WorldWideScience

Sample records for san jaoquin basin

  1. San Mateo Creek Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  2. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schamel, Steven

    1999-07-08

    This project reactivates ARCO's idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conducts a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steam was used to reestablish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project completed in December 1996. During the demonstration phase begun in January 1997, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery is testing the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class III reservoirs having similar producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objective of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to optimal commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially to other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program.

  3. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low-Dip Slope and Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schamel, Steven; Deo, Milind; Deets, Mike

    2002-02-21

    The objective of the project is not just to commercially produce oil from the Pru Fee property, but rather to test which operational strategies best optimize total oil recovery at economically acceptable rates of production volumes and costs.

  4. Hydrostratigraphy of the Westside Groundwater Basin, San Francisco and San Mateo Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, E. H.; Laforce, M. J.

    2002-12-01

    The Westside Groundwater Basin is a coastal aquifer system located on the San Francisco Peninsula between Golden Gate Park and Burlingame. Since the beginning of the 20th century groundwater from the Basin has been used for drinking water and irrigation purposes. Unfortunately, the Basin wide potentiometric surface has gradually declined and saltwater intrusion from the Pacific Ocean is threatening this fragile aquifer system. Several studies have looked at groundwater movement within the Basin (Boone, Cook and Associates (1987), Yates et al. (1990), Applied Consultants (1991), Geo/Resources Consultants (1993), Phillips et al. (1993), CH2Mhill (1997)); unfortunately, all of the studies assumed horizontal layering of the hydrostratigraphic units. However, recent studies indicate that tectonic deformation and intense folding has altered the stratigraphy of the Westside Basin close to the Pacific Ocean (Bonilla (1998), Barr (1999)). Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to delineate hydrostratigraphic units within the Westside Basin by using tritium, helium, and oxygen isotopes in conjunction with general mineral water quality data, water level data, and geologic cross-sections to depict the subsurface hydrogeology of the system. Our results indicate that the upper part of the Merced Formation (sequences P through Z of Clifton and Hunter (1991, 1999)) forms the major hydrostratigraphic units where groundwater is extracted, and that the Serra Fault separates the upper part of the Merced from the lower part (below sequence P) along most of its extent. In addition, thick clay layers, observed in well logs and identified in cross sections, were tentatively correlated with sequences W and S2. These clay layers, although discontinuous at places, work as aquitards between the hydrostratigraphic units as the difference in water chemistry and age indicates.

  5. Reservoir geology of Landslide field, southern San Joaquin basin, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, T.R.; Tucker, R.D.; Singleton, M.T. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Bakersfield, CA (United States))

    1991-02-01

    The Landslide field, which is located on the southern margin of the San Joaquin basin, was discovered in 1985 and consists of 13 producers and six injectors. Cumulative production as of mid-1990 was approximately 10 million bbl of oil with an average daily production of 4700 BOPD. Production is from a series of late Miocene turbidite sands (Stevens Sand) that were deposited as a small constructional submarine fan (less than 2 mi in diameter). Based on interpretation of wireline logs and engineering data, deposition of the fan and of individual lobes within the fan was strongly influenced by preexisting paleotopography and small syndepositional slump features. Based on mapping of individual depositional units and stratigraphic dipmeter analysis, transport direction of the sand was to the north-north across these paleotopographic breaks in slope. Dipmeter data and pressure data from individual sands are especially useful for recognition and mapping of individual flow units between well bores. Detailed engineering, geophysical and geological studies have increased our understanding of the dimensions, continuity, geometry, and inherent reservoir properties of the individual flow units within the reservoir. Based on the results of these studies a series of water isolation workovers and extension wells were proposed and successfully undertaken. This work has increased recoverable reserves and arrested the rapid production decline.

  6. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the San Jorge Basin Province, Argentina, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-18

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 78 million barrels of oil and 8.9 trillion cubic feet of gas in the San Jorge Basin Province, Argentina.

  7. A GSSHA Model of the Perris Basin of the San Jacinto River Watershed, Riverside County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    ERDC/CHL CHETN-III-76 June 2007 A GSSHA Model of the Perris Basin of the San Jacinto River Watershed, Riverside County, California by Moira T...POINTS OF CONTACT: For additional information, contact Moira Fong, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Information Technology Laboratory

  8. Principal facts of gravity data in the southern San Luis Basin, northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Gravity data were collected from 2006 through 2015 to assist in mapping subsurface geology in the southern San Luis Basin, northern New Mexico. This data release provides principal facts for 566 new gravity stations that were acquired to fill in gaps in the existing public gravity data coverage.

  9. 75 FR 8395 - Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and Riverside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and.../EIR for the proposed Riverside-Corona Feeder Project. The public and agencies are invited to comment..., and construction of the Riverside-Corona Feeder Project including: (i) 20 groundwater wells; (ii...

  10. Climate-driven disturbances in the San Juan River sub-basin of the Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Katrina E.; Bohn, Theodore J.; Solander, Kurt; McDowell, Nathan G.; Xu, Chonggang; Vivoni, Enrique; Middleton, Richard S.

    2018-01-01

    Accelerated climate change and associated forest disturbances in the southwestern USA are anticipated to have substantial impacts on regional water resources. Few studies have quantified the impact of both climate change and land cover disturbances on water balances on the basin scale, and none on the regional scale. In this work, we evaluate the impacts of forest disturbances and climate change on a headwater basin to the Colorado River, the San Juan River watershed, using a robustly calibrated (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency 0.76) hydrologic model run with updated formulations that improve estimates of evapotranspiration for semi-arid regions. Our results show that future disturbances will have a substantial impact on streamflow with implications for water resource management. Our findings are in contradiction with conventional thinking that forest disturbances reduce evapotranspiration and increase streamflow. In this study, annual average regional streamflow under the coupled climate-disturbance scenarios is at least 6-11 % lower than those scenarios accounting for climate change alone; for forested zones of the San Juan River basin, streamflow is 15-21 % lower. The monthly signals of altered streamflow point to an emergent streamflow pattern related to changes in forests of the disturbed systems. Exacerbated reductions of mean and low flows under disturbance scenarios indicate a high risk of low water availability for forested headwater systems of the Colorado River basin. These findings also indicate that explicit representation of land cover disturbances is required in modeling efforts that consider the impact of climate change on water resources.

  11. Climate-driven disturbances in the San Juan River sub-basin of the Colorado River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Katrina E.; Bohn, Theodore; Solander, Kurt; McDowell, Nate G.; Xu, Chonggang; Vivoni, Enrique; Middleton, Richard

    2018-01-26

    Accelerated climate change and associated forest disturbances in the Southwestern USA are anticipated to have substantial impacts on regional water resources. Few studies have quantified the impact of both climate change and land cover disturbances on water balances at the basin scale, and none at the regional scale. In this work, we evaluate the impacts of forest disturbances and climate change for a headwater basin to the Colorado River, the San Juan River watershed, using a robustly-calibrated (Nash Sutcliff 0.80) hydrologic model run with updated formulations that improve estimates of evapotranspiration for semi-arid regions. Our results show that future disturbances will have a substantial impact on streamflow with implications for water resource management. Our findings are in contradiction with conventional thinking that forest disturbances reduce ET and increase streamflow. In this study, annual average regional streamflow under the coupled climate-disturbances scenarios is at least 6–11% lower than those scenarios accounting for climate change alone, and for forested zones of the San Juan River basin streamflow is 15–21% lower. The monthly signals of altered streamflow point to an emergent streamflow pattern related to changes in forests of the disturbed systems. Exacerbated reductions of mean and low flows under disturbance scenarios indicate a high risk of lower water availability for forested headwater systems to the Colorado River basin. These findings also indicate that explicit representation of land cover disturbances is required in modelling efforts that consider the impact of climate change on water resources.

  12. Water quality modelling in the San Antonio River Basin driven by radar rainfall data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almoutaz Elhassan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of stream water quality is needed as it has significant impacts on human and ecological health and well-being. Estimating water quality between sampling dates requires model simulation based on the available geospatial and water quality data for a given watershed. Models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT can be used to estimate the missing water quality data. In this study, SWAT was used to estimate water quality at a monitoring station near the outlet of the San Antonio River. Precipitation data from both rain gauges and weather radar were used to force the SWAT simulations. Virtual rain gauges which were based on weather radar data were created in the approximate centres of the 163 sub-watersheds of the San Antonio River Basin for SWAT simulations. This method was first tested in a smaller watershed in the middle of the Guadalupe River Basin resulting in increased model efficiency in simulating surface run-off. The method was then applied to the San Antonio River watershed and yielded good simulations for surface run-off (R2 = 0.7, nitrate (R2 = 0.6 and phosphate (R2 = 0.5 at the watershed outlet (Goliad, TX – USGS (United States Geological Survey gauge as compared to observed data. The study showed that the proper use of weather radar precipitation in SWAT model simulations improves the estimation of missing water quality data.

  13. Issues concerning a diagnostic study of an action plan for the San Juan river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiromi; Futamura, Hisanori; Nakayama, Mikiyasu

    2004-11-01

    An action plan is being formulated for the San Juan River basin, shared by Costa Rica and Nicaragua in Central America. The action plan is assumed to be a planning tool designed to ensure the availability of the goods and services that water resources provide for the conservation of ecosystems and for social and economic development. Development of the action plan comprises two phases, namely elaboration of the diagnostic study and drafting of the action plan. The diagnostic study was published in 1997. After examining previous cases in international water systems, for which the diagnostic study was developed as the precursor of an action plan, the author felt that the existing diagnostic study for the San Juan River basin still had room for improvements, in particular in the following aspects: (a) inventory of past, ongoing and future projects; (b) impacts of reserved areas on the basin as a whole; (c) instruments to promote public participation; (d) support by central decision makers; (e) mechanisms for information transparency. These aspects, which need enhancements, seem to suggest that more emphasis should be put on the soft aspects of the sciences. While the diagnostic study addresses issues of natural environment in detail, both data and analysis of human environments are in low profile. The lesson gained from the Zambezi River basin project is that lack of a proper strategy and political commitments by the central decision makers (of the riparian states) will lead to an impasse in implementation of the project, due mainly to paucity of support within basin countries. Lack of support by the general public may also lead to a failure in the implementation phase. These aspects should have been sufficiently addressed in the diagnostic study, so that appropriate actions (to be listed in the action plan) should be elaborated for implementation.

  14. New interpretation of development of San Luis basin, south-central Colorado, based on petrology of Tertiary strata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brister, B.S. (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro (USA))

    1989-09-01

    A problem exists in determining which parts of the San Luis basin were depositional sites during three Tertiary tectonic events: early Tertiary (Laramide) transpression/compression, mid-Tertiary volcanism, and late Tertiary (Rio Grande rift) extension. Earlier studies have been hampered by incomplete knowledge of regional characteristics of poorly exposed early Tertiary rocks and by reliance upon inconclusive pollen age determinations. For simple petrologic analysis of well cuttings from boreholes across the basin, the authors must reinterpret the timing and mode of basin development. Applying general petrologic characteristics in well log correlations, it is apparent that the western part (Monte Vista graben) of the San Luis basin was an active depositional basin during all three of the Tertiary tectonic events, whereas the eastern part (Baca graben) is primarily a result of the late Tertiary rift episode.

  15. A basin-scale approach for assessing water resources in a semiarid environment: San Diego region, California and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Flint

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many basins throughout the world have sparse hydrologic and geologic data, but have increasing demands for water and a commensurate need for integrated understanding of surface and groundwater resources. This paper demonstrates a methodology for using a distributed parameter water-balance model, gaged surface-water flow, and a reconnaissance-level groundwater flow model to develop a first-order water balance. Flow amounts are rounded to the nearest 5 million cubic meters per year.

    The San Diego River basin is 1 of 5 major drainage basins that drain to the San Diego coastal plain, the source of public water supply for the San Diego area. The distributed parameter water-balance model (Basin Characterization Model was run at a monthly timestep for 1940–2009 to determine a median annual total water inflow of 120 million cubic meters per year for the San Diego region. The model was also run specifically for the San Diego River basin for 1982–2009 to provide constraints to model calibration and to evaluate the proportion of inflow that becomes groundwater discharge, resulting in a median annual total water inflow of 50 million cubic meters per year. On the basis of flow records for the San Diego River at Fashion Valley (US Geological Survey gaging station 11023000, when corrected for upper basin reservoir storage and imported water, the total is 30 million cubic meters per year. The difference between these two flow quantities defines the annual groundwater outflow from the San Diego River basin at 20 million cubic meters per year. These three flow components constitute a first-order water budget estimate for the San Diego River basin. The ratio of surface-water outflow and groundwater outflow to total water inflow are 0.6 and 0.4, respectively. Using total water inflow determined using the Basin Characterization Model for the entire San Diego region and the 0.4 partitioning factor, groundwater outflow from the San Diego region, through

  16. Geologic controls on open-hole cavity completions in the San Juan basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, B.S. (Advanced Resources International, Inc., Lakewood, CO (United States))

    1994-04-01

    The success of open-cavity-completed wells is measured (1) by how well mechanically the cavity is created, which results in a higher degree of completion efficiency; and (2) by production success, whereby production rates are improved relative to other completion techniques. Open-hole cavitation is highly successful in the San Juan basin fairway, but the technique has not been successful in other areas. Outside the fairway, particularly to the south, operators have not achieved mechanical success with cavity completions. To explain the change in permeability across the southern fairway boundary, an hypothesis is proposed that involves the presence of a northwest-trending basement structure, such as a fault or fault zone. Episodic post-Fruitland movement on the northeastern limb of the structure could have enhanced the fracturing of the coal seams, resulting in higher permeabilities and the higher productivity levels of both cavity and fracture-stimulated wells. Based on the San Juan basin data reviewed, it appears that a combination of adequate permeability, overpressuring, and coal rank of high-volatile A bituminous are required for mechanical success of cavity completions. Although the level of permeability is not quantified, it is the author's opinion that at least 5 md is required. High production rates from cavity-completed wells are a function of better completion efficiency, whereby the wellbore is linked to favorable permeability settings. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Tectonic Setting and Characteristics of Natural Fractures in MesaVerde and Dakota Reservoirs of the San Juan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LORENZ,JOHN C.; COOPER,SCOTT P.

    2000-12-20

    The Cretaceous strata that fill the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico and southwestern Colorado were shortened in a generally N-S to NN13-SSW direction during the Laramide orogeny. This shortening was the result of compression of the strata between southward indentation of the San Juan Uplift at the north edge of the basin and northward to northeastward indentation of the Zuni Uplift from the south. Right-lateral strike-slip motion was concentrated at the eastern and western basin margins of the basin to form the Hogback Monocline and the Nacimiento Uplift at the same time, and small amounts of shear may have been pervasive within the basin as well. Vertical extension fractures, striking N-S to NNE-SSW with local variations (parallel to the Laramide maximum horizontal compressive stress), formed in both Mesaverde and Dakota sandstones under this system, and are found in outcrops and in the subsurface of the San Juan Basin. The immature Mesaverde sandstones typically contain relatively long, irregular, vertical extension fractures, whereas the quartzitic Dakota sandstones contain more numerous, shorter, sub-parallel, closely spaced, extension fractures. Conjugate shear planes in several orientations are also present locally in the Dakota strata.

  18. Sequence Stratigraphy of the Dakota Sandstone, Eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and its Relationship to Reservoir Compartmentalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varney, Peter J.

    2002-04-23

    This research established the Dakota-outcrop sequence stratigraphy in part of the eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and relates reservoir quality lithologies in depositional sequences to structure and reservoir compartmentalization in the South Lindrith Field area. The result was a predictive tool that will help guide further exploration and development.

  19. Age, distribution, and stratigraphic relationship of rock units in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California: Chapter 5 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford Scheirer, Allegra; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2008-01-01

    The San Joaquin Basin is a major petroleum province that forms the southern half of California’s Great Valley, a 700-km-long, asymmetrical basin that originated between a subduction zone to the west and the Sierra Nevada to the east. Sedimentary fill and tectonic structures of the San Joaquin Basin record the Mesozoic through Cenozoic geologic history of North America’s western margin. More than 25,000 feet (>7,500 meters) of sedimentary rocks overlie the basement surface and provide a nearly continuous record of sedimentation over the past ~100 m.y. Further, depositional geometries and fault structures document the tectonic evolution of the region from forearc setting to strike-slip basin to transpressional margin. Sedimentary architecture in the San Joaquin Basin is complicated because of these tectonic regimes and because of lateral changes in depositional environment and temporal changes in relative sea level. Few formations are widespread across the basin. Consequently, a careful analysis of sedimentary facies is required to unravel the basin’s depositional history on a regional scale. At least three high-quality organic source rocks formed in the San Joaquin Basin during periods of sea level transgression and anoxia. Generated on the basin’s west side, hydrocarbons migrated into nearly every facies type in the basin, from shelf and submarine fan sands to diatomite and shale to nonmarine coarse-grained rocks to schist. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources and future additions to reserves in the San Joaquin Valley of California (USGS San Joaquin Basin Province Assessment Team, this volume, chapter 1). Several research aims supported this assessment: identifying and mapping the petroleum systems, modeling the generation, migration, and accumulation of hydrocarbons, and defining the volumes of rock to be analyzed for additional resources. To better understand the three dimensional

  20. Copper bioavailability and toxicity to Mytilus galloprovincialis in Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Casey; Rosen, Gunther; Colvin, Marienne; Earley, Patrick; Santore, Robert; Rivera-Duarte, Ignacio

    2014-08-15

    The bioavailability and toxicity of copper (Cu) in Shelter Island Yacht Basin (SIYB), San Diego, CA, USA, was assessed with simultaneous toxicological, chemical, and modeling approaches. Toxicological measurements included laboratory toxicity testing with Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) embryos added to both site water (ambient) and site water spiked with multiple Cu concentrations. Chemical assessment of ambient samples included total and dissolved Cu concentrations, and Cu complexation capacity measurements. Modeling was based on chemical speciation and predictions of bioavailability and toxicity using a marine Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). Cumulatively, these methods assessed the natural buffering capacity of Cu in SIYB during singular wet and dry season sampling events. Overall, the three approaches suggested negligible bioavailability, and isolated observed or predicted toxicity, despite an observed gradient of increasing Cu concentration, both horizontally and vertically within the water body, exceeding current water quality criteria for saltwater. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Hydrological conditions and evaluation of sustainable groundwater use in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungle, Bruce; Callegary, James B.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Eastoe, Christopher J.; Turner, Dale S.; Dickinson, Jesse E.; Levick, Lainie R.; Sugg, Zachary P.

    2016-08-18

    This study assessed progress toward achieving sustainable groundwater use in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona, through evaluation of 14 indicators of sustainable use. Sustainable use of groundwater in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed requires, at a minimum, a stable rate of groundwater discharge to, and thus base flow in, the San Pedro River. Many of the 14 indicators are therefore related to long-term or short-term effects on base flow and provide us with a means to evaluate groundwater discharge to and base flow in the San Pedro River. The indicators were based primarily on 10 to 20 years of data monitoring in the subwatershed, ending in 2012, and included subwatershedwide indicators, riparian-system indicators, San Pedro River indicators, and springs indicators.

  2. Carlsbad, San Onofre, and San Mateo Fault Zones: Possible Right-Lateral Offset Along the Slope-Basin Transition, Offshore Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, J. E.; Dartnell, P.; Sliter, R. W.; Ryan, H. F.; Maier, K. L.; Brothers, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    Several poorly understood faults are exposed along the mid- and lower slope offshore southern California from Encinitas to San Clemente. From south to north, these faults have been referred to as the Carlsbad, San Onofre, and San Mateo fault zones, which are generally characterized as nearly vertical to steeply east-dipping faults with a reverse slip component. The U.S. Geological Survey collected high-resolution seismic reflection and bathymetric data from 2009-2012 to better characterize these faults. From offshore Encinitas to Oceanside, these data reveal a complex and variable fault zone that structurally controls the slope-basin transition. In this area, the faults show both reverse as well as normal offset, but may also include an unknown amount of strike-slip offset. North of Oceanside, however, faulting shows clear evidence of right-lateral slip, offsetting submarine channels near the base of the slope by approximately 60 m. North of these offset channels, the base of the slope bends about 30° to the west, following the trend of the San Mateo fault zone, but fault strands on strike with those that offset the channels trend obliquely up slope, appearing to merge with the Newport-Inglewood fault zone (NIFZ) on the shelf. These fault strands consist of several en echelon left-stepping segments separated by "pop-up" structures, which imply a significant component of right-lateral offset along this fault zone, and thus may serve to transfer right-lateral slip from faults along the base of the slope to the NIFZ. This fault zone also separates structures associated with the San Mateo fold and thrust belt to the west from undeformed slope sediments to the east. The existence of significant right-lateral slip on faults along the slope and slope-basin transition has implications for assessing seismic hazards associated with the NIFZ, and also provides constraints on possible reverse motion on the hypothesized Oceanside Thrust.

  3. Potential field studies of the central San Luis Basin and San Juan Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico, and southern and western Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenth, Benjamin John

    This dissertation includes three separate chapters, each demonstrating the interpretive utility of potential field (gravity and magnetic) geophysical datasets at various scales and in various geologic environments. The locations of these studies are the central San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado, and southern and western Afghanistan. The San Luis Basin is the northernmost of the major basins that make up the Rio Grande rift, and interpretation of gravity and aeromagnetic data reveals patterns of rifting, rift-sediment thicknesses, distribution of pre-rift volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and distribution of syn-rift volcanic rocks. Syn-rift Santa Fe Group sediments have a maximum thickness of ˜2 km in the Sanchez graben near the eastern margin of the basin along the central Sangre de Cristo fault zone. Under the Costilla Plains, thickness of these sediments is estimated to reach ˜1.3 km. The Santa Fe Group sediments also reach a thickness of nearly 1 km within the Monte Vista graben near the western basin margin along the San Juan Mountains. A narrow, north-south-trending structural high beneath San Pedro Mesa separates the graben from the structural depression beneath the Costilla Plains. Aeromagnetic anomalies are interpreted to mainly reflect variations of remanent magnetic polarity and burial depth of the 5.3-3.7 Ma Servilleta basalt of the Taos Plateau volcanic field. Magnetic-source depth estimates indicate patterns of subsidence following eruption of the basalt and show that the Sanchez graben has been the site of maximum subsidence. One of the largest and most pronounced gravity lows in North America lies over the rugged San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado. A buried, low-density silicic batholith related to an Oligocene volcanic field coincident with the San Juan Mountains has been the accepted interpretation of the source of the gravity low since the 1970s. However, this interpretation was

  4. Observations of basin ground motions from a dense seismic array in San Jose, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, A.; Carver, D.; Cranswick, E.; Bice, T.; Sell, R.; Hanson, S.

    2001-01-01

    We installed a dense array of 41 digital seismographs in San Jose, California, to evaluate in detail the effects of a deep sedimentary basin and shallow sedimentary deposits on earthquake ground motions. This urban array is located near the eastern edge of the Santa Clara Valley and spans the Evergreen sedimentary basin identified by gravity data. Average station spacing is 1 km, with three stations initially spaced 110 m apart. Despite the high-noise urban environment, the stations of the array successfully triggered on and recorded small local earthquakes (M 2.5-2.8 at 10-25 km distance) and larger regional events such as the M 5.0 Bolinas earthquake (90 km distance), M 4.6-5.6 earthquakes near Mammoth Lakes (270 km distance), M 4.9-5.6 events in western Nevada (420 km distance) and the M 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake (590 km distance). Maps of spectral ratios across the array show that the highest amplitudes in all frequency bands studied (0.125-8 Hz) are generally observed at stations farther from the eastern edge of the Santa Clara Valley. Larger spectral amplitudes are often observed above the western edge of the Evergreen Basin. Snapshots of the recorded wavefield crossing the array for regional events to the east reveal that large, low-frequency (0.125-0.5 Hz) arrivals after the S-wave travel from south to north across the array. A moving-window, cross-correlation analysis finds that these later arrivals are surface waves traveling from the south. The timing and propagation direction of these arrivals indicates that they were likely produced by scattering of incident S waves at the border of the Santa Clara Valley to the south of the array. It is remarkable that the largest low-frequency phases at many of the valley sites for regional events to the east are basin surface waves coming from a direction about 70 degrees different from that of the epicenters. Basin surface waves emanating from the eastern edge of the valley are also identified by the cross

  5. Total Water Storage Change Over the San Joaquin and Sacramento River Basins Comparing GRACE and Observational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S.; Lo, M.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Swenson, S. C.; Anderson, K. J.; Syed, T. H.; Rosenberg, E. A.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, the state of California has experienced drought conditions that have not significantly improved. Of particular concern are the major sources for California’s developed water system, the Sacramento and San Joaquin River basins, which lie in the semi-arid Central Valley. Recent GRACE satellite data show a pronounced decrease in water storage in the basins over the past several years. The goal of this study is to use a combination of the most recent remote sensing products to calculate the water balance of the Sacramento and San Joaquin River basins in order to determine whether the GRACE data are accurate; and if so, the underlying causes for the decrease in water storage. Precipitation, evapotranspiration and streamflow data were assembled and compared to GRACE observations of storage change. Additionally, snow water equivalent data were compared to GRACE storage anomalies. Results show that the observed water balance (precipitation minus evapotranspiration and streamflow) agrees well with the storage changes observed from GRACE, giving confidence to the GRACE-based estimates of declining water storage. Additionally, results also indicate that the trend of decreasing water storage seen in the GRACE data may be due to decreasing groundwater supplies, which may well be the result of excessive groundwater pumping in the Central Valley. Further research will be required to better understand the forces driving decreasing water storage in the Sacramento and San Joaquin River basins.

  6. Lessons for Integrated Water Resources Management from the San Pedro HELP Basin on the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, A.; Goodrich, D.; Varady, R.; Richter, H.

    2007-12-01

    The San Pedro Basin sits within an intermountain ecotone with the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts to the west and east and the Rocky Mountain and Sierra Madre Mountain habitats to the north and south. The headwaters of the basin originate in northern Sonora and flow north into southeast Arizona. As the region's only remaining perennial stream, the San Pedro River serves as an international flyway for over 400 bird species. It is one of the western hemisphere's most ecologically diverse areas with some 20 different biotic communities, and "possesses one of the richest assemblages of land mammal species in the world." Large mining, military, and municipal entities are major users of the same groundwater resources that maintain perennial flow in the San Pedro. This presentation describes empirical evidence of the positive impacts on watershed management of scientists and policy researchers working closely with water managers and elected officials in a functioning HELP basin. We posit that when hydrologists help watershed groups understand the processes controlling water quality and quantity, and when managers and stakeholders connect these processes to social, economic and legal issues then transboundary cooperation in policymaking and water management is most effective. The distinctive physical and socioeconomic characteristics of the basin as well as differences in institutional regulations, water law issues, and their local implementations in Arizona and Sonora are discussed. We illustrate how stakeholders and scientific researchers in both countries strive to balance ecosystem needs with human demands to create new, integrated basin management. Finally, we describe how the accomplishments of the San Pedro collaborative process, including the use of environmental-conflict-resolution tools, have contributed to the UNESCO HELP (Hydrology for the Environment, Life, and Policy) agenda.

  7. Physical properties by geologic unit in the southern San Luis Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauch, V. J.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    ambient magnetic field (McElhinny, 1973). Remanent components that are generally aligned with or opposite to the present-day Earth’s field are considered to have normal or reversed polarity, respectively. The remanent component is determined from paleomagnetic laboratory measurements of oriented samples, none of which are reported here. However, the remanent components for volcanic units in the southern San Luis Basin are known to be significant, and commonly dominate the total magnetization (Grauch and Keller, 2004).References:Blakely, R.J., 1995, Potential theory in gravity and magnetic applications:  Cambridge University Press, 441 p.Grauch, V.J.S., and Keller, G.R., 2004, Gravity and aeromagnetic expression of tectonic and volcanic elements of the southern San Luis Basin, New Mexico and Colorado: New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook 55, p. 230–243.Hansen, R.O., Racic, L., and Grauch, V J.S., 2005, Magnetic methods in near-surface geophysics, in Butler, D. K., ed., Near-surface Geophysics: Investigations in Geophysics No. 13, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, p. 151–175.Koning, D., and Mansell, M.M., 2011, Regional geologic map of north-central New Mexico:  New Mexico Geological Society Guidebok 62, Plate 2, p. 150.McElhinny, M.W., 1973, Paleomagnetism and plate tectonics, Cambridge, Mass., Cambridge University Press, 358 p.Read, A.S., Thompson, R.A., and Mansell, M.M., 2004, Generalized geologic map—southern San Luis Basin:  New Mexico Geological Society Guidebok 55, Plate 2, p. 114.

  8. A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Santa Clara and San Mateo County Groundwater Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-01-06

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MtBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2001 and 2002, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basins of Santa Clara County and San Mateo County, located to the south of the city of San Francisco. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements

  9. The Evergreen basin and the role of the Silver Creek fault in the San Andreas fault system, San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachens, Robert C.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Graymer, Russell W.; Williams, Robert; Ponce, David A.; Mankinen, Edward A.; Stephenson, William J.; Langenheim, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    The Evergreen basin is a 40-km-long, 8-km-wide Cenozoic sedimentary basin that lies mostly concealed beneath the northeastern margin of the Santa Clara Valley near the south end of San Francisco Bay (California, USA). The basin is bounded on the northeast by the strike-slip Hayward fault and an approximately parallel subsurface fault that is structurally overlain by a set of west-verging reverse-oblique faults which form the present-day southeastward extension of the Hayward fault. It is bounded on the southwest by the Silver Creek fault, a largely dormant or abandoned fault that splays from the active southern Calaveras fault. We propose that the Evergreen basin formed as a strike-slip pull-apart basin in the right step from the Silver Creek fault to the Hayward fault during a time when the Silver Creek fault served as a segment of the main route by which slip was transferred from the central California San Andreas fault to the Hayward and other East Bay faults. The dimensions and shape of the Evergreen basin, together with palinspastic reconstructions of geologic and geophysical features surrounding it, suggest that during its lifetime, the Silver Creek fault transferred a significant portion of the ∼100 km of total offset accommodated by the Hayward fault, and of the 175 km of total San Andreas system offset thought to have been accommodated by the entire East Bay fault system. As shown previously, at ca. 1.5–2.5 Ma the Hayward-Calaveras connection changed from a right-step, releasing regime to a left-step, restraining regime, with the consequent effective abandonment of the Silver Creek fault. This reorganization was, perhaps, preceded by development of the previously proposed basin-bisecting Mount Misery fault, a fault that directly linked the southern end of the Hayward fault with the southern Calaveras fault during extinction of pull-apart activity. Historic seismicity indicates that slip below a depth of 5 km is mostly transferred from the Calaveras

  10. Green Net Regional Product for the San Luis Basin, Colorado: an economic measure of regional sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberling, Matthew T; Templeton, Joshua J; Wu, Shanshan

    2012-11-30

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net Regional Product (GNRP), a green accounting approach, for the San Luis Basin (SLB). We measured the movement away from sustainability by examining the change in GNRP over time. Any attempt at green accounting requires both economic and natural capital data. However, limited data for the Basin requires a number of simplifying assumptions and requires transforming economic data at the national, state, and county levels to the level of the SLB. Given the contribution of agribusiness to the SLB, we included the depletion of both groundwater and soil as components in the depreciation of natural capital. We also captured the effect of the consumption of energy on climate change for future generations through carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions. In order to estimate the depreciation of natural capital, the shadow price of water for agriculture, the economic damages from soil erosion due to wind, and the social cost of carbon emissions were obtained from the literature and applied to the SLB using benefit transfer. We used Colorado's total factor productivity for agriculture to estimate the value of time (i.e., to include the effects of exogenous technological progress). We aggregated the economic data and the depreciation of natural capital for the SLB from 1980 to 2005. The results suggest that GNRP had a slight upward trend through most of this time period, despite temporary negative trends, the longest of which occurred during the period 1985-86 to 1987-88. However, given the upward trend in GNRP and the possibility of business cycles causing the temporary declines, there is no definitive evidence of moving away from sustainability. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Summary of the geology of the San Luis Basin, Colorado-New Mexico with emphasis on the geothermal potential for the Monte Vista Graben. Special Publication 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burroughs, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The known geologic data of the San Luis Basin are reviewed and related to an understanding of the hydrogeothermal potential of the Alamosa-Monte Vista area. The physiographic setting of the region, the structural framework of the basin, and its influence on the stratigraphic makeup of the rock sequence, which in turn control the occurrence of potential deep water reservoirs, are reviewed. It is suggested that the San Luis Basin was well-developed by Miocene time, and that although the basin was modified by Neogene faulting, it is essentially a late Laramide event having been produced during the Paleogene. Attention is also given to high heat flow along the Rio Grande Rift and to the geothermal gradient of the San Luis Basin. The confined aquifer is then considered in respect to its hydrogeology, water quality, and as to the legal aspects of the system. (LEW)

  12. Openhole cavity completions in coalbed methane wells in the San Juan basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, I.D.; Volz, R.F.; Seidle, J.P. (Amoco Production Co., Tulsa, OK (United States)); Spitler, J.L. (Amoco, Durango, CO (United States)); Mavor, M.J.

    1993-11-01

    Coalbed methane wells in the San Juan basin can be highly profitable, with gas production up to about 10 MMcf/D at depths of about 3,000 ft, if the wells are successfully completed with the openhole cavity technique. The authors report the first measurement of cavity size (radius of about 5 ft) and shape. A vanity can resemble a cylindrical bookcase with shale ledges like shelves. They also report correlations between successful cavity completions and such reservoir/rock parameters as compressive strength, coal rank, permeability, and reservoir pressure (for example, there is no correlation with the minimum coal compressive strength). In this area, wells completed with the openhole cavity technique often produce roughly 10 times more gas than wells completed with hydraulic fracture stimulations. Wellbore mechanics associated with the cavity--e.g., the enlarged wellbore plus enhanced permeability beyond the cavity--does not seem to explain the cavity/fracture production discrepancy. A number of other possibilities are explored, including permeability anisotropy and completion damage to the reservoir or fracture. Severe damage apparently is associated with hydraulic fracture stimulations in the fairway zone, which would explain their poor performance compared with cavity wells.

  13. Delineating incised stream sediment sources within a San Francisco Bay tributary basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Paul; Benda, Lee; Pearce, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Erosion and sedimentation pose ubiquitous problems for land and watershed managers, requiring delineation of sediment sources and sinks across landscapes. However, the technical complexity of many spatially explicit erosion models precludes their use by practitioners. To address this critical gap, we demonstrate a contemporary use of applied geomorphometry through a straightforward GIS analysis of sediment sources in the San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA, designed to support erosion reduction strategies. Using 2 m lidar digital elevation models, we delineated the entire river network in the Arroyo Mocho watershed (573 km2) at the scale of ˜ 30 m segments and identified incised landforms using a combination of hillslope gradient and planform curvature. Chronic erosion to the channel network was estimated based on these topographic attributes and the size of vegetation, and calibrated to sediment gage data, providing a spatially explicit estimate of sediment yield from incised channels across the basin. Rates of erosion were summarized downstream through the channel network, revealing patterns of sediment supply at the reach scale. Erosion and sediment supply were also aggregated to subbasins, allowing comparative analyses at the scale of tributaries. The erosion patterns delineated using this approach provide land use planners with a robust framework to design erosion reduction strategies. More broadly, the study demonstrates a modern analysis of important geomorphic processes affected by land use that is easily applied by agencies to solve common problems in watersheds, improving the integration between science and environmental management.

  14. Development and use of a mathematical model of the San Bernardino Valley ground-water basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, William F.; Hutchinson, C.B.

    1980-01-01

    Part of the San Bernardino urbanized area in California overlies formerly swampy lands with a history of flowing wells. This area , upgradient from and adjacent to the San Jacinto fault, contains a zone in an alluvial ground-water basin that is under artesian pressure. Since 1945, withdrawals have exceeded recharge and caused head declines of more than 100 feet. Artificial recharge of imported water in the upgradient areas may cause ground-water levels to rise, which could cause abandoned but unplugged wells to resume flowing. If so, structures could be damaged. A two-layer Galerkin finite-element digital model was used for predicting the rate and extent of the rise in water levels from 1975 to 2000. Six hydrologic conditions were modeled for the basin. Artificial recharge of one-half entitlement and full entitlement from the California Aqueduct were each coupled with low, average, and high natural recharge to the basin. According to model predictions, the greatest water level rises will be along the San Bernardino front. This area encompasses the artificial recharge sites and also has a thick section of unsaturated sediments for storing ground water. The formerly swampy lands between Warm Creek and the Santa Ana River adjacent to the San Jacinto fault have little additional storage capacity, and water levels could rise to the land surface as early as 1983 under maximum recharge conditions and 1970-74 average pumping conditions. If pumping rates are reduced in the Warm Creek area, water levels may rise to land surface prior to the dates predicted by the model, regardless of the artificial-recharge program. (USGS)

  15. Faulting, volcanism, and basin development along the western margin of the southern San Luis Basin segment of the Rio Grande rift, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K. J.; Thompson, R. A.; Cosca, M. A.; Drenth, B.; Lee, J.; Budahn, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    The San Luis Basin segment of the northern Rio Grande rift, straddling the Colorado-New Mexico border, is an asymmetrical graben where the major basin-bounding fault is on the east side. In contrast, the west side is a basin-directed dip slope surface cut by north to northwest trending faults with predominantly down-to-southwest displacement. Around 26 Ma, initial rift-related faulting formed broad, shallow basins coincident with basaltic volcanism of the Hinsdale Formation. Later episodes of rifting produced deep and narrow sub-basins generally along the eastern boundary. Basin-fill deposits along the western margin are generally thin. However, in the northern Tusas Mountains, gravity data identifies a small, yet deep, sub-basin that may contain 750 m of basin-filling Los Pinos Formation based on thickness projections derived from mapping. The Los Pinos Formation is overlain by early rift-related Hinsdale Formation basalt flows indicating this sub-basin formed as part of early rifting; the sub-basin may be a southern extension of the Monte Vista graben to the north. The stratigraphic section along the western boundary includes Precambrian basement up to volcanic rocks of the Taos Plateau volcanic field (~5-2Ma). Dips on the early-rift Miocene to Oligocene Hinsdale Formation lavas (3-5 degrees) reflect the cumulative eastward tilting corresponding to continued basin subsidence. Shallower dips (1-2 degrees) on early Pliocene volcanic rocks suggest continued subsidence up to about 3 Ma, or younger. Down-to-southwest faults accommodating eastward tilting are mostly in areas west of Pliocene volcanic rocks; individual faults offset Hinsdale Formation and older rocks by up to 200 m. The few observed faults in the Pliocene volcanic rocks have minor offset. Numerous volcanic vents are in close proximity to the faults along the western boundary. Volcanoes are commonly low to medium relief shield volcanoes with basaltic andesite composition capped by late stage cinder cones

  16. Site Response and Basin Waves in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Boatwright, John

    2013-01-01

    The Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta is an inland delta at the western extent of the Central Valley. Levees were built around swampy islands starting after the Civil War to reclaim these lands for farming. Various studies show that these levees could fail in concert from shaking from a major local or regional earthquake resulting in salty water from the San Francisco Bay contaminating the water in the Delta. We installed seismographs around the Delta and on levees to assess the contribution of site response to the seismic hazard of the levees. Cone penetrometer testing shows that the upper 10 s of meters of soil in the Delta have shear‐wave velocities of about 200  m/s, which would give a strong site response. Seismographs were sited following two strategies: pairs of stations to compare the response of the levees to nearby sites, and a more regional deployment in the Delta. Site response was determined in two different ways: a traditional spectral ratio (TSR) approach of S waves using station BDM of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Net as a reference site, and using SH/SV ratios of noise (or Nakamura’s method). Both estimates usually agree in spectral character for stations whose response is dominated by a resonant peak, but the most obvious peaks in the SH/SV ratios usually are about two‐thirds as large as the main peaks in the TSRs. Levee sites typically have large narrow resonances in the site response function compared to sites in the farmland of the Delta. These resonances, at a frequency of about 1–3 Hz, have amplitudes of about 15 with TSR and 10–12 with Nakamura’s method. Sites on farmland in the Delta also have amplifications, but these are typically broader and not as resonant in appearance. Late (slow) Rayleigh waves were recorded at stations in the Delta, have a dominant period of about one second, and are highly monochromatic. Results from a three‐station array at the Holland Marina suggest that they have a phase velocity of about

  17. Hydrogeology of the Point Lookout Sandstone in the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigg, Steven D.; Dam, W.L.; Kernodle, J.M.; Thorn, C.R.; Levings, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    This report is one in a series resulting from the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) study of the San Juan structural basin that began in October 1984. Previous reports in the series describe the hydrogeology of the Dakota Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1989), Morrison Formation (Dam and others, 1990), Gallup Sandstone (Kernodle and others, 1989), Menefee Formation (Levings and others, 1990), and Cliff House Sandstone (Thorn and others, 1990), in the San Juan structural basin. The purposes of the RASA (Welder, 1986) are to: (1) Define and evaluate the aquifer system; (2) assess the effects of past, present, and potential ground-water use on aquifers and streams; and (3) determine the availability and quality of ground water. This report summarizes information on the geology and the occurrence and quality of water in the Point Lookout Sandstone, one of the primary water-bearing units in the regional aquifer system. Data used in this report were collected during the study or were derived from existing records in the U.S. Geological Survey's computerized National Water Information System (NWIS) data base, the Petroleum Information Corporation's database, and the Dwight's ENERGYDATA Inc. BRIN data base. Although all data available for the Point Lookout Sandstone were considered in formulating the discussions in the text, not all those data could be plotted on the illustrations. The San Juan structural basin is in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah and has an area of about 21,600 square miles (fig. 1). The structural basin is about 140 miles wide and about 200 miles long. The study area is that part of the structural basin that contains rocks of Triassic or younger age and, therefore, is less areally extensive than the structural basin. Triassic through Tertiary sedimentary rocks are emphasized in this study because the major aquifers in the basin are present in these rocks. The study area is about 140 miles wide (about the same as the

  18. Hydrogeology of the Cliff House Sandstone in the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Conde R.; Levings, G.W.; Craigg, S.D.; Dam, W.L.; Kernodle, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report is one in a series resulting from the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) study of the San Juan structural basin that began in October 1984. Previous reports in the series describe the hydrogeology of the Dakota Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1989), Point Lookout Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1990), Morrison Formation (Dam and others, 1990), Gallup Sandstone (Kernodle and others, 1989), and Menefee Formation (Levings and others, 1990) in the San Juan structural basin. The purposes of the RASA (Welder, 1986) are to: (1) Define and evaluate the aquifer system; (2) assess the effects of past, present, and potential ground-water use on aquifers and streams; and (3) determine the availability and quality of ground water. This report summarizes information on the geology and the occurrence and quality of water in the Cliff House Sandstone, one of the primary water-bearing units in the regional aquifer system. Data used in this report were collected during the study or were derived from existing records in the U.S. Geological Survey's computerized National Water Information System (NWIS) data base, the Petroleum Information Corporation's data base, and the Dwight's ENERGYDATA Inc. BRIN data base. Although all data available for the Cliff House Sandstone were considered in formulating the discussions in the text, not all those data could be plotted on the illustrations. The San Juan structural basin is in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah and has an area of about 21,600 square miles (fig. 1). The structural basin is about 140 miles wide and about 200 miles long. The study area is that part of the structural basin that contains rocks of Triassic or younger age and, therefore, is less extensive than the structural basin. Triassic through Tertiary sedimentary rocks are emphasized in this study because the major aquifers in the basin are present in these rocks. The study area is about 140 miles wide (about the same as the

  19. Biogeochemical Insights into B-Vitamins in the Coastal Marine Sediments of San Pedro Basin, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde, D.; Berelson, W.; Baronas, J. J.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal marine sediments support a high abundance of mircoorganisms which play key roles in the cycling of nutrients, trace metals, and carbon, yet little is known about many of the cofactors essential for their growth, such as the B-vitamins. The suite of B-vitamins (B1, B2, B6, B7, B12) are essential across all domains of life for both primary and secondary metabolism. Therefore, studying sediment concentrations of B-vitamins can provide a biochemical link between microbial processes and sediment geochemistry. Here we present B-vitamin pore water concentrations from suboxic sediment cores collected in September 2014 from San Pedro Basin, a silled, low oxygen, ~900 m deep coastal basin in the California Borderlands. We compare the B-vitamin concentrations (measured via LCMS) to a set of geochemical profiles including dissolved Fe (65-160 μM), dissolved Mn (30-300 nM), TCO2, solid phase organic carbon, and δ13C. Our results show high concentrations (0.8-3nM) of biotin (B7), commonly used for CO2 fixation as a cofactor in carboxylase enzymes. Thiamin (B1) concentrations were elevated (20-700nM), consistent with previous pore water measurements showing sediments could be a source of B1 to the ocean. Cobalamin (B12), a cofactor required for methyl transfers in methanogens, was also detected in pore waters (~4-40pM). The flavins (riboflavin [B2] and flavin mononucleotide[FMN]), molecules utilized in external electron transfer, showed a distinct increase with depth (10-90nM). Interestingly, the flavin profiles showed an inverse trend to dissolved Fe (Fe decreases with depth) providing a potential link to culture experiments which have shown extracellular flavin release to be a common trait in some metal reducers. As some of the first B-vitamin measurements made in marine sediments, these results illustrate the complex interaction between the microbial community and surrounding geochemical environment and provide exciting avenues for future research.

  20. Recent deformation on the San Diego Trough and San Pedro Basin fault systems, offshore Southern California: Assessing evidence for fault system connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, J. M.; Kent, G. M.; Driscoll, N. W.; Harding, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    The seismic hazard posed by offshore faults for coastal communities in Southern California is poorly understood and may be considerable, especially when these communities are located near long faults that have the ability to produce large earthquakes. The San Diego Trough fault (SDTF) and San Pedro Basin fault (SPBF) systems are active northwest striking, right-lateral faults in the Inner California Borderland that extend offshore between San Diego and Los Angeles. Recent work shows that the SDTF slip rate accounts for 25% of the 6-8 mm/yr of deformation accommodated by the offshore fault network, and seismic reflection data suggest that these two fault zones may be one continuous structure. Here, we use recently acquired CHIRP, high-resolution multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection, and multibeam bathymetric data in combination with USGS and industry MCS profiles to characterize recent deformation on the SDTF and SPBF zones and to evaluate the potential for an end-to-end rupture that spans both fault systems. The SDTF offsets young sediments at the seafloor for 130 km between the US/Mexico border and Avalon Knoll. The northern SPBF has robust geomorphic expression and offsets the seafloor in the Santa Monica Basin. The southern SPBF lies within a 25-km gap between high-resolution MCS surveys. Although there does appear to be a through-going fault at depth in industry MCS profiles, the low vertical resolution of these data inhibits our ability to confirm recent slip on the southern SPBF. Empirical scaling relationships indicate that a 200-km-long rupture of the SDTF and its southern extension, the Bahia Soledad fault, could produce a M7.7 earthquake. If the SDTF and the SPBF are linked, the length of the combined fault increases to >270 km. This may allow ruptures initiating on the SDTF to propagate within 25 km of the Los Angeles Basin. At present, the paleoseismic histories of the faults are unknown. We present new observations from CHIRP and coring surveys at

  1. Hydrogeology of the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone in the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, William L.; Kernodle, J.M.; Thorn, C.R.; Levings, G.W.; Craigg, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    This report is one in a series resulting from the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer System Analysis (RASA) study of the San Juan structural basin that began in October 1984. The purposes of the study (Welder, 1986) are to: (1) Define and evaluate the aquifer system; (2) assess the effects of past, present, and potential ground-water use on aquifers and streams, and (3) determine the availability and quality of ground water. Previous reports in this series describe the hydrogeology of the Dakota Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1989), Gallup Sandstone (Kernodle and others, 1989), Morrison Formation (Dam and others, 1990), Point Lookout Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1990), Kirtland Shale and Fruitland Formation (Kernodle and others, 1990), Menefee Formation (Levings and others, 1990), Cliff House Sandstone (Thorn and others, 1990), and Ojo Alamo Sandstone (Thorn and others, 1990) in the San Juan structural basin. This report summarizes information on the geology and the occurrence and quality of water in the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, one of the primary water-bearing units in the regional aquifer system. Data used in this report were collected during the RASA study or derived from existing records in the U.S. Geological Survey's computerized National Water Information System (NWIS) data base, the Petroleum Information Corporation's data base, and the Dwight's ENERGYDATA Inc. BRIN database. Although all data available for the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone were considered in formulating the discussions in the text, not all those data could be plotted on the illustrations. The San Juan structural basin in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah has an area of about 21,600 square miles (fig. 1). The structural basin is about 140 miles wide and about 200 miles long. The study area is that part of the structural basin that contains rocks of Triassic and younger age; therefore, the study area is less extensive than the structural basin. Triassic through Tertiary

  2. Multi-scale reservoir modeling as an integrated assessment tool for geo-sequestration in the San Juan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, G.; Haerer, D.; Bromhal, G.; Reeves, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Southwestern Regional Partnership on CO2 Sequestration conducted an Enhanced Coalbed Methane (ECBM)/Carbon Storage Pilot in the San Juan Basin as part of the ongoing DOE/NETL Carbon Capture and Storage Program. The primary goal of this pilot is to demonstrate the efficacy of using CO2 to enhance coalbed methane recovery particularly near reservoir abandonment pressure while also evaluating the suitability of coal seams for longer-term carbon storage. Basic geologic models of the coal seams were developed from well logs in the area. Production histories from several surrounding CBM wells were shown. To monitor the injection of up to 75,000 ton of CO2 beginning September 2007, seismic surveys and tiltmeter arrays were utilized. Larger-scale geo-hydrodynamic simulations were used to develop a regional model for the fluid dynamics of the northern San Juan Basin. Smaller-scale reservoir simulations, incorporating available laboratory and field data, were used to develop an improved understanding of reservoir dynamics within the specific 640-acre pilot area. Both modeling scales were critical to assessing the suitability of deploying commercial carbon storage programs throughout the basin. Reservoir characterization results on the optimization of total CO2 injection volume, injection rate over time, and how CO2 is expected to disperse after injection are presented. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2007 AIChE Annual Meeting (Salt Lake City, UT 11/4-9/2007).

  3. Plan of study for the regional aquifer-system analysis of the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welder, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    The San Juan structural basin is an 18,000 sq mi area that contains several extensive aquifers. The basin includes three surface drainage basins and parts of New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah. Surface water in the area is fully appropriated, and the steadily increasing demand for groundwater has resulted in water supply concerns. Competition is great between mining and electric power companies, municipalities, and Indian communities for the limited groundwater supplies. This report outlines a 4-year plan for a study of the regional aquifer system in the San Juan structural basin. The purposes of the study are to define and understand the aquifer system; to assess the effects of groundwater use on the aquifers and streams; and to determine the availability and quality of groundwater in the basin. (Author 's abstract)

  4. Holocene landscape evolution and geoarcheology of low-order streams in the Rio Grande basin, San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Daniel P.; Beeton, Jared M.

    2014-09-01

    This geoarcheological study investigates soil stratigraphy and geochronology of alluvial deposits to determine Holocene landscape evolution within the Hot Creek, La Jara Creek, and Alamosa River drainage basins in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado. Geomorphic mapping and radiocarbon dating indicate synchronicity in patterns of erosion, deposition, and stability between drainage basins. In all three basins, the maximum age of mapped alluvial terraces and fans is ~ 3300 cal yr BP. A depositional period seen at both Hot Creek and the Alamosa River begins ~ 3300 to 3200 cal yr BP. Based on soil development, short periods of stability followed by alluvial fan aggradation occur in the Alamosa River basin ~ 2200 cal yr BP. A period of landscape stability at Hot Creek before ~ 1100 cal yr BP is followed by a period of rapid aggradation within all three drainages between ~ 1100 and 850 cal yr BP. A final aggradation event occurred between ~ 630 and 520 cal yr BP at La Jara Creek. These patterns of landscape evolution over the past ~ 3300 yr provide the framework for an archeological model that predicts the potential for buried and surficial cultural materials in the research area.

  5. Groundwater quality in the Western San Joaquin Valley study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    Water quality in groundwater resources used for public drinking-water supply in the Western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV) was investigated by the USGS in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) as part of its Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The WSJV includes two study areas: the Delta–Mendota and Westside subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley groundwater basin. Study objectives for the WSJV study unit included two assessment types: (1) a status assessment yielding quantitative estimates of the current (2010) status of groundwater quality in the groundwater resources used for public drinking water, and (2) an evaluation of natural and anthropogenic factors that could be affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water distributors.The status assessment was based on data collected from 43 wells sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project (USGS-GAMA) in 2010 and data compiled in the SWRCB Division of Drinking Water (SWRCB-DDW) database for 74 additional public-supply wells sampled for regulatory compliance purposes between 2007 and 2010. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and SWRCB-DDW regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a spatially weighted, grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources used for public drinking water that has concentrations for particular constituents or class of constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale within the WSJV study unit, and permits comparison of the two study areas to other areas assessed by the GAMA Priority Basin Project

  6. Geologic assessment of natural gas from coal seams in the Fruitland Formation, San Juan Basin. Topical report, September 1986-September 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, B.S.; Wicks, D.E.; Kuuskraa, V.A.

    1988-03-01

    On the basis of geologic assessment, the natural gas in place in the Fruitland Formation coals of the San Juan Basin is estimated at 50 trillion cubic feet. The north-central portion of San Juan Basin contains the highest concentrations of coalbed methane for the Fruitland Formation coals. The area coincides with the thick deposits of high-rank coals. To provide a foundation for evaluating the coalbed methane in place on a township-by-township basis, the study delineates the subsurface geology of the Fruitland Formation coals. Four regional cross sections and detailed overburden, net coal isopach, and coal rank maps are included.

  7. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the central-eastside San Joaquin Basin, 2006: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,695-square-mile Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin (Central Eastside) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Central Eastside study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. During March through June 2006, samples were collected from 78 wells in Stanislaus and Merced Counties, 58 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 20 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along groundwater-flow paths (understanding wells). Water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database also were used for the assessment.An assessment of the current status of the groundwater quality included collecting samples from wells for analysis of anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring constituents such as major ions and trace elements. The assessment of status is intended to characterize the quality of untreated-groundwater resources within the primary aquifer system, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. The primary aquifer system (hereinafter, primary aquifer) is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the CDPH database for the Central Eastside study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or

  8. Avifauna de la subcuenca del río San Juan, Guerrero, México Avifauna of the Río San Juan Basin, Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Carlos Almazán-Núñez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un análisis de la riqueza avifaunística en diferentes tipos de vegetación en la subcuenca del río San Juan, perteneciente a la provincia biótica de la Cuenca del Balsas, Guerrero. El trabajo de campo se realizó de junio de 2001 a septiembre de 2002. La riqueza avifaunística en la zona fue de 164 especies considerando los registros previos. Se mencionan algunos registros de interés los cuales amplían su área de distribución geográfica dentro del estado. La riqueza de especies fue significativamente mayor en el bosque tropical caducifolio, presentando éste también el mayor número de especies exclusivas. El componente estacional de las especies indica que el 72% son residentes y el 28% restante son migratorias. Existe una mayor proporción de especies raras (37.5% y no comunes (38.2% que de abundantes (2.12% y comunes (3.5%. El endemismo en la zona es alto, ya que el 28% de las especies son endémicas de México. Del total de especies registradas, 6 se encuentran sujetas a protección especial.We present an analysis of the species richness and abundance of birds in several localities of the Río San Juan Basin, state of Guerrero, region belonging to the Balsas Basin biotic province. The field work was performed from June 2001 to September 2002. The species richness was 164 species, and for some species its geographic distribution within the state is expanded. The species richness was significantly higher in tropical deciduous forest, which also holds the greatest number of exclusive species. The seasonal component indicate that 72% of the species are residents and the 28% remaining are migratory. There are a major proportion of rare species (37.5% and uncommon (38.2% than abundant (2.12% and common (3.5%. The endemism in the region is high, because 28% of the species are endemic to Mexico. Six species are considered threatened.

  9. Clockwise rotation of the Santa Marta massif and simultaneous Paleogene to Neogene deformation of the Plato-San Jorge and Cesar-Ranchería basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Camilo; Guzman, Georgina; Bayona, German; Cardona, Agustin; Valencia, Victor; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2010-10-01

    A moderate amount of vertical-axis clockwise rotation of the Santa Marta massif (30°) explains as much as 115 km of extension (stretching of 1.75) along its trailing edge (Plato-San Jorge basin) and up to 56 km of simultaneous shortening with an angular shear of 0.57 along its leading edge (Perijá range). Extensional deformation is recorded in the 260 km-wide, fan-shaped Plato-San Jorge basin by a 2-8 km thick, shallowing-upward and almost entirely fine-grained, upper Eocene and younger sedimentary sequence. The simultaneous initiation of shortening in the Cesar-Ranchería basin is documented by Mesozoic strata placed on to lower Eocene syntectonic strata (Tabaco Formation and equivalents) along the northwest-verging, shallow dipping (9-12° to the southeast) and discrete Cerrejón thrust. First-order subsidence analysis in the Plato-San Jorge basin is consistent with crustal stretching values between 1.5 and 2, also predicted by the rigid-body rotation of the Santa Marta massif. The model predicts about 100 km of right-lateral displacement along the Oca fault and 45 km of left-lateral displacement along the Santa Marta-Bucaramanga fault. Clockwise rotation of a rigid Santa Marta massif, and simultaneous Paleogene opening of the Plato-San Jorge basin and emplacement of the Cerrejón thrust sheet would have resulted in the fragmentation of the Cordillera Central-Santa Marta massif province. New U/Pb ages (241 ± 3 Ma) on granitoid rocks from industry boreholes in the Plato-San Jorge basin confirm the presence of fragments of a now segmented, Late Permian to Early Triassic age, two-mica, granitic province that once spanned the Santa Marta massif to the northernmost Cordillera Central.

  10. A River Running in the Desert: Lessons for Integrated Water Resources Management from the San Pedro HELP Basin on the U.S.-Mexico Border 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowing from Mexico into the United States, the San Pedro Basin is the region’s only remaining perennial stream and one of the western hemisphere’s most ecologically diverse areas. Large mining, military, and municipal entities are major users of the same groundwater resources that maintain perennia...

  11. Fish and Wildlife report for the Closed Basin Division : San Luis Valley Project Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for the Closed Basin Division is a description of the project and the fish and wildlife resources associated with the project. The document also reports...

  12. Assessing Hydrologic Impacts of Future Land Cover Change Scenarios in the South Platte River Basin (CO, WY, & NE) and the San Pedro River Basin (U.S./Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J. E.; Burns, I. S.; Guertin, D. P.; Kepner, W. G.; Goodrich, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term land-use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology to characterize hydrologic impacts from future urban growth through time that was developed and applied on the San Pedro River Basin was expanded and utilized on the South Platte River Basin as well. Future urban growth is represented by housing density maps generated in decadal intervals from 2010 to 2100, produced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Integrated Climate and Land-Use Scenarios (ICLUS) project. ICLUS developed future housing density maps by adapting the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) social, economic, and demographic storylines to the conterminous United States. To characterize hydrologic impacts from future growth, the housing density maps were reclassified to National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2006 land cover classes and used to parameterize the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool. The objectives of this project were to 1) develop and implement a methodology for adapting the ICLUS data for use in AGWA as an approach to evaluate impacts of development on water-quantity and -quality, 2) present, evaluate, and compare results from scenarios for watersheds in two different geographic and climatic regions, 3) determine watershed specific implications of this type of future land cover change analysis.

  13. Assessment of goods and valuation of ecosystem services (AGAVES) San Pedro River Basin, United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens, Darius; Kepner, William; Goodrich, David

    2010-01-01

    A consortium of federal, academic, and nongovernment organization (NGO) partners have established a collaborative research enterprise in the San Pedro River Basin to develop methods, standards, and tools to assess and value ecosystem goods and services. The central premise of ecosystem services research is that human condition is intrinsically linked to the environment. Human health and well-being (including economic prosperity) depend on important supporting, regulating, provisioning, and cultural services that we derive from our surrounding ecosystems. The AGAVES project is intended as a demonstration study for incorporating ecosystem services information into resource management policy and decisionmaking. Accordingly, a nested, multiscale project design has been adopted to address a range of stakeholder information requirements. This design will further facilitate an evaluation of how well methods developed in this project can be transferred to other areas.

  14. Direct U-Pb dating of Cretaceous and Paleocene dinosaur bones, San Juan Basin, New Mexico: COMMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Alan E.; Lucas, Spencer G.; Neymark, Leonid A.; Heckert, Andrew B.; Sullivan, Robert M.; Jasinski, Steven E.; Fowler, Denver W.

    2012-01-01

    Based on U-Pb dating of two dinosaur bones from the San Juan Basin of New Mexico (United States), Fassett et al. (2011) claim to provide the first successful direct dating of fossil bones and to establish the presence of Paleocene dinosaurs. Fassett et al. ignore previously published work that directly questions their stratigraphic interpretations (Lucas et al., 2009), and fail to provide sufficient descriptions of instrumental, geochronological, and statistical treatments of the data to allow evaluation of the potentially complex diagenetic and recrystallization history of bone. These shortcomings lead us to question the validity of the U-Pb dates published by Fassett et al. and their conclusions regarding the existence of Paleocene dinosaurs.

  15. Pliocene transpressional modification of depositional basins by convergent thrusting adjacent to the "Big Bend" of the San Andreas fault: An example from Lockwood Valley, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, K.S.; Minor, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The "Big Bend" of the San Andreas fault in the western Transverse Ranges of southern California is a left stepping flexure in the dextral fault system and has long been recognized as a zone of relatively high transpression compared to adjacent regions. The Lockwood Valley region, just south of the Big Bend, underwent a profound change in early Pliocene time (???5 Ma) from basin deposition to contraction, accompanied by widespread folding and thrusting. This change followed the recently determined initiation of opening of the northern Gulf of California and movement along the southern San Andreas fault at about 6.1 Ma, with the concomitant formation of the Big Bend. Lockwood Valley occupies a 6-km-wide, fault-bounded structural basin in which converging blocks of Paleoproterozoic and Cretaceous crystalline basement and upper Oligocene and lower Miocene sedimentary rocks (Plush Ranch Formation) were thrust over Miocene and Pliocene basin-fill sedimentary rocks (in ascending order, Caliente Formation, Lockwood Clay, and Quatal Formation). All the pre-Quatal sedimentary rocks and most of the Pliocene Quatal Formation were deposited during a mid-Tertiary period of regional transtension in a crustal block that underwent little clockwise vertical-axis rotation as compared to crustal blocks to the south. Ensuing Pliocene and Quaternary transpression in the Big Bend region began during deposition of the poorly dated Quatal Formation and was marked by four converging thrust systems, which decreased the areal extent of the sedimentary basin and formed the present Lockwood Valley structural basin. None of the thrusts appears presently active. Estimated shortening across the center of the basin was about 30 percent. The fortnerly defined eastern Big Pine fault, now interpreted to be two separate, oppositely directed, contractional reverse or thrust faults, marks the northwestern structural boundary of Lockwood Valley. The complex geometry of the Lockwood Valley basin is similar

  16. Pliocene transpressional modification of depositional basins by convergent thrusting adjacent to the ``Big Bend'' of the San Andreas fault: An example from Lockwood Valley, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Minor, Scott A.

    2005-02-01

    The "Big Bend" of the San Andreas fault in the western Transverse Ranges of southern California is a left stepping flexure in the dextral fault system and has long been recognized as a zone of relatively high transpression compared to adjacent regions. The Lockwood Valley region, just south of the Big Bend, underwent a profound change in early Pliocene time (˜5 Ma) from basin deposition to contraction, accompanied by widespread folding and thrusting. This change followed the recently determined initiation of opening of the northern Gulf of California and movement along the southern San Andreas fault at about 6.1 Ma, with the concomitant formation of the Big Bend. Lockwood Valley occupies a 6-km-wide, fault-bounded structural basin in which converging blocks of Paleoproterozoic and Cretaceous crystalline basement and upper Oligocene and lower Miocene sedimentary rocks (Plush Ranch Formation) were thrust over Miocene and Pliocene basin-fill sedimentary rocks (in ascending order, Caliente Formation, Lockwood Clay, and Quatal Formation). All the pre-Quatal sedimentary rocks and most of the Pliocene Quatal Formation were deposited during a mid-Tertiary period of regional transtension in a crustal block that underwent little clockwise vertical-axis rotation as compared to crustal blocks to the south. Ensuing Pliocene and Quaternary transpression in the Big Bend region began during deposition of the poorly dated Quatal Formation and was marked by four converging thrust systems, which decreased the areal extent of the sedimentary basin and formed the present Lockwood Valley structural basin. None of the thrusts appears presently active. Estimated shortening across the center of the basin was about 30 percent. The formerly defined eastern Big Pine fault, now interpreted to be two separate, oppositely directed, contractional reverse or thrust faults, marks the northwestern structural boundary of Lockwood Valley. The complex geometry of the Lockwood Valley basin is similar

  17. The paradigm of paraglacial megafans of the San Juan river basin, Central Andes, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvires, Graciela M.

    2014-11-01

    The spatial distribution and several morphometric characteristics of the Quaternary alluvial fans of the San Juan River, in the province of San Juan, at the Central and Western part of Argentina, have been studied to classify them as paraglacial megafans, as well to ratify its depositional environmental conditions. The high sedimentary load exported by San Juan river from the Central Andes to the foreland depressions is estimated about 3,682,200 hm3. The large alluvial fans of Ullum-Zonda and Tulum valleys were deposited into deep tectonic depressions, during the Upper Pleistocene deglaciation stages. The outcome of collecting remotely sensed data, map and DEM data, geophysical data and much fieldwork gave access to morphometric, morphographic and morphogenetic data of these alluvial fans. The main drainage network was mapped on processed images using QGis (vers.2.0.1). Several fan morphometric parameters were measured, such as the size, the shape, the thickness, the surface areas and the sedimentary volume of exported load. The analyzed fans were accumulated in deep tectonic depressions, where the alluvium fill reaches 700 to 1200 m thick. Such fans do not reach the large size that other world megafans have, and this is due to tectonic obstacles, although the sedimentary fill average volume surpasses 514,000 hm3. The author proposes to consider Ullum-Zonda and Tulum alluvial fans as paraglacial megafans. According to the stratigraphic relationships of the tropical South American Rivers, the author considers that the San Juan paraglacial megafans would have occurred in the period before 24 ka BP , possibly corresponding to Middle Pleniglacial (ca 65-24ka BP). They record colder and more humid conditions compared with the present arid and dry conditions.

  18. Minisparker seismic-reflection data of field activity S-5-09-SC: San Pedro Basin, offshore southern California from 2009-07-06 to 2009-07-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliter, Ray W.; Conrad, James E.; Ryan, Holly F; Triezenberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This dataset includes raw and processed, high-resolution seismic-reflection data collected in 2009 to explore a possible connection between the San Diego Trough Fault and the San Pedro Basin Fault. The survey is in the San Pedro Basin between Santa Catalina Island and San Pedro, California. The data were collected aboard the U.S. Geological Survey R/V Parke Snavely. The seismic-reflection data were acquired using a SIG 2mille minisparker. Subbottom acoustic penetration spanned tens to several hundreds of meters, variable by location.

  19. Diversity and biogeography of bacterial assemblages in surface sediments across the San Pedro Basin, Southern California Borderlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Ian; Jacobson Meyers, Myrna E; Fuhrman, Jed A

    2007-04-01

    Sediment bacteria play important roles in the biogeochemistry of ocean sediments; however, factors influencing assemblage composition have not been extensively studied. We examined extractable sediment bacterial abundance, the composition of bacterial assemblages using a high-throughput molecular fingerprinting approach, and several sediment biogeochemical parameters (organic matter content and alkaline phosphatase activity), along a 35 km transect from Point Fermin, Southern California, to Santa Catalina Island, across the approximately 900-m-deep San Pedro Basin. Automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) demonstrated that in two spatially isolated shallow (approximately sediment environments, assemblages were more similar to each other than to deeper communities. Distinct communities existed in deeper and shallower sediments, and stations within the deep basin over 2 km apart contained remarkably similar assemblage fingerprints. The relative contribution to total amplified DNA fluorescence of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was significantly correlated to that of other OTUs in few comparisons (2.7% of total), i.e. few bacterial types were found together or apart consistently. The relative proportions within assemblages of only a few OTU were significantly correlated to measured physicochemical parameters (organic matter content and wet/dry weight ratio of sediments) or enzyme (alkaline phosphatase) activities. A low percentage of shared OTU between shallow and deep sediments, and the presence of similar, but spatially isolated assemblages suggests that bacterial OTU may be widely dispersed over scales of a few kilometres, but that environmental conditions select for particular assemblages.

  20. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province, 2004: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 3,900-square-mile (mi2) San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province (hereinafter San Diego) study unit was investigated from May through July 2004 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in southwestern California in the counties of San Diego, Riverside, and Orange. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA San Diego study was designed to provide a statistically robust assessment of untreated-groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 58 wells in 2004 and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as the primary aquifers) were defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the San Diego study unit. The San Diego study unit consisted of four study areas: Temecula Valley (140 mi2), Warner Valley (34 mi2), Alluvial Basins (166 mi2), and Hard Rock (850 mi2). The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers. For example, shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination than groundwater in deep water-bearing zones. This study had two components: the status assessment and the understanding assessment. The first component of this study-the status assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource-was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to

  1. Structure of the San Bernardino Basin Along Two Seismic Transects: Rialto-Colton Fault to the San Andreas Fault and Along the I-215 Freeway (I-10 to SR30)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchings, R.D.; Rymer, M.J.; Goldman, M.R.; Gandhok, G.; Steedman, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    In this report, we present seismic data and acquisition parameters for two seismic profiles acquired in the San Bernardino, California area in May and October 2003. We refer to these seismic profiles as the San Bernardino Regional (SBR) and San Bernardino High-Resolution (SBHR) seismic profiles. We present both un-interpreted and interpreted seismic images so that the structure of the area can independently interpreted by others. We explain the rationale for our interpretations within the text of this report, and in addition, we provide a large body of supporting evidence. The SBR seismic profile extended across the San Bernardino Basin approximately N30?E from the town of Colton to the town of Highland. The data were acquired at night when the signal-to-noise ratios were reasonably good, and for the larger shots, seismic energy propagated across the ~20-km-long array. Tomographic velocity data are available to depths of about 4 km, and low-fold reflection data are available to depths in excess of 5 km. The SBR seismic data reveal an asymmetric, fault-bound basin to about 5 km depth. The SBHR seismic profile trended along the I-215 freeway from its intersection with the Santa Ana River to approximately State Road 30 in San Bernardino. Seismic data acquired along the I-215 freeway provide detailed images, with CDP spacing of approximately 2.5 m along an approximately 8.2-km-long profile; shot and geophone spacing was 5 m. For logistical reasons, the high-resolution (SBHR) seismic data were acquired during daylight hours on the shoulder of the I-215 freeway and within 5 to 10 m of high-traffic volumes, resulting in low signal-to-noise ratios. The limited offset at which refracted first-arrivals could be measured along the SBHR seismic profile limited our measurements of tomographic refraction velocities to relatively shallow (< 150 m) depths. The SBHR reflection data reveal a basin with complex structural details within the upper kilometer. The two seismic profiles

  2. 1994 Water-Table Contours of the Morongo Ground-Water Basin, San Bernardino County, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital water-table contours for the Morongo Basin. The U.S. Geological Survey constructed a water-table map of the Morongo ground-water...

  3. Tectonic-sedimentary evolution of foreland basins: U-Pb dating of the discharge that would have originated the piggy-back basin of Rodeo-Iglesias, San Juan-Argentina; Evolucao tectono-sedimentar de bacias de antepais: datacao U-Pb do corrimento que teria originado a bacia de piggy-back de Rodeo-Iglesias, San Juan-Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Romulo Duarte Moreira dos; Hauser, Natalia; Matteini, Massimo; Pimentel, Marcio Martins [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias. Laboratorio de de Estudos Geocronologicos, Geodinamicos e Ambientais; Limarino, Oscar; Marensi, Sergio; Ciccioli, Patricia; Alonso, Susana, E-mail: romulodms@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencias Geologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-07-01

    Between the 28 ° and 31 ° LS parallels of the Argentinean west, in the province of San Juan, foreland basins originated by the subhorizontal subduction of oceanic crust as a result of the Andean orogeny in the late Oligocene emerges. The Bermejo basin and Rodeo-Iglesias piggy-back basin would be associated with the progressive development of landslides, backscatter and minor faults, and basin fragmentation. Two samples of volcanic rocks, R-1 (rhyolitic dome) and R-3 (fall deposit) of the Rodeo-Iglesias basin, had ages of 8.2 ± 0.11 Ma and 8.7 ± 0.24 Ma. At the same time, the age of the (R-1) made it possible to infer quantitatively the age of the first cavalcade that occurred approximately 8.2 ± 0.11 Ma. From the data obtained in the Rodeo-Iglesias basin both volcanism and the first cavalcade could have been synchronous.

  4. Trends in nutrient concentrations, loads, and yields in streams in the Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Santa Ana Basins, California, 1975-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, Charles R.; Kent, Robert; Seleh, Dina K.; Knifong, Donna L.; Dileanis, Peter D.; Orlando, James L.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive database was assembled for the Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Santa Ana Basins in California on nutrient concentrations, flows, and point and nonpoint sources of nutrients for 1975-2004. Most of the data on nutrient concentrations (nitrate, ammonia, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus) were from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System database (35.2 percent), the California Department of Water Resources (21.9 percent), the University of California at Davis (21.6 percent), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's STOrage and RETrieval database (20.0 percent). Point-source discharges accounted for less than 1 percent of river flows in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, but accounted for close to 80 percent of the nonstorm flow in the Santa Ana River. Point sources accounted for 4 and 7 percent of the total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads, respectively, in the Sacramento River at Freeport for 1985-2004. Point sources accounted for 8 and 17 percent of the total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads, respectively, in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis for 1985-2004. The volume of wastewater discharged into the Santa Ana River increased almost three-fold over the study period. However, due to improvements in wastewater treatment, the total nitrogen load to the Santa Ana River from point sources in 2004 was approximately the same as in 1975 and the total phosphorus load in 2004 was less than in 1975. Nonpoint sources of nutrients estimated in this study included atmospheric deposition, fertilizer application, manure production, and tile drainage. The estimated dry deposition of nitrogen exceeded wet deposition in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys and in the basin area of the Santa Ana Basin, with ratios of dry to wet deposition of 1.7, 2.8, and 9.8, respectively. Fertilizer application increased appreciably from 1987 to 2004 in all three California basins, although manure production increased in the

  5. Geologic assessment of natural gas from coal seams in the Menefee Formation, San Juan Basin. Topical report, May 1988-May 1989. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crist, T.E.; Kelso, B.S.; Boyer, C.M.

    1990-07-01

    The results of a regional geologic assessment of the San Juan Basin Menefee Formation include stratigraphic cross-section and overburden, net coal thickness, coal rank, and gas-in-place maps. A geologic investigation was conducted of two microstudy areas which further examine the site-specific characteristics of the coal seams. Natural gas-in-place estimates for the Menefee Formation coal seams range between 22.0 and 34.2 Tcf.

  6. High-resolution stratigraphic forward modeling: A case study of the lower-middle San Andres formation, Permian basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuster, M.W. (KSEPL (Shell Research), Rijswijk (Netherlands)); Childers, D.W. (Shell Western Exploration and Production Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-09-01

    This study has attempted to calibrate Shell's two-dimensional (2-D) basin modeling program as an exploration tool by simulating the stratigraphy of a mixed carbonate/clastic third-order depositional sequence. The lower-middle San Andres Formation was selected because available log, core, and outcrop data from the Northwest Shelf area, Permian basin, provided an excellent calibration set. A regional stratigraphic cross section from the Cato-Chaveroo to the Wasson fields was constructed delineating lithology and porosity distribution. Approximately 10 shoaling-upward depositional cycles were interpreted. A higher frequency, five-in-one cyclicity was also interpreted based on core and outcrop data. The observed stratigraphy was simulated using a composite eustasy consisting of third-order (2,000,000 yr), fourth-order (100,000 yr), and fifth-order (20,000 yr) sinusoids each at five-meter amplitudes. Subsidence input was constrained by back-stripped tectonic subsidence curves calculated from well data. Sedimentation parameters were interactively derived. New empirically based algorithms were used to model Dunham lithofacies, environmental facies, and sabkha anhydrite distribution. Synthetic log and 2-D synthetic seismic profiles were constructed from the simulation output. The simulation results suggest that (1) relative sea level is the dominant control on the observed depositional cyclicity, (2) the distribution of regional seal facies (anhydrite) reflects falling sea level and prolonged exposure, (3) limestone-dolomite trends on the shelf are grossly related to environment and (4) the distribution of grainstones and packstones (potential reservoirs) occurs as fourth- and fifth-order offlapping and aggradational pods. The synthetic log signatures compared to [open quotes]real[close quotes] logs substantiate the interpreted depositional cyclicity, but also point out the difficulty in interpreting high-order cycles based on log data alone.

  7. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction based on palynofacies analyses of the Cansona Formation (Late Cretaceous), Sinú-San Jacinto Basin, northwest Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliao-Lemus, Tatiana; Carvalho, Marcelo de Araujo; Torres, Diego; Plata, Angelo; Parra, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    To reconstruct the paleoenvironments of the Cansona Formation, a Cretaceous succession in Colombia that has controversial paleoenvironmental interpretation, occasionally deep marine and occasionally shallow marine, palynofacies analyses were conducted on 93 samples from four sections of the Sinú San Jacinto Basin in the north, midwest, and southwest sectors. For the palynofacies analyses, the kerogen categories were counted and subjected to cluster analyses. Four palynofacies associations were revealed for the four sections: Palynofacies Association I (PA I), which consisted of microforaminiferal linings, scolecodonts, dinoflagellate cysts, pollen grains, and fungi hyphae; PA II, which consisted of phytoclast translucent non-biostructured and biostructured, opaque phytoclasts (equidimensional and lath shaped); PA III, which consisted of pseudoamorphous particles, cuticles, resin, and fungal spores; and PA IV, which consisted of fluorescent and non-fluorescent amorphous organic matter and the fresh-water algae Botryococcus. In contrast to early studies that suggested a generalization of the depositional environment for the Cansona Formation (deep or shallow conditions), this study suggests that the formation reflects conspicuous stratigraphic and lateral changes and hence different depositional environments. The Cerro Cansona (CC4 section) and Chalán (AP section) areas are a more marine proximal settings (Early Campanian-Maastrichtian), and there is an intermediate setting for the Lorica area (SC section) and deeper conditions for the Montería area (CP2 section).

  8. Stratigraphic record of Pliocene-Pleistocene basin evolution and deformation within the Southern San Andreas Fault Zone, Mecca Hills, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, James C.; Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Housen, Bernard A.; Dimitroff, Cassidy W.; Messé, Graham T.

    2017-11-01

    A thick section of Pliocene-Pleistocene nonmarine sedimentary rocks exposed in the Mecca Hills, California, provides a record of fault-zone evolution along the Coachella Valley segment of the San Andreas fault (SAF). Geologic mapping, measured sections, detailed sedimentology, and paleomagnetic data document a 3-5 Myr history of deformation and sedimentation in this area. SW-side down offset on the Painted Canyon fault (PCF) starting 3.7 Ma resulted in deposition of the Mecca Conglomerate southwest of the fault. The lower member of the Palm Spring Formation accumulated across the PCF from 3.0 to 2.6 Ma during regional subsidence. SW-side up slip on the PCF and related transpressive deformation from 2.6 to 2.3 Ma created a time-transgressive angular unconformity between the lower and upper members of the Palm Spring Formation. The upper member accumulated in discrete fault-bounded depocenters until initiation of modern deformation, uplift, and basin inversion starting at 0.7 Ma. Some spatially restricted deposits can be attributed to the evolution of fault-zone geometric complexities. However, the deformation events at ca. 2.6 Ma and 0.7 Ma are recorded regionally along 80 km of the SAF through Coachella Valley, covering an area much larger than mapped fault-zone irregularities, and thus require regional explanations. We therefore conclude that late Cenozoic deformation and sedimentation along the SAF in Coachella Valley has been controlled by a combination of regional tectonic drivers and local deformation due to dextral slip through fault-zone complexities. We further propose a kinematic link between the 2.6-2.3 Ma angular unconformity and a previously documented but poorly dated reorganization of plate-boundary faults in the northern Gulf of California at 3.3-2.0 Ma. This analysis highlights the potential for high-precision chronologies in deformed terrestrial deposits to provide improved understanding of local- to regional-scale structural controls on basin

  9. Hydrogeochemistry of the formation waters in the San Francisco field, UMV basin, Colombia - A multivariate statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, J. E.; Muñoz, L. F.; Gonzalez, C. A.; Niño, J. E.; Polo, A.; Suspes, A.; Siachoque, S. C.; Hernández, A.; Trujillo, H.

    2016-08-01

    A wide variety of hydrogeochemical data were obtained through the analysis of the formation water samples collected from 118 producing wells from the San Francisco Oilfield (SFO) in the Upper Magdalena Valley (UMV) basin, Huila, Colombia. The study area is composed of deposited sandstone in fluvial-lacustrine marine environment, which characterized the formation waters as chloride-sodium water type. The brackish-saline facies identified can be attributed to evaporation, halite and dolomite dissolution along with water recharge of meteoric waters somewhere in the basin, probably from Magdalena River, the contribution of the SFO injection water system and significantly by the rock-water interaction. Some ionic ratios were used to confirm clearly that water-rock interactions play a significant role in the evolution of the hydrogeochemistry process in the SFO. The charge balance error ranges between -5.88% and 2.62% indicating very well balanced and mature water for blocks 1, 2 and 3 (north part of the field), and partially equilibrated and immature waters for blocks 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 as is confirmed by Piper, Giggenbach, and Schöeller diagrams. Calculated scale and stability indices (Langelier, Ryznar, and Puckorius), besides halite and dolomite indexes, indicate that these formation waters are slightly saturated with respect to the calcite and dolomite and have strong tendency to the scale formation as well. Concentration maps were used to identify the geological factors that could have influenced its chemical composition and the hydrogeochemical processes involved in the field, such as halite dissolution, calcite or dolomite precipitation and cationic exchange reactions. The mineralogical distribution leads to the conclusion that the halite dissolution is mostly distributed in the Northeastern area of the SFO between B1, B3, B4, B5, and B6 blocks, the dolomite and calcite have greater concentrations between B5 and B6 blocks. The dissolved minerals followed the

  10. Evaluation of the importance of clay confining units on groundwaterflow in alluvial basins using solute and isotope tracers: the case of Middle San Pedro Basin in southeastern Arizona (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Candice B.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Eastoe, Chris; Dickinson, Jesse E.; Meixner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    As groundwater becomes an increasingly important water resource worldwide, it is essential to understand how local geology affects groundwater quality, flowpaths and residence times. This study utilized multiple tracers to improve conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow in the Middle San Pedro Basin in southeastern Arizona (USA) by determining recharge areas, compartmentalization of water sources, flowpaths and residence times. Ninety-five groundwater and surface-water samples were analyzed for major ion chemistry (water type and Ca/Sr ratios) and stable (18O, 2H, 13C) and radiogenic (3H, 14C) isotopes, and resulting data were used in conjunction with hydrogeologic information (e.g. hydraulic head and hydrostratigraphy). Results show that recent recharge (solute and isotope geochemistries between the lower and upper basin fill aquifers show the importance of a clay confining unit on groundwater flow in the basin, which minimizes vertical groundwater movement.

  11. Near Surface Geophysical Exploration at The Archaeological Site of San Miguel Tocuila, Basin of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega, A.; Hernandez, E.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Diaz-Molina, O.; Morett, L.; Soler, A.

    2008-12-01

    The village of Tocuila is located on the western margin of Lake Texcoco in central Mexico. Volcanic activity during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene closed the basin's drainage and facilitated the development of a lacustrine environment and subsequent deposition of volcano-sedimentary sequences with abundant archaeological and paleontological record. Tocuila was one of the most prominent suburbs of the main civic ceremonial complex of the Aztecs. The rapid expansion of Mexico City's Metropolitan areas in the last three decades strongly influenced Tocuila's environment and has compromised several of its archaeological and ancient human settlements. A near surface geophysical survey including magnetometry, seismic refraction tomography and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques was conducted to investigate pre-Hispanic structures. The magnetometric survey was performed using an Overhauser magnetometer with an omnidirectional, 0.015 nT/Hz sensor and 1Hz sampling rate over a 80x100 m area, yielding 990 measurements of total intensity magnetic field at 1.0m height above the ground surface. Thirty seismic refraction profiles were obtained with a 48-channel 24 bits Geometrics StrataVisor NZ seismograph, 14 Hz natural frequency vertical geophones with a 2m separation array and an impact source of 5 kg. The GPR survey consisted of 15 cross sections at two different resolutions with a GSSI SIR-3000 instrument, using a GSSI 200 MHz and a RadarTeam 70 MHz antennas. All surveys were georeferenced with a dual frequency GPS local station and a GPS rover attached to the surveying geophysical instruments. Seismic refraction tomography and GPR radargrams show a platform structure of approx. 80x60 m which can be subdivided in three distinctive layers with a total height of ~10m. Based on the history of ancient settlements in the area surrounding Lake Texcoco and considering the characteristics of shape and height of the surveyed structure, we interpreted that the resulting

  12. Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the San Juan Basin Province, New Mexico and Colorado. Paleozoic rocks were not appraised. The last oil and gas assessment for the province was in 1995. There are several important differences between the 1995 and 2002 assessments. The area assessed is smaller than that in the 1995 assessment. This assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the San Juan Basin Province also used a slightly different approach in the assessment, and hence a number of the plays defined in the 1995 assessment are addressed differently in this report. After 1995, the USGS has applied a total petroleum system (TPS) concept to oil and gas basin assessments. The TPS approach incorporates knowledge of the source rocks, reservoir rocks, migration pathways, and time of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons; thus the assessments are geologically based. Each TPS is subdivided into one or more assessment units, usually defined by a unique set of reservoir rocks, but which have in common the same source rock. Four TPSs and 14 assessment units were geologically evaluated, and for 13 units, the undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  13. Introduction to the special collection of papers on the San Luis Basin Sustainability Metrics Project: a methodology for evaluating regional sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberling, Matthew T; Hopton, Matthew E

    2012-11-30

    This paper introduces a collection of four articles describing the San Luis Basin Sustainability Metrics Project. The Project developed a methodology for evaluating regional sustainability. This introduction provides the necessary background information for the project, description of the region, overview of the methods, and summary of the results. Although there are a multitude of scientifically based sustainability metrics, many are data intensive, difficult to calculate, and fail to capture all aspects of a system. We wanted to see if we could develop an approach that decision-makers could use to understand if their system was moving toward or away from sustainability. The goal was to produce a scientifically defensible, but straightforward and inexpensive methodology to measure and monitor environmental quality within a regional system. We initiated an interdisciplinary pilot project in the San Luis Basin, south-central Colorado, to test the methodology. The objectives were: 1) determine the applicability of using existing datasets to estimate metrics of sustainability at a regional scale; 2) calculate metrics through time from 1980 to 2005; and 3) compare and contrast the results to determine if the system was moving toward or away from sustainability. The sustainability metrics, chosen to represent major components of the system, were: 1) Ecological Footprint to capture the impact and human burden on the system; 2) Green Net Regional Product to represent economic welfare; 3) Emergy to capture the quality-normalized flow of energy through the system; and 4) Fisher information to capture the overall dynamic order and to look for possible regime changes. The methodology, data, and results of each metric are presented in the remaining four papers of the special collection. Based on the results of each metric and our criteria for understanding the sustainability trends, we find that the San Luis Basin is moving away from sustainability. Although we understand

  14. Small theropod teeth from the Late Cretaceous of the San Juan Basin, northwestern New Mexico and their implications for understanding latest Cretaceous dinosaur evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Thomas E; Brusatte, Stephen L

    2014-01-01

    Studying the evolution and biogeographic distribution of dinosaurs during the latest Cretaceous is critical for better understanding the end-Cretaceous extinction event that killed off all non-avian dinosaurs. Western North America contains among the best records of Late Cretaceous terrestrial vertebrates in the world, but is biased against small-bodied dinosaurs. Isolated teeth are the primary evidence for understanding the diversity and evolution of small-bodied theropod dinosaurs during the Late Cretaceous, but few such specimens have been well documented from outside of the northern Rockies, making it difficult to assess Late Cretaceous dinosaur diversity and biogeographic patterns. We describe small theropod teeth from the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. These specimens were collected from strata spanning Santonian - Maastrichtian. We grouped isolated theropod teeth into several morphotypes, which we assigned to higher-level theropod clades based on possession of phylogenetic synapomorphies. We then used principal components analysis and discriminant function analyses to gauge whether the San Juan Basin teeth overlap with, or are quantitatively distinct from, similar tooth morphotypes from other geographic areas. The San Juan Basin contains a diverse record of small theropods. Late Campanian assemblages differ from approximately coeval assemblages of the northern Rockies in being less diverse with only rare representatives of troodontids and a Dromaeosaurus-like taxon. We also provide evidence that erect and recurved morphs of a Richardoestesia-like taxon represent a single heterodont species. A late Maastrichtian assemblage is dominated by a distinct troodontid. The differences between northern and southern faunas based on isolated theropod teeth provide evidence for provinciality in the late Campanian and the late Maastrichtian of North America. However, there is no indication that major components of small-bodied theropod diversity were lost

  15. Basin geometry and cumulative offsets in the Eastern Transverse Ranges, southern California: Implications for transrotational deformation along the San Andreas fault system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Powell, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Eastern Transverse Ranges, adjacent to and southeast of the big left bend of the San Andreas fault, southern California, form a crustal block that has rotated clockwise in response to dextral shear within the San Andreas system. Previous studies have indicated a discrepancy between the measured magnitudes of left slip on through-going east-striking fault zones of the Eastern Transverse Ranges and those predicted by simple geometric models using paleomagnetically determined clockwise rotations of basalts distributed along the faults. To assess the magnitude and source of this discrepancy, we apply new gravity and magnetic data in combination with geologic data to better constrain cumulative fault offsets and to define basin structure for the block between the Pinto Mountain and Chiriaco fault zones. Estimates of offset from using the length of pull-apart basins developed within left-stepping strands of the sinistral faults are consistent with those derived by matching offset magnetic anomalies and bedrock patterns, indicating a cumulative offset of at most ???40 km. The upper limit of displacements constrained by the geophysical and geologic data overlaps with the lower limit of those predicted at the 95% confidence level by models of conservative slip located on margins of rigid rotating blocks and the clockwise rotation of the paleomagnetic vectors. Any discrepancy is likely resolved by internal deformation within the blocks, such as intense deformation adjacent to the San Andreas fault (that can account for the absence of basins there as predicted by rigid-block models) and linkage via subsidiary faults between the main faults. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  16. Small theropod teeth from the Late Cretaceous of the San Juan Basin, northwestern New Mexico and their implications for understanding latest Cretaceous dinosaur evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Williamson

    Full Text Available Studying the evolution and biogeographic distribution of dinosaurs during the latest Cretaceous is critical for better understanding the end-Cretaceous extinction event that killed off all non-avian dinosaurs. Western North America contains among the best records of Late Cretaceous terrestrial vertebrates in the world, but is biased against small-bodied dinosaurs. Isolated teeth are the primary evidence for understanding the diversity and evolution of small-bodied theropod dinosaurs during the Late Cretaceous, but few such specimens have been well documented from outside of the northern Rockies, making it difficult to assess Late Cretaceous dinosaur diversity and biogeographic patterns. We describe small theropod teeth from the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. These specimens were collected from strata spanning Santonian - Maastrichtian. We grouped isolated theropod teeth into several morphotypes, which we assigned to higher-level theropod clades based on possession of phylogenetic synapomorphies. We then used principal components analysis and discriminant function analyses to gauge whether the San Juan Basin teeth overlap with, or are quantitatively distinct from, similar tooth morphotypes from other geographic areas. The San Juan Basin contains a diverse record of small theropods. Late Campanian assemblages differ from approximately coeval assemblages of the northern Rockies in being less diverse with only rare representatives of troodontids and a Dromaeosaurus-like taxon. We also provide evidence that erect and recurved morphs of a Richardoestesia-like taxon represent a single heterodont species. A late Maastrichtian assemblage is dominated by a distinct troodontid. The differences between northern and southern faunas based on isolated theropod teeth provide evidence for provinciality in the late Campanian and the late Maastrichtian of North America. However, there is no indication that major components of small-bodied theropod

  17. Spatial Digital Database for the Geology of the San Pedro River Basin in Cochise, Gila, Graham, Pima, and Pinal Counties, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolm, Karen S.

    2002-01-01

    This spatial digital database for the geology of the San Pedro River Basin in southeastern Arizona was compiled from three maps by Dickinson (1993, 1998, 2000). Mylar originals of the map sheets were scanned, and the resultant images were rectified to a mathematically-generated set of latitude and longitude registration points. Geologic linework was digitized from the rectified images on screen using ArcView (ver. 3.2), and the resultant shapefiles were converted to ArcInfo (ver. 7.2) coverages. Lines and polygons were then attributed; and the files were merged omtp a single ArcInfo database (quib24k).

  18. 2002 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a...

  19. Using Lidar to distinguish leaf area index in cottonwood trees and improve riparian water use estimates in the Upper San Pedro River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, A.; Goodrich, D.; Durcik, M.; Sorooshian, S.

    2007-12-01

    Estimation of riparian forest structural attributes, such as the Leaf Area Index (LAI), is an important step in identifying the amount of water use in riparian forest areas. In this research, small footprint lidar data were used to estimate biophysical properties of young, mature, and old cottonwood trees in the Upper San Pedro River Basin, Arizona, USA. Canopy height and maximum and mean laser heights were derived for the cottonwood trees from lidar data. Linear regression models were used to develop equations relating lidar height metrics with corresponding field measured LAI for each age class of cottonwoods. Four metrics (tree height, height of median energy, ground return ratio, and canopy return ratio) were derived by synthetically constructing a large footprint lidar waveform from small-footprint lidar data which were compared to ground-based high- resolution Intelligent Laser Ranging and Imaging System (ILRIS) scanner images. These four metrics were incorporated into a stepwise regression procedure to predict field-derived LAI for different age classes of cottonwoods. The Penman-Monteith model was then used to estimate transpiration of the cottonwoods using the lidar-derived canopy metrics. These transpiration estimates compared very well to ground-based sap flux transpiration estimates indicating lidar-derived LAI can be used to improve riparian cottonwood water-use estimates. Future research will attempt to fuse high spatial resolution multispectral or hyperspectral data and lidar data to improve classification results for species identification in the Upper San Pedro River Basin.

  20. Response to critique by lucas et al. (2009) of paper by Fassett (2009) documenting Paleocene dinosaurs in the San Juan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    In this issue of Palaeontologia Electronica Lucas, et al. (2009) question the validity f the Fassett (2009) paper that presented evidence for Paleocene dinosaurs in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado. Their challenges focus primarily on the lithostratigraphy, palynology, and paleomagnetism of the dinosaur-bearing Ojo Alamo Sandstone, shown by Fassett to be of Paleocene age. The lithostratigraphy of the Ojo Alamo is addressed by Lucas et al. (2009) based on detailed studies of outcrops of this formation in two relatively small areas in the southern San Juan Basin where Ojo Alamo dinosaur fossils have been found. When viewed over its 13,000 km2 extent, the Ojo Alamo is seen to be a much more complex formation than these authors recognize, thus their perception and description of the lithostratigraphy of this rock unit is limited and provincial. Fassett (2009) presented a detailed discussion of the palynology of the rocks adjacent to the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) interface in the San Juan Basin, including a 67-page appendix and 25 tables listing the 244 palynomorph species identified from these strata. The Ojo Alamo Sandstone produced 103 palynomorphs from five principal localities including one especially prolific sample set from drill core through K-T strata. Without exception, all samples collected from the Ojo Alamo Sandstone for palynologic analysis were found to contain Paleocene palynomorph assemblages. Lucas et al. challenge only one Ojo Alamo palynomorph assemblage from one of the five areas studied, stating that they were unable to find palynomorph-productive samples at that locality. They submit no new palynologic data that refutes the Paleocene palynologic age of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone. In addressing the paleomagnetism of the Ojo Alamo, these authors dismiss the presence of a critical normal-polarity magnetochron discovered in the lower part of the Ojo Alamo - magnetochron C29n.2n of Fassett (2009) with no evidence to justify this dismissal

  1. Southwestern Regional Partnership For Carbon Sequestration (Phase 2) Pump Canyon CO2- ECBM/Sequestration Demonstration, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advanced Resources International

    2010-01-31

    Within the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP), three demonstrations of geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration are being performed -- one in an oilfield (the SACROC Unit in the Permian basin of west Texas), one in a deep, unmineable coalbed (the Pump Canyon site in the San Juan basin of northern New Mexico), and one in a deep, saline reservoir (underlying the Aneth oilfield in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah). The Pump Canyon CO{sub 2}-enhanced coalbed methane (CO{sub 2}/ECBM) sequestration demonstration project plans to demonstrate the effectiveness of CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams via a small-scale geologic sequestration project. The site is located in San Juan County, northern New Mexico, just within the limits of the high-permeability fairway of prolific coalbed methane production. The study area for the SWP project consists of 31 coalbed methane production wells located in a nine section area. CO{sub 2} was injected continuously for a year and different monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) techniques were implemented to track the CO{sub 2} movement inside and outside the reservoir. Some of the MVA methods include continuous measurement of injection volumes, pressures and temperatures within the injection well, coalbed methane production rates, pressures and gas compositions collected at the offset production wells, and tracers in the injected CO{sub 2}. In addition, time-lapse vertical seismic profiling (VSP), surface tiltmeter arrays, a series of shallow monitoring wells with a regular fluid sampling program, surface measurements of soil composition, CO{sub 2} fluxes, and tracers were used to help in tracking the injected CO{sub 2}. Finally, a detailed reservoir model was constructed to help reproduce and understand the behavior of the reservoir under production and injection operation. This report summarizes the different phases of the project, from permitting through site closure, and gives the

  2. Executive summary--2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 1 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the San Juan Basin Province (5022), New Mexico and Colorado (fig. 1). Paleozoic rocks were not appraised. The last oil and gas assessment for the province was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). There are several important differences between the 1995 and 2002 assessments. The area assessed is smaller than that in the 1995 assessment. This assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the San Juan Basin Province also used a slightly different approach in the assessment, and hence a number of the plays defined in the 1995 assessment are addressed differently in this report. After 1995, the USGS has applied a total petroleum system (TPS) concept to oil and gas basin assessments. The TPS approach incorporates knowledge of the source rocks, reservoir rocks, migration pathways, and time of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons; thus the assessments are geologically based. Each TPS is subdivided into one or more assessment units, usually defined by a unique set of reservoir rocks, but which have in common the same source rock. Four TPSs and 14 assessment units were geologically evaluated, and for 13 units, the undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  3. New age constraints for the Salamanca Formation and lower Río Chico Group in the western San Jorge Basin, Patagonia, Argentina: Implications for cretaceous-paleogene extinction recovery and land mammal age correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clyde, W.C.; Wilf, P.; Iglesias, A.; Slingerland, R.L.; Barnum, T.; Bijl, P.K.; Bralower, T.J.; Brinkhuis, H.; Comer, E.E.; Huber, B.T.; Ibañez-Mejia, M.; Jicha, B.R.; Krause, J.M.; Schueth, J.D.; Singer, B.S.; Raigemborn, M.S.; Schmitz, M.D.; Sluijs, A.; Zamaloa, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    The Salamanca Formation of the San Jorge Basin (Patagonia, Argentina) preserves critical records of Southern Hemisphere Paleocene biotas, but its age remains poorly resolved, with estimates ranging from Late Cretaceous to middle Paleocene. We report a multi-disciplinary geochronologic study of the

  4. 2010 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Groundwater Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — During 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,500 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins....

  5. 78 FR 16569 - Iowa Pacific Holdings, LLC, Permian Basin Railways, and San Luis & Rio Grande Railroad-Corporate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ..., LLC & Permian Basin Rys.--Control Exemption--Cape Rail, Inc. & Mass. Coastal R.R., FD 35684 (STB... the corporate family. Under 49 U.S.C. 10502(g), the Board may not use its exemption authority to...

  6. Latest Miocene-earliest Pliocene evolution of the ancestral Rio Grande at the Española-San Luis Basin boundary, northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Koning,; Aby, Scott B.; Grauch, V. J.; Matthew J. Zimmerer,

    2016-01-01

    We use stratigraphic relations, paleoflow data, and 40Ar/39Ar dating to interpret net aggradation, punctuated by at least two minor incisional events, along part of the upper ancestral Rio Grande fluvial system between 5.5 and 4.5 Ma (in northern New Mexico). The studied fluvial deposits, which we informally call the Sandlin unit of the Santa Fe Group, overlie a structural high between the San Luis and Española Basins. The Sandlin unit was deposited by two merging, west- to southwest-flowing, ancestral Rio Grande tributaries respectively sourced in the central Taos Mountains and southern Taos Mountains-northeastern Picuris Mountains. The river confluence progressively shifted southwestward (downstream) with time, and the integrated river (ancestral Rio Grande) flowed southwards into the Española Basin to merge with the ancestral Rio Chama. Just prior to the end of the Miocene, this fluvial system was incised in the southern part of the study area (resulting in an approximately 4–7 km wide paleovalley), and had sufficient competency to transport cobbles and boulders. Sometime between emplacement of two basalt flows dated at 5.54± 0.38 Ma and 4.82±0.20 Ma (groundmass 40Ar/39Ar ages), this fluvial system deposited 10–12 m of sandier sediment (lower Sandlin subunit) preserved in the northern part of this paleovalley. The fluvial system widened between 4.82±0.20 and 4.50±0.07 Ma, depositing coarse sand and fine gravel up to 14 km north of the present-day Rio Grande. This 10–25 m-thick sediment package (upper Sandlin unit) buried earlier south- to southeast-trending paleovalleys (500–800 m wide) inferred from aeromagnetic data. Two brief incisional events are recognized. The first was caused by the 4.82±0.20 Ma basalt flow impounding south-flowing paleodrainages, and the second occurred shortly after emplacement of a 4.69±0.09 Ma basalt flow in the northern study area. Drivers responsible for Sandlin unit aggradation may include climate

  7. Regional scale flood modeling using NEXRAD rainfall, GIS, and HEC-HMS/RAS: a case study for the San Antonio River Basin Summer 2002 storm event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebl, M R; Yang, Z-L; Hutchison, K; Maidment, D R

    2005-06-01

    This paper develops a framework for regional scale flood modeling that integrates NEXRAD Level III rainfall, GIS, and a hydrological model (HEC-HMS/RAS). The San Antonio River Basin (about 4000 square miles, 10,000 km2) in Central Texas, USA, is the domain of the study because it is a region subject to frequent occurrences of severe flash flooding. A major flood in the summer of 2002 is chosen as a case to examine the modeling framework. The model consists of a rainfall-runoff model (HEC-HMS) that converts precipitation excess to overland flow and channel runoff, as well as a hydraulic model (HEC-RAS) that models unsteady state flow through the river channel network based on the HEC-HMS-derived hydrographs. HEC-HMS is run on a 4 x 4 km grid in the domain, a resolution consistent with the resolution of NEXRAD rainfall taken from the local river authority. Watershed parameters are calibrated manually to produce a good simulation of discharge at 12 subbasins. With the calibrated discharge, HEC-RAS is capable of producing floodplain polygons that are comparable to the satellite imagery. The modeling framework presented in this study incorporates a portion of the recently developed GIS tool named Map to Map that has been created on a local scale and extends it to a regional scale. The results of this research will benefit future modeling efforts by providing a tool for hydrological forecasts of flooding on a regional scale. While designed for the San Antonio River Basin, this regional scale model may be used as a prototype for model applications in other areas of the country.

  8. Introduction to the 2002 geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks: Chapter 2 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) periodically conducts assessments of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the United States. The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The last major USGS assessment of oil and gas of the most important oil and gas provinces in the United States was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). Since then a number of individual assessment provinces have been reappraised using new methodology. This was done particularly for those provinces where new information has become available, where new methodology was expected to reveal more insight to provide a better estimate, where additional geologic investigation was needed, or where continuous accumulations were deemed important. The San Juan Basin was reevaluated because of industry exploitation of new hydrocarbon accumulations that were not previously assessed and because of a change in application of assessment methodology to potential undiscovered hydrocarbon accumulations. Several changes have been made in this study. The methodology is different from that used in 1995 (Schmoker, 2003; Schmoker and Klett, 2003). In this study the total petroleum system (TPS) approach (Magoon and Dow, 1994) is used rather than the play approach. The Chama Basin is not included. The team of scientists studying the basin is different. The 1995 study focused on conventional accumulations, whereas in this 2002 assessment, it was a priority to assess continuous-type accumulations, including coal-bed gas. Consequently we are presenting here an entirely new study and results for the San Juan Basin Province. The results of this 2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province (5022) are presented in this report within the geologic context of individual TPSs and their assessment units (AU) (table 1). Results

  9. The transtensional offshore portion of the northern San Andreas fault: Fault zone geometry, late Pleistocene to Holocene sediment deposition, shallow deformation patterns, and asymmetric basin growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, Jeffrey W.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Goldfinger, Chris

    2017-01-01

    We mapped an ~120 km offshore portion of the northern San Andreas fault (SAF) between Point Arena and Point Delgada using closely spaced seismic reflection profiles (1605 km), high-resolution multibeam bathymetry (~1600 km2), and marine magnetic data. This new data set documents SAF location and continuity, associated tectonic geomorphology, shallow stratigraphy, and deformation. Variable deformation patterns in the generally narrow (∼1 km wide) fault zone are largely associated with fault trend and with transtensional and transpressional fault bends.We divide this unique transtensional portion of the offshore SAF into six sections along and adjacent to the SAF based on fault trend, deformation styles, seismic stratigraphy, and seafloor bathymetry. In the southern region of the study area, the SAF includes a 10-km-long zone characterized by two active parallel fault strands. Slip transfer and long-term straightening of the fault trace in this zone are likely leading to transfer of a slice of the Pacific plate to the North American plate. The SAF in the northern region of the survey area passes through two sharp fault bends (∼9°, right stepping, and ∼8°, left stepping), resulting in both an asymmetric lazy Z–shape sedimentary basin (Noyo basin) and an uplifted rocky shoal (Tolo Bank). Seismic stratigraphic sequences and unconformities within the Noyo basin correlate with the previous 4 major Quaternary sea-level lowstands and record basin tilting of ∼0.6°/100 k.y. Migration of the basin depocenter indicates a lateral slip rate on the SAF of 10–19 mm/yr for the past 350 k.y.Data collected west of the SAF on the south flank of Cape Mendocino are inconsistent with the presence of an offshore fault strand that connects the SAF with the Mendocino Triple Junction. Instead, we suggest that the SAF previously mapped onshore at Point Delgada continues onshore northward and transitions to the King Range thrust.

  10. Electrokinetic remediation of mercury- contaminated soil, from the mine El Alacran-San Jorge river basin, Cordoba- Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Marrugo Negrete; Erick López Barboza

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la técnica electrocinética para la remediación de suelos contaminados con mercurio de la mina El Alacrán, ubicada en la cuenca del río San Jorge en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. Soluciones de KI y NaCl fueron usadas como agentes complejantes para la remoción del mercurio en dos concentraciones 0.01 y 0.05 M, aplicando voltajes de 30 y 40 V respectivamente. Los mejores resultados fueron obtenidos cuando el KI se usó como agente complejante, alcan...

  11. A geologic assessment of natural gas from tight gas sandstones in the San Juan Basin. Final report, June 1989--June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, M.R.; Lombardi, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    The authors conducted a detailed geologic appraisal, estimated gas in place and recoverable volumes, and evaluated the impact of technology improvements on potential Cretaceous (Pictured Cliffs, Chacra, Cliff House, Point Lookout and Dakota intervals) tight gas reserves of the San Juan Basin. This report summarizes the results of a disaggregated appraisal of the undeveloped San Juan tight gas resource in the context of current and near-term technology, project economics and market potential. A geologic data base was constructed based on location reservoir properties, and typical well recoveries were modeled on a township-specific basis. Project costing and cash flow economics were analyzed to derive potential reserves for various technology specifications and wellhead prices. These data provide a foundation for operators and pipelines to more closely examine these tight formations for development in the near future. Gas in place for the undeveloped tight portion of the five intervals studied was estimated at 17.2 Tcf, with the Dakota Formation accounting for two thirds of this volume. Using current technology, potential ultimate recovery for all intervals is 7.2 Tcf. Potential reserve additions are 1.1 Tcf at $1.50/Mcf, 2.3 Tcf at $2.00/Mcf, and 5.9 Tcf at $5.00/Mcf. The availability of the Nonconventional Fuels Tax Credit for eligible wells drilled in 1991 and 1992 could improve project economics by an after tax equivalent of $0.66/Mcf at the wellhead. Over 300 geophysical logs were evaluated to construct depth, overburden and isopach maps and a location-specific resource database. The database was analyzed using TGAS-PC{reg_sign}, an integrated engineering and economics model for tight sands that has the capability to do rapid sensitivity analysis of geological, technology and economic assumptions.

  12. Geology, sequence stratigraphy, and oil and gas assessment of the Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 5 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    The Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System (TPS) in the San Juan Basin Province contains a continuous gas accumulation in three distinct stratigraphic units deposited in genetically related depositional environments: offshore-marine shales, mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones of the Lewis Shale, and marginal-marine shoreface sandstones and siltstones of both the La Ventana Tongue and the Chacra Tongue of the Cliff House Sandstone. The Lewis Shale was not a completion target in the San Juan Basin (SJB) in early drilling from about the 1950s through 1990. During that time, only 16 wells were completed in the Lewis from natural fracture systems encountered while drilling for deeper reservoir objectives. In 1991, existing wells that penetrated the Lewis Shale were re-entered by petroleum industry operators in order to fracture-stimulate the Lewis and to add Lewis gas production onto preexisting, and presumably often declining, Mesaverde Group production stratigraphically lower in the section. By 1997, approximately 101 Lewis completions had been made, both as re-entries into existing wells and as add-ons to Mesaverde production in new wells. Based on recent industry drilling and completion practices leading to successful gas production from the Lewis and because new geologic models indicate that the Lewis Shale contains both source rocks and reservoir rocks, the Lewis Shale TPS was defined and evaluated as part of this U.S. Geological Survey oil and gas assessment of the San Juan Basin. Gas in the Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System is produced from shoreface sandstones and siltstones in the La Ventana and Chacra Tongues and from distal facies of these prograding clastic units that extend into marine rocks of the Lewis Shale in the central part of the San Juan Basin. Reservoirs are in shoreface sandstone parasequences of the La Ventana and Chacra and their correlative distal parasequences in the Lewis Shale where both natural and artificially enhanced fractures produce

  13. Modeling the Gila-San Francisco Basin using system dynamics in support of the 2004 Arizona Water Settlement Act.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Peplinski, William J.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2012-04-01

    Water resource management requires collaborative solutions that cross institutional and political boundaries. This work describes the development and use of a computer-based tool for assessing the impact of additional water allocation from the Gila River and the San Francisco River prescribed in the 2004 Arizona Water Settlements Act. Between 2005 and 2010, Sandia National Laboratories engaged concerned citizens, local water stakeholders, and key federal and state agencies to collaboratively create the Gila-San Francisco Decision Support Tool. Based on principles of system dynamics, the tool is founded on a hydrologic balance of surface water, groundwater, and their associated coupling between water resources and demands. The tool is fitted with a user interface to facilitate sensitivity studies of various water supply and demand scenarios. The model also projects the consumptive use of water in the region as well as the potential CUFA (Consumptive Use and Forbearance Agreement which stipulates when and where Arizona Water Settlements Act diversions can be made) diversion over a 26-year horizon. Scenarios are selected to enhance our understanding of the potential human impacts on the rivers ecological health in New Mexico; in particular, different case studies thematic to water conservation, water rights, and minimum flow are tested using the model. The impact on potential CUFA diversions, agricultural consumptive use, and surface water availability are assessed relative to the changes imposed in the scenarios. While it has been difficult to gage the acceptance level from the stakeholders, the technical information that the model provides are valuable for facilitating dialogues in the context of the new settlement.

  14. Institutions and Societal Impacts of Climate in the Lower Colorado and San Pedro Basins of the U.S.-Mexico Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, R. G.; Wilder, M.; Morehouse, B. J.; Garfin, G. M.

    2007-05-01

    The U.S. Southwest and Mexico border region feature two prominent river basins, the Colorado and Rio Grande, and ecologically important sub-basins such as the San Pedro. The area within which these transboundary basins lie is characterized by overall aridity and high climatic variability over seasonal to decadal and longer time scales. Throughout human occupation, numerous and diverse strategies for buffering climate impacts have emerged. The most notable response has been an increasingly complex system of institutions and structures designed to buffer water scarcity. The Colorado River Compact, and the laws governing allocation of waters from the Rio Grande River, together with the dams, hydropower generators, canals and other engineered features, represent two of the most complex systems. Drought nevertheless remains a looming specter across much of the binational border region. Institutional mechanisms for responding to drought range from awareness-raising and capacity-building efforts, to implementation of formal drought plans, to storing water to make up for deficits, and water conservation rules that become increasingly stringent as drought intensifies. A number of formal and informal binational institutions operate in the region. Some are venerable, like the century-old International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC) and its Mexican counterpart the Comision Internacional de Limites y Agua (CILA). Others, like the Border Environment Cooperation Commission and the North American Development Bank, were created in the mid-1990s with the North American Free Trade Agreement. These institutions, both domestic and transnational, operate in a complex binational, bicultural environment with contrasting legal and administrative traditions. Under such constraints, they manage water resources and ecosystems and attempt to improve water and sanitation infrastructure in the context of deep and extended drought. But in spite of their efforts, society and natural habitat

  15. New geochronologic and stratigraphic evidence confirms the paleocene age of the dinosaur-bearing ojo alamo sandstone and animas formation in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Dinosaur fossils are present in the Paleocene Ojo Alamo Sandstone and Animas Formation in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and Colorado. Evidence for the Paleo-cene age of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone includes palynologic and paleomagnetic data. Palynologic data indicate that the entire Ojo Alamo Sandstone, including the lower dinosaur-bearing part, is Paleocene in age. All of the palynomorph-productive rock samples collected from the Ojo Alamo Sandstone at multiple localities lacked Creta-ceous index palynomorphs (except for rare, reworked specimens) and produced Paleocene index palynomorphs. Paleocene palynomorphs have been identified strati-graphically below dinosaur fossils at two separate localities in the Ojo Alamo Sand-stone in the central and southern parts of the basin. The Animas Formation in the Colorado part of the basin also contains dinosaur fossils, and its Paleocene age has been established based on fossil leaves and palynology. Magnetostratigraphy provides independent evidence for the Paleocene age of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone and its dinosaur-bearing beds. Normal-polarity magnetochron C29n (early Paleocene) has been identified in the Ojo Alamo Sandstone at six localities in the southern part of the San Juan Basin. An assemblage of 34 skeletal elements from a single hadrosaur, found in the Ojo Alamo Sandstone in the southern San Juan Basin, provided conclusive evidence that this assemblage could not have been reworked from underlying Cretaceous strata. In addition, geochemical studies of 15 vertebrate bones from the Paleocene Ojo Alamo Sandstone and 15 bone samples from the underlying Kirtland Formation of Late Creta-ceous (Campanian) age show that each sample suite contained distinctly different abundances of uranium and rare-earth elements, indicating that the bones were miner-alized in place soon after burial, and that none of the Paleocene dinosaur bones ana-lyzed had been reworked. ?? U.S. Geological Survey, Public Domain April 2009.

  16. Natural Tracers and Multi-Scale Assessment of Caprock Sealing Behavior: A Case Study of the Kirtland Formation, San Juan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Heath; Brian McPherson; Thomas Dewers

    2011-03-15

    The assessment of caprocks for geologic CO{sub 2} storage is a multi-scale endeavor. Investigation of a regional caprock - the Kirtland Formation, San Juan Basin, USA - at the pore-network scale indicates high capillary sealing capacity and low permeabilities. Core and wellscale data, however, indicate a potential seal bypass system as evidenced by multiple mineralized fractures and methane gas saturations within the caprock. Our interpretation of {sup 4}He concentrations, measured at the top and bottom of the caprock, suggests low fluid fluxes through the caprock: (1) Of the total {sup 4}He produced in situ (i.e., at the locations of sampling) by uranium and thorium decay since deposition of the Kirtland Formation, a large portion still resides in the pore fluids. (2) Simple advection-only and advection-diffusion models, using the measured {sup 4}He concentrations, indicate low permeability ({approx}10-20 m{sup 2} or lower) for the thickness of the Kirtland Formation. These findings, however, do not guarantee the lack of a large-scale bypass system. The measured data, located near the boundary conditions of the models (i.e., the overlying and underlying aquifers), limit our testing of conceptual models and the sensitivity of model parameterization. Thus, we suggest approaches for future studies to better assess the presence or lack of a seal bypass system at this particular site and for other sites in general.

  17. Computeer-based decision support tools for evaluation of actions affecting flow and water quality in the San Joaquin Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    1993-01-01

    This document is a preliminary effort to draw together some of the important simulation models that are available to Reclamation or that have been developed by Reclamation since 1987. This document has also attempted to lay out a framework by which these models might be used both for the purposes for which they were originally intended and to support the analysis of other issues that relate to the hydrology and to salt and water quality management within the San Joaquin Valley. To be successful as components of a larger Decision Support System the models should to be linked together using custom designed interfaces that permit data sharing between models and that are easy to use. Several initiatives are currently underway within Reclamation to develop GIS - based and graphics - based decision support systems to improve the general level of understanding of the models currently in use, to standardize the methodology used in making planning and operations studies and to permit improved data analysis, interpretation and display. The decision support systems should allow greater participation in the planning process, allow the analysis of innovative actions that are currently difficult to study with present models and should lead to better integrated and more comprehensive plans and policy decisions in future years.

  18. Geology of Paleozoic Rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, Excluding the San Juan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldon, Arthur L.

    2003-01-01

    The geology of the Paleozoic rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, was studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program to provide support for hydrogeological interpretations. The study area is segmented by numerous uplifts and basins caused by folding and faulting that have recurred repeatedly from Precambrian to Cenozoic time. Paleozoic rocks in the study area are 0-18,000 feet thick. They are underlain by Precambrian igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks and are overlain in most of the area by Triassic formations composed mostly of shale. The overlying Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks are 0-27,000 feet thick. All Paleozoic systems except the Silurian are represented in the region. The Paleozoic rocks are divisible into 11 hydrogeologic units. The basal hydrogeologic unit consisting of Paleozoic rocks, the Flathead aquifer, predominantly is composed of Lower to Upper Cambrian sandstone and quartzite. The aquifer is 0-800 feet thick and is overlain gradationally to unconformably by formations of Cambrian to Mississippian age. The Gros Ventre confining unit consists of Middle to Upper Cambrian shale with subordinate carbonate rocks and sandstone. The confining unit is 0-1,100 feet thick and is overlain gradationally to unconformably by formations of Cambrian to Mississippian age. The Bighom aquifer consists of Middle Cambrian to Upper Ordovician limestone and dolomite with subordinate shale and sandstone. The aquifer is 0-3,000 feet thick and is overlain unconformably by Devonian and Mississipplan rocks. The Elbert-Parting confining unit consists of Lower Devonian to Lower Mississippian limestone, dolomite, sandstone, quartzite, shale, and anhydrite. It is 0-700 feet thick and is overlain conformably to unconformably by Upper Devonian and Mississippian rocks. The Madison aquifer consists of two zones of distinctly different lithology. The lower (Redwall-Leadville) zone

  19. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit, 2012; California GAMA Priority Basin Project (ver. 1.1, February 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.

    2017-07-20

    Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit (NSF-SA) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is in Marin, Mendocino, Napa, Solano, and Sonoma Counties and included two physiographic study areas: the Valleys and Plains area and the surrounding Highlands area. The NSF-SA focused on groundwater resources used for domestic drinking water supply, which generally correspond to shallower parts of aquifer systems than that of groundwater resources used for public drinking water supply in the same area. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of drinking water.This study included three components: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the quality of the groundwater resources used for domestic supply for 2012; (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting water quality in those resources; and (3) a comparison between the groundwater resources used for domestic supply and those used for public supply.The status assessment was based on data collected from 71 sites sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project in 2012. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California State Water Resources Control Board Division of Drinking Water regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources that has concentrations of water-quality constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale and permits comparisons to other GAMA Priority Basin Project study areas.In the NSF-SA study unit as a whole, inorganic

  20. Electrokinetic remediation of mercury- contaminated soil, from the mine El Alacran-San Jorge river basin, Cordoba- Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Marrugo Negrete

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la técnica electrocinética para la remediación de suelos contaminados con mercurio de la mina El Alacrán, ubicada en la cuenca del río San Jorge en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. Soluciones de KI y NaCl fueron usadas como agentes complejantes para la remoción del mercurio en dos concentraciones 0.01 y 0.05 M, aplicando voltajes de 30 y 40 V respectivamente. Los mejores resultados fueron obtenidos cuando el KI se usó como agente complejante, alcanzando porcentajes de recuperación hasta de 98.7%. los tratamientos donde el NaCl se usó como agente complejante no alcanzaron recuperaciones significativas (< 1%, excepto cuando se usó una concentración de 0.05 M de NaCl con un voltaje de 40 V alcanzando una recuperación de 38%. En todos los experimentos, el mercurio se movió hacia el ánodo, debido a la formación de complejos de naturaleza aniónica y se observó que incrementando la concentración y el voltaje, una mayor eficiencia y velocidad de remoción de mercurio del suelo fue alcanzada. Los resultados muestran que el ioduro tiene propiedades que lo hacen una solución electrolítica prometedora para la remoción del mercurio en suelos contaminados.

  1. Dense array recordings in the San Bernardino Valley of landers-big bear aftershocks: Basin surface waves, Moho reflections, and three-dimensional simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur

    1994-01-01

    Fourteen GEOS seismic recorders were deployed in the San Bernardino Valley to study the propagation of short-period (T ≈ 1 to 3 sec) surface waves and Moho reflections. Three dense arrays were used to determine the direction and speed of propagation of arrivals in the seismograms. The seismograms for a shallow (d ≈ 1 km) M 4.9 aftershock of the Big Bear earthquake exhibit a very long duration (60 sec) of sustained shaking at periods of about 2 sec. Array analysis indicates that these late arrivals are dominated by surface waves traveling in various directions across the Valley. Some energy is arriving from a direction 180° from the epicenter and was apparently reflected from the edge of the Valley opposite the source. A close-in aftershock (Δ = 25 km, depth = 7 km) displays substantial short-period surface waves at deep-soil sites. A three-dimensional (3D) finite difference simulation produces synthetic seismograms with durations similar to those of the observed records for this event, indicating the importance of S-wave to surface-wave conversion near the edge of the basin. Flat-layered models severely underpredict the duration and spectral amplification of this deep-soil site. I show an example where the coda wave amplitude ratio at 1 to 2 Hz between a deep-soil and a rock site does not equal the S-wave amplitude ratio, because of the presence of surface waves in the coda of the deep-soil site. For one of the events studied (Δ ≈ 90 km), there are sizable phases that are critically reflected from the Moho (PmP and SmS). At one of the rock sites, the SmS phase has a more peaked spectrum that the direct S wave.

  2. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the two southern San Joaquin Valley study units, 2005-2006 - California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the southern San Joaquin Valley was investigated from October 2005 through March 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. There are two study units located in the southern San Joaquin Valley: the Southeast San Joaquin Valley (SESJ) study unit and the Kern County Subbasin (KERN) study unit. The GAMA Priority Basin Project in the SESJ and KERN study units was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifers. The status assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 and 2006 by the USGS from 130 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. Data was collected from an additional 19 wells for the understanding assessment. The aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the CDPH database for the SESJ and KERN study units. The status assessment of groundwater quality used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of untreated groundwater resources within the primary aquifers in the SESJ and KERN study units, not the quality of drinking water delivered to consumers. Although the status assessment applies to untreated groundwater, Federal and California regulatory and non-regulatory water-quality benchmarks that apply to drinking water are used

  3. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit, 2012; California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.

    2017-07-20

    Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit (NSF-SA) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is in Marin, Mendocino, Napa, Solano, and Sonoma Counties and included two physiographic study areas: the Valleys and Plains area and the surrounding Highlands area. The NSF-SA focused on groundwater resources used for domestic drinking water supply, which generally correspond to shallower parts of aquifer systems than that of groundwater resources used for public drinking water supply in the same area. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of drinking water.This study included three components: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the quality of the groundwater resources used for domestic supply for 2012; (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting water quality in those resources; and (3) a comparison between the groundwater resources used for domestic supply and those used for public supply.The status assessment was based on data collected from 71 sites sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project in 2012. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California State Water Resources Control Board Division of Drinking Water regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources that has concentrations of water-quality constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale and permits comparisons to other GAMA Priority Basin Project study areas.In the NSF-SA study unit as a whole, inorganic

  4. Multi-Scale Transport Properties of Fine-Grained Rocks: A Case Study of the Kirtland Formation, San Juan Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J. E.; Dewers, T. A.; McPherson, B. J.; Wilson, T. H.; Flach, T.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding and characterizing transport properties of fine-grained rocks is critical in development of shale gas plays or assessing retention of CO2 at geologic storage sites. Difficulties arise in that both small scale (i.e., ~ nm) properties of the rock matrix and much larger scale fractures, faults, and sedimentological architecture govern migration of multiphase fluids. We present a multi-scale investigation of sealing and transport properties of the Kirtland Formation, which is a regional aquitard and reservoir seal in the San Juan Basin, USA. Sub-micron dual FIB/SEM imaging and reconstruction of 3D pore networks in core samples reveal a variety of pore types, including slit-shaped pores that are co-located with sedimentary structures and variations in mineralogy. Micron-scale chemical analysis and XRD reveal a mixture of mixed-layer smectite/illite, chlorite, quartz, and feldspar with little organic matter. Analysis of sub-micron digital reconstructions, mercury capillary injection pressure, and gas breakthrough measurements indicate a high quality sealing matrix. Natural full and partially mineralized fractures observed in core and in FMI logs include those formed from early soil-forming processes, differential compaction, and tectonic events. The potential impact of both fracture and matrix properties on large-scale transport is investigated through an analysis of natural helium from core samples, 3D seismic data and poro-elastic modeling. While seismic interpretations suggest considerable fracturing of the Kirtland, large continuous fracture zones and faults extending through the seal to the surface cannot be inferred from the data. Observed Kirtland Formation multi-scale transport properties are included as part of a risk assessment methodology for CO2 storage. Acknowledgements: The authors gratefully acknowledge the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory for sponsoring this project. The DOE’s Basic Energy Science

  5. Geology and oil and gas assessment of the Todilto Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin Province, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 3 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, J.L.; Hatch, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Organic-rich, shaly limestone beds, which contain hydrocarbon source beds in the lower part of the Jurassic Todilto Limestone Member of the Wanakah Formation, and sandstone reservoirs in the overlying Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, compose the Todilto Total Petroleum System (TPS). Source rock facies of the Todilto Limestone were deposited in a combined marine-lacustrine depositional setting. Sandstone reservoirs in the Entrada Sandstone were deposited in eolian depositional environments. Oil in Todilto source beds was generated beginning in the middle Paleocene, about 63 million years ago, and maximum generation of oil occurred in the middle Eocene. In the northern part of the San Juan Basin, possible gas and condensate were generated in Todilto Limestone Member source beds until the middle Miocene. The migration distance of oil from the Todilto source beds into the underlying Entrada Sandstone reservoirs was short, probably within the dimensions of a single dune crest. Traps in the Entrada are mainly stratigraphic and diagenetic. Regional tilt of the strata to the northeast has influenced structural trapping of oil, but also allowed for later introduction of water. Subsequent hydrodynamic forces have influenced the repositioning of the oil in some reservoirs and flushing in others. Seals are mostly the anhydrite and limestone facies of the Todilto, which thin to as little as 10 ft over the crests of the dunes. The TPS contains only one assessment unit, the Entrada Sandstone Conventional Oil Assessment Unit (AU) (50220401). Only four of the eight oil fields producing from the Entrada met the 0.5 million barrels of oil minimum size used for this assessment. The AU was estimated at the mean to have potential additions to reserves of 2.32 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 5.56 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 0.22 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL).

  6. Simulation of climate change in San Francisco Bay Basins, California: Case studies in the Russian River Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of ongoing changes in climate, hydrologic and ecologic effects are being seen across the western United States. A regional study of how climate change affects water resources and habitats in the San Francisco Bay area relied on historical climate data and future projections of climate, which were downscaled to fine spatial scales for application to a regional water-balance model. Changes in climate, potential evapotranspiration, recharge, runoff, and climatic water deficit were modeled for the Bay Area. In addition, detailed studies in the Russian River Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains, which are on the northern and southern extremes of the Bay Area, respectively, were carried out in collaboration with local water agencies. Resource managers depend on science-based projections to inform planning exercises that result in competent adaptation to ongoing and future changes in water supply and environmental conditions. Results indicated large spatial variability in climate change and the hydrologic response across the region; although there is warming under all projections, potential change in precipitation by the end of the 21st century differed according to model. Hydrologic models predicted reduced early and late wet season runoff for the end of the century for both wetter and drier future climate projections, which could result in an extended dry season. In fact, summers are projected to be longer and drier in the future than in the past regardless of precipitation trends. While water supply could be subject to increased variability (that is, reduced reliability) due to greater variability in precipitation, water demand is likely to steadily increase because of increased evapotranspiration rates and climatic water deficit during the extended summers. Extended dry season conditions and the potential for drought, combined with unprecedented increases in precipitation, could serve as additional stressors on water quality and habitat. By focusing on the

  7. Effects of smectite on the oil-expulsion efficiency of the Kreyenhagen Shale, San Joaquin Basin, California, based on hydrous-pyrolysis experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, Michael D.; Dolan, Michael P.; Curtis, John B.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of oil that maturing source rocks expel is expressed as their expulsion efficiency, which is usually stated in milligrams of expelled oil per gram of original total organic carbon (TOCO). Oil-expulsion efficiency can be determined by heating thermally immature source rocks in the presence of liquid water (i.e., hydrous pyrolysis) at temperatures between 350°C and 365°C for 72 hr. This pyrolysis method generates oil that is compositionally similar to natural crude oil and expels it by processes operative in the subsurface. Consequently, hydrous pyrolysis provides a means to determine oil-expulsion efficiencies and the rock properties that influence them. Smectite in source rocks has previously been considered to promote oil generation and expulsion and is the focus of this hydrous-pyrolysis study involving a representative sample of smectite-rich source rock from the Eocene Kreyenhagen Shale in the San Joaquin Basin of California. Smectite is the major clay mineral (31 wt. %) in this thermally immature sample, which contains 9.4 wt. % total organic carbon (TOC) comprised of type II kerogen. Compared to other immature source rocks that lack smectite as their major clay mineral, the expulsion efficiency of the Kreyenhagen Shale was significantly lower. The expulsion efficiency of the Kreyenhagen whole rock was reduced 88% compared to that of its isolated kerogen. This significant reduction is attributed to bitumen impregnating the smectite interlayers in addition to the rock matrix. Within the interlayers, much of the bitumen is converted to pyrobitumen through crosslinking instead of oil through thermal cracking. As a result, smectite does not promote oil generation but inhibits it. Bitumen impregnation of the rock matrix and smectite interlayers results in the rock pore system changing from water wet to bitumen wet. This change prevents potassium ion (K+) transfer and dissolution and precipitation reactions needed for the conversion of smectite to

  8. Geologic framework, regional aquifer properties (1940s-2009), and spring, creek, and seep properties (2009-10) of the upper San Mateo Creek Basin near Mount Taylor, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Jeff B.; Sprague, Jesse E.; Durall, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, examined the geologic framework, regional aquifer properties, and spring, creek, and seep properties of the upper San Mateo Creek Basin near Mount Taylor, which contains areas proposed for exploratory drilling and possible uranium mining on U.S. Forest Service land. The geologic structure of the region was formed from uplift of the Zuni Mountains during the Laramide Orogeny and the Neogene volcanism associated with the Mount Taylor Volcanic Field. Within this structural context, numerous aquifers are present in various Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary formations and the Quaternary alluvium. The distribution of the aquifers is spatially variable because of the dip of the formations and erosion that produced the current landscape configuration where older formations have been exhumed closer to the Zuni Mountains. Many of the alluvial deposits and formations that contain groundwater likely are hydraulically connected because of the solid-matrix properties, such as substantive porosity, but shale layers such as those found in the Mancos Formation and Chinle Group likely restrict vertical flow. Existing water-level data indicate topologically downgradient flow in the Quaternary alluvium and indiscernible general flow patterns in the lower aquifers. According to previously published material and the geologic structure of the aquifers, the flow direction in the lower aquifers likely is in the opposite direction compared to the alluvium aquifer. Groundwater within the Chinle Group is known to be confined, which may allow upward migration of water into the Morrison Formation; however, confining layers within the Chinle Group likely retard upward leakage. Groundwater was sodium-bicarbonate/sulfate dominant or mixed cation-mixed anion with some calcium/bicarbonate water in the study area. The presence of the reduction/oxidation-sensitive elements iron and manganese in groundwater indicates reducing

  9. Identifying sources of dissolved organic carbon in agriculturally dominated rivers using radiocarbon age dating: Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickman, James O.; DiGiorgio, Carol L.; Davisson, M. Lee; Lucero, Delores M.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    We used radiocarbon measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to resolve sources of riverine carbon within agriculturally dominated landscapes in California. During 2003 and 2004, average Δ14C for DOC was −254‰ in agricultural drains in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, −218‰ in the San Joaquin River, −175‰ in the California State Water Project and −152‰ in the Sacramento River. The age of bulk DOC transiting the rivers of California’s Central Valley is the oldest reported for large rivers and suggests wide-spread loss of soil organic matter caused by agriculture and urbanization. Using DAX 8 adsorbent, we isolated and measured 14C concentrations in hydrophobic acid fractions (HPOA); river samples showed evidence of bomb-pulse carbon with average Δ14C of 91 and 76‰ for the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers, respectively, with older HPOA, −204‰, observed in agricultural drains. An operationally defined non-HPOA fraction of DOC was observed in the San Joaquin River with seasonally computed Δ14C values of between −275 and −687‰; the source of this aged material was hypothesized to be physically protected organic-matter in high clay-content soils and agrochemicals (i.e., radiocarbon-dead material) applied to farmlands. Mixing models suggest that the Sacramento River contributes about 50% of the DOC load in the California State Water Project, and agricultural drains contribute approximately one-third of the load. In contrast to studies showing stabilization of soil carbon pools within one or two decades following land conversion, sustained loss of soil organic matter, occurring many decades after the initial agricultural-land conversion, was observed in California’s Central Valley.

  10. San Joaquin Bay Delta Legal Boundary, California, 2007, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta) and Suisun Marsh are at the confluence of the Sacramento River and San Joaquin River basins, which drain about 40...

  11. Application of a watershed model (HSPF) for evaluating sources and transport of pathogen indicators in the Chino Basin drainage area, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevesi, Joseph A.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Church, Clinton D.; Mendez, Gregory O.

    2011-01-01

    A watershed model using Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) was developed for the urbanized Chino Basin in southern California to simulate the transport of pathogen indicator bacteria, evaluate the flow-component and land-use contributions to bacteria contamination and water-quality degradation throughout the basin, and develop a better understanding of the potential effects of climate and land-use change on water quality. The calibration of the model for indicator bacteria was supported by historical data collected before this study and by samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from targeted land-use areas during storms in water-year 2004. The model was successfully calibrated for streamflow at 5 gage locations representing the Chino Creek and Mill Creek drainages. Although representing pathogens as dissolved constituents limits the model's ability to simulate the transport of pathogen indicator bacteria, the bacteria concentrations measured over the period 1998-2004 were well represented by the simulated concentrations for most locations. Hourly concentrations were more difficult to predict because of high variability in measured bacteria concentrations. In general, model simulations indicated that the residential and commercial land uses were the dominant sources for most of the pathogen indicator bacteria during low streamflows. However, simulations indicated that land used for intensive livestock (dairies and feedlots) and mixed agriculture contributed the most bacteria during storms. The calibrated model was used to evaluate how various land use, air temperature, and precipitation scenarios would affect flow and transport of bacteria. Results indicated that snow pack formation and melt were sensitive to changes in air temperature in the northern, mountainous part of the Chino Basin, causing the timing and magnitude of streamflow to shift in the natural drainages and impact the urbanized areas of the central Chino Basin. The relation between

  12. San Francisco District Laboratory (SAN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesFood Analysis SAN-DO Laboratory has an expert in elemental analysis who frequently performs field inspections of materials. A recently acquired...

  13. Using SW4 for 3D Simulations of Earthquake Strong Ground Motions: Application to Near-Field Strong Motion, Building Response, Basin Edge Generated Waves and Earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Are

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, A. J.; Pitarka, A.; Petersson, N. A.; Sjogreen, B.; McCallen, D.; Miah, M.

    2016-12-01

    Simulation of earthquake ground motions is becoming more widely used due to improvements of numerical methods, development of ever more efficient computer programs (codes), and growth in and access to High-Performance Computing (HPC). We report on how SW4 can be used for accurate and efficient simulations of earthquake strong motions. SW4 is an anelastic finite difference code based on a fourth order summation-by-parts displacement formulation. It is parallelized and can run on one or many processors. SW4 has many desirable features for seismic strong motion simulation: incorporation of surface topography; automatic mesh generation; mesh refinement; attenuation and supergrid boundary conditions. It also has several ways to introduce 3D models and sources (including Standard Rupture Format for extended sources). We are using SW4 to simulate strong ground motions for several applications. We are performing parametric studies of near-fault motions from moderate earthquakes to investigate basin edge generated waves and large earthquakes to provide motions to engineers study building response. We show that 3D propagation near basin edges can generate significant amplifications relative to 1D analysis. SW4 is also being used to model earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area. This includes modeling moderate (M3.5-5) events to evaluate the United States Geologic Survey's 3D model of regional structure as well as strong motions from the 2014 South Napa earthquake and possible large scenario events. Recently SW4 was built on a Commodity Technology Systems-1 (CTS-1) at LLNL, new systems for capacity computing at the DOE National Labs. We find SW4 scales well and runs faster on these systems compared to the previous generation of LINUX clusters.

  14. San Marino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    San Marino, an independent republic located in north central Italy, in 1983 had a population of 22,206 growing at an annual rate of .9%. The literacy rate is 97% and the infant mortality rate is 9.6/1000. The terrain is mountainous and the climate is moderate. According to local tradition, San Marino was founded by a Christian stonecutter in the 4th century A.D. as a refuge against religious persecution. Its recorded history began in the 9th century, and it has survived assaults on its independence by the papacy, the Malatesta lords of Rimini, Cesare Borgia, Napoleon, and Mussolini. An 1862 treaty with the newly formed Kingdom of Italy has been periodically renewed and amended. The present government is an alliance between the socialists and communists. San Marino has had its own statutes and governmental institutions since the 11th century. Legislative authority at present is vested in a 60-member unicameral parliament. Executive authority is exercised by the 11-member Congress of State, the members of which head the various administrative departments of the goverment. The posts are divided among the parties which form the coalition government. Judicial authority is partly exercised by Italian magistrates in civil and criminal cases. San Marino's policies are tied to Italy's and political organizations and labor unions active in Italy are also active in San Marino. Since World War II, there has been intense rivalry between 2 political coalitions, the Popular Alliance composed of the Christian Democratic Party and the Independent Social Democratic Party, and the Liberty Committee, coalition of the Communist Party and the Socialist Party. San Marino's gross domestic product was $137 million and its per capita income was $6290 in 1980. The principal economic activities are farming and livestock raising, along with some light manufacturing. Foreign transactions are dominated by tourism. The government derives most of its revenue from the sale of postage stamps to

  15. Geology and fuel resources of the southern part of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Part 1, The coal field from Gallup eastward toward Mount Taylor, with a measured section of pre-Dakota(?) rocks near Navajo Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Julian D.

    1934-01-01

    The report describes the geology and coal deposits of the southwestern part of the San Juan Basin, N.Mex. The field lies northeast of the town of Gallup, on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, and is an irregular tract of about 630 square miles in central and west-central McKinley County; it includes the southeast corner of the Navajo Indian Reservation. Settlement is confined to the white families at a few trading posts and the Indian agency at Crown Point and to scattered Navajo Indians. The land forms, drainage, vegetation, and climate are those typical of the highland in the semiarid Southwest.The investigation disclosed complicated relations of the Mancos shale and the Mesaverde formation, of Upper Cretaceous age, and a marked variation in the stratigraphic boundary between them. At the western edge of the field, as in the adjoining Gallup coal district, the Mancos consists of about 725 feet of marine shale almost wholly of Benton (lower Colorado) age. It is overlain by about 1,800 feet of chiefly estuarine and fluviatile deposits that represent the lower part of the Mesaverde formation. In ascending order the Mesaverde here consists of the Gallup sandstone member (which includes local lenses of valuable coal), the Dilco coal member, the Bartlett barren member, the Gibson coal member, and the Allison barren member. Eastward through the field the outcrops extend obliquely across the trend of old shore lines out into the ancient basin of marine deposition, and some of the beds consequently show a progressive lateral change into rocks of littoral and marine types. The Gallup sandstone member is in part replaced by marine shale of the Mancos. The upper part of the Dilco coal member is replaced by the Dalton sandstone member, and still farther east the bottom of the Dalton and the top of the remaining Dilco are replaced by the Mulatto tongue of the Mancos shale. The Bartlett barren member becomes coal-bearing and thus merges with the Gibson. The Gibson coal

  16. Demanda de irrigação da cultura da uva na Bacia do Rio São Francisco Irrigation demand for grape crop in San Francisco River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallisson da S. Freitas

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Visando subsidiar o planejamento de projetos agrícolas para o dimensionamento de projetos de irrigação e a gestão de recursos hídricos, estimou-se e se espacializou a demanda de irrigação da videira (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Itália, na bacia do Rio São Francisco. Utilizaram-se séries históricas de dados de 81 estações climáticas distribuídas na bacia. Para cada estação calculou-se os valores, máximos diários e o total anual, da evapotranspiração de referência (ETo, da evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc, da demanda suplementar da cultura e da demanda suplementar de irrigação (este com eficiência de 70%. Com base nos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que: (a a ETc máxima diária variou, em grande parte da bacia, de 4,5 a 5,7 mm d-1, tendo média anual de 943 mm; (b em média, a demanda anual suplementar da cultura foi 839,5 mm, equivalente a 103,5 mm inferior à ETc; (c o fato do sistema funcionar com 70% de eficiência, em vez de 90%, implica em acréscimo estimado de 18.808.755 m³ de água por ano, somente nas microrregiões de Juazeiro, BA e Petrolina, PE.The irrigation water demand of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Italy was estimated and spatialized in San Francisco River Basin, in order to subsidize the agricultural project planning and water resource management. Historical data series relative to 81 climatic stations distributed throughout the basin were used. The maximum daily values and the annual total values of the reference evapotranspiration (ETo, crop evapotranspiration (ETc, supplementary demand of the crop and the supplementary irrigation demand (70% efficiency were calculated for each station. According to the results, the following conclusions were drawn: (a in a large area of the basin, the maximum daily ETc varied from 4.5 to 5.7 mm d-1, with an annual mean of 943 mm; (b the supplementary annual demand of the crop averaged 839.5 mm, corresponding to 103.5 mm less than ETc; and (c the irrigation

  17. Sustainability Metrics: The San Luis Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability is about promoting humanly desirable dynamic regimes of the environment. Metrics: ecological footprint, net regional product, exergy, emergy, and Fisher Information. Adaptive management: (1) metrics assess problem, (2) specific problem identified, and (3) managemen...

  18. San Mateo Creek Basin Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this Preliminary Assessment is to evaluate the site using the Hazard Ranking System and the Superfund Chemical Data Matrix to determine if a threat to human health and the environment exists such that further action is warranted.

  19. Yupingfeng San

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue; Shen, Jiawen; Fan, Danping; Qiu, Xuemei; Guo, Qingqing; Zheng, Kang; Luo, Hui; Shu, Jun; Lu, Cheng; Zhang, Ge; Lu, Aiping; Ma, Chaoying; He, Xiaojuan

    2017-01-01

    Yupingfeng San (YPFS) is a representative Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula with accepted therapeutic effect on Asthma. However, its action mechanism is still obscure. In this study, we used network pharmacology to explore potential mechanism of YPFS on asthma. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor pathway was shown to be the top one shared signaling pathway associated with both YPFS and asthma. In addition, NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome was treated as target protein in the process of YPFS regulating asthma. Further, experimental validation was done by using LPS-stimulated U937 cells and ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized BALB/c mice model. In vitro experiments showed that YPFS significantly decreased the production of TNF-α and IL-6, as well as both mRNA and protein levels of IL-1β, NLRP3, Caspase-1 and ASC in LPS-stimulated U937 cells. In vivo experiment indicated that YPFS treatment not only attenuated the clinical symptoms, but also reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, mucus secretion and MUC5AC production in lung tissue of asthmatic mice. Moreover, YPFS treatment remarkably decreased the mRNA and protein levels of IL-1β, NLRP3, Caspase-1 and ASC in lung tissue of asthmatic mice. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that YPFS could inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome components to attenuate the inflammatory response in asthma.

  20. Chirp seismic-reflection data of field activity S-5-09-SC: San Pedro Basin, offshore southern California from 2009-07-06 to 2009-07-10

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes raw and processed, high-resolution seismic-reflection data collected in 2009 to explore a possible connection between the San Diego Trough...

  1. Microsatellite analyses of San Franciscuito Creek rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2000-01-01

    Microsatellite genetic diversity found in San Francisquito Creek rainbow trout support a close genetic relationship with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from another tributary of San Francisco Bay, Alameda Creek, and coastal trout found in Lagunitas Creek, Marin County, California. Fish collected for this study from San Francisquito Creek showed a closer genetic relationship to fish from the north-central California steelhead ESU than for any other listed group of O. mykiss. No significant genotypic or allelic frequency associations could be drawn between San Francisquito Creek trout and fish collected from the four primary rainbow trout hatchery strains in use in California, i.e. Whitney, Mount Shasta, Coleman, and Hot Creek hatchery fish. Indeed, genetic distance analyses (δµ2) supported separation between San Francisquito Creek trout and all hatchery trout with 68% bootstrap values in 1000 replicate neighbor-joining trees. Not surprisingly, California hatchery rainbow trout showed their closest evolutionary relationships with contemporary stocks derived from the Sacramento River. Wild collections of rainbow trout from the Sacramento-San Joaquin basin in the Central Valley were also clearly separable from San Francisquito Creek fish supporting separate, independent ESUs for two groups of O. mykiss (one coastal and one Central Valley) with potentially overlapping life histories in San Francisco Bay. These data support the implementation of management and conservation programs for rainbow trout in the San Francisquito Creek drainage as part of the central California coastal steelhead ESU.

  2. Contaminants investigation of the Guadalupe and San Antonio Rivers of Texas, 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Guadalupe and San Antonio River Basins drain a combined area of 26,547 km2 (10,250 square miles), transporting wastewaters from agricultural, livestock, and...

  3. Geology and oil and gas assessment of the Mancos-Menefee Composite Total Petroleum System: Chapter 4 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, J.L.; Condon, S.M.; Hatch, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    The Mancos-Menefee Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) includes all genetically related hydrocarbons generated from organic-rich shales in the Cretaceous Mancos Shale and from carbonaceous shale, coal beds, and humate in the Cretaceous Menefee Formation of the Mesaverde Group. The system is called a composite total petroleum system because the exact source of the hydrocarbons in some of the reservoirs is not known. Reservoir rocks that contain hydrocarbons generated in Mancos and Menefee source beds are found in the Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone, at the base of the composite TPS, through the lower part of the Cliff House Sandstone of the Mesaverde Group, at the top. Source rocks in both the Mancos Shale and Menefee Formation entered the oil generation window in the late Eocene and continued to generate oil or gas into the late Miocene. Near the end of the Miocene in the San Juan Basin, subsidence ceased, hydrocarbon generation ceased, and the basin was uplifted and differentially eroded. Reservoirs are now underpressured.

  4. Landslide oil field, San Joaquin Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, B.P.; March, K.A.; Caballero, J.S.; Stolle, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    The Landslide field, located at the southern margin of the San Joaquin basin, was discovered in 1985 by a partnership headed by Channel Exploration Company, on a farm out from Tenneco Oil Company. Initial production from the Tenneco San Emidio 63X-30 was 2064 BOPD, making landslide one of the largest onshore discoveries in California during the past decade. Current production is 7100 BOPD from a sandstone reservoir at 12,500 ft. Fifteen wells have been drilled in the field, six of which are water injectors. Production from the Landslide field occurs from a series of upper Miocene Stevens turbidite sandstones that lie obliquely across an east-plunging structural nose. These turbidite sandstones were deposited as channel-fill sequences within a narrowly bounded levied channel complex. Both the Landslide field and the larger Yowlumne field, located 3 mi to the northwest, comprise a single channel-fan depositional system that developed in the restricted deep-water portion of the San Joaquin basin. Information from the open-hole logs, three-dimensional surveys, vertical seismic profiles, repeat formation tester data, cores, and pressure buildup tests allowed continuous drilling from the initial discovery to the final waterflood injector, without a single dry hole. In addition, the successful application of three-dimensional seismic data in the Landslide development program has helped correctly image channel-fan anomalies in the southern Maricopa basin, where data quality and severe velocity problems have hampered previous efforts. New exploration targets are currently being evaluated on the acreage surrounding the Landslide discovery and should lead to an interesting new round of drilling activity in the Maricopa basin.

  5. Pleistocene Brawley and Ocotillo Formations: Evidence for initial strike-slip deformation along the San Felipe and San Jacinto fault zonez, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, S.M.; Janecke, S.U.; Dorsey, R.J.; Housen, B.A.; Langenheim, V.E.; McDougall, K.A.; Steeley, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the Pleistocene tectonic reorganization of the Pacific-North American plate boundary in the Salton Trough of southern California with an integrated approach that includes basin analysis, magnetostratigraphy, and geologic mapping of upper Pliocene to Pleistocene sedimentary rocks in the San Felipe Hills. These deposits preserve the earliest sedimentary record of movement on the San Felipe and San Jacinto fault zones that replaced and deactivated the late Cenozoic West Salton detachment fault. Sandstone and mudstone of the Brawley Formation accumulated between ???1.1 and ???0.6-0.5 Ma in a delta on the margin of an arid Pleistocene lake, which received sediment from alluvial fans of the Ocotillo Formation to the west-southwest. Our analysis indicates that the Ocotillo and Brawley formations prograded abruptly to the east-northeast across a former mud-dominated perennial lake (Borrego Formation) at ???1.1 Ma in response to initiation of the dextral-oblique San Felipe fault zone. The ???25-km-long San Felipe anticline initiated at about the same time and produced an intrabasinal basement-cored high within the San Felipe-Borrego basin that is recorded by progressive unconformities on its north and south limbs. A disconformity at the base of the Brawley Formation in the eastern San Felipe Hills probably records initiation and early blind slip at the southeast tip of the Clark strand of the San Jacinto fault zone. Our data are consistent with abrupt and nearly synchronous inception of the San Jacinto and San Felipe fault zones southwest of the southern San Andreas fault in the early Pleistocene during a pronounced southwestward broadening of the San Andreas fault zone. The current contractional geometry of the San Jacinto fault zone developed after ???0.5-0.6 Ma during a second, less significant change in structural style. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  6. SAN CARLOS APACHE PAPERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROESSEL, ROBERT A., JR.

    THE FIRST SECTION OF THIS BOOK COVERS THE HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE INDIANS, AS WELL AS AN HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM. THE SECOND SECTION IS DEVOTED TO THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHERS OF THE INDIAN CHILDREN IN GLOBE AND SAN CARLOS, ARIZONA. IT IS DIVIDED INTO THREE PARTS--(1)…

  7. San Pedro River Aquifer Binational Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegary, James B.; Minjárez Sosa, Ismael; Tapia Villaseñor, Elia María; dos Santos, Placido; Monreal Saavedra, Rogelio; Grijalva Noriega, Franciso Javier; Huth, A. K.; Gray, Floyd; Scott, C. A.; Megdal, Sharon; Oroz Ramos, L. A.; Rangel Medina, Miguel; Leenhouts, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The United States and Mexico share waters in a number of hydrological basins and aquifers that cross the international boundary. Both countries recognize that, in a region of scarce water resources and expanding populations, a greater scientific understanding of these aquifer systems would be beneficial. In light of this, the Mexican and U.S. Principal Engineers of the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC) signed the “Joint Report of the Principal Engineers Regarding the Joint Cooperative Process United States-Mexico for the Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Program" on August 19, 2009 (IBWC-CILA, 2009). This IBWC “Joint Report” serves as the framework for U.S.-Mexico coordination and dialogue to implement transboundary aquifer studies. The document clarifies several details about the program such as background, roles, responsibilities, funding, relevance of the international water treaties, and the use of information collected or compiled as part of the program. In the document, it was agreed by the parties involved, which included the IBWC, the Mexican National Water Commission (CONAGUA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the Universities of Arizona and Sonora, to study two priority binational aquifers, one in the San Pedro River basin and the other in the Santa Cruz River basin. This report focuses on the Binational San Pedro Basin (BSPB). Reasons for the focus on and interest in this aquifer include the fact that it is shared by the two countries, that the San Pedro River has an elevated ecological value because of the riparian ecosystem that it sustains, and that water resources are needed to sustain the river, existing communities, and continued development. This study describes the aquifer’s characteristics in its binational context; however, most of the scientific work has been undertaken for many years by each country without full knowledge of the conditions on the other side of the border. The general objective of this study is to

  8. Groundwater quality in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Western San Joaquin Valley is one of the study units being evaluated. 

  9. 78 FR 58878 - Safety Zone; San Diego Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay... Diego Shark Fest Swim. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of the participants, crew... this rule because the logistical details of the San Diego Shark Fest Swim were not finalized nor...

  10. 75 FR 55975 - Safety Zone; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego... Shark Fest Swim, consisting of 600 swimmers swimming a predetermined course. The sponsor will provide 26...; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The following area is a...

  11. Hydrogeologic framework of the middle San Pedro watershed, southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Jesse E.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Pool, D.R.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Parker, John T.; Macy, J.P.; Thomas, Blakemore

    2010-01-01

    Water managers in rural Arizona are under increasing pressure to provide sustainable supplies of water despite rapid population growth and demands for environmental protection. This report describes the results of a study of the hydrogeologic framework of the middle San Pedro watershed. The components of this report include: (1) a description of the geologic setting and depositional history of basin fill sediments that form the primary aquifer system, (2) updated bedrock altitudes underlying basin fill sediments calculated using a subsurface density model of gravity data, (3) delineation of hydrogeologic units in the basin fill using lithologic descriptions in driller's logs and models of airborne electrical resistivity data, (4) a digital three-dimensional (3D) hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) that represents spatial extents and thicknesses of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs), and (5) description of the hydrologic properties of the HGUs. The lithologic interpretations based on geophysical data and unit thickness and extent of the HGUs included in the HFM define potential configurations of hydraulic zones and parameters that can be incorporated in groundwater-flow models. The hydrogeologic framework comprises permeable and impermeable stratigraphic units: (1) bedrock, (2) sedimentary rocks predating basin-and-range deformation, (3) lower basin fill, (4) upper basin fill, and (5) stream alluvium. The bedrock unit includes Proterozoic to Cretaceous crystalline rocks, sedimentary rocks, and limestone that are relatively impermeable and poor aquifers, except for saturated portions of limestone. The pre-basin-and-range sediments underlie the lower basin fill but are relatively impermeable owing to cementation. However, they may be an important water-bearing unit where fractured. Alluvium of the lower basin fill, the main water-bearing unit, was deposited in the structural trough between the uplifted ridges of bedrock and (or) pre-basin-and-range sediments. Alluvium of

  12. 75 FR 38412 - Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA... zone on the ] navigable waters of San Diego Bay in support of the San Diego POPS Fireworks. This safety... San Diego POPS Fireworks, which will include fireworks presentations conducted from a barge in San...

  13. Presa de San Esteban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Equipo Editorial

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available En el número 73 de esta revista se publicó un artículo, que trataba sobre los aprovechamientos hidroeléctricos de la cuenca del río Sil. En este trabajo se hace referencia, únicamente, a la importante presa de San Esteban, obra que, por so altura de salto, caudales disponibles y embalse, es la de mayor producción de las de la referida cuenca. Su proyección en planta e« circular, tipo gravedad, de 115 m de altura, y su embalse, de 213 millones de metros cúbicos.

  14. Information technology and decision support tools for stakeholder-driven river basin salinity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T; Cozad, D.B.; Lee, G.

    2010-01-01

    Innovative strategies for effective basin-scale salinity management have been developed in the Hunter River Basin of Australia and more recently in the San Joaquin River Basin of California. In both instances web-based stakeholder information dissemination has been a key to achieving a high level of stakeholder involvement and the formulation of effective decision support salinity management tools. A common element to implementation of salinity management strategies in both river basins has been the concept of river assimilative capacity for controlling export salt loading and the potential for trading of the right to discharge salt load to the river - the Hunter River in Australia and the San Joaquin River in California. Both rivers provide basin drainage and the means of exporting salt to the ocean. The paper compares and contrasts the use of monitoring, modeling and information dissemination in the two basins to achieve environmental compliance and sustain irrigated agriculture in an equitable and socially and politically acceptable manner.

  15. Community-based Flood Risk Assessment using GIS for the Town of San Sebastian, Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Guarin, G.; van Westen, C.J.; Montoya, L.

    2005-01-01

    The municipality of San Sebastián, considered one of the most prone to natural hazards in Guatemala, was selected as one of the pilot areas of the UNESCO program on “Capacity Building for Natural Disaster Reduction‿. The town is located within the Samalá basin, near the active channel of the river,

  16. Los Angeles og San Francisco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    1998-01-01

    Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Los Angeles og San Francisco april-maj 1998 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Institut 3H......Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Los Angeles og San Francisco april-maj 1998 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Institut 3H...

  17. San Mateo Creek Basin Phase II Site Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the SI is to evaluate the site using the Hazard Ranking System and the Superfund Chemical Data Matrix (SCDM) to determine if a threat to human health and the environment exists such that further action is warranted.

  18. San Mateo Creek Basin Phase I Site Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the SI is to evaluate the Site using the Hazard Ranking System and the Superfund Chemical Data Matrix to determine if a threat to human health and the environment exists such that further action is warranted.

  19. San Luis Rey River Basin: Overview of Cultural Resources,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-01

    Pauma, Cuca , and La Jolla, is one of the most intensively surveyed areas in southern California. Sites have been recorded in great numbers in this...Pamnua. Pamame, Tomka, Pala, Pauma, Kuka ( Cuca ), Huyulkum at La Jolla, and Puerta Cruz in Warner’s Valley. Recent work (White 1963, True, Meighan and...Map 4), there are sufficient data for Pala, Pauma, Cuca , and Huyulkum (La Jolla) to allow some degree of confidence in rancheria boundaries. Of these

  20. Neogene contraction between the San Andreas fault and the Santa Clara Valley, San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Schmidt, K.M.; Jachens, R.C.; Stanley, R.G.; Jayko, A.S.; McDougall, K.A.; Tinsley, J.C.; Valin, Z.C.

    1999-01-01

    In the southern San Francisco Bay region of California, oblique dextral reverse faults that verge northeastward from the San Andreas fault experienced triggered slip during the 1989 M7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake. The role of these range-front thrusts in the evolution of the San Andreas fault system and the future seismic hazard that they may pose to the urban Santa Clara Valley are poorly understood. Based on recent geologic mapping and geophysical investigations, we propose that the range-front thrust system evolved in conjunction with development of the San Andreas fault system. In the early Miocene, the region was dominated by a system of northwestwardly propagating, basin-bounding, transtensional faults. Beginning as early as middle Miocene time, however, the transtensional faulting was superseded by transpressional NE-stepping thrust and reverse faults of the range-front thrust system. Age constraints on the thrust faults indicate that the locus of contraction has focused on the Monte Vista, Shannon, and Berrocal faults since about 4.8 Ma. Fault slip and fold reconstructions suggest that crustal shortening between the San Andreas fault and the Santa Clara Valley within this time frame is ~21%, amounting to as much as 3.2 km at a rate of 0.6 mm/yr. Rates probably have not remained constant; average rates appear to have been much lower in the past few 100 ka. The distribution of coseismic surface contraction during the Loma Prieta earthquake, active seismicity, late Pleistocene to Holocene fluvial terrace warping, and geodetic data further suggest that the active range-front thrust system includes blind thrusts. Critical unresolved issues include information on the near-surface locations of buried thrusts, the timing of recent thrust earthquake events, and their recurrence in relation to earthquakes on the San Andreas fault.

  1. Geothermal resources of California sedimentary basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.F.; Grubb, F.V.; Galanis, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Department of Energy (DOE) Strategic Plan for geothermal energy calls for expanding the geothermal resource base of the United States to 40,000 MW of electric power generating potential. This will require advances in technologies for exploiting unconventional geothermal resources, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal. An investigation of thermal conditions in California sedimentary basins through new temperature and heat flow measurements reveals significant geothermal potential in some areas. In many of the basins, the combined cooling effects of recent tectonic and sedimentary processes result in relatively low (geothermal gradients. For example, temperatures in the upper 3 km of San Joaquin, Sacramento and Ventura basins are typically less than 125??C and do not reach 200??c by 5 km. By contrast, in the Cuyama, Santa Maria and western Los Angeles basins, heat flow exceeds 80 mW/m2 and temperatures near or above 200??C occur at 4 to 5 km depth, which represents thermal conditions equivalent to or hotter than those encountered at the Soultz EGS geothermal site in Europe. Although the extractable geothermal energy contained in these basins is not large relative to the major California producing geothermal fields at The Geysers or Salton Sea, the collocation in the Los Angeles basin of a substantial petroleum extraction infrastructure and a major metropolitan area may make it attractive for eventual geothermal development as EGS technology matures.

  2. The basins on the Argentine continental margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urien, C.M. [Buenos Aires Technological Institute Petroleum School, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1996-08-01

    After the stabilization of the central Gondwana Craton, orogenic belts were accreted, as a result of convergence events and an extensive passive margin developed in southwestern Gondwana. Thermal subsidence in Parana, Karoo-Ventania basins and the Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic rifts, were modified by the Gondwana breakup and the South Atlantic opening. Early Paleozoic marine transgressions deposited the Table Mountain Group in Ventania. In southwestern Patagonia foreland clastics were deposited. Magmatic arcs and marine units indicate a tectonic trough was formed, alternating with continental sequences, over Late Paleozoic metamorphics and intrusives, resulting from plastered terrains along the Gondwana margin. In Patagonia, Permo-Carboniferous continental and glacio marine clastics infill the basins, while in Ventania, paralic sequences, grade from neritic to continental to the northeast, extending beneath the continental margin. The Triassic-Jurassic rift basins progressed onto regional widespread acid lavas and were infilled by lagoonal organic-rich sequences. Early drift phase built basins transverse to the margin, with fluvio-lacustrine sequences: Salado, Colorado, Valdes-Rawson, San Julian and North Malvinas intracratonic basins, which underwent transtensional faulting. Post-Oxfordian to Neocomian brackish sequences, onlapped the conjugate basins during the margin`s drift, with petroleum systems, as in Austral and Malvinas. In the Valanginian, basic extrusions commenced to form on the continental border, heralding the oceanic phase. Due to thermal subsidence, offlaping sediments prograded onto the remaining half-grabens. Several petroleum systems, proven and hypothetical, are identified in this region.

  3. Riparian Habitat - San Joaquin River

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The immediate focus of this study is to identify, describe and map the extent and diversity of riparian habitats found along the main stem of the San Joaquin River,...

  4. Dublin Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Somerville, I.D.; C. N. Waters

    2011-01-01

    The Carboniferous rocks of the Dublin Basin extend from the east coast of north Co. Dublin westwards to the River Shannon at Athlone and northwards to the Lower Palaeozoic rocks of the Longford-Down Massif (see Strogen et al. 1996, fig. 5; Sevastopulo & Wyse Jackson 2001, fig. 10.12; Fig. 21.1). They occur in counties Longford, Westmeath, Meath, north Co. Dublin, north Co. Offaly, north Co. Kildare and south Co. Dublin. Most of the rocks in the region belong to the Mississippia...

  5. Environmental assessment : Rodent control program : San Joaquin river levee : San Luis National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower San Joaquin Levee District (LSJLD) requires that six miles of levee situated along the San Joaquin River on San Luis National Wildlife Refuge (SLNWR) be...

  6. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron

  7. Characterization of the grafting copolymer EPDM-SAN; Caracterizacao do copolimero de enxertia EPDM-SAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchette, Renato; Felisberti, Maria Isabel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: turchete@iqm.unicamp.br

    2001-07-01

    This work aims the characterization of the grafting copolymer EPDM-SAN. This copolymer presents a fraction of free SAN chains, which was extracted by solubilization in chloroform followed of precipitation of the grafting copolymer EPDM-g-SAN in acetone. The EPDM-SAN and EPDM-g-SAN were characterized by {sup 13}C NMR, DSC, TGA and SEM. EPDM-SAN contain 23 wt% of free SAN and 77 wt% of EPDM-g-SAN. Both materials are heterogeneous and the thermal and thermo-oxidative degradation are independent of the composition. (author)

  8. Using Geochemical Tracers to Quantify Baseflow Inputs to the San Pedro River, Southeast Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, M. N.; Hogan, J. F.; Ekwurzel, B.; Wahi, A. K.; Eastoe, C. J.

    2005-05-01

    Groundwater managers in the semiarid Southwest U.S. must balance the demands of growing populations against the needs of rare riparian ecosystems. The Upper San Pedro River Basin in Southeastern Arizona provides water for the rapidly growing area of Fort Huachuca, Sierra Vista, and surrounding communities. This basin also supports the riparian area by providing baseflow to the San Pedro River and shallow groundwater to phreatic riparian vegetation. Before water managers can properly plan for sustenance of the riparian area, they require answers about the inputs of baseflow into the river. What is the temporal and spatial variability of recharge and discharge? What are the relative inputs of different sources (i.e. recharge of monsoon runoff and inflow of basin groundwater) into the riparian aquifer? We have used a suite of geochemical tracers to address these questions. Most precipitation in this region falls during the summer monsoons and winter frontal storms. Because these events have different source areas, their respective stable isotopic signatures differ. We use these isotopic compositions as end members in mixing equations in order to determine the dominant season for recharge. Groundwater in the basin has a narrow range of stable isotope compositions, varying from 62 to 72% winter precipitation. The basin isotopic composition is very similar to water in the mountain front and block, indicating that recharge from these areas is the dominant source for basin groundwater. Basin groundwater residence times, determined using the radioactive isotope carbon-14, are on the order of 10,000 years or more, indicating a low recharge rate. In contrast, riparian groundwater has a wide variation of isotopic values, indicating that this water is a mixture of basin groundwater and monsoon runoff, varying from 20 to 90% basin groundwater. The dominance of basin groundwater or monsoon runoff in different areas of the river correlates well with independent classification of

  9. Constraints on the sedimentation history of San Francisco Bay from 14C and 10Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanGeen, A.; Valette-Silver, N. J.; Luoma, S.N.; Fuller, C.C.; Baskaran, M.; Tera, F.; Klein, J.

    1999-01-01

    Industrialization and urbanization around San Francisco Bay as well as mining and agriculture in the watersheds of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers have profoundly modified sedimentation patterns throughout the estuary. We provide some constraints on the onset of these erosional disturbances with 10Be data for three sediment cores: two from Richardson Bay, a small embayment near the mouth of San Francisco Bay, and one from San Pablo Bay, mid-way between the river delta and the mouth. Comparison of pre-disturbance sediment accumulation determined from three 14C-dated mollusk shells in one Richardson Bay core with more recent conditions determined from the distribution of 210Pb and 234Th [Fuller, C.C., van Geen, A., Baskaran, M, Anima, R.J., 1999. Sediment chronology in San Francisco Bay, California, defined by 210Pb, 234Th, 239,240Pu.] shows that the accumulation rate increased by an order of magnitude at this particular site. All three cores from San Francisco Bay show subsurface maxima in 10Be concentrations ranging in magnitude from 170 to 520 x 106 atoms/g. The transient nature of the increased 10Be input suggests that deforestation and agricultural develop- ment caused basin-wide erosion of surface soils enriched in 10Be. probably before the turn of the century.

  10. Geothermal resource assessment of western San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard; Ringrose, Charles D.

    1983-01-01

    The Colorado Geological Survey initiated and carried out a fully integrated assessment program of the geothermal resource potential of the western San Luis Valley during 1979 and 1980. The San Luis Valley is a large intermontane basin located in southcentral Colorado. While thermal springs and wells are found throughout the Valley, the only thermal waters found along the western part of the Valley are found at Shaw Warm Springs which is a relatively unused spring located approximately 6 miles (9.66 km) north of Del Norte, Colorado. The waters at Shaws Warm Spring have a temperature of 86 F (30 C), a discharge of 40 gallons per minute and contain approximately 408 mg/l of total dissolved solids. The assessment program carried out din the western San Luis Valley consisted of: soil mercury geochemical surveys; geothermal gradient drilling; and dipole-dipole electrical resistivity traverses, Schlumberger soundings, Audio-magnetotelluric surveys, telluric surveys, and time-domain electro-magnetic soundings and seismic surveys. Shaw Warm Springs appears to be the only source of thermal waters along the western side of the Valley. From the various investigations conducted the springs appear to be fault controlled and is very limited in extent. Based on best evidence presently available estimates are presented on the size and extent of Shaw Warm Springs thermal system. It is estimated that this could have an areal extent of 0.63 sq. miles (1.62 sq. km) and contain 0.0148 Q's of heat energy.

  11. San Language Development for Education in South Africa: The South African San Institute and the San Language Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamo, Billies

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the 3 San communities in South Africa: the !Xun, the Khwe, and the [image omitted]Khomani San. The !Xun and Khwe communities are living in Platfontein, near Kimberley in the Northern Cape. The [image omitted]Khomani San community is living in Upington and in the southern Kalahari, which are also in the Northern Cape. This…

  12. San Jorge, el primer rejoneador

    OpenAIRE

    Mandianes Castro, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Las proezas de Jorge son una réplica de las de Santiago. Este luchó y venció las serpientes que habitaban Galicia para entrar allí y convertirla al cristianismo. San Jorge venció al monstruo del lago, y el rey y los habitantes de Silca se convirtieron a Cristo. Santiago ganó el nombre de Matamoros y de soldado de Cristo por excelencia porque, montado en su caballo blanco, venció en 1.000 batallas a los moros al frente de los cristianos. San Jorge venció a los sarracenos y conquistó Jerusalén ...

  13. Vegetation - San Felipe Valley [ds172

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This Vegetation Map of the San Felipe Valley Wildlife Area in San Diego County, California is based on vegetation samples collected in the field in 2002 and 2005 and...

  14. The San Bernabe power substation; La subestacion San Bernabe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez Sanudo, Andres D. [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The first planning studies that gave rise to the San Bernabe substation go back to year 1985. The main circumstance that supports this decision is the gradual restriction for electric power generation that has been suffering the Miguel Aleman Hydro System, until its complete disappearance, to give priority to the potable water supply through the Cutzamala pumping system, that feeds in an important way Mexico City and the State of Mexico. In this document the author describes the construction project of the San Bernabe Substation; mention is made of the technological experiences obtained during the construction and its geographical location is shown, as well as the one line diagram of the same [Espanol] Los primeros estudios de planeacion que dieron origen a la subestacion San Bernabe se remontan al ano de 1985. La circunstancia principal que soporta esta decision es la restriccion paulatina para generar energia que ha venido experimentando el Sistema Hidroelectrico Miguel Aleman, hasta su desaparicion total, para dar prioridad al suministro de agua potable por medio del sistema de bombeo Cutzamala, que alimenta en forma importante a la Ciudad de Mexico y al Estado de Mexico. En este documento el autor describe el proyecto de construccion de la subestacion San Bernabe; se mencionan las experiencias tecnologicas obtenidas durante su construccion y se ilustra su ubicacion geografica, asi como un diagrama unifilar de la misma

  15. Hydrogeology of sedimentary basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, Charles W.

    1989-03-01

    Hydrogeologic environments in sedimentary basins are as variable as are the different types of basins. Important hydrologic characteristics can be used to distinguish the different types of basin: (1) the topographic setting as determined by the geologic and structural history of the basin; (2) permeability distribution within the basin; and (3) potential energy distributions and flow mechanisms. These parameters control residence times of waters, rates and directions of saline groundwater flow and the origin and chemical composition of the saline waters. The Gulf Coast and Palo Duro Basins, Texas, exemplify two end member types of sedimentary basins. The Gulf Coast Basin is a relatively young, Tertiary-age basin which is presently compacting; fluid movement is from the overpressured, undercompacted sediments up the structural dip or up fault zones into the hydrostatic section, natural fluid pressures are either hydrostatic or overpressured. The Palo Duro is an older, Paleozoic-age basin that has been tectonically uplifted. Fluid flow is gravity driven from topographically high recharge areas to discharge in topographically low areas. Fluid pressures are subhydrostatic. Fluids discharge more easily than they are recharged. Not all flow is derived by a simple recharge discharge model. Brines may flow from other basins into the Palo Duro Basin and waters may discharge from the Palo Duro Basin into other basins. Areal differences in the chemical composition of the basin brines may be the result of different origins.

  16. 76 FR 45693 - Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA... temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of San Diego Bay in support of the San Diego POPS Fireworks..., participating vessels, and other vessels and users of the waterway during scheduled fireworks events. Persons...

  17. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa, which border the San Francisco Bay. The area also... proceed along the San Francisco, San Mateo, and Santa Cruz County shoreline (across the Quadrangles of San... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false San Francisco Bay. 9.157...

  18. Water resources and geology of the Los Coyotes Indian Reservation and vicinity, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballog, A.P.; Moyle, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The water resources of the Los Coyotes Indian Reservation, San Diego County, Calif., are sufficient to supply the limited domestic and stock-water needs of the present residents of the reservation. Surface-water runoff is derived from direct precipitation on the area and from intermittent spring flow. Groundwater occurs in the alluvial deposits and in the consolidated rocks where they are highly fractured or deeply weathered. The best potential for groundwater development on the reservation is in the small alluvial basins in the San Ysidro and San Ignacio areas. Most water on the reservation is good to excellent in chemical quality for domestic, stock, and irrigation use. Water from two wells (and one spring), however, exceeds the primary drinking-water standard for nitrate plus nitrate. (USGS)

  19. Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay shallow aquifer, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2018-02-23

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  20. Convair Astronautics, San Diego (California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira & Luckmam, Arquitectos

    1960-05-01

    Full Text Available Este brillante y espectacular complejo industrial se ha creado especialmente para la investigación y fabricación de cohetes intercontinentales y vehículos del espacio de las Fuerzas Aéreas de los EE. UU., en las proximidades de San Diego y cerca del campo de pruebas de Sycamore Canyon.

  1. Dam-induced Flow Changes, Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondolf, G. M.

    The Sacramento and San Joquin Rivers drain nearly 158,000 km of the Sierra_Nevada- Cascade Range, the Coast Range, and the intervening Central Valley, flowing west- ward through San Francisco Bay and Golden Gate to the Pacific. Numerous dams in the basin (for irrigation, hydroelectric power, and municipal/industry) all together im- pound 80% of the mean annual runoff in the Sacramento River basin, 120% in the San Joaquin River. I calculated the Impounded Runoff Index (IR), the reservoir stor- age capacity divided by the mean annual runoff for at least 12 sites on the channel. I analyzed changes in annual peak discharge and mean monthly flows since dam con- struction on the mainstem Sacramento San Joaquin and ten major tributaries for which suitable data were available. Ratios of post-to-pre-dam ranged from 0.72 (a 28% re- duction) to 0.006 (a 90% reduction). Reduction in peak flows was greater with higher values of IR, but the relations had scatter. Means monthly flows ranged from virtually no change pre-dam, to significant reductions in winter/spring high flows and increased the base flow.

  2. Geohydrology, water quality, and estimation of ground-water recharge in San Francisco, California, 1987-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, S.P.; Hamlin, S.N.; Yates, E.B.

    1993-01-01

    The city of San Francisco is considering further development of local groundwater resources as a supplemental source of water for potable or nonpotable use. By the year 2010, further water demand is projected to exceed the delivery capacity of the existing supply system, which is fed by surface-water sources; thus supplies are susceptible to drought conditions and damage to conveyance lines by earthquakes. The primary purpose of this study is to describe local geohydrology and water quality and to estimate groundwater recharge in the area of the city of San Francisco. Seven groundwater basins were identified in San Francisco on the basis of geologic and geophysical data. Basins on the east side of the city are relatively thin and contain a greater percentage of fine-grained sediments than those on the west side. The relatively small capacity of the basins and greater potential for contamination from sewer sources may limit the potential for groundwater development on the east side. Basins on the west side of the city have a relatively large capacity and low density sewer network. Water-level data indicate that the southern part of the largest basin on the west side of the city (Westside basin) probably cannot accommodate additional groundwater development without adversely affecting water levels and water quality in Lake Merced; however, the remainder of the basin, which is largely undeveloped, could be developed further. A hydrologic routing model was developed for estimating groundwater recharge throughout San Francisco. The model takes into account climatic factors, land and water use, irrigation, leakage from underground pipes, rainfall runoff, evapotranspiration, and other factors associated with an urban environment. Results indicate that area recharge rates for water years 1987-88 for the 7 groundwater basins ranged from 0.32 to 0.78 feet per year. Recharge for the Westside basin was estimated at 0.51 feet per year. Average annual groundwater recharge

  3. ASTER Flyby of San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer, ASTER, is an international project: the instrument was supplied by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint US/Japan science team developed algorithms for science data products, and is validating instrument performance. With its 14 spectral bands, extremely high spatial resolution, and 15 meter along-track stereo capability, ASTER is the zoom lens of the Terra satellite. The primary mission goals are to characterize the Earth's surface; and to monitor dynamic events and processes that influence habitability at human scales. ASTER's monitoring and mapping capabilities are illustrated by this series of images of the San Francisco area. The visible and near infrared image reveals suspended sediment in the bays, vegetation health, and details of the urban environment. Flying over San Francisco (3.2MB) (high-res (18.3MB)), we see the downtown, and shadows of the large buildings. Past the Golden Gate Bridge and Alcatraz Island, we cross San Pablo Bay and enter Suisun Bay. Turning south, we fly over the Berkeley and Oakland Hills. Large salt evaporation ponds come into view at the south end of San Francisco Bay. We turn northward, and approach San Francisco Airport. Rather than landing and ending our flight, we see this is as only the beginning of a 6 year mission to better understand the habitability of the world on which we live. For more information: ASTER images through Visible Earth ASTER Web Site Image courtesy of MITI, ERSDAC, JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  4. Soledad Basin, Baja California: a Twin to Cariaco Basin for Monitoring the Eastern Tropical Pacific Today and the Past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriquiry, J.; van Geen, A.; Levi, C.; Ortiz, J. D.; Zheng, Y.; Marchitto, T. M.; Dean, W. E.

    2004-12-01

    Soledad Basin, a semi-enclosed basin on the Pacific margin of southern Baja California at 25oN, is ideally located to document past variations of ocean/atmosphere interactions responding to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This presentation focuses on the hydrography and geochemistry of the basin in the context of a potential monitoring program that could reach the scale of current activities in Cariaco Basin. Soledad Basin (sometimes referred to as Magdalena Basin or San Lazaro Basin) has been studied intermittently since the 1970's although detailed studies to exploit its paleoceanographic potential have started only recently. A very flat bottom with a maximum depth of 540 m was mapped with SeaBeam. A comparison of hydrographic profiles collected inside and outside the basin indicates a sill depth of 290 m. Bioturbation is currently inhibited within the basin primarily because of low oxygen concentration in adjacent source waters, rather than oxygen consumption within the basin as is the case for Cariaco and Santa Barbara Basins. Radiocarbon dating of planktonic foraminifera indicates a very high sedimentation rates of ~108 cm/kyr up through the end of the Bolling/Allerod 13 kyr ago (van Geen et al., Paleoceanography, v. 8, no. 4, 2003). A non-bioturbated section, characterized by sub-cm dark brown to black, coarse, mm- to cm-scale laminations rather than by mm-scale fine laminations, extends almost continuously from the top of a piston core to ~9 m depth, an interval dated at 10.0 ka. In addition, thin white mm-scale laminae composed almost entirely of coccoliths packed in faecal pellets extend to a depth of ~11 m (11.3 ka). A selection of promising results based on diffuse spectral reflectance records obtained at 1-cm resolution, planktonic Mg/Ca data, and the acccumulation of authigenic Mo will be presented.

  5. Groundwater quality in the San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    More than 40 percent of California's drinking water is from groundwater. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province (hereinafter referred to as San Diego) is one of the study units being evaluated. The San Diego study unit is approximately 3,900 square miles and consists of the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and 12 other alluvial basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The study unit also consists of all areas outside defined groundwater basins that are within 3 kilometers of a public-supply well. The study unit was separated, based primarily on hydrogeologic settings, into four study areas: Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, Alluvial Basins, and Hard Rock (Wright and others, 2005). The sampling density for the Hard Rock study area, which consists of areas outside of groundwater basins, was much lower than for the other study areas. Consequently, aquifer proportions for the Hard Rock study area are not used to calculate the aquifer proportions shown by the pie charts. An assessment of groundwater quality for the Hard Rock study area can be found in Wright and Belitz, 2011. The temperatures in the coastal part of the study unit are mild with dry summers, moist winters, and an average annual rainfall of about 10 inches. The temperatures in the mountainous eastern part of the study unit are cooler than in the coastal part, with an annual precipitation of about 45 inches that occurs mostly in the winter. The primary aquifers consist of Quaternary-age alluvium and weathered bedrock in the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and Alluvial Basins study areas, whereas in the Hard Rock study area the primary aquifers consist mainly of fractured and

  6. Geologic and bayhymetric reconnaissance overview of the San Pedro Shelf Region, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Stephen C.; Gutmacher, Christina E.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a series of maps that describe the bathymetry and late Quaternary geology of the San Pedro shelf area as interpreted from seismic-reflection profiles and 3.5-kHz and multibeam bathymetric data. Some of the seismic-reflection profiles were collected with Uniboom and 120-kJ sparker during surveys conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1973 (K-2-73-SC), 1978 (S-2-78-SC), and 1979 (S-2a-79-SC). The remaining seismic-reflection profiles were collected in 2000 using Geopulse boomer and minisparker during USGS cruise A-1-00-SC. The report consists of seven oversized sheets: 1. Map of 1978 and 1979 uniboom seismic-reflection and 3.5-kHz tracklines used to map faults and folds on San Pedro Shelf. 2. Maps of multibeam shaded bathymetric relief with faults and folds, and bathymetric contours. 3. Isopach map of unconsolidated sediment, seismic-reflection profile across the San Pedro shelf, seismic-reflection profile across San Gabriel paleo-valley. 4. Seismic-reflection profiles across the Palos Verdes Fault Zone. 5. Geologic map and samples of Uniboom and 120-kJ sparker seismic-reflection profiles used to make the map. 6. Map showing thickness of uppermost (Holocene?) sediment layer. 7. Map of San Gabriel Canyon paleo-valley and associated drainage basins.

  7. EARLY LADINIAN RADIOLARIAN FAUNA FROM THE MONTE SAN GIORGIO (SOUTHERN ALPS, SWITZERLAND: SYSTEMATICS, BIOSTRATIGRAPHY AND PALEO(BIOGEOGRAPHIC IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUDOLF STOCKAR

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A well-preserved radiolarian fauna was recovered from the lower part of the San Giorgio Dolomite (Monte San Giorgio, UNESCO WHL, Switzerland, belonging to the Eoprotrachyceras curionii Ammonoid Zone (earliest Ladinian. The depositional environment, consisting of an intraplatform basin with restricted circulation, seemingly resulted in an unusual radiolarian assemblage displaying neglegible percentages and very low diversity of Nassellaria. Seventy-three species have been identified and seven new species have been described: Eptingium danieli n. sp., Eptingium neriae n. sp., Parentactinosphaera eoladinica n. sp., Sepsagon ticinensis n. sp., Sepsagon ? valporinae n. sp., Novamuria wirzi n. sp. and Pessagnollum hexaspinosum n. sp. The taxonomic status of the recovered species has been reassessed and four new genera have been introduced: Bernoulliella gen. n., Eohexastylus gen. n., Ticinosphaera gen. n. and Lahmosphaera gen. n. The new radiolarian assemblages, the first so far described from the Monte San Giorgio, supplement further information to the taxa occurring in the uppermost Ladinocampe multiperforata Radiolarian Zone, as yet poorly defined, also confirming the absence of major changes in the radiolarian fauna across the Anisian/Ladinian boundary. The widespread co-occurrence of taxa doubtlessly testifies to the existence, in early Ladinian times, of open-marine connections between the basin of the Monte San Giorgio and the pelagic “Buchenstein” basins of the central and eastern South-Alpine domain and farther afield across the Tethys. 

  8. Arcos triunfales de San Petersburgo

    OpenAIRE

    Kurz Muñiz, Juan Albert; Gordo, Carmen María

    2001-01-01

    Se conmemora el tricentenario de la ciudad de San Petersburgo, ciudad que nos ha dejado grandiosos monumentos a lo largo de su historia. La importancia de los arcos triunfales, exponentes máximos que reglejan las victorias acaecidas, con un refinamiento y belleza occidental. Erigidos durante los reinados de Pedro I el Grande y Catalina II, monarcas ilustrados que supieron abrir a Rusia hacia la modernidad.

  9. Basin fill evolution and paleotectonic patterns along the Samfrau geosyncline: the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina) and Karoo basin-Cape foldbelt (South Africa) revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gamundí, O. R.; Rossello, E. A.

    As integral parts of du Toit's (1927) ``Samfrau Geosyncline'', the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina) and Karoo basin-Cape foldbelt (South Africa) share similar paleoclimatic, paleogeographic, and paleotectonic aspects related to the Late Paleozoic tectono-magmatic activity along the Panthalassan continental margin of Gondwanaland. Late Carboniferou-earliest Permian glacial deposits were deposited in the Sauce Grande (Sauce Grande Formation) and Karoo (Dwyka Formation) basins and Falkland-Malvinas Islands (Lafonia Formation) during an initial (sag) phase of extension. The pre-breakup position of the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands on the easternmost part of the Karoo basin (immediately east of the coast of South Africa) is supported by recent paleomagnetic data, lithofacies associations, paleoice flow directions and age similarities between the Dwyka and the Lafonia glacial sequences. The desintegration of the Gondwanan Ice Sheet (GIS) triggered widespread transgressions, reflected in the stratigraphic record by the presence of inter-basinally correlatable, open marine, fine-grained deposits (Piedra Azul Formation in the Sauce Grande basin, Prince Albert Formation in the Karoo basin and Port Sussex Formation in the Falkland Islands) capping glacial marine sediments. These early postglacial transgressive deposits, characterised by fossils of the Eurydesma fauna and Glossopteris flora, represent the maximum flooding of the basins. Cratonward foreland subsidence was triggered by the San Rafael orogeny (ca. 270 Ma) in Argentina and propogated along the Gondwanan margin. This subsidence phase generated sufficient space to accommodate thick synorogenic sequences derived from the orogenic flanks of the Sauce Grande and Karoo basins. Compositionally, the initial extensional phase of these basins was characterized by quartz-rich, craton-derived detritus and was followed by a compressional (foreland) phase characterized by a paleocurrent reversal and dominance of

  10. Ground motion modeling of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake II: Ground motion estimates for the 1906 earthquake and scenario events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, B; Brocher, T; Dreger, D; Frankel, A; Graves, R; Harmsen, S; Hartzell, S; Larsen, S; McCandless, K; Nilsson, S; Petersson, N A; Rodgers, A; Sjogreen, B; Tkalcic, H; Zoback, M L

    2007-02-09

    We estimate the ground motions produced by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake making use of the recently developed Song et al. (2008) source model that combines the available geodetic and seismic observations and recently constructed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. Our estimates of the ground motions for the 1906 earthquake are consistent across five ground-motion modeling groups employing different wave propagation codes and simulation domains. The simulations successfully reproduce the main features of the Boatwright and Bundock (2005) ShakeMap, but tend to over predict the intensity of shaking by 0.1-0.5 modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) units. Velocity waveforms at sites throughout the San Francisco Bay Area exhibit characteristics consistent with rupture directivity, local geologic conditions (e.g., sedimentary basins), and the large size of the event (e.g., durations of strong shaking lasting tens of seconds). We also compute ground motions for seven hypothetical scenarios rupturing the same extent of the northern San Andreas fault, considering three additional hypocenters and an additional, random distribution of slip. Rupture directivity exerts the strongest influence on the variations in shaking, although sedimentary basins do consistently contribute to the response in some locations, such as Santa Rosa, Livermore, and San Jose. These scenarios suggest that future large earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault may subject the current San Francisco Bay urban area to stronger shaking than a repeat of the 1906 earthquake. Ruptures propagating southward towards San Francisco appear to expose more of the urban area to a given intensity level than do ruptures propagating northward.

  11. Species - San Diego Co. [ds121

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is the Biological Observation Database point layer representing baseline observations of sensitive species (as defined by the MSCP) throughout San Diego County....

  12. Holocene Tectonic and Sedimentary Evolution of Coastal San Diego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, J. M.; Driscoll, N. W.; Brothers, D. S.; Babcock, J. M.; Kent, G.

    2010-12-01

    The shelf and nearshore region of San Diego, California, between La Jolla cove in the north and the U.S.- Mexico border in the south, is an important ecological and economic resource. It contains two of the largest kelp forests in southern California and lies offshore miles of popular beaches. Understanding the interplay between tectonic and sedimentary processes in this area is critical because it will allow us to assess how other forcing functions such as the rapid sea level rise (2 - 3 mm/yr) and predicted climate change associated with global warming are impacting the kelp and nearshore environments. The fault architecture and sedimentary deposits offshore San Diego have been mapped using high-resolution seismic CHIRP profiling. The mapped area lies within the inner California Continental Borderland (CCB), which is characterized by a system of basins and ridges and extensive strike-slip faulting. The CHIRP data clearly images several splays of the Coronado Bank Fault Zone (CBFZ), a major fault in the area, which show recent activity in the upper 30 m of sediment with the most recent deformation at ~4 m below seafloor. Several sediment packages as deep as 50 m below the seafloor are imaged and place important constraints on tectonic deformation and sediment dispersal in the region as well as the earthquake recurrence interval on the CBFZ. Exposed and buried wavecut terraces identified on numerous CHIRP profiles, which can be correlated to terraces mapped regionally, provide insight into tectonic uplift rates and sea-level fluctuations. Finally, the extensive kelp forests offshore Mount Soledad and Point Loma occur where hardgrounds are exposed at the seafloor as a consequence of tectonic uplift. High resolution mapping offshore San Diego is providing new insight into the complex interplay between tectonics, sedimentation, and biology in this ecologically diverse region.

  13. 78 FR 18238 - Safety Zone; SFPD Training Safety Zone; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... William Hawn, U.S. Coast Guard Sector San Francisco; telephone (415) 399-7442 or email at D11-PF-Marine... navigable waters around the SFPD's maritime interdiction training exercises. The SFPD Training Safety ] Zone... Hunters Point in San Francisco, CA in support of the San Francisco Police Department's maritime...

  14. 77 FR 34988 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Diego State University, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: San Diego State University, San Diego, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: San Diego State University Archeology Collections Management Program has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in...

  15. 77 FR 46115 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Diego Museum of Man, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ...-1100-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: San Diego Museum of Man, San Diego, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The San Diego Museum of Man has completed an inventory of... Diego Museum of Man. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribe stated below may occur if no...

  16. 78 FR 34123 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... NAGPRA Program, c/o Department of Anthropology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San... construction activities for the Middle Fork American River Project. Site materials from the Middle Fork... Jeffrey Boland Fentress, San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, c/o Department of Anthropology...

  17. Cuartel San Carlos. Yacimiento veterano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Flores

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El Cuartel San Carlos es un monumento histórico nacional (1986 de finales del siglo XVIII (1785-1790, caracterizado por sufrir diversas adversidades en su construcción y soportar los terremotos de 1812 y 1900. En el año 2006, el organismo encargado de su custodia, el Instituto de Patrimonio Cultural del Ministerio de Cultura, ejecutó tres etapas de exploración arqueológica, que abarcaron las áreas Traspatio, Patio Central y las Naves Este y Oeste de la edificación. Este trabajo reseña el análisis de la documentación arqueológica obtenida en el sitio, a partir de la realización de dicho proyecto, denominado EACUSAC (Estudio Arqueológico del Cuartel San Carlos, que representa además, la tercera campaña realizada en el sitio. La importancia de este yacimiento histórico, radica en su participación en los acontecimientos que propiciaron conflictos de poder durante el surgimiento de la República y en los sucesos políticos del siglo XX. De igual manera, se encontró en el sitio una amplia muestra de materiales arqueológicos que reseñan un estilo de vida cotidiana militar, así como las dinámicas sociales internas ocurridas en el San Carlos, como lugar estratégico para la defensa de los diferentes regímenes que atravesó el país, desde la época del imperialismo español hasta nuestros días.

  18. San Diego's High School Dropout Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James C.

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights San Diego's dropout problem and how much it's costing the city and the state. Most San Diegans do not realize the enormous impact high school dropouts on their city. The California Dropout Research Project, located at the University of California at Santa Barbara, has estimated the lifetime cost of one class or cohort of…

  19. Great Basin insect outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Diane Alston; Ted Evans

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks of native and exotic insects are important drivers of ecosystem dynamics in the Great Basin. The following provides an overview of range, forest, ornamental, and agricultural insect outbreaks occurring in the Great Basin and the associated management issues and research needs.

  20. Bottom-up, decision support system development : a wetlandsalinity management application in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2006-05-10

    Seasonally managed wetlands in the Grasslands Basin ofCalifornia's San Joaquin Valley provide food and shelter for migratorywildfowl during winter months and sport for waterfowl hunters during theannual duck season. Surface water supply to these wetland contain saltwhich, when drained to the San Joaquin River during the annual drawdownperiod, negatively impacts downstream agricultural riparian waterdiverters. Recent environmental regulation, limiting discharges salinityto the San Joaquin River and primarily targeting agricultural non-pointsources, now addresses return flows from seasonally managed wetlands.Real-time water quality management has been advocated as a means ofmatching wetland return flows to the assimilative capacity of the SanJoaquin River. Past attempts to build environmental monitoring anddecision support systems to implement this concept have failed forreasons that are discussed in this paper. These reasons are discussed inthe context of more general challenges facing the successfulimplementation of environmental monitoring, modelling and decisionsupport systems. The paper then provides details of a current researchand development project which will ultimately provide wetland managerswith the means of matching salt exports with the available assimilativecapacity of the San Joaquin River, when fully implemented. Manipulationof the traditional wetland drawdown comes at a potential cost to thesustainability of optimal wetland moist soil plant habitat in thesewetlands - hence the project provides appropriate data and a feedback andresponse mechanism for wetland managers to balance improvements to SanJoaquin River quality with internally-generated information on the healthof the wetland resource. The author concludes the paper by arguing thatthe architecture of the current project decision support system, whencoupled with recent advances in environmental data acquisition, dataprocessing and information dissemination technology, holds

  1. Suicides in San Mateo County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, G

    1967-08-01

    The usual surveys of completed suicides, encompassing, as they do, large geographical areas, are of limited value to physicians of a particular community. The unique and differentiating characteristics of the suicides in his locale may be "washed out" in these large surveys.San Mateo County has an annual suicide rate of 17 per 100,000 and a disproportionately high incidence in persons over 65 years old. In this particular county females, widows and Orientals are more prone to suicide than has usually been reported elsewhere. Alcohol was directly or indirectly involved in a significant number of instances. Many of the persons who killed themselves were under a physician's care at the time of self-destruction. There are probably important ecological and sociological variables as well as personal factors involved in the suicidal process that are of significance to any suicide prevention program. It is urged that there be more extensive and comparative research in this important public health problem.

  2. Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewlett, E.M.; Erickson, M.V.; Ferguson, C.D.; Sherwood, P.B.; Boswell, B.S.; Walter, K.M.; Hart, M.L.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the commercial feasibility of producing between 76 and 189 million liters (20 and 50 million gallons) of ethanol annually in the San Luis Valley, Colorado using geothermal energy as the primary heat source. The San Luis Valley is located in south-central Colorado. The valley is a high basin situated approximately 2316 meters (7600 feet) above sea level which contains numerous warm water wells and springs. A known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is located in the east-central area of the valley. The main industry in the valley is agriculture, while the main industry in the surrounding mountains is lumber. Both of these industries can provide feedstock for the production of ethanol.

  3. Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewlett, E.M.; Erickson, M.V.; Ferguson, C.D.; Boswell, B.S.; Walter, K.M.; Hart, M.L.; Sherwood, P.B.

    1983-07-01

    The commercial feasibility of producing between 76 and 189 million liters (20 to 50 million gallons) of ethanol annually in the San Luis Valley, Colorado using geothermal energy as the primary heat source was assessed. The San Luis Valley is located in south-central Colorado. The valley is a high basin situated approximately 2316 meters (7600 feet) above sea level which contains numerous warm water wells and springs. A known geothermal resource area (IGRA) is located in the east-central area of the valley. The main industry in the valley is agriculture, while the main industry in the surrounding mountains is lumber. Both of these industries can provide feedstocks for the production of ethanol.

  4. K Basin safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-12-16

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.

  5. Post-Miocene Right Separation on the San Gabriel and Vasquez Creek Faults, with Supporting Chronostratigraphy, Western San Gabriel Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Larry A.; McCulloh, Thane H.; Denison, Rodger E.; Morin, Ronald W.; Enrico, Roy J.; Barron, John A.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    The right lateral San Gabriel Fault Zone in southern California extends from the northwestern corner of the Ridge Basin southeastward to the eastern end of the San Gabriel Mountains. It bifurcates to the southeast in the northwestern San Gabriel Mountains. The northern and older branch curves eastward in the range interior. The southern younger branch, the Vasquez Creek Fault, curves southeastward to merge with the Sierra Madre Fault Zone, which separates the San Gabriel Mountains from the northern Los Angeles Basin margin. An isolated exposure of partly macrofossiliferous nearshore shallow-marine sandstone, designated the Gold Canyon beds, is part of the southwest wall of the fault zone 5.5 km northwest of the bifurcation. These beds contain multiple subordinate breccia-conglomerate lenses and are overlain unconformably by folded Pliocene-Pleistocene Saugus Formation fanglomerate. The San Gabriel Fault Zone cuts both units. Marine macrofossils from the Gold Canyon beds give an age of 5.2+-0.3 Ma by 87Sr/86Sr analyses. Magnetic polarity stratigraphy dates deposition of the overlying Saugus Formation to between 2.6 Ma and 0.78 Ma. Distinctive metaplutonic rocks of the Mount Lowe intrusive suite in the San Gabriel Range are the source of certain clasts in both the Gold Canyon beds and Saugus Formation. Angular clasts of nondurable Paleocene sandstone also occur in the Gold Canyon beds. The large size and angularity of some of the largest of both clast types in breccia-conglomerate lenses of the beds suggest landslides or debris flows from steep terrain. Sources of Mount Lowe clasts, originally to the north or northeast, are now displaced southeastward by faulting and are located between the San Gabriel and Vasquez Creek faults, indicating as much as 12+-2 km of post-Miocene Vasquez Creek Fault right separation, in accord with some prior estimates. Post-Miocene right slip thus transferred onto the Vasquez Creek Fault southeast of the bifurcation. The right separation

  6. CIRSS vertical data integration, San Bernardino study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, W.; Christenson, J.; Michel, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The creation and use of a vertically integrated data base, including LANDSAT data, for local planning purposes in a portion of San Bernardino County, California are described. The project illustrates that a vertically integrated approach can benefit local users, can be used to identify and rectify discrepancies in various data sources, and that the LANDSAT component can be effectively used to identify change, perform initial capability/suitability modeling, update existing data, and refine existing data in a geographic information system. Local analyses were developed which produced data of value to planners in the San Bernardino County Planning Department and the San Bernardino National Forest staff.

  7. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2015-10-21

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25–40 miles wide. The basin is hydrologically defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when treatment and distribution of surface water from the Rio Grande through the San Juan-Chama Drinking Water Project began. A 20-percent population increase in the basin from 1990 to 2000 and a 22-percent population increase from 2000 to 2010 resulted in an increased demand for water.

  8. Wada basin boundaries and basin cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nusse, H.E.; Yorke, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    In dynamical systems examples are common in which two or more attractors coexist, and in such cases the basin boundary is nonempty. We consider a two-dimensional diffeomorphism F (that is, F is an invertible map and both F and its inverse are differentiable with continuous derivatives), which has at

  9. Environmental sensor networks and continuous data quality assurance to manage salinity within a highly regulated river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Ortega, R.; Holm, L.

    2010-01-05

    This paper describes a new approach to environmental decision support for salinity management in the San Joaquin Basin of California that focuses on web-based data sharing using YSI Econet technology and continuous data quality management using a novel software tool, Aquarius.

  10. Integrated risk assessment for the natomas basin (California) analysis of loss of life and emergency management for floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Hiel, L.A.; Bea, R.G.; Foster, H.; Tsioulou, A.; Arroyo, P.; Stallard, T.; Harris, L.

    2012-01-01

    This article assesses the risk to life for the Natomas Basin, a low-lying, rapidly urbanizing region in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California. Using an empirical method, the loss of life is determined for a flood (high water), seismic, and sunny-day levee breach scenario. The analysis

  11. South American sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urien, C.M.

    1984-04-01

    More than 64 sedimentary basins have been identified on the South American continent. According to their regional structural character and tectonic setting, they are classified in 4 super groups. About 20 interior or intracratonic basins occur on South American cratons (Guayanas, Brazilian, and Patagonian). In most cases, their sedimentary fill is Paleozoic or early Mesozoic. Rift or transverse grabens resulting from incipient sea floor spreading extend towards the continental margin. Seventeen basins are located along the Atlantic stable margin, and consist primarily of half grabens with downfaulted seaward blocks. These rifts (or pull-apart basins) were separated as results of the migration of the African and American continental blocks. Therefore the sedimentation is chiefly Cretaceous and Tertiary. On the western edge of South American cratons, almost 20 basins of downwarped blocks extend from Orinoco down to the Malvinas plateau in a relatively uninterrupted chain of retroarc basins, bordered by the Andean orogen. They lie on a flexured Precambrian and Paleozoic basement, and are highly deformed in the west (Subandean belt) due to the action of compressional forces caused by the tectonic influence of the Mesozoic Andean batholith. Westward, the Pacific margin is bordered by 27 foreland and forearc basins, which alternate from north to south on an unstable or quasistable margin, fringed by a trench and slope complex where the ocean crust is subducted beneath the continental plate.

  12. Deep-coal-bed methane potential of the San Juan River coal region, southwestern Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, B.S.; Goolsby, S.M.; Tremain, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    The deepest, highest ranking and probably gassiest coals in the San Juan River coal region of southwestern Colorado are found in the 100 mile (mi) wide San Juan Basin of Colorado and New Mexico. The thickest and most continuous coal beds in the basin are found in the Cretaceous Fruitland Formation. Logs from 231 petroleum exploration drill holes were used to produce the following: a Fruitland Formation isopach, a Pictured Cliffs structure map, Fruitland Formation net coal and net sand isopachs, and Fruitland coal percentage and sand percentage maps. Of the 231 holes, 8 produced natural gas from sandstones in coal bearing zones, 5 were production tested in mixed sandstone and coal intervals (one well had an initial production of 1.6 MMCFGPD), and 5 were drill stem tested in coal bearing zones (one flowed 1 MMCFG in 35 min). The authors calculate 19.7 billion tons of coal are present in the study area. The coals are ranked high-volatile B (hvB) and high-volatile A (hvA) with local upgrading to medium-volatile (mv). Comparing gas contents of Cretaceous Raton Mesa coals to San Juan Basin coals, a gas potential ranging from 72 cubic feet/ton (cu ft/ton) to 514 cu ft/ton exists. The authors estimate a gas resource in the study area ranging from 1.4 to 10.0 trillion cubic feet. The data indicates that gas is present in the coals of the study area. This gas has been produced from sandstones adjacent to the coals and possibly from the coals themselves. Therefore, it might pay to test the Fruitland coals encountered while drilling for deeper targets. With the right economic factors and development of completion techniques for coal bed methane, this gas resource may prove to be important. Data gained from vitrinite reflectance of cuttings, desorption of cuttings, and desorption of conventional cores continue to support the existing evidence that coal bed gas is being generated and trapped in the deeper portion of the San Juan Basin.

  13. River basin administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  14. Description of gravity cores from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Donald L.; John L. Chin,; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-06-27

    Seventy-two gravity cores were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1990, 1991, and 2000 from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, California. The gravity cores collected within San Pablo Bay contain bioturbated laminated silts and sandy clays, whole and broken bivalve shells (mostly mussels), fossil tube structures, and fine-grained plant or wood fragments. Gravity cores from the channel wall of Carquinez Strait east of San Pablo Bay consist of sand and clay layers, whole and broken bivalve shells (less than in San Pablo Bay), trace fossil tubes, and minute fragments of plant material.

  15. A Tidally Averaged Sediment-Transport Model for San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionberger, Megan A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2009-01-01

    A tidally averaged sediment-transport model of San Francisco Bay was incorporated into a tidally averaged salinity box model previously developed and calibrated using salinity, a conservative tracer (Uncles and Peterson, 1995; Knowles, 1996). The Bay is represented in the model by 50 segments composed of two layers: one representing the channel (>5-meter depth) and the other the shallows (0- to 5-meter depth). Calculations are made using a daily time step and simulations can be made on the decadal time scale. The sediment-transport model includes an erosion-deposition algorithm, a bed-sediment algorithm, and sediment boundary conditions. Erosion and deposition of bed sediments are calculated explicitly, and suspended sediment is transported by implicitly solving the advection-dispersion equation. The bed-sediment model simulates the increase in bed strength with depth, owing to consolidation of fine sediments that make up San Francisco Bay mud. The model is calibrated to either net sedimentation calculated from bathymetric-change data or measured suspended-sediment concentration. Specified boundary conditions are the tributary fluxes of suspended sediment and suspended-sediment concentration in the Pacific Ocean. Results of model calibration and validation show that the model simulates the trends in suspended-sediment concentration associated with tidal fluctuations, residual velocity, and wind stress well, although the spring neap tidal suspended-sediment concentration variability was consistently underestimated. Model validation also showed poor simulation of seasonal sediment pulses from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta at Point San Pablo because the pulses enter the Bay over only a few days and the fate of the pulses is determined by intra-tidal deposition and resuspension that are not included in this tidally averaged model. The model was calibrated to net-basin sedimentation to calculate budgets of sediment and sediment-associated contaminants. While

  16. 33 CFR 165.776 - Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico 165.776 Section 165.776 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.776 Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico (a...

  17. 76 FR 9709 - Water Quality Challenges in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Chapter I RIN-2009-ZA00 Water Quality Challenges in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San... water quality conditions affecting aquatic resources in the San Francisco Bay/ Sacramento-San Joaquin... Estuary that would be constructive, including enforcement, research, revisions to water quality standards...

  18. 77 FR 15799 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... Boland Fentress, San Francisco State University, Academic Affairs-ADM 447, San Francisco, CA 94132... identity that can be reasonably traced between the basket and the Santa Rosa Indian Community of the Santa..., San Francisco State University, Academic Affairs-ADM 447, San Francisco, CA 94132, telephone (415) 338...

  19. 77 FR 15798 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... Fentress, San Francisco State University, Academic Affairs-ADM 447, San Francisco, CA 94132, telephone (415.... Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(2), there is a relationship of shared group identity that can be reasonably... Boland Fentress, San Francisco State University, Academic Affairs-ADM 447, San Francisco, CA 94132...

  20. AMS San Diego Testbed - Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The data in this repository were collected from the San Diego, California testbed, namely, I-15 from the interchange with SR-78 in the north to the interchange with...

  1. San Antonio Bay 1986-1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The effect of salinity on utilization of shallow-water nursery habitats by aquatic fauna was assessed in San Antonio Bay, Texas. Overall, 272 samples were collected...

  2. Backscatter A [8101]--Offshore San Gregorio, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, California. Backscatter data...

  3. Backscatter B [7125]--Offshore San Gregorio, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, California. Backscatter data...

  4. April 1906 San Francisco, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1906 San Francisco earthquake was the largest event (magnitude 8.3) to occur in the conterminous United States in the 20th Century. Recent estimates indicate...

  5. San Pablo Avenue Green Stormwater Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP San Pablo Avenue Green Stormwater Spine Project project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  6. San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge contaminant study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1982 for the protection and management of endangered desert fishes which are indigenous to the Rio...

  7. Historical methyl mercury in San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — San Francisco Bay, California is considered a mercury-impaired watershed. Elevated concentrations of mercury are found in water and sediment as well as fish and...

  8. Contours--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file...

  9. SANS observations on weakly flocculated dispersions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischenko, N.; Ourieva, G.; Mortensen, K.

    1997-01-01

    Structural changes occurring in colloidal dispersions of poly-(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) particles, sterically stabilized with poly-(12-hydroxystearic acid) (PHSA), while varying the solvent quality, temperature and shear rate, are investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS...

  10. Habitat--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  11. Surviving the Present: San Francisco Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Tom

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the services of the San Francisco Public Library with respect to the effects of Proposition 13 and inflation, and describes the roles of the Main Library, the Business Branch, the Chinatown Branch, and the Communications Center. (CHC)

  12. Watershed Planning Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  13. BASINS Framework and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASINS enables users to efficiently access nationwide environmental databases and local user-specified datasets, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven nonpoint loading and water quality models within a single GIS format.

  14. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  15. Hellas: A double-impact basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkani-Hamed, J.

    2010-12-01

    , indicating that Hellas basin may have been actually formed by two comparable impacts with a center to center distance of about 640 km. At this harmonic band the floor of Hellas also shows two distinct but slight depressions exactly over the mantle uplifts, but the free Air anomaly is almost featureless indicating that the basin is highly compensated. . [1] Andrews-Hanna, J.C., et al., Nature, 453, 1212-1215, 2008. [2] Shoemaker, E.M., In: Kopal, Z. (Ed.), Physics and Astronomy of the Moon. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 283-359, 1962. [3] Elbeshausen, D., et al., Icarus, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2009.07.018, 2009, [4] Marinova, M.M., et al., Nature, 453, 1216-1219, 2008. [5] Smith, D., et al., NASA Planetary Data System, MGS-M-MOLA-5-MEGDR-L3-V1.0, 2003. [6] Konopliv, A.S., personal communication, 2010.

  16. Petroleum systems of the Eastern Venezuelan basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, S.C. (DGSI, The Woodlands, TX (United States))

    1991-03-01

    The Eastern Venezuelan basin (area 165,000 km{sup 2}) is well known for its Orinoco Heavy Oil belt and many large accumulations of medium and light oils and gas in the Maturin and Guarico subbasins. A single petroleum system is responsible for all the oil accumulations in the Orinoco Oil belt and the maturin subbasin and the majority of oil deposits in the Guarico subbasin. Source rocks for the system are the calcareous shales and limestones of Upper Cretaceous Querecual and San Antonio formations. Geologic reconstruction and basin modeling have shown the development of huge generating areas along the northern parts of the Guarico and Maturin subbasins during early stages of foreland basin development in lower/middle Miocene times. Expelled oils migrated southward and updip for long distances (150-300 km) along undistributed homoclinal surfaces successively through the Upper Cretaceous, Oligocene, and Miocene sandstone carrier beds under progressively younger Tertiary marine shales. The oils finally accumulated in Miocene sandstone stratigraphic traps. Biodegradation of originally mature medium to light oils in shallow lower/middle Miocene reservoirs formed the heavy and extra-heavy oils of the Orinoco Oil belt. The oils in the Maturin and Guarico subbasins are found in structural traps within many different reservoirs. They are mainly mature and medium to light gravity oils but some heavy oils were formed in shallow reservoirs by biodegradation and in deep reservoirs by deasphaltenation. The Cretaceous sourced oils generated during upper Miocene-Recent times migrated vertically along thrusts and faults that caused disruptions of regional carrier beds and seals and accumulated into different stratigraphic and structural levels.

  17. Recycling an uplifted early foreland basin fill: An example from the Jaca basin (Southern Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roigé, M.; Gómez-Gras, D.; Remacha, E.; Boya, S.; Viaplana-Muzas, M.; Teixell, A.

    2017-10-01

    In the northern Jaca basin (Southern Pyrenees), the replacement of deep-marine by terrestrial environments during the Eocene records a main drainage reorganization in the active Pyrenean pro-wedge, which leads to recycling of earlier foreland basin sediments. The onset of late Eocene-Oligocene terrestrial sedimentation is represented by four main alluvial fans: Santa Orosia, Canciás, Peña Oroel and San Juan de la Peña, which appear diachronously from east to west. These alluvial fans are the youngest preserved sediments deposited in the basin. We provide new data on sediment composition and sources for the late Eocene-Oligocene alluvial fans and precursor deltas of the Jaca basin. Sandstone petrography allows identification of the interplay of axially-fed sediments from the east with transversely-fed sediments from the north. Compositional data for the alluvial fans reflects a dominating proportion of recycled rock fragments derived from the erosion of a lower to middle Eocene flysch depocentre (the Hecho Group), located immediately to the north. In addition, pebble composition allows identification of a source in the North Pyrenean Zone that provided lithologies from the Cretaceous carbonate flysch, Jurassic dolostones and Triassic dolerites. Thus we infer this zone as part of the source area, located in the headwaters, which would have been unroofed from turbidite deposits during the late Eocene-Oligocene. These conclusions provide new insights on the response of drainage networks to uplift and topographic growth of the Pyrenees, where the water divide migrated southwards to its present day location.

  18. 76 FR 81371 - Safety Zone; San Francisco New Year's Eve Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with... regulated area. The PATCOM shall be designated by the Commander, Coast Guard Sector San Francisco. The...

  19. 77 FR 15260 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... safety zone for the San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. During the...

  20. 77 FR 37603 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Independence Day Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with... regulated area. The PATCOM shall be designated by the Commander, Coast Guard Sector San Francisco. The...

  1. 76 FR 14051 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... American human remains. The National Park Service is not responsible for the determinations in this notice... of shared group identity that can be reasonably traced between the Native American human remains and... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA...

  2. Una Visita al Viejo San Juan (A Visit to Old San Juan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Victor; And Others

    Written in Spanish, this black and white illustrated booklet provides a tour of Old San Juan, Puerto Rico's oldest and most historic city. Brief historical information is provided on the Perro de San Jeronimo, a statue of a barking dog found in front of the Castillo; Plaza de Colon, a small plaza dedicated to Christopher Columbus; the Catedral de…

  3. Synthesis of SAN-PB-SAN triblock copolymers via a ''living'' copolymerization with macro-photoiniferters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, E; de Boer, B.; ten Brinke, G.; Hadziioannou, G

    1996-01-01

    A technique is described for the synthesis of poly((styrene-co-acrylonitrile)-block-butadiene-block-(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)) (SAN-PB-SAN) triblock copolymers through polybutadiene-based photo-iniferters. Dihydroxy- and dicarboxy-terminated polybutadienes were transformed into the

  4. 77 FR 59969 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, Department of Anthropology, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Anthropology, San Francisco, CA; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; correction... Department of Anthropology). The human remains and associated funerary objects were removed from Marin County... University staff under the direction of Gary Pahl. Materials from the excavations were jointly curated by San...

  5. 78 FR 21403 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... NAGPRA Program, c/o Department of Anthropology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San... conjunction with the construction of the New Don Pedro Reservoir. Site materials from the New Don Pedro...-Wuk Indians of the Tuolumne Rancheria of California. The objects are consistent with the material...

  6. The San Andreas Fault 'Supersite' (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnut, K. W.

    2013-12-01

    An expanded and permanent Supersite has been proposed to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) for the San Andreas Fault system, based upon the successful initial Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Geohazard Supersite for the Los Angeles region from 2009-2013. As justification for the comprehensive San Andreas Supersite, consider the earthquake history of California, in particular the devastating M 7.8 San Francisco earthquake of 1906, which occurred along the San Andreas Fault, as did an earthquake of similar magnitude in 1857 in southern California. Los Angeles was only a small town then, but now the risk exposure has increased for both of California's megacities. Between the San Francisco and Los Angeles urban areas lies a section of the San Andreas Fault known to creep continually, so it has relatively less earthquake hazard. It used to be thought of as capable of stopping earthquakes entering it from either direction. Transitional behavior at either end of the creeping section is known to display a full range of seismic to aseismic slip events and accompanying seismicity and strain transient events. Because the occurrence of creep events is well documented by instrumental networks such as CISN and PBO, the San Andreas Supersite can be expected to be especially effective. A good baseline level of geodetic data regarding past events and strain accumulation and release exists. Many prior publications regarding the occurrence of geophysical phenomena along the San Andreas Fault system mean that in order to make novel contributions, state-of-the-art science will be required within this Supersite region. In more recent years, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake struck adjacent to the San Andreas Fault and caused the most damage along the western side of the San Francisco Bay Area. More recently, the concern has focused on the potential for future events along the Hayward Fault along the eastern side of San Francisco Bay. In Southern California, earthquakes

  7. 78 FR 19103 - Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano Escort; Bahia de San Juan; San Juan, PR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El... during the transit of the Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano, a public vessel, and during... board the Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano. The inbound escort is scheduled to take place...

  8. Rapid contrast matching by microfluidic SANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Marco; Poulos, Andreas S; Miller, Ruhina M; Lopez, Carlos G; Martel, Anne; Porcar, Lionel; Cabral, João T

    2017-05-02

    We report a microfluidic approach to perform small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements of contrast variation and matching, extensively employed in soft and biological matter research. We integrate a low scattering background microfluidic mixer and serpentine channel in a SANS beamline to yield a single phase, continuous flow, reconfigurable liquid cell. By contrast with conventional, sequential measurements of discrete (typically 4-6) solutions of varying isotopic solvent composition, our approach continually varies solution composition during SANS acquisition. We experimentally and computationally determine the effects of flow dispersion and neutron beam overillumination of microchannels in terms of the composition resolution and precision. The approach is demonstrated with model systems: H2O/D2O mixtures, a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), a triblock copolymer (pluronic F127), and silica nanoparticles (Ludox) in isotopic aqueous mixtures. The system is able to zoom into a composition window to refine contrast matching conditions, and robustly resolve solute structure and form factors by simultaneous fitting of scattering data with continuously varying contrast. We conclude by benchmarking our microflow-SANS with the discrete approach, in terms of volume required, composition resolution and (preparation and measurement) time required, proposing a leap forward in equilibrium, liquid solution phase mapping and contrast variation by SANS.

  9. Submarine landslides of San Pedro Escarpment, southwest of Long Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, R.G.; Gardner, J.V.

    2004-01-01

    The coastal infrastructure of the southern greater Los Angeles metropolitan area would be profoundly affected by a large tsunami. Submarine slope failures and active faults, either of which could have generated a tsunami, are known on the shelf and slope near Long Beach. Large slope failures are present on the San Pedro Escarpment and on the basin slope adjacent to the San Pedro shelf. The southeastern part of the escarpment has had a long history of slope failure. The most recent failure, the Palos Verdes slide, is over 4.5 km long, has been dated as 7500 years old, and involved over 0.34 km 3 of material, which now litters the adjacent basin floor. Other, smaller, deposits from nearby failures are also present, as are buried wedges of debris that indicate slope failures have occurred locally throughout the Holocene and much of the late Pleistocene. Slope failures have occurred in response to continual Quaternary uplift of the Palos Verdes anticlinorium. The Palos Verdes slide could potentially have generated a failure-related tsunami with an amplitude in the range of 8-12 m because it apparently failed catastrophically, started in shallow water, evolved on low-drag bedding planes, had a long slide path, and involved high-strength lithified material. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. NEW DATA ON THE LOWER PLEISTOCENE (GELASIAN LIGNITE BEDS OF CASTEL SAN PIETRO (RIETI, CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA PANDOLFI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A multiproxy study of the lignite-bearing lacustrine sequence cropping out at Castel San Pietro (CSP (Rieti, central Italy provides new insights on the paleoenvironmental evolution of an extensional basin, located on the Tyrrhenian side of the Apennine range. The CSP fossiliferous levels reflect deposition in a stable lacustrine environment. Mammal remains collected from this locality during the past centuries include Stephanorhinus etruscus, Anancus arvernensis and the beaver Castor fiber. The co-existence of the Etruscan rhinoceros and the mastodont suggests a middle Villafranchian age (Montopoli or Coste San Giacomo Faunal Unit for the lignite beds of CSP. New paleoflora findings are in agreement with an attribution to the Piacenzian or Gelasian age for these deposits whilst the presence of the ostracod Qinghaicypris cf. Q. riojensis suggests a time interval from Zanclean to Gelasian (between ~4.5 and ~1.8 Ma. Accordingly, the lignite beds of CSP most likely were deposited during the Gelasian (from ca. 2.5 to 1.8 Ma; from Montopoli to Coste San Giacomo FUs or possibly to Olivola FU in forested area and warm and humid conditions.

  11. Cacao use and the San Lorenzo Olmec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powis, Terry G.; Cyphers, Ann; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.; Grivetti, Louis; Cheong, Kong

    2011-01-01

    Mesoamerican peoples had a long history of cacao use—spanning more than 34 centuries—as confirmed by previous identification of cacao residues on archaeological pottery from Paso de la Amada on the Pacific Coast and the Olmec site of El Manatí on the Gulf Coast. Until now, comparable evidence from San Lorenzo, the premier Olmec capital, was lacking. The present study of theobromine residues confirms the continuous presence and use of cacao products at San Lorenzo between 1800 and 1000 BCE, and documents assorted vessels forms used in its preparation and consumption. One elite context reveals cacao use as part of a mortuary ritual for sacrificial victims, an event that occurred during the height of San Lorenzo's power. PMID:21555564

  12. Modifed Great Basin Extent (Buffered)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two different great basin perimeter files were intersected and dissolved using ArcGIS 10.2.2 to create the outer perimeter of the great basin for use modeling...

  13. Mammal Track Counts - San Diego County [ds442

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The San Diego Tracking Team (SDTT) is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting the preservation of wildlife habitat in San Diego County through citizen-based...

  14. Mammal Track Counts - San Diego County, 2010 [ds709

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The San Diego Tracking Team (SDTT) is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting the preservation of wildlife habitat in San Diego County through citizen-based...

  15. Coastal Cactus Wren, San Diego Co. - 2011 [ds708

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The San Diego Multiple Species Conservation program (MSCP) was developed for the conservation of plants and animals in the southeast portion of San Diego County....

  16. Coastal Cactus Wren, San Diego Co. - 2009 [ds702

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The San Diego Multiple Species Conservation program (MSCP) was developed for the conservation of plants and animals in the southeast portion of San Diego County....

  17. Species Observations (poly) - San Diego County [ds648

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Created in 2009, the SanBIOS database serves as a single repository of species observations collected by various departments within the County of San Diego's Land...

  18. Waterbird habitat in California's Central Valley basins under climate, urbanization, and water management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Elliott L.; Fleskes, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    California's Central Valley provides critical, but threatened habitat and food resources for migrating and wintering waterfowl, shorebirds, and other waterbirds. The Central Valley is comprised of nine basins that were defined by the Central Valley Joint Venture (CVJV) to assist in conservation planning. Basins vary in composition and extent of habitats, which primarily include croplands and wetlands that rely on water supplies shared with other competing human and environmental uses. Changes in climate, urban development, and water supply management are uncertain and could reduce future availability of water supplies supporting waterbird habitats and limit effectiveness of wetland restoration planned by the CVJV to support wintering waterbirds. We modeled 17 plausible scenarios including combinations of three climate projections, three urbanization rates, and five water supply management options to promote agricultural and urban water uses, with and without wetland restoration. Our research examines the reduction in quantity and quality of habitats during the fall migration-wintering period by basin under each scenario, and the efficacy of planned wetland restoration to compensate reductions in flooded areas of wetland habitats. Scenario combinations of projected climate, urbanization, and water supply management options reduced availability of flooded cropland and wetland habitats during fall-winter and degraded the quality of seasonal wetlands (i.e., summer-irrigation for improved forage production), though the extent and frequency of impacts varied by basin. Planned wetland restoration may substantially compensate for scenario-related effects on wetland habitats in each basin. However, results indicate that Colusa, Butte, Sutter, San Joaquin, and Tulare Basins may require additional conservation to support summer-irrigation of seasonal wetlands and winter-flooding of cropland habitats. Still further conservation may be required to provide sufficient areas of

  19. Tectonoestratigraphic and Thermal Models of the Tiburon and Wagner Basins, northern Gulf of California Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, J.; Ramirez Zerpa, N. A.; Negrete-Aranda, R.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Gulf of California Rift System consist sofa series faults that accommodate both normal and strike-slip motion. The faults formed a series of half-greens filled with more than 7 km of siliciclastic suc­cessions. Here, we present tectonostratigraphic and heat flow models for the Tiburón basin, in the southern part of the system, and the Wag­ner basin in the north. The models are constrained by two-dimensional seis­mic lines and by two deep boreholes drilled by PEMEX­-PEP. Analysis of the seismic lines and models' results show that: (i) subsidence of the basins is controlled by high-angle normal faults and by flow of the lower crust, (ii) basins share a common history, and (iii) there are significant differences in the way brittle strain was partitioned in the basins, a feature frequently observed in rift basins. On one hand, the bounding faults of the Tiburón basin have a nested geometry and became active following a west-to-east sequence of activation. The Tiburon half-graben was formed by two pulses of fault activity. One took place during the protogulf extensional phase in the Miocene and the other during the opening of Gulf of California in the Pleistocene. On the other hand, the Wagner basin is the result of two fault generations. During the late-to middle Miocene, the west-dipping Cerro Prieto and San Felipe faults formed a domino array. Then, during the Pleistocene the Consag and Wagner faults dissected the hanging-wall of the Cerro Prieto fault forming the modern Wagner basin. Thermal modeling of the deep borehole temperatures suggests that the heat flow in these basins in the order of 110 mW/m2 which is in agreement with superficial heat flow measurements in the northern Gulf of California Rift System.

  20. 78 FR 34895 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Independence Day Fireworks Display, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Display in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards.... The PATCOM is empowered to forbid entry into and control the regulated area. The PATCOM shall be...

  1. Quaternary Geochronology, Paleontology, and Archaeology of the Upper San Pedro River Valley, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, E. P.

    2013-12-01

    This poster presents the results of multi-disciplinary investigations of the preservation and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing strata in the San Pedro River Valley in Sonora, Mexico. Geologic deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in southern Arizona contain one of the best late Cenozoic fossil records known in North America and the best record of early humans and extinct mammals on the continent. The basin in the U.S. is one of the type locations for the Blancan Land Mammal Age. Hemiphilian and Irvingtonian fossils are common. Rancholabrean remains are widespread. Strata in the valley adjacent to the international border with Mexico have yielded the densest concentration of archaeological mammoth-kill sites known in the western hemisphere. Despite more than 60 years of research in the U.S., however, and the fact that over one third of the San Pedro River lies south of the international boundary, little has been known about the late Cenozoic geology of the valley in Mexico. The study reported here utilized extensive field survey, archaeological documentation, paleontological excavations, stratigraphic mapping and alluvial geochronology to determine the nature and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in Sonora, Mexico. The results demonstrate that the Plio-Pleistocene fossil -bearing formations known from the valley in Arizona extend into the uppermost reaches of the valley in Mexico. Several new fossil sites were discovered that yielded the remains of Camelids, Equus, Mammuthus, and other Proboscidean species. Late Pleistocene archaeological remains were found on the surface of the surrounding uplands. AMS radiocarbon dating demonstrates the widespread preservation of middle- to late- Holocene deposits. However, the late Pleistocene deposits that contain the archaeological mammoth-kill sites in Arizona are absent in the valley in Mexico, and are now known to be restricted to relatively small portions of

  2. [Homework Policies of San Mateo County School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mateo County Office of Education, Redwood City, CA. SMERC Information Center.

    Homework policy statements from six elementary school districts in San Mateo County, California (Menlo Park City, Millbrae, San Bruno, Portola Valley, San Carlos, and Redwood City) covering kindergarten through grade 8 are presented. Responsibilities of the principal, the teachers, the students, and the parents are indicated; and time limits,…

  3. Analysis of Pollution Potential of the Upper San Pedro and Upper Santa Cruz Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincicome, A. D.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Transboundary aquifers along the U.S.-Mexico border are subject to unique demands and constraints, and are a focus of priority assessment under the auspices of the Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Program. The Upper Santa Cruz and Upper San Pedro basins in southern Arizona are experiencing rapid population growth and development, and the associated water and environmental resource demands are stressors to water resource sustainability. A groundwater vulnerability assessment was performed to evaluate groundwater resources within these two basins using DRASTIC (Depth to water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone media, and hydraulic Conductivity of the aquifer). DRASTIC analysis is a standardized method developed by the Environmental Protection Agency for evaluating groundwater pollution potential. DRASTIC was used to characterize the potential for contamination of groundwater by land surface sources. Data layers for the DRASTIC analysis were compiled and analyzed separately based on rating methods from DRASTIC. These methods rate each layer on a scale of one to ten, one being the least vulnerable to contamination and ten being the most vulnerable. Weights for each layer were also provided by DRASTIC based on each layer's contribution to the overall vulnerability of the aquifer. These layers were then analyzed using the equation: DRDW+RRRW+ARAw+SRSW+TRTW+IRIW+CRCW = Pollution Potential, where R = rating, and W = weight. This assessment was coupled with current knowledge of groundwater contamination and current land use practices to identify zones of potential concern. This information can be used to better direct city planning, zoning programs, and groundwater monitoring and remediation efforts throughout the Upper Santa Cruz and Upper San Pedro basins.

  4. Pacific basin energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testimony is presented concerning pending legislation which provides for the assessment and development of the potential for renewable energy sources in the U.S. insular areas, including the trust territories. Options for self-sufficiency throughout the Pacific basin are considered in light of rapidly escalating fuel costs.

  5. Single-basined choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossert, W.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Single-basined preferences generalize single-dipped preferences by allowing for multiple worst elements. These preferences have played an important role in areas such as voting, strategy-proofness and matching problems. We examine the notion of single-basinedness in a choice-theoretic setting. In

  6. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    basins when the direct transitions between them are “energetically favorable”. Edge weights endcode the corresponding saddle heights and thus measure the difficulties of these favorable transitions. BHGs can be approximated accurately and efficiently for RNA molecules well beyond the length range...

  7. Gravity cores from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, San Francisco Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data release contains information on gravity cores that were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the area of San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait,...

  8. Heidegger y el cristianismo de San Pablo y San Agustín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Lara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto intenta mostrar el sentido de la interpretación de San Pablo y San Agustín que Heidegger lleva a cabo en sus primeros cursos de Friburgo. En concreto, se pretende apuntar al motivo por el que el joven Heidegger recupera aspectos del cristianismo para su proyecto filosófico y cuáles son los elementos concretos que las Epístolas de San Pablo y las Confesiones de San Agustín le aportan. De esta forma, se apreciará, entre otras cosas, la importancia concedida por Heidegger a la acentuación del mundo propio (Selbstwelt y de la temporalidad que es característica de la experiencia cristiana del vivir

  9. October 1986 San Salvador, El Salvador Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — At least 1,000 people killed, 10,000 injured, 200,000 homeless and severe damage in the San Salvador area. About 50 fatalities were the result of landslides in the...

  10. San Jose, California: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of San Jose, CA, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  11. GAMBITS, EDUCATIONAL INNOVATIONS IN SAN MATEO COUNTY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BUTLER, CORNELIUS E.

    DESCRIBED ARE 12 INNOVATIVE PACE PROJECTS IN SAN MATEO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA, WHICH WERE DEVELOPED WITH ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION ACT TITLE III FUNDS. AMONG THE PROJECTS ARE--A PRESCHOOL CENTER, AN INDUSTRIAL ARTS PROGRAM, AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL MUSIC PROGRAM, AND ADULT JOB TRAINING. OTHERS ARE--AN IDENTIFICATION AND INTERVENTION PROJECT FOR…

  12. Educational and Demographic Profile: San Mateo County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for San Mateo County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  13. Humanities at College of San Mateo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mateo Coll., CA.

    Descriptions are provided for the courses in the College of San Mateo's new Humanities program. As introductory material notes, these team-taught, interdisciplinary courses were designed to be taken independently in various combinations depending upon the student's major or interests. They carry three units of transferable credit and satisfy…

  14. 77 FR 20379 - San Diego Gas &

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission San Diego Gas & Electric Company v. Sellers of Energy and Ancillary Services Into Markets Operated by the California Independent System Operator Corporation and the California...

  15. San Antonio, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of San Antonio, TX, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  16. San Antonio, TX, Receives EPA Investment Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALLAS - (May 28, 2015) Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced the city of San Antonio is one of 146 communities across the country to be awarded a total of $54.3 million in investment grants. These grants will provide communities

  17. Bransfield Basin and Cordilleran Orogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, I. W.; Austin, J. A.; Barker, D. H.; Christensen, G. L.

    2003-12-01

    Tectonic uplift of the Andean Cordillera was initiated in the mid-Cretaceous with inversion of a composite marginal basin along 7500 km of the continental margin of South America, from Peru to Tierra del Fuego and the North Scotia Ridge. In the southernmost Andes, from 50-56 degrees S, the quasi-oceanic floor of this basin is preserved in the obducted ophiolitic rocks of the Rocas Verdes (Green Rocks) basin. We suggest that the basin beneath Bransfield Strait, 61-64 degrees S, separating the South Shetland Islands from the Antarctic Peninsula, constitutes a modern analog for the Rocas Verdes basin. Marine geophysical studies of Bransfield basin have been undertaken over the past 12 years by the Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin, under the auspices of the Ocean Sciences Division and United States Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation. These studies have elucidated the structure and evolution of Bransfield basin for comparison with the Rocas Verdes basin, with a view to eventual forward modeling of the evolution of a hypothetical cordilleran orogen by compression and inversion of the basin. These are the processes that can be observed in the tectonic transformation of the Rocas Verdes basin into the southernmost Andean cordillera, as South America moved rapidly westward in an Atlantic-Indian ocean hot-spot reference frame during the mid-Cretaceous. Multi-channel reflection seismic data from the Bransfield basin reveal an asymmetric structural architecture characterized by steeply-dipping normal faults flanking the South Shetlands island arc and gently dipping listric normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin. Normal fault polarity reversals appear to be related to distributed loci of magmatic activity within the basin. This architecture is remarkably similar to that deduced from field structural studies of the Rocas Verdes basin. Notably, the oceanward-dipping, low angle normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin

  18. APPLICATION OF WATER-JET HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNOLOGY TO DRILL AND ACIDIZE HORIZONTAL DRAIN HOLES, TEDBIT (SAN ANDRES) FIELD, GAINES COUNTY, TEXAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael W. Rose

    2005-09-22

    The San Andres Formation is one of the major hydrocarbon-producing units in the Permian Basin, with multiple reservoirs contained within the dolomitized subtidal portions of upward shoaling carbonate shelf cycles. The test well is located in Tedbit (San Andres) Field in northeastern Gaines County, Texas, in an area of scattered San Andres production associated with local structural highs. Selected on the basis of geological and historical data, the Oil and Gas Properties Wood No. 1 well is considered to be typical of a large number of San Andres stripper wells in the Permian Basin. Thus, successful completion of horizontal drain holes in this well would demonstrate a widely applicable enhanced recovery technology. Water-jet horizontal drilling is an emerging technology with the potential to provide significant economic benefits in marginal wells. Forecast benefits include lower recompletion costs and improved hydrocarbon recoveries. The technology utilizes water under high pressure, conveyed through small-diameter coiled tubing, to jet horizontal drain holes into producing formations. Testing of this technology was conducted with inconclusive results. Paraffin sludge and mechanical problems were encountered in the wellbore, initially preventing the water-jet tool from reaching the kick-off point. After correcting these problems and attempting to cut a casing window with the water-jet milling assembly, lateral jetting was attempted without success.

  19. 75 FR 8106 - Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ..., and San Mateo Counties, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of intent to... located in Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties of California. We provide this notice in... Clara, and San Mateo Counties, CA. This notice complies with our CCP policy to (1) advise other Federal...

  20. 77 FR 28895 - Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability... Wildlife Refuge, located in the Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties of California, consists of...

  1. Confirmatory sediment analyses and solid and suspended particulate phase bioassays on sediment from Oakland Inner Harbor, San Francisco, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Word, J.Q.; Ward, J.A.; Apts, C.W.; Woodruff, D.L.; Barrows, M.E.; Cullinan, V.I.; Hyland, J.L.; Campbell, J.F.

    1988-12-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, was authorized by the US Congress to deepen the navigation channels of Inner and Outer Oakland Harbor, California. During review of the environmental impact statement required for this dredging and disposal project, a panel of national experts approved the open-water disposal of dredged sediment from selected areas within the Inner Harbor, subject to results of confirmatory solid phase bioassays. The San Francisco District of the Corps requested the Battle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to conduct these confirmatory studies. The studies provided technical data for an evaluation of the potential environmental impact of this project. Within extremely narrow time constraints, these studies provided chemical and biological information required by ocean dumping regulations to determine suitability of the Oakland Inner Harbor and turning basin sediment for ocean disposal. 23 refs., 18 figs., 45 tabs.

  2. Frontier petroleum basins of Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, J.F. Jr.; Perez, V.E.

    1989-03-01

    The frontier basins of Colombia with hydrocarbon potential are numerous, have varying geological histories, and are in different stages of exploration development. In this paper, sedimentary or structural basins are classified as frontier petroleum basins if commercial discoveries of hydrocarbons are lacking, if the basin has not attained a high degree of exploration development, or if a new play concept has been perceived or developed for a portion of a mature exploration basin. Using these criteria for classification, the authors discuss the Cauca-Patia Choco-Pacifico, and Lower Magdalena basin complexes; the Cordillera Oriental foreland basin; and the Cesar-Rancheria, Sabana, and Amazonas basins. A comprehensive geological and structural setting of each of these frontier basins will be presented. The depositional and tectonic evolution of the basins will be highlighted, and the play concepts for each will be inventoried, catalogued, and categorized as to whether they are theoretical or established. The discussion of the available plays in each of these basins will include the main play concept elements of reservoirs traps, seals, source rocks, maturation, and timing. When detailed data permit, the reservoir and trap geometry will be presented.

  3. Application of Hydrologic Tools and Monitoring to Support Managed Aquifer Recharge Decision Making in the Upper San Pedro River, Arizona, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J. Lacher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The San Pedro River originates in Sonora, Mexico, and flows north through Arizona, USA, to its confluence with the Gila River. The 92-km Upper San Pedro River is characterized by interrupted perennial flow, and serves as a vital wildlife corridor through this semiarid to arid region. Over the past century, groundwater pumping in this bi-national basin has depleted baseflows in the river. In 2007, the United States Geological Survey published the most recent groundwater model of the basin. This model served as the basis for predictive simulations, including maps of stream flow capture due to pumping and of stream flow restoration due to managed aquifer recharge. Simulation results show that ramping up near-stream recharge, as needed, to compensate for downward pumping-related stress on the water table, could sustain baseflows in the Upper San Pedro River at or above 2003 levels until the year 2100 with less than 4.7 million cubic meters per year (MCM/yr. Wet-dry mapping of the river over a period of 15 years developed a body of empirical evidence which, when combined with the simulation tools, provided powerful technical support to decision makers struggling to manage aquifer recharge to support baseflows in the river while also accommodating the economic needs of the basin.

  4. Geochemical Atlas of the San Jose and Golfito quadrangles, Costa Rica. Atlas Geoquimico de los cuadrangulos de San Jose y Golfito, Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-07-01

    The Geochemical Atlas of the San Jose and Golfito 1:200,000-scale quadrangles, Costa Rica, was produced to help stimulate the growth of the Costa Rican mining industry and, thus, to benefit the economy of the country. As a result of the geochemical data presented in the Atlas, future exploration for metallic minerals in Costa Rica can be focused on specific areas that have the highest potential for mineralization. Stream-sediment samples were collected from drainage basins within the two quadrangles. These samples were analyzed for 50 elements and the results were displayed as computer-generated color maps. Each map shows the variation in abundance of a single element within the quadrangle. Basic statistics, geological and cultural data are included as insets in each map to assist in interpretation. In the Golfito quadrangle, the geochemical data do not clearly indicate undiscovered gold mineralization. The areas known to contain placer (alluvial) gold are heavily affected by mining activity. Statistical treatment of the geochemical data is necessary before it will be possible to determine the gold potential of this quadrangle. In San Jose quadrangle, gold and the pathfinder elements, arsenic and antimony, are indicators of the gold mineralization characteristic of the Costa Rican gold district located in the Tilaran-Montes del Aguacate Range. This work shows that high concentrations of these elements occur in samples collected downstream from active gold mines. More importantly, the high concentrations of gold, arsenic, and antimony in sediment samples from an area southeast of the known gold district suggest a previously unknown extension of the district. This postulated extension underlain by Tertiary volcanic rocks which host the gold deposits within the gold district. The geochemical data, displayed herein, also indicate that drainage basins north of Ciudad Quesada on the flanks of Volcan Platanar have high gold potential.

  5. San Juan Uchucuanicu: évolution historique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available La communauté de San Juan est reconnue depuis 1939. Une première partie concerne l’organisation de la reducción de San Juan vers le milieu du XVIe siècle. Le poids fiscal s’exerce durement sur le village et la crise est générale dans toute la vallée du Chancay au XVIIe. siècle. La christianisation des habitants est définitive au milieu de ce même siècle. C’est vers la fin du XVIIe siècle et durant tout le XVIIIe que se multiplient les conflits entre San Juan et les villages voisins liés aux terrains de pâture et à la possession de l’eau. La deuxième partie du travail concerne les rapports de la communauté de San Juan avec le Pérou contemporain : contrainte fiscale toujours très lourde durant la fin de l’époque coloniale, exactions des militaires juste avant l’indépendance. La période républicaine voit toujours les conflits avec les villages voisins mais aussi la naissance de familles qui cherchent à retirer le maximum de la communauté. Les terres sont divisées et attribuées : la détérioration de l’organisation communale traditionnelle est manifeste. L4es conflits se multiplient entre petits propriétaires, mais aussi avec les haciendas voisines : c’est l’apparition d’une véritable lutte de classes. La situation actuelle est incertaine, le poids de l’économie marchande se développe avec l’exode des jeunes. Que sera la communauté San Juan à la fin de ce siècle? La comunidad de San Juan está reconocida desde 1939. La primera parte concierne a la organización de la 'reducción' de San Juan hacia mediados del siglo XVI. El peso fiscal se ejerce duramente sobre el pueblo y en el siglo XVII la crisis es general en todo el valle de Chancay. Hacia mediados del mismo siglo la cristianización de los habitantes es definitiva. Es hacia fines del siglo XVII y durante todo el siglo XVIII que se multiplican los conflictos entre San Juan y los pueblos vecinos, los que están relacionados con los terrenos de

  6. Olmec civilization, veracruz, Mexico: dating of the san lorenzo phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, M D; Diehl, R A; Stuiver, M

    1967-03-17

    Archeological excavations at San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Veracruz, show that the Olmec sculptures of this zone are associated with the San Lorenzo phase, which can be placed in the Early Formative period (1500-800 B.C.) on the basis of ceramic comparisons. Five of six radiocarbon dates for the San Lorenzo phase fall within the 1200-900 B.C. span. The San Lorenzo phase therefore marks the beginning of Olmec civilization, and the sites forming the San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan group represent the oldest civilized communities known in Mexico or Central America.

  7. San Pascual (2005) Año XLIII, n. 336

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, María Dolores, O.S.C. (Directora)

    2005-01-01

    Editorial. Opinión Juan Pablo II el Magno. Opinión Un nuevo papa: Benedicto XVI. Opinión de ecclesia de eucharistia (I). Pascual ha sido nombre de papas y de mahometanos. La devoción de San Pascual en 1932. El amor verdadero vence todas las dificultades. San Pascual Patrón eucarístico. Rincón poético, llamada. Vida en el santuario. Carta de novelda. Humildad en San Pascual. Una imagen de San Pascual en México. Teología espiritual trabajo sobre Teresa de Jesús (1). Caminos de San Pascual, capí...

  8. Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in San Bernardino, California. Part of the third year report, 1980-81, of the US Department of Energy-California State-Coupled Program for Reservoir Assessment and Confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngs, L.G.; Bezore, S.P.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.

    1981-08-01

    Ninety-seven geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted on a compiled geologic map of the 40-square-mile study area. These wells and springs were concentrated in three distinguishable resource areas: Arrowhead Hot Springs; South San Bernardino; and Harlem Hot Springs - in each of which detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area lies just north of the City of San Bernardino in the San Bernardino Mountains astride a shear zone (offshoot of the San Andreas fault) in pre-Cambrian gneiss and schist. The Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area, on the east side of the City, and the south San Bernardino geothermal area, on the south side, have geothermal reservoirs in Quaternary alluvial material which overlies a moderately deep sedimentary basin bound on the southwest by the San Jacinto fault (a ground water barrier). Geothermometry calculations suggest that the Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area, with a maximum reservoir temperature of 142/sup 0/C, may have the highest maximum reservoir temperature of the three geothermal areas. The maximum temperature recorded by CDMG in the south San Bernardino geothermal area was 56/sup 0/C from an artesian well, while the maximum temperature recorded in the Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area was 49.5/sup 0/C at 174 meters (570 feet) in an abandoned water well. The geophysical and geological surveys delineated fault traces in association with all three of the designated geothermal areas.

  9. The disappearing San of southeastern Africa and their genetic affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlebusch, Carina M; Prins, Frans; Lombard, Marlize; Jakobsson, Mattias; Soodyall, Himla

    2016-12-01

    Southern Africa was likely exclusively inhabited by San hunter-gatherers before ~2000 years ago. Around that time, East African groups assimilated with local San groups and gave rise to the Khoekhoe herders. Subsequently, Bantu-speaking farmers, arriving from the north (~1800 years ago), assimilated and displaced San and Khoekhoe groups, a process that intensified with the arrival of European colonists ~350 years ago. In contrast to the western parts of southern Africa, where several Khoe-San groups still live today, the eastern parts are largely populated by Bantu speakers and individuals of non-African descent. Only a few scattered groups with oral traditions of Khoe-San ancestry remain. Advances in genetic research open up new ways to understand the population history of southeastern Africa. We investigate the genomic variation of the remaining individuals from two South African groups with oral histories connecting them to eastern San groups, i.e., the San from Lake Chrissie and the Duma San of the uKhahlamba-Drakensberg. Using ~2.2 million genetic markers, combined with comparative published data sets, we show that the Lake Chrissie San have genetic ancestry from both Khoe-San (likely the ||Xegwi San) and Bantu speakers. Specifically, we found that the Lake Chrissie San are closely related to the current southern San groups (i.e., the Karretjie people). Duma San individuals, on the other hand, were genetically similar to southeastern Bantu speakers from South Africa. This study illustrates how genetic tools can be used to assess hypotheses about the ancestry of people who seemingly lost their historic roots, only recalling a vague oral tradition of their origin.

  10. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Madera–Chowchilla and Kings subbasins, San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2018-01-08

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Program’s Priority Basin Project assesses the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Many households and small communities in the Madera– Chowchilla and Kings subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley rely on private domestic wells for their drinking-water supplies.

  11. Integrated Hydrographical Basin Management. Study Case – Crasna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visescu, Mircea; Beilicci, Erika; Beilicci, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Hydrographical basins are important from hydrological, economic and ecological points of view. They receive and channel the runoff from rainfall and snowmelt which, when adequate managed, can provide fresh water necessary for water supply, irrigation, food industry, animal husbandry, hydrotechnical arrangements and recreation. Hydrographical basin planning and management follows the efficient use of available water resources in order to satisfy environmental, economic and social necessities and constraints. This can be facilitated by a decision support system that links hydrological, meteorological, engineering, water quality, agriculture, environmental, and other information in an integrated framework. In the last few decades different modelling tools for resolving problems regarding water quantity and quality were developed, respectively water resources management. Watershed models have been developed to the understanding of water cycle and pollution dynamics, and used to evaluate the impacts of hydrotechnical arrangements and land use management options on water quantity, quality, mitigation measures and possible global changes. Models have been used for planning monitoring network and to develop plans for intervention in case of hydrological disasters: floods, flash floods, drought and pollution. MIKE HYDRO Basin is a multi-purpose, map-centric decision support tool for integrated hydrographical basin analysis, planning and management. MIKE HYDRO Basin is designed for analyzing water sharing issues at international, national and local hydrographical basin level. MIKE HYDRO Basin uses a simplified mathematical representation of the hydrographical basin including the configuration of river and reservoir systems, catchment hydrology and existing and potential water user schemes with their various demands including a rigorous irrigation scheme module. This paper analyzes the importance and principles of integrated hydrographical basin management and develop a case

  12. San Telmo, backpackers y otras globalizaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Firmo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende contribuir al debate sobre otras formas de globalización  presentando una etnografía realizada en el barrio de San Telmo sobre mochileros que combinan en sus experiencias viaje y trabajo. Su objetivo es viajar al mismo tiempo que sacan provecho de esto para conseguir el capital necesario que les permita continuar en movimiento alrededor del globo. En este texto quiero hablar sobre estos auténticos actores de la globalización popular que ponen el foco en procesos y agentes alternativos no hegemónicos y que en este caso desarrollan su actividad en el contexto de la experiencia mochilera en San Telmo, siendo mi intención enriquecer las reflexiones sobre la globalización desde abajo.

  13. San Cristobal Galapagos wind power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolan, J. [Sgurr Energy, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The San Cristobal Galapagos wind power project was described. With its unique endemic flora and fauna, the Galapagos Islands were declared a world heritage site and marine reserve. The San Cristobal wind project was initiated in 1999 to reduce the environmental impacts of energy use on the island, and has been operational since 2007. Three 800 kW wind turbines have been installed in order to reduce 52 per cent of the island's diesel generation. The project's high penetration wind-diesel hybrid system included 300 kW diesel generators, a 13.2 kV utility distribution system, and six 300 kW wind turbines. The project is located outside of Galapagos Petrel flight paths and nesting areas. Turbines from a factory in Spain were used. The wind turbine foundation was constructed from concrete sand and stone mined on the island. Photographs of the installation process were included. tabs., figs.

  14. Discovery Along the San Andreas Fault: Relocating Photographs From the 1906 Earthquake in San Francisco and San Mateo Counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, K.; Prentice, C.; Polly, J.; Yuen, C.; Wu, K.; Zhong, S.; Lopez, J.

    2005-12-01

    April of 2006 will mark the 100-year anniversary of the great 1906 San Francisco earthquake. This earthquake was important not only because of its human tragedy (thousands of dead or homeless people), but also because of its scientific significance. The 8.3 magnitude earthquake ruptured 430 km of the northern San Andreas fault (SAF) and lasted nearly one minute. Investigations after the earthquake led to discoveries that were the beginning of modern earthquake theories and measuring instruments. This was also one of the first large-scale natural disasters to be photographed. Our research group, which is part of the National Science Foundation funded SF-ROCKS program, acquired photographs that were taken shortly after the earthquake in downtown San Francisco and along the SAF in San Mateo County. The SAF photos are part of a Geographical Information System (GIS) database being published on a U.S. Geological Survey web site. The goal of our project was to improve estimates of photograph locations and to compare the landscape features that were visible after the earthquake with the landscape that we see today. We used the GIS database to find initial photo locations, and we then used a high-precision Global Positioning System (GPS) to measure the geographic coordinates of the locations once we matched our view to what we saw in a photo. Where possible, we used a digital camera to retake photos from the same position, to show the difference in the landscape 100 years later. The 1906 photos show fault zone features such as ground rupture, sag ponds, shutter ridges, and offset fences. Changes to the landscape since 1906 have included erosion and grading of the land, building of houses and other structures, and more tree cover compared to previous grassland vegetation. Our project is part of 1906 Earthquake Centennial activities; it is contributing to the photo archive that helps scientists and engineers who study earthquakes and their effects. It will also help the

  15. Maps of estimated nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Anning, David W.; Paul, Angela P.; McKinney, Tim S.; Huntington, Jena M.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Human-health concerns and economic considerations associated with meeting drinking-water standards motivated a study of the vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment in the southwestern United States. Statistical models were developed by using the random forest classifier algorithm to predict concentrations of nitrate and arsenic across a model grid representing about 190,600 square miles of basin-fill aquifers in parts of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The statistical models, referred to as classifiers, reflect natural and human-related factors that affect aquifer vulnerability to contamination and relate nitrate and arsenic concentrations to explanatory variables representing local- and basin-scale measures of source and aquifer susceptibility conditions. Geochemical variables were not used in concentration predictions because they were not available for the entire study area. The models were calibrated to assess model accuracy on the basis of measured values.Only 2 percent of the area underlain by basin-fill aquifers in the study area was predicted to equal or exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard for nitrate as N (10 milligrams per liter), whereas 43 percent of the area was predicted to equal or exceed the standard for arsenic (10 micrograms per liter). Areas predicted to equal or exceed the drinking-water standard for nitrate include basins in central Arizona near Phoenix; the San Joaquin Valley, the Santa Ana Inland, and San Jacinto Basins of California; and the San Luis Valley of Colorado. Much of the area predicted to equal or exceed the drinking-water standard for arsenic is within a belt of basins along the western portion of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province that includes almost all of Nevada and parts of California and Arizona. Predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations are substantially lower than the drinking-water standards in much of

  16. San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge Well 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Easterly, C.E.; Ketelle, R.H.; Quarles, H.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), at the request of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, evaluated the water production capacity of an artesian well in the San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona. Water from the well initially flows into a pond containing three federally threatened or endangered fish species, and water from this pond feeds an adjacent pond/wetland containing an endangered plant species.

  17. Bismuth ochers from San Diego Co., California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, W.T.

    1911-01-01

    The chief points brought out in this paper may be briefly summarized as follows: (1) The existence of natural Bi2O3 has not been established. (2) Natural bismite or bismuth ocher, when pure, is more probably a bismuth hydroxide. (3) The bismuth ochers from San Diego County, California, are either a bismuth hydroxide or bismuth vanadate, pucherite, or mixtures of these two. (4) Pucherite has been found noncrystallin and determined for the first time in the United States.

  18. New holostean fishes (Actinopterygii: Neopterygii) from the Middle Triassic of the Monte San Giorgio (Canton Ticino, Switzerland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Arbarello, Adriana; Bürgin, Toni; Furrer, Heinz; Stockar, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    The new neopterygian genus Ticinolepis, including two new species T. longaeva and T. crassidens is described from Middle Triassic carbonate platform deposits of the Monte San Giorgio. The anatomy of this fish shows a mosaic of halecomorph and ginglymodian characters and, thus, the new taxon probably represents a basal holostean. During the latest Anisian to earliest Ladinian the two new species coexisted in the intraplatform basin represented by the uppermost Besano Formation, but only T. longaeva sp. nov. inhabited the more restricted basin represented by the Ladinian Meride Limestone (except for the Kalkschieferzone). The more widely distributed type species shows interesting patterns of intraspecific variation including ontogenetic changes and morphological variation over time. The second species presents anatomical features that strongly indicate a strictly durophagous diet. The different distribution of the species is interpreted as a result of habitat partitioning and different adaptability to palaeoenvironmental changes.

  19. Characterization of VOC Emissions from Various Components of Dairy Farming and their effect on San Joaquin Valley Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M. M.; Meinardi, S.; Krauter, C.; Blake, D.

    2008-12-01

    The San Joaquin Valley Air Basin in Central California is classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a serious non-attainment area for health-based eight-hour federal ozone (smog) standard (1). In August 2005, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District issued a report identifying dairies as a main source of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and fine particulate matter in the valley (2). Among these compounds, we have found that ethanol, methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde are produced in major quantities throughout the San Joaquin valley as by-products of yeast fermentation of silage and photochemical oxidation. These oxygenates, especially ethanol, play an important role in ozone (O3) formation within the valley. Three different types of sampling protocols were employed in order to determine the degree of enhancement of the four oxygenates in the valley air shed, as well as to determine their sources, emission profiles and emission rates. An assessment of the emissions of these oxygenates in the valley was achieved using data obtained on low altitude flights through the valley and from ground level samples collected thoughout the valley. The photochemical production of ozone was calculated for each of the four oxygenates and approximately one hundred other quantified VOCs. Based on the Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR) scale and concentrations of each oxygenate in the atmosphere, as much as 20% of O3 production in the valley is from ethanol and its photochemical by-product acetaldehyde. Our findings suggest that improvement to the valley air quality may be obtained by focusing on instituting new silage containment practices and regulations. 1. Lindberg, J. "Analysis of the San Joaquin Valley 2007 Ozone Plan." State of California Air Resources Board. Final Draft Staff Report. 5/30/2007. 2. Crow, D., executive director/APCO. "Air Pollution Control Officer's Determination of VOC Emisison Factors for Dairies." San Joaquin Valley Air

  20. An overview of San Francisco Bay PORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ralph T.; McKinnie, David; English, Chad; Smith, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    The Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS) provides observations of tides, tidal currents, and meteorological conditions in real-time. The San Francisco Bay PORTS (SFPORTS) is a decision support system to facilitate safe and efficient maritime commerce. In addition to real-time observations, SFPORTS includes a nowcast numerical model forming a San Francisco Bay marine nowcast system. SFPORTS data and nowcast numerical model results are made available to users through the World Wide Web (WWW). A brief overview of SFPORTS is presented, from the data flow originated at instrument sensors to final results delivered to end users on the WWW. A user-friendly interface for SFPORTS has been designed and implemented. Appropriate field data analysis, nowcast procedures, design and generation of graphics for WWW display of field data and nowcast results are presented and discussed. Furthermore, SFPORTS is designed to support hazardous materials spill prevention and response, and to serve as resources to scientists studying the health of San Francisco Bay ecosystem. The success (or failure) of the SFPORTS to serve the intended user community is determined by the effectiveness of the user interface.

  1. Morphological evolution in the San Francisco Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Daniel M.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2007-01-01

    San Francisco Bight, located near the coast of San Francisco, USA, is an extremely dynamic tidal inlet environmental subject to large waves and strong currents. Wave heights coming from the Pacific Ocean commonly exceed 5 m during winter storms. During peak flow tidal currents approach 3 m/s at the Golden Gate, a 1 km wide entrance that connects San Francisco Bay to the Pacific Ocean. Flow structure in this region varies markedly spatially and temporally due to the complex interaction by wind, waves and tidal currents. A multibeam sonar survey was recently completed that mapped in high resolution, for the first time, the bottom morphology in the region of the ebb tidal delta. This data set includes a giant sand wave field covering an area of approximately 4 square kilometers. The new survey enables the calculation of seabed change that has occurred in the past 50 years, since the last comprehensive survey of the area was completed. This comparison indicates an average erosion of 60 centimeters which equates to a total volume change of approximately 9.3 x 107 m3. Morphologic change also indicates that flood channels have filled and that the entire ebb delta is contracting radially.

  2. Initiation, evolution and extinction of pull-apart basins: Implications for opening of the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, J.; Axen, G.; Abera, R.

    2017-11-01

    We present a model for the origin, crustal architecture, and evolution of pull-apart basins. The model is based on results of three-dimensional upper crustal elastic models of deformation, field observations, and fault theory, and is generally applicable to basin-scale features, but predicts some intra-basin structural features. Geometric differences between pull-apart basins are inherited from the initial geometry of the strike-slip fault step-over, which results from the forming phase of the strike-slip fault system. As strike-slip motion accumulates, pull-apart basins are stationary with respect to underlying basement, and the fault tips propagate beyond the rift basin, increasing the distance between the fault tips and pull-apart basin center. Because uplift is concentrated near the fault tips, the sediment source areas may rejuvenate and migrate over time. Rift flank uplift results from compression along the flank of the basin. With increasing strike-slip movement the basins deepen and lengthen. Field studies predict that pull-apart basins become extinct when an active basin-crossing fault forms; this is the most likely fate of pull-apart basins, because basin-bounding strike-slip systems tend to straighten and connect as they evolve. The models show that larger length-to-width ratios with overlapping faults are least likely to form basin-crossing faults, and pull-apart basins with this geometry are thus most likely to progress to continental rupture. In the Gulf of California, larger length-to-width ratios are found in the southern Gulf, which is the region where continental breakup occurred rapidly. The initial geometry in the northern Gulf of California and Salton Trough at 6 Ma may have been one of widely-spaced master strike-slip faults (lower length-to-width ratios), which our models suggest inhibits continental breakup and favors straightening of the strike-slip system by formation of basin-crossing faults within the step-over, as began 1.2 Ma when the

  3. Population status of prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in the San Pedro River Basin, Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efren Moreno-Arzate; Carlos A. Lopez Gonzalez; Gerardo Carreon Arroyo

    2013-01-01

    The black tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a species of conservation concern for Mexico, the United States and Canada. Populations in Mexico (including those in Sonora), which are considered endangered by the Mexican authority, require additional conservation efforts to maintain them on the long term. Our objective was to determine population size and...

  4. Cementing challenge in low fracture gradient zones in the San Jorge Basin Comodoro Rivadavia - Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellanos, Mercedes [Pan American Energy (Argentina); Quevedo, Manuel; Lopez, Rodrigo [Halliburton Argentina SA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2008-07-01

    It is a challenge to achieve higher columns of cement to isolate low fracture gradient zones where the pore pressure has decreased. In addition, it is necessary to maintain the integrity of wells by isolating freshwater zones. This prevents fluid migration to surface and maintains the integrity of casing-cement and cement-formation bonds to prevent future corrosion. Cementing to the surface in a single-stage operation is the preferred method because it eliminates the risk of leakage from a stage tool and the possibility of insufficient linear and radial coverage by a top job. Primary cementing is a practical business investment because this can reduce the need for remedial cementing operations during the life of the well. After a technical-economic evaluation of the cement slurries, the use of lighter density cement preserving API properties is recommended to isolate the productive formations containing oil and gas. (author)

  5. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Juan Basin Province (022) Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Central Region Energy Team assesses oil and gas resources of the United States. The onshore and State water areas of the United States comprise 71...

  6. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Joaquin Basin Province (010) Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Central Region Energy Team assesses oil and gas resources of the United States. The onshore and State water areas of the United States comprise 71...

  7. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Joaquin Basin Province (010) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  8. 78 FR 43796 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; China Basin, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... part of the staging area for runners participating in the scheduled Giant Race event. This deviation.... Navigation on the waterway is recreational. The drawspan will be secured in the closed-to-navigation position 6 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. on August 4, 2013, to allow runners to participate in the Giant Race event...

  9. 78 FR 31414 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; China Basin, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... in the ``SEARCH'' box and click ``SEARCH.'' Click on Open Docket Folder on the line associated with... Mean High Water in the closed-to-navigation position. The draw opens on signal if at least one hour.... The drawspan can be operated upon one hour advance notice for emergencies requiring the passage of...

  10. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Juan Basin Province (022) Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cell maps for each oil and gas assessment unit were created by the USGS as a method for illustrating the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution...

  11. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Juan Basin Province (022) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  12. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Juan Basin Province (022) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  13. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Joaquin Basin Province (010) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  14. 76 FR 3655 - Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and Riverside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ...: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA... prepared a Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Report and a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (SDEIR... on the SDEIR/DEIS. The Federal action will provide funds for a proposed aquifer storage and recovery...

  15. Hydrodynamic properties of San Quintin Bay, Baja California: Merging models and observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku Canu, Donata; Aveytua-Alcázar, Leslie; Camacho-Ibar, Victor F; Querin, Stefano; Solidoro, Cosimo

    2016-07-15

    We investigated the physical dynamics of San Quintin Bay, a coastal lagoon located on the Pacific coast of northern Baja California, Mexico. We implemented, validated and used a finite element 2-D hydrodynamic model to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of the hydrodynamic of the bay in response to variability in the tidal regime and in meteorological forcing patterns. Our analysis of general circulation, residual currents, residence times, and tidal propagation delays allowed us to characterize spatial variability in the hydrodynamic basin features. The eulerian water residence time is -on average and under reference conditions- approximately 7days, although this can change significantly by region and season and under different tidal and meteorological conditions. Ocean upwelling events that bring colder waters into the bay mouth affect hydrodynamic properties in all areas of the lagoon and may affect ecological dynamics. A return to pre-upwelling conditions would take approximately 10days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. San Pascual (2015) Año LIII, n. 377

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, María Dolores, O.S.C. (Directora)

    2015-01-01

    Editorial. La Natividad del Señor en la cerámica. Santa Misa de apertura de la XIV Asamblea General Ordinaria del Sínodo de los opispos Homilía del Santo Padre Francisco. Una romería en Navidad con San Pascual. Retablo cerámico de la Virgen del Pilar entre San Jaime Apóstol y San Pascual Baylón. Gran poeta y colaboradora de la revista "San Pascual". Cuando sepas hallar una sonrisa. VII Congreso Eucarístico Internacional de Amberes (Bélgica). Fiesta de la Congregación de Hijas de Mª Inmaculada...

  17. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Méndez-García, C.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, CIMAV, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109, Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Renteria-Villalobos, M. [Facultad de Zootecnia y Ecología Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Periferico Francisco R. Almada Km 1, 31410, Chihuahua (Mexico); García-Tenorio, R. [Applied Nuclear Physics Group, University of Seville, ETS Arquitectura, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Seville (Spain)

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. ²³²Th-series, ²³⁸U-series, ⁴⁰K and ¹³⁷Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg⁻¹) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. ²³⁸U and ²³⁴U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to ²¹⁰Pb activities. Results were verified by ¹³⁷Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High ²³⁸U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento – Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) ²³⁴U/²³⁸U and ²³⁸U/²²⁶Ra in sediments have values between 0.9–1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. ²³²Th/²³⁸U, ²²⁸Ra/²²⁶Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs.

  18. Biological communities in San Francisco Bay track large-scale climate forcing over the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Hieb, Kathryn A.; Jacobson, Teresa; Sansó, Bruno; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Stacey, Mark T.; Largier, John L.; Meiring, Wendy; Peterson, William T.; Powell, Thomas M.; Winder, Monika; Jassby, Alan D.

    2010-11-01

    Long-term observations show that fish and plankton populations in the ocean fluctuate in synchrony with large-scale climate patterns, but similar evidence is lacking for estuaries because of shorter observational records. Marine fish and invertebrates have been sampled in San Francisco Bay since 1980 and exhibit large, unexplained population changes including record-high abundances of common species after 1999. Our analysis shows that populations of demersal fish, crabs and shrimp covary with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), both of which reversed signs in 1999. A time series model forced by the atmospheric driver of NPGO accounts for two-thirds of the variability in the first principal component of species abundances, and generalized linear models forced by PDO and NPGO account for most of the annual variability of individual species. We infer that synchronous shifts in climate patterns and community variability in San Francisco Bay are related to changes in oceanic wind forcing that modify coastal currents, upwelling intensity, surface temperature, and their influence on recruitment of marine species that utilize estuaries as nursery habitat. Ecological forecasts of estuarine responses to climate change must therefore consider how altered patterns of atmospheric forcing across ocean basins influence coastal oceanography as well as watershed hydrology.

  19. Stratigraphic modeling of sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, T. (Shell Research B. V., Rijswijk (Netherlands)); Lawrence, D.T. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (USA))

    1990-11-01

    A two-dimensional stratigraphic forward model has been successfully applied and calibrated in clastic, carbonate, and mixed clastic/carbonate regimes. Primary input parameters are subsidence, sea level, volume of clastics, and carbonate growth potential. Program output includes sequence geometries, facies distribution lithology distribution, chronostratigraphic plots, burial history plots, thermal and maturity histories, and crossplots. The program may be used to predict reservoir distribution, to constrain interpretations of well and seismic data, to rapidly test exploration scenarios in frontier basins, and to evaluate the fundamental controls on observed basin stratigraphy. Applications to data sets from Main Pass (US Gulf Coast), Offshore Sarawak (Malaysia), Rub'al Khali basin (Oman), Paris basin (France), and Baltimore Canyon (US East Coast) demonstrate that the program can be used to simulate stratigraphy on a basin-wide scale as well as on the scale of individual prospects.

  20. Elements of an environmental decision support system for seasonal wetland salt management in a river basin subjected to water quality regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-06-01

    Seasonally managed wetlands in the Grasslands Basin on the west-side of California's San Joaquin Valley provide food and shelter for migratory wildfowl during winter months and sport for waterfowl hunters during the annual duck season. Surface water supply to these wetlands contain salt which, when drained to the San Joaquin River during the annual drawdown period, can negatively impact water quality and cause concern to downstream agricultural riparian water diverters. Recent environmental regulation, limiting discharges salinity to the San Joaquin River and primarily targeting agricultural non-point sources, now also targets return flows from seasonally managed wetlands. Real-time water quality management has been advocated as a means of continuously matching salt loads discharged from agricultural, wetland and municipal operations to the assimilative capacity of the San Joaquin River. Past attempts to build environmental monitoring and decision support systems (EDSS's) to implement this concept have enjoyed limited success for reasons that are discussed in this paper. These reasons are discussed in the context of more general challenges facing the successful implementation of a comprehensive environmental monitoring, modelling and decision support system for the San Joaquin River Basin.

  1. Geophysical evidence for wedging in the San Gorgonio Pass structural knot, southern San Andreas fault zone, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Jachens, R.C.; Matti, J.C.; Hauksson, E.; Morton, D.M.; Christensen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Geophysical data and surface geology define intertonguing thrust wedges that form the upper crust in the San Gorgonio Pass region. This picture serves as the basis for inferring past fault movements within the San Andreas system, which are fundamental to understanding the tectonic evolution of the San Gorgonio Pass region. Interpretation of gravity data indicates that sedimentary rocks have been thrust at least 5 km in the central part of San Gorgonio Pass beneath basement rocks of the southeast San Bernardino Mountains. Subtle, long-wavelength magnetic anomalies indicate that a magnetic body extends in the subsurface north of San Gorgonio Pass and south under Peninsular Ranges basement, and has a southern edge that is roughly parallel to, but 5-6 km south of, the surface trace of the Banning fault. This deep magnetic body is composed either of upper-plate rocks of San Gabriel Mountains basement or rocks of San Bernardino Mountains basement or both. We suggest that transpression across the San Gorgonio Pass region drove a wedge of Peninsular Ranges basement and its overlying sedimentary cover northward into the San Bernardino Mountains during the Neogene, offsetting the Banning fault at shallow depth. Average rates of convergence implied by this offset are broadly consistent with estimates of convergence from other geologic and geodetic data. Seismicity suggests a deeper detachment surface beneath the deep magnetic body. This interpretation suggests that the fault mapped at the surface evolved not only in map but also in cross-sectional view. Given the multilayered nature of deformation, it is unlikely that the San Andreas fault will rupture cleanly through the complex structures in San Gorgonio Pass. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  2. The San Franciscan volcanic field, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Henry Hollister

    1913-01-01

    LOCATION OF AREAThe San Franciscan volcanic field, which takes its name from San Francisco Mountain, the largest volcano of the group, covers about 3,000 square miles in the north-central part of Arizona, as shown by the shaded space on the index map forming figure 1. The center of the field lies about 50 miles south of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado and the southern boundary is in part coterminous with that of the San Francisco Plateau, which forms the southwestern division of the great Colorado Plateau.The region is easily reached, for the main line of the Atchison, Topeka, & Santa Fe Railway traverses it from east to west for more than 60 miles. Flagstaff, a town of 1,500 inhabitants 10 miles south of the summit of San Francisco Mountain, is on the railroad, amid a branch line runs from Williams, 34 miles farther west, to the Grand Canyon. All the more important points of interest in the field may be reached without difficulty by wagon, and outfits may be obtained at Flagstaff.OUTLINE OF THE REPORTThis report deals primarily with the volcanic phenomena of the region as determined in the field and laboratory. Chapter I contains a brief description of the geography of the field and Chapter II is devoted largely to the sedimentary formations and structure. The rest of the report Chapters III to VI—treats entirely of the various features of the volcanoes and igneous rocks, both individually and collectively. Detailed descriptions of the volcanoes and lava fields are given in Chapter III; the volcanic history of the region and its correlation with the general history of the surrounding country are presented in Chapter IV. These two chapters will presumably suffice for the general reader who may desire to become acquainted with the broader volcanic features of the region. Chapter V (Petrography) is devoted entirely to the detailed description of the individual igneous rocks of the region, as represented by a selected set of type specimens. In Chapter VI (Petrology

  3. Presence of pesticides in surface water from four sub-basins in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gerónimo, Eduardo; Aparicio, Virginia C; Bárbaro, Sebastián; Portocarrero, Rocío; Jaime, Sebastián; Costa, José L

    2014-07-01

    Argentina has 31 million hectares given over to agriculture comprising 2.2% of the world's total area under cultivation (Stock Exchange of Rosario, Argentina). Despite the intensity of this agricultural activity, data on pesticide pollution in surface water are rather scarce. In this sense, the aim of this work is to determine the presence of pesticides in surface water of four agricultural sub-basins of Argentine. An environmental monitoring was carried out to determine the impact of twenty-nine pesticides used in agricultural activities on the surface water quality of agricultural areas within the San Vicente, Azul, Buenos Aires southeast and Mista stream sub-basins. The samples were analyzed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using OASIS HLB 60 mg cartridges and ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MSMS) that provided good analytical quality parameters. The southeast of Buenos Aires was the site with the highest frequency of pesticides detection, followed by Azul and San Vicente microbasins. The most detected pesticides, considering all surface water samples, were atrazine, tebuconazole and diethyltoluamide with maximum concentration levels of 1.4, 0.035, and 0.701 μg L(-1), respectively. The results obtained for all basins studied show the presence of residual pesticides in surface waters according the different agricultural activities developed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The deep Ionian Basin revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugend, Julie; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Arsenikos, Stavros; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Blanpied, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The deep Eastern Mediterranean Basins (Ionian and Herodotus) are characterized by thick sedimentary sequences overlying an extremely thinned basement evidenced from different geophysical methods. Yet, the nature of the crust (continental or oceanic) and the timing of the extreme crustal and lithosphere thinning in the different sub-basins remain highly controversial, casting doubts on the tectonic setting related to the formation of this segment of the North Gondwana paleo-margin. We focus on the Ionian Basin located at the western termination of the Eastern Mediterranean with the aim of identifying, characterizing and mapping the deepest sedimentary sequences. We present tentative age correlations relying on calibrations and observations from the surrounding margins and basins (Malta shelf and Escarpment, Cyrenaica margin, Sirte Basin, Apulian Platform). Two-ship deep refraction seismic data (Expanding Spread Profiles from the PASIPHAE cruise) combined with reprocessed reflection data (from the ARCHIMEDE survey) enabled us to present a homogeneous seismic stratigraphy across the basin and to investigate the velocity structure of its basement. Based on our results, and on a review of geological and geophysical observations, we suggest an Upper Triassic-Early Dogger age for the formation of the deep Ionian Basin. The nature of the underlying basement remains uncertain, both highly-thinned continental and slow-spreading type oceanic crust being compatible with the available constraints. The narrow size and relatively short-lived evolution of the Ionian Basin lead us to suggest that it is more likely the remnant of an immature oceanic basin than of a stable oceanic domain. Eventually, upscaling these results at the scale of the Eastern Mediterranean Basins highlights the complex interaction observed between two propagating oceans: The Central Atlantic and Neo-Tethys.

  5. Otomi de San Andres Cuexcontitlan, Estado de Mexico (Otomi of San Andres Cuexcontitlan, State of Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastra, Yolanda

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Otomi, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Andres Cuexcontitlan, in the state of Mexico. The objective of collecting such a representative…

  6. 75 FR 15611 - Safety Zone; United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, San... United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety... Spectaculars is sponsoring the United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, which will include a fireworks...

  7. 77 FR 57494 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Fireworks, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. During the... regulated area. The PATCOM shall be designated by the Commander, Coast Guard Sector San Francisco. The...

  8. 77 FR 37604 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the... direction. The PATCOM is empowered to forbid entry into and control the regulated area. The PATCOM shall be...

  9. 76 FR 75908 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... House site, in San Diego, CA. The site is variously referred to as the Black, William House; SDM-W-12A... death or later as part of the death rite or ceremony. Pursuant to 43 CFR 10.11(c)(1), and based upon...

  10. College Success and the Black Male. San Jose City College, San Jose, California. Research Report #128.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Percy; And Others

    In 1992, a study was conducted at San Jose City College (SJCC) and Evergreen Valley College (EVC), California, to examine the fourth semester persistence rates of black male students and to investigate the effect of SJCC athletic and athlete academic support programs on persistence. Study findings included the following: (1) new full-time (NFT)…

  11. 78 FR 35593 - Special Local Regulation; Christmas Boat Parade, San Juan Harbor; San Juan, PR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Christmas Boat Parade, San... Juan, Puerto Rico during the Christmas Boat Parade, a Boat Parade. The event is scheduled to take place on Saturday, December 14, 2013. Approximately 35 boats are anticipated to participate in the Boat...

  12. Dal "San Marco" al "Vega". (English Title: From "San Marco" to Vega)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, E.

    2017-10-01

    Apart from the two superpowers, among the other countries Italy has had an important role in astronautics. The roots of Italian astronautics' history runs deep in the hottest years of the Cold War, and it had its first remarkable achievement in the San Marco project..after years of advanced technologies testing, they achieved European cooperation and built VEGA, the current Arianespace light launcher.

  13. 77 FR 70891 - Safety Zone; Bay Bridge Construction, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Bridge Construction, San Francisco Bay..., CA in support of the Bay Bridge Construction Safety Zone from November 1, 2012 through July 31, 2013.... 1221 et seq.). CALTRANS will sponsor the Bay Bridge Construction Safety Zone on November 1, 2012...

  14. Trique de San Juan Copala, Oaxaca (Trique of San Juan Copala, Oaxaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexico Coll. (Mexico City)

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Trique, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Juan Copala, in the state of Oaxaca. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of the…

  15. Huave de San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca (Huave of San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexico Coll. (Mexico City)

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Huave, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Mateo del Mar, in the state of Oaxaca. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of…

  16. Chinanteco de San Juan Lealao, Oaxaca (Chinantec of San Juan Lealao, Oaxaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexico Coll. (Mexico City)

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Chinantec, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Juan Lealao, in the state of Oaxaca. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of…

  17. SANS-II at SINQ: Installation of the former Risø-SANS facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strunz, P.; Mortensen, K.; Janssen, S.

    2004-01-01

    SANS-II facility at SINQ (Paul Scherrer Institute)-the reinstalled former Riso small-angle neutron scattering instrument-is presented. Its operational characteristics are listed. Approaches for precise determination of wavelength, detector dead time and attenuation factors are described as well. ...

  18. 77 FR 59648 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, c/o Department of Anthropology, San Francisco State University... contains Augustine Pattern components along with ethnohistoric and historic era materials. In 1997, human... between the archeological record and historic material culture as early as 500 B.C. Ethnographic records...

  19. [Health levels in San Andres Cholula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Martinez, A; Corro Fernandez, G; Balmaceda, M

    1991-12-01

    In matters of health and curing, the community of San Andres Cholula in Puebla, Mexico, demonstrates a syncretism similar to religious syncretism. Perspectives on illness and health consistent with the traditional medical practices of curanderos coexist with modern medical practices. Curanderos and physicians often treat the same patients. A curandero's powers are viewed as a special gift transmitted by God or the saints during a dream. The curandero effects a cure not only through knowledge of the medicinal plants, rites, and ceremonies, but by understanding the context of the patient. The Western medical concept of disease emphasizes a biological model and technological control, to the detriment of mental, behavioral, and social factors and determinants. The traditional medical concept stresses the relationship of the individual to the social and ecological environment. Improvements in life expectancy in the developing countries in recent years have been attributed to improved levels of living or to importation of vaccination programs, antibiotics, and similar technologies from the developed countries. The vital register of San Andres Cholula records many deaths whose cause cannot be easily interpreted according to the World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases. It is clear, however, that the root cause of many deaths is malnutrition. The proportion of deaths caused by infectious diseases has declined in Mexico since 1940, but Puebla is still included among the states with the highest incidence. There are great regional and rural-urban mortality differentials in Mexico. In the past 50 years, the infant mortality rate has declined from 250 to 40/1000 live births in San Andres Cholula, more as a result of vaccination campaigns than of improved levels of living. 89% of children have been vaccinated, but the population still lives in about the same state of material comfort as it has for generations except that most households have televisions

  20. Nuevos Formatos Escolares en San Luis.

    OpenAIRE

    Corti, Ana María; Godino, Carmen M. Belén; Montiveros, María Luján

    2015-01-01

    En el siguiente trabajo analizamos el surgimiento de nuevos formatos escolares en la provincia de San Luis. Damos cuenta de cómo se plasma en una política pública el énfasis puesto en la diversidad, interpretando que la diferenciación de dispositivos escolares permitiría la capacidad inclusiva de las poblaciones excluidas del sistema escolar, segmentando para ello la oferta educativa. Los nuevos formatos escolares se inscriben dentro de una política neoliberal que se apega a la div...

  1. Neuroimaging Features of San Luis Valley Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Whitehead

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-month-old Hispanic female with a history of double-outlet right ventricle and developmental delay in the setting of recombinant chromosome 8 syndrome was referred for neurologic imaging. Brain MR revealed multiple abnormalities primarily affecting midline structures, including commissural dysgenesis, vermian and brainstem hypoplasia/dysplasia, an interhypothalamic adhesion, and an epidermoid between the frontal lobes that enlarged over time. Spine MR demonstrated hypoplastic C1 and C2 posterior elements, scoliosis, and a borderline low conus medullaris position. Presented herein is the first illustration of neuroimaging findings from a patient with San Luis Valley syndrome.

  2. San Telmo, backpackers y otras globalizaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Firmo

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo pretende contribuir al debate sobre otras formas de globalización  presentando una etnografía realizada en el barrio de San Telmo sobre mochileros que combinan en sus experiencias viaje y trabajo. Su objetivo es viajar al mismo tiempo que sacan provecho de esto para conseguir el capital necesario que les permita continuar en movimiento alrededor del globo. En este texto quiero hablar sobre estos auténticos actores de la globalización popular que ponen el foco en procesos y agent...

  3. Early Maya writing at San Bartolo, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturno, William A; Stuart, David; Beltrán, Boris

    2006-03-03

    The ruins of San Bartolo, Guatemala, contain a sample of Maya hieroglyphic writing dating to the Late Preclassic period (400 B.C. to 200 A.D.). The writing appears on preserved painted walls and plaster fragments buried within the pyramidal structure known as "Las Pinturas," which was constructed in discrete phases over several centuries. Samples of carbonized wood that are closely associated with the writing have calibrated radiocarbon dates of 200 to 300 B.C. This early Maya writing implies that a developed Maya writing system was in use centuries earlier than previously thought, approximating a time when we see the earliest scripts elsewhere in Mesoamerica.

  4. Pliocene and Pleistocene geologic and climatic evolution in the San Luis Valley of south-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, K.L.; Larson, E.E.; Smith, G.; Katzman, D.; Smith, G.R.; Cerling, T.; Wang, Y.; Baker, R.G.; Lohmann, K.C.; Repenning, C.A.; Patterson, P.; Mackie, G.

    1992-01-01

    Sediments of the Alamosa Formation spanning the upper part of the Gauss and most of the Matuyama Chrons were recovered by coring in the high (2300 m) San Luis Valley of south-central Colorado. The study site is located at the northern end of the Rio Grande rift. Lithologic changes in the core sediments provide evidence of events leading to integration of the San Luis drainage basin into the Rio Grande. The section, which includes the Huckleberry Ridge Ash (2.02 Ma) and spans the entire Matuyama Chron, contains pollen, and invertebrate and vertebrate fossils. Stable isotope analyses of inorganic and biogenic carbonate taken over most of the core indicate substantially warmer temperatures than occur today in the San Luis Valley. At the end of the Olduvai Subchron, summer precipitation decreased, summer pan evaporation increased, and temperatures increased slightly compared to the earlier climate represented in the core. By the end of the Jaramillo Subchron, however, cold/wet and warm/dry cycles become evident and continue into the cold/wet regime associated with the deep-sea oxygen-isotope Stage 22 glaciation previously determined from outcrops at the same locality. Correspondence between the Hansen Bluff climatic record and the deep-sea oxygen-isotope record (oxygen-isotope stages from about 110-18) is apparent, indicating that climate at Hansen Bluff was responding to global climatic changes. ?? 1992.

  5. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  6. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  7. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  8. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  9. Dimension of Fractal Basin Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bae-Sig

    In many dynamical systems, multiple attractors coexist for certain parameter ranges. The set of initial conditions that asymptotically approach each attractor is its basin of attraction. These basins can be intertwined on arbitrary small scales. Basin boundary can be either smooth or fractal. Dynamical systems that have fractal basin boundary show "final state sensitivity" of the initial conditions. A measure of this sensitivity (uncertainty exponent alpha) is related to the dimension of the basin boundary d = D - alpha , where D is the dimension of the phase space and d is the dimension of the basin boundary. At metamorphosis values of the parameter, there might happen a conversion from smooth to fractal basin boundary (smooth-fractal metamorphosis) or a conversion from fractal to another fractal basin boundary characteristically different from the previous fractal one (fractal-fractal metamorphosis). The dimension changes continuously with the parameter except at the metamorphosis values where the dimension of the basin boundary jumps discontinuously. We chose the Henon map and the forced damped pendulum to investigate this. Scaling of the basin volumes near the metamorphosis values of the parameter is also being studied for the Henon map. Observations are explained analytically by using low dimensional model map. We look for universal scalings of the dimension of fractal basin boundaries near type I and type III intermittency transitions to chaos. Type I intermittency can occur as the system experiences a saddle-node (tangent) bifurcation and type III intermittency can occur as the system experiences an inverted period doubling bifurcation. At these bifurcations, multiple attractors with fractal basin boundaries can be created. It is found the dimension scales, with the parameter, according to the power law d = d_{o } - k| p - p_{c}| ^{beta} with beta = 1/2, where p is the system parameter, p _{c} is the bifurcation value, k is a scaling constant, and d_{o} is

  10. K-Basins design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines.

  11. Liquefaction potential mapping for San Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavazanjian, E.; Echezuria, H.; Roth, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of saturated deposits of cohesionless soil in downtown San Francisco to experience initial liquefaction due to seismically induced pore pressure is evaluated. Initial liquefaction, or the zero effective stress state, is used as the index of liquefaction potential because it provides the best available index for damage due to seismically induced pore pressures. Liquefaction potential is evaluated by comparing the conditional probability of liquefaction, or liquefaction susceptibility, to the expected intensity of seismic loading, or liquefaction opportunity. The probabilistic evaluation is made using a liquefaction hazard model developed by Chameau. Assuming the water table to be at the ground surface, results indicate that while no liquefaction is expected anywhere for an intensity with an annual probability of exceedance of 0.05, only the most resistant deposits will survive an event with an annual probability of exceedance of 0.02. For an event with an annual probability of exceedance of 0.01, initial liquefaction is expected to occur within all saturated, cohesionless soil deposits in the downtown San Francisco area. It must be emphasized that in dense soil deposits the consequences of initial liquefaction may be minimal because of their limited shear strain potential.

  12. Synthetic seismicity for the San Andreas fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Ward

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Because historical catalogs generally span only a few repetition intervals of major earthquakes, they do not provide much constraint on how regularly earthquakes recur. In order to obtain better recurrence statistics and long-term probability estimates for events M ? 6 on the San Andreas fault, we apply a seismicity model to this fault. The model is based on the concept of fault segmentation and the physics of static dislocations which allow for stress transfer between segments. Constraints are provided by geological and seismological observations of segment lengths, characteristic magnitudes and long-term slip rates. Segment parameters slightly modified from the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities allow us to reproduce observed seismicity over four orders of magnitude. The model yields quite irregular earthquake recurrence patterns. Only the largest events (M ? 7.5 are quasi-periodic; small events cluster. Both the average recurrence time and the aperiodicity are also a function of position along the fault. The model results are consistent with paleoseismic data for the San Andreas fault as well as a global set of historical and paleoseismic recurrence data. Thus irregular earthquake recurrence resulting from segment interaction is consistent with a large range of observations.

  13. COSMOS (County of San Mateo Online System). A Searcher's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mateo County Superintendent of Schools, Redwood City, CA. Educational Resources Center.

    Operating procedures are explained for COSMOS (County of San Mateo Online System), a computerized information retrieval system designed for the San Mateo Educational Resources Center (SMERC), which provides interactive access to both ERIC and a local file of fugitive documents. COSMOS hardware and modem compatibility requirements are reviewed,…

  14. Survey of San Mateo County High School, 1984-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Valerie

    In fall 1984, a survey was conducted of students, parents, and faculty of the San Mateo County high school community to assess their attitudes about community college education and the San Mateo County Community Colleges (SMCCC). Ten of the 30 public, private, and parochial high schools participated in the survey, including one private school and…

  15. Voice and Valency in San Luis Potosi Huasteco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Ledo Yanez, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of the system of transitivity, voice and valency alternations in Huasteco of San Luis Potosi (Mayan) within a functional-typological framework. The study is based on spoken discourse and elicited data collected in the municipalities of Aquismon and Tancanhuitz de Santos in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. The…

  16. The San Diego Panasonic Partnership: A Case Study in Restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Michael; Tewel, Kenneth J.

    1992-01-01

    The Panasonic Foundation provides resources for restructuring school districts. The article examines its partnership with the San Diego City School District, highlighting four schools that demonstrate promising practices and guiding principles. It describes recent partnership work on systemic issues, noting the next steps to be taken in San Diego.…

  17. Geologic Basin Boundaries (Basins_GHGRP) GIS Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a coverage shapefile of geologic basin boundaries which are used by EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. For onshore production, the "facility" includes...

  18. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  19. San Joaquin-Tulare Conjunctive Use Model: Detailed model description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    1992-03-01

    The San Joaquin - Tulare Conjunctive Use Model (SANTUCM) was originally developed for the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program to evaluate possible scenarios for long-term management of drainage and drainage - related problems in the western San Joaquin Valley of California. A unique aspect of this model is its coupling of a surface water delivery and reservoir operations model with a regional groundwater model. The model also performs salinity balances along the tributaries and along the main stem of the San Joaquin River to allow assessment of compliance with State Water Resources Control Board water quality objectives for the San Joaquin River. This document is a detailed description of the various subroutines, variables and parameters used in the model.

  20. The Rondonian-San Ignacio Province in the SW Amazonian Craton: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Jorge Silva; Leite, Washington Barbosa; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina; Matos, Ramiro; Payolla, Bruno Leonelo; Tosdal, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    The Rondonian-San Ignacio Province (1.56-1.30 Ga) is a composite orogen created through successive accretion of arcs, ocean basin closure and final oblique microcontinent-continent collision. The effects of the collision are well preserved mostly in the Paraguá Terrane (Bolivia and Mato Grosso regions) and in the Alto Guaporé Belt and the Rio Negro-Juruena Province (Rondônia region), considering that the province was affected by later collision-related deformation and metamorphism during the Sunsás Orogeny (1.25-1.00 Ga). The Rondonian-San Ignacio Province comprises: (1) the Jauru Terrane (1.78-1.42 Ga) that hosts Paleoproterozoic basement (1.78-1.72 Ga), and the Cachoeirinha (1.56-1.52 Ga) and the Santa Helena (1.48-1.42 Ga) accretionary orogens, both developed in an Andean-type magmatic arc; (2) the Paraguá Terrane (1.74-1.32 Ga) that hosts pre-San Ignacio units (>1640 Ma: Chiquitania Gneiss Complex, San Ignacio Schist Group and Lomas Manechis Granulitic Complex) and the Pensamiento Granitoid Complex (1.37-1.34 Ga) developed in an Andean-type magmatic arc; (3) the Rio Alegre Terrane (1.51-1.38 Ga) that includes units generated in a mid-ocean ridge and an intra-oceanic magmatic arc environments; and (4) the Alto Guaporé Belt (<1.42-1.34 Ga) that hosts units developed in passive marginal basin and intra-oceanic arc settings. The collisional stage (1.34-1.32 Ga) is characterized by deformation, high-grade metamorphism, and partial melting during the metamorphic peak, which affected primarily the Chiquitania Gneiss Complex and Lomas Manechis Granulitic Complex in the Paraguá Terrane, and the Colorado Complex and the Nova Mamoré Metamorphic Suite in the Alto Guaporé Belt. The Paraguá Block is here considered as a crustal fragment probably displaced from its Rio Negro-Juruena crustal counterpart between 1.50 and 1.40 Ga. This period is characterized by extensive A-type and intra-plate granite magmatism represented by the Rio Crespo Intrusive Suite (ca. 1

  1. SAN MICHELE. ENTRE CIELO Y MAR / San Michele, between sky and sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Blázquez Jesús

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ESUMEN El cementerio es uno de los tipos arquitectónicos más profundos y metafóricos. El concurso para la ampliación del cementerio de San Michele, convocado en 1998 por la administración Municipal de Venecia, se convierte en un excelente campo de pruebas sobre el que poder analizar el contexto histórico en torno a esta tipología, y su relación con la ciudad y el territorio. El estudio de este caso concreto nos permite descubrir personajes, relaciones casuales y hallazgos que se despliegan a lo largo del texto. La historia del cementerio de San Michele es también la crónica de la transformación de la ciudad de Venecia y su Laguna. Interpretando este concurso como un instrumento de investigación, el objetivo del artículo es el de comprender la realidad contemporánea de la arquitectura funeraria a través de la isla de San Michele, Venecia, y las propuestas finalistas de Carlos Ferrater, Enric Miralles y David Chipperfield. Una historia bajo la cual se vislumbran claves que nos sirven para reflexionar acerca del cementerio contemporáneo, la ciudad y el territorio.SUMMARY The cemetery is one of the most profound and metaphorical kinds of architecture. The competition for the extension of the San Michele Cemetery, called in 1998 by the Venice municipal administration, is an excellent testing ground on which to analyse the historical context surrounding this type of architecture, and its relationship with the city and the region. The study of this particular case allows us to uncover characters, casual relationships and findings that unfold throughout the text. The history of the San Michele cemetery is also the chronicle of the transformation of the city of Venice and its Lagoon. Interpreting this competition as a research tool, the aim of the paper is to understand the contemporary reality of funerary architecture through the island of San Michele, Venice, and the finalist proposals of Carlos Ferrater, Enric Miralles and David

  2. Modeling pesticide diuron loading from the San Joaquin watershed into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative information on pesticide loading into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta waterways of northern California is critical for water resource management in the region, and potentially useful for biological weed control planning. The San Joaquin watershed, an agriculturally intensive area, is a...

  3. Estimates of suspended sediment entering San Francisco Bay from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Delta, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, L.J.; Ganju, N.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) data collected at Mallard Island as a means of determining suspended-sediment load entering San Francisco Bay from the Sacramento and San Joaquin River watersheds. Optical backscatter (OBS) data were collected every 15 min during water years (WYs) 1995-2003 and converted to SSC. Daily fluvial advective sediment load was estimated by combining estimated Delta outflow with daily averaged SSC. On days when no data were available, SSC was estimated using linear interpolation. A model was developed to estimate the landward dispersive load using velocity and SSC data collected during WYs 1994 and 1996. The advective and dispersive loads were summed to estimate the total load. Annual suspended-sediment load at Mallard Island averaged 1.2??0.4 Mt (million metric tonnes). Given that the average water discharge for the 1995-2003 period was greater than the long -term average discharge, it seems likely that the average suspended-sediment load may be less than 1.2??0.4 Mt. Average landward dispersive load was 0.24 Mt/yr, 20% of the total. On average during the wet season, 88% of the annual suspended-sediment load was discharged through the Delta and 43% occurred during the wettest 30-day period. The January 1997 flood transported 1.2 Mt of suspended sediment or about 11% of the total 9-year load (10.9 Mt). Previous estimates of sediment load at Mallard Island are about a factor of 3 greater because they lacked data downstream from riverine gages and sediment load has decreased. Decreasing suspended-sediment loads may increase erosion in the Bay, help to cause remobilization of buried contaminants, and reduce the supply of sediment for restoration projects. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Analyzing the occurrence of debris flows and floods in a small watershed two years after a wildfire, San Gabriel Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, R. J.; Barth, N. C.; Gray, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    The frontal range of the San Gabriel Mountains immediately abuts the Los Angeles basin for approximately 110 km. Along this wildland-urban interface and throughout the mountain range multiple overlapping natural hazards can occur, the most frequent of which are postfire debris flows and floods triggered by intense rainfall events. Recent studies in southern California of burned basins with steep slopes show that the timing of postfire debris flows and floods during the first winter following a wildfire is closely tied to high-intensity rainfall events. Here, we explore short-term (seasonal/annual) controls on sediment production and flux after the 2014 Colby Fire, which burned 8 km2 of the southern San Gabriel front directly above the city of Glendora, CA. To understand how sediment flux changes as a basin recovers following a wildfire, we installed and monitored a dense network of rain gages and pressure transducers within the Englewild watershed ( 1 km2) during the second winter following the Colby Fire. Site visits were made following each rainstorm to download pressure transducer and rainfall data and analyze the geomorphic response within the channel network. Preliminary results indicate that rainfall intensity-duration thresholds (5-min) previously identified as postfire debris flow triggers were exceeded multiple times throughout the winter. However, we only one documented one debris flow. Understanding changes in the rainfall intensity thresholds relative to debris flow timing and occurrence with system rebound after wildfire is important to help reduce risk and increase hazard resilience.

  5. Trip report Rainwater Basin Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary a trip to Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District in 1991, and focuses on the hydrology and soil habitat types. It is part of the...

  6. Allegheny County Basin Outlines Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This basins dataset was created to initiate regional watershed approaches with respect to sewer rehabilitation. If viewing this description on the Western...

  7. SAN/CXFS test report to LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruwart, T M; Eldel, A

    2000-01-01

    The primary objectives of this project were to evaluate the performance of the SGI CXFS File System in a Storage Area Network (SAN) and compare/contrast it to the performance of a locally attached XFS file system on the same computer and storage subsystems. The University of Minnesota participants were asked to verify that the performance of the SAN/CXFS configuration did not fall below 85% of the performance of the XFS local configuration. There were two basic hardware test configurations constructed from the following equipment: Two Onyx 2 computer systems each with two Qlogic-based Fibre Channel/XIO Host Bus Adapter (HBA); One 8-Port Brocade Silkworm 2400 Fibre Channel Switch; and Four Ciprico RF7000 RAID Disk Arrays populated Seagate Barracuda 50GB disk drives. The Operating System on each of the ONYX 2 computer systems was IRIX 6.5.6. The first hardware configuration consisted of directly connecting the Ciprico arrays to the Qlogic controllers without the Brocade switch. The purpose for this configuration was to establish baseline performance data on the Qlogic controllers / Ciprico disk raw subsystem. This baseline performance data would then be used to demonstrate any performance differences arising from the addition of the Brocade Fibre Channel Switch. Furthermore, the performance of the Qlogic controllers could be compared to that of the older, Adaptec-based XIO dual-channel Fibre Channel adapters previously used on these systems. It should be noted that only raw device tests were performed on this configuration. No file system testing was performed on this configuration. The second hardware configuration introduced the Brocade Fibre Channel Switch. Two FC ports from each of the ONYX2 computer systems were attached to four ports of the switch and the four Ciprico arrays were attached to the remaining four. Raw disk subsystem tests were performed on the SAN configuration in order to demonstrate the performance differences between the direct-connect and the

  8. Pre-Laramide tectonics - possible control on locus of Turonian-Coniacian parallic Coal Basins, west-central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, G.D.; Anderson, O.J.

    1985-05-01

    Published evidence indicates that Late Cretaceous shorelines trended northwest through west-central New Mexico and adjacent Arizona. Our investigations delineate these shorelines through time and relate them to the prominent northwest-trending monoclinal flexures in the Zuni and southwestern San Juan basins. We related the transgressive (T)-regressive (R) marine cycles (T2-R2, T3-R3, T4-R4) of C.M. Molenaar to deep-rooted monoclinal or asymmetric anticlinal structures. The T2-R2 turn-around is coincident with the Pinon Springs anticline in the northern part of the Zuni basin and appears to be controlled by the Atarque and Gallestina monoclines in the southern part of this basin. Shoreline configurations during the T3 and T4 transgressive maximums coincide with the axis of the Nutria monocline and relate to some subtle pre-Laramide movements along this structure. The R2 regression is unique to New Mexico, suggesting local tectonic control on the configuration of the seaway. The subsequent T3 transgression, which was a major widespread event elsewhere in the Western Interior, was abbreviated in west-central New Mexico near the location of the Nutria monocline. The T2-R2 through T4-R4 shoreline turnarounds produced numerous parallic basins favorable for the accumulation of organic detritus. A turn-around probably represents a period of slow rates of shoreline migration which allowed a thicker, more extensive accumulation of plant material and hence thicker coals. The present and most of the past coal production in the Zuni and southwestern San Juan basins is from coals formed in parallic basins just landward of the turnarounds caused by pre-Laramide tectonics.

  9. Demography of the San Francisco gartersnake in coastal San Mateo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Amarello, Melissa; Smith, Jeffrey J.; Thompson, Michelle E.; Routman, Eric J.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The San Francisco gartersnake Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia has been federally listed as endangered since 1967, but little demographic information exists for this species. We examined the demography of a San Francisco gartersnake population on approximately 213 ha of California coastal prairie in San Mateo County, California, from 2007 to 2010. The best-supported mark-recapture model indicated annual variation in daily capture probabilities and annual survival rates. Abundance increased throughout the study period, with a mean total population from 2008 to 2010 of 443 (95% CI = 313-646) individuals. Annual survival was slightly greater than that of most other gartersnakes, with an annual probability of survival of 0.78 (0.55-0.95) in 2008-2009 and 0.75 (0.49-0.93) in 2009-2010. Mean annual per capita recruitment rates were 0.73 (0.02-2.50) in 2008-2009 and 0.47 (0.02-1.42) in 2009-2010. From 2008 to 2010, the probability of an increase in abundance at this site was 0.873, with an estimated increase of 115 (-82 to 326) individuals. The estimated population growth rate in 2008-2009 was 1.52 (0.73-3.29) and in 2009-2010 was 1.21 (0.70-2.17). Although this population is probably stable or increasing in the short term, long-term studies of the status of the San Francisco gartersnake at other sites are required to estimate population trends and to elucidate mechanisms that promote the recovery of this charismatic member of our native herpetofauna.

  10. Triassic rift-related sedimentary basins in northern Chile (24° 29°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, M.; Bell, C. M.

    1992-10-01

    Triassic rocks in northern Chile (latitude 24°-29°S) include marine and continental rift-related sedimentary deposits, associated with basaltic, andesitic, and silicic volcanic rocks. Five main successions include the deposits of two marine basins (Profeta and San Félix) separated by three continental basins (Cifuncho, La Ternera, and La Coipa). The marine strata include turbidites and debris flow deposits interpreted as coarse-grained fan-delta sediments. The continental sediments include lacustrine fan delta, open lake, braided river, alluvial fan, and sabkha deposits. The widespread fan-delta systems (both marine and lacustrine), together with abrupt lateral and vertical facies discontinuities and large-scale depositional cycles, are indicative of rift-controlled sedimentation. The associated magmatic activity indicates that this rifting was the product of subduction-related extension or strike-slip movement on the active plate margin. Triassic rifting was followed in Late Triassic to Early Jurassic times by widespread thermotectonic subsidence.

  11. Evaluation of geothermal potential of the basin and range province of New Mexico. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landis, G.P.; Callender, J.F.; Elston, W.E.; Jiracek, G.R.; Kudo, A.M.; Woodward, L.A.; Swanberg, C.A.

    1976-06-01

    This continuing research is designed to provide an integrated geological, geophysical, and geochemical study of the geothermal energy potential of promising thermal anomalies in the Rio Grande rift, Basin and Range province, the Mogollon--Datil volcanic field of New Mexico. Specific objectives undertaken in this study include the following: (a) reconnaissance and detailed geologic mapping (Animas Valley, Radium Springs, Alum Mountain, Truth or Consequences, Ojo Caliente, Albuquerque---Belene basin, and San Ysidro); (b) geochemical studies including reconnaissance water sampling (Animas Valley, Radium Springs and Alum Mountain); and (c) geophysical surveys using deep electric-resistivity, gravity, and magnetic techniques (Radium Springs, Animas Valley and Truth or Consequences). The results of one and one-half summer field seasons and approximately two years of analytical work, laboratory research, and development of research equipment and facilities are covered. Publications, communications, and public service resulting from the first years of U.S.G.S. and State funding are listed in Appendix A.

  12. San Carlos Apache Tribe - Energy Organizational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, James; Albert, Steve

    2012-04-01

    The San Carlos Apache Tribe (SCAT) was awarded $164,000 in late-2011 by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Tribal Energy Program's "First Steps Toward Developing Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency on Tribal Lands" Grant Program. This grant funded:  The analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of tribal energy organization (this Energy Organization Analysis, hereinafter referred to as "EOA").  Start-up staffing and other costs associated with the Phase 1 SCAT energy organization.  An intern program.  Staff training.  Tribal outreach and workshops regarding the new organization and SCAT energy programs and projects, including two annual tribal energy summits (2011 and 2012). This report documents the analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of a tribal energy organization.

  13. San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The 1,200-kilometer (800-mile)San Andreas is the longest fault in California and one of the longest in North America. This perspective view of a portion of the fault was generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which flew on NASA's Space Shuttle last February, and an enhanced, true-color Landsat satellite image. The view shown looks southeast along the San Andreas where it cuts along the base of the mountains in the Temblor Range near Bakersfield. The fault is the distinctively linear feature to the right of the mountains. To the left of the range is a portion of the agriculturally rich San Joaquin Valley. In the background is the snow-capped peak of Mt. Pinos at an elevation of 2,692 meters (8,831 feet). The complex topography in the area is some of the most spectacular along the course of the fault. To the right of the fault is the famous Carrizo Plain. Dry conditions on the plain have helped preserve the surface trace of the fault, which is scrutinized by both amateur and professional geologists. In 1857, one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded in the United States occurred just north of the Carrizo Plain. With an estimated magnitude of 8.0, the quake severely shook buildings in Los Angeles, caused significant surface rupture along a 350-kilometer (220-mile) segment of the fault, and was felt as far away as Las Vegas, Nev. This portion of the San Andreas is an important area of study for seismologists. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times.The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60

  14. Paleomagnetism of San Cristobal Island, Galapagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A.

    1971-01-01

    Isla San Cristobal, the most easterly of the Galapagos Islands, consists of two parts: a large volcano constitutes the southwest half of the island and an irregular apron of small cones and flows makes up the northeast half. As some of the younger flows on the flanks of the large volcano are reversely magnetized, the minimum age of the volcano is 0.7 my, which is the age of the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal boundary. The true age is probably several times greater. The cones and flows to the northeast are all normally magnetized. The between-site angular dispersion of virtual poles is 11.3?? - a value consistent with mathematical models for the latitude dependence of geomagnetic secular variation. ?? 1971.

  15. Puente Coronado - San Diego (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1971-12-01

    Full Text Available This 3,5 km long bridge, joining the cities of San Diego and Coronado is one of the longest in the world of this type, and one of the three most important straight line bridges in the United States. Its supporting structure consists of reinforced concrete columns resting on footings or piles, according to whether they are under the sea water or on dry land. The superstructure is partly of metal plates and partly of box girders. The surfacing of the deck consists of asphalt epoxy concrete, of 5 cm depth. Special paint was applied to the bridge, including layers of vinyl, iron oxide and blue vinyl on a zinc base.Este puente, de unos 3 km y medio, que une las ciudades de San Diego y Coronado es uno de los de mayor longitud del mundo, de este tipo, y uno de los tres principales ortótropos de los Estados Unidos de América. Su infraestructura está constituida por pilas de hormigón armado apoyadas sobre pilotes o sobre zapatas, según estén en el mar o en tierra firme. La superestructura está formada, en parte, por chapas metálicas y, en parte, por vigas cajón. El acabado del tablero metálico se realizó a base de hormigón asfáltico de epoxi con un espesor de 5 cm. La pintura es especial y se compone de capas de vinilo, de óxido de hierro y de vinilo azul sobre una capa de cinc.

  16. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Miller Pond Dam (CT 00154), Thames River Basin, Waterford, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    SHEET AND RETURN TO DTIC-DDA-2 0 FORM DOCUMENT PROCESSING SHEET DTIC OCT 79 70A . U U U U U U U U U U U U • 0 THAMES NMVU SAN WATERFORD , CONNECTICUT MLLER...WALTHAM. MASS. 02154 .1 AUGUST 1980 THAMES RIVER BASIN WATERFORD , CONNECTICUT MILLER POND DAM 00154 PHASE I INSPECTION REPORT NATIONAL DAM INSPECTION...Conlue on reverse side it necesary and identfyll by &Joc nmiber) 0 DAMS, INSPECTION, DAM SAFETY, Thames River Basin Waterford , Conn. 20. ABSTRACT

  17. Potential effects of increased ground-water pumpage on Barka Slough, San Antonio Creek valley, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Michael J.

    1980-01-01

    Groundwater use in San Antonio Creek valley, Calif., is expected to increase significantly as result of a planned extensive agricultural development in the basin. This additional pumpage may cause significant stress on the groundwater system, particularly on the environmentally sensitive Barka Slough. Expectations of the developer are that about 6,640 acre-feet per year of consumptive groundwater use will be required to irrigate 2,500 acres of vineyards and 1,200 acres of truck-farmed vegetables. This represents an increase in net basin pumpage of about 60%. The developer plans to obtain this water from 12 large-diameter irrigation wells in the Harris Canyon area. Analysis of the potential drawdowns in the vicinity of Barka Slough, by using the Theis nonequilibrium formula, indicates that drawdowns would average 6 feet after 10 years of pumping and would eventually exceed 10 feet. Because the artesian head in the aquifer that supplies the slough is generally less than 3 feet above land surface, these declines would probably mean that the wetlands of Barka Slough would disappear. The effects of this particular agricultural development would be in addition to any decline caused by other increases in pumpage in the basin. (USGS)

  18. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  19. How Many Transgender Men Are There in San Francisco?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Willi; Wilson, Erin; Fisher Raymond, H

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the number of transgender men (transmen) adults living in San Francisco. We integrated two population size estimation methods into a community-based health survey of transmen (n = 122) in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2014-2015: the service multiplier and wisdom of the crowds. The median estimate was 806 transmen adults in San Francisco (0.11% of adults) and 4027 in the Bay Area. Considering potential biases, we believe our estimates are conservative. Knowing the denominator of persons at risk for health conditions is necessary for public health planning, surveillance, and impact evaluation.

  20. 75 FR 35873 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in San Mateo County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in San Mateo County...--Exempt Abandonments to abandon a 0.57-mile line of railroad, on the South San Francisco Industrial Lead, from milepost 12.29 to milepost 12.86 in South San Francisco, in San Mateo County, Cal. The line...

  1. Timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and southern resource areas of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and Southern Resource Areas of California, which include Alpine, Amador, Calaveras, Fresno, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Los Angeles, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, Mono, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Tulare, and Tuolumne Counties. Data were collected as part...

  2. 78 FR 54487 - YP Western Directory LLC, San Francisco Division, Publishing Operations Group, YP Subsidiary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Employment and Training Administration YP Western Directory LLC, San Francisco Division, Publishing... Zero Chaos, San Francisco, California; YP Western Directory LLC, San Francisco Division, Publishing... Assistance on February 13, 2013, applicable to workers of YP Western Directory LLC, San Francisco Division...

  3. Regularized joint inverse estimation of extreme rainfall amounts in ungauged coastal basins of El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    A regularized joint inverse procedure is presented and used to estimate the magnitude of extreme rainfall events in ungauged coastal river basins of El Salvador: Paz, Jiboa, Grande de San Miguel, and Goascoran. Since streamflow measurements reflect temporal and spatial rainfall information, peak-flow discharge is hypothesized to represent a similarity measure suitable for regionalization. To test this hypothesis, peak-flow discharge values determined from streamflow recurrence information (10-year, 25-year, and 100-year) collected outside the study basins are used to develop regional (country-wide) regression equations. Peak-flow discharge derived from these equations together with preferred spatial parameter relations as soft prior information are used to constrain the simultaneous calibration of 20 tributary basin models. The nonlinear range of uncertainty in estimated parameter values (1 curve number and 3 recurrent rainfall amounts for each model) is determined using an inverse calibration-constrained Monte Carlo approach. Cumulative probability distributions for rainfall amounts indicate differences among basins for a given return period and an increase in magnitude and range among basins with increasing return interval. Comparison of the estimated median rainfall amounts for all return periods were reasonable but larger (3.2-26%) than rainfall estimates computed using the frequency-duration (traditional) approach and individual rain gauge data. The observed 25-year recurrence rainfall amount at La Hachadura in the Paz River basin during Hurricane Mitch (1998) is similar in value to, but outside and slightly less than, the estimated rainfall confidence limits. The similarity in joint inverse and traditionally computed rainfall events, however, suggests that the rainfall observation may likely be due to under-catch and not model bias. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  4. Quaternary Tectonic Evolution of the Coastal Belt Southwest of Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, R. G.

    2001-12-01

    Modern geologic hazards in the coastal belt southwest of Los Angeles Basin are intimately tied to its Quaternary tectonic evolution. Models describing tectonism during this period fall into at least three classes depending on what type of feature is showcased. 1.) Fold-and-thrust belt models feature blind thrusts, 2.) convergent-flake-tectonic models emphasize rigid upper-crustal blocks that interact above a mobile middle crust, and 3.) strike-slip models center on the interaction of blocks bounded by vertical faults with lateral offsets. High-resolution, multi-channel, seismic-reflection data, collected in a network of lines offshore, image numerous structures and tectonic features that have geometric characteristics that can be used to support each of the models, depending upon where one looks. Numerous folded uplifts and reverse faults are consistent with fold-and-thrust models. Some of the broad, deep basins might be best explained by convergent-flake tectonics. Complex vertical fault zones separating blocks with different seismic stratigraphy suggest strike-slip. In addition, large normal faults and deep fault-bounded basins are widespread, but are not explained well by any of the models. One aspect of local tectonic history, not considered by any models, is a major reversal of the regional physiography that occurred during the Quaternary. Los Angeles Basin (LAB), which is now sub aerial, was mid-bathyal in the Pliocene whereas Santa Monica and San Pedro (SM/SP) Basins, which are presently mid-bathyal, were shallow to sub aerial. The physiographic reversal resulted from a combination of folding and uplift in the Palos Verdes/Santa Monica areas, which impounded sediment causing LAB to fill, and extensional faulting and rapid subsidence nearby in SM/SP Basins. These seemingly opposed tectonic styles can be easily documented with seismic data, but these styles are thought to be incompatible in most models.

  5. Benthic fluxes in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Douglas E.; Fuller, C.; Harmon, D.; Hartman, Blayne; Korosec, M.; Miller, L.G.; Rea, R.; Warren, S.; Berelson, W.; Hager, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of benthic fluxes have been made on four occasions between February 1980 and February 1981 at a channel station and a shoal station in South San Francisco Bay, using in situ flux chambers. On each occasion replicate measurements of easily measured substances such as radon, oxygen, ammonia, and silica showed a variability (??1??) of 30% or more over distances of a few meters to tens of meters, presumably due to spatial heterogeneity in the benthic community. Fluxes of radon were greater at the shoal station than at the channel station because of greater macrofaunal irrigation at the former, but showed little seasonal variability at either station. At both stations fluxes of oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and silica were largest following the spring bloom. Fluxes measured during different seasons ranged over factors of 2-3, 3, 4-5, and 3-10 (respectively), due to variations in phytoplankton productivity and temperature. Fluxes of oxygen and carbon dioxide were greater at the shoal station than at the channel station because the net phytoplankton productivity is greater there and the organic matter produced must be rapidly incorporated in the sediment column. Fluxes of silica were greater at the shoal station, probably because of the greater irrigation rates there. N + N (nitrate + nitrite) fluxes were variable in magnitude and in sign. Phosphate fluxes were too small to measure accurately. Alkalinity fluxes were similar at the two stations and are attributed primarily to carbonate dissolution at the shoal station and to sulfate reduction at the channel station. The estimated average fluxes into South Bay, based on results from these two stations over the course of a year, are (in mmol m-2 d-1): O2 = -27 ?? 6; TCO2 = 23 ?? 6; Alkalinity = 9 ?? 2; N + N = -0.3 ?? 0.5; NH3 = 1.4 ?? 0.2; PO4 = 0.1 ?? 0.4; Si = 5.6 ?? 1.1. These fluxes are comparable in magnitude to those in other temperate estuaries with similar productivity, although the seasonal

  6. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    These images of the San Francisco Bay region were acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. Each covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.Upper Left: The color infrared composite uses bands in the visible and reflected infrared. Vegetation is red, urban areas are gray; sediment in the bays shows up as lighter shades of blue. Thanks to the 15 meter (50-foot) spatial resolution, shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen.Upper right: A composite of bands in the short wave infrared displays differences in soils and rocks in the mountainous areas. Even though these regions appear entirely vegetated in the visible, enough surface shows through openings in the vegetation to allow the ground to be imaged.Lower left: This composite of multispectral thermal bands shows differences in urban materials in varying colors. Separation of materials is due to differences in thermal emission properties, analogous to colors in the visible.Lower right: This is a color coded temperature image of water temperature, derived from the thermal bands. Warm waters are in white and yellow, colder waters are blue. Suisun Bay in the upper right is fed directly from the cold Sacramento River. As the water flows through San Pablo and San Francisco Bays on the way to the Pacific, the waters warm up.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for

  7. Forecasting Selenium Discharges to the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary: Ecological Effects of A Proposed San Luis Drain Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2006-01-01

    Selenium discharges to the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary (Bay-Delta) could change significantly if federal and state agencies (1) approve an extension of the San Luis Drain to convey agricultural drainage from the western San Joaquin Valley to the North Bay (Suisun Bay, Carquinez Strait, and San Pablo Bay); (2) allow changes in flow patterns of the lower San Joaquin River and Bay-Delta while using an existing portion of the San Luis Drain to convey agricultural drainage to a tributary of the San Joaquin River; or (3) revise selenium criteria for the protection of aquatic life or issue criteria for the protection of wildlife. Understanding the biotransfer of selenium is essential to evaluating effects of selenium on Bay-Delta ecosystems. Confusion about selenium threats to fish and wildlife stem from (1) monitoring programs that do not address specific protocols necessary for an element that bioaccumulates; and (2) failure to consider the full complexity of the processes that result in selenium toxicity. Past studies show that predators are more at risk from selenium contamination than their prey, making it difficult to use traditional methods to predict risk from environmental concentrations alone. This report presents an approach to conceptualize and model the fate and effects of selenium under various load scenarios from the San Joaquin Valley. For each potential load, progressive forecasts show resulting (1) water-column concentration; (2) speciation; (3) transformation to particulate form; (4) particulate concentration; (5) bioaccumulation by invertebrates; (6) trophic transfer to predators; and (7) effects on those predators. Enough is known to establish a first-order understanding of relevant conditions, biological response, and ecological risks should selenium be discharged directly into the North Bay through a conveyance such as a proposed extension of the San Luis Drain. The approach presented here, the Bay-Delta selenium model, determines the mass, fate

  8. San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge Climate Adaptation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Future climate change is expected to cause dramatic changes in the physical and biological environment of the San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge). To...

  9. Backscatter C [8101]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  10. Folds--Offshore of San Francisco Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is...

  11. San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on San Pablo Bay NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  12. San Francisco-Pacifica Coast Landslide Susceptibility 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The San Francisco-Pacifica Coast grid map was extracted from the California Geological Survey Map Sheet 58 that covers the entire state of California and originally...

  13. Port San Luis, California Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Port San Luis, California Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  14. San Juan, Puerto Rico Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The San Juan, Puerto Rico Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  15. Rare Plants - City of San Diego [ds455

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Biological Monitoring Plan (BMP; Ogden 1996) for the Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) was developed in 1996 and is a component of the City of San...

  16. Contaminants investigation of the San Antonio River of Texas, 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1992, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a contaminants investigation on fish collected from the San Antonio and Guadalupe Rivers in southeast Texas....

  17. San Francisco Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Ecological regions of interest as identified in the San Francisco Coastal Region Sediment Management Plan.NPS identifies several special management areas within the...

  18. Final Critical Habitat for the San Marcos salamander (Eurycea nana)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for San Marcos salamander (Eurycea nana) occur based on the description provided in the...

  19. Backscatter A [8101]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  20. Backscatter B [8101]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  1. Songbird monitoring on the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge [draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A comprehensive songbird monitoring program was conducted for 3 years (1995 to 1997) at the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge (SLNWR) in Merced County California....

  2. San Francisco Bay Interferometric Side Scan Imagery: Area B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High resolution sonar data were collected over ultra-shallow areas of the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  3. Backscatter D [7125]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  4. San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Center, located at the University of California-Davis, researchers will investigate the properties of particles that...

  5. San Francisco Bay, California 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1-second San Francisco Bay, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This...

  6. San Diego, California 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second San Diego, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  7. 77 FR 47358 - San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... inspect comments received at http://www.fs.usda.gov/sanjuan/ or the Public Reading Room, San Juan Public... II. Anyone who would like to bring related matters to the attention of the committee may file written...

  8. BNSF San Bernardino case study : positive train control risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Federal Railroad Administration funded the BNSF San Bernardino Case Study to verify its Generalized Train Movement : Simulator (GTMS) risk assessment capabilities on a planned implementation of the I-ETMS PTC system. The analysis explicitly : sim...

  9. San Diego Littoral Cell CRSMP Potential Offshore Borrow Areas 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Offshore sediment sources along the entire reach of the San Diego Coastal RSM Plan region were previously identified by SANDAG and used for Regional Beach Sand...

  10. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - San Francisco Bay Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the San Francisco Bay...

  11. Merchandising of cigarettes in San Francisco pharmacies: 27 years later

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    B Eule; M K Sullivan; S A Schroeder; K S Hudmon

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To estimate changes since 1976 in the proportion of San Francisco pharmacies that sell cigarettes and to characterise the advertising of cigarettes and the merchandising of non-prescription nicotine...

  12. Folds--Offshore of San Gregorio Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, California....

  13. Faults--Offshore of San Francisco Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is included...

  14. San Joaquin River National Wildlife Refuge: Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on San Joaquin River NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  15. Final Critical Habitat for the San Marcos gambusia (Gambusia georgei)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for San Marcos gambusia (Gambusia georgei) occur based on the description provided in...

  16. San Diego Littoral Cell CRSMP Receiver Sites 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — A total of 27 possible placement sites (some with multiple placement footprints) are incorporated into this San Diego Coastal Regional Sediment Management Plan to...

  17. Avian botulism in the southern San Joaquin valley 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A joint effort of the Department of Fish and' Game and the U. S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife contained botulism losses in the southern San Joaquin Valley...

  18. Faults--Offshore of San Gregorio Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, California....

  19. Baseline Surveys - Tecolote Canyon, San Diego Co. [ds655

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Various resource projects have been conducted in the City of San Diego's Open Space Parks as part of the implementation of the City's Multiple Species Conservation...

  20. Vegetation Mapping - Tecolote Canyon, San Diego Co. [ds656

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vegetation mapping has been conducted at various City of San Diego Park and Recreation Open Space lands in support of natural resource management objectives and the...

  1. Earthquake Damage in San Francisco, CA, April 18, 1906

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1906 San Francisco earthquake was the largest event (magnitude 8.3) to occur in the conterminous United States in the 20th Century. Recent estimates indicate...

  2. NPP Tropical Forest: San Eusebio, Venezuela, 1970-1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Biomass, litterfall,a nd nutrient content of above- and below-ground vegetation and soil for a tropical montane forest at San Eusebio, Venezuela.

  3. Narrative Report : San Francisco Bay NWR Complex : Fiscal Year 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1974. The report begins with a general...

  4. Vernal Pool Amphibians, Shrimp, Plants - San Diego [ds188

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In 2002, the City of San Diego (City) received funding through a U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Section 6 Planning Grant to complete an inventory and...

  5. Geohydrology, Geochemistry, and Ground-Water Simulation-Optimization of the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Eric G.; Land, Michael; Crawford, Steven M.; Johnson, Tyler D.; Everett, Rhett; Kulshan, Trayle V.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Halford, Keith L.; Johnson, Theodore A.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Historical ground-water development of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California through the first half of the 20th century caused large water-level declines and induced seawater intrusion. Because of this, the basins were adjudicated and numerous ground-water management activities were implemented, including increased water spreading, construction of injection barriers, increased delivery of imported water, and increased use of reclaimed water. In order to improve the scientific basis for these water management activities, an extensive data collection program was undertaken, geohydrological and geochemical analyses were conducted, and ground-water flow simulation and optimization models were developed. In this project, extensive hydraulic, geologic, and chemical data were collected from new multiple-well monitoring sites. On the basis of these data and data compiled and collected from existing wells, the regional geohydrologic framework was characterized. For the purposes of modeling, the three-dimensional aquifer system was divided into four aquifer systems?the Recent, Lakewood, Upper San Pedro, and Lower San Pedro aquifer systems. Most pumpage in the two basins is from the Upper San Pedro aquifer system. Assessment of the three-dimensional geochemical data provides insight into the sources of recharge and the movement and age of ground water in the study area. Major-ion data indicate the chemical character of water containing less than 500 mg/L dissolved solids generally grades from calcium-bicarbonate/sulfate to sodium bicarbonate. Sodium-chloride water, high in dissolved solids, is present in wells near the coast. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen provide information on sources of recharge to the basin, including imported water and water originating in the San Fernando Valley, San Gabriel Valley, and the coastal plain and surrounding hills. Tritium and carbon-14 data provide information on relative ground-water ages. Water with

  6. Dos edificios administrativos, en San Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Arquitectos

    1964-07-01

    Full Text Available The Crown Zellerbach has been built on a large triangular plaza, at the outskirts of San Francisco. This is one of the most recent tall buildings in the city. The Wells Fargo Bank is also situated on this plaza. It is of special interest, both as regards its shape and functional organisation. It has a ground floor, where most of the mercantile activities take place, and a basement, containing a Council room; the strong rooms, with 2,500 private boxes as well as the bank's own safe; washing rooms; mechanical equipment rooms; a rest room; a bar for the employees and independent stairs. The building has a circular planform, 21.5 m in diameter and 354 m2 in area. The structure is metallic, the vertical supports are along the periphery, spaced every 1.626 m. The enclosing curtain walls are glass and anodized aluminium. The roof has radially distributed metal beams, interconnected by prefabricated concrete units, covered with copper sheeting. This bank, shaped like a hunting lodge, and finished with delicate care, contrasts sharply with the powerful volume of the Crown Zellerbach, and of other nearby buildings, and adds distinction to the plaza.Sobre una gran plaza triangular del extrarradio de San Francisco se alzan: el Crown Zellerbach, uno de sus más recientes rascacielos, y un bello pabellón independiente, el Wells Fargo Bank. El resto de la plaza es de dominio público. La originalidad, en forma y organización del segundo, ha hecho que le dediquemos la mayor atención: consta de una planta baja, en la que se desarrollan, prácticamente, todas las actividades mercantiles, y un piso inferior, en donde se distribuyen: un Salón de Consejos, el departamento de cajas de seguridad, con 2.500 unidades, y las cajas del Banco, los aseos, equipos mecánicos, etc., una sala de descanso y bar para los empleados, con escalera de acceso independiente. Tiene planta circular, de 21,5 m de diámetro y 354 m2 de superficie. La estructura es metálica, con

  7. Evaluation of different SAN Technologies for virtual machine hosting

    OpenAIRE

    Lunden, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Master i nettverks- og systemadministrasjon This thesis covers a problem which companies faces every day: Finding a Storage Area Network(SAN) solution that tackles the rising demands from users and their software and when working with virtualization environments. In this paper it will be showed a way to investigate and identify, from a selection of SAN technologies, which is the most efficient and optimal based on scenarios that fits real life experiences. The approach taken wa...

  8. Terrestrial reptiles from San Lorenzo Island, Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pérez Z.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We report four species of terrestrial reptiles, a geckonid (Phyllodactlus cf. microphyllus, two lizards (Microlophus peruvianus and M. tigris and one snake (Pseudalsophis elegans from San Lorenzo island, Departament of Lima, Peru. Herein, we report the first record of “Loma’s lizard” M. tigris and the snake P. elegans in Peruvian islands. The presence of Lomas herbaceous and the considerable extent of San Lorenzo island can explain the relatively high species richness of terrestrial reptiles on the island.

  9. Dynamic reorganization of river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Sean D; McCoy, Scott W; Perron, J Taylor; Goren, Liran; Chen, Chia-Yu

    2014-03-07

    River networks evolve as migrating drainage divides reshape river basins and change network topology by capture of river channels. We demonstrate that a characteristic metric of river network geometry gauges the horizontal motion of drainage divides. Assessing this metric throughout a landscape maps the dynamic states of entire river networks, revealing diverse conditions: Drainage divides in the Loess Plateau of China appear stationary; the young topography of Taiwan has migrating divides driving adjustment of major basins; and rivers draining the ancient landscape of the southeastern United States are reorganizing in response to escarpment retreat and coastal advance. The ability to measure the dynamic reorganization of river basins presents opportunities to examine landscape-scale interactions among tectonics, erosion, and ecology.

  10. San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Sweetwater Marsh and South San Diego Bay Units: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Impact Statement: Volume I

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on San Diego Bay NWR (Sweetwater Marsh and South San Diego Bay Units) for the next 15...

  11. Deep Water Compositions From the Los Angeles Basin and the Origin of Formation Water Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, J.; Giles, G.; Lockman, D.

    2005-12-01

    Deep basin formation waters represent original depositional waters that have been modified by diagenetic processes at elevated temperatures and pressures. In addition, they may be diluted by meteoric incursion from elevated structural blocks along basin flanks. It has long been thought that deep basin formation waters have salinities greater than sea water due to various processes like clay membrane filtration or other types of water-rock interaction. However, our work and similar studies in the San Joaquin basin show that formation waters in deep basins are more likely to become diluted rather than concentrated in the absence of soluble evaporite deposits that might underlie the basin. The idea of increased salinity with depth arose from studies in which the underpinning of the basin consisted of soluble evaporate deposits such as the Texas Gulf Coast, Illinois, Michigan, and some North Sea areas. There are very few deep formation water analyses from the Los Angeles Basin. Furthermore, very few of the current produced waters from any depth can be considered pristine because of the widespread formation water injection programs and commingling of fluids from different levels. Here, we describe the first analyses from a deep, previously untouched part of the basin that is currently being developed in the Inglewood Oil Field. We have analyzed a suite of formation waters from the mid-Miocene marine Sentous sandstone from sub-sea level depths of 2250 m to 2625 m at temperatures of about 110 to 126°C and pressures of about 27 MPa. The original depositional waters in the Sentous Formation were sea water whereas the sampled waters are diluted by about 20% from sea water and some show as much as 50% dilution. Based on comparison of oxygen and deuterium isotopes between the meteoric water trend and these waters, we conclude that the smectite to illite dehydration reaction is the major cause of dilution to the original formation water. Other notable differences include

  12. Oil in the Malvinas Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeazzi, J.S. [Astra, Anzoategui (Venezuela)

    1996-08-01

    The Malvinas Basin is petroliferous. The main source rocks are Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous outer shelf to basinal shales known as the Pampa Rincon and Lower Inoceramus formations. Main reservoirs are fluvial and shallow-marine sandstones of the coeval Springhill Formation. On the western flank of the basin, 17 wells drilled the Cenozoic and Mesozoic column. Three of these wells discovered hydrocarbons within the Springhill Formation, and one discovered oil in Early Paleogene sandstones. Additionally, some wells recorded shows at different levels within the stratigraphic succession. A detailed overview of the drilled portion of the basin permitted the construction of a sequence stratigraphic framework, and yielded clues on a complex history of deformation. Interpretation of facies and stratal stacking and termination patterns determined that the main reservoir and source rocks were deposited in a ramp-style depositional setting. They represent the lower transgressive phase of a Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous megasequence deposited during the early sag stage of the basin. Alternative reservoirs to the Springhill sandstones include early Paleogene glauconitic sandstones and carbonates, and Miocene deep-water turbidites. Structural trap styles include normal fault features of Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age, and compressional and inverted positive structures due to Neogene compression. Possible combination and stratigraphic traps include: little tested onlap pinchout of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous and Paleogene sandstones and untested erosionally truncated Paleogene sandstones; Early Paleogene carbonate buildups and Miocene deep-water turbidite mounds. The understanding of the geology of the western Malvinas Basin is the key to success of exploration in the huge frontier surrounding areas.

  13. Seepage study of the Sevier River Basin above Sevier Bridge Reservoir, Utah, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, George W.; Smith, Cynthia J.

    1995-01-01

    A seepage study was done during 1988 on selected reaches of the Sevier River in Utah above Sevier Bridge Reservoir, the East Fork Sevier River in Black Canyon and Kingston Canyon, Long-East Bench and McEwen Canals in the upper Sevier River basin, and the San Pitch River in Sanpete Valley to determine gain or loss of flow from seepage. A net gain occurred in all of the reaches except Kingston Canyon on the East Fork Sevier River, which had a net loss. In the upper Sevier River basin, the Sevier River between Hatch and Circleville Canyon had a net gain of about 125 cubic feet per second; Long-East Bench Canal had a net gain of about 0.7 cubic foot per second; McEwen Canal had a net gain of about 0.9 cubic foot per second; the East Fork Sevier River in Black Canyon had a net gain of about 3.0 cubic feet per second; and the East Fork Sevier River in Kingston Canyon had a net loss of about 8.0 cubic feet per second. In central Sevier Valley, both the south and the north sections had large gains. The net gain for both sections, combined, was about 213 cubic feet per second for August 1988 and about 230 cubic feet per second for October 1988. The reach of the San Pitch River studied had a net gain of about 23.4 cubic feet per second.

  14. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend

  15. Portada de la iglesia de San Juan Bautista en Las Cabezas de San Juan, Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Fernández Naranjo

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available La restauración de la Portada de la Iglesia de San Juan Bautista responde al tipo de intervención modesta en su presupuesto pero ambiciosa en su riguroso planteamiento metodológico. El autor nos expone cómo a través de las obras de intervención fueron descubriendo los datos que atesoraba esta portada barroca realizada, con gran dominio del ofi­cio, en ladrillo. Especial interés merece sobre todo el tratamiento del color.

  16. Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland data set contains Geographic Information System (GIS) polygon shapefiles that include 293 hydrologic sub-basins of the...

  17. Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and San Juan Islands Wilderness Stewardship Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Protection Island and San Juan Islands NWRs for the next 15 years. This plan outlines...

  18. San Francisco Bay Area Baseline Trash Loading Summary Results, San Francisco Bay Area CA, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Area stormwater permit sets trash control guidelines for discharges through the storm drain system. The permit covers Alameda, Contra Costa,...

  19. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund Project Locations, San Francisco CA, 2017, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund is a competitive grant program that is helping implement TMDLs to improve water quality, protect wetlands, and...

  20. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund Map Service, San Francisco CA, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund is a competitive grant program that is helping implement TMDLs to improve water quality, protect wetlands, and...

  1. 2010 Northern San Francisco Bay Area Lidar: Portions of Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, Solano, and Sonoma Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of northern San Francisco Bay, California. The project area consists of approximately 437 square miles...

  2. Teaching Geology at San Quentin State Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessio, M. A.; Pehl, J.; Ferrier, K. L.; Pehl, C. W.

    2004-12-01

    The students enrolled in our Geology 215 class are about as on-traditional as it gets. They range in age from about 20 - 50 years old, they are all male, all from under-represented ethnic groups, and they are all serving time in one of the country's most notorious prisons. We teach in a degree-granting community college program inside California's San Quentin State Prison. The program is run entirely by volunteers, and students who participate in educational programs like ours are about 5 times less likely to return to prison than the general inmate population in California. The prison population of California is ethnically diverse, though minorities are present in higher proportion than in the general population. Last semester, our geology class happened to be composed entirely of minorities even though the college program serves the full spectrum of the prison population. While some trends in geoscience education encourage the use of technology in the classroom, security restrictions prevent us from using even some of the simplest visual aids. Faced with these challenges, we have developed an inquiry-based syllabus for an introductory Geology class at the community college level. We find that kinaesthetic learning activities such as urban geologic mapping and acting out plate tectonic motions from ridge to trench (complete with magnetic pole polarity shifts) are not only possible in restricted learning environments, but they promote student learning in unexpected ways.

  3. General Atomic Laboratories. San Diego - California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luckman, Charles

    1962-07-01

    Full Text Available El edificio está emplazado en un espacioso solar de Torrey Pines Mesa, situado en la parte norte de la ciudad de San Diego (California. Los servicios fundamentales comprenden un bloque administrativo; una gran construcción experimental; dos edificios de forma semicilíndrica, en los que se encuentran los laboratorios particulares y las oficinas correspondientes; y otro edificio, de planta circular, en el que está la biblioteca y que, además, sirve para centro de reuniones, conferencias e información técnica. También existe un edificio en el que se encuentra el acelerador lineal de partículas, otros dos que sirven para la investigación de la fisión nuclear y el salón de reuniones. El complejo de los laboratorios, incluyendo los edificios auxiliares y de servicio, ocupa aproximadamente 24.000 m2 y es uno de los mayores y mejor acondicionados para la investigación nuclear privada del mundo.

  4. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Yakima, WA AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement... River Basin Water Conservation Program. DATES: The meeting will be held on Tuesday, August 21, 2012...

  5. Cultural Resources Investigations, Cross Basin Channel Realignments, Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    segment of the Case account as a " fairy tale " (King 1977:19). During the Civil War the Atchafalaya Basin was the site of a brief, Union military campaign...who farms; it does not imply a plantation owner. The value of planters’ properties ranged from $100.00 to $40,000.00. Persons employed in the lumber

  6. Sedimentological study in San Ignacio y Navachiste bays in Sinaloa, Mexico; Estudio sedimentologico de las bahias de San Ignacio y Navachiste en Sinaloa, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergara-Mendez, S.; Ortiz-Gallarza, S.M.; Garcia-Leal, M.L. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-03-01

    In order to contribute to the knowledge on the marine system and the nature of its bottom for the proliferation of species such as shrimps and oysters, a sedimentological study at the northern coast of Sinaloa (San Ignacio and Navachiste Bays), as well as a partial study of the continental shelf, were performed in October 1991. The grain size distribution and the organic matter and carbonates content were determined in 56 sediment samples. In addition, a counting was made of the different sizes of particles under the stereoscopic microscope by the bands method in some of the samples. The physiographic features identified in the area include old beach bars, antique river flood plains, beaches, tombolos and hooks, remainders of coastal formations. The tidal sediments were classified into four textural groups varying from coarse sands, to very fine silts. The predominant group corresponds to fine to very fine sands, which represents 78% of the analysed samples, widely distributed in the bays and continental shelf substrata. The percentual content of total carbonates varies from 2 to 94%, and the modal values fluctuate between 4 and 20%; the largest percentages were obtained inside the Navachiste Bay, at the northwest (55%) and northeast (94%) boundaries, respectively. The values smaller than 2 to 7% in general correspond to sandy sediments of the shelf. The sediments covering the San Ignacio and Navachiste Bays, as well as those of the platform, have a continental origin and have been transported to the settling basin principally by the Fuerte an Sinaloa rivers. [Spanish] Como aportacion al conocimiento del sistema marino y la naturaleza de su fondo para la proliferacion de especies como el camaron, en octubre de 1991 centrales mexicanas y se comparan con otras centrales ende Sinaloa, bahias de San Ignacio y Navachiste; y parcialmente, la plataforma continental. Fueron determinadas la granulometria y los contenidos de materia organica y carbonatos en 56 muestras de

  7. 77 FR 34984 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: San Diego Museum of Man, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ...The San Diego Museum of Man, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined that a cultural item meets the definition of unassociated funerary object and repatriation to the Indian tribes stated below may occur if no additional claimants come forward. Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the cultural item may contact the San Diego Museum of Man.

  8. Socio-economic and environmental interactions in the Upper Main Stem sub-basin of the Colorado River Basin: three alternative energy development futures. Final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udis, B.; Howe, C.W.; Kreider, J.F.; Auger, C.

    1976-12-01

    In July 1973 the Bureau of Economic Research at the University of Colorado submitted a report to the Economic Development Administration entitled 'The Interrelationship of Economic Development and Environmental Quality in the Upper Colorado River Basin: An Interindustry Analysis' (NTIS: COM-73-11970, 642 pp.). That study presented a series of economic and environmental models applicable to the three upper regions or sub-basins of the Colorado River Basin: the Upper Main Stem, the Green River, and the San Juan. The work was interdisciplinary in nature involving the joint efforts of economists and engineers. Since late 1973 the same research team (expanded to include sociologists) has been engaged in an effort to apply those models to a specific case of energy-related development in an effort to determine the direct and indirect economic and environmental consequences. Underground coal development in western Colorado was the case selected for the study with particular emphasis upon a region along the North Fork of the Gunnison River in Delta and Gunnison counties of western Colorado. This is the report from that study and includes the aspects of employment analysis, and socio-economic, hydrologic, and air quality assessments of the impact region under alternative development scenarios.

  9. Age and isotopic systematics of Cretaceous borehole and surface samples from the greater Los Angeles Basin region: Implications for the types of crust that might underlie Los Angeles and their distribution along late Cenozoic fault systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Wayne R.; Morton, Douglas M.; Kistler, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    Nine U-Pb zircon ages were determined on plutonic rocks sampled from surface outcrops and rock chips of drill core from boreholes within the greater Los Angeles Basin region. In addition, lead-strontium-neodymium (Pb-Sr-Nd) whole-rock isotopic data were obtained for eight of these samples. These results help to characterize the crystalline basement rocks hidden in the subsurface and provide information that bears on the tectonic history of the myriad of fault systems that have dissected the Los Angeles region over the past 15 m.y. Seven of the nine samples have U-Pb ages ranging from 115 to 103 Ma and whole-rock Pb-Sr-Nd isotopic characteristics that indicate the crystalline basement underneath the greater Los Angeles Basin region is mostly part of the Peninsular Ranges batholith. Furthermore, these data are interpreted as evidence for (1) the juxtaposition of mid-Cretaceous, northern Peninsular Ranges batholith plutonic rocks against Late Cretaceous plutonic rocks of the Transverse Ranges in the San Fernando Valley, probably along the Verdugo fault; (2) the juxtaposition of older northwestern Peninsular Ranges batholith rocks against younger northeastern Peninsular Ranges batholith rocks in the northern Puente Hills, implying transposition of northeastern Peninsular Ranges batholith rocks to the west along unrecognized faults beneath the Chino Basin; and (3) juxtaposition of northern Peninsular Ranges batholith plutonic rocks against Late Cretaceous plutonic rocks of the Transverse Ranges along the San Jose fault in the northern San Jose Hills at Ganesha Park. These mainly left-lateral strike-slip faults of the eastern part of the greater Los Angeles Basin region could be the result of block rotation within the adjacent orthogonal, right-lateral, Elsinore-Whittier fault zone to the west and the subparallel San Jacinto fault zone to the east. The San Andreas fault system is the larger, subparallel, driving force further to the east.

  10. Proterozoic intracontinental basin: The Vindhyan example

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Vindhyan basin is a classic example of Proterozoic intracontinental basin that developed in the central part of the Indian shield along with several other basins such as Cuddapah,Chattisgarh,etc.The strata are exposed in three major sectors:Son valley,Bundelkhand and Rajasthan. Substantially thick Vindhyan rocks ...

  11. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, D.G.J. te; Smits, A.J.M.; Yu, X.; Lifeng, L.; Lei, G.; Zhang, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are

  12. Site response, shallow shear-wave velocity, and wave propagation at the San Jose, California, dense seismic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, S.; Carver, D.; Williams, R.A.; Harmsen, S.; Zerva, A.

    2003-01-01

    Ground-motion records from a 52-element dense seismic array near San Jose, California, are analyzed to obtain site response, shallow shear-wave velocity, and plane-wave propagation characteristics. The array, located on the eastern side of the Santa Clara Valley south of the San Francisco Bay, is sited over the Evergreen basin, a 7-km-deep depression with Miocene and younger deposits. Site response values below 4 Hz are up to a factor of 2 greater when larger, regional records are included in the analysis, due to strong surface-wave development within the Santa Clara Valley. The pattern of site amplification is the same, however, with local or regional events. Site amplification increases away from the eastern edge of the Santa Clara Valley, reaching a maximum over the western edge of the Evergreen basin, where the pre-Cenozoic basement shallows rapidly. Amplification then decreases further to the west. This pattern may be caused by lower shallow shear-wave velocities and thicker Quaternary deposits further from the edge of the Santa Clara Valley and generation/trapping of surface waves above the shallowing basement of the western Evergreen basin. Shear-wave velocities from the inversion of site response spectra based on smaller, local earthquakes compare well with those obtained independently from our seismic reflection/refraction measurements. Velocities from the inversion of site spectra that include larger, regional records do not compare well with these measurements. A mix of local and regional events, however, is appropriate for determination of site response to be used in seismic hazard evaluation, since large damaging events would excite both body and surface waves with a wide range in ray parameters. Frequency-wavenumber, plane-wave analysis is used to determine the backazimuth and apparent velocity of coherent phases at the array. Conventional, high-resolution, and multiple signal characterization f-k power spectra and stacked slowness power spectra are

  13. Subsidence due to Excessive Groundwater Withdrawal in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, F.; Harter, T.; Sneed, M.

    2011-12-01

    Francis Corbett1, Thomas Harter1 and Michelle Sneed2 1Department of Land Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis. 2U.S. Geological Survey Western Remote Sensing and Visualization Center, Sacramento. Abstract: Groundwater development within the Central Valley of California began approximately a century ago. Water was needed to supplement limited surface water supplies for the burgeoning population and agricultural industries, especially within the arid but fertile San Joaquin Valley. Groundwater levels have recovered only partially during wet years from drought-induced lows creating long-term groundwater storage overdraft. Surface water deliveries from Federal and State sources led to a partial alleviation of these pressure head declines from the late 1960s. However, in recent decades, surface water deliveries have declined owing to increasing environmental pressures, whilst water demands have remained steady. Today, a large portion of the San Joaquin Valley population, and especially agriculture, rely upon groundwater. Groundwater levels are again rapidly declining except in wet years. There is significant concern that subsidence due to groundwater withdrawal, first observed at a large scale in the middle 20th century, will resume as groundwater resources continue to be depleted. Previous subsidence has led to problems such as infrastructure damage and flooding. To provide a support tool for groundwater management on a naval air station in the southern San Joaquin Valley (Tulare Lake Basin), a one-dimensional MODFLOW subsidence model covering the period 1925 to 2010 was developed incorporating extensive reconstruction of historical subsidence and water level data from various sources. The stratigraphy used for model input was interpreted from geophysical logs and well completion reports. Gaining good quality data proved problematic, and often values needed to be estimated. In part, this was due to the historical lack of awareness/understanding of

  14. Fine-scale delineation of the location of and relative ground shaking within the San Andreas Fault zone at San Andreas Lake, San Mateo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchings, R.D.; Rymer, M.J.; Goldman, M.R.; Prentice, C.S.; Sickler, R.R.

    2013-01-01

    The San Francisco Public Utilities Commission is seismically retrofitting the water delivery system at San Andreas Lake, San Mateo County, California, where the reservoir intake system crosses the San Andreas Fault (SAF). The near-surface fault location and geometry are important considerations in the retrofit effort. Because the SAF trends through highly distorted Franciscan mélange and beneath much of the reservoir, the exact trace of the 1906 surface rupture is difficult to determine from surface mapping at San Andreas Lake. Based on surface mapping, it also is unclear if there are additional fault splays that extend northeast or southwest of the main surface rupture. To better understand the fault structure at San Andreas Lake, the U.S. Geological Survey acquired a series of seismic imaging profiles across the SAF at San Andreas Lake in 2008, 2009, and 2011, when the lake level was near historical lows and the surface traces of the SAF were exposed for the first time in decades. We used multiple seismic methods to locate the main 1906 rupture zone and fault splays within about 100 meters northeast of the main rupture zone. Our seismic observations are internally consistent, and our seismic indicators of faulting generally correlate with fault locations inferred from surface mapping. We also tested the accuracy of our seismic methods by comparing our seismically located faults with surface ruptures mapped by Schussler (1906) immediately after the April 18, 1906 San Francisco earthquake of approximate magnitude 7.9; our seismically determined fault locations were highly accurate. Near the reservoir intake facility at San Andreas Lake, our seismic data indicate the main 1906 surface rupture zone consists of at least three near-surface fault traces. Movement on multiple fault traces can have appreciable engineering significance because, unlike movement on a single strike-slip fault trace, differential movement on multiple fault traces may exert compressive and

  15. Organic metamorphism in the California petroleum basins; Chapter A, Rock-Eval and vitrinite reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Leigh C.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Daws, Ted A.

    1999-01-01

    The results of ROCK-EVAL and vitrinite reflectance analyses of a large sample base from more than 70 wells located in three oil-rich California petroleum basins are reported. The cores from these wells have a wide range of present-day burial temperatures (40 ? to 220 ? C). The rocks in these basins were deposited under highly variable conditions, sometimes resulting in substantially different organic matter (OM) types in rocks tens of meters vertically apart from each other in one well. The kinetic response of these different OM types to equivalent wellknown burial histories is a pivotal point of this study. In the Los Angeles and Ventura Basins, rock organic-richness significantly increased with depth, as did kerogen hydrogen content, and the percentage of fine-grained versus coarsegrained rocks. The shales in these basins are perceived as containing primarily hydrogen-rich amorphous OM. In actuality, the shallowest 2,000 to 3,000 m of rocks in the basins, and at least the upper 6,000 m of rocks in parts of the Los Angeles Basin central syncline, are dominated by type III/IV OM. In the Los Angeles Basin, mainstage hydrocarbon (HC) generation commences in the type III/IV OM at present-day burial temperatures of 85 ? to 110 ? C, most likely around 100 ? C, and is largely complete by 220 ? C. In the Southern San Joaquin Valley Basin, mainstage HC generation commences in type III/IV OM at 150 ? C and is also largely complete by 220 ? C. In the Ventura Basin, mainstage HC generation commences above 140 ? C in type III/IV OM. The apparent lower temperatures for commencement of HC generation in the Los Angeles Basin are attributed to the fact that parts of the basin were cooled from maximal burial temperatures by increased meteoric water flows during the last glaciations. All aspects of organic metamorphism, including mainstage HC generation, are strongly suppressed in rocks with hydrogenrich OM in these basins. For example, ROCK-EVAL data suggest that mainstage HC

  16. Great Basin wildlife disease concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ Mason

    2008-01-01

    In the Great Basin, wildlife diseases have always represented a significant challenge to wildlife managers, agricultural production, and human health and safety. One of the first priorities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Fish and Wildlife Services was Congressionally directed action to eradicate vectors for zoonotic disease, particularly rabies, in...

  17. The Amazon Basin in transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Davidson; Alessandro C. de Araujo; Paulo Artaxo; Jennifer K. Balch; I. Foster Brown; Mercedes M.C. Bustamente; Michael T. Coe; Ruth S. DeFriess; Michael Keller; Marcos Longo; J. William Munger; Wilfrid Schroeder; Britaldo Soares-Filho; Carlos M. Souza, Jr.; Steven C. Wofsy

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional...

  18. Flow characteristics of streams that drain the Fort Apache and San Carlos Indian reservations, east-central Arizona, 1930-86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldys, Stanley; Bayles, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Streamflow characteristics of the Salt River and Gila River basins in the Fort Apache and San Carlos Indian Reservations, were studied in response to pending adjudication of water resources in those basins. Statistical summaries were compiled for 28 streamflow-gaging stations in and near the reservation. Mean annual streamflow for 1930-86 was computed for stations with complete records for the period; for those stations with records that did not completely cover the 1930-86 period, record extension techniques were used. Mean annual streamflow for ungaged sites on streams with gaging stations was estimated by interpolation between data points using drainage-area ratios. Two regional-regression equations were derived to estimate mean annual streamflow at sites on ungaged natural streams. The standard error of the regression for estimation of mean annual flow for sites in the Salt River basin is -37 to +59%. The standard error of the regression for estimation of mean annual flow for sites in the Gila River basins is -18 to +21%. (USGS)

  19. San Pedro Martir Telescope: Mexican design endeavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Ramirez, Gengis K.; Bringas-Rico, Vicente; Reyes, Noe; Uribe, Jorge; Lopez, Aldo; Tovar, Carlos; Caballero, Xochitl; Del-Llano, Luis; Martinez, Cesar; Macias, Eduardo; Lee, William; Carramiñana, Alberto; Richer, Michael; González, Jesús; Sanchez, Beatriz; Lucero, Diana; Manuel, Rogelio; Segura, Jose; Rubio, Saul; Gonzalez, German; Hernandez, Obed; García, Mary; Lazaro, Jose; Rosales-Ortega, Fabian; Herrera, Joel; Sierra, Gerardo; Serrano, Hazael

    2016-08-01

    The Telescopio San Pedro Martir (TSPM) is a new ground-based optical telescope project, with a 6.5 meters honeycomb primary mirror, to be built in the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional on the Sierra San Pedro Martir (OAN-SPM) located in Baja California, Mexico. The OAN-SPM has an altitude of 2830 meters above sea level; it is among the best location for astronomical observation in the world. It is located 1830 m higher than the atmospheric inversion layer with 70% of photometric nights, 80% of spectroscopic nights and a sky brightness up to 22 mag/arcsec2. The TSPM will be suitable for general science projects intended to improve the knowledge of the universe established on the Official Mexican Program for Science, Technology and Innovation 2014-2018. The telescope efforts are headed by two Mexican institutions in name of the Mexican astronomical community: the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica. The telescope has been financially supported mainly by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT). It is under development by Mexican scientists and engineers from the Center for Engineering and Industrial Development. This development is supported by a Mexican-American scientific cooperation, through a partnership with the University of Arizona (UA), and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO). M3 Engineering and Technology Corporation in charge of enclosure and building design. The TSPM will be designed to allow flexibility and possible upgrades in order to maximize resources. Its optical and mechanical designs are based upon those of the Magellan and MMT telescopes. The TSPM primary mirror and its cell will be provided by the INAOE and UA. The telescope will be optimized from the near ultraviolet to the near infrared wavelength range (0.35-2.5 m), but will allow observations up to 26μm. The TSPM will initially offer a f/5 Cassegrain focal station. Later, four folded Cassegrain and

  20. On the existence of potential source rocks in the lower Paleozoic carbonate sequence of the Precordillera, San Juan, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldis, B.A.J.; Martinez, R.D. (National Univ. of San Juan (Argentina))

    1993-02-01

    The Precordillera of western Argentina is a terrane that comprises a thick Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician carbonate sequence corresponding to a stable platform developed over a [open quotes]Pampean[close quotes] basement. Several authors have considered this terrane as allochthonous, on the internal border of the Andean Mobile Belt; but it is more possible to assign it to a parauthochthonous origin with minor relative displacements. The presence of kerogen has been detected at an interval comprising the Zonda (Cambrian) and San Roque (Cambrian-Tremadocian) formations, which correspond to calcareous intertidal to lagoonal sequences deposited in restricted carbonate platforms and grading into supratidal facies to the east (shoreline). The Zonda Formation includes dark wackestones, with oolites, intraclasts and peloids, gray to brownish carbonates with high fenestral porosity, showing fine lamination and stromatolites, and light-colored dolomitic mudstones with voids filled with sparite. As the result of sea-level changes, this part of the sequence shows typical dissecation structures and increased fracture porosity with kerogen fillings. The San Roque Formation is mainly formed by dolomitic mudstones showing bird's eyes filled with kerogen and strong evidence of dissecation and dehydration. Hydrocarbons always appear as partial fillings of fractures; also included in granular sparite veins or between microsparite bands in the laminated carbonates. These kerogen shows are the first described in Lower Paleozoic rocks in Argentina, and are tentatively assigned to changes in sea-level and the last stages of the Cambrian Great Cycles in South America. These new potential source rocks open new frontiers for petroleum exploration in the Cuyo Basin and prove potential plays in Lower Paleozoic rocks, as have been described in several basins of North America, China, and Australia.

  1. Ozone pollution regimes modeled for a summer season in California’s San Joaquin Valley: A cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ling; Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2011-09-01

    This study demonstrates an application of cluster analysis to model simulation data for California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV) for the purpose of identifying meteorologically representative pollution regimes. Principal component analysis is employed to facilitate exploring and visualizing temporal variations in highly resolved gridded model data. Six regimes are clustered according to the spatial distribution of SJV 8 h ozone maxima. Meteorological effects (temperature and winds) are shown to explain the observed ozone spatial distributions in the SJV, and their relationship to those in upwind San Francisco Bay Area air basin (SFB) under certain prevailing wind flow patterns. In general, average ozone levels in the SJV increase with temperature, while their spatial distributions depend on flow regimes, especially the strength of sea breezes and upslope flows. More ventilated flow regimes, associated with stronger sea breeze and upslope flows, cause eastward transport of pollutants, increasing ozone in the southeastern SJV and decreasing it in the northwest SJV. The opposite occurs during the most stagnant conditions associated with the weakest sea breeze and upslope flows. The two most prominent relationships between the SFB and SJV were found to be associated with the most ventilated and the most stagnant conditions, respectively, indicating a strong inter-basin transport (or the lack thereof) event. Spatial representativeness of existing measurement sites and the confounding influences of emission changes on clustering results are also investigated. Existing measurement sites are able to capture ozone spatial patterns in the SFB and Sacramento Valley (SV), whereas those along the western side of the SJV are under-represented. Differences in day-of-week emissions produce minor effects on spatial ozone distributions and the clusters are largely stable under these changes.

  2. [Climatology: annotated findings from San station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaventre, A

    1989-01-01

    The weather station of San, Mali, is located in a zone of tropical humid climate of North Sudanian type. West Africa is under the influence of 3 permanent anticyclones, but only the Saharan from Libya and the Sudan and the Austral from the South Atlantic influence the interior land masses. Depending on the predominant anticyclone, the winds are dry from the Sahara or humid from the Austral. The harmettan is a dry wind full of sand and other matter which is extremely dangerous for living things, especially in February. The Austral anticyclone usually arrives in May and mixes wet maritime air with dry continental air, giving rise to tornadoes that may become very violent before changing in subsequent months to brief and intense rainfalls. This season lasts from April to October. Annual rainfall averages from 1921-80 according to 3 series have ranged from 749-776 mm, but from 1981-86 only 609.66 mm fell on average, a worrisome trend partly explaining poor harvests in recent years. The monthly distribution of rainfall is extremely variable from year to year, and the amount of rainfall in adjacent areas may also vary greatly. Crops are planted in late May or early July. If rainfall is inadequate several plantings may be necessary. The maximum high temperature is recorded in April, with absolute maxima exceeding 40 degrees. Temperatures fall and rise again in October to reach the 2nd maxima. No great differences are observed between average temperatures collected beginning in 1921 and more recent series.

  3. On the coherence of ground motion in the San Fernando valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, S.E.; Field, E.H.

    1996-01-01

    We present an analysis of the coherence of seismic ground motion recorded on alluvial sediments in the San Fernando Valley, California. Using aftershocks of the 17 January 1994 Mw6.7 earthquake recorded at a quasi-dense array of portable stations, we analyze the coherence of three well-recorded magnitude 3.7 to 4.0 events over the frequency range 0.5 to 15 Hz and a distance range of 0.5 to 5.3 km. All stations are located at sites with broadly similar near-site geology, characterized by medium to fine-grain Quaternary alluvial sediments. On average, relatively high values of coherence are observed for distances up to 3 to 4 km and frequencies up to 2 to 3 Hz; coherence drops sharply at frequencies near and above 3 Hz. Although average coherence functions are described reasonably well by a log-linear relationship with frequency, the curves at all distances exhibit a flattening at low frequencies that is not consistent with previous observations of coherence at hardrock sites. The distance decay of coherence is also markedly less strong, with high coherence values observed over station separations corresponding to multiple wavelengths. This may reflect fundamental differences in shallow-wave propagation in the two environments, with high-frequency scattering relatively more dominant in regions of hard-rock near-surface geology. Within a sedimentary basin or valley, the site response itself generally reflects a resonance phenomenon that may tend to give rise to more uniform ground motions. However, previous studies have demonstrated the existence of pathological focusing and amplification effects within complex sedimentary basin environments such as the greater Los Angeles region; our results undoubtedly do not quantify the full range of ground-motion variability at all sites, but rather represent the level of that variability that can be expected, and quantified, for typical source/receiver paths.

  4. Quaternary geology of Alameda County, and parts of Contra Costa, Santa Clara, San Mateo, San Francisco, Stanislaus, and San Joaquin counties, California: a digital database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helley, E.J.; Graymer, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Alameda County is located at the northern end of the Diablo Range of Central California. It is bounded on the north by the south flank of Mount Diablo, one of the highest peaks in the Bay Area, reaching an elevation of 1173 meters (3,849 ft). San Francisco Bay forms the western boundary, the San Joaquin Valley borders it on the east and an arbitrary line from the Bay into the Diablo Range forms the southern boundary. Alameda is one of the nine Bay Area counties tributary to San Francisco Bay. Most of the country is mountainous with steep rugged topography. Alameda County is covered by twenty-eight 7.5' topographic Quadrangles which are shown on the index map. The Quaternary deposits in Alameda County comprise three distinct depositional environments. One, forming a transgressive sequence of alluvial fan and fan-delta facies, is mapped in the western one-third of the county. The second, forming only alluvial fan facies, is mapped in the Livermore Valley and San Joaquin Valley in the eastern part of the county. The third, forming a combination of Eolian dune and estuarine facies, is restricted to the Alameda Island area in the northwestern corner of the county.

  5. Precipitation-runoff processes in the Feather River basin, northeastern California, and streamflow predictability, water years 1971-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczot, Kathryn M.; Jeton, Anne E.; McGurk, Bruce; Dettinger, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Precipitation-runoff processes in the Feather River Basin of northern California determine short- and long-term streamflow variations that are of considerable local, State, and Federal concern. The river is an important source of water and power for the region. The basin forms the headwaters of the California State Water Project. Lake Oroville, at the outlet of the basin, plays an important role in flood management, water quality, and the health of fisheries as far downstream as the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Existing models of the river simulate streamflow in hourly, daily, weekly, and seasonal time steps, but cannot adequately describe responses to climate and land-use variations in the basin. New spatially detailed precipitation-runoff models of the basin have been developed to simulate responses to climate and land-use variations at a higher spatial resolution than was available previously. This report characterizes daily rainfall, snowpack evolution, runoff, water and energy balances, and streamflow variations from, and within, the basin above Lake Oroville. The new model's ability to predict streamflow is assessed. The Feather River Basin sits astride geologic, topographic, and climatic divides that establish a hydrologic character that is relatively unusual among the basins of the Sierra Nevada. It straddles a north-south geologic transition in the Sierra Nevada between the granitic bedrock that underlies and forms most of the central and southern Sierra Nevada and volcanic bedrock that underlies the northernmost parts of the range (and basin). Because volcanic bedrock generally is more permeable than granitic, the northern, volcanic parts of the basin contribute larger fractions of ground-water flow to streams than do the southern, granitic parts of the basin. The Sierra Nevada topographic divide forms a high altitude ridgeline running northwest to southeast through the middle of the basin. The topography east of this ridgeline is more like the rain

  6. Butterfly fauna in Mount Gariwang-san, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Min Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to elucidate butterfly fauna in Mt. Gariwang-san, Korea. A field survey was conducted from 2010 to 2015 using the line transect method. A literature survey was also conducted. A total of 2,037 butterflies belonging to 105 species were recorded. In the estimation of species richness of butterfly, 116 species were estimated to live in Mt. Gariwang-san. In butterfly fauna in Mt. Gariwang-san, the percentage of northern species was very high and the percentage of grassland species was relatively higher than that of forest edge species and forest interior species. Sixteen red list species were found. In particular, Mimathyma nycteis was only recorded in Mt. Gariwang-san. When comparing the percentage of northern species and southern species including those recorded in previous studies, the percentage of northern species was found to have decreased significantly whereas that of southern species increased. We suggest that the butterfly community, which is distributed at relatively high altitudes on Mt. Gariwang-san, will gradually change in response to climate change.

  7. San Andreas tremor cascades define deep fault zone complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Weak seismic vibrations - tectonic tremor - can be used to delineate some plate boundary faults. Tremor on the deep San Andreas Fault, located at the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates, is thought to be a passive indicator of slow fault slip. San Andreas Fault tremor migrates at up to 30 m s-1, but the processes regulating tremor migration are unclear. Here I use a 12-year catalogue of more than 850,000 low-frequency earthquakes to systematically analyse the high-speed migration of tremor along the San Andreas Fault. I find that tremor migrates most effectively through regions of greatest tremor production and does not propagate through regions with gaps in tremor production. I interpret the rapid tremor migration as a self-regulating cascade of seismic ruptures along the fault, which implies that tremor may be an active, rather than passive participant in the slip propagation. I also identify an isolated group of tremor sources that are offset eastwards beneath the San Andreas Fault, possibly indicative of the interface between the Monterey Microplate, a hypothesized remnant of the subducted Farallon Plate, and the North American Plate. These observations illustrate a possible link between the central San Andreas Fault and tremor-producing subduction zones.

  8. Geohydrology, water quality, and water budgets of Golden Gate Park and the Lake Merced area in the western part of San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, E.B.; Hamlin, S.N.; McCann, L.H.

    1990-01-01

    The groundwater resources in the western part of the San Francisco, groundwater budgets for Golden Gate Park and the Lake Merced area, and a surface-water budget for Lake Merced are described. A continuous groundwater basin underlies a 39-sq-mi coastal strip in the San Francisco Peninsula south of the city. Basin fill consists largely of sand and silt. An extensive subsurface clay layer is present near Lake Merced. Recharge is principally from rainfall and irrigation-return flow, with lesser amounts from leaking water and sewer pipes, which were identified in part by stable-isotope and major ion analyses. In Golden Gate Park, about 1, 070 acre-ft/yr of groundwater flows to the ocean. Water levels are not declining, and pumpage could be safely increased. However, nitrate concentrations in excess of Federal drinking-water standards in water from many wells may limit potential uses of groundwater. Groundwater in the Lake Merced area is in a state of overdraft, as indicated by long- term declines in the level of Lake Merced and by groundwater levels persistently below sea level in deep wells. Seawater intrusion has not been detected, however. A surface-water budget for Lake Merced indicates that the largest inflow is from shallow groundwater and the largest outflow is loss by evaporation. (USGS)

  9. Hydrocarbon accumulations in the Tarim basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Desheng [Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing (China); Liang Digang; Jia Chengzao; Wang Gang [Tarim Petroleum Exploration and Development Bureau, Korle (China)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    The Tarim basin is the largest and least explored inland basin in China. The areal extent of the basin reaches 560,000 km{sup 2}. The interior of the basin is mostly covered by the Takla Mekan Desert, which is about 330,000 km{sup 2} in areal extent. The basin has become the object of special attention since China set aside first- and third-round onshore bidding blocks in the Tarim basin for foreign oil firms to explore. The Tarim basin is a polyhistory superimposed basin that has experienced seven evolutionary stages: (1) Sinian-Cambrian-Ordovician aulacogen stage, (2) Silurian-Devonian intracratonic depression stage, (3) Carboniferous marginal sea stage, (4) Permian rift basin stage, (5) Triassic-Jurassic foreland basin stage, (6) Cretaceous-Paleogene NeoTethys bay stage, and (7) Neogene-Pleistocene foreland and inland basin stage. Both the basin`s Paleozoic marine platform sequences and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial fills are believed to contain substantial volumes of hydrocarbons. After recent years of exploration, nine oil and gas fields have been proven and 23 discoveries have been made in the Tabei, Tazhong, and Southwest areas. Kekeya, Lunnan, Sangtamu, Jiefangqudong, Donghetang, and Tazhong 4 oil fields have been put into production. Output of crude oil was 2.6 million t (metric tons) (52,000 BOPD) in 1995. The production will increase to 5 million t (100,000 BOPD) in 1997. Giant oil and gas traps probably will be discovered in the Tarim basin. The prospect is promising.

  10. Modelling Forearc Basin Formation and Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannu, Utsav; Ueda, Kosuke; Willett, Sean; Gerya, Taras; Strasser, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Comparison of synthetic stratigraphy of forearc basins as generated in coupled plate subduction and accretionary wedge models to the stratal patterns observed for forearc basins in nature, could be used to ascertain the dynamic consistency of the interpreted deformational history of the wedge. Additionally, it could help us understand the emergence of stratigraphic patterns in forearc basins as an interplay between sedimentary flux and wedge dynamics. Here we present a simple methodology to generate synthetic stratigraphy by emplacing isochronal surfaces during the evolution of the wedge. We use a dynamic 2D, high-resolution, thermo-mechanical, subduction model coupled to an adaptive irregular surface grid to model the free surface. In this model, we track basin stratigraphy developing in the wedge top basins atop the accretionary prism by emplacing lines of Lagrangian markers at discrete times along the upper surface of the model, which subsequently are buried, transported, and deformed according to the velocity field generated in the model. We conduct numerical experiments to identify the stratigraphic signatures of different forearc basin formation mechanisms. We also study the impact of hinterland and trench sedimentation on the wedge evolution and its impact on forearc basin formation. Forearc basins that form on top of the overriding plate remain passive to the deformation history of the wedge. Forearc basins formed as negative alpha basins remain mostly undeformed. Forearc basins that form due to wedge stabilization exhibit landward tilting of strata with time. We also find that trench sedimentation enhances the landward tilting of the basin by shifting deformation landwards and potentially triggering out-of-sequence-thrust emergence/reactivation. Predicted stratigraphic features in our numerical models agree well with stratigraphic patterns observed in different types of forearc basins in the Nankai Trough, Sunda Strait and Lombok Basin offshore Japan, Java

  11. Exploration applications of geochemistry in the Midland Basin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dow, W.G.; Talukdar, S.C. (DGSI, Woodlands, TX (USA)); Harmon, L. (Mobil Exploration and Producing US, Inc., Midland, TX (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Reservoirs, source rocks, and crude oils were studied at Pegasas field on the eastern flank of the Central Basin platform. The field is a faulted anticlinal structure and produces oil and gas from seven geologically complex reservoirs ranging from the Ordovician Ellenburger to the Permian San Andres formations. A better understanding of the petroleum systems present should lead to improved exploration and development opportunities. Good to excellent-quality, mature oil-prone source rocks occur at numerous horizons between the Permian Spraberry and Ordovician Ellenburger formations. Oil-rock correlations indicate three major petroleum systems: Ordovician sources for oil in Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian reservoirs; Mississippian to Pennsylvanian sources for Pennsylvanian reservoired oils; and Permian sources for oils in Permian reservoirs. The Ordovician to Devonian system experienced peak oil generation, extensive vertical oil migration, and in-reservoir oil maturation in Triassic time; the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian system reached peak oil generation with limited vertical oil migration in Jurassic time; and the Permian system is just reaching peak oil generation and has had little or no vertical oil migration. The total amount of oil available to charge the field is several times the oil in place, and all available traps were filled to capacity. This implies substantial accumulations remain undiscovered in subtle stratigraphic and combination traps in the Pegasus field area. The same is probably true throughout the Midland basin. Integrated studies with geological, geophysical, engineering, and geochemical input can provide valuable exploration information on local as well as regional scales. Pegasus field examples include fault-block isolation reservoir segregation and waterflood or gas cycling efficiency. Such studies may also contribute information leading to lateral and vertical field extension wells.

  12. THE ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III

    2004-04-05

    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical

  13. Solar energy system performance evaluation-seasonal report for Elcam San Diego, San Diego, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system, Elcam San Diego, was designed to supply domestic hot water heating for a single family residence located in Encinitas, California. System description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, maintenance, and conclusions are presented. The system is a 'Sunspot' two tank cascade type, where solar energy is supplied to either a 66 gallon preheat tank (solar storage) or a 40 gallon domestic hot water tank. Water is pumped directly from one of the two tanks, through the 65 square feet collector array and back into the same tank. Freeze protection is provided by automatically circulating hot water from the hot water tank through the collectors and exposed plumbing when freezing conditions exist. Auxiliary energy is supplied by natural gas. Analysis is based on instrumented system data monitored and collected for one full season of operation.

  14. Il disegno gotico di San Giovanni Valdarno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Bartoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available San Giovanni Valdarno è una città del Valdarno di Sopra, il cui attuale centro storico fu la prima delle terre nuove della Repubblica Fiorentina, fondata alla fine del XIII secolo. Le vicende storiche della trasformazione del nucleo murato originario sono state oggetto di molti studi, ma la logica del suo particolare disegno non è stata molto investigata. L’approccio archeologico è quindi giustificato dal fatto che, per ciò che riguarda la forma del progetto urbano originario, gli studi finora pubblicati non vanno molto oltre la definizione di «progettazione ortogonale», data da David Friedman, suo maggiore studioso. I giudizi su di essa si sono quindi attestati sulla generica attribuzione di virtù e difetti che la tradizione storiografica annette alla città medievale, applicando formule basate su paradigmi convenzionali.Volendo condurre la ricerca di una descrizione significativa del tessuto materiale della città attingendo a paradigmi appartenenti al momento della sua realizzazione, è stato condotto uno studio metrico sulla forma della città storica, con riferimento al sistema del braccio fiorentino, considerato come parametro di riferimento fondamentale per la comprensione di un manufatto di dimensione urbana. L’aspetto archeologico della ricerca consiste quindi nella ricostruzione complessa di un paradigma dimenticato dall’attuale tradizione storiografica, alla luce del quale emergono negli oggetti storici significati e valori caduti dalla memoria trasmessa.L’analisi, condotta sulla planimetria digitale con il supporto di documenti storici del ‘200 e del ‘500, ha fatto emergere l’ordine logico e continuo del disegno geometrico della città fondata, replicabile a mente (e perciò memorabile, messo in opera nella pianta urbana, rendendo esplicita la sua logica e le sue connessioni sia con la cultura scientifica del tempo, sia con la tradizione storica precedente, risalendo a Vitruvio. Ai fini di interpretare

  15. Air Pollution Distribution Patterns in the San Bernardino Mountains of Southern California: a 40-Year Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1950s, native pines in the San Bernardino Mountains (SBM in southern California have shown symptoms of decline. Initial studies in 1963 showed that ozone (O3 generated in the upwind Los Angeles Basin was responsible for the injury and decline of sensitive trees. Ambient O3 decreased significantly by the mid-1990s, resulting in decreased O3 injury and improved tree growth. Increased growth of trees may also be attributed to elevated atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition. Since most of the N deposition to mixed conifer forest stands in the SBM results from dry deposition of nitric acid vapor (HNO3 and ammonia (NH3, characterization of spatial and temporal distribution of these two pollutants has become essential. Although maximum daytime O3 concentrations over last 40 years have significantly decreased (~3-fold, seasonal means have been reduced much less (~1.5-fold, with 2-week long means occasionally exceeding 100 ppb in the western part of the range. In the same area, significantly elevated concentrations of HNO3 and NH3, up to 17.5 and 18.5 μg/m3 as 2-week averages, respectively, have been determined. Elevated levels of O3 and increased N deposition together with long-term drought predispose the SBM forests to massive bark beetle attacks making them susceptible to catastrophic fires.

  16. Preliminary assessment of stratigraphy and structure, San Lucas region, Michoacan and Guerrero States, SW Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.A.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Harrison, C.G.A.; Barros, J.A. (Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)); Lang, H.R. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (United States))

    Mesozoic marine rocks and Cenozoic continental red beds were mapped at 1:50,000 scale in a 900 km{sup 2} area around San Lucas, in the Balsas River basin between Ciudad Altamirano, Guerrero State, and Huetamo, Michoacan State, Mexico. Interpretation of Landsat Thematic Mapper images, combined with extensive field work, has enabled refinement of the stratigraphy as well as a new interpretation of the structure of the region south of the Mexican Volcanic Belt. A sedimentary sequence nearly seven kilometers thick crops out in the study area. The Mesozoic marine rocks consist of a shallowing-upward sequence approximately 3.5 km thick, with previously unreported laminated cherts at the base, progressing upward through turbidite facies clastic rocks, and shallow water carbonates of middle to Late Cretaceous age at the top. More than three kilometers of continental clastics accumulated above the marine sequence. Continental deposition was interrupted by a major angular unconformity, which is interpreted to record the end of Laramide folding and thrusting. discovery of structural repetitions in the Cretaceous marine sequence has led to reinterpretation of the tectonic evolution of the area. Thin-skinned tectonics played a major role in the structural development of the region during the Laramide orogeny. These conclusions show a lack of compelling evidence for Laramide accretion of tectonostratigraphic terranes in the region.

  17. On Lagrangian Residual Currents With Applications in South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Casulli, Vincenzo

    1982-12-01

    The Lagrangian residual circulation has often been introduced as the sum of the Eulerian residual circulation and the Stokes' drift. Unfortunately, this definition of the Lagrangian residual circulation is conceptually incorrect because both the Eulerian residual circulation and the Stokes' drift are Eulerian variables. In this paper a classification of various residual variables are reviewed and properly defined. The Lagrangian residual circulation is then studied by means of a two-stage formulation of a computer model. The tidal circulation is first computed in a conventional Eulerian way, and then the Lagrangian residual circulation is determined by a method patterned after the method of markers and cells. To demonstrate properties of the Lagrangian residual circulation, application of this approach in South San Francisco Bay, California, is considered. With the aid of the model results, properties of the Eulerian and Lagrangian residual circulation are examined. It can be concluded that estimation of the Lagrangian residual circulation from Eulerian data may lead to unacceptable error, particularly in a tidal estuary where the tidal excursion is of the same order of magnitude as the length scale of the basin. A direction calculation of the Lagrangian residual circulation must be made and has been shown to be feasible.

  18. Social Networks for Management of Water Scarcity: Evidence from the San Miguel Watershed, Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alan Navarro-Navarro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive social and ecological water crises in Mexico remain, despite over two decades of legal and institutional backing for Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM as a policy tenet. In this article we apply a socialshed analysis to uncover and understand the geographical and jurisdictional forces influencing the social construction and simultaneous fragmentation of the San Miguel Watershed (SMW in the state of Sonora, in Mexico’s water-scarcity bulls-eye. Specific insights derived from an empirical analysis include that water management (WM is socially embedded in dense networks of family and friends, farmers and ranchers, citizens and local government – all to varying degrees sharing information about local water crises. Irrigation water user representatives (WUR are connected across communities and within their own municipalities, but inter-watershed social links with other WUR are virtually nonexistent, despite high levels of awareness of cross-municipality WM problems. Implementation of IWRM as a federal policy by a single agency and the creation of basin councils and subsidiary technical committees for groundwater management have not been sufficient for technical – much less social – integration at the watershed level. This study shows that the SMW socialshed remains fragmented by local jurisdictions; without coordinated agency-jurisdiction-local action fomenting social connections, a socialshed will not emerge.

  19. Hydrology of the middle San Pedro area, southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Dickinson, Jesse E.; Beisner, Kimberly R.; Hopkins, Candice B.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Pool, Donald R.; Glenn, Edward P.; Nagler, Pamela L.; Thomas, Blakemore E.

    2015-05-05

    In the middle San Pedro Watershed in southeastern Arizona, groundwater is the primary source of water supply for municipal, domestic, industrial, and agricultural use. The watershed comprises two smaller subareas, the Benson subarea and the Narrows-Redington subarea. Early 21st century projections for heavy population growth in the watershed have not yet become a reality, but increased groundwater withdrawals could have undesired consequences—such as decreased base flow to the San Pedro River, and groundwater-level declines—that would lead to the need to deepen existing wells. This report describes the hydrology, hydrochemistry, water quality, and development of a groundwater budget for the middle San Pedro Watershed, focusing primarily on the elements of groundwater movement that could be most useful for the development of a groundwater model

  20. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Jeroen; Van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-05-01

    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend sedimentary and volcanic units and not by a common tectonic origin or development. Instead, the sub-basins that together form the Permian Basins are each controlled by different structural and/or rheological controls that are inherited from Early Paleozoïc and older geodynamic processes, they are even located in different crustal/lithospheric domains. The North Permian basin is located on Baltic crust that was thinned during Late Proterozoïc - Early Paleozoïc times. South of the Thor suture, the South Permian basin and its sub-basins are located on Avalonian crust (Southern North Sea and North German Basins) and on the transition of East European cratonic and Avalonian crust (Polish Through). The size of crustal domains and of the faults that govern basin formation requires a regional-scale to assess their impact on basins and sub-basins. In the case of the Permian Basins this encompasses East Avalonia and surroundings, roughly speaking the area north of the Variscan Rheïc suture, east of the Atlantic and southwest of the Teisseyre-Tornquist line. This approach sheds light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric which are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The focus on understanding the geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints and geometrical and compositional input for local models of stress and strain. Considering their fundamentally different structural and rheological controls, the Permian (sub)basins have a remarkably common history of subsidence and inversion, suggesting a more or less continuous

  1. Geology, geochronology, and paleogeography of the southern Sonoma volcanic field and adjacent areas, northern San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, David L.; Saucedo, George J.; Clahan, Kevin B.; Fleck, Robert J.; Langenheim, Victoria E.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Allen, James R.; Deino, Alan L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping in the northern San Francisco Bay region (California, USA) supported by radiometric dating and tephrochronologic correlations, provides insights into the framework geology, stratigraphy, tectonic evolution, and geologic history of this part of the San Andreas transform plate boundary. There are 25 new and existing radiometric dates that define three temporally distinct volcanic packages along the north margin of San Pablo Bay, i.e., the Burdell Mountain Volcanics (11.1 Ma), the Tolay Volcanics (ca. 10–8 Ma), and the Sonoma Volcanics (ca. 8–2.5 Ma). The Burdell Mountain and the Tolay Volcanics are allochthonous, having been displaced from the Quien Sabe Volcanics and the Berkeley Hills Volcanics, respectively. Two samples from a core of the Tolay Volcanics taken from the Murphy #1 well in the Petaluma oilfield yielded ages of 8.99 ± 0.06 and 9.13 ± 0.06 Ma, demonstrating that volcanic rocks exposed along Tolay Creek near Sears Point previously thought to be a separate unit, the Donnell Ranch volcanics, are part of the Tolay Volcanics. Other new dates reported herein show that volcanic rocks in the Meacham Hill area and extending southwest to the Burdell Mountain fault are also part of the Tolay Volcanics. In the Sonoma volcanic field, strongly bimodal volcanic sequences are intercalated with sediments. In the Mayacmas Mountains a belt of eruptive centers youngs to the north. The youngest of these volcanic centers at Sugarloaf Ridge, which lithologically, chemically, and temporally matches the Napa Valley eruptive center, was apparently displaced 30 km to the northwest by movement along the Carneros and West Napa faults. The older parts of the Sonoma Volcanics have been displaced at least 28 km along the Rodgers Creek fault since ca. 7 Ma. The Petaluma Formation also youngs to the north along the Rodgers Creek–Hayward fault and the Bennett Valley fault. The Petaluma basin formed as part of the Contra Costa basin in the Late Miocene and

  2. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beman, Joseph E.; Bryant, Christina F.

    2016-10-27

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25–40 miles wide. The basin is hydrologically defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift between San Acacia to the south and Cochiti Lake to the north. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA) began treatment and distribution of surface water from the Rio Grande through the San Juan-Chama Drinking Water Project. A 20-percent population increase in the basin from 1990 to 2000 and a 22-percent population increase from 2000 to 2010 may have resulted in an increased demand for water in areas within the basin.An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the Albuquerque Basin. In 1983, this network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly. The network currently (2015) consists of 124 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the ABCWUA, currently (2015) measures and reports water levels from the 124 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 124 sites through water year 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015).

  3. Terrestrial reptiles from San Lorenzo Island, Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Z., José; 1 Laboratorio de Estudios en Biodiversidad, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Perú. 2 Departamento de Herpetología, Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional de San Marcos, Perú.; Lleellish, Miguel; Dirección General de Gestión Sostenible del Patrimonio Forestal y de Fauna Silvestre. Servicio Nacional Forestal y Fauna Silvestre, Ministerio de Agricultura y Riego, Perú.

    2015-01-01

    Se reportan cuatro especies de reptiles terrestres, un gecónido (Phyllodactlus cf. microphyllus), dos lagartijas (Microlophus peruvianus y M. tigris) y una culebra (Pseudalsophis elegans) para la isla San Lorenzo, departamento de Lima, Perú. La lagartija de las Lomas M. tigris y la culebra P. elegans son reportadas por primera vez para las islas del mar peruano. La presencia de lomas de herbáceas y la considerable extensión de la Isla San Lorenzo explicarían la considerablemente alta riqueza ...

  4. Planeamiento estratégico del distrito de San Isidro

    OpenAIRE

    Avilez Farfán, José Antonio; Benavides Herrada, Antonio Horacio; Beoutis Bazán, José Edgardo

    2011-01-01

    El Plan Estratégico de San Isidro ha sido elaborado teniendo en cuenta los principales sectores económicos desarrollados en el distrito, como son: el sector financiero, el sector empresarial, el sector hotelero y el de retail de lujo. San Isidro es reconocido actualmente como el distrito financiero del Perú y tiene las condiciones necesarias para poder desarrollar un clúster de servicios financieros; pues actualmente se ubican las principales empresas financieras que operan en el país, oficin...

  5. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jr., Chidsey, Thomas C.; Allison, M. Lee

    1999-11-02

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced- oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  6. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey Jr., Thomas C.

    2003-02-06

    The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox Basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  7. An emerging c. 100 ka record of climate change from Baldwin Lake, San Bernardino Mountains, CA, U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, K. C.; MacDonald, G. M.; Kirby, M. E.; Rhodes, E. J.

    2013-12-01

    Big Bear Valley (elevation ~2060 m) is situated in the east-west trending San Bernardino Mountains of California, close to the transition between Mediterranean and Mojave Desert ecoregions. Baldwin Lake is the older of two basins occupying the valley, with a sediment sequence that demonstrates a high rate of deposition and an apparent synchronicity with marine isotope and global paleoclimate records. Chronology has been established with both AMS radiocarbon and infra-red stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dates. This offers the potential to further investigate paleoclimate change over the past c. 100 ka for Southern California at a high temporal resolution. Baldwin Lake's basal date of 95.9 +/- 6.7 ka is derived from IRSL on feldspar grains, placing the onset of sedimentation into the modern basin during cool MIS 5(b). Phases of high productivity in the lake, including values of up to 35% total organic matter and marl facies, correlate with warm events MIS 5(a) and MIS 3. Glacial stages are largely defined by inorganic sedimentation, though depositional regime varies between high-energy MIS 5(b) and MIS 4, and a relatively quiescent MIS 2. Future work will reconstruct vegetation change prior to MIS 1, in order to elucidate millennial-scale changes in alpine groundcover and forests in Southern California during these globally pervasive Stages.

  8. Café Takksemi - og aðrir tankar úr San Francisco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Travel essay about literature and the image of San Francisco seen through different areas of the city.......Travel essay about literature and the image of San Francisco seen through different areas of the city....

  9. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Don Edwards San Francisco Bay NWR, Antioch Dunes NWR, Farallon NWR, San Pablo Bay NWR, Ellicot Slough NWR, Salinas River NWR, and...

  10. San Joaquin, California, High-Speed Rail Grade Crossing Data Acquisition Characteristics, Methodology, and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    This report discusses data acquisition and analysis for grade crossing risk analysis at the proposed San Joaquin High-Speed Rail Corridor in San Joaquin, California, and documents the data acquisition and analysis methodologies used to collect and an...

  11. 76 FR 54800 - International Business Machines (IBM), Software Group Business Unit, Quality Assurance Group, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Business Machines (IBM), Software Group Business Unit, Quality Assurance Group, San Jose, California... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines (IBM), Software Group Business Unit, Quality Assurance Group, San Jose, California; Notice of Negative Determination on Reconsideration On...

  12. California: Environmental Health Coalition Clean Ports, Healthy Communities in San Diego (A Former EPA CARE Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Health Coalition (EHC) is a recipient of a CARE Level II cooperative agreement grant. The Clean Ports, Healthy Communities in San Diego targets the Barrio Logan and Old Town National City areas located along San Diego Bay.

  13. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for San Francisco Bay NWR, San Pablo Bay NWR, Antioch Dunes NWR, Farallon NWR, and Ellicott Slough NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments...

  14. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for San Francisco Bay NWR, San Pablo Bay NWR, Antioch Dunes NWR, Farallon NWR, Ellicott Slough NWR, and Salinas River NWR outlines...

  15. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for San Francisco Bay NWR, San Pablo Bay NWR, Antioch Dunes NWR, Farallon NWR, Ellicott Slough NWR, and Salinas River NWR outlines...

  16. Final Environmental Statement : Acquisition of lands for the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Federal Government proposes to acquire approximately 23,000 acres of land in the South San Francisco Bay region, Alameda, San Mateo and Santa Clara Counties, to...

  17. Vabariigi aastapäev San Franciscos / Heino Valvur ; foto: Heino Valvur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valvur, Heino

    2006-01-01

    veebruarikuu möödus San Franciscos Eesti Vabariigi 88. aastapäeva pühitsedes: traditsiooniliselt tähistas aastapäeva San Francisco Seenioride Klubi koosviibimisega, E.E.L.K. San Francisco koguduses peeti jumalateenistus ja koosviibimine, kus noored esitasid rahvalaule, San Francisco Eesti Selts tähistas aastapäeva 25. veebruaril aktuse ja koosviibimisega

  18. Geology and ore deposits of the South Silverton mining area, San Juan County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnes, David J.

    1963-01-01

    The South Silverton mining area is immediately southeast of the town of Silverton, San Juan County, in southwestern Colorado (fig. 1). The town of Silverton itself lies in a relatively flat and open reach of the Animas Valley, called Bakers Park, in the western part of the San Juan Mountains. (See figs. 2 and 8.) The roughly circular area of the geologic map map (pl. 1) includes about 18½ square miles of the mountainous country southeast of Silverton. It is bounded on the west and north by the Animas River, on the east by Cunningham Creek, and on the south by Mountaineer Creek and Deer Park Creek. Altitudes range from 9,125 feet above sea level in the canyon of the Animas, at the southwest corner of the area, to 13,451 feet on Kendall Peak, 2¾ miles to the northeast.Within this area nearly a dozen horn-like peaks and sharp ridges separated by deep glacial cirques rise to altitudes of 13,000 feet or more. (See figs. 3, 7, 10, and 24.) Exposures are excellent along the crests and upper flanks of the ridges, but the bedrock along the lower parts of the valley walls and floors of the cirques is largely concealed by accumulations of talus. The timbered slopes along the south side of the Animas Valley are extensively covered with glacial moraine. Several of the high basins within the cirques hold ponds or small lakes; the largest is Silver Lake (fig. 23).Roads skirt the northern and eastern edges of the area but none give good access into the interior. Silverton is adjacent to U.S. Highway 550, which passes over the mountains by way of Red Mountain Pass from Ouray, 24 miles to the north, to Durango, 53 miles to the south. The community is also served by the narrow-gage line of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad that follows the Animas River upstream from Durango. A gravel road, State Highway 110, follows the Animas River upstream, eastward from Silverton. From this highway a side road branches off to Cunningham Gulch as far as the Highland Mary mill, and

  19. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  20. Comparison of Oxygenate Mixing Ratios Observed in the San Joaquin Valley, California, as a Consequence of Dairy Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M. M.; Blake, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    The San Joaquin Valley Air Basin in Central California is plagued with air quality problems, and is classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a serious non-attainment area for health-based eight-hour federal ozone (smog) standard (1). One of the main sources of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), and indirect sources of ozone in the Valley, has been identified as dairy farming (2). Among these compounds, we have found that several OVOCs such as ethanol, methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde are produced in major quantities throughout the San Joaquin valley as by-products of yeast fermentation of silage and photochemical oxidation. These oxygenates, especially ethanol, play an important role in ozone (O3) formation within the valley. Since 2008, several different types of sampling protocols have been employed by our group in order to determine the degree of enhancement of the four oxygenates in the valley air shed, as well as to determine their sources, emission profiles and emission rates (2). In 2008 and 2009, samples were in early summer, allowing us to compare the difference in concentration levels between both years.The photochemical production of ozone was calculated for each of the four oxygenates and approximately one hundred other quantified VOCs. Based on the Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR) scale and concentrations of each oxygenate in the atmosphere, for both 2008 and 2009, as much as 15% of O3 production in the valley is from ethanol and its photochemical by-product acetaldehyde. Our findings suggest that the data observed in 2008 is consistent with that observed in 2009, with a slight decrease in concentrations overall for 2009. 1. Lindberg, J. Analysis of the San Joaquin Valley 2007 Ozone Plan. State of California Air Resources Board. Final Draft Staff Report. 5/30/2007. 2. M. Yang, S. Meinardi, C. Krauter, D.R. Blake. Characterization of VOC Emissions from Various Components of Dairy Farming and their effect on San Joaquin

  1. Resolving the interactions between population density and air pollution emissions controls in the San Joaquin Valley, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, Mark; Mahmud, Abdullah; Hu, Jianlin; Kleeman, Michael J

    2012-05-01

    The effectiveness of emissions control programs designed to reduce concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter system that simultaneously considered interactions between land use and transportation, area source, and point source emissions. The ambient PM2.5 response to each combination of population density and emissions control was evaluated using a regional chemical transport model over a 3-week winter stagnation episode. Comparisons between scenarios were based on regional average and population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations. In the absence of any emissions control program, population-weighted concentrations of PM2.5 in the future San Joaquin Valley are lowest undergrowth scenarios that emphasize low population density. A complete ban on wood burning and a 90% reduction in emissions from food cooking operations and diesel engines must occur before medium- to high-density growth scenarios result in lower population-weighted concentrations of PM2.5. These trends partly reflect the fact that existing downtown urban cores that naturally act as anchor points for new high-density growth in the San Joaquin Valley are located close to major transportation corridors for goods movement. Adding growth buffers around transportation corridors had little impact in the current analysis, since the 8-km resolution of the chemical transport model already provided an artificial buffer around major emissions sources. Assuming that future emissions controls will greatly reduce or eliminate emissions from residential wood burning, food cooking, and diesel engines, the 2030 growth scenario using "as-planned" (medium) population density achieves the lowest population-weighted average PM2.5 concentration in the future San Joaquin Valley during a severe winter stagnation event. The San Joaquin Valley is one of the most heavily polluted air basins in the United States that are projected to experience strong population growth in the coming decades. The best

  2. Iglesia de San Lucas, en Roma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passarelli, Vincenzo

    1964-05-01

    coherencia de la estructura, la severidad de las fachadas, y, sobre todo, su valor de «isla sagrada» en un barrio donde las casas se hablan en un lenguaje inarticulado y uniforme. En materia de edificios religiosos no se debe entender por éxito la aprobación de la crítica o incluso de la masa, sino la de los fieles de todas las categorías, basada en la posibilidad de «rezar bien en su interior», y esto lo ha conseguido plenamente la iglesia de San Lucas, en la cual, y merced a una meditación profunda, la técnica ha prestado los medios de sostén y expresión.

  3. San Isidoro Schools in Padul, Granada, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente-Bolívar, Francisco Javier; Santiago Zaragoza, Juan Manuel; Fernández-Adarve, Gabriel; María Cruz-Valdivieso, Ana

    2017-10-01

    The small and unique building of “Las Escuelas de San Isidoro”, erected in Padul at the beginning of the 20th century, is a clear example of the new architectural type of the innovative educational model created in Granada by Father Manjón. That model supposed a radical change for the methods of the Spanish teaching and it was the origin of the current educational system. Andrés Manjón y Manjón (1846-1923), priest, jurist and pedagogue, broke with traditional pedagogy and revolutionized the old-fashion model of education that was in vogue until that moment and universalized and socialized education. That pioneer model promoted an education based on aptitudes and faculties, using games and practice, addressed to all ages and social classes, in conjunction with nature. Outdoor education should be used wherever possible. In a historical context of profound social changes, this typology was the answer to the new educational needs using a “spearing” architectural language based on a constructive system that was both efficient and economic: Spanish Regionalism. It was a new style from the first third of the 20th century that recreated historical forms. It was far from the breakthrough modern movement that, at that time, it took place in central Europe. However, the model of the Manjonian School runs away from historicist models and remains in the simplicity of brick-faced walls or brick-wrapping walls and masonry drawers, with no more decorative concession that window lintels, jambs and sill jut out. The façades highlight made with simple semicircular arches and some glazed ceramics. Wooden rounded slabs supported on walls and simple wooden cover structures. The steel was barely used in metal structural slabs and brick, and even less on the roof. Architects like Francisco Jiménez Arévalo, Juan Montserrat Pons or Fernando Wilhelmi Manzano will be the architects of this type of architecture that has as a mark of identity the massive use of brick in load

  4. Constraining Basin Geometry and Fault Kinematics on the Santo Tomas Segment of the Agua Blanca Fault Through a Combined Geophysical and Structural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, A.; Wetmore, P.; Fletcher, J.; Connor, C. B.; Callihan, S.; Beeson, J.; Wilson, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Santo Tomas basin, located in northern Baja California, formed at a right step in the dextral Agua Blanca fault (ABF). The ABF extends for more than 120km east from Punta Banda, with an east-west strike, and represents the southernmost fault in the San Andreas system of faulting. The basin is located roughly 40km south of Ensenada where the Agua Blanca fault intersects the Maximos fault. A detailed geophysical analysis defines the basin geometry, and helps to constrain the distribution and offset of mapped and concealed faults. Geophysical and structural data sets are combined to constrain the kinematic evolution of the Santo Tomas basin, including determining the relative amount of dip-slip and strike-slip motion on basin-bounding faults. Gravity data was collected over seven transects across and along the axis of the basin at 500 meter intervals, with 200 meter intervals at locations of known or inferred faults. Magnetic data were taken over the same lines, and are used in conjunction with gravity data to constrain the locations, geometries and displacements of intrabasinal faults. The combined gravity and magnetic data are modeled using Geosoft Oasis montaj software to create 2 3/4D models along profiles across the study area. Modeling of the geophysical data combined with structural mapping indicates that the Santo Tomas basin is bound by two major strike-slip faults, the ABF on the northeastern side and the Maximos fault on south, Based on offset markers, most of the strike-slip motion appears to be concentrated on the ABF on the north side of the basin. The ABF fault is characterized by multiple subparallel fault strands that appear to coalesce into single strands to the northwest and southeast of the basin. The Maximos is characterized by a single strand throughout the basin and it exhibits a minor dip-slip component. Basin sediments thicken slightly against the Maximos fault to as much as 1km. A third fault, cutting across the basin southeast of the

  5. Sociedades agrícolas en resistencia. Los pueblos de San Miguel, Santa Cruz y San Pedro, 1878-1883

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porfirio Neri Guarneros

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural societies in the state of Mexico involved a form of legal resistance used by indigenous communities in the face of liberal individualization policies of communal property, particularly the federal seizure law of June 25, 1956. In this context, some residents of the towns of Santa Cruz and San Miguel created an agricultural association, as did residents from the town of San Pedro, to retain the collective use of their communal goods and acquire some legal capacity. This condition thus allowed indigenous peoples to present writs of amparo to defend "private" rights.

  6. Drainage basin delineations for selected USGS streamflow-gaging stations in Virginia (Drainage_Basin)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Drainage_Basin polygon feature class was created as a digital representation of drainage basins for more than 1,650 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations,...

  7. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Fernando-San Gabriel Study Unit, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460 square mile San Fernando-San Gabriel study unit (SFSG) was investigated between May and July 2005 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The San Fernando-San Gabriel study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SFSG, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 52 wells in Los Angeles County. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and seventeen wells were selected to aid in the evaluation of specific water-quality issues or changes in water chemistry along a historic ground-water flow path (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP), and 1,4-dioxane], naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-fifth (11 of 52) of the wells, and the results for these

  8. 77 FR 66499 - Environmental Impact Statement: San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Hospitality Lane, San Bernardino, California 92408 (2) Sheraton Ontario Airport Hotel, 429 North Vineyard... the Hilton San Bernardino, 285 East Hospitality Lane, San Bernardino, California 92408 (2) Thursday, November 15, 2012 from 5-7 p.m. at the Sheraton Ontario ] Airport Hotel, 429 North Vineyard Avenue, Ontario...

  9. 40 CFR 81.137 - Midland-Odessa-San Angelo Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Midland-Odessa-San Angelo Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.137 Midland-Odessa-San Angelo Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Midland-Odessa-San Angelo Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) consists of the...

  10. 75 FR 65985 - Safety Zone: Epic Roasthouse Private Party Firework Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... off Epic Roasthouse Restaurant, San Francisco, CA during a fireworks display in support of the Epic... Restaurant, San Francisco, CA. The fireworks display is meant for entertainment purposes. This safety zone is... Epic Roasthouse Restaurant, San Francisco, CA. The fireworks launch site will be located in position 37...

  11. 76 FR 53695 - Notice of Public Meeting, Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory Committee; CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Act of 2000 and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of... Agriculture, Forest Service (Forest Service) Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory...

  12. 75 FR 57496 - Notice of Public Meeting, Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory Committee; California AGENCIES: Bureau of Land... the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Act of 2000 and the Federal Advisory... Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument, 1201 Bird Center Drive, Palm Springs, CA 92262, or...

  13. 75 FR 11194 - San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San Diego and Riverside Counties, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... application, and notice of public meetings for the San Diego County Water Authority's (Water Authority...

  14. The Point Sal–Point Piedras Blancas correlation and the problem of slip on the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault, central California Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Existing models for large-magnitude, right-lateral slip on the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault system imply much more deformation of the onshore block in the Santa Maria basin than is supported by geologic data. This problem is resolved by a model in which dextral slip on this fault system increases gradually from 0–10 km near Point Arguello to ∼150 km at Cape San Martin, but such a model requires abandoning the cross-fault tie between Point Sal and Point Piedras Blancas, which requires 90–100 km of right-lateral slip on the southern Hosgri fault. We collected stratigraphic and detrital zircon data from Miocene clastic rocks overlying Jurassic basement at both localities to determine if either section contained unique characteristics that could establish how far apart they were in the early Miocene. Our data indicate that these basins formed in the early Miocene during a period of widespread transtensional basin formation in the central Coast Ranges, and they filled with sediment derived from nearby pre-Cenozoic basement rocks. Although detrital zircon data do not indicate a unique source component in either section, they establish the maximum depositional age of the previously undated Point Piedras Blancas section to be 18 Ma. We also show that detrital zircon trace-element data can be used to discriminate between zircons of oceanic crust and arc affinity of the same age, a potentially useful tool in future studies of the California Coast Ranges. Overall, we find no characteristics in the stratigraphy and provenance of the Point Sal and Point Piedras Blancas sections that are sufficiently unique to prove whether they were far apart or close together in the early Miocene, making them of questionable utility as piercing points.

  15. Deformed river basins of the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, R.; Sinclair, H.

    2009-04-01

    Identification of the controls on basin morphology in mountain belts is needed to understand how landscapes evolve under changing conditions. Although river basins vary enormously in area, many of their morphological relationships, such as Hack's law, are scale invariant irrespective of mountain type. This suggests that, in most mountain belts, the fundamental process(es) that control basin morphology are also scale invariant and therefore largely insensitive to variations in tectonic activity. However, river basins in the Himalaya are anomalously wide when compared with basins developed on the flanks of other semi-linear ranges. We present a detailed study of Himalayan river basin morphology to determine how the evolution of this orogen may have influenced the shape of these unusual basins. We investigate, in particular, the statistical geometric properties of basins, such as the length, width and area of basins, with respect to the scale and the location of the basin within the mountain belt. Our results show that the anomalously wide basins found over much of the Himalaya have a limited scale range and distribution. These data therefore provide an indication of the significant control that the evolution of this mountain range has had on basin morphology at the local scale. The fact that these catchments have departed from what is perceived as a stable scaling relationship implies that, while their rivers can incise at a rate broadly comparable to the rate of rock uplift, their drainage divides can not migrate fast enough to reconfigure in response to tectonic shortening. As a result, long-term crustal shortening has significantly deformed the river network within the central and western Himalaya.

  16. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  17. Shear-wave velocity model from Rayleigh wave group velocities centered on the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Erdem, Jemile

    2017-01-01

    Rayleigh wave group velocities obtained from ambient noise tomography are inverted for an upper crustal model of the Central Valley, California, centered on the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta. Two methods were tried; the first uses SURF96, a least-squares routine. It provides a good fit to the data, but convergence is dependent on the starting model. The second uses a genetic algorithm, whose starting model is random. This method was tried at several nodes in the model and compared to the output from SURF96. The genetic code is run five times and the variance of the output of all five models can be used to obtain an estimate of error. SURF96 produces a more regular solution mostly because it is typically run with a smoothing constraint. Models from the genetic code are generally consistent with the SURF96 code sometimes producing lower velocities at depth. The full model, calculated using SURF96, employed a 2-pass strategy, which used a variable damping scheme in the first pass. The resulting model shows low velocities near the surface in the Central Valley with a broad asymmetrical sedimentary basin located close to the western edge of the Central Valley near 122°W longitude. At shallow depths the Rio Vista Basin is found nestled between the Pittsburgh/Kirby Hills and Midland faults, but a significant basin also seems to exist to the west of the Kirby Hills fault. There are other possible correlations between fast and slow velocities in the Central Valley and geologic features such as the Stockton Arch, oil or gas producing regions and the fault-controlled western boundary of the Central Valley.

  18. Hydroclimatology of the Missouri River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Erika K.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; McCabe, Gregory; Pederson, Gregory T.; St. Jacques, Jeannine-Marie

    2018-01-01

    Despite the importance of the Missouri River for navigation, recreation, habitat, hydroelectric power, and agriculture, relatively little is known about the basic hydroclimatology of the Missouri River basin (MRB). This is of particular concern given the droughts and floods that have occurred over the past several decades and the potential future exacerbation of these extremes by climate change. Here, observed and modeled hydroclimatic data and estimated natural flow records in the MRB are used to 1) assess the major source regions of MRB flow, 2) describe the climatic controls on streamflow in the upper and lower basins , and 3) investigate trends over the instrumental period. Analyses indicate that 72% of MRB runoff is generated by the headwaters in the upper basin and by the lowest portion of the basin near the mouth. Spring precipitation and temperature and winter precipitation impacted by changes in zonal versus meridional flow from the Pacific Ocean play key roles in surface water supply variability in the upper basin. Lower basin flow is significantly correlated with precipitation in late spring and early summer, indicative of Atlantic-influenced circulation variability affecting the flow of moisture from the Gulf of Mexico. Although increases in precipitation in the lower basin are currently overriding the effects of warming temperatures on total MRB flow, the upper basin’s long-term trend toward decreasing flows, reduction in snow versus rain fraction, and warming spring temperatures suggest that the upper basin may less often provide important flow supplements to the lower basin in the future.

  19. Haemostatic profile of the San (Bushmen} relocated to Schmidtsdrif ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Healthy adult San volunteers: 31 males and 54 females from the Vasakela and Barakwena groups in 1990; 135 males from the Vasakela group in 1991. The subjects were all soldiers or their dependants. Main outcome measures. The following tests were performed: activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, ...

  20. Lowland riparian herpetofaunas: the San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip C. Rosen

    2005-01-01

    Previous work has shown that southeastern Arizona has a characteristic, high diversity lowland riparian herpetofauna with 62-68 or more species along major stream corridors, and 46-54 species in shorter reaches within single biomes, based on intensive fieldwork and museum record surveys. The San Pedro River supports this characteristic herpetofauna, at least some of...