the tributary Hg load, approximately 90% is adsorbed to suspended particles from tributary discharge and 10% is in the dissolved fraction, potentially of atmospheric origin. In comparison, the remaining 1-2% of the Hg entering the Delta arrives through direct atmospheric deposition (wet and dry). The relative importance of these sources to MeHg production within the Delta is not linearly related to the mass inputs because atmospherically-derived Hg is believed to be more reactive than sediment-bound Hg with respect to MeHg formation. We conducted an in situ mesocosm dosing experiment where different Hg sources to the Delta (direct atmospheric, dissolved riverine and suspended sediment) were "labeled" with different stable Hg isotopes and added to mesocosms within four different wetlands. Mercury isotopes added with the streambed sediments were equilibrated in sealed containers for six months; while the Hg isotopes associated with the precipitation and river water were equilibrated for 24 hours prior to use. After adding the isotopes, we sampled the water column, overlying air, bottom sediments and fish (Gambusia) at time intervals up to 30 days. Preliminary results from this experiment suggest that aqueous Hg sources (Hg introduced with precipitation and filtered river water) are 10

  12. A millennial-scale record of Pb and Hg contamination in peatlands of the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta of California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexler, Judith Z.; Alpers, Charles N.; Neymark, Leonid A.; Paces, James B.; Taylor, Howard E.; Fuller, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we provide the first record of millennial patterns of Pb and Hg concentrations on the west coast of the United States. Peat cores were collected from two micro-tidal marshes in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta of California. Core samples were analyzed for Pb, Hg, and Ti concentrations and dated using radiocarbon and "2"1"0Pb. Pre-anthropogenic concentrations of Pb and Hg in peat ranged from 0.60 to 13.0 μg g"−"1and from 6.9 to 71 ng g"−"1, respectively. For much of the past 6000 + years, the Delta was free from anthropogenic pollution, however, beginning in ~ 1425 CE, Hg and Pb concentrations, Pb/Ti ratios, Pb enrichment factors (EFs), and HgEFs all increased. Pb isotope compositions of the peat suggest that this uptick was likely caused by smelting activities originating in Asia. The next increases in Pb and Hg contamination occurred during the California Gold Rush (beginning ~ 1850 CE), when concentrations reached their highest levels (74 μg g"−"1 Pb, 990 ng g"−"1 Hg; PbEF = 12 and HgEF = 28). Lead concentrations increased again beginning in the ~ 1920s with the incorporation of Pb additives in gasoline. The phase-out of lead additives in the late 1980s was reflected in changes in Pb isotope ratios and reductions in Pb concentrations in the surface layers of the peat. The rise and subsequent fall of Hg contamination was also tracked by the peat archive, with the highest Hg concentrations occurring just before 1963 CE and then decreasing during the post-1963 period. Overall, the results show that the Delta was a pristine region for most of its ~ 6700-year existence; however, since ~ 1425 CE, it has received Pb and Hg contamination from both global and regional sources. - Highlights: • Micro-tidal peats were used to trace Pb and Hg contamination through the millennia. • Anthropogenic Pb and Hg were first evident in California in ~ 1425 CE. • Pb isotopes suggest early contamination may be from ore smelting in China. • Pb (74 μg g

  13. High Frequency Monitoring of Isotopic Signatures Elucidates Potential Effects of Restoring Floodplain Habitat in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, B. J.; Fogel, M. L.; Jeffres, C.; Viers, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing the quality and quantity of habitat for native species in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is a high priority for California water managers. The McCormack-Williamson Tract (MWT) is a subsided island (38.253° N -121.284° W) situated at the confluence of the Cosumnes and Mokelumne rivers, near the inland extent of tidal influence. MWT experienced unexpected levee failure on February 11, 2017, during the wettest year of record for the Mokelumne-Cosumnes river system, which provided a unique opportunity to examine the potential trajectory of future restoration actions within the Delta. We carried out high frequency sampling (n=32, 13% of days) of suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) and waters in the Mokelumne and Cosumnes river systems, including nearby sloughs, and the post-failure, flooded interior of MWT. Carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes in SPOM and δ2H and δ18O of waters were analyzed and in situ water quality data were collected in tandem, thus contextualizing isotopic data. Sampling was confined to an 8 km2 region surrounding MWT (6.7 km2 interior). This unintentional flooding provided a natural before-after-control-impact experiment to study the effect that sudden inundation of a Delta island can have on food web development and ecosystem function. Source waters were isotopically distinct (p0.9), providing a semi-conservative tracer of mixing. The δ13C values of SPOM varied between -37.3 and -23.9‰ and were significantly more negative on the flooded island by 1.2‰ (porganic carbon concomitant with accelerated ecosystem metabolism. Concurrently, δ15N values varied between 1.0 and 12.4‰ and were not significantly different between riverine and flooded island sites. Our data indicate that this river system is highly dynamic over short periods of flood inundation (13 weeks) with new freshwater habitats exhibiting higher productivity than their riverine counterparts and could therefore increase autochthonous subsidies to

  14. Passive remote sensing of large-scale methane emissions from Oil Fields in California's San Joaquin Valley and validation by airborne in-situ measurements - Results from COMEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krautwurst, Sven; Thompson, David R.; Thorpe, Andrew K.; Kolyer, Richard W.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Krings, Thomas; Frankenberg, Christian; Horstjann, Markus; Leifer, Ira; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Vigil, Sam; Fladeland, Matthew; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Burrows, John P.; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2016-04-01

    The CO2 and MEthane EXperiment (COMEX) was a NASA and ESA funded campaign in support of the HyspIRI and CarbonSat mission definition activities. As a part of this effort, seven flights were performed between June 3 and September 4, 2014 with the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) remote sensing instrument (operated by the University of Bremen in cooperation with the German Research Centre for Geosciences - GFZ) over the Kern River, Kern Front, and Poso Creek Oil Fields located in California's San Joaquin Valley. MAMAP was installed for the flights aboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft, together with: a Picarro fast in-situ greenhouse gas (GHG) analyzer operated by the NASA Ames Research Center, ARC; a 5-hole turbulence probe; and an atmospheric measurement package operated by CIRPAS measuring aerosols, temperature, dew-point, and other atmospheric parameters. Three of the flights were accompanied by the Next Generation Airborne Visual InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG), operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, installed aboard a second Twin Otter aircraft. Large-scale, high-concentration CH4 plumes were detected by the MAMAP instrument over the fields and tracked over several kilometers. The spatial distribution of the MAMAP observed plumes was compared to high spatial resolution CH4 anomaly maps derived by AVIRIS-NG imaging spectroscopy data. Remote sensing data collected by MAMAP was used to infer CH4 emission rates and their distributions over the three fields. Aggregated emission estimates for the three fields were compared to aggregated emissions inferred by subsequent airborne in-situ validation measurements collected by the Picarro instrument. Comparison of remote sensing and in-situ flux estimates will be presented, demonstrating the ability of airborne remote sensing data to provide accurate emission estimates for concentrations above the

  15. Agricultural peatland restoration: effects of land-use change on greenhouse gas (CO2 and CH4) fluxes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Sara Helen; Sturtevant, Cove; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala; Koteen, Laurie; Verfaillie, Joseph; Baldocchi, Dennis

    2015-02-01

    Agricultural drainage of organic soils has resulted in vast soil subsidence and contributed to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was drained over a century ago for agriculture and human settlement and has since experienced subsidence rates that are among the highest in the world. It is recognized that drained agriculture in the Delta is unsustainable in the long-term, and to help reverse subsidence and capture carbon (C) there is an interest in restoring drained agricultural land-use types to flooded conditions. However, flooding may increase methane (CH4) emissions. We conducted a full year of simultaneous eddy covariance measurements at two conventional drained agricultural peatlands (a pasture and a corn field) and three flooded land-use types (a rice paddy and two restored wetlands) to assess the impact of drained to flooded land-use change on CO2 and CH4 fluxes in the Delta. We found that the drained sites were net C and greenhouse gas (GHG) sources, releasing up to 341 g C m(-2) yr(-1) as CO2 and 11.4 g C m(-2) yr(-1) as CH4. Conversely, the restored wetlands were net sinks of atmospheric CO2, sequestering up to 397 g C m(-2) yr(-1). However, they were large sources of CH4, with emissions ranging from 39 to 53 g C m(-2) yr(-1). In terms of the full GHG budget, the restored wetlands could be either GHG sources or sinks. Although the rice paddy was a small atmospheric CO2 sink, when considering harvest and CH4 emissions, it acted as both a C and GHG source. Annual photosynthesis was similar between sites, but flooding at the restored sites inhibited ecosystem respiration, making them net CO2 sinks. This study suggests that converting drained agricultural peat soils to flooded land-use types can help reduce or reverse soil subsidence and reduce GHG emissions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A millennial-scale record of Pb and Hg contamination in peatlands of the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta of California, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drexler, Judith Z., E-mail: jdrexler@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, California Water Science Center, 6000 J Street, Placer Hall, Sacramento, CA 95819-6129 (United States); Alpers, Charles N., E-mail: cnalpers@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, California Water Science Center, 6000 J Street, Placer Hall, Sacramento, CA 95819-6129 (United States); Neymark, Leonid A., E-mail: lneymark@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Box 25046, MS963, Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Paces, James B., E-mail: jbpaces@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Box 25046, MS963, Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Taylor, Howard E., E-mail: hetaylor@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, 3215 Marine Street, Suite E-127, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Fuller, Christopher C., E-mail: ccfuller@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, MS465, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we provide the first record of millennial patterns of Pb and Hg concentrations on the west coast of the United States. Peat cores were collected from two micro-tidal marshes in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta of California. Core samples were analyzed for Pb, Hg, and Ti concentrations and dated using radiocarbon and {sup 210}Pb. Pre-anthropogenic concentrations of Pb and Hg in peat ranged from 0.60 to 13.0 μg g{sup −1}and from 6.9 to 71 ng g{sup −1}, respectively. For much of the past 6000 + years, the Delta was free from anthropogenic pollution, however, beginning in ~ 1425 CE, Hg and Pb concentrations, Pb/Ti ratios, Pb enrichment factors (EFs), and HgEFs all increased. Pb isotope compositions of the peat suggest that this uptick was likely caused by smelting activities originating in Asia. The next increases in Pb and Hg contamination occurred during the California Gold Rush (beginning ~ 1850 CE), when concentrations reached their highest levels (74 μg g{sup −1} Pb, 990 ng g{sup −1} Hg; PbEF = 12 and HgEF = 28). Lead concentrations increased again beginning in the ~ 1920s with the incorporation of Pb additives in gasoline. The phase-out of lead additives in the late 1980s was reflected in changes in Pb isotope ratios and reductions in Pb concentrations in the surface layers of the peat. The rise and subsequent fall of Hg contamination was also tracked by the peat archive, with the highest Hg concentrations occurring just before 1963 CE and then decreasing during the post-1963 period. Overall, the results show that the Delta was a pristine region for most of its ~ 6700-year existence; however, since ~ 1425 CE, it has received Pb and Hg contamination from both global and regional sources. - Highlights: • Micro-tidal peats were used to trace Pb and Hg contamination through the millennia. • Anthropogenic Pb and Hg were first evident in California in ~ 1425 CE. • Pb isotopes suggest early contamination may be from ore smelting in China

  17. Factors affecting marsh vegetation at the Liberty Island Conservation Bank in the Cache Slough region of the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, James L.; Drexler, Judith Z.

    2017-07-07

    The Liberty Island Conservation Bank (LICB) is a tidal freshwater marsh restored for the purpose of mitigating adverse effects on sensitive fish populations elsewhere in the region. The LICB was completed in 2012 and is in the northern Cache Slough region of the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. The wetland vegetation at the LICB is stunted and yellow-green in color (chlorotic) compared to nearby wetlands. A study was done to investigate three potential causes of the stunted and chlorotic vegetation: (1) improper grading of the marsh plain, (2) pesticide contamination from agricultural and urban inputs upstream from the site, (3) nitrogen-deficient soil, or some combination of these. Water samples were collected from channels at five sites, and soil samples were collected from four wetlands, including the LICB, during the summer of 2015. Real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS) elevation surveys were completed at the LICB and north Little Holland Tract, a closely situated natural marsh that has similar hydrodynamics as the LICB, but contains healthy marsh vegetation.The results showed no significant differences in carbon or nitrogen content in the surface soils or in pesticides in water among the sites. The elevation survey indicated that the mean elevation of the LICB was about 26 centimeters higher than that of the north Little Holland Tract marsh. Because marsh plain elevation largely determines the hydroperiod of a marsh, these results indicated that the LICB has a hydroperiod that differs from that of neighboring north Little Holland Tract marsh. This difference in hydroperiod contributed to the lower stature and decreased vigor of wetland vegetation at the LICB. Although the LICB cannot be regraded without great expense, it could be possible to reduce the sharp angle of the marsh edge to facilitate deeper and more frequent tidal flooding along the marsh periphery. Establishing optimal elevations for restored wetlands is necessary for obtaining

  18. Longitudinal heterogeneity of flow and heat fluxes in a large lowland river: A study of the San Joaquin River, CA, USA during a large-scale flow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, E. N.; Dunne, T.; Dozier, J.

    2011-12-01

    Systematic downstream variation of channel characteristics, scaled by flow affects the transport and distribution of heat throughout a large river. As water moves through a river channel, streamflow and velocity may fluctuate by orders of magnitude primarily due to channel geometry, slope and resistance to flow, and the time scales of those fluctuations range from days to decades (Constantz et al., 1994; Lundquist and Cayan, 2002; McKerchar and Henderson, 2003). It is well understood that the heat budget of a river is primarily governed by surface exchanges, with the most significant surface flux coming from net shortwave radiation. The absorption of radiation at a given point in a river is determined by the wavelength-dependent index of refraction, expressed by the angle of refraction and the optical depth as a function of physical depth and the absorption coefficient (Dozier, 1980). Few studies consider the influence of hydrologic alteration to the optical properties governing net radiative heat transfer in a large lowland river, yet it is the most significant component of the heat budget and definitive to a river's thermal regime. We seek a physically based model without calibration to incorporate scale-dependent physical processes governing heat and flow dynamics in large rivers, how they change across the longitudinal profile, and how they change under different flow regimes. Longitudinal flow and heat flux analyses require synoptic flow time series from multiple sites along rivers, and few hydrometric networks meet this requirement (Larned et al, 2011). We model the energy budget in a regulated 240-km mainstem reach of the San Joaquin River California, USA equipped with multiple gaging stations from Friant Dam to its confluence with the Merced River during a large-scale flow experiment. We use detailed hydroclimatic observations distributed across the longitudinal gradient creating a non-replicable field experiment of heat fluxes across a range of flow regime

  19. Re-establishing marshes can return carbon sink functions to a current carbon source in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robin L.; Fujii, Roger; Schmidt, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was an historic, vast inland freshwater wetland, where organic soils almost 20 meters deep formed over the last several millennia as the land surface elevation of marshes kept pace with sea level rise. A system of levees and pumps were installed in the late 1800s and early 1900s to drain the land for agricultural use. Since then, land surface has subsided more than 7 meters below sea level in some areas as organic soils have been lost to aerobic decomposition. As land surface elevations decrease, costs for levee maintenance and repair increase, as do the risks of flooding. Wetland restoration can be a way to mitigate subsidence by re-creating the environment in which the organic soils developed. A preliminary study of the effect of hydrologic regime on carbon cycling conducted on Twitchell Island during the mid-1990s showed that continuous, shallow flooding allowing for the growth of emergent marsh vegetation re-created a wetland environment where carbon preservation occurred. Under these conditions annual plant biomass carbon inputs were high, and microbial decomposition was reduced. Based on this preliminary study, the U.S. Geological Survey re-established permanently flooded wetlands in fall 1997, with shallow water depths of 25 and 55 centimeters, to investigate the potential to reverse subsidence of delta islands by preserving and accumulating organic substrates over time. Ten years after flooding, elevation gains from organic matter accumulation in areas of emergent marsh vegetation ranged from almost 30 to 60 centimeters, with average annual carbon storage rates approximating 1 kg/m2, while areas without emergent vegetation cover showed no significant change in elevation. Differences in accretion rates within areas of emergent marsh vegetation appeared to result from temporal and spatial variability in hydrologic factors and decomposition rates in the wetlands rather than variability in primary production

  20. The three-dimensional geologic model used for the 2003 National Oil and Gas Assessment of the San Joaquin Basin Province, California: Chapter 7 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford Scheirer, Allegra

    2013-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional geologic model of the San Joaquin Basin (SJB) that may be the first compilation of subsurface data spanning the entire basin. The model volume spans 200 × 90 miles, oriented along the basin axis, and extends to ~11 miles depth, for a total of more than 1 million grid nodes. This model supported the 2003 U.S. Geological Survey assessment of future additions to reserves of oil and gas in the SJB. Data sources include well-top picks from more than 3,200 wildcat and production wells, published cross sections, regional seismic grids, and fault maps. The model consists of 15 chronostratigraphic horizons ranging from the Mesozoic crystalline basement to the topographic surface. Many of the model units are hydrocarbon reservoir rocks and three—the Cretaceous Moreno Formation, the Eocene Kreyenhagen Formation, and the Miocene Monterey Formation—are hydrocarbon source rocks. The White Wolf Fault near the southern end of the basin divides the map volume into 2 separate fault blocks. The construction of a three-dimensional model of the entire SJB encountered many challenges, including complex and inconsistent stratigraphic nomenclature, significant facies changes across and along the basin axis, time-transgressive formation tops, uncertain correlation of outcrops with their subsurface equivalents, and contradictory formation top data. Although some areas of the model are better resolved than others, the model facilitated the 2003 resource assessment in several ways, including forming the basis of a petroleum system model and allowing a precise definition of assessment unit volumes.

  1. Simulations of Ground-Water Flow and Particle Pathline Analysis in the Zone of Contribution of a Public-Supply Well in Modesto, Eastern San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Karen R.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Phillips, Steven P.; Dalgish, Barbara A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Shallow ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley is affected by high nitrate and uranium concentrations and frequent detections of pesticides and volatile organic compounds (VOC), as a result of ground-water development and intensive agricultural and urban land use. A single public-supply well was selected for intensive study to evaluate the dominant processes affecting the vulnerability of public-supply wells in the Modesto area. A network of 23 monitoring wells was installed, and water and sediment samples were collected within the approximate zone of contribution of the public-supply well, to support a detailed analysis of physical and chemical conditions and processes affecting the water chemistry in the well. A three-dimensional, steady-state local ground-water-flow and transport model was developed to evaluate the age of ground water reaching the well and to evaluate the vulnerability of the well to nonpoint source input of nitrate and uranium. Particle tracking was used to compute pathlines and advective travel times in the ground-water flow model. The simulated ages of particles reaching the public-supply well ranged from 9 to 30,000 years, with a median of 54 years. The age of the ground water contributed to the public-supply well increased with depth below the water table. Measured nitrate concentrations, derived primarily from agricultural fertilizer, were highest (17 milligrams per liter) in shallow ground water and decreased with depth to background concentrations of less than 2 milligrams per liter in the deepest wells. Because the movement of water is predominantly downward as a result of ground-water development, and because geochemical conditions are generally oxic, high nitrate concentrations in shallow ground water are expected to continue moving downward without significant attenuation. Simulated long-term nitrate concentrations indicate that concentrations have peaked and will decrease in the public-supply well during the next 100 years

  2. Effects of smectite on the oil-expulsion efficiency of the Kreyenhagen Shale, San Joaquin Basin, California, based on hydrous-pyrolysis experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, Michael D.; Dolan, Michael P.; Curtis, John B.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of oil that maturing source rocks expel is expressed as their expulsion efficiency, which is usually stated in milligrams of expelled oil per gram of original total organic carbon (TOCO). Oil-expulsion efficiency can be determined by heating thermally immature source rocks in the presence of liquid water (i.e., hydrous pyrolysis) at temperatures between 350°C and 365°C for 72 hr. This pyrolysis method generates oil that is compositionally similar to natural crude oil and expels it by processes operative in the subsurface. Consequently, hydrous pyrolysis provides a means to determine oil-expulsion efficiencies and the rock properties that influence them. Smectite in source rocks has previously been considered to promote oil generation and expulsion and is the focus of this hydrous-pyrolysis study involving a representative sample of smectite-rich source rock from the Eocene Kreyenhagen Shale in the San Joaquin Basin of California. Smectite is the major clay mineral (31 wt. %) in this thermally immature sample, which contains 9.4 wt. % total organic carbon (TOC) comprised of type II kerogen. Compared to other immature source rocks that lack smectite as their major clay mineral, the expulsion efficiency of the Kreyenhagen Shale was significantly lower. The expulsion efficiency of the Kreyenhagen whole rock was reduced 88% compared to that of its isolated kerogen. This significant reduction is attributed to bitumen impregnating the smectite interlayers in addition to the rock matrix. Within the interlayers, much of the bitumen is converted to pyrobitumen through crosslinking instead of oil through thermal cracking. As a result, smectite does not promote oil generation but inhibits it. Bitumen impregnation of the rock matrix and smectite interlayers results in the rock pore system changing from water wet to bitumen wet. This change prevents potassium ion (K+) transfer and dissolution and precipitation reactions needed for the conversion of smectite to

  3. Synthesis of data from high-frequency nutrient and associated biogeochemical monitoring for the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Bryan D.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.

    2017-07-11

    Executive SummaryThis report is the second in a series of three reports that provide information about high-frequency (HF) nutrient and biogeochemical monitoring in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta of northern California (Delta). The purpose of this report is to synthesize the data available from a nutrient and water-quality HF (about every 15 minutes) monitoring network operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in the northern Delta. In this report, we describe the network and focus on the purpose of each station. We then present and discuss the available data, at various timescales—first at the monthly, seasonal, and inter-annual timescales, and second, for comparison, at the tidal and event timescales. As expected, we determined that there is substantial variability in nitrate-N concentrations at short timescales within hours, but also significant variability at longer timescales such as months or years. Resolving this variability is made possible by the HF data, with the largest variability caused by storms, tides, and diel biological processes. Given this large temporal variability, calculations of cumulative nutrient fluxes (for example, daily, monthly, or annual loads) is difficult without HF data. For example, in the Cache Slough, calculation of the annual load without the tidal variability resulted in a 30 percent underestimation of the true annual load value. We conclude that HF measurements are important for accurate determination of fluxes and loads in tidal environments, but, more importantly, provide important insights into processes and rates of nutrient cycling.This report, along with the other two reports of this series (Bergamaschi and others, 2017; Kraus, Bergamaschi, and others, 2017), was drafted in cooperation with the Delta Regional Monitoring Program to help scientists, managers, and planners understand how HF data improve our understanding of nutrient sources and sinks, drivers, and effects in the Delta. The first report in the series

  4. Maps Suggest Transport and Source Processes of PM2.5 at 1 km x 1 km for the Whole San Joaquin Valley, Winter 2011 (Generalizations from DISCOVER-AQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, R. B.

    2016-12-01

    We present interpreted data analysis using MAIAC (Multiangle implementation of Atmospheric Correction) retrievals and appropriate RAPid Update Cycle (RAP) meteorology to map respirable aerosol (PM2.5) for the period January and February, 2011. The San Joaquin Valley is one of the unhealthiest regions in the USA for PM2.5 and related morbidity. The methodology evaluated can be used for the entire moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS, VIIRS) data record. Other difficult areas of the West: Riverside, CA, Salt Lake City, UT, and Doña Ana County, NM share similar difficulties and solutions. The maps of boundary layer depth for 11-16 hr local time from RAP allows us to interpret aerosol optical thickness as a concentration of particles in a nearly well-mixed box capped by clean air. That mixing is demonstrated by DISCOVER-AQ data and afternoon samples from the airborne measurements, P3B (on-board) and B200 (HSRL2 lidar). This data and the PM2.5 gathered at the deployment sites allowed us to estimate and then evaluate consistency and daily variation of the AOT to PM2.5 relationship. Mixed-effects modeling allowed a refinement of that relation from day to day; RAP mixed layers explained the success of previous mixed-effects modeling. Compositional, size-distribution, and MODIS angle-of-regard effects seem to describe the need for residual daily correction beyond ML depth. We report on an extension method to the entire San Joaquin Valley for all days with MODIS imagery using the permanent PM2.5 stations, evaluated for representativeness. Resulting map movies show distinct sources, particularly Interstate-5 (at 1km x 1km resolution) and the broader Bakersfield area. Accompanying winds suggest transport effects and variable pathways of pollution cleanout. Such estimates should allow morbidity/mortality studies. They should be also useful for actual model assimilations, where composition and sources are uncertain. We conclude with a description of new work to

  5. Is it restoration or reconciliation? California's experience restoring the Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta provides lessons learned and pathways forward to sustain critical ecosystem functions and services in a highly managed riverine delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viers, J. H.; Kelsey, R.

    2014-12-01

    Reconciling the needs of nature and people in California's Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta represents one of the most critical ecosystem management imperatives in western North America. Over 150 years the Delta has been managed for near-term human benefits and in the process 95% of riverine and deltaic wetlands have been lost throughout the region. Despite extensive land conversion and alteration of hydrological and physical processes, the Delta remains important habitat for migratory birds and is home to over 60% of California's native fish species. It is also the waterwheel for the state's vast water distribution network and is maintained by a system of constructed levees that are at risk from catastrophic failure due to sea level rise, floods, and/or seismic activity. Such a collapse would have dire consequences for > 25M humans and world's 10th largest economy that depend on its freshwater. Thus, the ultimate cost of this ecosystem alteration and simplification is a riverscape that is no longer reliable for nature or people. For 30 years, attempts to 'restore' Delta ecosystems and improve reliability have met with mixed results. For example, reconnection of floodplains to floodwaters has resulted in improved ecological health for native fishes and recharge to localized aquifers. Uncoordinated releases of discharges below dams, however, have resulted in diminished water quality and populations of indicator species. Attempts to create wildlife friendly farms have been countered by an increase in perennial agriculture and commensurate increases in irrigation water demand. From these lessons learned, we demonstrate three key components of a reconciled Delta that will be necessary in the future: 1) full restoration of critical habitats, reconnecting land and water to rebuild ecosystem function; 2) landscape redesign, incorporating natural and engineered infrastructure to create a biologically diverse, resilient landscape to support both agriculture and natural

  6. Invasive Plants - San Joaquin River [ds624

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The purpose of this work is to estimate the occurrence, distribution, approximate locations, and abundance of red sesbania (Sesbania punicea) and four other major...

  7. Conservation Opportunities - San Joaquin Valley [ds422

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The California Departments of Fish and Game, Parks and Recreation, and Transportation (Caltrans) are collaborating to improve planning information for wildlife...

  8. Wildlife Linkages - San Joaquin Valley [ds417

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The California Departments of Fish and Game, Parks and Recreation, and Transportation (Caltrans) are collaborating to improve planning information for wildlife...

  9. Specialty Reserves - San Joaquin Valley [ds418

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The California Departments of Fish and Game, Parks and Recreation, and Transportation (Caltrans) are collaborating to improve planning information for wildlife...

  10. Wildlife Corridors - San Joaquin Valley [ds423

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The California Departments of Fish and Game, Parks and Recreation, and Transportation (Caltrans) are collaborating to improve planning information for wildlife...

  11. Effects of the proposed California WaterFix North Delta Diversion on survival of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Pope, Adam C.

    2018-05-11

    The California Department of Water Resources and Bureau of Reclamation propose new water intake facilities on the Sacramento River in northern California that would convey some of the water for export to areas south of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (hereinafter referred to as the Delta) through tunnels rather than through the Delta. The collection of water intakes, tunnels, pumping facilities, associated structures, and proposed operations are collectively referred to as California WaterFix. The water intake facilities, hereinafter referred to as the North Delta Diversion (NDD), are proposed to be located on the Sacramento River downstream of the city of Sacramento and upstream of the first major river junction where Sutter Slough branches from the Sacramento River. The NDD can divert a maximum discharge of 9,000 cubic feet per second (ft3 /s) from the Sacramento River, which reduces the amount of Sacramento River inflow into the Delta. In this report, we conduct four analyses to investigate the effect of the NDD and its proposed operation on survival of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). All analyses used the results of a Bayesian survival model that allowed us to simulate travel time, migration routing, and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon migrating through the Delta in response to NDD operations, which affected both inflows to the Delta and operation of the Delta Cross Channel (DCC). For the first analysis, we evaluated the effect of the NDD bypass rules on salmon survival. The NDD bypass rules are a set of operational rule curves designed to provide adaptive levels of fish protection by defining allowable diversion rates as a function of (1) Sacramento River discharge as measured at Freeport, and (2) time of year when endangered runs requiring the most protection are present. We determined that all bypass rule curves except constant low-level pumping (maximum diversion of 900 ft3 /s) could cause a sizeable decrease in survival by as

  12. Collimator kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    A collimator kit having a number of parts which may be assembled in various combinations to provide focusing collimators with different performance characteristics for radioisotope imaging apparatus is described

  13. Uncertainties in ecological epidemiology: A cautionary tale featuring kit foxes and oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, G.W. II

    1993-01-01

    Ecological epidemiology, like human epidemiology, often must employ encountered rather than statistically designed data set and must make comparisons among populations that differ in terms of various poorly defined confounding variables. These properties can result in false positive or false negative results if statistics are naively applied. The case in point is a study of a population of an endangered subspecies, the San Joaquin Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), inhabiting an oil field. The fox population abundance declined sharply following an increase in oil development until it was virtually absent from the developed portion of the field. It was decided that the possibility of toxicological effects would be investigated by analyzing historic and current hair samples. Metal concentrations were found to be statistically significantly higher for foxes from the developed area compared with those from undeveloped areas of the field. However, analysis of fur from two areas remote from oil fields and from another oil field indicated that the foxes from the developed portions of the subject oil field were not unusually metalliferous but that the foxes from the undeveloped portions were unusually low in metals. The conclusions of this study will be used to draw lessons for the design of studies in ecological epidemiology

  14. Joaquin Inigo-Golfin (1965-2011)

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    It is with immense sadness that we learned that Joaquin INIGO-GOLFIN passed away last week; until the very end we hoped that he would win the battle he so heroically fought. Joaquin was a very special person who left no one indifferent. His professional skills, warmth and openness were matched with a sense of humor that made him a friend and colleague “à part”.   Joaquin joined CERN in August 1992 to work in the Cooling and Ventilation Group where he spent almost all his professional career covering many disciplines and responsibilities: operations, installation and design. He was also responsible for the introduction of new technologies to CV, such as Computer Aided Design, and for the evaluation and adoption of Computational Fluid Dynamics, particularly for the analysis of complex thermal systems. The remarkable results Joaquin achieved through his work and strong technical competence made him the natural candidate to lead the design section responsible for all th...

  15. Invasive Plants (poly) - Red Sesbania - San Joaquin River [ds633

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The purpose of this work is to estimate the occurrence, distribution, approximate locations, and abundance of red sesbania (Sesbania punicea) and four other major...

  16. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  17. First aid kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001958.htm First aid kit To use the sharing features on this ... ahead, you can create a well-stocked home first aid kit. Keep all of your supplies in one ...

  18. Create an Emergency Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... models take up less space in your kit. Cell phone. Always carry a cell phone and let people know where you are going ... pump in your emergency kit. Remember that despite safety standards and careful monitoring, these devices can fail. ...

  19. Exploit Kit traffic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Καπίρης, Σταμάτης; Kapiris, Stamatis

    2017-01-01

    Exploit kits have become one of the most widespread and destructive threat that Internet users face on a daily basis. Since the first actor, which has been categorized as exploit kit, namely MPack, appeared in 2006, we have seen a new era on exploit kit variants compromising popular websites, infecting hosts and delivering destructive malware, following an exponentially evolvement to date. With the growing threat landscape, large enterprises to domestic networks, have starte...

  20. Benchmarking Tool Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Health Libraries Association.

    Nine Canadian health libraries participated in a pilot test of the Benchmarking Tool Kit between January and April, 1998. Although the Tool Kit was designed specifically for health libraries, the content and approach are useful to other types of libraries as well. Used to its full potential, benchmarking can provide a common measuring stick to…

  1. Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring and Habitat Assessment in the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Burns, Josephine R.; Stromayer, Karl A.K.; Jordan, Brandon M.; Ennis, Mike J.; Woolington, Dennis W.

    2005-01-01

    The project report describes a two year experiment to control wetland drainage to the San Joaquin River of California from the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge using a decision support system for real-time water quality management. This system required the installation and operation of one inlet and three drainage flow and water quality monitoring stations which allowed a simnple mass balance model to be developed of the seasonally managed wetlands in the study area. Remote sensing meth...

  2. Riigi eelarvepoliitika peab olema neutraalne / Joaquin Almunia ; interv. Piret Reiljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Almunia, Joaquin, 1948-

    2008-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjoni rahandusvoliniku Joaquin Almunia sõnul peaks Eesti vältima järeleandmisi eelarvepoliitikas, samuti tuleks prioriteediks seada investeeringud, mis toetavad majanduskasvu ning kasutada ära maksimaalselt Euroopa Liidu struktuurifonde

  3. Personalized Thematic Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontrager, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Teaching Spanish at the K-5 level is a passion of mine, and the author would like to share some of the practical applications that she finds most rewarding and effective. She has found enthusiastic response to the creation of detailed language learning kits that are rooted in storytelling, but expanded to include home-made board games,…

  4. World Disarmament Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woito, Robert, Ed.

    This kit presents a comprehensive introduction for students to arms control and disarmament issues. Included are copies of published and unpublished articles for each topic. Section I provides a self-survey to enable students to assess their own attitudes, values, and knowledge. The survey poses questions for which students select one of several…

  5. 49 CFR 173.161 - Chemical kits and first aid kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical kits and first aid kits. 173.161 Section... Class 7 § 173.161 Chemical kits and first aid kits. (a) Chemical kits and First aid kits must conform to... 10 kg. (b) Chemical kits and First aid kits are excepted from the specification packaging...

  6. Build an Emergency Preparedness Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In addition to the items listed above, a vehicle kit should include: -fire extinguisher. -booster cables and tow rope. -compass and road maps. -shovel. -tire repair kit and pump. -extra clothing to keep dry. - ...

  7. ISS Expedition 08 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 08 from 10/2003-04/2004. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  8. Sedimentological and Micropaleontological Characteristics of the 2015 Hurricane Joaquin Deposit and their Implications for Long-Term Records of Storms and Tsunamis Impacting the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosciuch, T. J.; Pilarczyk, J.; Reinhardt, E. G.; Mauviel, A.; Aucoin, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    The uncertainty of extreme wave events in the Caribbean was highlighted in October 2015 when Hurricane Joaquin tracked through, or near, several islands (e.g., Bahamas, Haiti, Turks and Caicos) as a Category 4 storm. The short observational record of landfalling hurricanes is insufficient in preparing many of these islands for such a rare, intense storm. Examining the sediments deposited by recent landfalling hurricanes assists the understanding of the long-term spatial and temporal variations in storm frequency and intensity. However, the interpretation of prehistoric hurricane deposits in the Caribbean is complicated by the possibility of tsunami deposits (e.g., Puerto Rico Trench, 1755 Lisbon Tsunami), which are similar in composition and difficult to differentiate from storm sediments. To circumvent this problem, we describe the microfossil and sedimentary characteristics of a modern storm analogue, the Hurricane Joaquin deposit, from San Salvador Island in the Bahamas and use it as a basis for interpreting a series of 10 anomalous sand deposits found in a coastal pond. San Salvador is a small (160 km2) island in the Bahamas with a history of landfalling hurricanes and tsunamis. On 4 October 2015, Hurricane Joaquin came within 7 km of San Salvador, inundating most of its coastline and depositing two distinct layers: a sand layer and a boulder layer. The sand layer was 12 to 104 cm thick, extended 135 m inland, and consisted of fine to medium sand. The sand layer contained high abundances of foraminifera, including Homotrema rubra, a foraminifer that lives on the reef and is detached by large waves. The presence of well-preserved fragments of Homotrema within the Joaquin deposit suggests transport from the reef and rapid burial. The boulder layer included large clasts (30 to 200 cm in length) that were imbricated perpendicular to the shoreline and extended 135 m inland. The boulder layer was more laterally extensive (1020 m) than the sand layer (110 m). The

  9. 33 CFR 110.224 - San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... area shown on a Government chart. (5) No vessel may moor, anchor, or tie up to any pier, wharf, or... supervision may go alongside or in any manner moor to any Government-owned vessel, mooring buoy, or pontoon...); and the side boundaries of which are parallel tangents joining the semicircles. A forbidden anchorage...

  10. Windows 7 resource kit

    CERN Document Server

    Northrup, Tony; Honeycutt, Jerry; Wilson, Ed

    2009-01-01

    In-depth and comprehensive, this RESOURCE KIT delivers the information you need to administer your Windows 7 system. You get authoritative technical guidance from those who know the technology best-Microsoft Most Valuable Professionals (MVPs) and the Windows 7 product team-along with essential scripts and resources. In addition, "Direct from the Source" sidebars offer deep insights and troubleshooting tips from the Windows 7 team. Get expert guidance on how to: Use Microsoft Deployment Toolkit best practices and tools. Plan user-state migration and test application compatibility.

  11. Mobile Probing Kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Sørensen, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Probing Kit is a low tech and low cost methodology for obtaining inspiration and insights into user needs, requirements and ideas in the early phases of a system's development process. The methodology is developed to identify user needs, requirements and ideas among knowledge workers...... characterized as being highly nomadic and thus potential users of mobile and ubiquitous technologies. The methodology has been applied in the 1ST MAGNET Beyond project in order to obtain user needs and requirements in the process of developing pilot services. We report on the initial findings from applying...

  12. Education Payload Operation - Kit D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Kit D (EPO-Kit D) includes education items that will be used to support the live International Space Station (ISS) education downlinks and Education Payload Operation (EPO) demonstrations onboard the ISS. The main objective of EPO-Kit D supports the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goal of attracting students to study and seek careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

  13. Microgripper construction kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengenbach, Ulrich K.; Hofmann, Andreas; Engelhardt, Friedhelm; Scharnowell, Rudolf; Koehler, Bernd

    2001-10-01

    A large number of microgrippers has been developed in industry and academia. Although the importance of hybrid integration techniques and hence the demand for assembly tools grows continuously a large part of these developments has not yet been used in industrial production. The first grippers developed for microassembly were basically vacuum grippers and downscaled tweezers. Due to increasingly complex assembly tasks more and more functionality such as sensing or additional functions such as adhesive dispensing has been integrated into gripper systems over the last years. Most of these gripper systems are incompatible since there exists no standard interface to the assembly machine and no standard for the internal modules and interfaces. Thus these tools are not easily interchangeable between assembly machines and not easily adaptable to assembly tasks. In order to alleviate this situation a construction kit for modular microgrippers is being developed. It is composed of modules with well defined interfaces that can be combined to build task specific grippers. An abstract model of a microgripper is proposed as a tool to structure the development of the construction kit. The modular concept is illustrated with prototypes.

  14. Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring and Habitat Assessment in theSan Luis National Wildlife Refuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Burns, Josephine R.; Stromayer, Karl A.K.; Jordan, Brandon M.; Ennis, Mike J.; Woolington,Dennis W.

    2005-08-28

    The project report describes a two year experiment to control wetland drainage to the San Joaquin River of California from the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge using a decision support system for real-time water quality management. This system required the installation and operation of one inlet and three drainage flow and water quality monitoring stations which allowed a simple mass balance model to be developed of the seasonally managed wetlands in the study area. Remote sensing methods were developed to document long-term trends in wetland moist soil vegetation and soil salinity in response to management options such as delaying the initiation of seasonal wetland drainage. These environmental management tools provide wetland managers with some of the tools necessary to improve salinity conditions in the San Joaquin River and improve compliance with State mandated salinity objectives without inflicting long-term harm on the wild fowl habitat resource.

  15. The Maiestas of the 1162 Bible of San Isidoro de León in the Museo Arqueológico Nacional (Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Hernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Joaquin Yarza has attributed a loose folio containing a full-page representation of the Maiestas in the MAN to the 1162 Bible of San Isidoro de León. A comparative analysis of both works and documentary evidence confirm this identification, thereby deepening our understanding of the works.

  16. San Francisco District Laboratory (SAN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesFood Analysis SAN-DO Laboratory has an expert in elemental analysis who frequently performs field inspections of materials. A recently acquired...

  17. Radiology seminars using teaching kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, T.G.

    1989-01-01

    Clinco-radiological seminars are an effective method of teaching medical students. However, in busy departments it is often difficult to provide enough radiologists for small group instruction. This can be facilitated by the use of prepared teaching kits. Each kit contains a set of duplicated films and a syllabus which gives a short clinical history for each patient and a series of questions to be used to direct the discussion. Each diagnostic problem is chosen to demonstrate core material. We have been using these teaching kits for organ system teaching in the preclerkship year. Teaching kits offer several advantages. They make it easier to recruit seminar leaders through efficient use of their time. The use of duplicated films and a syllabus ensures that all students cover the same material. The syllabus can be used to generate examination questions for reinforcement of important concepts. The kits are also available to students to review alone and can be readily updated as required

  18. Self-Test Kit: Rapid Diagnosis of Urogenital Infections in Military Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    this project will result in a self-test kit for use on deployment and/or in other resource poor environments. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. N1 tUMER OF PAGES...DK, et al. Characteristics of women by smoking status in the San Francisco Bay Area. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 1992; 1:491-7. 10

  19. San Marino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    San Marino, an independent republic located in north central Italy, in 1983 had a population of 22,206 growing at an annual rate of .9%. The literacy rate is 97% and the infant mortality rate is 9.6/1000. The terrain is mountainous and the climate is moderate. According to local tradition, San Marino was founded by a Christian stonecutter in the 4th century A.D. as a refuge against religious persecution. Its recorded history began in the 9th century, and it has survived assaults on its independence by the papacy, the Malatesta lords of Rimini, Cesare Borgia, Napoleon, and Mussolini. An 1862 treaty with the newly formed Kingdom of Italy has been periodically renewed and amended. The present government is an alliance between the socialists and communists. San Marino has had its own statutes and governmental institutions since the 11th century. Legislative authority at present is vested in a 60-member unicameral parliament. Executive authority is exercised by the 11-member Congress of State, the members of which head the various administrative departments of the goverment. The posts are divided among the parties which form the coalition government. Judicial authority is partly exercised by Italian magistrates in civil and criminal cases. San Marino's policies are tied to Italy's and political organizations and labor unions active in Italy are also active in San Marino. Since World War II, there has been intense rivalry between 2 political coalitions, the Popular Alliance composed of the Christian Democratic Party and the Independent Social Democratic Party, and the Liberty Committee, coalition of the Communist Party and the Socialist Party. San Marino's gross domestic product was $137 million and its per capita income was $6290 in 1980. The principal economic activities are farming and livestock raising, along with some light manufacturing. Foreign transactions are dominated by tourism. The government derives most of its revenue from the sale of postage stamps to

  20. Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, W.C.

    1987-02-01

    The Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit was designed to help engineering educators develop and teach energy management courses. Montana State University and Oklahoma State University courses are embodied in the model curriculum given. The curricula offered at many other universities throughout the United States are also presented. The kit was designed specifically to train engineering students to be good energy managers. Courses at both the undergraduate and postgraduate level are presented.

  1. Don Joaquin García Monge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Rodríguez Garavito

    1958-11-01

    Full Text Available Los conocimos personalmente y tratamos de cerca en su amada ciudad de San José de Costa Rica. Casi diariamente íbamos por su casa. Una mansión grande, de vastos y sonoros corredores, arcones antiguos, libros apilados por doquier. Don Joaquín mantenía el timón de El Repertorio Americano, una de las más nobles publicaciones intelectuales del Continente. Dialogábamos con él sobre temas de mucha entidad, mientras la noche caía lentamente sobre este dulce país de porcelana tan grato a las veladas antiguas, aquellas donde se puede oír el latido del corazón como en el poema chino.

  2. EDXRF Analysis of pigments of the Joaquin Sorolla Artistic Paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, Jose L.; Roldan Clodoaldo, David; Mario Alvarez, Juanes

    1999-01-01

    The study of the pictorial work of Joaquin Sorolla has not been carried out from the point of view of the scientific analysis. Analytical techniques give us objective information about materials and process used in artistic works of art. In this sense, the Archaeometry Unit of the Institute of Material Science of the Valencia University (ICMUV), has carried out the first analysis of pigments of the paintings of Sorolla by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence(EDXRF)

  3. Are Wildlife Detector Dogs or People Better at Finding Desert Tortoises (Gopherus Agassizii)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Davenport, M.C. Smith, and J.E. Maldonado. 2003. Detection and accuracy rates of dogs trained to find scats of San Joaquin Kit Foxes (Vulpes macrotis...Herpetological Conservation and Biology 3(1):103-115. 114 Relative abundance of endangered San Joaquin Kit Foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) based on...trainer. She is also with the Contra Costa County (CA) Sheriff Office and oversees their bomb dog and search and rescue dog programs. JULIE YEE

  4. Preparation of albumin radioimmunoassay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Suoshu; Wang Yanzhen; Wang Zhenshan

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the preparation of Albumin (Alb) radioimmunoassay kit and its preliminary clinical application. The kit is mainly applied to the measurement of Alb concentration in human urine, adopting second antibody-PEG method. The measurement range is (1-50 μg/ml). The curve obtained with a serially diluted urine sample of high Alb concentration was a straight line. Recovery, detectability, intra- and inter-batch variation coefficients were 95.7%-103.6%, 0.1 μg/ml, 5.8% and 6.4% respectively. The kit was tried out clinically for measuring Alb in urine samples in about 1200 normal individuals and 600 various patients of related renal diseases. The preliminary clinical results show that Alb RIA is conducive to the early diagnosis of kidney function abnormalities

  5. Active Parenting Now: Program Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Michael H.

    Based largely on the theories of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs, this parent education curriculum is a video-based interactive learning experience that teaches a comprehensive model of parenting to parents of children ages 5 to 12 years. The kit provides parents with the skills needed to help their children develop courage, responsibility, and…

  6. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  7. Architectural Environment: A Resource Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. Speed Art Museum, Louisville, KY.

    There are many ways to approach the investigation of architecture. One can look at structural form, climate and topography, the aesthetics of style and decoration, building function, historical factors, cultural meanings, or technology and techniques associated with construction. This resource kit touches upon a few of these approaches, ranging…

  8. Work and Family Resource Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This kit is designed to help employers understand the range of family needs emerging in the workplace and the numerous options for a company response. An introduction discusses the need for child care services, dependent care problems, and how employers respond and benefit. Sections address the following: selecting the right option in relation to…

  9. Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit (cFS Kit) will allow a small satellite or CubeSat developer to rapidly develop, deploy, test, and operate flight...

  10. 78 FR 6833 - Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the San Joaquin River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... locations: Bureau of Reclamation, Regional Library, 2800 Cottage Way, Sacramento, CA 95825-1898 California State Library, 914 Capitol Mall, Suite E-29, Sacramento, CA 95814-4802 University of California... California Research Bureau, California State Library, PO Box 942837, Sacramento, CA 94237-0001 Fresno County...

  11. 75 FR 4745 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans, State of California, San Joaquin Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... per hour or less and that are fired exclusively on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) (see... described above but also establishes the following specifications for both natural gas and LPG combusted by... exemption would establish separate specifications for natural gas and for LPG. The hydrocarbon content limit...

  12. 76 FR 39777 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollutions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... from crude oil production operations and refineries. Under authority of the Clean Air Act as amended in... in SJVUAPCD Rule 4455, ``Components at Petroleum Refineries, Gas Liquids Processing Facilities and... are hesitant to divert resources to conduct work that is not demonstrated to have significant...

  13. Equations for predicting diameter, height, crown width, and leaf area of San Joaquin Valley street trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.J. Peper; E.G. McPherson; S.M. Mori

    2001-01-01

    Although the modeling of energy-use reduction, air pollution uptake, rainfall interception, and microclimate modification associated with urban trees depends on data relating diameter at breast height (dbh) , crown height, crown diameter, and leaf area to tree age or dbh, scant information is available for common municipal tree species . I n this study , tree height ,...

  14. Support Services for Exceptional Students: Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Joaquin, and Solano Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Angelica; Maloney, Patricia

    Intended for use by vocational administrators responsible for mainstreaming handicapped students into vocational education classes, the resource guide lists and describes governmental and private agencies that provide vocational programs and support services for the handicapped on a local and statewide basis in the California counties of Alameda,…

  15. 75 FR 26102 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans, State of California, San Joaquin Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... agricultural sources from the offset requirement does not conflict with the Clean Air Act. Dairy Cares points... District, New Source Review AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA... provide for review of new and modified stationary sources (``new source review'' or NSR) within the...

  16. 78 FR 46504 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans, State of California, San Joaquin Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ....' Subdivision (b) does not authorize district New Source Review rules that conflict with the sections of SB 700... Review rules that conflict with SB 700's provisions concerning the New Source Review process. Subdivision... not grant authority, and does not authorize New Source Review rules that conflict with other sections...

  17. 77 FR 65305 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; San Joaquin Valley Unified Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... the exhaustion of all administrative and judicial appeals processes (including any associated remand... subject to the CEC certification process do not satisfy the CAA's requirements for judicial review. The... process under CPRC 25531 differs in a number of respects from the administrative and judicial review...

  18. 76 FR 76112 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans, State of California, San Joaquin Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... particular nights are not necessarily insignificant from the standpoint of PM 10 and PM 2.5 formation... winter nights to provide frost protection for certain type of crops (like citrus) when temperatures are... reasonably be estimated at approximately 15 pounds per day of NO X .\\1\\ \\1\\ Most engines are fired on propane...

  19. 76 FR 40660 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... Report 05/20/10 04/05/11 and Recommendations on Agricultural Burning. On May 6, 2011, EPA determined that... disease, decreased lung function, visibility impairment, and damage to vegetation and ecosystems. Section... open burning of agricultural waste and other materials. Rule 4103 was revised largely to implement...

  20. 33 CFR 162.205 - Suisun Bay, San Joaquin River, Sacramento River, and connecting waters, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Commander or his authorized representative. (5) Wrecks. In no case following accidents of fire or collision...); a wharf or other structure; work under construction; plant engaged in river and harbor improvement... navigable channels, when within a reasonable distance therefrom and not in any case over a mile, shall...

  1. 76 FR 57845 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; San Joaquin Valley; Attainment Plan for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Stationary Gas Turbines....... 4703 3rd Q--2007 September 2007 74 FR 53888 (October 21, 2009). S-IND-24 Soil Decontamination......... 4651 3rd Q--2007 September 2007 74 FR 52894 (October 15, 2009). S-IND-6 Polystyrene Foam...

  2. High Quantile of Environmental Screening Methods, San Joaquin Valley CA, 2013, Occidental College of Los Angeles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer combines the high quantiles of the CES, CEVA, and EJSM layers so that viewers can see the overlap of â??hot spotsâ?? for each method. This layer was...

  3. 75 FR 74517 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of California; 2008 San Joaquin Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... formed in the atmosphere as a result of various chemical reactions from precursor emissions of nitrogen... air quality modeling, the reasonable further progress (RFP) demonstration, the contingency measures... Modeling in the SJV 2008 PM 2.5 Plan 3. PM 2.5 Attainment Plan Precursors 4. Extension of the Attainment...

  4. Subsidence, Sea Level Rise, and Seismicity in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Mount

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic accommodation space, or that space in the Delta that lies below sea level and is filled neither with sediment nor water, serves as a useful measure of the regional consequences of Delta subsidence and sea level rise. Microbial oxidation and compaction of organic-rich soils due to farming activity is the primary cause of Delta subsidence. During the period 1900-2000, subsidence created approximately 2.5 billion cubic meters of anthropogenic accommodation space in the Delta. From 2000-2050, subsidence rates will slow due to depletion of organic material and better land use practices. However, by 2050 the Delta will contain more than 3 billion cubic meters of anthropogenic accommodation space due to continued subsidence and sea level rise. An Accommodation Space Index, which relates subaqueous accommodation space to anthropogenic accommodation space, provides an indicator of past and projected Delta conditions. While subsidence and sea level rise create increasing anthropogenic accommodation space in the Delta, they also lead to a regional increase in the forces that can cause levee failure. Although these forces take many forms, a Levee Force Index can be calculated that is a proxy for the cumulative forces acting on levees. The Levee Force Index increases significantly over the next 50 years demonstrating regional increases in the potential for island flooding. Based on continuing increases in the Levee Force Index and the Accommodation Space Index, and limited support for Delta levee upgrades, there will be a tendency for increases in and impacts of island flooding, with escalating costs for repairs. Additionally, there is a two-in-three chance that 100-year recurrence interval floods or earthquakes will cause catastrophic flooding and significant change in the Delta by 2050. Currently, the California Bay-Delta Authority has no overarching policy that addresses the consequences of, and potential responses to, gradual or abrupt landscape change in the Delta.

  5. 75 FR 3996 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... and that it was, therefore, hesitant to ``divert resources to unnecessary bureaucratic work associated... small businesses, small not-for-profit enterprises, and small governmental jurisdictions. This rule will...

  6. Limited site review for the San Joaquin Nuclear Project. Project No. 499

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    This report is the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (Commission) safety evaluation of a proposed site near Bakersfield, California, on which the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (applicant) in association with a number of other organizations proposes to build a nuclear facility at a future date. A construction permit application has not been filed but the applicant has informed us of its intention to submit an Environmental Report during February 1980 and a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report during May 1980

  7. 77 FR 64427 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... with Steve Fields (California Department of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources), August 1, 2012. \\2... VOC content) vary widely with the geological properties of the oil wells and the fact that a few... conversation with Steve Fields (California Department of Oil, Gas and Geothermal Resources), August 1, 2012. \\8...

  8. 77 FR 12651 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; San Joaquin Valley; Attainment Plan for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... jointly by the Center on Race, Poverty and the Environment; Earthjustice; and the Natural Resources... F.2d 764, 769-71 (2d Cir. 1992); Cate v. Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Corp., 904 F. Supp. 526, 530... vehicular sources and non-vehicular (stationary source) controls. As to the former, the SIP revision...

  9. 76 FR 26609 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Shipping Ass'n v. Goldstene, 517 F.3d 1108 (9th Cir. 2008), by noting that the regulations in those cases..., EMA v. EPA and Pacific Merchant Shipping Ass'n v. Goldstene, 2009 U.S. Dist Lexis 55516, 70 ERC 1337.... Rd. & Transp. Builders Ass'n v. EPA, 588 F.3d 1109 (DC Cir. 2009), petition for cert. denied, No. 09...

  10. 75 FR 2079 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... proposal: (1) Rule 4570 fails to require controls for all major poultry operations; (2) SJVAPCD failed to... additional controls would advance the attainment date of the ozone standard belongs in the context of SJVAPCD... industries can afford controls costing 10% of profits or more without impacting economic viability. EJ...

  11. H10895: NOS Hydrographic Survey , San Joaquin River, California, 1999-08-03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  12. 77 FR 71129 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley United Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ...EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the SJVUAPCD and SCAQMD portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This action was proposed in the Federal Register on June 21, 2012 and concerns volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from chipping and grinding activities, and composting operations. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  13. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Selected Birth Defects in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Amy M.; Tager, Ira B.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Yang, Wei; Lurmann, Frederick W.; Shaw, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Birth defects are a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Studies suggest associations between environmental contaminants and some structural anomalies, although evidence is limited and several anomalies have not been investigated previously. METHODS We used data from the California Center of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and the Children's Health and Air Pollution Study to estimate the odds of 26 congenital birth defect phenotypes with respect to quartiles of seven ambient air pollutant and traffic exposures in California during the first 2 months of pregnancy, 1997 to 2006 (874 cases and 849 controls). We calculated odds ratios (adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, education, and vitamin use; aOR) for 11 phenotypes that had at least 40 cases. RESULTS Few odds ratios had confidence intervals that did not include 1.0. Odds of esophageal atresia were increased for the highest versus lowest of traffic density (aOR = 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–7.4) and PM10 exposure (aOR 4.9; 95% CI, 1.4–17.2). PM10 was associated with a decreased risk of hydrocephaly (aOR= 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1–0.9) and CO with decreased risk of anotia/microtia (aOR = 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2–0.8) and transverse limb deficiency (aOR = 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2–0.9), again reflecting highest versus lowest quartile comparisons. CONCLUSION Most analyses showed no substantive association between air pollution and the selected birth defects with few exceptions of mixed results. PMID:24108522

  14. 76 FR 68103 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD).\\1\\ This was the low end of a range of estimates that... controls within the range of estimates developed by BAAQMD and the South Coast Air Quality Management....453 tons per year (tpy) per restaurant to potential UFC controls but never explains the basis for this...

  15. Environmental Justice Screening Method (EJSM) Score, San Joaquin Valley CA, 2013, Occidental College and UC Berkeley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Cumulative Impacts (CI) screening method is jointly being developed by Manuel Pastor, Jim Sadd (Occidental College), and Rachel Morello-Frosch (UC Berkeley) ....

  16. 76 FR 33181 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... aging and wine aging operations. EPA's technical support document (TSD) has more information about this...) emissions from brandy and wine aging operations. We are approving a local rule that regulates [[Page 33182... 4695 Brandy Aging and Wine Aging 09/17/09 05/17/10 Operations. On June 8, 2010, EPA determined that the...

  17. 76 FR 70886 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... requirements of Section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272...-volume reports), and some may not be available in either location (e.g., confidential business information (CBI)). To inspect the hard copy materials, please schedule an appointment during normal business...

  18. 78 FR 6740 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley United Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... requirements of Section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272..., multi- volume reports), and some may not be available in either location (e.g., confidential business information (CBI)). To inspect the hard copy materials, please schedule an appointment during normal business...

  19. 77 FR 58312 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 note) because application of those...-volume reports), and some may not be available in either location (e.g., confidential business information (CBI)). To inspect the hard copy materials, please schedule an appointment during normal business...

  20. 76 FR 53640 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 note) because application of those... available in either location (e.g., confidential business information (CBI)). To inspect the hard copy materials, please schedule an appointment during normal business hours with the contact listed in the FOR...

  1. 77 FR 71109 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 note) because application of those... either location (e.g., confidential business information (CBI)). To inspect the hard copy materials, please schedule an appointment during normal business hours with the contact listed in the FOR FURTHER...

  2. 77 FR 25384 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 note) because application of those..., unless the comment includes Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure... during normal business hours with the contact listed in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section. FOR...

  3. 77 FR 5709 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 note) because application of those... either location (e.g., confidential business information (CBI)). To inspect the hard copy materials, please schedule an appointment during normal business hours with the contact listed in the FOR FURTHER...

  4. 75 FR 1716 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... NO X 12. Definition of ``Major Source'' 13. Sunset Provision for Section 185 Fees III. EPA Action IV... from Ted Steichen, dated September 18, 2009. 3. Association of Irritated Residents, letter from Brent... or emissions during the baseline period, or the amount of VOC or NO X emissions allowed under the...

  5. 77 FR 50021 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... the required notice and comment procedures rendered the guidance invalid. NRDC v. EPA, 643 F.3d 311..., such as owners of mobile sources that also contribute to ozone formation. EPA also believes that... percent of ozone formation in SJVUAPCD.\\3\\ Our proposed action contains our analysis of how the District's...

  6. 1979-80 Financial Statistics for Current Cost of Education... Showing San Joaquin Delta College Position...

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRicco, Lawrence A.

    The costs of education per unit of Average Daily Attendance (ADA) are detailed in this two-part report for 70 California community college districts for the academic year 1979-80. Both Part I, which presents data excluding non-resident ADA, and Part II, which presents figures including non-resident ADA, begin with tables which rank order the…

  7. 77 FR 2228 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... ``feasible,'' more than one measure must be implemented. As a matter of theory, petitioners are, of course... actually reach it. CRPE further argues that dairies already have an incentive to not allow expensive feed... three feet away from the feedlane fence during site visits. Although there is financial incentive for...

  8. CERN’s FMC Kit

    CERN Document Server

    Cattin, M; Serrano, J; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the renovation of controls and data acquisition electronics for accelerators the BE-CO-HT section at CERN has designed a kit based on carriers and mezzanines following the VITA FPGAMezzanine Card (FMC) standard. Carriers exist in VME64x and PCIe form factors, with a PXIe carrier underway. Mezzanines include an Analog to Digital Converter, a Time to Digital Converter, a fine delay generator and a Digital Input/Output. All of the designs are licensed under the CERN Open Hardware Licence and commercialised by companies. This paper discusses the benefits of this carrier mezzanine strategy and of the Open Hardware based commercial paradigm. It also explains the design of each layer of the FMC kit, from the hardware to the gateware and the Linux device driver. In addition, several tools to help designers developing gateware for mezzanines and new concepts such as the Self-Describing Bus (SDB) and the fmcbus are presented. Lastly, some of the plans for the future of the FMC kit and Open Hardware Re...

  9. Molecular Alterations of KIT Oncogene in Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Gomes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common and devastating primary brain tumours. Despite therapeutic advances, the majority of gliomas do not respond either to chemo or radiotherapy. KIT, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK, is frequently involved in tumourigenic processes. Currently, KIT constitutes an attractive therapeutic target. In the present study we assessed the frequency of KIT overexpression in gliomas and investigated the genetic mechanisms underlying KIT overexpression. KIT (CD117 immunohistochemistry was performed in a series of 179 gliomas of various grades. KIT activating gene mutations (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17 and gene amplification analysis, as defined by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR were performed in CD117 positive cases. Tumour cell immunopositivity was detected in 15.6% (28/179 of cases, namely in 25% (1/4 of pilocytic astrocytomas, 25% (5/20 of diffuse astrocytomas, 20% (1/5 of anaplastic astrocytomas, 19.5% (15/77 of glioblastomas and one third (3/9 of anaplastic oligoastrocytomas. Only 5.7% (2/35 of anaplastic oligodendrogliomas showed CD117 immunoreactivity. No association was found between tumour CD117 overexpression and patient survival. In addition, we also observed CD117 overexpression in endothelial cells, which varied from 0–22.2% of cases, being more frequent in high-grade lesions. No KIT activating mutations were identified. Interestingly, CISH and/or qRT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of KIT gene amplification in 6 glioblastomas and 2 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, corresponding to 33% (8/24 of CD117 positive cases. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that KIT gene amplification rather than gene mutation is a common genetic mechanism underlying KIT expression in subset of malignant gliomas. Further studies are warranted to determine whether glioma patients exhibiting KIT overexpression and KIT gene amplification may benefit from therapy with anti-KIT RTK

  10. Trabajadores agrícolas en el valle de San Joaquín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio Posadas Segura

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural workers are the backbone of the rural economy in California and the United States. More than 95 percent are Mexicans, especially in Michoa- can. An extensive fieldwork in the San Joaquin Valley, economic and demo- graphic indicators reveal that confirm the formation of various segments of employees: men and women, children, youth, adults and seniors, indigenous and non-indigenous residents and migrants, documented and undocumen- ted. This vast contingent reinforces the paradoxical trend toward increased production of agricultural wealth and the increasing poverty of authentic food producers.

  11. Factors Contributing to the Interrupted Decay of Hurricane Joaquin (2015) in a Moderate Vertical Wind Shear Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    11  C.  TCI MISSIONS INTO HURRICANE JOAQUIN ............................. 13  III.  DATA AND METHODOLOGY ...October (Figure 12) indicated that the convection in Joaquin had become more organized with an enshrouded eye and rainbands spiraling outward on the...mission. Note that the intensity of Joaquin was still 75 kt at 0600 UTC 6 October (Table 1). 25 III. DATA AND METHODOLOGY A. TCI FIELD PROGRAM

  12. Kit with track detectors aiming at didactic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, M.F.; Koskinas, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    The kit intends to improve the possibilities in performing experiments of Nuclear Physics in Modern Physics Laboratories of Physics Course introducing the solid state nuclear track detectors. In these materials the passage of heavily ionizing nuclear particles creates paths (tracks) that may be revealed and made visible in an optical microscope. By the help of the kit several experiments and/or demonstrations may be performed. The kit contains solid state nuclear track detectors unirradiated and irradiated, irradiated etched and uneteched sheets; an alpha source of 241 Am and an instrution text with photomicrographs. To use the kit the laboratory must have an ordinary optical microscope. (author) [pt

  13. Sediment transport of streams tributary to San Francisco, San Pablo, and Suisun Bays, California, 1909-66

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, George

    1980-01-01

    A review of historical sedimentation data is presented, results of sediment-data collection for water years 1957-59 are summarized, and long-term sediment-discharge estimates from a preliminary report are updated. Comparison of results based on 3 years of data to those for the 10 water years, 1957-66, provides an indication of the adequacy of the data obtained during the short period to define the long-term relation between sediment transport and streamflow. During 1909-66, sediment was transported to the entire San Francisco Bay system at an average rate of 8.6 million cubic yards per year. The Sacramento and San Joaquin River basins provided about 83% of the sediment inflow to the system annually during 1957-66 and 86% during 1909-66. About 98% of this inflow was measured or estimated at sediment measuring sites. Measured sediment inflow directly to the bays comprised only about 40% of the total discharged by basins directly tributary to the bays. About 90% of the total sediment discharge to the delta and the bays in the San Francisco Bay system thus was determined on the basis of systematic measurements. (USGS)

  14. Preparation of kits for 99Tcm radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This publication details preparation under Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) of thirteen widely used 99 Tc m radiopharmaceuticals and their quality assurance practices. The objective of this document is to present to those who intend to launch a kit preparation programme a set of preparation procedures and other relevant information gathered during kit production over a period of more than a decade, to serve as a good starting point. The manuals and monographs included in the document are based on the experience gained in two major centres. The publication of this material is intended to give a typical example, and not the only possible procedure for preparing the kits. Following the essentials of these kit preparation procedures, it is always possible to make alterations to the composition of the kits. The kits described here concern widely used 99 Tc m radiopharmaceuticals which do not require a Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) camera. These examples of the ''first generation'' of kits are not very intricate to prepare. Although it is advisable to have only one agent for a given intended use, a few agents for each purpose, e.g. EHDP and MDP for bone imagining, have been included in the document so that the reader can have some flexibility in selecting a particular kit. 24 refs, 2 figs

  15. A fiber-optic polarimetric demonstration kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftimov, T; Dimitrova, T L; Ivanov, G

    2012-01-01

    A simple and multifunctional fiber-optic polarimetric kit on the basis of highly birefringent single-mode fibers is presented. The fiber-optic polarimetric kit allows us to perform the following laboratory exercises: (i) fiber excitation and the measurement of numerical aperture, (ii) polarization preservation and (iii) obtain polarization-sensitive fiberized interferometers.

  16. Building Use Policies. SPEC Kit 144.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Patrick

    This Systems and Procedures Exchange Center (SPEC) flyer/kit addresses some of the needs of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) members regarding library building use and the aesthetics and well-being of the materials and people in the building. The kit draws upon documents gathered as part of a 1986 Quick-SPEC survey that dealt with food and…

  17. Teen Ambassador Leadership Kit (TALK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna R. Gillespie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Teen Ambassador Leadership Kit, (TALK, is an annual weekend retreat designed for teens interested in promoting and marketing 4-H in their communities. TALK organizers felt teens would benefit from an intensive weekend retreat focused on communication. TALK produces a network of educated and excited 4-H teens that are available to help with 4-H promotion and marketing. Participants arrive on Friday evening for team building activities, on Saturday they participate in one of the workshops offered and on Sunday morning each workshop group has the opportunity to share their completed projects and what they learned. At the conclusion of the retreat, teens are designated "County 4-H Ambassadors" and certificates of completion, professional business cards and polo shirts are presented. The TALK teen participants return home to share what they learned with their local county 4-H staff and help promote and market 4-H in their communities.

  18. Personal radiotoxicological (first aid) kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gachalyi, Andras; Gyulai, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with the spread of nuclear industrial activities, and the widespread use of radioactive materials and products the possibility of radionuclide contamination of humans and animals has significantly increased. During nuclear tests or reactor accidents, a large amount of radioactive materials may enter the environment which can contaminate the living environment (air, water, vegetation, soil), for a long period. This contamination may enter living organisms by inhalation, intake and ingestion, causing severe biological damage. As an example the Chernobyl reactor accident can be mentioned, where there was no possibility for the decorporation of isotopes, as there were no products available such as the 'RADISTOP'. To achieve appropriate decorporating (and decontaminating) treatment which is effective, it is highly recommendable to use a personal Radiotoxicological First Aid Kit (PRK) within the shortest possible time after internal contamination. This unit provides effective treatment to decorporate the most common incorporated fission products. (author)

  19. KIT safety management. Annual report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The KIT Safety Management Service Unit (KSM) guarantees radiological and conventional technical safety and security of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and controls the implementation and observation of legal environmental protection requirements. KSM is responsible for - licensing procedures, - industrial safety organization, - control of environmental protection measures, - planning and implementation of emergency preparedness and response, - operation of radiological laboratories and measurement stations, - extensive radiation protection support and the - the execution of security tasks in and for all organizational units of KIT. Moreover, KSM is in charge of wastewater and environmental monitoring for all facilities and nuclear installations all over the KIT campus. KSM is headed by the Safety Commissioner of KIT, who is appointed by the Presidential Committee. Within his scope of procedure for KIT, the Safety Commissioner controls the implementation of and compliance with safety-relevant requirements. The KIT Safety Management is certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001, its industrial safety management is certified by the VBG as ''AMS-Arbeitsschutz mit System'' and, hence, fulfills the requirements of NLF / ISO-OSH 2001. KSM laboratories are accredited according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025. To the extent possible, KSM is committed to maintaining competence in radiation protection and to supporting research and teaching activities. The present reports lists the individual tasks of the KIT Safety Management and informs about the results achieved in 2012. Status figures in principle reflect the status at the end of the year 2012. The processes described cover the areas of competence of KSM.

  20. Estradiol RIA kit in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, W.; Lisse, K.; Bienert, R.; Flentje, H.; Koerner, H.; Wilken, T.; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin-Buch. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1985-01-01

    First clinical experience with a estradiol RIA kit developed in the Central Institute for Isotope- and Radiation Research is reported. The kit was used for the daily control of estradiol level in patients, which were treated within the program for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. The time of incubation could be shortened by means of a double antibody technique and by use of a precipitation mixture to 2 h. The intraassay variation is 9.2%, the interassay variation is 15.1%, the recovery rate is 94%. The sensitivity of the test (B 0 -3SD) is about 120 pmol/l. The estradiol RIA kit satisfies clinical requirements. (author)

  1. An Introduction to the San Francisco Estuary Tidal Wetlands Restoration Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry R. Brown

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of tidal wetlands may provide an important tool for improving ecological health and water management for beneficial uses of the San Francisco Estuary (hereafter “Estuary”. Given the large losses of tidal wetlands from San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in the last 150 years, it seems logical to assume that restoring tidal wetlands will have benefits for a variety of aquatic and terrestrial native species that have declined during the same time period. However, many other changes have also occurred in the Estuary concurrent with the declines of native species. Other factors that might be important in species declines include the effects of construction of upstream dams, large and small water diversions within the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, agricultural pesticides, trace elements from industrial and agricultural activities, and invasions of alien species. Discussions among researchers, managers, and stakeholders have identified a number of uncertainties regarding the potential benefits of tidal wetland restoration. The articles of the Tidal Wetlands Restoration Series address four major issues of concern. Stated as questions, these are: 1. Will tidal wetland restoration enhance populations of native fishes? 2. Will wetland restoration increase rates of methylation of mercury? 3. Will primary production and other ecological processes in restored tidal wetlands result in net export of organic carbon to adjacent habitats, resulting in enhancement of the food web? Will the carbon produced contribute to the formation of disinfection byproducts when disinfected for use as drinking water? 4. Will restored tidal wetlands provide long-term ecosystem benefits that can be sustained in response to ongoing physical processes, including sedimentation and hydrodynamics? Reducing the uncertainty surrounding these issues is of critical importance because tidal wetland restoration is assumed to be a critical tool for

  2. Gonzo Strategies of Deceit: An Interview with Joaquin Segura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett W. Schultz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The interview that follows is a dialogue between artist and gallerist with the intent of unearthing the artist’s working strategies for a general public. Joaquin Segura is at once an anomaly in Mexico’s contemporary art scene at the same time as he is one of the most emblematic representatives of a larger shift toward a post-national identity among its youngest generation of artists. If Mexico looks increasingly like a foreclosed home burning to the ground, Segura could likely be the one walking away, charred matchstick between thumb and forefinger and shit-eating grin on his face. His corrosive attacks on institutions, ideologies, and power reflect a deep general distrust of authority, increasingly evident within the work of younger Mexican artists. It is perhaps most directly the result of President Calderon’s deeply unpopular war against the cartels but no doubt equally the product of decades upon decades of rampant corruption and errant policy within Mexico.

  3. Analysis of KIT expression and KIT exon 11 mutations in canine oral malignant melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, A; Mori, T; Sakai, H; Murakami, M; Yanai, T; Hoshino, Y; Maruo, K

    2011-09-01

    KIT, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase, is one of the specific targets for anti-cancer therapy. In humans, its expression and mutations have been identified in malignant melanomas and therapies using molecular-targeted agents have been promising in these tumours. As human malignant melanoma, canine malignant melanoma is a fatal disease with metastases and the poor response has been observed with all standard protocols. In our study, KIT expression and exon 11 mutations in dogs with histologically confirmed malignant oral melanomas were evaluated. Although 20 of 39 cases were positive for KIT protein, there was no significant difference between KIT expression and overall survival. Moreover, polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of KIT exon 11 in 17 samples did not detect any mutations and proved disappointing. For several reasons, however, KIT expression and mutations of various exons including exon 11 should be investigated in more cases. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Multicentre evaluation of commercial kit methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, J; Declerck, P J; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the analytical performance of different commercial kits for determination of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity we distributed eight selected split samples to 11 European laboratories experienced with haemostasis testing. Three different laboratories were involved in...... of the plasma samples, which was PAI-1 depleted. The laboratories involved in the testing reported for this sample a mean value of 6.1 IU/ml.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)......In order to study the analytical performance of different commercial kits for determination of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity we distributed eight selected split samples to 11 European laboratories experienced with haemostasis testing. Three different laboratories were involved...... in the production of data from each of the commercial kits tested. A considerable variation of PAI activity results reported from the laboratories testing the same commercial kits was observed. The range of reported results could in individual samples exceed the median value indicating an interlaboratory variation...

  5. Explanatory chapter: how plasmid preparation kits work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Laura

    2013-01-01

    To isolate plasmid DNA from bacteria using a commercial plasmid miniprep kit (if interested, compare this protocol with Isolation of plasmid DNA from bacteria). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Production of sestamibi kit for nuclear imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Hakim; Zakaria, Ahmad; Yaacob, Hadzri; Ramli, Jamaluddin [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan (Malaysia). School of Medical Sciences

    1997-12-01

    One of the research projects undertaken during the implementation of the IAEA Technical Assistance Cooperation Program in our department was inhouse production of sestamibi (MIBI) kit to be labelled with Tc99m pertechnetate for myocardial studies and for malignant tumor imaging. 100 mg raw materials of sestamibi was supplied by IAEA and the kit was prepared based on Janoki recipe. Using 6 mg MIBI, 192 mg glycine, 3.6 mg stannous chloride, 62.4 mg Na sub 4 Po sub 4 and 24 mg cysteine we have prepared 24 vials of MIBI kit under sterile condition and stored in the freezer at -70 degree C. The sterility of the kit was confirmed by microbiological test using cultured method. The stability test was done by labelling the kit with Tc-99m pertechnetate at day 1, 3, 7, 30 and 60 days after kit preparation. Using two system butanone and saline with ITLC the labelling efficiency of Tc-99m (MIBI) was found to be more than 90% in each case. The labelling efficiency was found to maintain at 90% up to 24 hours post reconstitution at room temperature. Biodistribution study was carried out by administering Tc-99m (MIBI) to mice intravenously at the dosage of IOO {mu} Ci per 20 gm body weight. The mice were sacrificed at 3 hours and 24 hours after the dose administration. Blood, heart, lung, intestine, kidney and stomach samples were obtained, weighed and measured for radioactivity using gamma well counter. The data showed that after 3 hours about 60% of the injected dose accumulated in the intestine which was in agreement with IAEA standard. At 24 hours the amount in the heart still remained about 25% of the 3 hour uptake. In house production of MIBI kit is easy, fast and cost effective. The data suggested that the quality of our kit was good enough to be used for further animal research and clinical trials.

  7. 46 CFR 184.710 - First-aid kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First-aid kits. 184.710 Section 184.710 Shipping COAST... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 184.710 First-aid kits. A vessel must carry either a first-aid kit approved under approval series 160.041 or a kit with equivalent contents...

  8. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood samples... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...

  9. Quality control of radioimmunoassay kits of pituitary hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caso Pena, R.; Arranz Calzado, C.

    1997-01-01

    The present work describe the quality control procedures carried out on three RIA-Kits by the Isotopes Centre of Cuba, The subject matter of study were ;: were: LH-RIA-Kit, FSH-RIA-Kit and Prolactin- RIA -Kit. The controls have included the characterization of the 125 I labelled hormones the specific antibodies, the 2 nd antibodies, the standards curves and the control serum. For the validation of these Kits were used reference standards from the WHO (World Health Organizations) and Kits from CIS company (France) based on the IRMA assays technologies . The results obtained allow us encourage the reliability of RIA-Kits

  10. Heavy mineral analysis for assessing the provenance of sandy sediment in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Florence L.; Woodrow, Donald L.; McGann, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Heavy or high-specific gravity minerals make up a small but diagnostic component of sediment that is well suited for determining the provenance and distribution of sediment transported through estuarine and coastal systems worldwide. By this means, we see that surficial sand-sized sediment in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System comes primarily from the Sierra Nevada and associated terranes by way of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and is transported with little dilution through the San Francisco Bay and out the Golden Gate. Heavy minerals document a slight change from the strictly Sierran-Sacramento mineralogy at the confluence of the two rivers to a composition that includes minor amounts of chert and other Franciscan Complex components west of Carquinez Strait. Between Carquinez Strait and the San Francisco Bar, Sierran sediment is intermingled with Franciscan-modified Sierran sediment. The latter continues out the Gate and turns southward towards beaches of the San Francisco Peninsula. The Sierran sediment also fans out from the San Francisco Bar to merge with a Sierran province on the shelf in the Gulf of the Farallones. Beach-sand sized sediment from the Russian River is transported southward to Point Reyes where it spreads out to define a Franciscan sediment province on the shelf, but does not continue southward to contribute to the sediment in the Golden Gate area.

  11. Quality control of radioimmunoassay kits of pituitary hormones; Control de calidad de kits de radioinmunoanalisis de hormonas hipofisiarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caso Pena, R [Centro de Isotopos, La Habana (Cuba); Arranz Calzado, C [Instituto Nacional de Endocrinologia, La Habana (Cuba)

    1998-12-31

    The present work describe the quality control procedures carried out on three RIA-Kits by the Isotopes Centre of Cuba, The subject matter of study were ;: were: LH-RIA-Kit, FSH-RIA-Kit and Prolactin- RIA -Kit. The controls have included the characterization of the {sup 125}I labelled hormones the specific antibodies, the 2 nd antibodies, the standards curves and the control serum. For the validation of these Kits were used reference standards from the WHO (World Health Organizations) and Kits from CIS company (France) based on the IRMA assays technologies . The results obtained allow us encourage the reliability of RIA-Kits

  12. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment cores from San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, M.I.; De Leon, R. P.; VanGeen, A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment cores of known chronology from Richardson and San Pablo Bays in San Francisco Bay, CA, were analyzed for a suite of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls to reconstruct a historic record of inputs. Total DDTs (DDT = 2,4'- and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the metabolites, 2,4'- and 4,4'-DDE, -DDD) range in concentration from 4-21 ng/g and constitute a major fraction (> 84%) of the total pesticides in the top 70 cm of Richardson Bay sediment. A subsurface maximum corresponds to a peak deposition date of 1969-1974. The first measurable DDT levels are found in sediment deposited in the late 1930's. The higher DDT inventory in the San Pablo relative to the Richardson Bay core probably reflects the greater proximity of San Pablo Bay to agricultural activities in the watershed of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) occur at comparable levels in the two Bays (inventories in San Pablo Bay are about a factor of four higher in the last four decades than in Richardson Bay, suggesting a distribution of inputs not as strongly weighed towards the upper reaches of the estuary as DDTs. The shallower subsurface maximum in PCBs compared to DDT in the San Pablo Bay core is consistent with the imposition of drastic source control measures four these constituents in 1970 and 1977 respectively. The observed decline in DDT and PCB levels towards the surface of both cores is consistent with a dramatic drop in the input of these pollutants once the effect of sediment resuspension and mixing is taken into account.

  13. The Fluid Dynamics Demo Kit: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Karen; Underhill, Patrick; Prestridge, Kathy

    2012-11-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a fluid dynamics demonstration/experiment kit that can be used by professors and graduate students at high school outreach events. The demonstrations in the kit will be easy to use and true crowd pleasers in order to inspire understanding and pique curiosity about the physics of flow. The kits will be inexpensive, containing readily available materials so that teachers can duplicate the demonstrations and experiments. The kits will be left with the teachers as a gift from the American Physics Society. The experiments and demonstrations cover the concepts of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, Bernoulli's equation, frictional losses and the ideal gas law. For each experiment, the teachers will receive presentation material, access to instructional videos, plus a worksheet that can be used in a high school physics classroom. This kit has been developed through the efforts of the APS-DFD Mentoring and Outreach Committee and has received funding from the APS-DFD. Work funded by the APS-DFD.

  14. The eBioKit, a stand-alone educational platform for bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-de-Diego, Rafael; de Villiers, Etienne P; Klingström, Tomas; Gourlé, Hadrien; Conesa, Ana; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik

    2017-09-01

    Bioinformatics skills have become essential for many research areas; however, the availability of qualified researchers is usually lower than the demand and training to increase the number of able bioinformaticians is an important task for the bioinformatics community. When conducting training or hands-on tutorials, the lack of control over the analysis tools and repositories often results in undesirable situations during training, as unavailable online tools or version conflicts may delay, complicate, or even prevent the successful completion of a training event. The eBioKit is a stand-alone educational platform that hosts numerous tools and databases for bioinformatics research and allows training to take place in a controlled environment. A key advantage of the eBioKit over other existing teaching solutions is that all the required software and databases are locally installed on the system, significantly reducing the dependence on the internet. Furthermore, the architecture of the eBioKit has demonstrated itself to be an excellent balance between portability and performance, not only making the eBioKit an exceptional educational tool but also providing small research groups with a platform to incorporate bioinformatics analysis in their research. As a result, the eBioKit has formed an integral part of training and research performed by a wide variety of universities and organizations such as the Pan African Bioinformatics Network (H3ABioNet) as part of the initiative Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa), the Southern Africa Network for Biosciences (SAnBio) initiative, the Biosciences eastern and central Africa (BecA) hub, and the International Glossina Genome Initiative.

  15. San Francisco Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, Brian

    1991-01-01

    'Where are today's challenges in accelerator physics?' was the theme of the open session at the San Francisco meeting, the largest ever gathering of accelerator physicists and engineers

  16. Shuttle Kit Freezer Refrigeration Unit Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The refrigerated food/medical sample storage compartment as a kit to the space shuttle orbiter is examined. To maintain the -10 F in the freezer kit, an active refrigeration unit is required, and an air cooled Stirling Cycle refrigerator was selected. The freezer kit contains two subsystems, the refrigeration unit, and the storage volume. The freezer must provide two basic capabilities in one unit. One requirement is to store 215 lbs of food which is consumed in a 30-day period by 7 people. The other requirement is to store 128.3 lbs of medical samples consisting of both urine and feces. The unit can be mounted on the lower deck of the shuttle cabin, and will occupy four standard payload module compartments on the forward bulkhead. The freezer contains four storage compartments.

  17. Tool Kit Helps Digitize Tide Gauge Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Albin; Pons, Frédéric; Moron, Vincent

    2005-09-01

    The Numérisation des Niveaux d'Eau (NUNIEAU) is an integrated and automated MATLAB computer program tool kit for digitizing, transforming, and validating paper records of sea level variations, called marigrams (Figure 1a), that can cut in half the time required to digitize paper records. This tool kit developed in 2004 by F. Pons is currently obtainable by request from the developer, but will be available online on the IMPLIT (Impact des événements extremes sur les hydro-systèmes du litoral méditerranéen français) Web site in early 2006.

  18. KIT safety management. Annual report 2012; KIT-Sicherheitsmanagement. Jahresbericht 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Gerhard (ed.)

    2013-07-01

    The KIT Safety Management Service Unit (KSM) guarantees radiological and conventional technical safety and security of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and controls the implementation and observation of legal environmental protection requirements. KSM is responsible for - licensing procedures, - industrial safety organization, - control of environmental protection measures, - planning and implementation of emergency preparedness and response, - operation of radiological laboratories and measurement stations, - extensive radiation protection support and the - the execution of security tasks in and for all organizational units of KIT. Moreover, KSM is in charge of wastewater and environmental monitoring for all facilities and nuclear installations all over the KIT campus. KSM is headed by the Safety Commissioner of KIT, who is appointed by the Presidential Committee. Within his scope of procedure for KIT, the Safety Commissioner controls the implementation of and compliance with safety-relevant requirements. The KIT Safety Management is certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001, its industrial safety management is certified by the VBG as ''AMS-Arbeitsschutz mit System'' and, hence, fulfills the requirements of NLF / ISO-OSH 2001. KSM laboratories are accredited according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025. To the extent possible, KSM is committed to maintaining competence in radiation protection and to supporting research and teaching activities. The present reports lists the individual tasks of the KIT Safety Management and informs about the results achieved in 2012. Status figures in principle reflect the status at the end of the year 2012. The processes described cover the areas of competence of KSM.

  19. FUELS IN SOIL TEST KIT: FIELD USE OF DIESEL DOG SOIL TEST KITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-05-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is commercializing Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kits for performing analysis of fuel-contaminated soils in the field. The technology consists of a method developed by WRI (U.S. Patents 5,561,065 and 5,976,883) and hardware developed by WRI that allows the method to be performed in the field (patent pending). The method is very simple and does not require the use of highly toxic reagents. The aromatic components in a soil extract are measured by absorption at 254 nm with a field-portable photometer. WRI added significant value to the technology by taking the method through the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) approval and validation processes. The method is designated ASTM Method D-5831-96, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This ASTM designation allows the method to be used for federal compliance activities. In FY 99, twenty-five preproduction kits were successfully constructed in cooperation with CF Electronics, Inc., of Laramie, Wyoming. The kit components work well and the kits are fully operational. In the calendar year 2000, kits were provided to the following entities who agreed to participate as FY 99 and FY 00 JSR (Jointly Sponsored Research) cosponsors and use the kits as opportunities arose for field site work: Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) (3 units), F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Gradient Corporation, The Johnson Company (2 units), IT Corporation (2 units), TRC Environmental Corporation, Stone Environmental, ENSR, Action Environmental, Laco Associates, Barenco, Brown and Caldwell, Dames and Moore Lebron LLP, Phillips Petroleum, GeoSyntek, and the State of New Mexico. By early 2001, ten kits had been returned to WRI following the six-month evaluation period. On return, the components of all ten kits were fully functional. The kits were upgraded with circuit modifications, new polyethylene foam inserts, and updated instruction manuals.

  20. Use of geochemical biomarkers in bottom sediment to track oil from a spill, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostettler, F.D.; Rapp, J.B.; Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    In April 1988, approximately 1500 m3 of a San Joaquin Valley crude oil were accidentally released from a Shell Oil Co. refinery near Martinez, Californa. The oil flowed into Carquinez Strait and Suisun Bay in northern San Francisco Bay Sediment and oil samples were collected within a week and analysed for geochemical marker compounds in order to track the molecular signature of the oil spill in the bottom sediment. Identification of the spilled oil in the sediment was complicated by the degraded nature of the oil and the similarity of the remaining, chromatographically resolvable constituents to those already present in the sediments from anthropogenic petroleum contamination, pyrogenic sources, and urban drainage. Ratios of hopane and sterane biomarkers, and of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their alkylated derivatives best identified the oil impingement. They showed the oil impact at this early stage to be surficial only, and to be patchy even within an area of heavy oil exposure.

  1. Megakaryocytes compensate for Kit insufficiency in murine arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunin, Pierre; Penke, Loka R; Thon, Jonathan N; Monach, Paul A; Jones, Tatiana; Chang, Margaret H; Chen, Mary M; Melki, Imene; Lacroix, Steve; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Ware, Jerry; Gurish, Michael F; Italiano, Joseph E; Boilard, Eric; Nigrovic, Peter A

    2017-05-01

    The growth factor receptor Kit is involved in hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic development. Mice bearing Kit defects lack mast cells; however, strains bearing different Kit alleles exhibit diverse phenotypes. Herein, we investigated factors underlying differential sensitivity to IgG-mediated arthritis in 2 mast cell-deficient murine lines: KitWsh/Wsh, which develops robust arthritis, and KitW/Wv, which does not. Reciprocal bone marrow transplantation between KitW/Wv and KitWsh/Wsh mice revealed that arthritis resistance reflects a hematopoietic defect in addition to mast cell deficiency. In KitW/Wv mice, restoration of susceptibility to IgG-mediated arthritis was neutrophil independent but required IL-1 and the platelet/megakaryocyte markers NF-E2 and glycoprotein VI. In KitW/Wv mice, platelets were present in numbers similar to those in WT animals and functionally intact, and transfer of WT platelets did not restore arthritis susceptibility. These data implicated a platelet-independent role for the megakaryocyte, a Kit-dependent lineage that is selectively deficient in KitW/Wv mice. Megakaryocytes secreted IL-1 directly and as a component of circulating microparticles, which activated synovial fibroblasts in an IL-1-dependent manner. Transfer of WT but not IL-1-deficient megakaryocytes restored arthritis susceptibility to KitW/Wv mice. These findings identify functional redundancy among Kit-dependent hematopoietic lineages and establish an unanticipated capacity of megakaryocytes to mediate IL-1-driven systemic inflammatory disease.

  2. Press kit kicks off new branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Tom

    2004-01-01

    A smartly produced press kit resulted in unprecedented news coverage when Denver's Porter Adventist Hospital recently unveiled plans for an extensive 80 million dollars redevelopment. A news conference was held to announce this plan, along with the opening of the hospital's new emergency department. The overall effort is part of the new branding strategy of the 75-year-old hospital.

  3. Teen PACK: Population Awareness Campaign Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This packet of instructional materials is designed to teach teenagers about the effects of overpopulation on the world and on the individual. Information is presented in three related booklets. The first of the three parts of the "Teen Population Awareness Campaign Kit," illustrates overpopulation through profiles of teens living in…

  4. Development of MIBI kit for heart imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, S.B.; Ab-Wahid, M.

    1998-01-01

    99m Tc-isonitriles have been shown to be a very promising substitute for Thallium-201 ( 201 TI) for myocardial perfusion imaging. In this study, the lyophilized kit of Methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) was prepared and labeled with 99m Tc. Several factors affecting the labeling yield such as the kit's stannous content, boiling time during labeling, and the volume of 99m Tc used during reconstitution were also investigated. The radiochemical purity (RCP) determination of the labeled product was analyzed by HPLC, solvent-extraction, TLC and ITLC-SG chromatographic methods in various systems. Animal biodistribution study performed in rats indicated the 99m Tc-MIBI accumulation in the myocardial is up to 3 hours with little or no redistribution. Toxicity studies performed indicate no clinical signs of abnormality in mice at injected dose equivalent in amount of 100 times the human dose in proportion to body weight. Stability studies of the labeled complex performed at room temperature showed no change in radiochemical purity (> 95%) 6 hours post-preparation. Compatibility and comparative studies were done using both MINT and commercially available MIBI kits and 99m Tc generator eluates. From the results obtained the MINT produced MIBI kits were found to be comparable in quality to that of commercials. (author)

  5. Countdown to Six Billion Teaching Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This teaching kit features six activities focused on helping students understand the significance of the world population reaching six billion for our society and our environment. Featured activities include: (1) History of the World: Part Six Billion; (2) A Woman's Place; (3) Baby-O-Matic; (4) Earth: The Apple of Our Eye; (5) Needs vs. Wants; and…

  6. San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The 1,200-kilometer (800-mile)San Andreas is the longest fault in California and one of the longest in North America. This perspective view of a portion of the fault was generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which flew on NASA's Space Shuttle last February, and an enhanced, true-color Landsat satellite image. The view shown looks southeast along the San Andreas where it cuts along the base of the mountains in the Temblor Range near Bakersfield. The fault is the distinctively linear feature to the right of the mountains. To the left of the range is a portion of the agriculturally rich San Joaquin Valley. In the background is the snow-capped peak of Mt. Pinos at an elevation of 2,692 meters (8,831 feet). The complex topography in the area is some of the most spectacular along the course of the fault. To the right of the fault is the famous Carrizo Plain. Dry conditions on the plain have helped preserve the surface trace of the fault, which is scrutinized by both amateur and professional geologists. In 1857, one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded in the United States occurred just north of the Carrizo Plain. With an estimated magnitude of 8.0, the quake severely shook buildings in Los Angeles, caused significant surface rupture along a 350-kilometer (220-mile) segment of the fault, and was felt as far away as Las Vegas, Nev. This portion of the San Andreas is an important area of study for seismologists. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times.The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60

  7. KIT safety management. Annual report 2013; KIT-Sicherheitsmanagement. Jahresbericht 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Gerhard (ed.)

    2014-07-01

    The KIT Safety Management Service Unit (KSM) guarantees radiological and conventional technical safety and security of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and controls the implementation and observation of legal environmental protection requirements. KSM is responsible for licensing procedures, industrial safety organization, control of environmental protection measures, planning and implementation of emergency preparedness and response, operation of radiological laboratories and measurement stations, extensive radiation protection support and the execution of security tasks in and for all organizational units of KIT. Moreover, KSM is in charge of wastewater and environmental monitoring for all facilities and nuclear installations all over the KIT campus. KSM is headed by the Safety Commissioner of KIT, who is appointed by the Presidential Committee. Within his scope of procedure for KIT, the Safety Commissioner controls the implementation of and compliance with safety-relevant requirements. The KIT Safety Management is certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001, its laboratories are accredited according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025. To the extent possible, KSM is committed to maintaining competence in radiation protection and to supporting research and teaching activities. The present reports lists the individual tasks of the KIT Safety Management and informs about the results achieved in 2013. Status figures in principle reflect the status at the end of the year 2013. The processes described cover the areas of competence of KSM. Due to changes in the organization of the infrastructural service units in KIT, KSM has been cancelled at the end of 2013. Its tasks will mainly be covered in 2014 by the new founded service unit Safety and Environmental (Sicherheit und Umwelt, SUM). The departments Campus Security, Fire Brigade and Information Technology have been transferred to the Service Unit General Services (Allgemeine Services, ASERV).

  8. 46 CFR 121.710 - First-aid kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First-aid kits. 121.710 Section 121.710 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.710 First-aid kits. A vessel must carry either a first-aid kit... kits, the contents must be stowed in a suitable, watertight container that is marked “First-Aid Kit”. A...

  9. Development of Safety Kit for Industrial Radiography Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noorul Ikhsan Ahmad; Amry Amin Abas

    2011-01-01

    A safety kit for industrial radiography has been developed. The safety kit that consist of a set of technical rod and various size of base that can be used in radiograph of pipe with diameter between half and one and half inch with utilization of collimator. With the kit, radiographers will not having anymore problem to use collimator in their work. The paper discuss about the technical measures of the safety kit and the importance of introducing it to the industry. (author)

  10. [Consistency study of PowerPlex 21 kit and Goldeneye 20A kit and forensic application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, He; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Qing-Xia; Jiao, Zhang-Ping

    2014-06-01

    To ensure the consistency of genotype results for PowerPlex 21 kit and Goldeneye 20A kit. The STR loci were amplified in DNA samples from 205 unrelated individuals in Beijing Han population. And consistency of 19 overlap STR loci typing were observed. The genetic polymorphism of D1S1656 locus was obtained. All 19 overlap loci typing showed consistent. The proportion of peak height of heterozygous loci in two kits showed no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The observed heterozygosis of D1S1656 was 0.878. The discrimination power was 0.949. The excluding probability of paternity of triplet was 0.751. The excluding probability of paternity of diploid was 0.506. The polymorphism information content was 0.810. PowerPlex 21 kit and Goldeneye 20A kit present a good consistency. The primer design is reasonable. The polymorphism of D1S1656 is good. The two kits can be used for human genetic analysis, paternity test, and individual identification in forensic practice.

  11. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,695-square-mile Central Eastside study unit (CESJO) was investigated from March through June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CESJO, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 78 wells in Merced and Stanislaus Counties. Fifty-eight of the 78 wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Twenty of the wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected lateral or vertical ground-water flow paths in the aquifer (flow-path wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, carbon-14, and uranium isotopes and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon], and dissolved noble and other gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected for approximately one-sixth of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the quality-control results showed that the environmental data were of good quality, with low bias and low variability, and resulted in censoring of less than 0.3 percent of the detections found in ground-water samples. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Department of Public Health (CADPH) and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (secondary maximum contaminant levels, SMCL-CA) by CADPH. VOCs and pesticides were detected in approximately half of the grid wells, and all detections in samples from CESJO wells were below health-based thresholds. All detections of nutrients and major elements in grid wells also were below health-based thresholds. Most detections of constituents of special interest, trace elements, and radioactive constituents in samples from grid wells were below health-based thresholds. Exceptions included two detections of arsenic that were above the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL-US), one detection of lead above the USEPA action level (AL-US), and one detection of vanadium and three detections of 1,2,3-TCP that were above the CADPH notification levels (NL-CA). All detections of radioactive constituents were below health-based thresholds, although fourteen samples had activities of radon-222 above the lower proposed MCL-US. Most of th

  12. Framework for Assessing Viability of Threatened and Endangered Chinook Salmon and Steelhead in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T. Lindley

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Protected evolutionarily significant units (ESUs of salmonids require objective and measurable criteria for guiding their recovery. In this report, we develop a method for assessing population viability and two ways to integrate these population-level assessments into an assessment of ESU viability. Population viability is assessed with quantitative extinction models or criteria relating to population size, population growth rate, the occurrence of catastrophic declines, and the degree of hatchery influence. ESU viability is assessed by examining the number and distribution of viable populations across the landscape and their proximity to sources of catastrophic disturbance. Central Valley spring-run and winter-run Chinook salmon ESUs are not currently viable, according to the criteria-based assessment. In both ESUs, extant populations may be at low risk of extinction, but these populations represent a small portion of the historical ESUs, and are vulnerable to catastrophic disturbance. The winter-run Chinook salmon ESU, in the extreme case, is represented by a single population that spawns outside of its historical spawning range. We are unable to assess the status of the Central Valley steelhead ESU with our framework because almost all of its roughly 80 populations are classified as data deficient. The few exceptions are those populations with a closely associated hatchery, and the naturally-spawning fish in these streams are at high risk of extinction. Population monitoring in this ESU is urgently needed. Global and regional climate change poses an additional risk to the survival of salmonids in the Central Valley. A literature review suggests that by 2100, mean summer temperatures in the Central Valley region may increase by 2-8°C, precipitation will likely shift to more rain and less snow, with significant declines in total precipitation possible, and hydrographs will likely change, especially the the southern Sierra Nevada mountains. Warming at the lower end of the predicted range may allow spring-run Chinook salmon to persist in some streams, while making some currently utilized habitat inhospitable. At the upper end of the range of predicted warming, very little spring-run Chinook salmon habitat is expected to remain suitable. In spite of the precarious position of Central Valley salmonid ESUs, there are prospects for greatly improving their viability. Recovering Central Valley ESUs may require re-establishing populations where historical populations have been extirpated (e.g., upstream of major dams. Such major efforts should be focused on those watersheds that offer the best possibility of providing suitable habitat in a warmer future.

  13. Survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in the San Joaquin Valley: a comparison with California Cancer Registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atla, Pradeep R; Sheikh, Muhammad Y; Mascarenhas, Ranjan; Choudhury, Jayanta; Mills, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Variation in the survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is related to racial differences, socioeconomic disparities and treatment options among different populations. A retrospective review of the data from medical records of patients diagnosed with HCC were analyzed at an urban tertiary referral teaching hospital and compared to patients in the California Cancer Registry (CCR) - a participant in the Survival Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)program of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The main outcome measure was overall survival rates. 160 patients with the diagnosis of HCC (M/F=127/33), mean age 59.7±10 years, 32% white, 49% Hispanic, 12% Asian and 6% African American. Multivariate analysis identified tumor size, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, portal vein invasion and treatment offered as the independent predictors of survival (p <0.05). Survival rates across racial groups were not statistically significant. 5.6% received curative treatments (orthotopic liver transplantation, resection, rediofrequency ablation) (median survival 69 months), 34.4% received nonsurgical treatments (trans-arterial chemoembolization, systemic chemotherapy) (median survival 9 months), while 60% received palliative or no treatment (median survival 3 months) (p <0.001). There was decreased survival in our patient population with HCC beyond 2 years. 60% of our study population received only palliative or no treatment suggesting a possible lack of awareness of chronic liver disease as well as access to appropriate surveillance modalities. Ethnic disparities such as Hispanic predominance in this study in contrast to the CCR/SEER database may have been a contributing factor for poorer outcome.

  14. California Environmental Vulnerability Assessment (CEVA) Score, San Joaquin Valley CA, 2013, UC Davis Center for Regional Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set is based on a three year study by the UC Davis Center for Regional Change, in affiliation with the Environmental Justice Project of the John Muir...

  15. Hazard and Pollution Hotspots of Environmental Screening Methods, San Joaquin Valley CA, 2013, Occidental College of Los Angeles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer combines the highest values of the CES, CEVA, and EJSM layers for hazard and pollution which is the burden component of the models. These models combine...

  16. Toxicity of agricultural subsurface drainwater from the San Joaquin Valley, California to juvenile chinook salmon and striped bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Jennings, Mark R.; Wiedmeyer, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (40-50 mm total length, TL) and striped bass Morone saxatilis (30-40 mm TL) were exposed to serial dilutions (100, 50, 25, and 12.5%) of agricultural subsurface drainwater (WWD), reconstituted drainwater (RWWD), and reconstituted seawater (IO). Agricultural subsurface drainwater contained naturally elevated concentrations of major ions (such as sodium and sulfate) and trace elements (especially boron and selenium), RWWD contained concentrations of major ions that mimicked those in WWD but trace elements were not elevated, and IO contained concentrations of total dissolved salt that were similar to those in WWD and RWWD but chloride replaced sulfate as the dominant anion. After 28 d of static exposure, over 75% of the chinook salmon in 100% WWD had died, whereas none had died in other dilutions and water types. Growth of chinook salmon in WWD and RWWD, but not in IO, exhibited dilution responses. All striped bass died in 100% WWD within 23 d, whereas 19 of 20 striped bass had died in 100% RWWD after 28 d. In contrast, none died in 100% IO. Growth of striped bass was impaired only in WWD. Fish in WWD accumulated as much as 200 μg/g (dry-weight basis) of boron, whereas fish in control water accumulated less than 3.1 μg/g. Although potentially toxic concentrations of selenium occurred in WWD (geometric means, 158-218 μg/L), chinook salmon and striped bass exposed to this water type accumulated 5.7 μg Se/g or less. These findings indicate that WWD was toxic to chinook salmon and striped bass. Judging from available data, the toxicity of WWD was due primarily to high concentrations of major ions present in atypical ratios, to high concentrations of sulfate, or to both. High concentrations of boron and selenium also may have contributed to the toxicity of WWD, but their effects were not clearly delineated.

  17. 76 FR 41337 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; California; 2008 San Joaquin Valley PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... motor vehicles and engines. \\6\\ See CARB Resolution No. 07-28, September 27, 2007 with attachments and... implemented by the California Bureau of Automotive Repair (Smog Check improvements) and the California... SO 2 RACT requirements for electric generating units; (2) the deferral of the requirement to...

  18. Ambient Air Pollution and Traffic Exposures and Congenital Heart Defects in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Amy M.; Tager, Ira B.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Yang, Wei; Lurmann, Frederick; Shaw, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Congenital anomalies are a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Studies suggest associations between environmental contaminants and some anomalies, although evidence is limited. Methods We used data from the California Center of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and the Children's Health and Air Pollution Study to estimate the odds of 27 congenital heart defects with respect to quartiles of 7 ambient air pollutant and traffic exposures in California during the first two months of pregnancy, 1997–2006 (N=813 cases and N=828 controls). Results Particulate matter <10 microns (PM10) was associated with pulmonary valve stenosis (aOR4th Quartile=2.6; 95% CI: 1.2, 5.7) and perimembranous ventricular septal defects (aOR3rd Quartile=2.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.9) after adjusting for maternal race-ethnicity, education and multivitamin use. PM2.5 was associated with transposition of the great arteries (aOR3rd Quartile=2.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 6.5) and inversely associated with perimembranous ventricular septal defects (aOR4th Quartile=0.5; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.9). Secundum atrial septal defects were inversely associated with carbon monoxide (aOR4th Quartile=0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) and PM2.5 (aOR4th Quartile=0.5; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8). Traffic density was associated with muscular ventricular septal defects (aOR4th Quartile=3.0, 95% CI: 1.2, 7.8) and perimembranous ventricular septal defects (aOR3rd Quartile =2.4; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.6), and inversely associated with transposition of the great arteries (aOR4th Quartile=0.3; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.8). Conclusions PM10 and traffic density may contribute to the occurrence of pulmonary valve stenosis and ventricular septal defects, respectively. The results were mixed for other pollutants and had little consistency with previous studies. PMID:23772934

  19. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Risk of Preterm Birth in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Amy M.; Mortimer, Kathleen M.; Tager, Ira B.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Lurmann, Frederick W.; Yang, Wei; Stevenson, David K.; Shaw, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated associations between traffic-related air pollution during pregnancy and preterm birth in births in four counties in California during years 2000–2006. We used logistic regression to examine the association between the highest quartile of ambient air pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter <10 and 2.5 μm) and traffic density during pregnancy and each of five levels of prematurity based on gestational age at birth (20–23, 24–27, 28–31, 32–33 and 34–36 weeks) versus term (37–42 weeks). We examined trimester averages and the last month and last 6 weeks of pregnancy. Models were adjusted for birth weight, maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, prenatal care and birth costs payment. Neighborhood socioeconomic status was evaluated as a potential effect modifier. There were increased odds ratios for early preterm birth for those exposed to the highest quartile of each pollutant during the second trimester and the end of pregnancy (adjusted odds ratios: 1.4– 2.8). Associations were stronger among mothers living in low socioeconomic status neighborhoods (adjusted odds ratios: 2.1–4.3). We observed exposure-response associations for multiple pollutant exposures and early preterm birth. Inverse associations during the first trimester were observed. The results confirm associations between traffic-related air pollution and prematurity, particularly among very early preterm births and low socioeconomic status neighborhoods. PMID:25453347

  20. Traffic-related air pollution and risk of preterm birth in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Amy M; Mortimer, Kathleen M; Tager, Ira B; Hammond, S Katharine; Lurmann, Frederick W; Yang, Wei; Stevenson, David K; Shaw, Gary M

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate associations between traffic-related air pollution during pregnancy and preterm birth in births in four counties in California during years 2000 to 2006. We used logistic regression to examine the association between the highest quartile of ambient air pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter prematurity based on gestational age at birth (20-23, 24-27, 28-31, 32-33, and 34-36 weeks) versus term (37-42 weeks). We examined trimester averages and the last month and the last 6 weeks of pregnancy. Models were adjusted for birthweight, maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, prenatal care, and birth costs payment. Neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) was evaluated as a potential effect modifier. There were increased odds ratios (ORs) for early preterm birth for those exposed to the highest quartile of each pollutant during the second trimester and the end of pregnancy (adjusted OR, 1.4-2.8). Associations were stronger among mothers living in low SES neighborhoods (adjusted OR, 2.1-4.3). We observed exposure-response associations for multiple pollutant exposures and early preterm birth. Inverse associations during the first trimester were observed. The results confirm associations between traffic-related air pollution and prematurity, particularly among very early preterm births and low SES neighborhoods.

  1. Population structure of Xylella fastidiosa associated with almond leaf scorch disease in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes disease in many commercial crops including almond leaf scorch (ALS) disease in susceptible almond (Prunus dulcis). In this study, genetic diversity and population structure of Xf associated with ALS disease were evaluated. Strains isolated from two almond production si...

  2. 75 FR 10420 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans: 1-Hour Ozone Extreme Area Plan for San Joaquin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Air Pollution Control District's Rule 9310, ``School Bus Fleets.'' DATES: Effective Date: This rule is... Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD or the District) in 2004 and amended in 2005. The 2004 SIP addresses CAA... day (tpd) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) by 20 tpd and to approve SJVAPCD's Rule 9310, School Bus Fleets...

  3. Residential agricultural pesticide exposures and risks of selected birth defects among offspring in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Suzan L; Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric; Kegley, Susan E; Brown, Timothy J; English, Paul B; Lammer, Edward J; Shaw, Gary M

    2016-01-01

    We examined associations of birth defects with residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications in California. Subjects included 367 cases representing five types of birth defects and 785 nonmalformed controls born 1997 to 2006. Associations with any versus no exposure to physicochemical groups of pesticides and specific chemicals were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for covariates. Overall, 46% of cases and 38% of controls were classified as exposed to pesticides within a 500 m radius of mother's address during a 3-month periconceptional window. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) for 85 groups and 95 chemicals with five or more exposed cases and control mothers. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (CI) excluded 1.0 for 11 ORs for groups and 22 ORs for chemicals, ranging from 1.9 to 3.1 for groups and 1.8 to 4.9 for chemicals except for two that were <1 (noted below). For groups, these ORs were for anotia/microtia (n = 95 cases) and dichlorophenoxy acids/esters and neonicotinoids; anorectal atresia/stenosis (n = 77) and alcohol/ethers and organophosphates (these ORs were < 1.0); transverse limb deficiencies (n = 59) and dichlorophenoxy acids/esters, petroleum derivatives, and triazines; and craniosynostosis (n = 79) and alcohol/ethers, avermectins, neonicotinoids, and organophosphates. For chemicals, ORs were: anotia/microtia and five pesticides from the groups dichlorophenoxy acids/esters, copper-containing compounds, neonicotinoids, organophosphates, and triazines; transverse limb deficiency and six pesticides - oxyfluorfen and pesticides from the groups copper-containing compounds, 2,6-dinitroanilines, neonicotinoids, petroleum derivatives and polyalkyloxy compounds; craniosynostosis and 10 pesticides - oxyfluorfen and pesticides from the groups alcohol/ethers, avermectins, n-methyl-carbamates, neonicotinoids, ogranophosphates (two chemicals), polyalkyloxy compounds (two chemicals), and pyrethroids; and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (n = 62) and a copper-containing compound. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. 76 FR 33778 - Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Land in the San Joaquin River Gorge Special Recreation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... provided by the SJRG Business Plan, which outlines operational goals of the area and the purpose of the fee... would be used for expenses within the SJRG SRMA. In April 2010, the BLM published the SJRG Business Plan which outlines operational goals of the area and the purpose of the fee program. This Business Plan...

  5. 46 CFR 169.725 - First aid kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid kit. 169.725 Section 169.725 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.725 First aid kit. Each vessel must carry an approved first aid kit, constructed and fitted in accordance with subpart 160.041 of this chapter. ...

  6. 46 CFR 108.707 - First aid kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid kit. 108.707 Section 108.707 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.707 First aid kit. Each unit must have a first-aid kit approved by the Mine Safety...

  7. 33 CFR 144.01-30 - First-aid kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-aid kit. 144.01-30 Section...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-30 First-aid kit. On each manned platform a first-aid kit approved by the Commandant or the U.S. Bureau of Mines shall be...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5140 - Anesthesia conduction kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction kit. 868.5140 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5140 Anesthesia conduction kit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction kit is a device used to administer to a patient conduction, regional, or...

  9. Trükitööstuste TOP 50

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Trükitööstuste TOP 50. Käibe TOP 30. Käibe kasum TOP 30. Kasvu TOP 30. Kasumi kasvu TOP 30. Rentaabluse TOP. Varade tootlikkuse TOP. Trükitööstusettevõtete üldandmed. Trükitööstusettevõtete finantsandmed

  10. 21 CFR 864.2260 - Chromosome culture kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromosome culture kit. 864.2260 Section 864.2260...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2260 Chromosome culture kit. (a) Identification. A chromosome culture kit is a device containing the necessary ingredients...

  11. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to...

  12. Escherichia coli and virus isolated from ''sticky kits''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M.; Scheutz, F.; Strandbygaard, Bertel

    1996-01-01

    A total of 121 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 3-week-old mink kits were serotyped and examined for virulence factors. 56 strains were isolated from healthy kits while 65 were from ''sticky kits''. Among these, 34 different serotypes were detected. No difference in serotypes or the presenc...

  13. SANS studies of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wignall, G.D.

    1984-10-01

    Before small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), chain conformation studies were limited to light and small angle x-ray scattering techniques, usually in dilute solution. SANS from blends of normal and labeled molecules could give direct information on chain conformation in bulk polymers. Water-soluble polymers may be examined in H 2 O/D 2 O mixtures using contrast variation methods to provide further information on polymer structure. This paper reviews some of the information provided by this technique using examples of experiments performed at the National Center for Small-Angle Scattering Research (NCSASR)

  14. Cardiac c-Kit Biology Revealed by Inducible Transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Natalie A; Firouzi, Fareheh; Broughton, Kathleen M; Ilves, Kelli; Nguyen, Kristine P; Payne, Christina R; Sacchi, Veronica; Monsanto, Megan M; Casillas, Alexandria R; Khalafalla, Farid G; Wang, Bingyan J; Ebeid, David E; Alvarez, Roberto; Dembitsky, Walter P; Bailey, Barbara A; van Berlo, Jop; Sussman, Mark A

    2018-06-22

    Biological significance of c-Kit as a cardiac stem cell marker and role(s) of c-Kit+ cells in myocardial development or response to pathological injury remain unresolved because of varied and discrepant findings. Alternative experimental models are required to contextualize and reconcile discordant published observations of cardiac c-Kit myocardial biology and provide meaningful insights regarding clinical relevance of c-Kit signaling for translational cell therapy. The main objectives of this study are as follows: demonstrating c-Kit myocardial biology through combined studies of both human and murine cardiac cells; advancing understanding of c-Kit myocardial biology through creation and characterization of a novel, inducible transgenic c-Kit reporter mouse model that overcomes limitations inherent to knock-in reporter models; and providing perspective to reconcile disparate viewpoints on c-Kit biology in the myocardium. In vitro studies confirm a critical role for c-Kit signaling in both cardiomyocytes and cardiac stem cells. Activation of c-Kit receptor promotes cell survival and proliferation in stem cells and cardiomyocytes of either human or murine origin. For creation of the mouse model, the cloned mouse c-Kit promoter drives Histone2B-EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein; H2BEGFP) expression in a doxycycline-inducible transgenic reporter line. The combination of c-Kit transgenesis coupled to H2BEGFP readout provides sensitive, specific, inducible, and persistent tracking of c-Kit promoter activation. Tagging efficiency for EGFP+/c-Kit+ cells is similar between our transgenic versus a c-Kit knock-in mouse line, but frequency of c-Kit+ cells in cardiac tissue from the knock-in model is 55% lower than that from our transgenic line. The c-Kit transgenic reporter model reveals intimate association of c-Kit expression with adult myocardial biology. Both cardiac stem cells and a subpopulation of cardiomyocytes express c-Kit in uninjured adult heart

  15. Advantage of using a home-made ELISA kit for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection over commercially imported kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, M; Talebkhan, Y; Khalili, G; Mahboudi, F; Massarrat, S; Zamaninia, L; Oghalaei, A

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate a home-made ELISA kit for detection of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and comparison of its immunologic criteria with those of foreign commercial kits. A home-made IgG ELISA kit was developed using soluble antigenic fractions of Hp proteins. Confirmed sera were tested and serological criteria were evaluated through assessment of 199 serum samples. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity values of home-made kit were 92, 92 and 90.4%, respectively. These immunologic criteria for Trinity kit were 95.2, 95.2 and 95% in comparison with IBL kit (91.3, 92.2 and 88.5%), BIOHIT kit (72.4, 41.6 and 94.1%) and HelicoBlot2.1 (94.2, 93.4 and 100%). Kappa agreement assessment demonstrated that two of the imported ELISA kits had fair to moderate agreement with the home-made kit while the other one had a poor agreement value. Apart from comparable values between the home-made kit and the most efficient imported kit (Trinity) there was significant cost benefit. Therefore, we recommend the home-made kit as a suitable substitution for detection of Hp infection in the Iranian population.

  16. Advantage of using a home-made elisa kit for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection over commercially imported kits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate a home-made ELISA kit for detection of Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection and comparison of its immunologic criteria with those of foreign commercial kits. Methods: A home-made IgG ELISA kit was developed using soluble antigenic fractions of Hp proteins. Confirmed sera were tested and serological criteria were evaluated through assessment of 199 serum samples. Results: The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity values of home-made kit were 92, 92 and 90.4%, respectively. These immunologic criteria for Trinity kit were 95.2, 95.2 and 95% in comparison with IBL kit (91.3, 92.2 and 88.5%, BIOHIT kit (72.4, 41.6 and 94.1% and HelicoBlot2.1 (94.2, 93.4 and 100%. Kappa agreement assessment demonstrated that two of the imported ELISA kits had fair to moderate agreement with the home-made kit while the other one had a poor agreement value. Conclusions: Apart from comparable values between the home-made kit and the most efficient imported kit (Trinity there was significant cost benefit. Therefore, we recommend the home-made kit as a suitable substitution for detection of Hp infection in the Iranian population.

  17. Remembering San Diego

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuyanov, V.

    1999-01-01

    After 6 years of existence the ITER EDA project in San Diego, USA, was terminated by desition of the US Congress. This article describes how nice it was for everybody as long as it lasted and how sad it is now

  18. Preparation and quality control of ECD kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassin, T.; Dadokh, M.; Almalki, R.

    2005-05-01

    ECD Kit for brain imaging after labeling with technetium 99m was prepared according to an optimum conditions, Each vial contains 1 mg of ECD and 0.155 mg of stannous chloride anhydrous SnCl 2 , 24 mg of Mannitol and 0.5 mg of Na 2 Ca EDTA, The prepared kit showed high quality satisfying the requirements of international pharmacopoeias from the points of physical, chemical, radiochemical and biological purities, and its validity for human injection. And the labeling yield exceeded 95 % with average value of about 97.63 ± 0.89% for 2mCi /2ml radioactivity , This study also showed that each vial content can be labeled with maximum activity of 99m Tc of about 50 mCi (Authors)

  19. KIT mutation analysis in mast cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arock, M; Sotlar, K; Akin, C

    2015-01-01

    mutations in patients with mastocytosis at diagnosis and during follow-up with sufficient precision and sensitivity in daily practice. In addition, we provide recommendations for sampling and storage of diagnostic material as well as a robust diagnostic algorithm. Using highly sensitive assays, KIT D816V...... can be detected in peripheral blood leukocytes from most patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM) that is a major step forward in screening and SM diagnosis. In addition, the KIT D816V allele burden can be followed quantitatively during the natural course or during therapy. Our recommendations should...... greatly facilitate diagnostic and follow-up investigations in SM in daily practice as well as in clinical trials. In addition, the new tools and algorithms proposed should lead to a more effective screen, early diagnosis of SM and help to avoid unnecessary referrals....

  20. Unitized solid phase immunoassay kit and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A unitized solid phase kit for radioimmunoassay is disclosed. All of the necessary assay reagents are incorporated into a single tube wherein all phases of the assay procedure are performed, requiring only the addition of the patient's sample. Antibody is bound to the tube surface while labelled antigen is also present but unbound. Storage in the absence of air and water results in the stabilization of the reagents such that the system can be stored for long periods

  1. Automated prototyping tool-kit (APT)

    OpenAIRE

    Nada, Nader; Shing, M.; Berzins, V.; Luqi

    2002-01-01

    Automated prototyping tool-kit (APT) is an integrated set of software tools that generate source programs directly from real-time requirements. The APT system uses a fifth-generation prototyping language to model the communication structure, timing constraints, 1/0 control, and data buffering that comprise the requirements for an embedded software system. The language supports the specification of hard real-time systems with reusable components from domain specific component libraries. APT ha...

  2. The challenges of lean manufacturing implementation in kitting assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fansuri, A. F. H.; Rose, A. N. M.; Nik Mohamed, N. M. Z.; Ahmad, H.

    2017-10-01

    Literature studies shows that lean manufacturing goes way back with the original founder Eli Whitney in year 1799. The main purpose of lean manufacturing is to identify and eliminate waste in production. The application of lean manufacturing can be carried out in any industrial processes with regards to the understanding of lean principles, theories and practices. Kitting is one of the important aspects in a successful production. The continuous supply of materials from store to production has to be systematic and able to achieve lean standard for it to be successful. The objective of this paper is to review the implementation of lean manufacturing in kitting assembly. Previous papers show that, the implementation of lean manufacturing in kitting assembly may be beneficial to the organization such as reduce in space occupancy, part shortages, lead time and manpower. Based on previous research, some industries may tend to change between kitting and line stocking which are due to lack of understanding when implementing kitting and causes longer lead time and materials overflow in store. With a proper understanding on what to kit, where to kit, how to kit, why to kit and who kits the material with a standardised process flow may ensure the success of kitting.

  3. Computerized portable microwave hyperthermia quality assurance kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, A.Y.; Neyzari, A.

    1985-01-01

    A computerized quality assurance kit to provide precise measurement and calibration of microwave power and temperature, as well as capabilities to map SAR (Specific absorption rate) distribution in phantoms; and survey of hazardous microwave leakage has been designed. The kit is also capable of performing corelation studies on the relationship between SAR and net microwave power delivered at various anatomical sites. The kit consists of a portable microcomputer, a time-multiplexed A/D converter, a 4-channel dual directional microwave power monitor, a 4-channel thin-wire thermocouple thermometry system, an electronic thermal calibrator, a microwave leakage hazard survey meter, and a dynamic phantom tank for dosimetric analysis. Comparative performance studies were made against NBS-traceable power and temperature standards, non-perturbing optical temperature sensors, and established power and temperature measurement devices. The test results indicate that this instrument is providing its user with measurement accuracy of 0.1 0 C in temperature, 10% accuracy in power. The thin-wire thermocouple, with computer assisted error compensation, performs equally well in a strong microwave field in comparison with non-perturbing optical temperature sensors

  4. Sediment transport in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Lester J. McKee,

    2013-01-01

    The papers in this special issue feature state-of-the-art approaches to understanding the physical processes related to sediment transport and geomorphology of complex coastal-estuarine systems. Here we focus on the San Francisco Bay Coastal System, extending from the lower San Joaquin-Sacramento Delta, through the Bay, and along the adjacent outer Pacific Coast. San Francisco Bay is an urbanized estuary that is impacted by numerous anthropogenic activities common to many large estuaries, including a mining legacy, channel dredging, aggregate mining, reservoirs, freshwater diversion, watershed modifications, urban run-off, ship traffic, exotic species introductions, land reclamation, and wetland restoration. The Golden Gate strait is the sole inlet connecting the Bay to the Pacific Ocean, and serves as the conduit for a tidal flow of ~ 8 x 109 m3/day, in addition to the transport of mud, sand, biogenic material, nutrients, and pollutants. Despite this physical, biological and chemical connection, resource management and prior research have often treated the Delta, Bay and adjacent ocean as separate entities, compartmentalized by artificial geographic or political boundaries. The body of work herein presents a comprehensive analysis of system-wide behavior, extending a rich heritage of sediment transport research that dates back to the groundbreaking hydraulic mining-impact research of G.K. Gilbert in the early 20th century.

  5. Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in eggs of wading birds from San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, R.L.; Roster, D.L.; King, K.A.; Keldsen, T.J.; Marois, Katherine C.; Wainwright, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1991, reproduction by black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) and snowy egrets (Egretta thula) was studied at sites in San Francisco Bay. Eggs were collected from these and other bay sites and from South Wilbur Flood Area, a reference site in California's San Joaquin Valley. Eggs were analyzed for inorganic trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Results were compared among sites and years and with results of previous studies. There was some evidence of impaired reproduction, but concentrations of contaminants were generally lower than threshold levels for such effects. Egg hatchability was generally good, with predation being the factor that most limited reproductive success. Mean PCB concentrations were generally higher in eggs from the south end of San Francisco Bay than from the north, but the only temporal change, an increase, was observed at Alcatraz Island. There were spatial differences for p,p'-DDE in night-heron eggs in 1990, but the highest mean concentration of DDE was in night-heron eggs from South Wilbur in 1991. Temporal declines in maximum concentrations of DDE in eggs were observed in the bay, but means did not change significantly over time, At Bair Island in the southern end of the bay, mean concentrations of mercury decreased while selenium increased in night-heron eggs over time, but there were no clear bay-wide spatial or temporal trends for either element.

  6. c-KIT positive schistosomal urinary bladder carcinoma are frequent but lack KIT gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Tahany M; Metawea, Mokhtar; Salim, Elsayed I

    2013-01-01

    Urinary bladder squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), one of the most common neoplasms in Egypt, is attributed to chronic urinary infection with Schistosoma haematobium (Schistosomiasis). The proto-oncogene c-KIT, encoding a tyrosine kinase receptor and implicated in the development of a number of human malignancies, has not been studied so far in schistosomal urinary bladder SCCs. We therefore determined immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of c-KIT in paraffin sections from 120 radical cystectomies of SCCs originally obtained from the Pathology Department of Suez Canal University (Ismailia, Egypt). Each slide was evaluated for staining intensity where the staining extent of >10% of cells was considered positive. c-KIT overexpression was detected in 78.3% (94/120) of the patients, the staining extents in the tumor cells were 11-50% and >50% in 40 (42.6%) and 54 (57.4%) respectively. The positive cases had 14.9%, 63.8%, 21.3% as weak, moderate and strong intensity respectively. Patients with positive bilharzial ova had significantly higher c-KIT expression than patients without (95.2% vs. 38.9%, P=0.000). Mutation analysis of exons 9-13 was negative in thirty KIT positive cases. The high rate of positivity in SBSCC was one of the striking findings; However, CD117 may be a potential target for site specific immunotherapy to improve the outcome of this tumor.

  7. Technetium-99m ceftizoxime kit preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, Simone Odilia Fernandes; Siqueira, Cristiano Ferrari; Nelson, David Lee; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to prepare a kit of 99 m Tc-ceftizoxime ( 99m Tc-CFT), with stability and biological activity preserved, able to identify a septic focus (E. coli) in the experimental infection model in rats. The preparation of the CFT kit involved the use of lyophilized solutions containing the antibiotic ceftizoxime and the sodium dithionite reducing agent (6.0 mg/m L). After lyophilization, the kit was reconstituted with 1.0 mL of sodium 99m Tc pertechnetate solution (Na 99m Tc O 4- ) with an activity of 370 MBq. The solution was boiled for 10 min and filtered through a cellulose ester filter. The labeling efficiency was on the order of 92%, remaining stable for six hours and the kit remained stable for two months. The biological activity of the 99m Tc-CFT was evaluated by diffusion in agar impregnated with E.coli and S. aureus. Seven Wistar rats, weighing from 200 to 250 g, were used for the development of the septic focus. After 24 hours from the induction of the infectious site (E.coli), the animals were anesthetized and 0.1 mL of 99m Tc-CFT (37 MBq) was injected into the tail veins of the animals. The images were obtained with a gamma camera one, two and six hours after injection and the regions of interest (ROIs) were calculated. The diameters of the inhibition halos for 99 m Tc-CFT were 27.16 ± 0.23 and 27.17 ± 0.20 for S.aureus and E.coli, respectively, while those for the unlabeled CFT were 30.4 ± 0.33 and 29.43 ± 0.26, respectively. The results for the biodistribution of 99m Tc-CFT in infected animals furnished a ratio of 1.97 ± 0.31, 2.10 ± 0.42 and 2.01 ± 0.42 for cpm-target/cpm-no target for the one, two and six-hour periods, respectively. The images showed a clear uptake of labeled antibiotic ( 99m Tc-CFT) by the infectious site during the experiment. The results attest to the viability of producing a kit with 99m technetium-labeled ceftizoxime for the investigation of infectious processes. (author)

  8. Technetium-99m ceftizoxime kit preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, Simone Odilia Fernandes; Siqueira, Cristiano Ferrari; Nelson, David Lee; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento [Minas Gerais Univ. Federal, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia]. E-mail: simone@farmacia.ufmg.br; Martin-Comin, Josep [Bellvitge Univ., Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-10-15

    The aim of this work was to prepare a kit of {sup 99}m Tc-ceftizoxime ({sup 99m} Tc-CFT), with stability and biological activity preserved, able to identify a septic focus (E. coli) in the experimental infection model in rats. The preparation of the CFT kit involved the use of lyophilized solutions containing the antibiotic ceftizoxime and the sodium dithionite reducing agent (6.0 mg/m L). After lyophilization, the kit was reconstituted with 1.0 mL of sodium {sup 99m} Tc pertechnetate solution (Na {sup 99m} Tc O{sub 4-}) with an activity of 370 MBq. The solution was boiled for 10 min and filtered through a cellulose ester filter. The labeling efficiency was on the order of 92%, remaining stable for six hours and the kit remained stable for two months. The biological activity of the {sup 99m} Tc-CFT was evaluated by diffusion in agar impregnated with E.coli and S. aureus. Seven Wistar rats, weighing from 200 to 250 g, were used for the development of the septic focus. After 24 hours from the induction of the infectious site (E.coli), the animals were anesthetized and 0.1 mL of {sup 99m} Tc-CFT (37 MBq) was injected into the tail veins of the animals. The images were obtained with a gamma camera one, two and six hours after injection and the regions of interest (ROIs) were calculated. The diameters of the inhibition halos for {sup 99}m Tc-CFT were 27.16 {+-} 0.23 and 27.17 {+-} 0.20 for S.aureus and E.coli, respectively, while those for the unlabeled CFT were 30.4 {+-} 0.33 and 29.43 {+-} 0.26, respectively. The results for the biodistribution of {sup 99m} Tc-CFT in infected animals furnished a ratio of 1.97 {+-} 0.31, 2.10 {+-} 0.42 and 2.01 {+-} 0.42 for cpm-target/cpm-no target for the one, two and six-hour periods, respectively. The images showed a clear uptake of labeled antibiotic ({sup 99m} Tc-CFT) by the infectious site during the experiment. The results attest to the viability of producing a kit with {sup 99m} technetium-labeled ceftizoxime for the

  9. A Tree-Ring Reconstruction of the Salinity Gradient in the Northern Estuary of San Francisco Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Stahle

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Blue oak tree-ring chronologies correlate highly with winter–spring precipitation totals over California, with Sacramento and San Joaquin river stream flow, and with seasonal variations in the salinity gradient in San Francisco Bay. The convergence of fresh and saline currents can influence turbidity, sediment accumulation, and biological productivity in the estuary. Three selected blue oak chronologies were used to develop a 625-year-long reconstruction of the seasonal salinity gradient, or low salinity zone (LSZ, which provides a unique perspective on the interannual-to-decadal variability of this important estuarine habitat indicator. The reconstruction was calibrated with instrumental LSZ data for the winter–spring season, and explains 73% of the variance in the February–June position of the LSZ from 1956 to 2003. Because this calibration period post-dates the sweeping changes that have occurred to land cover, channel morphology, and natural streamflow regimes in California, the reconstruction provides an idealized estimate for how the LSZ might have fluctuated under the seasonal precipitation variations of the past 625 years, given the modern geometry and bathymetry of the estuary and land cover across the drainage basin. The February–June season integrates precipitation and runoff variability during the cool season, and does not extend into the late-summer dry season when LSZ extremes can negatively affect Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta (Delta agriculture and some aquatic organisms. However, there is such strong inter-seasonal persistence in the instrumental LSZ data that precipitation totals during the cool season can strongly pre-condition LSZ position in late summer. The 625-year-long reconstruction indicates strong interannual and decadal variability, the frequent recurrence of consecutive 2-year LSZ maxima and minima, large-scale ocean atmospheric forcing, and an interesting asymmetrical influence of warm El Ni

  10. Riders on the storm: selective tidal movements facilitate the spawning migration of threatened delta smelt in the San Francisco Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, W.A.; Burau, Jon R.

    2015-01-01

    Migration strategies in estuarine fishes typically include behavioral adaptations for reducing energetic costs and mortality during travel to optimize reproductive success. The influence of tidal currents and water turbidity on individual movement behavior were investigated during the spawning migration of the threatened delta smelt, Hypomesus transpacificus, in the northern San Francisco Estuary, California, USA. Water current velocities and turbidity levels were measured concurrently with delta smelt occurrence at sites in the lower Sacramento River and San Joaquin River as turbidity increased due to first-flush winter rainstorms in January and December 2010. The presence/absence of fish at the shoal-channel interface and near the shoreline was quantified hourly over complete tidal cycles. Delta smelt were caught consistently at the shoal-channel interface during flood tides and near the shoreline during ebb tides in the turbid Sacramento River, but were rare in the clearer San Joaquin River. The apparent selective tidal movements by delta smelt would facilitate either maintaining position or moving upriver on flood tides, and minimizing advection down-estuary on ebb tides. These movements also may reflect responses to lateral gradients in water turbidity created by temporal lags in tidal velocities between the near-shore and mid-channel habitats. This migration strategy can minimize the energy spent swimming against strong river and tidal currents, as well as predation risks by remaining in turbid water. Selection pressure on individuals to remain in turbid water may underlie population-level observations suggesting that turbidity is a key habitat feature and cue initiating the delta smelt spawning migration.

  11. Technetium-99m ceftizoxime kit preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Odília Fernandes Diniz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to prepare a kit of 99mTc-ceftizoxime (99mTc-CFT, with stability and biological activity preserved, able to identify a septic focus (E. coli in the experimental infection model in rats. The preparation of the CFT kit involved the use of lyophilized solutions containing the antibiotic ceftizoxime and the sodium dithionite reducing agent (6.0 mg/mL. After lyophilization, the kit was reconstituted with 1.0 mL of sodium 99mTc-pertechnetate solution (Na99mTcO4- with an activity of 370 MBq. The solution was boiled for 10 min and filtered through a cellulose ester filter. The labeling efficiency was on the order of 92%, remaining stable for six hours and the kit remained stable for two months. The biological activity of the 99mTc-CFT was evaluated by diffusion in agar impregnated with E.coli and S. aureus. Seven Wistar rats, weighing from 200 to 250 g, were used for the development of the septic focus. After 24 hours from the induction of the infectious site (E.coli, the animals were anesthetized and 0.1 mL of 99mTc-CFT (37 MBq was injected into the tail veins of the animals. The images were obtained with a gamma camera one, two and six hours after injection and the regions of interest (ROIs were calculated. The diameters of the inhibition halos for 99mTc-CFT were 27.16 ± 0.23 and 27.17 ± 0.20 for S.aureus and E.coli, respectively, while those for the unlabeled CFT were 30.4 ± 0.33 and 29.43 ± 0.26, respectively. The results for the biodistribution of 99mTc-CFT in infected animals furnished a ratio of 1.97 ± 0.31, 2.10 ± 0.42 and 2.01 ± 0.42 for cpm-target/cpm-no target for the one, two and six-hour periods, respectively. The images showed a clear uptake of labeled antibiotic (99mTc-CFT by the infectious site during the experiment. The results attest to the viability of producing a kit with 99m technetium-labeled ceftizoxime for the investigation of infectious processes.O objetivo deste trabalho foi preparar um kit de Tc

  12. Development of kits for total PSA monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprarop, P.

    1999-01-01

    The development of kits for Total PSA assay has shown promising results. All essential components of the assay were prepared with reproducibility and used to optimize the assay. By choosing two steps method, we could avoid the hook effect and obtain satisfactory Q.C. parameters of the standard curve i.e. blank = 0.8%, maximum binding = 65%. If reference material for calibration of the standard is agree upon, the validation could then be carried out with total confidence. Our final goal is to reduce the step of incubation to just one step with no interference from hook effect

  13. Euthanasia: a "kit" sold in Belgian pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    (1) In France, legislation adopted in 2005 recognises the right of dying patients to refuse further treatment, and the right of physicians to ease their suffering with treatments that, due to adverse effects, may shorten their life. Measures deliberately aimed at hastening death are forbidden. (2) In Belgium, medical euthanasia was decriminalised in 2002, and can now be carried out either in hospital or at home. Nearly 20 cases of euthanasia are reported per month in Belgium. (3) A Belgian pharmacy chain now markets a "euthanasia kit".

  14. Personal Computer-less (PC-less) Microcontroller Training Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somantri, Y.; Wahyudin, D.; Fushilat, I.

    2018-02-01

    The need of microcontroller training kit is necessary for practical work of students of electrical engineering education. However, to use available training kit not only costly but also does not meet the need of laboratory requirements. An affordable and portable microcontroller kit could answer such problem. This paper explains the design and development of Personal Computer Less (PC-Less) Microcontroller Training Kit. It was developed based on Lattepanda processor and Arduino microcontroller as target. The training kit equipped with advanced input-output interfaces that adopted the concept of low cost and low power system. The preliminary usability testing proved this device can be used as a tool for microcontroller programming and industrial automation training. By adopting the concept of portability, the device could be operated in the rural area which electricity and computer infrastructure are limited. Furthermore, the training kit is suitable for student of electrical engineering student from university and vocational high school.

  15. Signal transduction by normal isoforms and W mutant variants of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase.

    OpenAIRE

    Reith, A D; Ellis, C; Lyman, S D; Anderson, D M; Williams, D E; Bernstein, A; Pawson, T

    1991-01-01

    Germline mutations at the Dominant White Spotting (W) and Steel (Sl) loci have provided conclusive genetic evidence that c-kit mediated signal transduction pathways are essential for normal mouse development. We have analysed the interactions of normal and mutant W/c-kit gene products with cytoplasmic signalling proteins, using transient c-kit expression assays in COS cells. In addition to the previously identified c-kit gene product (Kit+), a second normal Kit isoform (KitA+) containing an i...

  16. To Kit or Not to Kit? Evaluating and Implementing Science Materials and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Ellen; Melin, Jacque; Bair, Mary

    2016-01-01

    With the release of the "Next Generation Science Standards," many schools are reexamining the science materials they are using. Textbook companies and kit developers are eager to meet the demand for "NGSS"-aligned teaching materials. Teacher may have been asked to serve on a science curriculum committee, or to evaluate current…

  17. Selling Addiction: A Workshop Kit on Tobacco and Alcohol Advertising. A Media Literacy Workshop Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Mary Ellen; And Others

    This kit consists of: (1) a leader's guide; (2) an 18-minute videotape containing three 6-minute discussion starter segments analyzing typical commercials and advertising techniques; (3) a special issue of "Media Values" magazine on the theme "Fatal Attraction: The Selling of Addiction"; (4) an 8-page booklet "Awareness to Action: Media Literacy…

  18. Disposable Collection Kit for Rapid and Reliable Collection of Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Tezuka, Yuki; Takeda, Kazunori; Shetty, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe and evaluate disposable saliva collection kit for rapid, reliable, and reproducible collection of saliva samples. Methods The saliva collection kit comprised of a saliva absorbent swab and an extractor unit was used to retrieve whole saliva samples from 10 subjects. The accuracy and precision of the extracted volumes (3, 10, and 30 ?l) were compared to similar volumes drawn from control samples obtained by passive drool. Additionally, the impact of kit collection method...

  19. Opportunities of the energy revolution. Scientific contributions to the KIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breh, Wolfgang; Schaetzler, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    ''Opportunities for energy revolution'' was the title under which the KIT Energy Center of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in May 2012 held its first annual meeting. The meeting covered the whole Topic of the KIT Energy Center. The present proceedings give those interested the opportunity to delve into the contributions and to provide a differentiated picture of the challenges and opportunities of the energy transition.

  20. IODOBELL in vivo kits for in situ labelling with iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koernyei, Jozsef; Lakatos, Mihaly; Kecskes, Ferenc; Mahunka, Imre; Mikecz, Pal; Ando, Laszlo

    1988-01-01

    A system of in vivo kits called IODOBELL was developed in the Institute of Isotopes, Budapest. The production of hepatodecanoic acid for cardiology, iodo-hippuranic acid for kidney diagnostics and a special pharmaceutical, IODOBELL-MIGB for the indication of feochromocitoma and neuroblastoma is reported. The heptadecanoic acid kit is under human examination, the other two are to be tested in the near future. IODOBELL kits contribute to the wider use of 123 I in Hungary. (author) 6 refs

  1. Experience with Phadebas hCS (HPL)-Test kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herter, U.

    1976-01-01

    The RIA determination of human placental lactogen (HPL) is described using the Phadebas test kit by Pharmacia, Sweden. The results of the test are shown graphically. The kit was tested over a period of one year and the tests were modified to meet the requirements of clinical examinations. The calibration curve is constant and applicable for a period of 14 days. The Phadebas kit has proved to be advantageous for both scientific research work and for routine clinical examinations. (L.O.)

  2. FUELS IN SOIL TEST KIT: FIELD USE OF DIESEL DOG SOIL TEST KITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.

    2002-09-30

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed a new commercial product ready for technology transfer, the Diesel Dog{reg_sign} Portable Soil Test Kit, for performing analysis of fuel-contaminated soils in the field. The technology consists of a method developed by WRI (U.S. Patents 5,561,065 and 5,976,883) and hardware developed by WRI that allows the method to be performed in the field (patent pending). The method is very simple and does not require the use of highly toxic reagents. The aromatic components in a soil extract are measured by absorption at 254 nm with a field-portable photometer. WRI added significant value to the technology by taking the method through the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) approval and validation processes. The method is designated as ASTM Method D 5831-96, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This ASTM designation allows the method to be used for federal compliance activities. In June 2001, the Diesel Dog technology won an American Chemical Society Regional Industrial Innovations Award. To gain field experience with the new technology, Diesel Dog kits have been used for a variety of site evaluation and cleanup activities. Information gained from these activities has led to improvements in hardware configurations and additional insight into correlating Diesel Dog results with results from laboratory methods. The Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) used Diesel Dog Soil Test Kits to guide cleanups at a variety of sites throughout the state. ENSR, of Acton, Massachusetts, used a Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kit to evaluate sites in the Virgin Islands and Georgia. ChemTrack and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers successfully used a test kit to guide excavation at an abandoned FAA fuel-contaminated site near Fairbanks, Alaska. Barenco, Inc. is using a Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kit for site evaluations in Canada. A small spill of diesel fuel was cleaned up in Laramie, Wyoming using a Diesel

  3. c-Kit signaling determines neointimal hyperplasia in arteriovenous fistulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skartsis, Nikolaos; Martinez, Laisel; Duque, Juan Camilo; Tabbara, Marwan; Velazquez, Omaida C.; Asif, Arif; Andreopoulos, Fotios; Salman, Loay H.

    2014-01-01

    Stenosis of arteriovenous (A-V) fistulae secondary to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) compromises dialysis delivery, which worsens patients' quality of life and increases medical costs associated with the maintenance of vascular accesses. In the present study, we evaluated the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit in A-V fistula neointima formation. Initially, c-Kit was found in the neointima and adventitia of human brachiobasilic fistulae, whereas it was barely detectable in control veins harvested at the time of access creation. Using the rat A-V fistula model to study venous vascular remodeling, we analyzed the spatial and temporal pattern of c-Kit expression in the fistula wall. Interestingly, c-Kit immunoreactivity increased with time after anastomosis, which concurred with the accumulation of cells in the venous intima. In addition, c-Kit expression in A-V fistulae was positively altered by chronic kidney failure conditions. Both blockade of c-Kit with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) and inhibition of stem cell factor production with a specific short hairpin RNA prevented NIH in the outflow vein of experimental fistulae. In agreement with these data, impaired c-Kit activity compromised the development of NIH in A-V fistulae created in c-KitW/Wv mutant mice. These results suggest that targeting of the c-Kit signaling pathway may be an effective approach to prevent postoperative NIH in A-V fistulae. PMID:25186298

  4. Statistical modeling of dental unit water bacterial test kit performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mark E; Harte, Jennifer A; Stone, Mark E; O'Connor, Karen H; Coen, Michael L; Cullum, Malford E

    2007-01-01

    While it is important to monitor dental water quality, it is unclear whether in-office test kits provide bacterial counts comparable to the gold standard method (R2A). Studies were conducted on specimens with known bacterial concentrations, and from dental units, to evaluate test kit accuracy across a range of bacterial types and loads. Colony forming units (CFU) were counted for samples from each source, using R2A and two types of test kits, and conformity to Poisson distribution expectations was evaluated. Poisson regression was used to test for effects of source and device, and to estimate rate ratios for kits relative to R2A. For all devices, distributions were Poisson for low CFU/mL when only beige-pigmented bacteria were considered. For higher counts, R2A remained Poisson, but kits exhibited over-dispersion. Both kits undercounted relative to R2A, but the degree of undercounting was reasonably stable. Kits did not grow pink-pigmented bacteria from dental-unit water identified as Methylobacterium rhodesianum. Only one of the test kits provided results with adequate reliability at higher bacterial concentrations. Undercount bias could be estimated for this device and used to adjust test kit results. Insensitivity to methylobacteria spp. is problematic.

  5. Chemistry of /sup 99m/Tc labeling kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.; Richards, P.

    1976-01-01

    Problems have been reported with the use of kit-produced /sup 99m/Tc radiopharmaceuticals. This study was undertaken to understand the chemistry involved in various stannous kit systems. The relation between Tc, tin, and the ligands used to complex the reduced Tc was investigated. It is concluded that for reliable performance, stannous kits should be prepared so that most of the tin is kept in the usable (reducing) form; a solution would be to use minimum tin and a large excess of complexing agent. Oxidation of the Tc complex to free pertechnetate is not a major problem in most kit systems. 5 figures

  6. 75 FR 38412 - Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... waters of San Diego Bay in support of the San Diego POPS Fireworks. This safety zone is necessary to... San Diego POPS Fireworks, which will include fireworks presentations conducted from a barge in San...

  7. The Virtual Physiological Human ToolKit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jonathan; Cervenansky, Frederic; De Fabritiis, Gianni; Fenner, John; Friboulet, Denis; Giorgino, Toni; Manos, Steven; Martelli, Yves; Villà-Freixa, Jordi; Zasada, Stefan; Lloyd, Sharon; McCormack, Keith; Coveney, Peter V

    2010-08-28

    The Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) is a major European e-Science initiative intended to support the development of patient-specific computer models and their application in personalized and predictive healthcare. The VPH Network of Excellence (VPH-NoE) project is tasked with facilitating interaction between the various VPH projects and addressing issues of common concern. A key deliverable is the 'VPH ToolKit'--a collection of tools, methodologies and services to support and enable VPH research, integrating and extending existing work across Europe towards greater interoperability and sustainability. Owing to the diverse nature of the field, a single monolithic 'toolkit' is incapable of addressing the needs of the VPH. Rather, the VPH ToolKit should be considered more as a 'toolbox' of relevant technologies, interacting around a common set of standards. The latter apply to the information used by tools, including any data and the VPH models themselves, and also to the naming and categorizing of entities and concepts involved. Furthermore, the technologies and methodologies available need to be widely disseminated, and relevant tools and services easily found by researchers. The VPH-NoE has thus created an online resource for the VPH community to meet this need. It consists of a database of tools, methods and services for VPH research, with a Web front-end. This has facilities for searching the database, for adding or updating entries, and for providing user feedback on entries. Anyone is welcome to contribute.

  8. A comparative study in three commercial kits of radioligand assay for GAD-Ab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yehua; Zhou Zhiguang; Huang Gan; Yang Feike; Li Zhangwei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To provide data for perfect selection of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-Ab) assay commercial kits. Methods: The sera of 88 titer-graded samples by radioligand assay (RLA) were measured with two types of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits and one type of immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) kit for GAD-Ab in order to test their consistency with RLA. Another 140 diabetic sera were measured with RLA and screened by a type of suitable kit to search the cutoff point for discriminating patients who needed rechecking. Results: Compared with RLA, concordance ratio of 3 kits: Medizym kit(75%) > RSR kit(73.9%) > Biomerica kit(62.5%); Kappa value: Medizym kit (0.408, common) > RSR kit (0.405, common) > Biomerica kit (0.185, failing); correlation to RLA index: RSR kit (r= 0.992) > Medizym kit(r= 0. 791 ) > Biomerica kit (r = -0. 055); area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve: Medizym kit (0.812) > RSR kit (0. 727 ) > Biomerica kit (0.666). Conclusions: The efficiencies of RSR kit and Medizym kit are good. Serum concentration between 0.25-0.99 U/ml measured by RSR kit is suggested to further recheck by RLA. (authors)

  9. Energy Education Incentives: Evaluating the Impact of Consumer Energy Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Guin, Autumn; Langham, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the energy and environmental impact of residential energy education efforts is difficult. The E-Conservation residential energy management program uses consumer energy kits to document the impact of energy-efficient improvements. The consumer energy kit provides an incentive for individuals attending energy education workshop, helps…

  10. Screening of antibiotics residues and development a new kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhaoui, Faycel

    2009-01-01

    The first part of the work was to detect antibiotic residues in animal nutriment: chicken, fish, eggs and milk, by methods of screening: First Test and Delvotest. The second part covered the development of a new kit for the detection of antibiotics residues for honey and competitor kit First Test and saving time and money.

  11. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Action Kit. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This kit contains materials to assist a school indoor air quality (IAQ) coordinator in conducting a school IAQ program. The kit contains the following: IAQ coordinator's guide; IAQ coordinator forms; IAQ backgrounder; teacher's classroom checklist; administrative staff checklist; health officer/school nurse checklist; ventilation checklist and…

  12. Development of ELISA kit for rat albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhigang; Han Shiquan; Liu Yibing; Xu Wenge; Jia Juanjuan

    2009-01-01

    The Anti-rat albumin serum was prepared by immunized the sheep with rat albumin. A ELISA method was established for rat albumin. The measurement range of the assay was 1-50 mg/L, sensitivity of the assay was 0.42 mg/L, recovery rate was 85.0%-106.0%. Intra-and inter-assay variation coefficients were <8.9% and <12.8% respectively. The correlation coefficients between measured and expected values were 0.999 after serial dilution of the urine samples with high concentrations of rat albumin. A good correlation was observed between the ELISA and RIA methods, and the kit for rat albumin might provide a convenience in exploitation of renal drugs and experimental injury of the kidney. (authors)

  13. A decrease in ubiquitination and resulting prolonged life-span of KIT underlies the KIT overexpression-mediated imatinib resistance of KIT mutation-driven canine mast cell tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masato; Kuroki, Shiori; Kurita, Sena; Miyamoto, Ryo; Tani, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Kyoichi; Bonkobara, Makoto

    2017-10-01

    Overexpression of KIT is one of the mechanisms that contributes to imatinib resistance in KIT mutation-driven tumors. Here, the mechanism underlying this overexpression of KIT was investigated using an imatinib-sensitive canine mast cell tumor (MCT) line CoMS, which has an activating mutation in KIT exon 11. A KIT-overexpressing imatinib-resistant subline, rCoMS1, was generated from CoMS cells by their continuous exposure to increasing concentrations of imatinib. Neither a secondary mutation nor upregulated transcription of KIT was detected in rCoMS1 cells. A decrease in KIT ubiquitination, a prolonged KIT life-span, and KIT overexpression were found in rCoMS1 cells. These events were suppressed by withdrawal of imatinib and were re-induced by re‑treatment with imatinib. These findings suggest that imatinib elicited overexpression of KIT via suppression of its ubiquitination. These results also indicated that imatinib-induced overexpression of KIT in rCoMS1 cells was not a permanently acquired feature but was a reversible response of the cells. Moreover, the pan deubiquitinating enzyme inhibitor PR619 prevented imatinib induction of KIT overexpression, suggesting that the imatinib-induced decrease in KIT ubiquitination could be mediated by upregulation and/or activation of deubiquitinating enzyme(s). It may be possible that a similar mechanism of KIT overexpression underlies the acquisition of imatinib resistance in some human tumors that are driven by KIT mutation.

  14. The Winfrith lecturers' demonstration kits for radiation and radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woffinden, G.B.

    1981-01-01

    During the early part of the 1970s a need arose for suitable aids to assist lecturers in giving talks on radioactivity and radiation to employees and occasionally to science students in local schools and colleges. A kit capable of demonstrating the basic properties of alpha, beta and gamma radiation was assembled for these purposes. During the latter half of the decade a demand arose for talks to non-scientific groups of the general public on nuclear power and radiation and some of the items in the original demonstration kit were found to be appropriate for these talks. The items used, now constitute the Basic Demonstration Kit. Meanwhile, a few changes or additions were made to the original kit which is now known as the Comprehensive Demonstration Kit. (author)

  15. Iodine-125--digoxin radioimmunoassay: comparison of commercial kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, D.J.; Cianci, M.L.

    1976-01-01

    Iodine-125-digoxin radioimmunoassay kits available from Abbott Diagnostics (AD), Dade Division (D), Schwarz/Mann (SM), and Clinical Assays (CA) were evaluated with respect to assay quality. The kit accuracies did not differ significantly at 2.0 ng/ml and the interassay coefficients of variation ranged from 9 percent (AD) to 21.4 percent (CA). The accuracy for all kits above 4 ng/ml is questionable, and since serum-dilution values correlated well with undiluted serum values, the dilution method of dose quantitation is preferable for levels above 4 ng/ml. Although all the kits were adequate for evaluating digoxin at the 2 ng/ml level, the Abbott kit seems to be of slightly better quality

  16. San Francisco folio, California, Tamalpais, San Francisco, Concord, San Mateo, and Haywards quadrangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Andrew Cowper

    1914-01-01

    The five sheets of the San Francisco folio the Tamalpais, Ban Francisco, Concord, Ban Mateo, and Haywards sheets map a territory lying between latitude 37° 30' and 38° and longitude 122° and 122° 45'. Large parts of four of these sheets cover the waters of the Bay of San Francisco or of the adjacent Pacific Ocean. (See fig. 1.) Within the area mapped are the cities of San Francisco, Oakland, Berkeley, Alameda, Ban Rafael, and San Mateo, and many smaller towns and villages. These cities, which have a population aggregating about 750,000, together form the largest and most important center of commercial and industrial activity on the west coast of the United States. The natural advantages afforded by a great harbor, where the railways from the east meet the ships from all ports of the world, have determined the site of a flourishing cosmopolitan, commercial city on the shores of San Francisco Bay. The bay is encircled by hilly and mountainous country diversified by fertile valley lands and divides the territory mapped into two rather contrasted parts, the western part being again divided by the Golden Gate. It will therefore be convenient to sketch the geographic features under four headings (1) the area east of San Francisco Bay; (2) the San Francisco Peninsula; (3) the Marin Peninsula; (4) San Francisco Bay. (See fig. 2.)

  17. The Role of Tidal Marsh Restoration in Fish Management in the San Francisco Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Herbold

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available   Tidal marsh restoration is an important management issue in the San Francisco Estuary (estuary. Restoration of large areas of tidal marsh is ongoing or planned in the lower estuary (up to 6,000 ha, Callaway et al. 2011. Large areas are proposed for restoration in the upper estuary under the Endangered Species Act biological opinions (3,237 ha and the Bay Delta Conservation Plan (26,305 ha. In the lower estuary, tidal marsh has proven its value to a wide array of species that live within it (Palaima 2012. In the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta (Delta, one important function ascribed to restoration of freshwater tidal marshes is that they make large contributions to the food web of fish in open waters (BDCP 2013. The Ecosystem Restoration Program ascribed a suite of ecological functions to tidal marsh restoration, including habitat and food web benefits to native fish (CDFW 2010. This background was the basis for a symposium, Tidal Marshes and Native Fishes in the Delta: Will Restoration Make a Difference? held at the University of California, Davis, on June 10, 2013. This paper summarizes conclusions the authors drew from the symposium. 

  18. 76 FR 1386 - Safety Zone; Centennial of Naval Aviation Kickoff, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Centennial of Naval Aviation Kickoff, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast... zone on the navigable waters of San Diego Bay in San Diego, CA in support of the Centennial of Naval... February 12, 2010, the Centennial of Naval Aviation Kickoff will take place in San Diego Bay. In support of...

  19. A Tidally Averaged Sediment-Transport Model for San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionberger, Megan A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2009-01-01

    A tidally averaged sediment-transport model of San Francisco Bay was incorporated into a tidally averaged salinity box model previously developed and calibrated using salinity, a conservative tracer (Uncles and Peterson, 1995; Knowles, 1996). The Bay is represented in the model by 50 segments composed of two layers: one representing the channel (>5-meter depth) and the other the shallows (0- to 5-meter depth). Calculations are made using a daily time step and simulations can be made on the decadal time scale. The sediment-transport model includes an erosion-deposition algorithm, a bed-sediment algorithm, and sediment boundary conditions. Erosion and deposition of bed sediments are calculated explicitly, and suspended sediment is transported by implicitly solving the advection-dispersion equation. The bed-sediment model simulates the increase in bed strength with depth, owing to consolidation of fine sediments that make up San Francisco Bay mud. The model is calibrated to either net sedimentation calculated from bathymetric-change data or measured suspended-sediment concentration. Specified boundary conditions are the tributary fluxes of suspended sediment and suspended-sediment concentration in the Pacific Ocean. Results of model calibration and validation show that the model simulates the trends in suspended-sediment concentration associated with tidal fluctuations, residual velocity, and wind stress well, although the spring neap tidal suspended-sediment concentration variability was consistently underestimated. Model validation also showed poor simulation of seasonal sediment pulses from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta at Point San Pablo because the pulses enter the Bay over only a few days and the fate of the pulses is determined by intra-tidal deposition and resuspension that are not included in this tidally averaged model. The model was calibrated to net-basin sedimentation to calculate budgets of sediment and sediment-associated contaminants. While

  20. Dumpster Optics: teaching and learning optics without a kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Judy; Magnani, Nancy; Robinson, Kathleen

    2016-09-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and renewed emphasis on STEM education in the U.S. have resulted in the development of many educational kits for teaching science in general and optics in particular. Many teachers do not have funding to purchase kits and practical experience has shown that even costly kits can have poorly written and misleading instructions and may include experiments that would not work in a classroom. Dumpster Optics lessons are designed to use inexpensive, commonly found materials. All lessons have been field-tested with students. We will describe the development of the lessons, provide examples of field testing experiences and outline possible future activities.

  1. Liquid kit for preparation of {sup 188}rhenium-etidronate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marczewski, Barbara; Dias, Carla Roberta; Moraes, Vanessa; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail: baszot@gmail.com

    2005-10-15

    The aim of this study was the preparation of a liquid kit for radiolabeling of {sup 188} Re-HEDP (hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate). {sup 188} Re was obtained from alumina based {sup 188} W/{sup 188} Re generators. This paper reports the efficacy of a cold kit stored for more than two weeks, determined by the dependence of the radiolabeling yields of {sup 188} Re-HEDP on the incubation time, reducing agent concentration, the effects of concentration of ligand, the p H of the reaction and the temperature. The cold kits showed a good stability when carrie-free rhenium-188 was added in the reaction mixture. (author)

  2. Liquid kit for preparation of 188rhenium-etidronate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczewski, Barbara; Dias, Carla Roberta; Moraes, Vanessa; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was the preparation of a liquid kit for radiolabeling of 188 Re-HEDP (hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate). 188 Re was obtained from alumina based 188 W/ 188 Re generators. This paper reports the efficacy of a cold kit stored for more than two weeks, determined by the dependence of the radiolabeling yields of 188 Re-HEDP on the incubation time, reducing agent concentration, the effects of concentration of ligand, the p H of the reaction and the temperature. The cold kits showed a good stability when carrie-free rhenium-188 was added in the reaction mixture. (author)

  3. Math Description Engine Software Development Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Robert O.; Smith, Stephanie L.; Dexter, Dan E.; Hodgson, Terry R.

    2010-01-01

    The Math Description Engine Software Development Kit (MDE SDK) can be used by software developers to make computer-rendered graphs more accessible to blind and visually-impaired users. The MDE SDK generates alternative graph descriptions in two forms: textual descriptions and non-verbal sound renderings, or sonification. It also enables display of an animated trace of a graph sonification on a visual graph component, with color and line-thickness options for users having low vision or color-related impairments. A set of accessible graphical user interface widgets is provided for operation by end users and for control of accessible graph displays. Version 1.0 of the MDE SDK generates text descriptions for 2D graphs commonly seen in math and science curriculum (and practice). The mathematically rich text descriptions can also serve as a virtual math and science assistant for blind and sighted users, making graphs more accessible for everyone. The MDE SDK has a simple application programming interface (API) that makes it easy for programmers and Web-site developers to make graphs accessible with just a few lines of code. The source code is written in Java for cross-platform compatibility and to take advantage of Java s built-in support for building accessible software application interfaces. Compiled-library and NASA Open Source versions are available with API documentation and Programmer s Guide at http:/ / prim e.jsc.n asa. gov.

  4. A least-squares computational ''tool kit''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1993-04-01

    The information assembled in this report is intended to offer a useful computational ''tool kit'' to individuals who are interested in a variety of practical applications for the least-squares method of parameter estimation. The fundamental principles of Bayesian analysis are outlined first and these are applied to development of both the simple and the generalized least-squares conditions. Formal solutions that satisfy these conditions are given subsequently. Their application to both linear and non-linear problems is described in detail. Numerical procedures required to implement these formal solutions are discussed and two utility computer algorithms are offered for this purpose (codes LSIOD and GLSIOD written in FORTRAN). Some simple, easily understood examples are included to illustrate the use of these algorithms. Several related topics are then addressed, including the generation of covariance matrices, the role of iteration in applications of least-squares procedures, the effects of numerical precision and an approach that can be pursued in developing data analysis packages that are directed toward special applications

  5. Kit systems for granulated decontamination formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2010-07-06

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field. The formulation can be pre-mixed and pre-packaged as a multi-part kit system, where one or more of the parts are packaged in a powdered, granulated form for ease of handling and mixing in the field.

  6. Agricultural Chemical Concentrations and Loads in Rivers Draining the Central Valley, California, to the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary: Before and During an Extended Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Drought or near drought conditions have occurred in California since 2012. Although some parts of the State received near normal precipitation in water year 2016, other locations were still below average. Extended drought can impact aquatic organisms in a variety of ways because of decreased flows and elevated water temperature. However, lower precipitation and availability of irrigation water may limit subsequent runoff, resulting in reduced concentrations and loads of certain environmental toxicants, such as pesticides and ammonia, thereby limiting their toxic effects. In this study, funded by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Program, the occurrence of 227 pesticides and degradation products, and nutrients was assessed before and during this current drought in the two largest rivers draining to the San Francisco Bay: the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. The watersheds of both rivers include substantial agricultural and urban land use. Herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, and ammonia were detected throughout the study (2010 to 2016) and models of daily concentration using the seasonal wave model (rloadest) were formulated to assess the amount of time that concentrations may have exceeded benchmark levels known to be toxic to aquatic organisms. Frequently detected pesticides included the fungicide azoxystrobin, herbicides or their degradation products such as diuron, glyphosate, and metolachlor, and insecticides such as imidacloprid. Compounds that are transported primarily by surface runoff generally showed decreasing concentrations as the drought progressed, especially in the San Joaquin River. Compounds mainly transported by groundwater, as indicated by seasonal concentration profiles, had more stable concentrations in the rivers. Mass loads to the Bay all decreased, as expected, because of the lower river discharge. When compared to aquatic-life benchmarks, modeled concentrations indicated that individual compounds were not contributing to

  7. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Action Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IAQ Tools for Schools Action Kit provides schools with information on how to carry out a practical plan to improve indoor air problems at little- or no-cost using straightforward activities and in-house staff.

  8. Autometallography: tissue metals demonstrated by a silver enhancement kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, G; Nørgaard, J O; Baatrup, E

    1987-01-01

    , primarily intended for the amplification of colloidal gold particles, has been used to demonstrate these catalytic tissue metals. Sections from animals exposed intravitally to aurothiomalatate, silver lactate, mercury chloride, sodium selenite or perfused with sodium sulphide were subjected to a commercial......In biological tissue, minute accumulations of gold, silver, mercury and zinc can be visualized by a technique whereby metallic silver is precipitated on tiny accumulations of the two noble metals, or on selenites or sulphides of all four metals. In the present study a silver enhancement kit...... silver enhancement kit (IntenSE, Janssen Pharmaceutica). It was found that the kit performs adequately to the silver lactate gum arabic developer and to the photographic emulsion technique. The kit can be used as a silver enhancement medium for the demonstration of zinc by the Neo-Timm and selenium...

  9. Hydrogeologic Assessment of the East Bear Creek Unit, San LuisNational Wildlife Refuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2007-07-15

    San Luis National Wildlife Refuge Complex to meetReclamation s obligations for Level 4 water supply under the CentralValley Project Improvement Act. Hydrogeological assessment of the EastBear Creek Unit of the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge was conductedusing a combination of field investigations and a survey of availableliterature from past US Geological Survey Reports and reports by localgeological consultants. Conservative safe yield estimates made using theavailable data show that the East Bear Creek Unit may have sufficientgroundwater resources in the shallow groundwater aquifer to meet aboutbetween 25 percent and 52 percent of its current Level II and between 17percent and 35 percent of its level IV water supply needs. The rate ofsurface and lateral recharge to the Unit and the design of the well fieldand the layout and capacity of pumped wells will decide both thepercentage of annual needs that the shallow aquifer can supply andwhether this yield is sustainable without affecting long-term aquiferquality. In order to further investigate the merits of pumping the nearsurface aquifer, which appears to have reasonable water quality for usewithin the East Bear Creek Unit -- monitoring of the potential sources ofaquifer recharge and the installation of a pilot shallow well would bewarranted. Simple monitoring stations could be installed both upstreamand downstream of both the San Joaquin River and Bear Creek and beinstrumented to measureriver stage, flow and electrical conductivity.Ideally this would be done in conjunction with a shallow pilot well,pumped to supply a portion of the Unit's needs for the wetland inundationperiod.

  10. 78 FR 53243 - Safety Zone; TriRock San Diego, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... this rule because the logistical details of the San Diego Bay triathlon swim were not finalized nor... September 22, 2013. (c) Definitions. The following definition applies to this section: Designated...

  11. New RIA kit for determination of progesterone in cow milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byszewska-Szpocinska, E.; Markiewicz, A.

    2006-01-01

    The determination of progesterone concentration in whole and fat-free milk 19-24 days after conception enables to distinguish fertile and non-fertile insemination, which is important in cattle breeding. The aim of this work was to develop a simple and quick radioimmunoassay test for the determination of progesterone in cow milk. Two types of solid-phase tubes coated with specific polyclonal anti-progesterone antibody from ORION Diagnostica and BIOSOURCE International, two different progesterone derivatives viz. progesterone-3- carboxymethyl oxime (CMO) and progesterone-11α-hemisuccinate (HS) conjugated to 125 I-histamine and the HPLC system with Lichrospher RP-18 column along with 65% acetonitrile/water as eluent to purify the tracers were used to carry out this work. Progesterone-3CMO- 125 I-histamine had a retention time of 13.2 min and progesterone-11α-hemisuccinate- 125 I-histamine had a retention time of 7.8 min. Two kinds of kits (kit I and kit II) were prepared, first with progesterone-3CMO- 125 I-histamine as the tracer and coated tubes from Progesterone Veterinary RIA kit of ORION Diagnostica and the second with progesterone-11αHS- 125 I-histamine as the tracer and coated tubes from Progesterone Veterinary RIA kit from BIOSOURCE International. Progesterone from Sigma and selected fat-free cow's milk without progesterone as zero progesterone milk matrix were used for standard preparation. The optimal assay procedure was as follows: 50μL standards, controls and fat-free milk samples were pipetted into coated tubes followed by addition of 500μL of diluted tracer. The tubes were incubated for 2h in case of kit I and 3h for kit II at RT. After the incubation, the tubes were decanted and counted. The assay range was 0 to 270 nmol/L for kit I and 0 to 300 nmol/L for kit II. The sensitivity of the kit with ORION coated tubes was better (0.8 nmol/L) than that of BIOSOURCE tubes which was 1.5 nmol/L. Validation of these assays in terms of specificity, accuracy

  12. Quality control for a group of pyrophosphate-Sn kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac, M.; Gamboa, R.; Hernandez, I.; Leyva, R.; Turino, D.

    1994-01-01

    The quality control for a group of Pyrophosphate-Sn kits for labeling with 99 m Tc is carry out at the Isotope Center. A general discussion takes place about the instrumental techniques for the determination of the kit constituent such as ligands, Sn(II), water, etc, as well as the control table for the evaluation of the warranty time. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  13. Android: Call C Functions with the Native Development Kit (NDK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    from a Java application. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Android , NDK, Native Development Kit, C callable, Java Native Interface, JNI, Java, C/C++ 16. SECURITY ...ARL-TN-0782 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Android : Call C Functions with the Native Development Kit (NDK) by Hao Q...Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TN-0782 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Android : Call C Functions with the Native

  14. Evaluation of the Coca-Cola company travel health kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Lynne A; Bettinger, Julie; Dismukes, Roberta; Kozarsky, Phyllis E

    2002-01-01

    The Coca-Cola travel health kit has been used for about one decade for international travelers and required evaluation to see if the items contained were appropriate for the employees. Two hundred thirty-four travelers were sampled and filled out a voluntary survey including questions about demographic information, travel history, and usage and value of the contents of the travel health kit. One hundred eighty-one surveys were returned; 65% of the respondents were male, and the majority of travelers were between the ages of 36 and 45 years. The most useful items were analgesics and medications used for gastrointestinal problems. In general, the items identified as being the least useful were those requiring specialized use by a medical practitioner, such as needles and syringes. Suggestions of items to be added to the kit included vitamins, cough drops, sleep aids, and eye drops. A surprising result that Coca-Cola employees expressed the desire for brand name rather than generic items. Evaluation of the Coca-Cola Company travel health kit revealed it to be very useful to most corporate travelers. Suggestions that were made will be taken into consideration in designing a new kit, and consideration is being given to whether a basic travel health kit should be provided to which travelers can add other items depending on their personal needs.

  15. Usefulness of CA 130 kit based on IRMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Takashi; Kimura, Yoshiko; Ata, Mariko; Miyagawa, Naoko; Iio, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Ken

    1988-01-01

    Immunoradiometric assay for CA 130 was fundamentally and clinically evaluated using a commercially available D-7111 kit. Incubation time was 4 hr with the present CA 133 kit as compared with 16 - 24 hr with conventional CA 125 kit. Laboratory performance of CA 130 kit was satisfactory for standard curve, reproducibility, and recovery test. There was well correlation between the present CA 130 kit and CA 125 kit (r = 0.931). The concentration of CA 130 in the serum was significantly higher in healthy women than men (17.3 +- 10.5 U/ml vs 9.6 +- 5.1 U/ml). Serum CA 130 levels tended to decrease with aging, regardless of sex. These levels were changeable with menstrual cycle ; i.e., these were significantly higher during menstrual phase (24.2 +- 9.0 U/ml) and significantly lower during ovulatory phase (10.9 +- 2.4 U/ml) and during menopause (12.1 +- 3.4 U/ml). Cut off serum CA 130 levels were defined as 20 U/ml for men and 38 U/ml for women. Positive rate for CA 130 was the highest in cases of ovarian cancer (80 %), followed by endometrial cancer (50 %), pancreatic cancer (47 %), benign ovarian tumor (44 %), and lung cancer (39 %). (Namekawa, K.)

  16. C-kit expression in canine mucosal melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S J; Jankovsky, J M; Rohrbach, B W; LeBlanc, A K

    2012-09-01

    The c-kit receptor is responsible for transmission of promigration signals to melanocytes; its downregulation may be involved in malignant progression of human melanocytic neoplasms. Expression of this receptor has not been examined in normal or neoplastic melanocytes from dogs. In this study, 14 benign dermal and 61 malignant mucosal melanocytic tumors were examined for c-kit (KIT) expression. Sites of the mucosal melanomas were gingiva (not further specified; n = 30), buccal gingiva (n = 6), soft palate (n = 4), hard palate (n = 5), tongue (n = 7), lip (n = 6), and conjunctiva (n = 3). Melan A was expressed in all 14 dermal melanocytomas and in 59 of 61 (96.7%) tumors from oral or conjunctival mucosa, confirming melanocytic origin. C-kit receptor expression was strong and diffuse throughout the cytoplasm in all 14 dermal melanocytomas and was identified in basilar mucosal melanocytes over submucosal neoplasms (27 of 61, 44.3%), junctional (neoplastic) melanocytes (17 of 61, 27.9%), and, less commonly, neoplastic melanocytes of the subepithelial tumors (6 of 61, 9.8%). KIT expression anywhere within the resected melanomas correlated with significantly longer survival. These results suggest that c-kit receptor expression may be altered in canine melanomas and may have potential as a prognostic indicator for mucosal melanomas.

  17. Direct assay for urine cortisol with cortisol kit TFB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manaka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Michiko; Hosoya, Takaaki [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2002-05-01

    We examined Cortisol Kit TFB for direct assay of urine cortisol. And the multiplication by dilution factor of urine cortisol values in this kit was examined. The coefficient of correlation of cortisol levels (46 urine samples) between Cortisol Kit TFB and Chemilumi ACS-Cortisol II, which is another kit for direct assay of urine cortisol, was r=0.858, y=1.86x+38.2 (p<0.001). There were differences between the both cortisol levels of each urine sample in spite of the good coefficient of correlation. The urine cortisol values obtained from the standard curve in addition of 50 {mu}l of zero standard were 50-80% of the values obtained from the standard curve in the package insert. These results suggest that the specificity of the antibodies of both direct assay kits for urine cortisol may be different each other, and the multiplication by 1.09, the dilution factor due to the addition of zero standard to only urine sample, is unnecessary although it is indispensable for urine samples to add zero standard. Cortisol Kit TFB was very convenient for its easy assay procedure and short incubation. (author)

  18. Direct assay for urine cortisol with cortisol kit TFB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Michiko; Hosoya, Takaaki

    2002-01-01

    We examined Cortisol Kit TFB for direct assay of urine cortisol. And the multiplication by dilution factor of urine cortisol values in this kit was examined. The coefficient of correlation of cortisol levels (46 urine samples) between Cortisol Kit TFB and Chemilumi ACS-Cortisol II, which is another kit for direct assay of urine cortisol, was r=0.858, y=1.86x+38.2 (p<0.001). There were differences between the both cortisol levels of each urine sample in spite of the good coefficient of correlation. The urine cortisol values obtained from the standard curve in addition of 50 μl of zero standard were 50-80% of the values obtained from the standard curve in the package insert. These results suggest that the specificity of the antibodies of both direct assay kits for urine cortisol may be different each other, and the multiplication by 1.09, the dilution factor due to the addition of zero standard to only urine sample, is unnecessary although it is indispensable for urine samples to add zero standard. Cortisol Kit TFB was very convenient for its easy assay procedure and short incubation. (author)

  19. Regional and Large-Scale Climate Influences on Tree-Ring Reconstructed Null Zone Position in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahle, D.; Griffin, D.; Cleaveland, M.; Fye, F.; Meko, D.; Cayan, D.; Dettinger, M.; Redmond, K.

    2007-05-01

    A new network of 36 moisture sensitive tree-ring chronologies has been developed in and near the drainage basins of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. The network is based entirely on blue oak (Quercus douglasii), which is a California endemic found from the lower forest border up into the mixed conifer zone in the Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada, and Cascades. These blue oak tree-ring chronologies are highly correlated with winter-spring precipitation totals, Sacramento and San Joaquin streamflow, and with seasonal variations in salinity and null zone position in San Francisco Bay. Null zone is the non-tidal bottom water location where density-driven salinity and river-driven freshwater currents balance (zero flow). It is the area of highest turbidity, water residence time, sediment accumulation, and net primary productivity in the estuary. Null zone position is measured by the distance from the Golden Gate of the 2 per mil bottom water isohaline and is primarily controlled by discharge from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers (and ultimately by winter-spring precipitation). The location of the null zone is an estuarine habitat indicator, a policy variable used for ecosystem management, and can have a major impact on biological resources in the San Francisco estuary. Precipitation-sensitive blue oak chronologies can be used to estimate null zone position based on the strong biogeophysical interaction among terrestrial, aquatic, and estuarine ecosystems, orchestrated by precipitation. The null zone reconstruction is 626-years long and provides a unique long term perspective on the interannual to decadal variability of this important estuarine habitat indicator. Consecutive two-year droughts (or longer) allow the null zone to shrink into the confined upper reaches of Suisun Bay, causing a dramatic reduction in phytoplankton production and favoring colonization of the estuary by marine biota. The reconstruction indicates an approximate 10 year recurrence interval

  20. Supply kits for antenatal and childbirth care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Alicia; Tomasso, Giselle; Cafferata, María Luisa; Colomar, Mercedes; Betran, Ana Pilar

    2017-12-13

    It is critical to increase the uptake of interventions proven to be effective to improve maternal and perinatal outcomes. Supply kits have been suggested to be a feasible strategy designed to ensure timely availability and effective follow-up of care. We conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence on the uptake, effectiveness and safety of supply kits for maternal care. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, Campbell Collaboration, Lilacs, Embase and unpublished studies were searched. Studies that reported the efficacy, safety and use of supply kits for maternal healthcare were eligible. Participants were pregnant women or in childbirth. Supply kits were defined as a collection of medicines, supplies or instruments packaged together with the aim of conducting a healthcare task. Two reviewers independently performed the screening, data extraction, and methodological and quality assessment. 24 studies were included: 4 of them were systematic reviews and 20 primary studies. Eighteen studies evaluated a so-called "clean delivery kit". In all but two studies, the kits were used by more than half of the participants. A meta-analysis was deemed inappropriate due to the heterogeneity in study design, in the components of the interventions implemented, in the content of the kits, and in outcomes. Nine studies assessed neonatal outcomes and found statistically significant reductions in cord infection, sepsis and tetanus-related mortality in the intervention group. Three studies showed evidence of reduced neonatal mortality (OR 0.52, 0.60 and 0.71) with statistically significant confidence intervals in all cases. Four studies reported odd ratios for maternal mortality, but only one showed evidence of a statistically significant decrease in this outcome but it was ascribed to hand washing prior to childbirth and not with the use of kits. This review suggests potential benefits in the use of supply kits to improve maternal and

  1. Iodobell in vivo kits for labelling with 123I or 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koernyei, J.; Horvath, M.; Pszota, A.; Lakatos, M.; Szirtes, L.

    1988-01-01

    Iodobell in vivo kits provide an easy and fast method for 'on the spot' radioiodination with 123 I (or 131 I). Until now three kits have been developed in the Institute of Isotopes Budapest, the heptadecanoic acid, the hippurate and the MIBG kits. From these, the heptadecanoic acid kit is being tested in humans in Hungary, the other two are under the registration procedure. The Iodobell in vivo kits may contribute to the application of 123 I radioisotope in Hungary. (orig.)

  2. Basic and clinical evaluation of thyroxine radioimmunoassay kit. I. T-4 RIA kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunko, H; Hisada, K [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    1976-02-01

    The T/sub 4/ RIA kit is based on single antibody radioimmunoassay and utilizes a resin-sponge to separate free T/sub 4/-/sup 125/I from the incubation mixture. The use of the sodium salt of trichloroacetic acid (TBG inhibitor) permits direct radioimmunoassay of T/sub 4/ without a tedious extraction procedure. The T/sub 4/ RIA kit needs only 0.05 ml of patient serum and one hour of incubation to measure T/sub 4/. The TBG inhibitior was equivalent to 5.1 ..mu..g% of T/sub 4/ in displacing radioactive T/sub 4/ from TBG in a CPBA(Res-O-Mat T/sub 4/) system, and the TBG inhibitor volume of 0.5 ml (ten times of serum) was needed to measure a high T/sub 4/ concentration serum. The change of incubation temperature was more affected on the standard curve than that of incubation time. Correlation of the T/sub 4/ value between radioimmunoassay and CPBA in 69 patients was good (r=0.88612, p<0.01) and showed a slightly higher T/sub 4/ value when measured with radioimmunoassay than CPBA (linear regression function: Y=1.17506 + 0.95766X). Correlation of T/sub 4/ between Compu-curve and conventional standard curve was excellent (r=0.9995), but a slight difference was found in both low and high T/sub 4/ concentrations. In euthyroid patients without thyroid diseases, T/sub 4/ concentration was 9.92 +- 2.66 (SD) ..mu..g% and the normal range was between 4.60 and 15.24 ..mu..g%. Reproducibility within assay was 9.9% (CV) and recovery rate was 70% when added 10 ..mu..g of T/sub 4/ and 86% when added 15 ..mu..g% of T/sub 4/. From these results, the authors concluded that radioimmunoassay of serum T/sub 4/ using the T/sub 4/ RIA kit would be a promising one, especially when measuring a large amount of samples per assays.

  3. Synthesis of studies in the fall low-salinity zone of the San Francisco Estuary, September-December 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry R.; Baxter, Randall; Castillo, Gonzalo; Conrad, Louise; Culberson, Steven; Erickson, Gregg; Feyrer, Frederick; Fong, Stephanie; Gehrts, Karen; Grimaldo, Lenny; Herbold, Bruce; Kirsch, Joseph; Mueller-Solger, Anke; Slater, Steven B.; Sommer, Ted; Souza, Kelly; Van Nieuwenhuyse, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    In fall 2011, a large-scale investigation (fall low-salinity habitat investigation) was implemented by the Bureau of Reclamation in cooperation with the Interagency Ecological Program to explore hypotheses about the ecological role of low-salinity habitat in the San Francisco Estuary—specifically, hypotheses about the importance of fall low-salinity habitat to the biology of delta smelt Hypomesus transpacificus, a species endemic to the San Francisco Estuary and listed as threatened or endangered under federal and state endangered species legislation. The Interagency Ecological Program is a consortium of 10 agencies that work together to develop a better understanding of the ecology of the Estuary and the effects of the State Water Project and Federal Central Valley Project operations on the physical, chemical, and biological conditions of the San Francisco Estuary. The fall low-salinity habitat investigation constitutes one of the actions stipulated in the Reasonable and Prudent Alternative issued with the 2008 Biological Opinion of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which called for adaptive management of fall Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta outflow following “wet” and “above normal” water years to alleviate jeopardy to delta smelt and adverse modification of delta smelt critical habitat. The basic hypothesis of the adaptive management of fall low-salinity habitat is that greater outflows move the low-salinity zone (salinity 1–6), an important component of delta smelt habitat, westward and that moving the low-salinity zone westward of its position in the fall of recent years will benefit delta smelt, although the specific mechanisms providing such benefit are uncertain. An adaptive management plan was prepared to guide implementation of the adaptive management of fall low-salinity habitat and to reduce uncertainty. This report has three major objectives:

  4. Distribution and ultrastructure of interstitial cells of Cajal in the mouse colon, using antibodies to Kit and Kit(W-lacZ) mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderwinden, J M; Rumessen, J J; Bernex, F

    2000-01-01

    kinase receptor Kit as a marker. Sections and whole mounts were studied by confocal microscopy after double immunofluorescence with specific antibodies. The ultrastructure of Kit-expressing cells was examined by electron microcopy in KitW-lacz/+ transgenic mice, which carry the lacz gene inserted...

  5. Marketing San Juan Basin gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posner, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Marketing natural gas produced in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado principally involves four gas pipeline companies with significant facilities in the basin. The system capacity, transportation rates, regulatory status, and market access of each of these companies is evaluated. Because of excess gas supplies available to these pipeline companies, producers can expect improved take levels and prices by selling gas directly to end users and utilities as opposed to selling gas to the pipelines for system supply. The complexities of transporting gas today suggest that the services of an independent gas marketing company may be beneficial to smaller producers with gas supplies in the San Juan Basin

  6. Update: San Andreas Fault experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    Satellite laser ranging techniques are used to monitor the broad motion of the tectonic plates comprising the San Andreas Fault System. The San Andreas Fault Experiment, (SAFE), has progressed through the upgrades made to laser system hardware and an improvement in the modeling capabilities of the spaceborne laser targets. Of special note is the launch of the Laser Geodynamic Satellite, LAGEOS spacecraft, NASA's only completely dedicated laser satellite in 1976. The results of plate motion projected into this 896 km measured line over the past eleven years are summarized and intercompared.

  7. Vegetation - San Felipe Valley [ds172

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This Vegetation Map of the San Felipe Valley Wildlife Area in San Diego County, California is based on vegetation samples collected in the field in 2002 and 2005 and...

  8. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  9. The San Bernabe power substation; La subestacion San Bernabe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez Sanudo, Andres D. [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The first planning studies that gave rise to the San Bernabe substation go back to year 1985. The main circumstance that supports this decision is the gradual restriction for electric power generation that has been suffering the Miguel Aleman Hydro System, until its complete disappearance, to give priority to the potable water supply through the Cutzamala pumping system, that feeds in an important way Mexico City and the State of Mexico. In this document the author describes the construction project of the San Bernabe Substation; mention is made of the technological experiences obtained during the construction and its geographical location is shown, as well as the one line diagram of the same [Espanol] Los primeros estudios de planeacion que dieron origen a la subestacion San Bernabe se remontan al ano de 1985. La circunstancia principal que soporta esta decision es la restriccion paulatina para generar energia que ha venido experimentando el Sistema Hidroelectrico Miguel Aleman, hasta su desaparicion total, para dar prioridad al suministro de agua potable por medio del sistema de bombeo Cutzamala, que alimenta en forma importante a la Ciudad de Mexico y al Estado de Mexico. En este documento el autor describe el proyecto de construccion de la subestacion San Bernabe; se mencionan las experiencias tecnologicas obtenidas durante su construccion y se ilustra su ubicacion geografica, asi como un diagrama unifilar de la misma

  10. Tumor markers kits development for use in radioimmunometric assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.

    1997-01-01

    The immunoassays such as RIA and IRMA are now widely used through the world for the quantitation of a variety of substances in the biological fluid for their high sensibility and specificity which required simple equipments. These techniques are also very used in Algeria for an effective amelioration of public heath The assays kits of RIA/IRMA of thyroid hormones are the most used, followed by peptidic hormones, steroids hormones and IRMA Tumor Markers (T.M) kits. In spite of the important demand, of tumor markers kits for the diagnosis and follow up of cancers their use are always insufficient due to the high cost. The research contract programme proposed by IAEA on the theme 'The Developments of IRMA Tumor Markers Kits' of prostate specific Antigen (PSA) and Tissue Polypeptide Specific Antigen (TPS) will allowed us to produce locally with best quality-price, the main reagents for PSA and TPS IRMA assays kits for diagnosis and follow up the prostate and breast cancers which are very spready in the country. This report include the following points: Generalities on the use of tumor markers in Algeria, programme for the Development of the PSA IRMA assay (schedule of protocols applied for each reagents; annual planning for assessing the programme activities) and conclusion

  11. Uji Stabilitas Kit Cair Tetrofosmin pada Berbagai Kondisi Penyimpanan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunilda Yunilda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tetrofosmin radiopharmaceutical compound that is being developed by PTRR BATAN for use as myocardial perfusion imaging agent and cancer diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine. The aim of this study is observe the stability of this liquid kits after stored in various condition to determine its expire date various condition. The stability test was done of 1 hour, 3 hours, 5 hours and 7 hours after labeling. The radiochemical was determined its radiochemical purity has to be ≥ 90 %. Analysis of radiochemical purity was carried out by separation method which using Sep-Pak C18 cartride. Storage condition of tetrofosmin kit was carried out at various temperatures as in the deep freezer (-800C, freezer (-180C, refrigerator (2-60C and cool box (2-60C. The result showed that the liquid tetrofosmin kits stored in deep freezer, freezer, refrigerator were stable up to 23 months, 8 weeks and 4 days respectively. Simulation of stability  test after stored in a cool box was done by observing the temperature of cool box, and the result showed that the temperature in the cool box was constant as in refrigerator for up to 24 hours. Tetrofosmin which has been labeled with technetium-99m can with stand up 7 hours. It is concluded that expiry date of liquid tetrofosmin kit related with storage temperature, the lower the temperature the longer the expiry date of the kits.

  12. Utilization of milk energy by suckling mink kits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Hansen, Kirsten Bislev

    2004-01-01

    A total of 36 mink dams and their litters of 3, 6 or 9 kits were used for determination of milk intake of the suckling young by means of deuterium dilution technique, and chemical composition of milk and of kit bodies. Measurements were performed during lactation weeks 1-4, each week with 3 dams...... with each litter size. Milk intake was determined over a 48 h measurement period, and by the end of this milk samples were collected and 2 kits (litters of 6 and 9) or 1 kit per litter (litters of 3) were killed for body chemical composition. Based on the results, different models were applied...... for calculation of the energetic efficiency of milk. Dam milk yield increased steadily from week 1 until week 3 but only slightly from week 3 to 4. The increase declined with increasing litter size, and for dams suckling 9 kits the increment from week 3 to week 4 was only 2 g. The dry matter content of milk...

  13. Nociceptive tuning by stem cell factor/c-Kit signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkovic, Nevena; Frahm, Christina; Gassmann, Max; Griffel, Carola; Erdmann, Bettina; Birchmeier, Carmen; Lewin, Gary R; Garratt, Alistair N

    2007-12-06

    The molecular mechanisms regulating the sensitivity of sensory circuits to environmental stimuli are poorly understood. We demonstrate here a central role for stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor, c-Kit, in tuning the responsiveness of sensory neurons to natural stimuli. Mice lacking SCF/c-Kit signaling displayed profound thermal hypoalgesia, attributable to a marked elevation in the thermal threshold and reduction in spiking rate of heat-sensitive nociceptors. Acute activation of c-Kit by its ligand, SCF, resulted in a reduced thermal threshold and potentiation of heat-activated currents in isolated small-diameter neurons and thermal hyperalgesia in mice. SCF-induced thermal hyperalgesia required the TRP family cation channel TRPV1. Lack of c-Kit signaling during development resulted in hypersensitivity of discrete mechanoreceptive neuronal subtypes. Thus, c-Kit can now be grouped with a small family of receptor tyrosine kinases, including c-Ret and TrkA, that control the transduction properties of sensory neurons.

  14. KiT: a MATLAB package for kinetochore tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armond, Jonathan W; Vladimirou, Elina; McAinsh, Andrew D; Burroughs, Nigel J

    2016-06-15

    During mitosis, chromosomes are attached to the mitotic spindle via large protein complexes called kinetochores. The motion of kinetochores throughout mitosis is intricate and automated quantitative tracking of their motion has already revealed many surprising facets of their behaviour. Here, we present 'KiT' (Kinetochore Tracking)-an easy-to-use, open-source software package for tracking kinetochores from live-cell fluorescent movies. KiT supports 2D, 3D and multi-colour movies, quantification of fluorescence, integrated deconvolution, parallel execution and multiple algorithms for particle localization. KiT is free, open-source software implemented in MATLAB and runs on all MATLAB supported platforms. KiT can be downloaded as a package from http://www.mechanochemistry.org/mcainsh/software.php The source repository is available at https://bitbucket.org/jarmond/kit and under continuing development. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. jonathan.armond@warwick.ac.uk. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. 33 CFR 165.754 - Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR. 165.754 Section 165.754 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR. (a) Regulated area. A moving safety zone is established in the...

  16. 76 FR 45693 - Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... San Diego Bay in support of the San Diego POPS Fireworks. This safety zone is necessary to provide for... of the waterway during scheduled fireworks events. Persons and vessels will be prohibited from...

  17. Influence of anthropogenic alterations on geomorphic response to climate variations and change in San Francisco Bay-Delta and watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florsheim, J.L.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Global warming and attendant sea-level rise may soon impact geomorphic processes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River and San Francisco Bay Delta systems. During the past two centuries, dramatic anthropogenic changes in sediment supply and pervasive structural controls on rivers and floodplains have altered geomorphic responses to floods throughout a zone that extends upstream from tidally influenced areas to dams that regulate flow. Current geomorphic responses to floods differ from natural responses due to historical actions that concentrated the pre-disturbance multiple-channel and flood-basin system into single channels isolated by levees from increasingly developed floodplains and flood bypass channels, altered flow and sediment regimes, and caused subsidence of leveed Delta Islands. A review of historic and current geomorphic responses to floods illustrates the dominance of structural controls on geomorphic changes in the lowland part of the Sacramento-San Joaquin system. Current climate-change projections for CA suggest that the total volume of snowmelt runoff that may be shifted from spring and added to winter flows is roughly 5 maf/yr, similar to the volume currently available for flood storage in Sierra Nevadan reservoirs. Changes in timing of reservoir releases to accommodate these changes could add to either the magnitude or duration of winter flood peaks, each causing different geomorphic responses. Increased wintertime flows that accompany already large floods could increase overbank flood extent, erosion, and sedimentation, or alternatively increase the depth and strength of confined flows and increase the risk of levee failures. Runoff released from reservoirs as a relatively constant addition to winter baseflow would increase the duration of bankfull or possibly "levee-full" flows. This scenario could lead to bank and levee failure through increased saturation and seepage erosion. Projected sea level rise of 1-2 m would compound vulnerability of

  18. Evaluation of Desensol As a Standard Patch Test Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Shah

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available In a study undertaken to find out the usefulness of ′Desensol′ patch test kit to detect contact allergens, in 200 cases revealed 24 cases with negative patch test with all the antigens and 55 cases reacted to even the Vaseline control. -Excluding these 79 cases, the common contact allergens were potassium bichr6ma,te, (40.49%, TMTD(28.92%, PPD(24.79%, epoxy resin (23.14%, colophony (19.0%, nickel sulfate (19.0%, Framycetin (19.0% and nitrofurazone (19.0%. Desensol patch test kit is lacking in certain antigens while in our country due to varied environmental factors and social customs, a person is exposed to a large number of natural and man-made contact allergens. So usefulness of such a kit like. Desensol is limited.

  19. Nuclear track detector kit for use in teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medveczky, L.; Somogyi, G.

    1986-01-01

    By the use of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) one may carry out several useful and impressive educational experiments and demonstrations to illustrate different phenomena when teaching of nuclear physics. Realizing this situation the authors have published, since 1970, reports on several experiments for teaching demonstrations. Based on the authors instructions, a factory in Hungary (TANFRT, National Manufacturers and Suppliers of School Equipment, Budapest) constructed a kit for the use of nuclear track detectors in teaching. The portable kit contains the following items: alpha-emitting weak sources, solid state nuclear track detectors (unirradiated, irradiated, unetched and etched sheets), simple tools for carrying out experiments (facilities for irradiation and etching, etc.), slides showing photos of typical etch-tracks of light and heavy nuclei, user manual. By the help of the kit both pupils and teachers can perform various useful experiments and/or demonstrations. (author)

  20. Development of RIA kits for tumor-markers monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprarop, P.

    1997-01-01

    All reagents for tumor markers assays are imported from various manufacturers mainly CIS bio international. The average cost of these reagents is ranged from 80-150 bath/test (2-4 dollars test). The screening test for cancers could not be done especially in other regions of Thailand whose budgets and resources are so limited. If the reagents are made locally, many laboratories can perform the tests and use as primary diagnosis, screening or monitor the course of the disease following treatment. In addition, these reagents could help clinicians and give complementary information on the tumor status to improve quality of life in Thailand. Research objectives include: 1. Development of IRMA reagent kits suitable for diagnosing staging and monitoring prostrate and breast cancer. 2. Transfer of technology and reagent kits to relevant laboratories in Thailand. 3. Routine distribution of the reagents kits to the end users

  1. ConKit: a python interface to contact predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkovic, Felix; Thomas, Jens M H; Rigden, Daniel J

    2017-07-15

    Recent advances in protein residue contact prediction algorithms have led to the emergence of many new methods and a variety of file formats. We present ConKit , an open source, modular and extensible Python interface which allows facile conversion between formats and provides an interface to analyses of sequence alignments and sets of contact predictions. ConKit is available via the Python Package Index. The documentation can be found at http://www.conkit.org . ConKit is licensed under the BSD 3-Clause. hlfsimko@liverpool.ac.uk or drigden@liverpool.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Comparison of commercial diagnostic kits for placental lactogen radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirkl, S.; Kulenda, Z.

    1976-01-01

    The biochemical laboratory compared the following diagnostic kits for HPL determination: Pharmacia (Sweden), Radiochemical Center Amersham (GB), NEN (USA), Hoechst (FRG), applying the following criteria: 1. price, 2. number of analyses for which one kit may be applied, 3. expiration time, 4. speed, i.e., time elapsed from sample delivery to report (dependent on incubation time), 5. laboriousness, 6. reproducibility, 7. compatibility of values obtained by different kits. Alcohol precipitation (Pharmacia, RCC Amersham) appeared to be the most suitable while Dextran coated charcoal (NEN) and Amberlite (Hoechst) were somewhat more complicated, and the Sorin double antibody technique (ultrafiltration and washing of precipitate on filtres was used for separation) appeared to be the most laborious technique. RCC Amersham was ranked first owing to its lower cost as compared with runner-up Pharmacia. (L.O.)

  3. Determination of stannous tin in radiopharmaceutical cold kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrant, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    Two methods for determining stannous tin in 'cold kits', used for the preparation of Tc-99m labelled radiopharmaceuticals, have been developed. Both are based on the direct titration of the Sn2 in solution. In the first method titration is with N-bromosuccinimide. Of the materials commonly used as cold kits only albumin has been found to interfere with the determination. The second method is a standard iodometric titration in which starch is used as indicator. None of the materials tested interfere with this procedure. The N-bromosuccinimide method is the method of choice as the re-agent, a solid, can be used without prior standardization. Iodine solution must be standardized daily. The paper describes in detail the methods used and gives examples of kits in which the Sn2 levels have been determined using the described procedures

  4. Field Test Kit for Gun Residue Detection; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WALKER, PAMELA K.; RODACY, PHILIP J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major needs of the law enforcement field is a product that quickly, accurately, and inexpensively identifies whether a person has recently fired a gun--even if the suspect has attempted to wash the traces of gunpowder off. The Field Test Kit for Gunshot Residue Identification based on Sandia National Laboratories technology works with a wide variety of handguns and other weaponry using gunpowder. There are several organic chemicals in small arms propellants such as nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, dinitrotoluene, and nitrites left behind after the firing of a gun that result from the incomplete combustion of the gunpowder. Sandia has developed a colorimetric shooter identification kit for in situ detection of gunshot residue (GSR) from a suspect. The test kit is the first of its kind and is small, inexpensive, and easily transported by individual law enforcement personnel requiring minimal training for effective use. It will provide immediate information identifying gunshot residue

  5. Fundamental and clinical study for PHT (parathyroid hormone) kit 'Yamasa'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Furukawa, Takako; Morita, Rikushi

    1987-01-01

    A commercially available radioimmunoassay kit (Yamasa) for parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the midregion-specific assay system. Fundamental study of the PTH kit gave favorable results for specificity, reproducibility, dilution, and recovery. The serum PTH concentration was detectable among all 41 normal volunteers. The upper and lower limits of normal for PTH in serum were found to be 600 pg/ml and 184 pg/ml, respectively. PTH values were high for chronic renal failure (6/7) and primary hyperparathyroidism (41/41), and low for malignancy associated with hypercalcemia (5/25). It seems possible to discriminate hypercalcemic from normal subjects. The serum PTH concentration from the present assay system was significantly correlated with that from conventional carboxyl-terminal PTH, midregion PTH, amino-terminal PTH, and (1 - 84) PTH assay systems. The results indicate the potential of the Yamasa kit in evaluating calcium metabolism, as well as in detecting the presence of secondary hyperparathyroidism. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Nuclear track detector kit for use in teaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medveczky, L.; Somogyi, G.; Nagy, M.

    1986-01-01

    By the use of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) one may carry out several useful and impressive educational experiments and demonstrations to illustrate different phenomena when teaching of nuclear physics. Realizing this situation the authors have published, since 1970, reports on several experiments for teaching demonstrations. Based on the authors instructions, a factory in Hungary (TANFRT, National Manufacturers and Suppliers of School Equipment, Budapest) constructed a kit for the use of nuclear track detectors in teaching. The portable kit contains the following items: alpha-emitting weak sources, solid state nuclear track detectors (unirradiated, irradiated, unetched and etched sheets), simple tools for carrying out experiments (facilities for irradiation and etching, etc.), slides showing photos of typical etch-tracks of light and heavy nuclei, user manual. By the help of the kit both pupils and teachers can perform various useful experiments and/or demonstrations.

  7. Performance of immunoassay kits for site characterization and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, L.C.; Palausky, A.; Counts, R.W.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting efforts to identify, validate and implement the use of effective, low-cost alternatives to currently used analytical methods for environmental management. As part of that program, we have evaluated the performances of a number of immunoassay (IA) kits with specificities for environmental contaminants of concern to the DOE. The studies were done in the laboratory using both spiked and field test samples. The analyte specificity and manufacturers of the kits evaluated were the following: mercury, BioNebraska; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), EnSys and Millipore; petroleum fuel hydrocarbons, Millipore and Ohmicron; and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Ohmicron and Millipore. The kits were used in either a semiquantitative or quantitative format according to the preference of the manufacturers

  8. Disposable collection kit for rapid and reliable collection of saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Tezuka, Yuki; Takeda, Kazunori; Shetty, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    To describe and evaluate disposable saliva collection kit for rapid, reliable, and reproducible collection of saliva samples. The saliva collection kit comprised of a saliva absorbent swab and an extractor unit was used to retrieve whole saliva samples from 10 subjects. The accuracy and precision of the extracted volumes (3, 10, and 30 μl) were compared to similar volumes drawn from control samples obtained by passive drool. Additionally, the impact of kit collection method on subsequent immunoassay results was verified by assessing salivary cortisol levels in the samples and comparing them to controls. The recovered volumes for the whole saliva samples were 3.85 ± 0.28, 10.79 ± 0.95, and 31.18 ± 1.72 μl, respectively (CV = 8.76%) and 2.91 ± 0.19, 9.75 ± 0.43, and 29.64 ± 0.91 μl, respectively, (CV = 6.36%) for the controls. There was a close correspondence between the salivary cortisol levels from the saliva samples obtained by the collection kit and the controls (R(2)  > 0.96). The disposable saliva collection kit allows accurate and repeatable collection of fixed amounts of whole saliva and does not interfere with subsequent measurements of salivary cortisol. The simple collection process, lack of elaborate specimen recovery steps, and the short turnaround time (<3 min) should render the kit attractive to test subjects and researchers alike. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Quality Lighting Teaching Kit: enlightening our future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, Stephen M.

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory's Education and Public Outreach group has produced a Quality Lighting Teaching (QLT) Kit, as an outcome of the International Year of Light 2015. The kits are designed around problem-based learning scenarios. The kit's six activities allow students to address real lighting problems that relate to wildlife, sky glow, aging eyes, energy consumption, safety, and light trespass. The activities are optimized for 11-14 year olds but can be expanded to younger and older. Most of the activities can be done within in a few minutes with the exception of the Energy Activity. The activities can be done during class or afterschool and as stations (that the students rotate through) or as stand-alones (one at a time). All aspects of the program are as ready-for-use. Everything you need for the six activities is included in the kit. Tutorial videos (on the program's webpage) have been created on how to do the activities. They can be found on the webpage, www.noao.edu/education/qltkit.php. Fourteen Google+ Hangouts on Air have been offered, addressing questions on the activities and logistics. Assessments (in the form of pre- and post-surveys for the students and as post-surveys for the instructors) provide learning outcomes and improvements. Eighty-nine out of 100 kits have been distributed to SPIE, OSA, CIE, IDA and the IAU in 31 countries. The QLT Kit is a stepping-stone to bring awareness to the (younger) public on how quality lighting locally can redress issues like light pollution globally.

  10. ASTER Flyby of San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer, ASTER, is an international project: the instrument was supplied by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint US/Japan science team developed algorithms for science data products, and is validating instrument performance. With its 14 spectral bands, extremely high spatial resolution, and 15 meter along-track stereo capability, ASTER is the zoom lens of the Terra satellite. The primary mission goals are to characterize the Earth's surface; and to monitor dynamic events and processes that influence habitability at human scales. ASTER's monitoring and mapping capabilities are illustrated by this series of images of the San Francisco area. The visible and near infrared image reveals suspended sediment in the bays, vegetation health, and details of the urban environment. Flying over San Francisco (3.2MB) (high-res (18.3MB)), we see the downtown, and shadows of the large buildings. Past the Golden Gate Bridge and Alcatraz Island, we cross San Pablo Bay and enter Suisun Bay. Turning south, we fly over the Berkeley and Oakland Hills. Large salt evaporation ponds come into view at the south end of San Francisco Bay. We turn northward, and approach San Francisco Airport. Rather than landing and ending our flight, we see this is as only the beginning of a 6 year mission to better understand the habitability of the world on which we live. For more information: ASTER images through Visible Earth ASTER Web Site Image courtesy of MITI, ERSDAC, JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  11. GossipKit: A Framework of Gossip Protocol Family

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shen; Taiani, Francois; Blair, Gordon S.

    2007-01-01

    A large number of gossip protocols have been developed in the last few years to address a wide range of functionalities. So far, however, very few software frameworks have been proposed to ease the development and deployment of these gossip protocols. To address this issue, this paper presents GossipKit, an event-driven framework that provides a generic and extensible architecture for the development of (re)configurable gossip-oriented middleware. GossipKit is based on a generic interaction m...

  12. Tc99m MDP kits, production and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Yassine, T.; Lababidi, Z.; Kouli, M.

    1992-11-01

    MDP kits for labelling with Tc 99m were locally produced in different conditions, and the conditions for preparation were optimized. The quality control studies showed that the prepared kits were very good quality and comparable with that imported. Radiochemical purities ranged between 95-98% while reduced technetium ranged between 2-3% and free pertechnetate did not exceed 1%. Bioscan and biodistribution studies also showed high localization of Tc 99m in the skeleton of rats and rabbits. (author). 8 refs., 14 tabs

  13. Determination of triiodothyronine using RIA-Mat T3 kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Masao

    1975-01-01

    A RIA-Mat T 3 kit was used for an in vitro measurement of triiodothyronine in serum. A resin strip was utilized to absorb free triiodothyronine after the serum was incubated with antibody against triiodothyronine. This test was easy to manipulate and the reproducibility test with same sera, dilution test, and recovery test were also satisfactory. The normal range of triiodothyronine determined with this test kit was 119 +- 40 ng/dl using 50 test sera. Ninety sera with various thyroid diseases were also determined. (auth.)

  14. Evaluation of the Ramco kit for serum ferritin assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempster, W S; Knight, G J [Red Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa). Department of Paediatrics and Child Health; Jacobs, P [Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Haematology

    1979-12-22

    The determination of serum ferritin levels may be of diagnostic importance in medicine. To establish whether values obtained using a commercially available kit (Ramco) were adequate for this purpose, a comparison was undertaken using a two-site immunoradiometric assay that had been developed and standardized in our laboratories. Over the range 6..mu..g/l to greater than 2 000 ..mu..g/l there was a correlation coefficient between the two methods of 0,8284 (P smaller than 0,001). It is concluded that the Ramco kit is suitable for use in clinical practice.

  15. An evaluation of the Ramco kit for serum ferritin assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempster, W.S.; Knight, G.J.; Jacobs, P.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of serum ferritin levels may be of diagnostic importance in medicine. To establish whether values obtained using a commercially available kit (Ramco) were adequate for this purpose, a comparison was undertaken using a two-site immunoradiometric assay that had been developed and standardized in our laboratories. Over the range 6μg/l to greater than 2 000 μg/l there was a correlation coefficient between the two methods of 0,8284 (P smaller than 0,001). It is concluded that the Ramco kit is suitable for use in clinical practice

  16. RestKit for iOS standard guide

    CERN Document Server

    Kalapun, Taras

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step, example-based guide to learning how you can link your apps and web services using RestKit.This book is for iOS developers of all levels who are interested in boosting their productivity by utilizing third party libraries and who have a willingness to learn how to build RESTful apps using the RestKit framework. A basic knowledge of Objective-C is required as well as a simple understanding of how to use CoreData.

  17. Connecting Past to Present and Watersheds to Ocean: Modeling 165 Years of Incremental Changes to Flows into the San Francisco Bay Delta System

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVean, L. J.; Thompson, S. E.; Huttom, P. H.; Sivapalan, M.

    2016-02-01

    California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta sits at the intersection of vast agricultural and population centers, and supplies fresh water for the diverse and often competing needs of ecosystems, farmers, and millions of Californians. Managing and allocating this resource is a complex feat of economics, politics, and engineering, made increasingly contentious by the ongoing drought. The objective of this research is to augment the scientific foundation of management decisions by addressing the question of how flows into the Delta have evolved in response to human intervention since 1850. In particular, quantifying the dynamic components of water usage through vegetative uptake and evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge, flood conveyance, and water exports at incremental levels of development is a key ambition. This approach emphasizes the built environment, which is subject to the local regulatory framework, rather than climate change, which is generally considered immovable without united global effort. This work encompasses the creation of a hydrologic model representing the watersheds of the San Francisco Bay-Delta system, and quantifies the impacts of changes in land use and the gradual construction of levees, reservoirs, and diversion infrastructure. The model is run using the same climatological forcing at each level of development, thus elucidating the effects of local anthropogenic activity on the Delta and the inflows to the San Francisco Bay estuary. Our results provide a timeline of change, giving decision-makers a scientifically established baseline to aid in the sustainable management of the Bay-Delta system.

  18. 78 FR 19103 - Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano Escort; Bahia de San Juan; San Juan, PR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano Escort; Bahia de San Juan; San Juan... temporary moving safety zone on the waters of Bahia de San Juan during the transit of the Spanish Navy... Channel entrance, and to protect the high ranking officials on board the Spanish Navy School Ship San...

  19. Developing Save Your Food Kit (Sayofu Kit) to Support Inquiry, Improve Student Learning Outcomes at SMP Plus Hidayatul Mubtadiin and Public Awareness on Food Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astutik, J.

    2017-02-01

    Food additives are materials that can not be separated from the lives of students and the community. Based on the preliminary questionnaire, it indicates the lack of kit supporting material additives in some schools and communities. The research objectives of this development are (1) to develop Kit experiment (SAYOFU KIT) and supplementary books to improve student learning outcomes in the classroom and public awareness on food additives (2) to describe the feasibility and potential effectiveness of SAYOFU KIT developed (3) to analyze the practice of SAYOFU KIT and benefits for students and the community. This development study uses 4-D models Thiagarajan, et al (1974). Through some stages, they are: defining, designing, developing and disseminating which involes the students and community. The developed SAYOFU KIT includes additives sample kit, borax test kit, curcumin test kit, formaldehyde test kit, modification heater to the identification of dyes and dye test paper. The study is conducted at SMP Plus Hidayatul Mubtadiin, and TKIT Al Uswah. The products are validated by experts and education practitioners. Qualitative data processing uses descriptive method, whereas quantitative data by using the N-gain. The average yield of expert validation of SAYOFU KIT with supplementary books 76.50% teacher’s book and 76.30% student’s book are eligible. The average yield of 96.81% validation of educational practitioners criteria, piloting a small group of 83.15%, and 82.89% field trials are very decent. The average yield on the student questionnaire responses SAYOFU kit and supplementary book is 87.6% with the criteria very well worth it. N-Gain 0:56 cognitive achievement with the criteria enough. The results of the public poll showed 95% feel the benefits SAYOFU kits for testing food. Based from description indicates that SAYOFU Kit developed feasible, practical, useful to support inquiry learning and improve student learning outcomes as well as public awareness of

  20. The sinking of the El Faro: predicting real world rogue waves during Hurricane Joaquin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, Francesco; Lugni, Claudio; Chawla, Arun

    2017-09-11

    We present a study on the prediction of rogue waves during the 1-hour sea state of Hurricane Joaquin when the Merchant Vessel El Faro sank east of the Bahamas on October 1, 2015. High-resolution hindcast of hurricane-generated sea states and wave simulations are combined with novel probabilistic models to quantify the likelihood of rogue wave conditions. The data suggests that the El Faro vessel was drifting at an average speed of approximately 2.5 m/s prior to its sinking. As a result, we estimated that the probability that El Faro encounters a rogue wave whose crest height exceeds 14 meters while drifting over a time interval of 10 (50) minutes is ~1/400 (1/130). The largest simulated wave is generated by the constructive interference of elementary spectral components (linear dispersive focusing) enhanced by bound nonlinearities. Not surprisingly then, its characteristics are quite similar to those displayed by the Andrea, Draupner and Killard rogue waves.