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Sample records for san francisco bar

  1. Cultural Factors Related to Smoking in San Francisco's Irish Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Antin, Tamar M. J.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2009-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act was extended to include bars in 1998. While the majority of bars in the state have become smoke free, in many bars patrons and staff continue to smoke despite the law. The authors present findings from a study which assessed cultural factors related to continued smoking in bars in the city of San Francisco. In…

  2. Los Angeles og San Francisco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    1998-01-01

    Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Los Angeles og San Francisco april-maj 1998 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Institut 3H......Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Los Angeles og San Francisco april-maj 1998 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Institut 3H...

  3. 1906 San Francisco, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1906 San Francisco earthquake was the largest event (magnitude 8.3) to occur in the conterminous United States in the 20th Century. Recent estimates indicate...

  4. San Francisco District Laboratory (SAN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program Capabilities Food Analysis SAN-DO Laboratory has an expert in elemental analysis who frequently performs field inspections of materials. A recently acquired...

  5. San Francisco District Laboratory (SAN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesFood Analysis SAN-DO Laboratory has an expert in elemental analysis who frequently performs field inspections of materials. A recently acquired...

  6. 75 FR 39166 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Baseball Game... Bay off San Francisco, CA in support of the San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion. This safety... Giants will sponsor the San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion on July 16, 2010, on the...

  7. 77 FR 57494 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Fireworks, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Fireworks, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco... will enforce the safety zone for the Fleet Week Fireworks in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco...'' W (NAD83) for the Fleet Week Fireworks in 33 CFR 165.1191, Table 1, item number 25. This safety...

  8. 78 FR 21403 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... NAGPRA Program, c/o Department of Anthropology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San...: Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(9), the human remains described in this notice represent the physical remains of... NAGPRA Program, c/o Department of Anthropology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San...

  9. Trouble Brewing in San Francisco. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    The city of San Francisco will face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that San Francisco faces an aggregate $22.4 billion liability for pensions and retiree health benefits that are underfunded--including $14.1 billion for the city…

  10. Historical methyl mercury in San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — San Francisco Bay, California is considered a mercury-impaired watershed. Elevated concentrations of mercury are found in water and sediment as well as fish and...

  11. Bathymetry--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore of San Francisco, California (raster data file is included in...

  12. Habitat--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  13. Habitat--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  14. Contours--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file...

  15. municipios Maracaibo y San Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa E. Ortiz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de las Organizaciones No Gubernamentales estuvo dirigido a caracterizar la diversidad de grupos y asociaciones que bajo el termino genérico de ONG’s existen en los municipios Maracaibo y San Francisco, los más poblados y relevantes en la vida política, económica, social y cultural del estado Zulia-Venezuela. Se planteó una investigación exploratoria y descriptiva. El resultado permitió reconocer a Existe un crecimiento sostenido de las ONG en estos municipios: b los sectores con mayor concentración son el de salud; educación; deporte y recreación; arte y cultura. c Las instituciones que promueven más organizaciones son la iglesia y el Estado, lo que supone es este último caso una reducción de las funciones que le corresponden, además de la minimización de costos y conflictos laborales. d Ambivalencia en la orientación de su funcionamiento: Algunas ONG’s implementan prácticas próximas a la mercantilización de los servicios con lo cual legitiman estrategias del modelo económico neoliberal mientras otras contribuyen a fortalecer la democratización de los servicios públicos. Se concluye que el crecimiento y características de las ONGs en estos municipios estuvo vinculado en los noventa y comienzos de la década de 2000 por la aplicación de las políticas públicas neoliberales.

  16. Dos edificios administrativos, en San Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Arquitectos

    1964-07-01

    Full Text Available The Crown Zellerbach has been built on a large triangular plaza, at the outskirts of San Francisco. This is one of the most recent tall buildings in the city. The Wells Fargo Bank is also situated on this plaza. It is of special interest, both as regards its shape and functional organisation. It has a ground floor, where most of the mercantile activities take place, and a basement, containing a Council room; the strong rooms, with 2,500 private boxes as well as the bank's own safe; washing rooms; mechanical equipment rooms; a rest room; a bar for the employees and independent stairs. The building has a circular planform, 21.5 m in diameter and 354 m2 in area. The structure is metallic, the vertical supports are along the periphery, spaced every 1.626 m. The enclosing curtain walls are glass and anodized aluminium. The roof has radially distributed metal beams, interconnected by prefabricated concrete units, covered with copper sheeting. This bank, shaped like a hunting lodge, and finished with delicate care, contrasts sharply with the powerful volume of the Crown Zellerbach, and of other nearby buildings, and adds distinction to the plaza.Sobre una gran plaza triangular del extrarradio de San Francisco se alzan: el Crown Zellerbach, uno de sus más recientes rascacielos, y un bello pabellón independiente, el Wells Fargo Bank. El resto de la plaza es de dominio público. La originalidad, en forma y organización del segundo, ha hecho que le dediquemos la mayor atención: consta de una planta baja, en la que se desarrollan, prácticamente, todas las actividades mercantiles, y un piso inferior, en donde se distribuyen: un Salón de Consejos, el departamento de cajas de seguridad, con 2.500 unidades, y las cajas del Banco, los aseos, equipos mecánicos, etc., una sala de descanso y bar para los empleados, con escalera de acceso independiente. Tiene planta circular, de 21,5 m de diámetro y 354 m2 de superficie. La estructura es metálica, con

  17. A Glorious Century of Art Education: San Francisco's Art Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Stephen Mark

    1976-01-01

    Author described the life and times of the San Francisco Art Institute and reviewed the forces that made San Francisco a city of more than ordinary awareness of the arts in its civic and civil existence. (Editor/RK)

  18. San Francisco Bay Long Term Management Strategy for Dredging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The San Francisco Bay Long Term Management Strategy (LTMS) is a cooperative effort to develop a new approach to dredging and dredged material disposal in the San Francisco Bay area. The LTMS serves as the Regional Dredging Team for the San Francisco area.

  19. Salt Ponds, South San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    higher resolution 1000 pixel-wide image The red and green colors of the salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay are brilliant visual markers for astronauts. The STS-111 crew photographed the bay south of the San Mateo bridge in June, 2002. This photograph is timely because a large number of the salt ponds (more than 16,500 acres) that are owned by Cargill, Inc. will be sold in September for wetlands restoration-a restoration project second in size only to the Florida Everglades project. Rough boundaries of the areas to be restored are outlined on the image. Over the past century, more than 80% of San Francisco Bay's wetlands have been filled and developed or diked off for salt mining. San Francisco Bay has supported salt mining since 1854. Cargill has operated most of the bay's commercial salt ponds since 1978, and had already sold thousands of acres to the State of California and the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge. This new transaction will increase San Francisco Bay's existing tidal wetlands by 50%. The new wetlands, to be managed by the California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, will join the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge, and provide valuable habitat for birds, fish and other wildlife. The wetlands will contribute to better water quality and flood control in the bay, and open up more coastline for public enjoyment. Additional information: Cargill Salt Ponds (PDF) Turning Salt Into Environmental Gold Salt Ponds on Way to Becoming Wetlands Historic Agreement Reached to Purchase San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds Astronaut photograph STS111-376-3 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth

  20. San Francisco's New Zoo's Connections for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routman, Emily

    2001-01-01

    Provides information on a redevelopment project at the San Francisco Zoo known as the New Zoo. The explicit goal of the project is to inspire a sense of caring and appreciation for wildlife that is the foundation of a conservation ethic. (DDR)

  1. An overview of San Francisco Bay PORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ralph T.; McKinnie, David; English, Chad; Smith, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    The Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS) provides observations of tides, tidal currents, and meteorological conditions in real-time. The San Francisco Bay PORTS (SFPORTS) is a decision support system to facilitate safe and efficient maritime commerce. In addition to real-time observations, SFPORTS includes a nowcast numerical model forming a San Francisco Bay marine nowcast system. SFPORTS data and nowcast numerical model results are made available to users through the World Wide Web (WWW). A brief overview of SFPORTS is presented, from the data flow originated at instrument sensors to final results delivered to end users on the WWW. A user-friendly interface for SFPORTS has been designed and implemented. Appropriate field data analysis, nowcast procedures, design and generation of graphics for WWW display of field data and nowcast results are presented and discussed. Furthermore, SFPORTS is designed to support hazardous materials spill prevention and response, and to serve as resources to scientists studying the health of San Francisco Bay ecosystem. The success (or failure) of the SFPORTS to serve the intended user community is determined by the effectiveness of the user interface.

  2. 78 FR 57482 - Safety Zone; America's Cup Aerobatic Box, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of... Sector San Francisco; telephone (415) 399-3585 or email at D11-PF-MarineEvents@uscg.mil . If you have... ``America's Cup World Series'' regattas in 2012 and the ``Louis Vuitton Cup,'' ``Red Bull Youth America's...

  3. Southern San Francisco Bay Colonial Nesting Bird Census 1995-1996: Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the 1995-1996 field season of the San Francisco Bay Bird Observatory (SFBBO) Colonial Waterbird Monitoring Study on the Don Edwards San...

  4. 33 CFR 80.1142 - San Francisco Harbor, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Francisco Harbor, CA. 80.1142 Section 80.1142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1142 San Francisco Harbor, CA. A straight...

  5. Microbial biogeography of San Francisco Bay sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. A.; Francis, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The largest estuary on the west coast of North America, San Francisco Bay is an ecosystem of enormous biodiversity, and also enormous human impact. The benthos has experienced dredging, occupation by invasive species, and over a century of sediment input as a result of hydraulic mining. Although the Bay's great cultural and ecological importance has inspired numerous surveys of the benthic macrofauna, to date there has been almost no investigation of the microbial communities on the Bay floor. An understanding of those microbial communities would contribute significantly to our understanding of both the biogeochemical processes (which are driven by the microbiota) and the physical processes (which contribute to microbial distributions) in the Bay. Here, we present the first broad survey of bacterial and archaeal taxa in the sediments of the San Francisco Bay. We conducted 16S rRNA community sequencing of bacteria and archaea in sediment samples taken bimonthly for one year, from five sites spanning the salinity gradient between Suisun and Central Bay, in order to capture the effect of both spatial and temporal environmental variation on microbial diversity. From the same samples we also conducted deep sequencing of a nitrogen-cycling functional gene, nirS, allowing an assessment of evolutionary diversity at a much finer taxonomic scale within an important and widespread functional group of bacteria. We paired these sequencing projects with extensive geochemical metadata as well as information about macrofaunal distribution. Our data reveal a diversity of distinct biogeographical patterns among different taxa: clades ubiquitous across sites; clades that respond to measurable environmental drivers; and clades that show geographical site-specificity. These community datasets allow us to test the hypothesis that salinity is a major driver of both overall microbial community structure and community structure of the denitrifying bacteria specifically; and to assess

  6. Marine Seismic Reflection Profiles Data of San Francisco Bay Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Dataset consists of two-dimensional marine seismic reflection profile data from the San Francisco Bay area. These data were acquired in 1995, with the vessel Robert...

  7. Folds--Offshore of San Francisco Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is...

  8. Faults--Offshore of San Francisco Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is included...

  9. San Francisco Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Ecological regions of interest as identified in the San Francisco Coastal Region Sediment Management Plan.NPS identifies several special management areas within the...

  10. Faults--Offshore of San Francisco Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is included...

  11. Folds--Offshore of San Francisco Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is...

  12. San Francisco Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Ecological regions of interest as identified in the San Francisco Coastal Region Sediment Management Plan.NPS identifies several special management areas within the...

  13. Narrative Report : San Francisco Bay NWR Complex : Fiscal Year 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1974. The report begins with a general...

  14. Backscatter C [8101]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  15. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Annual Narrative 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1980. The report begins with a general...

  16. San Francisco-Pacifica Coast Landslide Susceptibility 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The San Francisco-Pacifica Coast grid map was extracted from the California Geological Survey Map Sheet 58 that covers the entire state of California and originally...

  17. Backscatter A [8101]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  18. Backscatter C [8101]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  19. Backscatter B [8101]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  20. Backscatter A [8101]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  1. Backscatter D [7125]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  2. Salinity and Flow Monitoring in the San Francisco Bay Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the utility and approximate cost of expanding the salinity water quality monitoring network along the axis of the San Francisco Estuary from Suisun Bay to Rio Vista on the Sacramento River.

  3. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - San Francisco Bay Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the San Francisco Bay...

  4. San Francisco, California Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The San Francisco, California Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  5. San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission : Annual Report 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Congress passed, and the President signed into law, legislation establishing the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. When the purchase of property for...

  6. Backscatter B [8101]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  7. Marine Seismic Reflection Profiles Data of San Francisco Bay Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Dataset consists of two-dimensional marine seismic reflection profile data from the San Francisco Bay area. These data were acquired in 1993, with the vessel David...

  8. Marine Seismic Reflection Profiles Data of San Francisco Bay Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Dataset consists of two-dimensional marine seismic reflection profile data from the San Francisco Bay area. These data were acquired in 1997, with the vessel Davidt...

  9. Faults--Offshore of San Francisco Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is...

  10. San Francisco-Pacifica Coast Landslide Susceptibility 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The San Francisco-Pacifica Coast grid map was extracted from the California Geological Survey Map Sheet 58 that covers the entire state of California and originally...

  11. Hunting plan for San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This migratory waterfowl hunting plan for Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge allows waterfowl hunting on certain areas of the Refuge. Aerial...

  12. San Francisco Bay, California 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1-second San Francisco Bay, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This...

  13. Earthquake Damage in San Francisco, CA, April 18, 1906

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1906 San Francisco earthquake was the largest event (magnitude 8.3) to occur in the conterminous United States in the 20th Century. Recent estimates indicate...

  14. Marine Seismic Reflection Profiles Data of San Francisco Bay Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Dataset consists of two-dimensional marine seismic reflection profile data from the San Francisco Bay area. These data were acquired in 1995, with the vessel Robert...

  15. Marine Seismic Reflection Profiles Data of San Francisco Bay Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Dataset consists of two-dimensional marine seismic reflection profile data from the San Francisco Bay area. These data were acquired in 1993, with the vessel David...

  16. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  17. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  18. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  19. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  20. 2010 Northern San Francisco Bay Area Lidar: Portions of Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, Solano, and Sonoma Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of northern San Francisco Bay, California. The project area consists of approximately 437 square miles...

  1. 2010 Northern San Francisco Bay Area Lidar: Portions of Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, Solano, and Sonoma Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of northern San Francisco Bay, California. The project area consists of approximately 437 square miles...

  2. San Francisco Bay Area Baseline Trash Loading Summary Results, San Francisco Bay Area CA, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Area stormwater permit sets trash control guidelines for discharges through the storm drain system. The permit covers Alameda, Contra Costa,...

  3. 77 FR 59969 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, Department of Anthropology, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Anthropology, San Francisco, CA; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; correction... Department of Anthropology). The human remains and associated funerary objects were removed from Marin County... San Francisco State University Department of Anthropology records. In the Federal Register (73...

  4. 1906 Letter to the San Francisco Health Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmachtenberg, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    On Wednesday, April 18, 1906, an earthquake, measuring 7.8 on the Richter magnitude scale and lasting 48 seconds, erupted along the San Andreas fault with a flash point originating in the San Francisco Bay area. The force of the earthquake tore apart buildings and roads, causing water and gas mains to twist and break. The resulting effects of the…

  5. Heavy mineral analysis for assessing the provenance of sandy sediment in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, F. L.; Woodrow, D. L.; McGann, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Heavy minerals have been used to trace the sources and transportation of sandy sediment in San Francisco Bay and nearby coastal areas since the 1960s. We have the opportunity to sample similar environments and revisit the heavy mineral populations under the current San Francisco Coastal System study of the provenance of beach sand. Most of the sandy sediment in San Francisco Bay can be traced to distant sources including the Sierra Nevada batholith and associated terranes with local contributions from the Franciscan Complex. Heavy minerals from Sierran sources include ordinary hornblende, metamorphic amphiboles, and hypersthene while those from the Franciscan Complex include other types of pyroxene, epidote, basaltic hornblende, and glaucophane... Tertiary strata and volcanics in the surrounding hills and displaced Sierran rocks found on the continental shelf west of the San Andreas Fault Zone introduce similar minerals, but perhaps in a lesser volume to be identified as major contributors... The primary result of cluster analysis of heavy minerals separated from sand-sized sediment taken within San Francisco Bay, the adjacent continental shelf, local beaches, cliffs outside the Golden Gate, and upstream drainages indicate a widespread occurrence of sediment traceable to the Sierra Nevada. A second cluster of samples identifies samples of mixed Sierran and Franciscan lineage within the strait of the Golden Gate, on the San Francisco bar, and on coastal beaches. Sediment samples with predominantly Franciscan mineral content appear on beaches around Point Reyes, possibly transported from the Russian River. The heavy mineral composition supports transport from the east, through San Francisco Bay and out the Golden Gate to the San Francisco bar and southward.

  6. Community Heavy Metal Exposure, San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, A.; Devine, M.; Ho, T.; Zapata, I.; Bissell, M.; Neiss, J.

    2008-12-01

    Heavy metals are natural elements that generally occur in minute concentrations in the earth's crust. While some of these elements, in small quantities, are vital to life, most are harmful in larger doses. Various industrial and agricultural processes can result in dangerously high concentrations of heavy metals in our environment. Consequently, humans can be exposed to unsafe levels of these elements via the air we breathe, the water and food we consume, and the many products we use. During a two week study we collected numerous samples of sediments, water, food, and household items from around the San Francisco Bay Area that represent industrial, agricultural, and urban/residential settings. We analyzed these samples for Mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb), and Arsenic (As). Our goal was to examine the extent of our exposure to heavy metals in our daily lives. We discovered that many of the common foods and materials in our lives have become contaminated with unhealthy concentrations of these metals. Of our food samples, many exceeded the EPA's Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) set for each metal. Meats (fish, chicken, and beef) had higher amounts of each metal than did non-meat items. Heavy metals were also prevalent in varying concentrations in the environment. While many of our samples exceeded the EPA's Sediment Screening Level (SSL) for As, only two other samples surpassed the SSL set for Pb, and zero of our samples exceeded the SSL for Hg. Because of the serious health effects that can result from over-exposure to heavy metals, the information obtained in this study should be used to influence our future dietary and recreational habits.

  7. Structure and mechanics of the San Andreas-San Gregorio fault junction, San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom; Bruns, Terry R.; Sliter, Ray

    2005-01-01

    The right-lateral San Gregorio and San Andreas faults meet west of the Golden Gate near San Francisco. Coincident seismic reflection and refraction profiling across the San Gregorio and San Andreas faults south of their junction shows the crust between them to have formed shallow extensional basins that are dissected by parallel strike-slip faults. We employ a regional finite element model to investigate the long-term consequences of the fault geometry. Over the course of 2-3 m.y. of slip on the San Andreas-San Gregorio fault system, elongated extensional basins are predicted to form between the two faults. An additional consequence of the fault geometry is that the San Andreas fault is expected to have migrated eastward relative to the San Gregorio fault. We thus propose a model of eastward stepping right-lateral fault formation to explain the observed multiple fault strands and depositional basins. The current manifestation of this process might be the observed transfer of slip from the San Andreas fault east to the Golden Gate fault.

  8. What is causing the phytoplankton increase in San Francisco Bay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, J.E.; Jassby, A.D.; Schraga, T.S.; Dallas, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    The largest living component of San Francisco Bay is the phytoplankton, a suspension of microscopic cells that convert sunlight energy into new living biomass through the same process of photosynthesis used by land plants. This primary production is the ultimate source of food for clams, zooplankton, crabs, sardines, halibut, sturgeon, diving ducks, pelicans, and harbor seals. From measurements made in 1980, we estimated that phytoplankton primary production in San Francisco Bay was about 200,000 tons of organic carbon per year (Jassby et al. 1993). This is equivalent to producing the biomass of 5500 adult humpback whales, or the calories to feed 1.8 million people. These numbers may seem large, but primary production in San Francisco Bay is low compared to many other nutrient-enriched estuaries.

  9. Café Takksemi - og aðrir tankar úr San Francisco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Travel essay about literature and the image of San Francisco seen through different areas of the city.......Travel essay about literature and the image of San Francisco seen through different areas of the city....

  10. Vabariigi aastapäev San Franciscos / Heino Valvur ; foto: Heino Valvur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valvur, Heino

    2006-01-01

    veebruarikuu möödus San Franciscos Eesti Vabariigi 88. aastapäeva pühitsedes: traditsiooniliselt tähistas aastapäeva San Francisco Seenioride Klubi koosviibimisega, E.E.L.K. San Francisco koguduses peeti jumalateenistus ja koosviibimine, kus noored esitasid rahvalaule, San Francisco Eesti Selts tähistas aastapäeva 25. veebruaril aktuse ja koosviibimisega

  11. Vabariigi aastapäev San Franciscos / Heino Valvur ; foto: Heino Valvur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valvur, Heino

    2006-01-01

    veebruarikuu möödus San Franciscos Eesti Vabariigi 88. aastapäeva pühitsedes: traditsiooniliselt tähistas aastapäeva San Francisco Seenioride Klubi koosviibimisega, E.E.L.K. San Francisco koguduses peeti jumalateenistus ja koosviibimine, kus noored esitasid rahvalaule, San Francisco Eesti Selts tähistas aastapäeva 25. veebruaril aktuse ja koosviibimisega

  12. Merchandising of cigarettes in San Francisco pharmacies: 27 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eule, B; Sullivan, M K; Schroeder, S A; Hudmon, K S

    2004-12-01

    To estimate changes since 1976 in the proportion of San Francisco pharmacies that sell cigarettes and to characterise the advertising of cigarettes and the merchandising of non-prescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products in these retail establishments. 100 randomly selected San Francisco pharmacies were visited in 2003. Pharmacies were characterised based on the sale of cigarettes, advertising for cigarettes, and the merchandising of non-prescription NRT products. In 2003, 61% of pharmacies sold cigarettes, a significant decrease compared to 89% of pharmacies selling cigarettes in 1976 (p merchandise the primary known risk factor for death in the USA.

  13. Developing Alternative Placement Criteria for English Courses at City College of San Francisco. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrechini, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing the need to improve postsecondary access and success for underrepresented populations, the San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD), City College of San Francisco (CCSF), the City and County of San Francisco, and key community organizations formed the Bridge to Success initiative in 2009. The John W. Gardner Center for Youth and…

  14. 77 FR 73311 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events, San Francisco, CA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... waters of San Francisco Bay adjacent to the City of San Francisco waterfront in the vicinity of the... access to pier space and facilities along the City of San Francisco waterfront and to minimize other...-September 23, 2013). An image illustrating the location of the transit zone is available in the docket....

  15. Drifter Observations Of Wave-Current Evolution Through The San Francisco Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, D. W.; Herbers, T. H.; Janssen, T. T.; McIntyre, S.; Jessen, P.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean waves approaching the Golden Gate, the narrow strait connecting the San Francisco Bay to the Pacific Ocean, are affected by refraction over the San Francisco Bar and the strong tidal currents in the area. During ebb tides, when currents through the Golden Gate can exceed 2.5 m/s, the approach to San Francisco Bay is characterized by focusing and steepening of the incident wave field on the opposing current jet. These dynamics are not uncommon in coastal inlets and are known to present hazardous navigation conditions. The strong inhomogeneity and enhanced nonlinearity of the waves can result in deviations from non-Gaussian statistics and changes in the likelihood of extreme waves. However, since observations of wave-current dynamics are so difficult to make with conventional instruments, these dynamics remain still poorly understood. In this work we present the development and testing of a compact, low-cost, Wave-Resolving Drifter (WRD), designed to resolve the wave orbital surface motions and surface drifts in high-energy areas. The WRDs consist of a 30cm buoy equipped with an off-the-shelf GPS receiver and a three-axis accelerometer. The combined GPS-accelerometer package is functionally equivalent to a conventional pitch-roll (or PUV) wave height and direction instrument, but at a fraction of the price. In our presentation we will discuss results from several WRD array deployments in the San Francisco Bight during high-energy conditions with strong ebb currents. The buoys are shown to resolve the surface waves and surface drift with remarkable accuracy and allow the analysis of the evolution of the wave group structure over the opposing current. To obtain statistical results for currents and waves, WRDs were released in clusters (ensemble) from which shoaling effects over the bar and wave-current interaction can be identified.

  16. Working Paper for the Revision of San Francisco's Cable Franchise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco Public Library, CA. Video Task Force.

    Ideas are presented for the revision of San Francisco's cable franchise. The recommendations in the report are based upon national research of library and urban use of cable communications and are designed to help the city's present and future cable franchises to comply with the regulations of the Federal Communications Commission by March 31,…

  17. A Water Quality Study: Heron's Head Park, San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A.; Wu, K.; Neiss, J.

    2007-12-01

    Heron's Head Park, formerly known as Pier 98, is a 24-acre restored wetland, owned and operated by the Port of San Francisco and situated at the base of the Hunter's Point Power Plant. Heron's Head is a unique environment that is built on landfill and is now a thriving marsh maintained primarily by youth and community volunteers. Adjacent to the park stands a PG&E power plant (closed May 2006), a county waste transfer station, and a combined sewer overflow (CSO) pipe. The park is bordered by San Francisco Bay on the north, east and south sides of the park. We examined the levels of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and fecal coliform at nine sites around the park. Utilizing historical data from other San Francisco Bay sites and other similar estuarine settings in California, we assessed the health of the Bay waters surrounding the park. We found the levels of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates to be within the parameters of historical San Francisco Bay data and similar to settings such as Elkhorn Slough, Tomales Bay and Tijuana Estuary. In our study we did find a potential hazard to human health. Fecal coliform concentrations in waters that border the park range from 340 MPN/100 mL - 24,000 MPN/100 mL. This level significantly exceeds Environmental Protection Agency recommendations of 300 MPN/100 mL for human contact with water.

  18. Abrupt along-strike change in tectonic style: San Andreas Fault zone, San Francisco Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, Mary Lou; Jachens, Robert C.; Olson, Jean A.

    1999-05-01

    Seismicity and high-resolution aeromagnetic data are used to define an abrupt change from compressional to extensional tectonism within a 10- to 15-km-wide zone along the San Andreas fault on the San Francisco Peninsula and offshore from the Golden Gate. This 100-km-long section of the San Andreas fault includes the hypocenter of the Mw = 7.8 1906 San Francisco earthquake as well as the highest level of persistent microseismicity along that ˜470-km-long rupture. We define two distinct zones of deformation along this stretch of the fault using well-constrained relocations of all post-1969 earthquakes based a joint one-dimensional velocity/hypocenter inversion and a redetermination of focal mechanisms. The southern zone is characterized by thrust- and reverse-faulting focal mechanisms with NE trending P axes that indicate "fault-normal" compression in 7- to 10-km-wide zones of deformation on both sides of the San Andreas fault. A 1- to 2-km-wide vertical zone beneath the surface trace of the San Andreas is characterized by its almost complete lack of seismicity. The compressional deformation is consistent with the young, high topography of the Santa Cruz Mountains/Coast Ranges as the San Andreas fault makes a broad restraining left bend (˜10°) through the southernmost peninsula. A zone of seismic quiescence ˜15 km long separates this compressional zone to the south from a zone of combined normal-faulting and strike-slip-faulting focal mechanisms (including a ML = 5.3 earthquake in 1957) on the northernmost peninsula and offshore on the Golden Gate platform. Both linear pseudogravity gradients, calculated from the aeromagnetic data, and seismic reflection data indicate that the San Andreas fault makes an abrupt ˜3-km right step less than 5 km offshore in this northern zone. A similar right-stepping (dilatational) geometry is also observed for the subparallel San Gregorio fault offshore. Persistent seismicity and extensional tectonism occur within the San Andreas

  19. Aggregate Settling Velocities in San Francisco Estuary Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. M.; Stacey, M. T.; Variano, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    One way that humans impact aquatic ecosystems is by adding nutrients and contaminants, which can propagate up the food web and cause blooms and die-offs, respectively. Often, these chemicals are attached to fine sediments, and thus where sediments go, so do these anthropogenic influences. Vertical motion of sediments is important for sinking and burial, and also for indirect effects on horizontal transport. The dynamics of sinking sediment (often in aggregates) are complex, thus we need field data to test and validate existing models. San Francisco Bay is well studied and is often used as a test case for new measurement and model techniques (Barnard et al. 2013). Settling velocities for aggregates vary between 4*10-5 to 1.6*10-2 m/s along the estuary backbone (Manning and Schoellhamer 2013). Model results from South San Francisco Bay shoals suggest two populations of settling particles, one fast (ws of 9 to 5.8*10-4 m/s) and one slow (ws of Brand et al. 2015). While the open waters of San Francisco Bay and other estuaries are well studied and modeled, sediment and contaminants often originate from the margin regions, and the margins remain poorly characterized. We conducted a 24 hour field experiment in a channel slough of South San Francisco Bay, and measured settling velocity, turbulence and flow, and suspended sediment concentration. At this margin location, we found average settling velocities of 4-5*10-5 m/s, and saw settling velocities decrease with decreasing suspended sediment concentration. These results are consistent with, though at the low end of, those seen along the estuary center, and they suggest that the two population model that has been successful along the shoals may also apply in the margins.

  20. Microbial diversity in restored wetlands of San Francisco Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theroux, Susanna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Hartman, Wyatt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; He, Shaomei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tringe, Susannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2013-12-09

    Wetland ecosystems may serve as either a source or a sink for atmospheric carbon and greenhouse gases. This delicate carbon balance is influenced by the activity of belowground microbial communities that return carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere. Wetland restoration efforts in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region may help to reverse land subsidence and possibly increase carbon storage in soils. However, the effects of wetland restoration on microbial communities, which mediate soil metabolic activity and carbon cycling, are poorly studied. In an effort to better understand the underlying factors which shape the balance of carbon flux in wetland soils, we targeted the microbial communities in a suite of restored and historic wetlands in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with greenhouse gas monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of the wetland soil microbial communities along biogeochemical and wetland age gradients. Our results show relationships among geochemical gradients, availability of electron acceptors, and microbial community composition. Our study provides the first genomic glimpse into microbial populations in natural and restored wetlands of the San Francisco Bay-Delta region and provides a valuable benchmark for future studies.

  1. Vertical tectonic deformation associated with the San Andreas fault zone offshore of San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, H. F.; Parsons, T.; Sliter, R. W.

    2008-10-01

    A new fault map of the shelf offshore of San Francisco, California shows that faulting occurs as a distributed shear zone that involves many fault strands with the principal displacement taken up by the San Andreas fault and the eastern strand of the San Gregorio fault zone. Structures associated with the offshore faulting show compressive deformation near where the San Andreas fault goes offshore, but deformation becomes extensional several km to the north off of the Golden Gate. Our new fault map serves as the basis for a 3-D finite element model that shows that the block between the San Andreas and San Gregorio fault zone is subsiding at a long-term rate of about 0.2-0.3 mm/yr, with the maximum subsidence occurring northwest of the Golden Gate in the area of a mapped transtensional basin. Although the long-term rates of vertical displacement primarily show subsidence, the model of coseismic deformation associated with the 1906 San Francisco earthquake indicates that uplift on the order of 10-15 cm occurred in the block northeast of the San Andreas fault. Since 1906, 5-6 cm of regional subsidence has occurred in that block. One implication of our model is that the transfer of slip from the San Andreas fault to a fault 5 km to the east, the Golden Gate fault, is not required for the area offshore of San Francisco to be in extension. This has implications for both the deposition of thick Pliocene-Pleistocene sediments (the Merced Formation) observed east of the San Andreas fault, and the age of the Peninsula segment of the San Andreas fault.

  2. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 86-236-1725, San Francisco Opera Costume Shop, San Francisco, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belanger, P.L.; Okawa, M.T.

    1986-09-01

    An employee representative of the San Francisco Opera Costume Shop requested an investigation of possible exposure to chemical substances by crafts persons and textile artists. No overexposure to chemicals was found during cloth stripping and dying operations, boot deglazing, hat lacquering, fabric painting or casting operations. During boot spray painting, two personal air samples contained methylene chloride at 11.9 and 25 parts per million; both above the NIOSH recommended criteria for methylene-chloride exposure.

  3. Contaminant levels in fish tissue from San Francisco Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairey, R. [California Dept. of Fish and Game, Moss Landing, CA (United States). Moss Landing Marine Labs.; Taberski, K. [San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, Oakland, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Edible fish species were collected from thirteen locations throughout San Francisco Bay, during the spring of 1994, for determination of contaminants levels in muscle tissue. Species collected included white croaker, surfperch, leopard and brown smoothhound sharks, striped bass, white sturgeon and halibut Sixty six composite tissue samples were analyzed for the presence of PAHs, PCBs, pesticides, trace elements and dioxin/furans. The US EPA approach to assessing chemical contaminant data for fish tissue consumption was used for identifying the primary chemicals of concern. Six chemicals or chemical groups were found to exceed screening levels established using the US EPA approach. PCBs (as total Aroclors) exceeded the screening level of 3 ppb in all sixty six tissue samples, with the highest concentrations (638 ppb) found near San Francisco`s industrial areas. Mercury was elevated (> 0.14 ppm) in forty of the sixty-six samples with the highest levels (1.26 ppm) occurring in shark muscle tissues. Concentrations of the organochlorine pesticides dieldrin, total chlordanes and total DDTs exceeded screening levels in a number of samples. Dioxin/furans (as TEQs) were elevated (above 0.15 ppt) in 16 of the 19 samples analyzed. Fish with high lipid content (croaker and surfperch) in their muscle tissue generally exhibited higher contaminant levels while fish with low lipid levels (halibut and shark) exhibited lower organic contaminant levels. Tissue samples taken from North Bay stations most often exhibited high levels of chemical contamination. The California Office of Health Hazard Assessment is currently evaluating the results of this study and has issued an interim Health Advisory concerning the human consumption of fish tissue from San Francisco Bay.

  4. Deep Borehole Instrumentation Along San Francisco Bay Bridges - 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L.; Kasameyer, P.; Turpin, C.; Long, L.; Hollfelder, J.; McEvilly, T.; Clymer, R.; Uhrhammer, R.

    2000-03-01

    This is a progress report on the Bay Bridges downhole network. Between 2 and 8 instruments have been spaced along the Dumbarton, San Mateo, Bay, and San Rafael bridges in San Francisco Bay, California. The instruments will provide multiple use data that is important to geotechnical, structural engineering, and seismological studies. The holes are between 100 and 1000 ft deep and were drilled by Caltrans. There are twenty-one sensor packages at fifteen sites. The downhole instrument package contains a three component HS-1 seismometer and three orthogonal Wilcox 731 accelerometers, and is capable of recording a micro g from local M = 1.0 earthquakes to 0.5 g strong ground motion form large Bay Area earthquakes. Preliminary results on phasing across the Bay Bridge, up and down hole wave amplification at Yerba Buena Island, and sensor orientation analysis are presented. Events recorded and located during 1999 are presented. Also, a senior thesis on the deep structure of the San Francisco Bay beneath the Bay Bridge is presented as an addendum.

  5. Coastal monitoring of the May 2005 dredge disposal offshore of Ocean Beach, San Francisco, Calif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Ocean Beach, California, contains an erosion hot spot in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta south of Sloat Boulevard that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location and avoid hazardous navigation conditions at the current disposal site (SF-8), a new plan for the management of sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of Francisco Bay was implemented in May 2005 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District (COE). The objective for COE was to perform a test dredge disposal of ~230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of sand just offshore of the erosion hot spot, in depths between approximately 9 and 14 m. This disposal site was chosen because it is in a location where the strong tidal currents associated with the mouth of San Francisco Bay and waves can potentially feed sediment toward the littoral zone in the reach of the beach that is experiencing critical erosion. The onshore migration of sediment from the target disposal location might feed the primary longshore bar or the nearshore zone, and provide a buffer to erosion that peaks during winter months when large waves impact the region. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the Sea Floor Mapping Lab (SFML) of California State University, Monterey Bay, monitored the initial bathymetric evolution of the test dredge disposal site and the adjacent coastal region from May 2005 to November 2005. This paper reports on this monitoring effort and assesses the short-term coastal response.

  6. Deep bore hole instrumentation along San Francisco Bay Bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakun, W.; Bowman, J.; Clymer, R.; Foxall, W.; Hipley, P.; Hollfelder, J.; Hutchings, L.; Jarpe, S.; Kasameyer, P.; McEvilly, T.; Mualchin, L.; Palmer, M.

    1998-10-01

    The Bay Bridges down hole network consists of sensors in bore holes that are drilled 100 ft. into bedrock around and in the San Francisco Bay. Between 2 and 8 instruments have been spaced along the Dumbarton, San Mateo, Bay, and San Rafael bridges. The instruments will provide multiple use data that is important to geotechnical, structural engineering, and seismological studies. The holes are between 100 and 1000 ft deep and were drilled by Caltrans. There are twenty- one sensor packages at fifteen sites. Extensive financial support is being contributed by Caltrans, UCB, LBL, LLNL-LDRD, U.C. Campus/Laboratory Collaboration (CLC) program, and USGS. The down hole instrument package contains a three component HS-1 seismometer and three orthogonal Wilcox 73 1 accelerometers, and is capable of recording a micro g from local M = 1.0 earthquakes to 0.5 g strong ground motion form large Bay Area earthquakes.

  7. Deep Borehole Instrumentation Along San Francisco Bay Bridges - 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L.; Kasameyer, P.; Long, L.; McEvilly, T.; Clymer, R.; Urhhammer, R.; Baise, L.

    2001-05-01

    This is a progress report on the Bay Bridges downhole network. Between 2 and 8 instruments have been spaced along the Dumbarton, San Mateo, Bay, and San Rafael bridges in San Francisco Bay, California. The instruments will provide multiple use data that is important to geotechnical, structural engineering, and seismological studies. The holes are between 100 and 1000 ft deep and were drilled by Caltrans. There are twenty-one sensor packages at fifteen sites. The downhole instrument package contains a three component HS-1 seismometer and three orthogonal Wilcox 731 accelerometers, and is capable of recording a micro g from local M = 1.0 earthquakes to 0.5 g strong ground motion form large Bay Area earthquakes. This report list earthquakes and stations where recordings were obtained during the period February 29, 2000 to November 11, 2000. Also, preliminary results on noise analysis for up and down hole recordings at Yerba Buena Island is presented.

  8. Seasonal cycles of zooplankton from San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Julie W.; Cloern, James E.; Hutchinson, Anne

    1985-01-01

    The two estuarine systems composing San Francisco Bay have distinct zooplankton communities and seasonal population dynamics. In the South Bay, a shallow lagoon-type estuary, the copepods Acartia spp. and Oithona davisae dominate. As in estuaries along the northeast coast of the U.S., there is a seasonal succession involving the replacement of a cold-season Acartia species (A. clausi s.l.) by a warm-season species (A. californiensis), presumably resulting from the differential production and hatching of dormant eggs. Oithona davisae is most abundant during the fall. Copepods of northern San Francisco Bay, a partially-mixed estuary of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers, organize into discrete populations according to salinity distribution: Sinocalanus doerrii (a recently introduced species) at the riverine boundary, Eurytemora affinis in the oligohaline mixing zone, Acartia spp. in polyhaline waters (18–30\\%), and neritic species (e.g., Paracalanus parvus) at the seaward boundary. Sinocalanus doerrii and E. affinis are present year-round. Acartia clausi s.l.is present almost year-round in the northern reach, and A. californiensis occurs only briefly there in summer-fall. The difference in succession of Acartia species between the two regions of San Francisco Bay may reflect differences in the seasonal temperature cycle (the South Bay warms earlier), and the perennial transport of A. clausi s.l. into the northern reach from the seaward boundary by nontidal advection.

  9. Anthropogenic influence on recent bathymetric change in west-central San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Kvitek, Rikk G.

    2010-01-01

    Two multibeam sonar surveys of west-central San Francisco Bay, California, were conducted in 1997 and 2008. Bathymetric change analysis between the two surveys indicates a loss of 14.1 million cubic meters (-3.1 cm/yr-1) of sediment during this time period, representing an approximately three-fold acceleration of the rate that was observed from prior depth change analysis from 1947 to 1979 for all of Central Bay, using more spatially coarse National Ocean Service (NOS) soundings. The portions of the overlapping survey areas between 1997 and 2008 designated as aggregate mining lease sites lost sediment at five times the rate of the remainder of west-central San Francisco Bay. Despite covering only 28% of the analysis area, volume change within leasing areas accounted for 9.2 million cubic meters of sediment loss, while the rest of the area lost 4.9 million cubic meters of sediment. The uncertainty of this recent analysis is more tightly constrained due to more stringent controls on vertical and horizontal position via tightly coupled, inertially aided differential Global Positioning Systems (GPS) solutions for survey vessel trajectory that virtually eliminate inaccuracies from traditional tide modeling and vessel motion artifacts. Further, quantification of systematic depth measurement error can now be calculated through comparison of static surfaces (e.g., bedrock) between surveys using seafloor habitat maps based on acoustic backscatter measurements and ground-truthing with grab samples and underwater video. Sediment loss in the entire San Francisco Bay Coastal System during the last half-century,as estimated from a series of bathymetric change studies, is 240 million cubic meters, and most of this is believed to be coarse sediment (i.e., sand and gravel) from Central Bay and the San Francisco Bar, which is likely to limit the sand supply to adjacent, open-coast beaches. This hypothesis is supported by a calibrated numerical model in a related study that indicates

  10. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Don Edwards San Francisco Bay NWR, Antioch Dunes NWR, Farallon NWR, San Pablo Bay NWR, Ellicot Slough NWR, Salinas River NWR, and...

  11. Final Environmental Statement : Acquisition of lands for the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Federal Government proposes to acquire approximately 23,000 acres of land in the South San Francisco Bay region, Alameda, San Mateo and Santa Clara Counties, to...

  12. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for San Francisco Bay NWR, San Pablo Bay NWR, Antioch Dunes NWR, Farallon NWR, Ellicott Slough NWR, and Salinas River NWR outlines...

  13. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for San Francisco Bay NWR, San Pablo Bay NWR, Antioch Dunes NWR, Farallon NWR, Ellicott Slough NWR, and Salinas River NWR outlines...

  14. A week of SRI 2003 in San Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Art

    2003-09-29

    The Eighth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation (SRI 2003) ended its August 25-28 run at the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts in San Francisco with almost as many in attendance as at the beginning. The steady attendance was surely a tribute to the quality of the program and the excitement it generated among the more than 700 registrants who gathered for four days of plenary talks, parallel sessions, and posters, as well as facility tours of the ALS and SSRL on August 29.

  15. A review of benthic faunal surveys in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Frederic H.

    1973-01-01

    During the past 60 years, considerable effort has been expended in studies of the relations of the biotic community and physicochemical characteristics of San Francisco Bay water. In very recent years these studies have emphasized the relations between the 'state of health' of bottom-living invertebrates (the benthos) and the levels of pollutants in the bay. Benthic organisms, generally sessile, are unable to escape deleterious environmental changes, and they reflect these changes in alterations of normal species composition of assemblages and species abundance. Data that expands understanding of these relations in urbanized areas such as San Francisco Bay are critical. Because of the implications of such data in control of water quality, the U.S. Geological Survey undertook a review of the results and major conclusions of San Francisco Bay benthic surveys. The size and species composition of faunal assemblages are largely controlled by the salinity of the water, the texture of the bottom sediments, and locally by wastes discharged into the bay. Efforts to describe the structure and function of benthic communities of the bay and to quantify the effects of waste discharge on them have been hampered by inconsistent and often faulty sampling methodology and species identification. Studies made show a lack of information on the normal life processes of the organisms concerned. The diversity index (a mathematical expression of the number of kinds of organisms present at a location), commonly used to describe the 'health' of the benthic community, has been employed without regard for the need for standardizing methodology and species identifications or for understanding natural biological processes that affect such mathematical indices. There are few reliable quantitative data on the distribution of benthic organisms in San Francisco Bay with which future assessments of the 'health' of the benthic community might be compared. Methods for study of the benthos must be

  16. Nutritional Assessment of Free Meal Programs in San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago-Ferguson, Soledad; Lopez, Andrea; Seligman, Hilary K.

    2013-01-01

    Free meals often serve as a primary food source for adults living in poverty, particularly the homeless. We conducted a nutritional analysis of 22 meals from 6 free meal sites in San Francisco to determine macronutrient and micronutrient content. Meals provided too little fiber and too much fat but appropriate levels of cholesterol. They were also below target for potassium, calcium, and vitamins A and E. These findings may inform development of nutritional content standards for free meals, particularly for vulnerable patients who might have, or be at risk of developing, a chronic illness. PMID:23721791

  17. Mercury-contaminated hydraulic mining debris in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouse, Robin M.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Smith, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    The hydraulic gold-mining process used during the California Gold Rush and in many developing countries today contributes enormous amounts of sediment to rivers and streams. Commonly, accompanying this sediment are contaminants such as elemental mercury and cyanide used in the gold extraction process. We show that some of the mercurycontaminated sediment created by hydraulic gold mining in the Sierra Nevada, between 1852 and 1884, ended up over 250 kilometers (km) away in San Francisco Bay; an example of the far-reaching extent of contamination from such activities.

  18. The Unimpressible Race. A Century of Educational Struggle by the Chinese in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Victor

    This book traces the history of the Chinese experience in America, particularly in the San Francisco area, from the California Gold Rush era of the 1850s to the construction of a new all-Chinese school in San Francisco's Chinatown district in the 1950s. The first five chapters of the book detail the withholding of school privileges from both…

  19. A Study of the San Andreas Slip Rate on the San Francisco Peninsula, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, L. M.; Prentice, C.; Grove, K.; Caskey, J.; Ritz, J. F.; Leslie, S.

    2008-12-01

    The most recent large earthquake on the San Andreas Fault (SAF) along the San Francisco Peninsula was the great San Francisco earthquake of April 18, 1906, when a Mw= 7.8 event ruptured 435-470 km of the northern SAF. The slip rate for this segment of the SAF is incompletely known but is important for clarifying seismic hazard in this highly urbanized region. A previous study south of our site has found an average slip rate of 17±4 mm/yr for the late Holocene on the San Francisco Peninsula segment of the SAF. North of the Golden Gate, the SAF joins the San Gregorio Fault with an estimated slip rate of 6 mm/yr. A trench study north of where the two faults join has produced an average late Holocene slip rate of 24±3 mm/yr. To refine slip-rate estimates for the peninsula segment of the SAF, we excavated a trench across the fault where we located an abandoned channel between the San Andreas and Lower Crystal Springs reservoirs. This abandoned channel marks the time when a new channel cut across the SAF; the new channel has since been offset in a right-lateral sense about 20 m. The measured amount of offset and the age of the youngest fluvial sediments in the abandoned channel will yield a slip rate for the San Francisco Peninsula segment of the SAF. We excavated a trench across the abandoned channel and logged the exposed sediments. Our investigation revealed channel-fill alluvium incised and filled by probable debris flow sediments, and a wide fault zone in bedrock, west of the channel deposits. The most prominent fault is probably the strand that moved in 1906. We completed a total-station survey to more precisely measure the offset stream, and to confirm that the fault exposed in the trench aligns with a fence that is known to have been offset 2.8m during the 1906 earthquake. We interpret the debris flow sediments to represent the last phase of deposition prior to abandonment of the old channel. We collected samples for radiocarbon dating, optically stimulated

  20. San Francisco Bay Area Fault Observations Displayed in Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, H.; Hernandez, M.; Nayak, P.; Zapata, I.; Schumaker, D.

    2006-12-01

    According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the San Francisco Bay Area has a 62% probability of experiencing a major earthquake in the next 30 years. The Hayward fault and the San Andreas fault are the two main faults in the Bay Area that are capable of producing earthquakes of magnitude 6.7 or larger - a size that could profoundly affect many of the 7 million people who live in the Bay Area. The Hayward fault has a 27% probability of producing a major earthquake in next 30 years, and the San Andreas fault has a 21% probability. Our research group, which is part of the SF-ROCKS high school outreach program, studied the Hayward and San Andreas faults. The goal of our project was to observe these faults at various locations, measure the effects of creep, and to present the data in Google Earth, a freeware tool for the public to easily view and interact with these and other seismic-hazard data. We examined the Hayward and San Andreas faults (as mapped by USGS scientists) in Google Earth to identify various sites where we could possibly find evidence of fault creep. We next visited these sites in the field where we mapped the location using a hand- held Global Positioning System, identified and photographed fault evidence, and measured offset features with a ruler or tape measure. Fault evidence included en echelon shears in pavement, warped buildings, and offset features such as sidewalks. Fault creep offset measurements range from 1.5 19 cm. We also identified possible evidence of fault creep along the San Andreas fault in South San Francisco where it had not been previously described. In Google Earth, we plotted our field sites, linked photographs showing evidence of faulting, and included detailed captions to explain the photographs. We will design a webpage containing the data in a Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file format for display in Google Earth. Any interested person needs only to download the free version of Google Earth software and visit our

  1. Giant sand waves at the mouth of San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, P.L.; Hanes, D.M.; Rubin, D.M.; Kvitek, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    A field of giant sand waves, among the largest in the world, recently was mapped in high resolution for the first time during a multibeam survey in 2004 and 2005 through the strait of the Golden Gate at the mouth of San Francisco Bay in California (Figure la). This massive bed form field covers an area of approximately four square kilometers in water depths ranging from 30 to 106 meters, featuring more than 40 distinct sand waves with crests aligned approximately perpendicular to the dominant tidally generated cross-shore currents, with wavelengths and heights that measure up to 220 meters and 10 meters, respectively. Sand wave crests can be traced continuously for up to two kilometers across the mouth of this energetic tidal inlet, where depth-averaged tidal currents through the strait below the Golden Gate Bridge exceed 2.5 meters per second during peak ebb flows. Repeated surveys demonstrated that the sand waves are active and dynamic features that move in response to tidally generated currents. The complex temporal and spatial variations in wave and tidal current interactions in this region result in an astoundingly diverse array of bed form morphologies, scales, and orientations. Bed forms of approximately half the scale of those reported in this article previously were mapped inside San Francisco Bay during a multibeam survey in 1997 [Chin et al., 1997].

  2. 75 FR 8106 - Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Alameda, Santa Clara... located in Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties of California. We provide this notice in... in Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties of California, consists of several non...

  3. An Introduction to the San Francisco Estuary Tidal Wetlands Restoration Series

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Larry R.

    2003-01-01

    Restoration of tidal wetlands may provide an important tool for improving ecological health and water management for beneficial uses of the San Francisco Estuary (hereafter “Estuary”). Given the large losses of tidal wetlands from San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in the last 150 years, it seems logical to assume that restoring tidal wetlands will have benefits for a variety of aquatic and terrestrial native species that have declined during the same time period. However,...

  4. Coastal Adaptation: The Case of Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, S.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal erosion, storms, sea-level rise, and tsunamis all lead to inundation that puts people and communities at risk. Adapting to these coastal hazards has gained increasing attention with climate change. Instead of promoting one particular strategy such as seawalls or defending against one type of hazard, scholars and practitioners encourage a combination of existing methods and strategies to promote synergistic effects. The recently published Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on climate extremes reflects this trend in the integration of disaster risk management and climate change adaptation. This paper focuses on the roles, compatibilities, and synergies of three coastal adaptation options - engineering, vegetation, and policy - in the case of Ocean Beach in San Francisco. Traditionally engineering approach and ecosystem conservation often have stood in opposition as hard shoreline structures destroy coastal habitats, worsen coastal erosion, divert ocean currents, and prevent the natural migration of shores. A natural migration of shores without structure translates into the abandonment of properties in the coastal zone, and is at odds with property rights and development. For example, policies of relocation, retreat, and insurance may not be popular given the concerns of infrastructure and coastal access. As such, engineering, natural defense, and policy can be more conflictual than complementary. Nonetheless, all these responses are used in combination in many locations. Complementarities and compatibilities, therefore, must be assessed when considering the necessity of engineering responses, natural defense capabilities, and policy options. In this light, the question is how to resolve the problem of mixed responses and short- and long-term interests and values, identify compatibilities, and generate synergies. In the case of Ocean Beach, recent erosions that endangered San Francisco's wastewater treatment system acted as major

  5. 2004 Fall Meeting Expands to San Francisco Marriott !

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Rob; Burch, Jim; Plescia, Jeff

    2004-10-01

    After only one year, the AGU Fall Meeting has grown beyond the capacity of Moscone West. Sessions at the upcoming Fall Metting (13-17 December) will be held in both the Moscone West faicility, site of last year's meeting and the San Francisco Marriott Hotel. The Marriott is a 5-minute walk across the street, a distance not farther than the walk from Moscone North to Moscone South, the facilities in which the meeting was held for several years prior to 2003. The Program Committe has tried to schedule sessions to minimize the inconvenience of the 5-minute walk between the two locations. Most Union sessions, including the Union tutorials and the Frontiers of Geophysics lecture, along with many other sessions, will be held at theMarriott. In addition, most Section and Focus groups social events and other activities will be held at the Marriott.

  6. La política en San Francisco Oxtotilpan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Korsbaek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente texto analiza el proceso político en San Francisco Oxtotilpan, una comunidad indígena en el Estado de México. Para tal caso, se presenta una breve descripción etnográfica de la comunidad, con los rasgos sociales y culturales más importantes seguida por el examen al sistema de cargos religiosos de esta comunidad y su relevancia para el proceso político de la misma, ya que una de las principales diferencias entre la política en el mundo indígena y el mundo mestizo es la intervención de una cosmología religiosa en el proceso político.

  7. Large scale simulations of the great 1906 San Francisco earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, S.; Petersson, A.; Rodgers, A.; Sjogreen, B.; McCandless, K.

    2006-12-01

    As part of a multi-institutional simulation effort, we present large scale computations of the ground motion during the great 1906 San Francisco earthquake using a new finite difference code called WPP. The material data base for northern California provided by USGS together with the rupture model by Song et al. is demonstrated to lead to a reasonable match with historical data. In our simulations, the computational domain covered 550 km by 250 km of northern California down to 40 km depth, so a 125 m grid size corresponds to about 2.2 Billion grid points. To accommodate these large grids, the simulations were run on 512-1024 processors on one of the supercomputers at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. A wavelet compression algorithm enabled storage of time-dependent volumetric data. Nevertheless, the first 45 seconds of the earthquake still generated 1.2 TByte of disk space and the 3-D post processing was done in parallel.

  8. Rocks and geology in the San Francisco Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2002-01-01

    The landscape of the San Francisco Bay region is host to a greater variety of rocks than most other regions in the United States. This introductory guide provides illustrated descriptions of 46 common and important varieties of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rock found in the region. Rock types are described in context of their identification qualities, how they form, and where they occur in the region. The guide also provides discussion about of regional geology, plate tectonics, the rock cycle, the significance of the selected rock types in relation to both earth history and the impact of mineral resources on the development in the region. Maps and text also provide information where rocks, fossils, and geologic features can be visited on public lands or in association with public displays in regional museums, park visitor centers, and other public facilities.

  9. Heroin overdose among young injection drug users in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Kristen C; Davidson, Peter J; Evans, Jennifer L; Hahn, Judith A; Page-Shafer, Kimberly; Moss, Andrew R

    2005-12-12

    We sought to identify prevalence and predictors of heroin-related overdose among young injection drug users (IDU). A total of 795 IDU under age of 30 years were interviewed in four neighbourhoods in San Francisco, California, USA. Participants were recruited as part of a broader study of HIV, hepatitis B and C among injecting drug users in San Francisco using street outreach and snowball techniques. Independent predictors of recent heroin overdose requiring intervention were determined using regression analysis. Of 795 injecting drug users under age of 30 years, 22% (174/795) of participants reported a heroin overdose in the last year. In stepwise multiple logistic regression, independent predictors of recent heroin overdose were lifetime incarceration exceeding 20 months (odds ratio (OR) = 2.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.52-5.88); heroin injection in the last 3 months (OR = 4.89, 95% CI = 2.03-11.74); cocaine injection in the last 3 months (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.14-2.45); injection of heroin mixed with methamphetamine in the last 3 months (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.15-2.65); ever tested for hepatitis B or C (OR = 1.66 per year, CI = 1.09-2.54) and ever having witnessed another person overdose (OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.76-4.73). Individuals with high levels of incarceration are at great risk of overdose, and prison or jail should be considered a primary intervention site. Further research on the role of cocaine and amphetamine in heroin-related overdose is indicated.

  10. San Francisco Bay ecotone vegetation restoration & management : 2009-10 grant report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a report on vegetation restoration and management at Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Restoring vegetation adjacent to the tidal...

  11. Annual Narrative Report : San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex : 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1984. The report begins with highlights from the...

  12. The Trail Inventory of Don Edwards San Francisco Bay NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this...

  13. [Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) executive summary was written to guide management on Don Edwards San Francisco National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15...

  14. Final Critical Habitat for the San Francisco Peaks groundsel (Senecio franciscanus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for San Francisco Peaks groundsel (Senecio franciscanus) occur based on the description...

  15. San Francisco Bay ecotone vegetation restoration & management : 2008-09 grant report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a report on vegetation restoration and management at Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Vegetation management is often straightforward:...

  16. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore of San Francisco Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The polygon shapefile is included in...

  17. 78 FR 40396 - Safety Zone; America's Cup Safety Zone and No Loitering Area, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... route of the San Francisco Bay Regulated Navigation Area, 33 CFR 165.1181, depicted on NOAA Chart 18650... Treasure Island, CA as depicted in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Chart 18650....

  18. Factors affecting reproductive success of the California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) in San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We assessed the reproductive success of the California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), an endangered species restricted to San Francisco Bay, and the...

  19. San Francisco Bay Area Baseline Trash Loading Summary Results for all counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Area stormwater permit sets trash control guidelines for discharges through the storm drain system. The permit covers Alameda, Contra Costa,...

  20. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1976. The report begins with a general...

  1. San Francisco Bay NWR Complex : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1978. The report begins with a general...

  2. Botulism protocols for the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan gives a basic description of what avian botulism is and the locations on the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge where botulism...

  3. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore of San Francisco Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The polygon shapefile is included in...

  4. Public use at Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains the public use sections of the 1997 Annual Narrative Report for Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Public use activities...

  5. Dioxin toxin equivalents, PCBs, and PBDEs in eggs of avian wildlife of San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — San Francisco Bay (Bay) is considered an impaired waterbody under section 303 (d) of the Clean Water Act due to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and 2, 3, 7,...

  6. Beneficial Uses of Dredged Material Case Study: San Francisco Bay Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major interagency, regional planning effort led to the development of the Long-Term Management Strategy and other planning programs in the San Francisco Bay area. These programs incorporate beneficial uses of dredged material into local projects.

  7. Breeding Season Study of the California Clapper Rail in San Francisco Bay, 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goals of this study were to further investigate the suitability of brackish marshes in south San Francisco Bay to support breeding rails and to examine how the...

  8. Summary of California Clapper Rail winter populations in the San Francisco National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Clapper rail (Rallus lonqirostris obsoletus) is a seldom seen resident in some of the remaining tidal salt marshes in San Francisco Bay. The...

  9. Narrative report: San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Fiscal year 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1975 fiscal year. Wildlife- including...

  10. San Francisco Estuary Midwinter Waterfowl Survey: 2012 Survey Results and Trend Analysis (1981-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides results of the 2012 San Francisco Estuary Midwinter Waterfowl Survey and presents an analysis of trends in waterfowl counts from 1981-2012. The...

  11. Public use at San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains the public use sections of the 1993 Annual Narrative Report for Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Public use activities...

  12. Public use at Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains the public use sections of the 1995 Annual Narrative Report for Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Public use activities...

  13. Public use at San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains the public use sections of the 1994 Annual Narrative Report for Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Public use activities...

  14. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Annual Narrative Report : 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1988. The report begins with highlights from the...

  15. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Annual Narrative Report : 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1982. The report begins with highlights from the...

  16. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Annual Narrative Report : 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1990. The report begins with highlights from the...

  17. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Annual Narrative Report : 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1986. The report begins with highlights from the...

  18. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Refuge Master Plan : 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Master Plan guides the longrange development of the Refuge by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats,...

  19. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - San Francisco Bay, Central Coast [ds159

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Stream Habitat - San Francisco Bay, Central and South Coasts [ds159] shapefile contains four years of in-stream salmonid habitat data at the reach level. The...

  20. Physical and chemical properties of San Francisco Bay waters, 1969-1976 (NODC Accession 8400194)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — One magnetic tape containing the physical and chemical properties of San Francisco Bay waters was forwarded to NODC by Mr. Richard Smith of the U.S Geological Survey...

  1. Final Critical Habitat for the San Francisco Peaks groundsel (Senecio franciscanus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for San Francisco Peaks groundsel (Senecio franciscanus) occur based on the description...

  2. Public use at Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains the public use sections of the 1996 Annual Narrative Report for Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Public use activities...

  3. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative 1991 : Public use sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains the public use sections of the 1991 Annual Narrative Report for Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Public use activities...

  4. Predicted liquefaction of East Bay fills during a repeat of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, T.L.; Blair, J.L.; Noce, T.E.; Bennett, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Predicted conditional probabilities of surface manifestations of liquefaction during a repeat of the 1906 San Francisco (M7.8) earthquake range from 0.54 to 0.79 in the area underlain by the sandy artificial fills along the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay near Oakland, California. Despite widespread liquefaction in 1906 of sandy fills in San Francisco, most of the East Bay fills were emplaced after 1906 without soil improvement to increase their liquefaction resistance. They have yet to be shaken strongly. Probabilities are based on the liquefaction potential index computed from 82 CPT soundings using median (50th percentile) estimates of PGA based on a ground-motion prediction equation. Shaking estimates consider both distance from the San Andreas Fault and local site conditions. The high probabilities indicate extensive and damaging liquefaction will occur in East Bay fills during the next M ??? 7.8 earthquake on the northern San Andreas Fault. ?? 2006, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  5. Wave attenuation in the shallows of San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Jessica R.; MacVean, Lissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Waves propagating over broad, gently-sloped shallows decrease in height due to frictional dissipation at the bed. We quantified wave-height evolution across 7 km of mudflat in San Pablo Bay (northern San Francisco Bay), an environment where tidal mixing prevents the formation of fluid mud. Wave height was measured along a cross shore transect (elevation range−2mto+0.45mMLLW) in winter 2011 and summer 2012. Wave height decreased more than 50% across the transect. The exponential decay coefficient λ was inversely related to depth squared (λ=6×10−4h−2). The physical roughness length scale kb, estimated from near-bed turbulence measurements, was 3.5×10−3 m in winter and 1.1×10−2 m in summer. Estimated wave friction factor fw determined from wave-height data suggests that bottom friction dominates dissipation at high Rew but not at low Rew. Predictions of near-shore wave height based on offshore wave height and a rough formulation for fw were quite accurate, with errors about half as great as those based on the smooth formulation for fw. Researchers often assume that the wave boundary layer is smooth for settings with fine-grained sediments. At this site, use of a smooth fw results in an underestimate of wave shear stress by a factor of 2 for typical waves and as much as 5 for more energetic waves. It also inadequately captures the effectiveness of the mudflats in protecting the shoreline through wave attenuation.

  6. San Francisco Biofuel Program: Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolis, Domènec [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Martis, Mary [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Jones, Bonnie [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Miot, Alex [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ving, Karri [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sierra, Natalie [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Niobi, Morayo [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional resource recovery centers. This view is a direct result of increasingly stringent regulations, concerns over energy use, carbon footprint, and worldwide depletion of fossil fuel resources. Resources in wastewater include chemical and thermal energy, as well as nutrients, and water. A waste stream such as residual grease, which concentrates in the drainage from restaurants (referred to as Trap Waste), is a good example of a resource with an energy content that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. If left in wastewater, grease accumulates inside of the wastewater collection system and can lead to increased corrosion and pipe blockages that can cause wastewater overflows. Also, grease in wastewater that arrives at the treatment facility can impair the operation of preliminary treatment equipment and is only partly removed in the primary treatment process. In addition, residual grease increases the demand in treatment materials such as oxygen in the secondary treatment process. When disposed of in landfills, grease is likely to undergo anaerobic decay prior to landfill capping, resulting in the atmospheric release of methane, a greenhouse gas (GHG). This research project was therefore conceptualized and implemented by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) to test the feasibility of energy recovery from Trap Waste in the form of Biodiesel or Methane gas.

  7. Indoor Air Quality Assessment of the San Francisco Federal Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael; Bennett, Deborah H.; Faulkner, David; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P; Trout, Amber L.

    2008-07-01

    An assessment of the indoor air quality (IAQ) of the San Francisco Federal Building (SFFB) was conducted on May 12 and 14, 2009 at the request of the General Services Administration (GSA). The purpose of the assessment was for a general screening of IAQ parameters typically indicative of well functioning building systems. One naturally ventilated space and one mechanically ventilated space were studied. In both zones, the levels of indoor air contaminants, including CO2, CO, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, and aldehydes, were low, relative to reference exposure levels and air quality standards for comparable office buildings. We found slightly elevated levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including two compounds often found in"green" cleaning products. In addition, we found two industrial solvents at levels higher than typically seen in office buildings, but the levels were not sufficient to be of a health concern. The ventilation rates in the two study spaces were high by any standard. Ventilation rates in the building should be further investigated and adjusted to be in line with the building design. Based on our measurements, we conclude that the IAQ is satisfactory in the zone we tested, but IAQ may need to be re-checked after the ventilation rates have been lowered.

  8. Bottom boundary layer in south San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.; Smith, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    Detailed velocity distributions within the benthic turbulent boundary layer were measured by a Broad Band Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (BB-ADCP) in South San Francisco Bay, California. In "mode 5", the BB-ADCP was able to measure velocity in 5 cm increments. The validation of these measurements was achieved by comparing the BB-ADCP measurements with the velocities measured by a Narrow Band Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (NB-ADCP) in close proximity. There were thirty-three (33) velocity time-series measured by the BB-ADCP beginning at 7 cm above bed and extending to 175 cm in water column for about two weeks. The velocities from locations at 7 cm and 12 cm above the bed were determined to be of lower accuracy, and they were not used in estimates of friction velocity, u.. The values of u. at 95% confidence level were determined with relative error less than 20%. The time-series of u. varied with velocity outside of the boundary layer, and responded to spring-neap tidal variations. Attempts to use acoustic backscatterance echo intensity to measure suspended sediment concentration showed prom ise, and merit consideration in future studies.

  9. Diversity of Denitrifying Bacteria in the San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atluri, A.; Lee, J.; Francis, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    We compared the diversity of communities of denitrifying bacteria from the San Francisco Bay to investigate whether environmental factors affect diversity. To do this, we studied the sequence diversity of the marker gene nirK. nirK codes for the enzyme nitrite reductase which helps reduce nitrite to nitric oxide, an important step in denitrification. Sediment samples were collected spatially from five different locations and temporally during the four different seasons along a salinity gradient in the bay. After collecting samples and extracting DNA from them, we used PCR to amplify our gene of interest, created clone libraries for sequencing, and compared phylogenetic trees from the different communities. Based on several phylogenetic analyses on our tree and environments, we saw that denitrifying bacteria from the North and Central Bay form distinct spatial clusters; Central Bay communities are very similar to each other, while communities from the North Bay are more distinct from each other and from communities in the Central Bay. Bacteria from site 8.1M (Carquinez Strait) showed the most cm-scale spatial diversity, and there was the most species richness during the winter. All this suggests that diversity of communities of denitrifying bacteria may be affected by spatial and temporal environmental factors.

  10. Microbial diversity and carbon cycling in San Francisco Bay wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theroux, Susanna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Hartman, Wyatt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; He, Shaomei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tringe, Susannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2014-03-21

    Wetland restoration efforts in San Francisco Bay aim to rebuild habitat for endangered species and provide an effective carbon storage solution, reversing land subsidence caused by a century of industrial and agricultural development. However, the benefits of carbon sequestration may be negated by increased methane production in newly constructed wetlands, making these wetlands net greenhouse gas (GHG) sources to the atmosphere. We investigated the effects of wetland restoration on below-ground microbial communities responsible for GHG cycling in a suite of historic and restored wetlands in SF Bay. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with real-time GHG monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of wetland soil microbial communities. The wetland soils harbor diverse communities of bacteria and archaea whose membership varies with sampling location, proximity to plant roots and sampling depth. Our results also highlight the dramatic differences in GHG production between historic and restored wetlands and allow us to link microbial community composition and GHG cycling with key environmental variables including salinity, soil carbon and plant species.

  11. Association between Diabetes Mellitus and Tuberculosis in United States-Born and Foreign-Born Populations in San Francisco

    OpenAIRE

    Gompol Suwanpimolkul; Grinsdale, Jennifer A.; Jarlsberg, Leah G.; Julie Higashi; Osmond, Dennis H.; Hopewell, Philip C; Midori Kato-Maeda

    2014-01-01

    Setting The impact of diabetes on tuberculosis in United States and foreign-born populations in San Francisco has not been studied. Objective To determine the characteristics, prevalence and temporal trends of diabetes in US and foreign-born persons attending the San Francisco Tuberculosis Clinic. Design We analyzed data from individuals seeking medical attention at the San Francisco Tuberculosis Clinic. We included patients with diagnosis of tuberculosis, latent infection, or not infected wi...

  12. 77 FR 60897 - Safety Zone: America's Cup World Series Finish-Line, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: America's Cup World Series Finish-Line, San... race finishes that will occur in vicinity of San Francisco West Yacht Harbor Light 2. Unauthorized... to finish the races in the subject location on September 18, 2012, and the event would occur before...

  13. 75 FR 67618 - Safety Zone: Richardson Ash Scattering by Fireworks, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Sausalito Ferry docks in Sausalito, CA. From 6:15 p.m. until 7 p.m., the area to which the temporary safety... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Richardson Ash Scattering by Fireworks, San... establishing a temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of San Francisco Bay 1,500 feet off Yellow Bluff...

  14. Handbook of Techniques and Guides for the Study of the San Francisco Bay-Delta-Estuary Complex, Part 6. Key to the Common Fishes of San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Bob

    Project MER (Marine Ecology Research) is aimed at improving environmental education in the San Francisco Bay Area schools. As part of meeting this goal, it is hoped that students and teachers can see the results of their efforts being put to practical use. This guide is the sixth of a series produced to help students and teachers gather data…

  15. Crustal structure of the coastal and marine San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom

    2002-01-01

    As of the time of this writing, the San Francisco Bay region is home to about 6.8 million people, ranking fifth among population centers in the United States. Most of these people live on the coastal lands along San Francisco Bay, the Sacramento River delta, and the Pacific coast. The region straddles the tectonic boundary between the Pacific and North American Plates and is crossed by several strands of the San Andreas Fault system. These faults, which are stressed by about 4 cm of relative plate motion each year, pose an obvious seismic hazard.

  16. Spring climate and salinity in the San Francisco Bay Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Peterson, David H.

    1993-01-01

    Salinity in the San Francisco Bay Estuary almost always experiences its yearly maximum during late summer, but climate variability produces marked interannual variations. The atmospheric circulation pattern impacts the estuary primarily through variations of runoff from rainfall and snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada and, secondarily, through variations in the near-surface salinity in the coastal ocean. While winter precipitation is the primary influence upon salinity in the estuary, spring climate variations also contribute importantly to salinity fluctuations. Spring atmospheric circulation influences both the magnitude and the timing of freshwater flows, through anomalies of precipitation and temperature. To help discriminate between the effects of these two influences, the record is divided into subsets according to whether spring conditions in the region are cool and wet, warm and wet, cool and dry, or warm and dry. Warm springs promote early snowmelt-driven flows, and cool springs result in delayed flows. In addition to effects of winter and spring climate variability operating on the watershed, there are more subtle effects that are transmitted into the estuary from the coastal ocean. These influences are most pronounced in cool and dry springs with high surface salinity (SS) in the coastal ocean versus cool and wet springs with low SS in the coastal ocean. A transect of SS records at stations from the mouth to the head of the bay suggests that the coastal ocean anomaly signal is attenuated from the mouth to the interior of the estuary. In contrast, a delayed, postsummer signal caused by winter and spring runoff variations from the upstream watershed are most pronounced at the head of the estuary and attenuate toward the mouth.

  17. A summary of the San Francisco tidal wetlands restoration series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry R. Brown

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The four topical articles of the Tidal Wetlands Restoration Series summarized and synthesized much of what is known about tidal wetlands and tidal wetland restoration in the San Francisco Estuary (hereafter “Estuary”. Despite a substantial amount of available information, major uncertainties remain. A major uncertainty with regard to fishes is the net benefit of restored tidal wetlands relative to other habitats for native fishes in different regions of the Estuary given the presence of numerous invasive alien species. With regard to organic carbon, a major uncertainty is the net benefit of land use change given uncertainty about the quantity and quality of different forms of organic carbon resulting from different land uses. A major challenge is determining the flux of organic carbon from open systems like tidal wetlands. Converting present land uses to tidal wetlands will almost certainly result in increased methylation of mercury at the local scale with associated accumulation of mercury within local food webs. However, it is unclear if such local accumulation is of concern for fish, wildlife or humans at the local scale or if cumulative effects at the regional scale will emerge. Based on available information it is expected that restored tidal wetlands will remain stable once constructed; however, there is uncertainty associated with the available data regarding the balance of sediment accretion, sea-level rise, and sediment erosion. There is also uncertainty regarding the cumulative effect of many tidal restoration projects on sediment supply. The conclusions of the articles highlight the need to adopt a regional and multidisciplinary approach to tidal wetland restoration in the Estuary. The Science Program of the CALFED effort provides an appropriate venue for addressing these issues.

  18. Discovery Along the San Andreas Fault: Relocating Photographs From the 1906 Earthquake in San Francisco and San Mateo Counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, K.; Prentice, C.; Polly, J.; Yuen, C.; Wu, K.; Zhong, S.; Lopez, J.

    2005-12-01

    April of 2006 will mark the 100-year anniversary of the great 1906 San Francisco earthquake. This earthquake was important not only because of its human tragedy (thousands of dead or homeless people), but also because of its scientific significance. The 8.3 magnitude earthquake ruptured 430 km of the northern San Andreas fault (SAF) and lasted nearly one minute. Investigations after the earthquake led to discoveries that were the beginning of modern earthquake theories and measuring instruments. This was also one of the first large-scale natural disasters to be photographed. Our research group, which is part of the National Science Foundation funded SF-ROCKS program, acquired photographs that were taken shortly after the earthquake in downtown San Francisco and along the SAF in San Mateo County. The SAF photos are part of a Geographical Information System (GIS) database being published on a U.S. Geological Survey web site. The goal of our project was to improve estimates of photograph locations and to compare the landscape features that were visible after the earthquake with the landscape that we see today. We used the GIS database to find initial photo locations, and we then used a high-precision Global Positioning System (GPS) to measure the geographic coordinates of the locations once we matched our view to what we saw in a photo. Where possible, we used a digital camera to retake photos from the same position, to show the difference in the landscape 100 years later. The 1906 photos show fault zone features such as ground rupture, sag ponds, shutter ridges, and offset fences. Changes to the landscape since 1906 have included erosion and grading of the land, building of houses and other structures, and more tree cover compared to previous grassland vegetation. Our project is part of 1906 Earthquake Centennial activities; it is contributing to the photo archive that helps scientists and engineers who study earthquakes and their effects. It will also help the

  19. Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Use in Homeless Youth: A Preliminary Comparison of San Francisco and Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernika G. Quimby

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Youth homelessness is a growing problem in the United States. The experience of homelessness appears to have numerous adverse consequences, including psychiatric and substance use disorders. This study compared the frequencies of psychiatric disorders, including substance use, between homeless youth (18–24 years-old in San Francisco (N = 31 and Chicago (N = 56. Subjects were administered the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I. to assess DSM-IV-TR diagnoses and substance use disorders. Eighty-seven percent of the San Francisco youth, and 81% of the Chicago youth met criteria for at least one M.I.N.I. psychiatric diagnosis. Nearly two-thirds of the youth in both samples met criteria for a mood disorder. Approximately one-third met criteria for an anxiety disorder. Thirty-two percent of the San Francisco sample and 18% of the Chicago met criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder. Approximately 84% of the San Francisco youth and 48% of the Chicago youth met criteria for a substance-related disorder, and more substances were used by San Francisco youth. In conclusion, the high rate of psychiatric disorders in homeless youth provides clear evidence that the mental health needs of this population are significant. Implications are discussed.

  20. Long-period building response to earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, A.H.; Aagaard, B.T.; Heaton, T.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study of modeled, long-period building responses to ground-motion simulations of earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area. The earthquakes include the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake, a magnitude 7.8 simulation of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, and two hypothetical magnitude 7.8 northern San Andreas fault earthquakes with hypocenters north and south of San Francisco. We use the simulated ground motions to excite nonlinear models of 20-story, steel, welded moment-resisting frame (MRF) buildings. We consider MRF buildings designed with two different strengths and modeled with either ductile or brittle welds. Using peak interstory drift ratio (IDR) as a performance measure, the stiffer, higher strength building models outperform the equivalent more flexible, lower strength designs. The hypothetical magnitude 7.8 earthquake with hypocenter north of San Francisco produces the most severe ground motions. In this simulation, the responses of the more flexible, lower strength building model with brittle welds exceed an IDR of 2.5% (that is, threaten life safety) on 54% of the urban area, compared to 4.6% of the urban area for the stiffer, higher strength building with ductile welds. We also use the simulated ground motions to predict the maximum isolator displacement of base-isolated buildings with linear, single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) models. For two existing 3-sec isolator systems near San Francisco, the design maximum displacement is 0.5 m, and our simulations predict isolator displacements for this type of system in excess of 0.5 m in many urban areas. This article demonstrates that a large, 1906-like earthquake could cause significant damage to long-period buildings in the San Francisco Bay Area.

  1. Increasing Hydrogen Ion Activity of Water in Two Reservoirs Supplying the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, J. G.

    1981-10-01

    The hydrogen ion activity (H+) of water in two Sierra Nevada reservoirs (Pardee and Hetch Hetchy) that supply the San Francisco Bay area has been increasing with time over the period 1954-1979. This conclusion is based on weekly measurements ofpH at the two reservoirs and is supported by measurements of alkalinity which decreased at Pardee over the period 1944-1979. Based on linear models, the rate of the increasing (H+) was the same at both reservoirs, and (H+) varied concomitantly from year to year, suggesting a common, general cause. Mean monthly variation in (H+) corresponded to mean monthly variation in atmospheric pollution from a nine-county area around San Francisco Bay. The most likely cause of the increasing (H+) of reservoir waters is NOx from automobile exhausts primarily from the San Francisco Bay area.

  2. 75 FR 81854 - Safety Zone; New Year's Celebration for the City of San Francisco, Fireworks Display, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    .... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in support of the New Year's Eve... Year's Eve Celebration for the City of San Francisco Fireworks Display from 11:45 p.m. on December 31... Standards The National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act (NTTAA) (15 U.S.C. 272 note) directs...

  3. Homeless Gay and Transgender Youth of Color in San Francisco: "No One Likes Street Kids"--Even in the Castro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Jen

    2009-01-01

    This study, focused on five transgender and gay youth of color from San Francisco, explored how family problems, poverty, homophobia, and transphobia propelled them into homelessness and made gay-friendly spaces and resources especially meaningful to them. These young people describe seeking support in San Francisco's well-known gay enclave, the…

  4. 77 FR 59749 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; San Francisco Bay Navy Fleet Week Parade of Ships...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Fleet Week Parade of Ships and Blue Angels Demonstration, San Francisco Bay, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... sponsored Fleet Week Parade of Navy Ships, Blue Angels Flight Demonstrations, Ship Tours, and America's Cup... special local regulation for the annual San Francisco Bay Navy Fleet Week Parade of Ships and Blue...

  5. USGS measurements of water quality in San Francisco Bay (CA), 1969-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Schraga, Tara

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey maintains a program of water-quality studies in San Francisco Bay (CA) that began in 1969. This Data Release makes available all measurements made from 1969 through 2015. Water-quality constituents include salinity, temperature, light attenuation coefficient, and concentrations of chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, suspended particulate matter, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, silicate and phosphate. Water samples are collected at 37 fixed sampling locations along a 145-km transect from lower South San Francisco Bayo to the lower Sacramento River. A map of sampling locations is available on the project website at: https://sfbay.wr.usgs.gov/access/wqdata/overview/wherewhen/stnmap.html.

  6. Health, Traffic, and Environmental Justice: Collaborative Research and Community Action in San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammas, Charlie; Seto, Edmund; Bhatia, Rajiv; Rivard, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Health impacts on neighborhood residents from transportation systems can be an environmental justice issue. To assess the effects of transportation planning decisions, including the construction of an intraurban freeway, on residents of the Excelsior neighborhood in southeast San Francisco, PODER (People Organizing to Demand Environmental and Economic Rights), a local grassroots environmental justice organization; the San Francisco Department of Public Health; and the University of California, Berkeley, collaborated on participatory research. We used our findings regarding traffic-related exposures and health hazards in the area to facilitate community education and action to address transportation-related health burdens on neighborhood residents. PMID:19890147

  7. The San Andreas fault in the San Francisco Bay region, California: Structure and kinematics of a Young plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachens, R.C.; Zoback, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    Recently acquired high-resolution aeromagnetic data delineate offset and/or truncated magnetic rock bodies of the Franciscan Complex that define the location and structure of, and total offset across, the San Andreas fault in the San Francisco Bay region. Two distinctive magnetic anomalies caused by ultramafic rocks and metabasalts east of, and truncated at, the San Andreas fault have clear counterparts west of the fault that indicate a total right-lateral offset of only 22 km on the Peninsula segment, the active strand that ruptured in 1906. The location of the Peninsula segment is well defined magnetically on the northern peninsula where it goes offshore, and can be traced along strike an additional ~6 km to the northwest. Just offshore from Lake Merced, the inferred fault trace steps right (northeast) 3 km onto a nearly parallel strand that can be traced magnetically northwest more than 20 km as the linear northeast edge of a magnetic block bounded by the San Andreas fault, the Pilarcitos fault, and the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault zone. This right-stepping strand, the Golden Gate segment, joins the eastern mapped trace of the San Andreas fault at Bolinas Lagoon and projects back onshore to the southeast near Lake Merced. Inversion of detailed gravity data on the San Francisco Peninsula reveals a 3 km wide basin situated between the two strands of the San Andreas fault, floored by Franciscan basement and filled with Plio-Quaternary sedimentary deposits of the Merced and Colma formations. The basin, ~1 km deep at the coast, narrows and becomes thinner to the southeast along the fault over a distance of ~12 km. The length, width, and location of the basin between the two strands are consistent with a pull-apart basin formed behind the right step in the right-lateral strike-slip San Andreas fault system and currently moving southeast with the North American plate. Slight nonparallelism of the two strands bounding the basin (implying a small component of convergence

  8. Ancient blue oaks reveal human impact on San Francisco Bay salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahle, David W.; Therrell, Matthew D.; Cleaveland, Malcolm K.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Knowles, Noah

    2001-01-01

    San Francisco Bay is one of the most important estuaries on the west coast of the Americas. Its water quality is controlled primarily by streamflow from the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. In fact, freshwater inflow from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta explains 86% of the salinity variability at the mouth of the San Francisco Bay estuary [Peterson et al., 1989]. The massive diversion of streamflow by the California State Water Project and the Central Valley Project, part of the largest manmade water control system on Earth [Reisner, 1988], has raised salinity in the estuary on daily, seasonal, and annual timescales [Nichols et al., 1986; Peterson et al., 1989].

  9. Probabilistic estimation of numbers and costs of future landslides in the San Francisco Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.; Coe, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    We used historical records of damaging landslides triggered by rainstorms and a newly developed Probabilistic Landslide Assessment Cost Estimation System (PLACES) to estimate the numbers and direct costs of future landslides in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region. Historical records of damaging landslides in the region are incomplete. Therefore, our estimates of numbers and costs of future landslides are minimal estimates. The estimated mean annual number of future damaging landslides for the entire 10-county region is about 65. Santa Cruz County has the highest estimated mean annual number of damaging future landslides (about 18), whereas Napa, San Francisco, and Solano Counties have the lowest estimated mean numbers of damaging landslides (about 1 each). The estimated mean annual cost of future landslides in the entire region is about US $14.80 million (year 2000 $). The estimated mean annual cost is highest for San Mateo County ($3.24 million) and lowest for Solano County ($0.18 million). The annual per capita cost for the entire region will be about $2.10. Santa Cruz County will have the highest annual per capita cost at $8.45, whereas San Francisco County will have the lowest per capita cost at $0.31. Normalising costs by dividing by the percentage of land area with slopes equal to or greater than 17% indicates that San Francisco County will have the highest cost per square km ($7,101), whereas Santa Clara County will have the lowest cost per square km ($229). These results indicate that the San Francisco Bay region has one of the highest levels of landslide risk in the United States. Compared with landslide cost estimates from the rest of the world, the risk level in the Bay region seems high, but not exceptionally high.

  10. Gay identity-related factors and sexual risk among men who have sex with men in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Stephen A; Mansergh, Gordon; Marks, Gary; Guzman, Robert; Colfax, Grant

    2009-04-01

    This study explored the relationship between gay identity-related factors (gay community involvement, gay bar attendance, gay identity importance, and self-homophobia) and unprotected anal sex (UA) in the past 3 months among men who have sex with men (MSM) of three different race/ethnicity groups. Four hundred eighty-three MSM (mean age 34) were recruited in the San Francisco Bay Area (33% African American, 34% Latino and 33% White). Compared with White MSM, African American and Latino MSM were less likely to identify as gay, and to attend gay bars/clubs, and more likely to report self-homophobia. Just over one third of the sample reported UA (did not vary by race). Gay community involvement was associated with receptive UA with all partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR = 1.30, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.06-1.60). Gay bar attendance was associated with insertive UA with all partners (AOR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.01-1.43) and with HIV-discordant partners (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.08-1.69). Implications for prevention include addressing community norms and encouraging alternatives to bars as settings in which to meet and socialize with other MSM.

  11. The Performance of Nearshore Dredge Disposal at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, 2005-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    Ocean Beach, California, contains an erosion hot spot in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location a new plan for the management of sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of San Francisco Bay was implemented in May 2005 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District (USACE). The USACE designated a temporary nearshore dredge disposal site for the annual disposal of about 230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of sand about 750 m offshore and slightly south of the erosion hot spot, in depths between approximately 9 and 14 m. The site has now been used three times for a total sediment disposal of about 690,000 m3 (about 900,000 yds3). The disposal site was chosen because it is in a location where strong tidal currents and open-ocean waves can potentially feed sediment toward the littoral zone in the reach of the beach that is experiencing critical erosion, as well as prevent further scour on an exposed outfall pipe. The onshore migration of sediment from the target disposal location might feed the primary longshore bar or the nearshore zone, and provide a buffer to erosion that peaks during winter months when large waves impact the region. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has been monitoring and modeling the bathymetric evolution of the test dredge disposal site and the adjacent coastal region since inception in May 2005. This paper reports on the first 2.5 years of this monitoring program effort (May 2005 to December 2007) and assesses the short-term coastal response. Here are the key findings of this report: *Approximately half of the sediment that has been placed in the nearshore dredge-disposal site during the 2.5 years of this study remains within the dredge focus area. *In the winter of 2006-7, large waves transported the dredge-mound material onshore. *High

  12. Kokes Awards for the 21st NAM Meeting (San Francisco, CA, 2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Alex [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-08-31

    The PI in this project Alexander Katz, UC Berkeley (askatz@berkeley.edu), in conjunction with the Kokes Awards subcommittee and conference organizing committee, used DOE grant DE-FG-02-08ER15993 to partially offset costs of attending the 21st North American Catalysis Society in San Francisco, California, for 30 graduate students from the United States.

  13. The Science-Humanities Program (NEXA) at San Francisco State University: The 'Two Cultures' Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Michael S.

    1980-01-01

    The origin of the NEXA Program at San Francisco State University is described. A historical summary is offered of the 'two-cultures' dilemma, whose origins are traced to the seventeenth century and whose consequences for the nineteenth and twentieth century experience are examined. (Author/MLW)

  14. The Varieties of Religious Experience: Baptized Indians at Mission San Francisco de Asis, 1776-1821

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Quincy D.

    2008-01-01

    Paseos, which are defined as trips away from the mission authorized by the Franciscan priests, were common among Indians baptized at Mission San Francisco during the period between 1700s to 1800s. Indians went on these journeys in order to harvest acorns and other wild foods, to hunt and fish, and to visit friends and family outside the mission.…

  15. CONSTANCY OF THE RELATION BETWEEN FLOC SIZE AND DENSITY IN SAN FRANCISCO BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, N.K., D.H. Schoellhamer, M.C. Murrell, J.W. Gartner and S.A. Wright. In press. Constancy of the Relation Between Floc Size and Density in San Francisco Bay. In: INTERCOH 2003: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Nearshore and Estuarine Cohesive Sediment Tran...

  16. Discriminatory Employment of Asian Americans; Private Industry in the San Francisco-Oakland SMSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Amado Y.; Yee, Harold T.

    The study reported on in this document investigates discriminatory employment victimizing Asian Americans in the private sector in the San Francisco, California, Bay Area. The analytical framework utilized is described in detail. Findings are presented in both statistical and discussion form, and are broken down by industry. Disparities in…

  17. Project EXCEL: San Francisco Hilton and Towers, Stewarding Department. English Communication, Module 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Career Resources Development Center, Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    Project EXCEL is a federally-funded workplace literacy program involving hotel enterprises in the San Francisco (California) Bay area. Its focus is on identification and instruction of literacy skills essential to job success for limited-English-proficient (LEP) workers. Training is intended to enable employees to understand written work orders,…

  18. Travel and Tourism Industry: Program Options for City College of San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    City Coll. of San Francisco, CA.

    In an effort to determine the current occupational outlook and resulting implications for education and training, the City College of San Francisco (CCSF), in California, undertook a study of current trends in the travel and tourism industry. This report provides findings from the project, which involved consultation with local and national…

  19. United Airlines Launches New Daily Beijing-San Francisco Non-Stop Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ United Airlines, the leading carrier between the U.S. and China, announced today that its new Beijing to San Francisco non-stop flight took off from Beijing at 12:00 p.m. helping to open a new air service route between two of the world's greatest cities.

  20. SF Bayweb 2009: Planting the Seeds of an Observing System in the San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    UC Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720 Toby Garfield SFSU Romberg Tiburon Center Tiburon, CA 94920 John Largier UC Davis / Bodega Marine Laboratory... Bodega Bay, Ca 94923 Abstract - A pilot project was recently completed in the San Francisco Bay from May 1-10, 2009, to test the use of advanced

  1. EPA Administrator and San Francisco Bay Area government agencies celebrate nations largest solar energy partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today, U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy joined Bay Area agencies to celebrate the Regional Renewable Energy Procurement Project (R-REP), the nation's largest solar energy government collaboration and the launch of the Federal Agg

  2. 75 FR 19882 - Safety Zone; Benchmark Destination Corporate Party, Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Benchmark Destination Corporate Party... support of the Benchmark Destination Corporate Party Fireworks Display. This safety zone is being... City of San Francisco will sponsor the Benchmark Destinations Corporate Party Fireworks Display on...

  3. CAREER TRAINING IN HOTEL AND RESTAURANT OPERATION...AT CITY COLLEGE OF SAN FRANCISCO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BATMALE, LOUIS F.; MULLANY, GEORGE G.

    THE HOTEL AND RESTAURANT PROGRAM, ONE OF 35 SEMIPROFESSIONAL TRAINING PROGRAMS AT CITY COLLEGE OF SAN FRANCISCO, COMBINES GENERAL EDUCATION, RELATED BUSINESS INSTRUCTION, HOTEL AND RESTAURANT CLASSES, FOOD PREPARATION AND SERVICE TRAINING, AND WORK EXPERIENCE. THIS DESCRIPTION OF THE PROGRAM INCLUDES (1) PURPOSES AND OBJECTIVES, (2) CURRICULUM,…

  4. Working Together To Build Beacon Centers in San Francisco: Evaluation Findings from 1998-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen E.; Arbreton, Amy J. A.

    The Beacons Initiative aimed to transform eight public schools (five middle schools and three high schools) into youth and family centers in low-income neighborhoods in San Francisco, California. Using a coalition of local partners and funding from public agencies and foundations, the centers served 7,500 youth and adults between July 1, 1999, and…

  5. The Quality Teacher and Education Act in San Francisco: Lessons Learned. Policy Brief 09-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Heather J.

    2009-01-01

    This policy brief reviews the recent experience of the San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD) with the development and approval of Proposition A. Proposition A (also known as the Quality Teacher and Education Act, or QTEA) included a parcel tax mainly dedicated to increasing teachers' salaries, along with a variety of measures introducing…

  6. Time scales of change in the San Francisco Bay benthos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, F.H.; Thompson, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Results from multi-year investigations in the San Francisco Bay estuary show that large abundance fluctuations within benthic macroinvertebrate populations reflect both (1) within-year periodicity of reproduction, recruitment, and mortality that is not necessarily coincident with seasonal changes of the environment (e.g., the annual temperature cycle), and (2) aperiodic density changes (often larger than within-year fluctuations) following random perturbations of the environment. Density peaks of the small, short-lived estuarine invertebrates that comprise the vast majority of individuals in the bay's relatively homogeneous benthic community normally occur between spring and autumn depending on the species, in large part a reflection of reproductive periodicity. However, because mild winters permit reproductive activity in some of the common species throughout much of the year, other factors are important to within-year density fluctuations in the community. Seasonally predictable changes in freshwater inflow, wind and tidal mixing, microalgal biomass, and sediment erosion/deposition patterns all contribute to observed seasonal changes in abundance. For example, the commonly observed decline in abundance during winter reflects both short-lived species that die after reproducing and the stress of winter conditions (e.g., inundation by less saline, sediment-laden water and the decline in both planktonic and benthic algal biomass - a direct source of food for the shallow-water benthos). On the other hand, data from several studies suggest that observed 'recruitment' and 'mortality' may in fact be the migration of juveniles and adults to and from study sites. For example, the common amphipod Ampelisca abdita apparently moves from shallow to deep water, or from up-estuary to down-estuary locations, coincident with periods of high river runoff in winter. Growth of individuals within the few studied species populations is also highly seasonal, and appears to be coincident

  7. Sediment Deposition, Erosion, and Bathymetric Change in Central San Francisco Bay: 1855-1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregoso, Theresa A.; Foxgrover, Amy C.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2008-01-01

    Central San Francisco Bay is the hub of a dynamic estuarine system connecting the San Joaquin and Sacramento River Deltas, Suisun Bay, and San Pablo Bay to the Pacific Ocean and South San Francisco Bay. To understand the role that Central San Francisco Bay plays in sediment transport throughout the system, it is necessary to first determine historical changes in patterns of sediment deposition and erosion from both natural and anthropogenic forces. The first extensive hydrographic survey of Central San Francisco Bay was conducted in 1853 by the National Ocean Service (NOS) (formerly the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey (USCGS)). From 1894 to 1979, four additional surveys, composed of a total of approximately 700,000 bathymetric soundings, were collected within Central San Francisco Bay. Converting these soundings into accurate bathymetric models involved many steps. The soundings were either hand digitized directly from the original USCGS and NOS hydrographic sheets (H-sheets) or obtained digitally from the National Geophysical Data Center's (NGDC) Geophysical Data System (GEODAS) (National Geophysical Data Center, 1996). Soundings were supplemented with contours that were either taken directly from the H-sheets or added in by hand. Shorelines and marsh areas were obtained from topographic sheets. The digitized soundings, depth contours, shorelines, and marsh areas were entered into a geographic information system (GIS) and georeferenced to a common horizontal datum. Using surface modeling software, bathymetric grids with a horizontal resolution of 25 m were developed for each of the five hydrographic surveys. Before analyses of sediment deposition and erosion were conducted, interpolation bias was removed and all of the grids were converted to a common vertical datum. These bathymetric grids were then used to develop bathymetric change maps for subsequent survey periods and to determine long-term changes in deposition and erosion by calculating volumes and

  8. The San Andreas Fault in the San Francisco Bay area, California: a geology fieldtrip guidebook to selected stops on public lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2005-01-01

    This guidebook contains a series of geology fieldtrips with selected destinations along the San Andreas Fault in part of the region that experienced surface rupture during the Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906. Introductory materials present general information about the San Andreas Fault System, landscape features, and ecological factors associated with faults in the South Bay, Santa Cruz Mountains, the San Francisco Peninsula, and the Point Reyes National Seashore regions. Trip stops include roadside areas and recommended hikes along regional faults and to nearby geologic and landscape features that provide opportunities to make casual observations about the geologic history and landscape evolution. Destinations include the sites along the San Andreas and Calaveras faults in the San Juan Bautista and Hollister region. Stops on public land along the San Andreas Fault in the Santa Cruz Mountains in Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties include in the Loma Prieta summit area, Forest of Nicene Marks State Park, Lexington County Park, Sanborn County Park, Castle Rock State Park, and the Mid Peninsula Open Space Preserve. Destinations on the San Francisco Peninsula and along the coast in San Mateo County include the Crystal Springs Reservoir area, Mussel Rock Park, and parts of Golden Gate National Recreation Area, with additional stops associated with the San Gregorio Fault system at Montara State Beach, the James F. Fitzgerald Preserve, and at Half Moon Bay. Field trip destinations in the Point Reyes National Seashore and vicinity provide information about geology and character of the San Andreas Fault system north of San Francisco.

  9. A survey of molecular marker compounds in sediments of San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostettler, Frances D.; Rapp, John B.; Geological Survey (U.S.) Pereira, Wilfred E.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.

    1994-01-01

    An areal survey of surficial sediments in San Francisco Bay has been conducted to evaluate the presence of extractable organic compounds. Molecular marker compounds studied include hydrocarbons (PAH's), chlorinated pesticides, and other organic compounds that provide information on sources of organic input into the Bay. Fairly uniform source profiles are seen throughout the Bay. Biomarker profiles contain mature constituents indicating anthropogenic influences and extensive sediment reworking. The dominant input signatures in San Francisco Bay sediment are those of anthropogenic PAH's from combustion and other sources, and long chain n-alkanes and n-aldehydes from terrigenous vascular plants. A comparison of the sums of the combustion PAH's and the terrigenous n-alkanes shows that an anthropogenic influence is dominant in the most urban parts of the Bay close to shore, and in mid-Bay channel areas, and a terrigenous signature is dominant nearshore in San Pablo Bay and at the southernmost station in South Bay.

  10. The ecology of the soft-bottom benthos of San Francisco Bay: a community profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Frederic H.; Pamatmat, Mario M.

    1988-01-01

    This profile, part of a series of profiles concerning coastal habitats of the United States, is a detailed examination of the soft-bottom benthos of San Francisco Bay. A U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and California Department of Fish and Game report (1979) entitled "Protection and Restoration of San Francisco Bay Fish and Wildlife Habitat" provides clear recognition of the importance of intertidal and subtidal soft-bottom habitats and their associated organisms to the bay's birds and fishes and to the overall functioning of the estuary. The purpose of this profile is to provide a description of the structure and functioning of the benthic community in San Francisco Bay (exclusive of its tidal marshes, which are discussed by M. Josselyn [1983] in another profile). The habitats covered in this volume include all nonvegetated soft-bottom intertidal and subtidal areas of the bay between the Golden Gate and the mouths of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers to the northeast, and to the southern extremity of the bay.

  11. Broadband Ground Motion Estimates for Scenario Earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, R. W.

    2006-12-01

    Using broadband (0-10 Hz) simulation procedures, we are assessing the ground motions that could be generated by different earthquake scenarios occurring on major strike-slip faults of the San Francisco Bay region. These simulations explicitly account for several important ground motion features, including rupture directivity, 3D basin response, and the depletion of high frequency ground motions that occurs for surface rupturing events. This work compliments ongoing USGS efforts to quantify the ground shaking hazards throughout the San Francisco Bay region. These efforts involve development and testing of a 3D velocity model for northern California (USGS Bay Area Velocity Model, version 05.1.0) using observations from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, characterization of 1906 rupture scenarios and ground motions, and the development and analysis of rupture scenarios on other Bay Area faults. The adequacy of the simulation model has been tested using ground motion data recorded during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake and by comparison with the reported intensity data from the 1906 earthquake. Comparisons of the simulated broadband (0-10 Hz) ground motions with the recorded motions for the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake demonstrate that the modeling procedure matches the observations without significant bias over a broad range of frequencies, site types, and propagation distances. The Loma Prieta rupture model is based on a wavenumber-squared refinement of the Wald et al (1991) slip distribution, with the rupture velocity set at 75 percent of the local shear wave velocity and a Kostrov-type slip function having a rise time of about 1.4 sec. Simulations of 1906 scenario ruptures indicate very strong directivity effects to the north and south of the assumed epicenter, adjacent to San Francisco. We are currently analyzing additional earthquake scenarios on the Hayward-Rodgers Creek and San Andreas faults in order to provide a more comprehensive framework for assessing

  12. Effects of waterborne lipophilic contaminants in striped bass using extracts from semi permeable membrane devices in the San Francisco estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The decline of pelagic organisms in the San Francisco Estuary (SFE) has been attributed to several factors including water diversions, invasive species and exposure...

  13. Upland habitat weed management plan for the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Environmental Education Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this plan is to outline the current status of invasive weeds at the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay NWR Environmental Education Center and to provide a...

  14. The relationship between the fluctuations of bird populations and the salinities of ponds in South San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a bi-monthly census of salinities and bird numbers taken in the salt evaporation ponds on the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. A...

  15. Uudised : Neeme Järvi San Franciscos. Tõnis Mägi Moskvas. TMKK Norras ja Ungaris / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    N. Järvi juhatab San Francisco Ooperis Rimski-Korsakovi ooperit "Tsaari mõrsja", esietendus 11. sept. T. Mägi esines 1. sept. Eesti Suursaatkonnas Moskvas. TMKK Kammerkoori kontsertreisidest Norrasse ja Ungarisse

  16. Bair Island Restoration and Management Plan : Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Bair Island Ecological Reserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, and the California Department of Fish and Game are proposing adoption of...

  17. U.S. EPA honors San Francisco Bay Area firm Hybrid Coating Technologies with Green Chemistry Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recognized Hybrid Coating Technologies of Daly City, Calif. with a Presidential Green Chemistry Award for developing a safer, plant-based polyurethane for use on floors, furniture and in

  18. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey 2012: Individual refuge results for Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey for Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge and is part of the USGS Data Series...

  19. Uudised : Neeme Järvi San Franciscos. Tõnis Mägi Moskvas. TMKK Norras ja Ungaris / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    N. Järvi juhatab San Francisco Ooperis Rimski-Korsakovi ooperit "Tsaari mõrsja", esietendus 11. sept. T. Mägi esines 1. sept. Eesti Suursaatkonnas Moskvas. TMKK Kammerkoori kontsertreisidest Norrasse ja Ungarisse

  20. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: San Francisco Bay - 1998, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0036884)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of San Francisco Bay. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  1. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: San Francisco Bay, California maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of San Francisco Bay. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  2. Food insecurity among homeless and marginally housed individuals living with HIV/AIDS in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Sheri D; Bangsberg, David R; Kegeles, Susan; Ragland, Kathleen; Kushel, Margot B; Frongillo, Edward A

    2009-10-01

    Food insecurity is a risk factor for both HIV transmission and worse HIV clinical outcomes. We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with food insecurity among homeless and marginally housed HIV-infected individuals in San Francisco recruited from the Research on Access to Care in the Homeless Cohort. We used multiple logistic regression to determine socio-demographic and behavioral factors associated with food insecurity, which was measured using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. Among 250 participants, over half (53.6%) were food insecure. Higher odds of food insecurity was associated with being white, low CD4 counts, recent crack use, lack of health insurance, and worse physical and mental health. Food insecurity is highly prevalent among HIV-infected marginally housed individuals in San Francisco, and is associated with poor physical and mental health and poor social functioning. Screening for and addressing food insecurity should be a critical component of HIV prevention and treatment programs.

  3. Hydraulic modeling and scour analysis for the San Francisco - Oakland Bay Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, J.G.; Smith, E.D.; Sheppard, D.M.; Odeh, M.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine potential maximum scour depths for the foundations of the replacement east span of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, as part of the ongoing structural design. This effort presented unique challenges as strong tidal currents, large depths, and cohesive bottom sediments characterize the site. The authors met these challenges with a multi-faceted approach to the problem. First, design current velocities were determined using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of San Francisco Bay in conjunction with ADCP hydrographic surveys. Analytical scour calculations were performed and live-bed flume tests of the proposed foundations were also conducted. Finally, two separate methodologies were used to interpret the physical model tests in order to calculate potential scour depths around the foundations. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  4. SEXINFO: a sexual health text messaging service for San Francisco youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Deborah; McCright, Jacqueline; Dobkin, Loren; Woodruff, Andrew J; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2008-03-01

    In response to rising gonorrhea rates among African American youth in San Francisco, Calif, Internet Sexuality Information Services, Inc, in partnership with the San Francisco Department of Public Health, developed SEXINFO, a sexual health text messaging service. SEXINFO is an information and referral service that can be accessed by texting "SEXINFO" to a 5-digit number from any wireless phone. A consortium of community organizations, religious groups, and health agencies assisted with identifying culturally appropriate local referral services. We conducted focus group sessions among youth aged 15 to 19 years to discuss the viability of the service. Usage of the service has been greater than expected, and an initial evaluation to assess the impact of SEXINFO on increasing access to sexual health services among at-risk adolescents has had promising results.

  5. Effects of the 1989 San Francisco earthquake on frequency and content of nightmares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J M; Bootzin, R R; Rosenhan, D; Nolen-Hoeksema, S; Jourden, F

    1992-05-01

    In a systematic evaluation of the effects of a natural disaster on nightmares, nightmare frequency was found to be about twice as high among 92 San Francisco Bay area college students as among 97 control subjects in Tucson, Arizona, after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Subjects in California had not only more nightmares in general but substantially more nightmares about earthquakes. Over a 3-week period, about 40% of those in the San Francisco Bay area reported one or more nightmares about an earthquake, as compared with only 5% of those in Arizona. However, nightmares about earthquakes were not more emotionally intense than other nightmares. These findings support the long-held view that the experience of a potentially traumatic event can result in more frequent nightmares, particularly about the event itself, but contradict the common opinion that nightmares about such events are unusually intense.

  6. External impacts of an intraurban air transportation system in the San Francisco Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J. Y.; Gebman, J. R.; Kirkwood, T. F.; Mcclure, P. T.; Stucker, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    The effects are studied of an intraurban V/STOL commuter system on the economic, social, and physical environment of the San Francisco Bay Area. The Bay Area was chosen mainly for a case study; the real intent of the analysis is to develop methods by which the effects of such a system could be evaluated for any community. Aspects of the community life affected include: income and employment, benefits and costs, noise, air pollution, and road congestion.

  7. Understanding the Occurrence and Transport of Current-use Pesticides in the San Francisco Estuary Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Kuivila, Kathryn; Hladik, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence and potential effects of current-use pesticides are of concern in the San Francisco Estuary watershed but our understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of contamination is limited. This paper summarizes almost two decades of historical data and uses it to describe our current knowledge of the processes controlling the occurrence of current-use pesticides in the watershed. Monitoring studies analyze fewer than half of the pesticides applied in the watershed and most...

  8. Liminalidad social y negociación cultural: inmigrantes yucatecos en San Francisco, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Cornejo-Portugal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante los conceptos de liminalidad social y negociación cultural analizamos tres estudios de caso de yucatecos migrantes en San Francisco, California. Los migrantes estudiados dan cuenta de las diversas formas como utilizan los recursos sociales a los cuales tienen acceso (familiares, de creencia, de amistad y vecinales y que les permiten encontrar un equilibrio emocional relativo, frente a la tensión cultural de la sociedad destino.

  9. Observations of fallout from the Fukushima reactor accident in San Francisco Bay area rainwater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric B Norman

    Full Text Available We have observed fallout from the recent Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accident in samples of rainwater collected in the San Francisco Bay area. Gamma ray spectra measured from these samples show clear evidence of fission products--(131,132I, (132Te, and (134,137Cs. The activity levels we have measured for these isotopes are very low and pose no health risk to the public.

  10. Global Health Diplomacy, "San Francisco Values," and HIV/AIDS: From the Local to the Global.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    San Francisco has a distinguished history as a cosmopolitan, progressive, and international city, including extensive associations with global health. These circumstances have contributed to new, interdisciplinary scholarship in the field of global health diplomacy (GHD). In the present review, we describe the evolution and history of GHD at the practical and theoretical levels within the San Francisco medical community, trace related associations between the local and the global, and propose a range of potential opportunities for further development of this dynamic field. We provide a historical overview of the development of the "San Francisco Model" of collaborative, community-owned HIV/AIDS treatment and care programs as pioneered under the "Ward 86" paradigm of the 1980s. We traced the expansion and evolution of this model to the national level under the Ryan White Care Act, and internationally via the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. In parallel, we describe the evolution of global health diplomacy practices, from the local to the global, including the integration of GHD principles into intervention design to ensure social, political, and cultural acceptability and sensitivity. Global health programs, as informed by lessons learned from the San Francisco Model, are increasingly aligned with diplomatic principles and practices. This awareness has aided implementation, allowed policymakers to pursue related and progressive social and humanitarian issues in conjunction with medical responses, and elevated global health to the realm of "high politics." In the 21st century, the integration between diplomatic, medical, and global health practices will continue under "smart global health" and GHD paradigms. These approaches will enhance intervention cost-effectiveness by addressing and optimizing, in tandem with each other, a wide range of (health and non-health) foreign policy, diplomatic, security, and economic priorities in a synergistic manner

  11. The Long Road From Babylon To Brentwood: Crisis and Restructuring in the San Francisco Bay Area

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    AbstractThis dissertation integrates policy analysis, archival research, ethnographic field work, GIS mapping and statistical analysis to build a broad geo-historical understanding of the role of planning, policy, capital and race in the production of the foreclosure crisis in the San Francisco Bay Area. It begins from the premise that an explanation of the foreclosure crisis that focuses solely on either finance capital or the action of homeowners misses the critical importance of history, g...

  12. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: a report from ATS 2001, May 18–23, San Francisco

    OpenAIRE

    Noone Peadar G

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic disorder of abnormal ciliary structure and function that leads to defective mucociliary clearance, resulting in oto-sino-pulmonary disease, and infertility. The disease is currently under intense investigation by a number of research groups worldwide. At the recent American Thoracic Society meeting in San Francisco in May 2001, two sessions focused on PCD; a symposium session on May 21 with several featured expert speakers was followed by...

  13. How humans and nature have shaped the San Francisco Estuary since the Gold Rush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, B.E.

    2009-01-01

    The San Francisco Estuary has undergone dramatic changes since the Gold Rush, as both natural forces and human activities have added and removed massive quantities of sediment, primarily sand and mud. A long-term perspective of sediment movement and patterns of sediment deposition and erosion is vital for effective management of wetlands, sediment contamination, dredging, mining, and other phenomena. Quantitative analysis of historical depth surveys and changes between surveys provides this perspective.

  14. Observations of Fallout from the Fukushima Reactor Accident in San Francisco Bay Area Rainwater

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Eric B; Chodash, Perry A

    2011-01-01

    We have observed fallout from the recent Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accident in samples of rainwater collected in the San Francisco Bay area. Gamma ray spectra measured from these samples show clear evidence of fission products - 131,132I, 132Te, and 134,137Cs. The activity levels we have measured for these isotopes are very low and pose no health risk to the public.

  15. Hazard-evaluation and technical-assistance report HETA 90-122-l2073, technical assistance to San Francisco General Hospital and Medical Center, San Francisco, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, C.E.; Seitz, T.

    1990-10-01

    In response to a request from the Director of the Environmental Health and Safety Department of the San Francisco General Hospital and Medical Center, located in San Francisco, California, an evaluation was undertaken of possible hazardous working conditions at that site. Concern existed about exposures to hazards while operating the germicidal lamp at the facility. Germicidal lamps were used to disinfect the air in tuberculosis and aerosolized pentamidine clinics. The workers wore no protective eye wear. All rooms used a 30 watt germicidal lamp. Lower wattage bulbs in the smaller rooms would have reduced occupational ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Reflectance levels of UV radiation were quite high and varied. Worker exposure to germicidal lamp UV levels was dependent on many factors, some of the most important ones being the position of the bulb in the room, age of the bulb, obstruction of the UV radiation by objects near the bulb, and the height of the worker. While there are no consensus guidelines available on ventilation systems designed for areas where germicidal lamps are used, the provision of good room air distribution and mixing is recommended to prevent stagnant air conditions or short circuiting of supply air within the room. Bulb changers need to be aware of the need for protective clothing and gloves for protection from both the UV radiation levels as well as possible glass breakage.

  16. When bohemia becomes a business: City lights, Columbus avenue and a future for San Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Brabazon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a study of the now clichéd Bohemian Index. I explore how Richard Florida’s arguments flatten, homogenize and commercialize the radicalism and resistance of the cities validated through his criteria. Activism becomes a brand. San Francisco is important in such research because of its political and literary history, with North Beach’s iconography tethered to the Beat Generation. The best known ‘Left Coast City’ in the world, San Francisco reveals the political paradoxes of creative industries and the city imaging literature. Bohemia creates an attractive city of coffee and conversation. San Francisco is a diverse economy, with developed service, tourist and hospitality industries. It is facing seismic challenges, as is the home state. In a credit crunch, the economies based around lifestyle capitalism and service industries suffer as international infrastructural and public sector funding retracts. My article proposes no causal relationship between bohemia and economic development through either tourism or the creative industries. Instead, the complexity of ‘Bohemia’ as a concept, trope and brand is revealed, spilling beyond the seemingly predictable, mappable and trackable Bohemian Index.

  17. Opioid Overdose Deaths in the City and County of San Francisco: Prevalence, Distribution, and Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Adam J; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Lemos, Nikolas P; Burke, Catherine; Coffin, Phillip O

    2015-08-01

    Drug overdose is now the leading cause of unintentional death nationwide, driven by increased prescription opioid overdoses. To better understand urban opioid overdose deaths, this paper examines geographic, demographic, and clinical differences between heroin-related decedents and prescription opioid decedents in San Francisco from 2010 to 2012. During this time period, 331 individuals died from accidental overdose caused by opioids (310 involving prescription opioids and 31 involving heroin). Deaths most commonly involved methadone (45.9%), morphine (26.9%), and oxycodone (21.8%). Most deaths also involved other substances (74.9%), most commonly cocaine (35.3%), benzodiazepines (27.5%), antidepressants (22.7%), and alcohol (19.6%). Deaths were concentrated in a small, high-poverty, central area of San Francisco and disproportionately affected African-American individuals. Decedents in high-poverty areas were significantly more likely to die from methadone and cocaine, whereas individuals from more affluent areas were more likely die from oxycodone and benzodiazepines. Heroin decedents were more likely to be within a younger age demographic, die in public spaces, and have illicit substances rather than other prescription opioids. Overall, heroin overdose death, previously common in San Francisco, is now rare. Prescription opioid overdose has emerged as a significant concern, particularly among individuals in high-poverty areas. Deaths in poor and affluent regions involve different causative opioids and co-occurring substances.

  18. Record-high specific conductance and temperature in San Francisco Bay during water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing-Kunz, Maureen; Work, Paul; Shellenbarger, Gregory

    2015-11-18

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated a water-quality monitoring network in San Francisco Bay since the late 1980s (Buchanan and others, 2015). This network includes 19 stations in the bay; currently, 8 stations are in operation (fig. 1). All eight stations are equipped with specific conductance (which can be related to salinity) and water-temperature sensors that record measurements at 15-minute intervals. Water quality in the bay constantly changes with the ocean tides and with seasonal and interannual differences in river inflows. Our network was designed to observe and characterize some of these changes in the bay across space and over time. Our data demonstrated a high degree of variability both in specific conductance and temperature at time scales from tidal to annual and also revealed longer term changes that are likely to influence overall environmental health in the bay (San Francisco Estuary Institute, 2014). Figure 1. Locations of fixed water-quality monitoring stations in San Francisco Bay, California, for the 2014 water year (October 1, 2013 to September 30, 2014).

  19. Copper, iron and the organic ligands that bind them - updates from San Francisco Bay and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, K. N.; Bundy, R.; Biller, D.; Bruland, K. W.; Barbeau, K.

    2015-12-01

    Building on more than 30 years of measurements in San Francisco Bay by Russ Flegal and others, the concentrations of dissolved manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead were determined from a suite of water quality monitoring program stations in North, Central and South Bay using inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry following preconcentration on a Nobias-chelate PA1 resin. Given the importance of organic ligands in governing iron solubility and copper bioavailability in natural waters, the organic complexation of dissolved iron and copper in these samples was determined from multiple analytical windows applied to competitive ligand exchange- adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry. This study constitutes the first dataset of iron speciation in San Francisco Bay and expands upon prior work evaluating the potential for copper toxicity in this urbanized estuary. Recent advances in voltammetric techniques emerging from a Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) working group on metal-binding ligands in the marine environment, and insights gained from high-resolution ligand measurements from the U.S. GEOTRACES program, highlight how metal-binding ligands in San Francisco Bay compare with those of the coastal and open ocean.

  20. Postseismic Deformation and Stress Evolution Following the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasscoe, M. T.

    2007-12-01

    Large earthquakes, like the M 7.8 1906 San Francisco earthquake, can have both short- and long-term effects on the strain field. Numerical simulation using finite element models is a key method to study time-dependent tectonic deformation mechanisms. Geodetic data are essential for testing model results for accuracy and realism. Previous GeoFEST (Geophysical Finite Element Simulation Tool) viscoelastic finite element model results indicate about 2-5 mm/yr of residual velocities in the 100 years following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. These models combined simple, single fault viscoelastic finite element models featuring variable relaxation times in the lower crust with various elastic backslip models in order to create velocity profiles to compare with currently observed geodetic rates. This study will include new results from more sophisticated 3D GeoFEST models that incorporate multiple faults and imposed plate velocity boundary conditions and compare these results with GPS velocities recorded by the Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network. In addition, the study will include results examining the evolution of the Coulomb stress changes in the viscoelastic model over the 100 years following the San Francisco earthquake.

  1. Fray Francisco de San Juan, a spanish missionary in Bahia in 1624

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias Magalhães, Pablo Antonio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article discloses the existence of an unpublished manuscript on the netherlandish invasion the Bahia in 1624. The author of the manuscript is a Spanish missionary called Fray Francisco de San Juan, who presents the best relation of the first months of the war, disclosing unknown details of the resistance against the invaders until the death of the Bishop D. Marcos Teixeira.

    El presente artículo divulga la existencia de un manuscrito inédito sobre la invasión neerlandesa en la Bahia en 1624. Su autor es el misionario español Fray Francisco de San Juan, que presenta la mejor relación de los primeros meses de la guerra, divulgando los detalles desconocidos de la resistencia contra los invasores hasta la muerte del Obispo D. Marcos Teixeira. [pt] O presente artigo divulga a existência de um manuscrito inédito sobre a invasão neerlandesa na Bahia em 1624. Seu autor é o missionário espanhol Frei Francisco de San Juan, que apresenta a melhor relação dos primeros meses da guerra, divulgando os detalhes desconhecidos da resistência contra os invasores até a morte do bispo D. Marcos Teixeira.

  2. Carbon Sequestration in Mediterranean Tidal Wetlands: San Francisco Bay and the Ebro River Delta (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, J.; Fennessy, S.; Ibanez, C.

    2013-12-01

    Tidal wetlands accumulate soil carbon at relatively rapid rates, in large part because they build soil to counteract increases in sea-level rise. Because of the rapid rates of carbon sequestration, there is growing interest in evaluating carbon dynamics in tidal wetlands around the world; however, few measurements have been completed for mediterranean-type tidal wetlands, which tend to have relatively high levels of soil salinity, likely affecting both plant productivity and decomposition rates. We measured sediment accretion and carbon sequestration rates at tidal wetlands in two mediterranean regions: the San Francisco Bay Estuary (California, USA) and the Ebro River Delta (Catalonia, Spain). Sampling sites within each region represented a range of conditions in terms of soil salinity and plant communities, and these sites serve as potential analogs for long-term carbon sequestration in restored wetlands, which could receive credits under emerging policies for carbon management. Within San Francisco Bay, we collected six sediment cores per site at four salt marshes and two brackish tidal wetlands (two transects with three stations per transect at each site) in order to identify spatial variation both within and among wetlands in the Estuary. At the Ebro Delta, individual sediment cores were collected across 14 tidal wetland sites, including salt and brackish marshes from impounded areas, river mouths, coastal lagoon, and open bay settings. Cores were collected to 50 cm, and cores were dated using 137Cs and 210Pb. Most sites within San Francisco accreted 0.3-0.5 cm/yr, with slightly higher rates of accretion at low marsh stations; accretions rates based on 137Cs were slightly higher than those based on 210Pb, likely because of the shorter time frame covered by 137Cs dating. Accretion rates from the Ebro Delta sites were similar although more variable, with rates based on 137Cs ranging from 0.1 to 0.9 cm/yr and reflecting the wide range of conditions and management

  3. Waterbird nest monitoring program in San Francisco Bay (2005-10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri), American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana), and Black-necked Stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) were uncommon residents of San Francisco Bay, California (Grinnell and others, 1918; Grinnell and Wythe, 1927; Sibley, 1952). Presently, however, avocets and stilts are the two most abundant breeding shorebirds in San Francisco Bay (Stenzel and others, 2002; Rintoul and others, 2003). More than 4,000 avocets and 1,000 stilts, roughly 20 percent of their San Francisco Bay wintering populations, breed within the estuary, making San Francisco Bay the largest breeding area for these species on the Pacific Coast (Stenzel and others, 2002; Rintoul and others, 2003). Forster's Terns were first observed breeding in the San Francisco Bay in 1948 (110 nests); they had increased to over 4000 individuals by the 1980s (Sibley, 1952; Gill, 1977; Harvey and others, 1992; Carter and others, 1990) and were estimated at 2000-3000 for 1998-2002; (Strong and others, 2004). It is hypothesized that the relatively large size of the current waterbird breeding populations is a result of the creation of artificial salt evaporation ponds from the 1930s through the 1950s (Gill, 1977; Goals Project, 1999). Until recently, these salt ponds and associated islands used by waterbirds for nesting have been managed relatively similarly and have supported large breeding waterbird populations. Recently, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project has implemented plans to convert 50-90 percent of the 15,000 acres of salt ponds in the South San Francisco Bay back to tidal marsh habitat. Therefore, there is concern that the Restoration Project, while benefiting other native species, could negatively influence local breeding populations of waterbirds that are reliant on salt pond habitats for both breeding and foraging. A primary goal of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project is to maintain current breeding waterbird populations (South Bay Salt Pond Long

  4. Record-high specific conductance and water temperature in San Francisco Bay during water year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Paul; Downing-Kunz, Maureen; Livsey, Daniel

    2017-02-22

    The San Francisco estuary is commonly defined to include San Francisco Bay (bay) and the adjacent Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta (delta). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated a high-frequency (15-minute sampling interval) water-quality monitoring network in San Francisco Bay since the late 1980s (Buchanan and others, 2014). This network includes 19 stations at which sustained measurements have been made in the bay; currently, 8 stations are in operation (fig. 1). All eight stations are equipped with specific conductance (which can be related to salinity) and water-temperature sensors. Water quality in the bay constantly changes as ocean tides force seawater in and out of the bay, and river inflows—the most significant coming from the delta—vary on time scales ranging from those associated with storms to multiyear droughts. This monitoring network was designed to observe and characterize some of these changes in the bay across space and over time. The data demonstrate a high degree of variability in both specific conductance and temperature at time scales from tidal to annual and also reveal longer-term changes that are likely to influence overall environmental health in the bay.In water year (WY) 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015), as in the preceding water year (Downing-Kunz and others, 2015), the high-frequency measurements revealed record-high values of specific conductance and water temperature at several stations during a period of reduced freshwater inflow from the delta and other tributaries because of persistent, severe drought conditions in California. This report briefly summarizes observations for WY 2015 and compares them to previous years that had different levels of freshwater inflow.

  5. Reconstructing the natural hydrology of the San Francisco Bay-Delta watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fox

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The San Francisco Estuary, composed of San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, is the largest estuary along the Pacific coast of the United States. The tributary watersheds of California's Central Valley are the principal sources of freshwater flow into the San Francisco Bay-Delta estuary. The Delta serves as one of the principal hubs of California's water system, which delivers 45% of the water used statewide to 25 million residents and 16 000 km2 of farmland. The development of California, from small-scale human settlements that co-existed with an environment rich in native vegetation to the eighth largest economy in the world was facilitated by reconfiguring the state's water resources to serve new uses: agriculture, industry, and a burgeoning population. The redistribution of water from native vegetation to other uses was accompanied by significant declines in native aquatic species that rely on the San Francisco Bay-Delta system. These declines have been attributed to a variety of causes, including reduction in the amount of freshwater reaching the San Francisco Bay-Delta watershed (Delta outflow; decreased sediment loads; increased nutrient loads; changes in nutrient stoichiometry; contaminants; introduced species; habitat degradation and loss; and shifts in the ocean–atmosphere system, among others. Among these stressors, only the volume of Delta outflow has been regulated in an effort to address the decline in aquatic species. As native species evolved under natural landscape conditions, prior to European settlement in the mid-18th century, we evaluated the impact of landscape changes on the amount of Delta outflow. We reconstructed the natural landscape and used water balances to estimate the long-term annual average Delta outflow that would have occurred under natural landscape conditions if the climate from 1922 to 2009 were to repeat. These outflows are referred to as "natural" Delta outflows and are the

  6. Stable lead isotopic analyses of historic and contemporary lead contamination of San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritson, P.I.; Bouse, R.M.; Flegal, A.R.; Luoma, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Variations in stable lead isotopic composition (240Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) in three sediment cores from the San Francisco Bay estuary document temporal changes in sources of lead during the past two centuries. Sediment, with lead from natural geologic sources, and relatively homogeneous lead isotopic compositions are overlain by sediments whose isotopic compositions indicate change in the sources of lead associated with anthropogenic modification of the estuary. The first perturbations of lead isotopic composition in the cores occur in the late 1800s concordant with the beginning of industrialization around the estuary. Large isotopic shifts, toward lower 206Pb/207Pb, occur after the turn of the century in both Richardson and San Pablo Bays. A similar relationship among lead isotopic compositions and lead concentrations in both Bays suggest contamination from the same source (a lead smelter). The uppermost sediments (post 1980) of all cores also have a relatively homogenous lead isotopic composition distinct from pre-anthropogenic and recent aerosol signatures. Lead isotopic compositions of leachates from fourteen surface sediments and five marsh samples from the estuary were also analyzed. These analyses suggest that the lead isotopic signature identified in the upper horizons of the cores is spatially homogeneous among recently deposited sediments throughout the estuary. Current aerosol lead isotopic compositions [Smith, D.R., Niemeyer, S., Flegal, A.R., 1992. Lead sources to California sea otters: industrial inputs circumvent natural lead biodepletion mechanisms. Environmental Research 57, 163-175] are distinct from the isotopic compositions of the surface sediments, suggesting that the major source of lead is cycling of historically contaminated sediments back through the water column. Both the upper core sediments and surface sediments apparently derive their lead predominantly from sources internal to the estuary. These results support the idea that

  7. Forecasting Selenium Discharges to the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary: Ecological Effects of A Proposed San Luis Drain Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2006-01-01

    Selenium discharges to the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary (Bay-Delta) could change significantly if federal and state agencies (1) approve an extension of the San Luis Drain to convey agricultural drainage from the western San Joaquin Valley to the North Bay (Suisun Bay, Carquinez Strait, and San Pablo Bay); (2) allow changes in flow patterns of the lower San Joaquin River and Bay-Delta while using an existing portion of the San Luis Drain to convey agricultural drainage to a tributary of the San Joaquin River; or (3) revise selenium criteria for the protection of aquatic life or issue criteria for the protection of wildlife. Understanding the biotransfer of selenium is essential to evaluating effects of selenium on Bay-Delta ecosystems. Confusion about selenium threats to fish and wildlife stem from (1) monitoring programs that do not address specific protocols necessary for an element that bioaccumulates; and (2) failure to consider the full complexity of the processes that result in selenium toxicity. Past studies show that predators are more at risk from selenium contamination than their prey, making it difficult to use traditional methods to predict risk from environmental concentrations alone. This report presents an approach to conceptualize and model the fate and effects of selenium under various load scenarios from the San Joaquin Valley. For each potential load, progressive forecasts show resulting (1) water-column concentration; (2) speciation; (3) transformation to particulate form; (4) particulate concentration; (5) bioaccumulation by invertebrates; (6) trophic transfer to predators; and (7) effects on those predators. Enough is known to establish a first-order understanding of relevant conditions, biological response, and ecological risks should selenium be discharged directly into the North Bay through a conveyance such as a proposed extension of the San Luis Drain. The approach presented here, the Bay-Delta selenium model, determines the mass, fate

  8. Description of gravity cores from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Donald L.; John L. Chin,; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-06-27

    Seventy-two gravity cores were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1990, 1991, and 2000 from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, California. The gravity cores collected within San Pablo Bay contain bioturbated laminated silts and sandy clays, whole and broken bivalve shells (mostly mussels), fossil tube structures, and fine-grained plant or wood fragments. Gravity cores from the channel wall of Carquinez Strait east of San Pablo Bay consist of sand and clay layers, whole and broken bivalve shells (less than in San Pablo Bay), trace fossil tubes, and minute fragments of plant material.

  9. Quaternary geology of Alameda County, and parts of Contra Costa, Santa Clara, San Mateo, San Francisco, Stanislaus, and San Joaquin counties, California: a digital database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helley, E.J.; Graymer, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Alameda County is located at the northern end of the Diablo Range of Central California. It is bounded on the north by the south flank of Mount Diablo, one of the highest peaks in the Bay Area, reaching an elevation of 1173 meters (3,849 ft). San Francisco Bay forms the western boundary, the San Joaquin Valley borders it on the east and an arbitrary line from the Bay into the Diablo Range forms the southern boundary. Alameda is one of the nine Bay Area counties tributary to San Francisco Bay. Most of the country is mountainous with steep rugged topography. Alameda County is covered by twenty-eight 7.5' topographic Quadrangles which are shown on the index map. The Quaternary deposits in Alameda County comprise three distinct depositional environments. One, forming a transgressive sequence of alluvial fan and fan-delta facies, is mapped in the western one-third of the county. The second, forming only alluvial fan facies, is mapped in the Livermore Valley and San Joaquin Valley in the eastern part of the county. The third, forming a combination of Eolian dune and estuarine facies, is restricted to the Alameda Island area in the northwestern corner of the county.

  10. Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in eggs of wading birds from San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, R.L.; Roster, D.L.; King, K.A.; Keldsen, T.J.; Marois, Katherine C.; Wainwright, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1991, reproduction by black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) and snowy egrets (Egretta thula) was studied at sites in San Francisco Bay. Eggs were collected from these and other bay sites and from South Wilbur Flood Area, a reference site in California's San Joaquin Valley. Eggs were analyzed for inorganic trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Results were compared among sites and years and with results of previous studies. There was some evidence of impaired reproduction, but concentrations of contaminants were generally lower than threshold levels for such effects. Egg hatchability was generally good, with predation being the factor that most limited reproductive success. Mean PCB concentrations were generally higher in eggs from the south end of San Francisco Bay than from the north, but the only temporal change, an increase, was observed at Alcatraz Island. There were spatial differences for p,p'-DDE in night-heron eggs in 1990, but the highest mean concentration of DDE was in night-heron eggs from South Wilbur in 1991. Temporal declines in maximum concentrations of DDE in eggs were observed in the bay, but means did not change significantly over time, At Bair Island in the southern end of the bay, mean concentrations of mercury decreased while selenium increased in night-heron eggs over time, but there were no clear bay-wide spatial or temporal trends for either element.

  11. Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in eggs of wading birds from San Francisco Bay, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hothem, R.L.; Marois, K.C.; Wainwright, S.E. [National Biological Service, Davis, CA (United States); Roster, D.L. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Newark, CA (United States). San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge; King, K.A. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Phoenix, AZ (United States). Ecological Services; Keldsen, T.J. [National Biological Service, Fort Collins, CO (United States). Midcontinent Ecological Science Center

    1995-08-01

    Between 1989 and 1991, reproduction by black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) and snowy egrets (Egretta thula) was studied at sites in San Francisco Bay. Eggs were collected from these and other bay sites and from South Wilbur Flood Area, a reference site in California`s San Joaquin Valley. Eggs were analyzed for inorganic trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Results were compared among sites and years and with results of previous studies. There was some evidence of impaired reproduction, but concentrations of contaminants were generally lower than threshold levels for such effects. Egg hatchability was generally good, with predation being the factor that most limited reproductive success. Mean PCB concentrations were generally higher in eggs from the south end of San Francisco Bay than from the north, but the only temporal change, an increase, was observed at Alcatraz Island. There were spatial differences for p,p{prime}-DDE in night-heron eggs in 1990, but the highest mean concentration of DDE was in night-heron eggs from South Wilbur in 1991. Temporal declines in maximum concentrations of DDE in eggs were observed in the bay, but means did not change significantly over time. At Bair Island in the southern end of the bay, mean concentrations of mercury decreased while selenium increased in night-heron eggs over time, but there were no clear bay-wide spatial or temporal trends for either element.

  12. Sediment transport in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; McKee, Lester J.; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    The papers in this special issue feature state-of-the-art approaches to understanding the physical processes related to sediment transport and geomorphology of complex coastal–estuarine systems. Here we focus on the San Francisco Bay Coastal System, extending from the lower San Joaquin–Sacramento Delta, through the Bay, and along the adjacent outer Pacific Coast. San Francisco Bay is an urbanized estuary that is impacted by numerous anthropogenic activities common to many large estuaries, including a mining legacy, channel dredging, aggregate mining, reservoirs, freshwater diversion, watershed modifications, urban run-off, ship traffic, exotic species introductions, land reclamation, and wetland restoration. The Golden Gate strait is the sole inlet connecting the Bay to the Pacific Ocean, and serves as the conduit for a tidal flow of ~ 8 × 109 m3/day, in addition to the transport of mud, sand, biogenic material, nutrients, and pollutants. Despite this physical, biological and chemical connection, resource management and prior research have often treated the Delta, Bay and adjacent ocean as separate entities, compartmentalized by artificial geographic or political boundaries. The body of work herein presents a comprehensive analysis of system-wide behavior, extending a rich heritage of sediment transport research that dates back to the groundbreaking hydraulic mining-impact research of G.K. Gilbert in the early 20th century.

  13. Heavy Metals Concentration Levels in Soils throughout the East San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, K.; Ramirez, N.; Diaz, J.; Cuff, K.; Adarkwah, N.

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that soils near structures made of pressure treated wood created before 2003 often contain high levels of arsenic, which was widely used in the processing of such wood. One such study, conducted by student scientists affiliated with the SF ROCKS program at San Francisco State University, found high levels of arsenic in soils collected from several children's play areas in San Francisco (Negrete, et al., 2006). Due to the known health risks associated with high concentrations of arsenic, and given a general lack of data related to soils of the East San Francisco Bay Area, the current study was initiated to determine whether or not dangerously high levels of arsenic exist in soils near public schools and playgrounds located in Richmond and Oakland, California. Soil samples were collected from approximately 100 locations in and around such areas, and analyzed for arsenic and a variety of other heavy metals concentration levels using an ICP spectrometer. Preliminary results demonstrate arsenic levels that exceed the EPA's 0.4 ppm action limit in 27 of the 100 sites from which samples were collected. Also, strong correlations between arsenic and various metals in the soil were found, such as arsenic with chromium (0.7022) and nickel (0.6588). Additionally, dangerously high levels of arsenic and lead were found in soils collected along the shores of a small lake fed by Leona Creek on the campus of Mills College in the Oakland foothills, approximately 2 kilometers downstream from a former iron sulphide mine. This occurrence constitutes evidence that the owner of the mine has not complied with recent orders from a local regulatory agency to make sure that mine effluents are safe.

  14. Decreases in community viral load are accompanied by reductions in new HIV infections in San Francisco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moupali Das

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: At the individual level, higher HIV viral load predicts sexual transmission risk. We evaluated San Francisco's community viral load (CVL as a population level marker of HIV transmission risk. We hypothesized that the decrease in CVL in San Francisco from 2004-2008, corresponding with increased rates of HIV testing, antiretroviral therapy (ART coverage and effectiveness, and population-level virologic suppression, would be associated with a reduction in new HIV infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used San Francisco's HIV/AIDS surveillance system to examine the trends in CVL. Mean CVL was calculated as the mean of the most recent viral load of all reported HIV-positive individuals in a particular community. Total CVL was defined as the sum of the most recent viral loads of all HIV-positive individuals in a particular community. We used Poisson models with robust standard errors to assess the relationships between the mean and total CVL and the primary outcome: annual numbers of newly diagnosed HIV cases. Both mean and total CVL decreased from 2004-2008 and were accompanied by decreases in new HIV diagnoses from 798 (2004 to 434 (2008. The mean (p = 0.003 and total CVL (p = 0.002 were significantly associated with new HIV cases from 2004-2008. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Reductions in CVL are associated with decreased HIV infections. Results suggest that wide-scale ART could reduce HIV transmission at the population level. Because CVL is temporally upstream of new HIV infections, jurisdictions should consider adding CVL to routine HIV surveillance to track the epidemic, allocate resources, and to evaluate the effectiveness of HIV prevention and treatment efforts.

  15. Integrating Fluvial and Oceanic Drivers in Operational Flooding Forecasts for San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdman, Liv; Erikson, Li; Barnard, Patrick; Kim, Jungho; Cifelli, Rob; Johnson, Lynn

    2016-04-01

    The nine counties that make up the San Francisco Bay area are home to 7.5 million people and these communties are susceptible to flooding along the bay shoreline and inland creeks that drain to the bay. A forecast model that integrates fluvial and oceanic drivers is necessary for predicting flooding in this complex urban environment. The U.S. Geological Survey ( USGS) and National Weather Service (NWS) are developing a state-of-the-art flooding forecast model for the San Francisco Bay area that will predict watershed and ocean-based flooding up to 72 hours in advance of an approaching storm. The model framework for flood forecasts is based on the USGS-developed Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) that was applied to San Francisco Bay under the Our Coast Our Future project. For this application, we utilize Delft3D-FM, a hydrodynamic model based on a flexible mesh grid, to calculate water levels that account for tidal forcing, seasonal water level anomalies, surge and in-Bay generated wind waves from the wind and pressure fields of a NWS forecast model, and tributary discharges from the Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (RDHM), developed by the NWS Office of Hydrologic Development. The flooding extent is determined by overlaying the resulting water levels onto a recently completed 2-m digital elevation model of the study area which best resolves the extensive levee and tidal marsh systems in the region. Here we present initial pilot results of hindcast winter storms in January 2010 and December 2012, where the flooding is driven by oceanic and fluvial factors respectively. We also demonstrate the feasibility of predicting flooding on an operational time scale that incorporates both atmospheric and hydrologic forcings.

  16. Synthesis of long-term nickel monitoring in San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Don; Grieb, Thomas; Mills, William; Sedlak, Margaret

    2007-09-01

    The Regional Monitoring Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Bay (RMP) has conducted annual monitoring of the San Francisco Estuary (estuary) since 1993. The RMP primarily monitors water, sediment, and bivalves, although short-term pilot and special studies on select topics are also conducted. The purpose of this article is to synthesize over 10 years of RMP nickel data and to illustrate how comprehensive monitoring data contribute to an understanding of contaminant fate. Nickel concentrations observed in water (43.7-233.7 nM) are largely a function of the geology of the watershed surrounding the estuary and inputs from wastewater treatment plants and urban runoff. The geologic formations supplying sediment to the estuary contain high concentrations of nickel (e.g., 1000-3300 microg/g). Much of the research to date on nickel speciation suggests that nickel complexes from wastewater treatment plants are not readily available for biological uptake [Bedsworth, W.W., Sedlak, D.L., 1999. Sources and environmental fate of strongly complexed nickel in estuarine waters: the role of ethylenediaminetetraacetate. Environ. Sci. Technol. 33, 926-931, Sedlak, D.L., Phinney, J.T., Bedsworth, W.W., 1997. Strongly complexed Cu and Ni in wastewater effluents and surface runoff. Environ. Sci. Technol. 31(10), 3010-3016, Donat, J.R., Lao, K.A., Bruland, K.W., 1994. Speciation of dissolved copper and nickel in South San Francisco Bay: a multi-method approach. Anal. Chim. Acta. 284, 547-571]. In addition, concentrations of nickel measured in biota by the RMP (0.905-113.0 microg/g dry weight in bivalve tissues) are well below recommended maximum tissue residue levels (220 microg/g wet weight, California state guidelines). Based on this information, regulators have reconsidered the water quality objectives developed for nickel.

  17. Knowledge, Indications and Willingness to Take Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis among Transwomen in San Francisco, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin C Wilson

    Full Text Available Safe and effective HIV prevention strategies are needed for transwomen. Transwomen in the US have a 34 times greater odds of being infected with HIV than all adults age 15-49, and in San Francisco, California 42.4% of transwomen are estimated to be infected with HIV. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP is the first biomedical intervention with promise for reducing HIV acquisition in transwomen. However, little is known about whether transwomen know about PrEP, are taking PrEP and would be good candidates for PrEP based on their risk profile and behaviors. A population-based dataset was analyzed to determine how many transwomen in San Francisco knew about PrEP by the end of 2013 - more than a year after iPrex results demonstrated efficacy of PrEP in preventing HIV. We found that of 233 transwomen, only 13.7% had heard of PrEP. Transwomen who were living with HIV compared to those who were HIV-negative, and those who recently injected drugs compared to non-injection drug users were more likely to have heard of PrEP. Based on CDC guidelines for PrEP among MSM and IDU, 45 (30.2% transwomen of the 149 HIV-negative transwomen in the sample were candidates for PrEP. This estimate based on CDC criteria is arguably low. Given that almost half of transwomen in San Francisco are living with HIV, this findings points to a need for further consideration of PrEP criteria that are specific and tailored to the risks for HIV faced by transwomen that are different from MSM and injection drug users. Research to scale up access and test the effectiveness of PrEP for transwomen is also urgently needed.

  18. Sediment geochemistry of Corte Madera Marsh, San Francisco Bay, California: have local inputs changed, 1830-2010?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takesue, Renee K.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Large perturbations since the mid-1800s to the supply and source of sediment entering San Francisco Bay have disturbed natural processes for more than 150 years. Only recently have sediment inputs through the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta) decreased to what might be considered pre-disturbance levels. Declining sediment inputs to San Francisco Bay raise concern about continued tidal marsh accretion, particularly if sea level rise accelerates in the future. The aim of this study is to explore whether the relative amount of local-watershed sediment accumulating in a tidal marsh has changed as sediment supply from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers has decreased. To address this question, sediment geochemical indicators, or signatures, in the fine fraction (silt and clay) of Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, San Francisco Bay, and Corte Madera Creek sediment were identified and applied in sediment recovered from Corte Madera Marsh, one of the few remaining natural marshes in San Francisco Bay. Total major, minor, trace, and rare earth element (REE) contents of fine sediment were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass and atomic emission spectroscopy. Fine sediment from potential source areas had the following geochemical signatures: Sacramento River sediment downstream of the confluence of the American River was characterized by enrichments in chromium, zirconium, and heavy REE; San Joaquin River sediment at Vernalis and Lathrop was characterized by enrichments in thorium and total REE content; Corte Madera Creek sediment had elevated nickel contents; and the composition of San Francisco Bay mud proximal to Corte Madera Marsh was intermediate between these sources. Most sediment geochemical signatures were relatively invariant for more than 150 years, suggesting that the composition of fine sediment in Corte Madera Marsh is not very sensitive to changes in the magnitude, timing, or source of sediment entering San Francisco Bay through the Delta. Nor

  19. A review of circulation and mixing studies of San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lawrence H.

    1987-01-01

    A description of the major characteristics and remaining unknowns of circulation and mixing in San Francisco Bay has been constructed from a review of published studies. From a broad perspective San Francisco Bay is an ocean-river mixing zone with a seaward flow equal to the sum of the river inflows less evaporation. Understanding of circulation and mixing within the bay requires quantification of freshwater inflows and ocean-bay exchanges, characterization of source-water variations, and separation of the within-bay components of circulation and mixing processes. Description of net circulation and mixing over a few days to a few months illustrates best the interactions of major components. Quantification of tidal circulation and mixing is also necessary because net circulation and mixing contain a large tide-induced component, and because tidal variations are dominant in measurements of stage, currents, and salinity. The discharge of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta into Suisun Bay is approximately 90 percent of the freshwater inflow to San Francisco Bay. Annual delta discharge is characterized by a winter season of high runoff and a summer season of low runoff. For the period 1956 to 1985 the mean of monthly discharges exceeded 1,000 cubic meters per second (35,000 cubic feet per second) for the months of December through April, whereas for July through October, it was less than 400 cubic meters per second (14,000 cubic feet per second). The months of November, May, and June commonly were transition months between these seasons. Large year-to-year deviations from this annual pattern have occurred frequently. Much less is known about the ocean-bay exchange process. Net exchanges depend on net seaward flow in the bay, tidal amplitude, and longshore coastal currents, but exchanges have not yet been measured successfully. Source-water variations are ignored by limiting discussion of mixing to salinity. The bay is composed of a northern reach, which is strongly

  20. Autocuidado en las personas mayores de la Ciudad de San Francisco de Campeche

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Rosa Can Valle; Betty Sarabia Alcocer; Jaqueline Guadalupe Guerrero Ceh

    2015-01-01

    En México las personas son consideradas adultas mayores a partir de los 60 años. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) menciona que el envejecimiento es el proceso fisiológico que inicia al nacer y que va sufriendo cambios durante todo el ciclo de vida. En la ciudad de San Francisco de Campeche residen 67 879 adultos mayores, lo que representa 8.3 % de la población total según el Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI. 2010). El objetivo de este estudio es identificar si exi...

  1. Earthquake outlook for the San Francisco Bay region 2014–2043

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Brad T.; Blair, James Luke; Boatwright, John; Garcia, Susan H.; Harris, Ruth A.; Michael, Andrew J.; Schwartz, David P.; DiLeo, Jeanne S.; Jacques, Kate; Donlin, Carolyn

    2016-06-13

    Using information from recent earthquakes, improved mapping of active faults, and a new model for estimating earthquake probabilities, the 2014 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities updated the 30-year earthquake forecast for California. They concluded that there is a 72 percent probability (or likelihood) of at least one earthquake of magnitude 6.7 or greater striking somewhere in the San Francisco Bay region before 2043. Earthquakes this large are capable of causing widespread damage; therefore, communities in the region should take simple steps to help reduce injuries, damage, and disruption, as well as accelerate recovery from these earthquakes.

  2. Paseo de San Francisco : tentative de rénovation des quartiers populaires

    OpenAIRE

    Melé, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Le projet du Paseo de San Francisco en cours de réalisation à Puebla constitue la plus importante tentative de rénovation au cœur d’une zone mexicaine de protection des monuments historiques. Pour la première fois avec une telle ampleur, un projet d’urbanisme se propose de créer des espaces libres dans le centre pour attirer des investissements nationaux ou étrangers dans des activités touristiques qui doivent permettre la rénovation d’un ample secteur des barrios. Ce projet déclencha une for...

  3. Autocuidado en las personas mayores de la Ciudad de San Francisco de Campeche

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Rosa Can Valle; Betty Sarabia Alcocer; Jaqueline Guadalupe Guerrero Ceh

    2015-01-01

    En México las personas son consideradas adultas mayores a partir de los 60 años. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) menciona que el envejecimiento es el proceso fisiológico que inicia al nacer y que va sufriendo cambios durante todo el ciclo de vida. En la ciudad de San Francisco de Campeche residen 67 879 adultos mayores, lo que representa 8.3 % de la población total según el Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI. 2010). El objetivo de este estudio es identificar si exi...

  4. Modeling the Joint Labor-Commute Engagement Decisions of San Francisco Bay Area Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Ory, David T; Mokhtarian, Patricia L

    2005-01-01

    Using socio-demographic, personality, and attitudinal data from 1,680 residents of the San Francisco Bay Area, we develop and estimate binary, multinomial, and nested logit models of the choice to work or not, whether or not to work at home, and whether to commute all of the time or some of the time (either by only working part time, or by working a compressed work week, or by telecommuting some of the time). To our knowledge, these are the first models of all these choices simultaneously. Th...

  5. Report on the 56th ASH Annual Meeting, San Francisco, 4–9 December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agazzi, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The 56th annual ASH (American Society of Haematology) meeting was held in San Francisco (CA). More than 3,000 abstracts were selected for presentation due to the huge amount of information from basic science to clinical experience. The future direction in haematoncology is targeted therapies for most diseases; for instance, anti-PD-1 and CAR-T cells in lymphoproliferative disorders and novel immunomodulatory agents active in the contest of bone marrow milieu in multiple myeloma. On the other hand, in aggressive haematological diseases (AML, ALL), clinical studies demonstrated the feasibility of a more intensive chemotherapy approach in older patients. PMID:25729427

  6. Report on the 56th ASH Annual Meeting, San Francisco, 4-9 December 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agazzi, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The 56th annual ASH (American Society of Haematology) meeting was held in San Francisco (CA). More than 3,000 abstracts were selected for presentation due to the huge amount of information from basic science to clinical experience. The future direction in haematoncology is targeted therapies for most diseases; for instance, anti-PD-1 and CAR-T cells in lymphoproliferative disorders and novel immunomodulatory agents active in the contest of bone marrow milieu in multiple myeloma. On the other hand, in aggressive haematological diseases (AML, ALL), clinical studies demonstrated the feasibility of a more intensive chemotherapy approach in older patients.

  7. Seismic-reflection evidence that the hayward fault extends into the lower crust of the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, T.

    1998-01-01

    This article presents deep seismic-reflection data from an experiment across San Francisco Peninsula in 1995 using large (125 to 500 kg) explosive sources. Shot gathers show a mostly nonreflective upper crust in both the Franciscan and Salinian terranes (juxtaposed across the San Andreas fault), an onset of weak lower-crustal reflectivity beginning at about 6-sec two-way travel time (TWTT) and bright southwest-dipping reflections between 11 and 13 sec TWTT. Previous studies have shown that the Moho in this area is no deeper than 25 km (~8 to 9 sec TWTT). Three-dimensional reflection travel-time modeling of the 11 to 13 sec events from the shot gathers indicates that the bright events may be explained by reflectors 15 to 20 km into the upper mantle, northeast of the San Andreas fault. However, upper mantle reflections from these depths were not observed on marine-reflection profiles collected in San Francisco Bay, nor were they reported from a refraction profile on San Francisco Peninsula. The most consistent interpretation of these events from 2D raytracing and 3D travel-time modeling is that they are out-of-plane reflections from a high-angle (dipping ~70??to the southwest) impedance contrast in the lower crust that corresponds with the surface trace of the Hayward fault. These results suggest that the Hayward fault truncates the horizontal detachment fault suggested to be active beneath San Francisco Bay.

  8. Gravity cores from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, San Francisco Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data release contains information on gravity cores that were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the area of San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait,...

  9. Slip rates on San Francisco Bay area faults from anelastic deformation of the continental lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Andrews, D. J.

    2000-11-01

    Long-term slip rates on major faults in the San Francisco Bay area are predicted by modeling the anelastic deformation of the continental lithosphere in response to regional relative plate motion. The model developed by Bird and Kong [1994] is used to simulate lithospheric deformation according to a Coulomb frictional rheology of the upper crust and a dislocation creep rheology at depth. The focus of this study is the long-term motion of faults in a region extending from the creeping section of the San Andreas fault to the south up to the latitude of Cape Mendocino to the north. Boundary conditions are specified by the relative motion between the Pacific plate and the Sierra Nevada-Great Valley microplate [Argus and Gordon, 2000]. Rheologic-frictional parameters are specified as independent variables, and prediction errors are calculated with respect to geologic estimates of slip rates and maximum compressive stress directions. The model that best explains the region-wide observations is one in which the coefficient of friction on all of the major faults is less than 0.15, with the coefficient of friction for the San Andreas fault being approximately 0.09, consistent with previous inferences of San Andreas fault friction. Prediction error increases with lower fault friction on the San Andreas, indicating a lower bound of μSAF > 0.08. Discrepancies with respect to previous slip rate estimates include a higher than expected slip rate along the peninsula segment of the San Andreas fault and a slightly lower than expected slip rate along the San Gregorio fault.

  10. Late Holocene sedimentary environments of south San Francisco Bay, California, illustrated in gravity cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Donald L.; Fregoso, Theresa A.; Wong, Florence L.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Data are reported here from 51 gravity cores collected from the southern part of San Francisco Bay by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1990. The sedimentary record in the cores demonstrates a stable geographic distribution of facies and spans a few thousand years. Carbon-14 dating of the sediments suggests that sedimentation rates average about 1 mm/yr. The geometry of the bay floor and the character of the sediment deposited have remained about the same in the time spanned by the cores. However, the sedimentary record over periods of centuries or decades is likely to be much more variable. Sediments containing a few bivalve shells and bivalve or oyster coquinas are most often found west of the main channel and near the San Mateo Bridge. Elsewhere in the south bay, shells are rare except in the southernmost reaches where scattered gastropod shells are found.

  11. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in San Francisco City and County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, John W.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. About $4 million in damages were assessed in San Francisco City and County.

  12. An introduction to the San Francisco Estuary tidal wetlands restoration series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry R. Brown

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of tidal wetlands may provide an important tool for improving ecological health and water management for beneficial uses of the San Francisco Estuary (hereafter “Estuary”. Given the large losses of tidal wetlands from San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in the last 150 years, it seems logical to assume that restoring tidal wetlands will have benefits for a variety of aquatic and terrestrial native species that have declined during the same time period. However, many other changes have also occurred in the Estuary concurrent with the declines of native species. Other factors that might be important in species declines include the effects of construction of upstream dams, large and small water diversions within the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, agricultural pesticides, trace elements from industrial and agricultural activities, and invasions of alien species. Discussions among researchers, managers, and stakeholders have identified a number of uncertainties regarding the potential benefits of tidal wetland restoration. The articles of the Tidal Wetlands Restoration Series address four major issues of concern. Stated as questions, these are: 1. Will tidal wetland restoration enhance populations of native fishes? 2. Will wetland restoration increase rates of methylation of mercury? 3. Will primary production and other ecological processes in restored tidal wetlands result in net export of organic carbon to adjacent habitats, resulting in enhancement of the food web? Will the carbon produced contribute to the formation of disinfection byproducts when disinfected for use as drinking water? 4. Will restored tidal wetlands provide long-term ecosystem benefits that can be sustained in response to ongoing physical processes, including sedimentation and hydrodynamics? Reducing the uncertainty surrounding these issues is of critical importance because tidal wetland restoration is assumed to be a critical tool for enhancement

  13. Deep Borehole Instrumentation Along San Francisco Bay Bridges: 1996 - 2003 and Strong Ground Motion Systhesis Along the San Francisco/Oakland Bay Bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L; Foxall, W; Kasameyer, P; larsen, S; Hayek, C; Tyler-Turpin, C; Aquilino, J; Long, L

    2005-04-22

    As a result of collaboration between the Berkeley Seismographic Station, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Caltrans, instrument packages have been placed in bedrock in six boreholes and two surface sites along the San Francisco/Oakland Bay Bridge. Since 1996 over 200 local earthquakes have been recorded. Prior to this study few seismic recording instruments existed in bed-rock in San Francisco Bay. We utilized the data to perform analysis of ground motion variability, wave passage, site response, and up-and down-hole wave propagation along the Bay Bridge. We also synthesized strong ground motion at nine locations along the Bay Bridge. Key to these studies is LLNL's effort to exploit the information available in weak ground motions (generally from earthquakes < M=4.0) to enhance predictions of seismic hazards. We found that Yerba Island has no apparent site response at the surface relative to a borehole site. The horizontal to vertical spectral ratio method best revealed no site response, while the complex signal spectral ratio method had the lowest variance for spectral ratios and best predicted surface recordings when the borehole recording was used as input. Both methods identified resonances at about the same frequencies. Regional attenuation results in a significant loss of high frequencies in both surface and borehole recordings. Records are band limited at near 3 Hz. Therefore a traditional rock outcrop site response, flat to high frequency in displacement, is not available. We applied a methodology to predict and synthesize strong ground motion along the San Francisco/Oakland Bay Bridge from a M=7.25 earthquake along the Hayward fault, about12 km distant. We synthesized for three-components and broad-band (0.0-25.0 Hz) ground motion accelerations, velocities, and displacements. We examined two different possible rupture scenarios, a ''mean'' and ''one standard deviation'' model. We combined the high

  14. Secciones en doble T Invertida en el aeropuerto de San Francisco – (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin, T. Y.

    1972-05-01

    Full Text Available In the carrying out of this work of enlarging the San Francisco International Airport, a criterion has been maintained which has allowed a series of interesting results to be obtained. The building technique is very unusual, giving it the mark of innovation. This technique has made use of prestressed, prefabricated parts, thus reducing by about 40 % the amount of materials that ordinary building methods would have required, lightening the loads, and keeping as far as possible within the limitations imposed by traffic and the terrain. And all without detriment to a considerable aesthetic effect.En la realización de esta obra para la ampliación del aeropuerto internacional de San Francisco se ha mantenido un criterio que ha permitido obtener una serie de resultados interesantes. Presenta un carácter innovador, ya que la técnica constructiva es muy poco habitual. Dicha técnica ha facilitado emplear elementos prefabricados pretensados, reducir en un 40 % la cantidad de materiales que hubieran sido necesarios de haber utilizado una técnica de construcción normal, aligerar las cargas y ceñirse al máximo a una serie de limitaciones impuestas por el tráfico y la naturaleza del terreno; todo ello sin detrimento de obtener un efecto estético considerable.

  15. Spatial and temporal variations in silver contamination and toxicity in San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegal, A R; Brown, C L; Squire, S; Ross, J R M; Scelfo, G M; Hibdon, S

    2007-09-01

    Although San Francisco Bay has a "Golden Gate", it may be argued that it is the "Silver Estuary". For at one time the Bay was reported to have the highest levels of silver in its sediments and biota, along with the only accurately measured values of silver in solution, of any estuarine system. Since then others have argued that silver contamination is higher elsewhere (e.g., New York Bight, Florida Bay, Galveston Bay) in a peculiar form of pollution machismo, while silver contamination has measurably declined in sediments, biota, and surface waters of the Bay over the past two to three decades. Documentation of those systemic temporal declines has been possible because of long-term, ongoing monitoring programs, using rigorous trace metal clean sampling and analytical techniques, of the United States Geological Survey and San Francisco Bay Regional Monitoring Program that are summarized in this report. However, recent toxicity studies with macro-invertebrates in the Bay have indicated that silver may still be adversely affecting the health of the estuarine system, and other studies have indicated that silver concentrations in the Bay may be increasing due to new industrial inputs and/or the diagenetic remobilization of silver from historically contaminated sediments being re-exposed to overlying surface waters and benthos. Consequently, the Bay may not be ready to relinquish its title as the "Silver Estuary".

  16. Input, flux, and persistence of six select pesticides in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivila, K.M.; Jennings, B.E.

    2007-01-01

    Temporal patterns of pesticide inputs to San Francisco Bay were identified and correlated with timing of application and transport mechanism. Fluxes were calculated from measured concentrations and estimated flow. Persistence of the pesticides under typical riverine or estuarine conditions were estimated from laboratory experiments. Simazine was detected most frequently and had the highest flux into the Bay, which could be explained by its continuous use and long half-life. In comparison, diazinon was detected at lower concentrations and had a lower flux which corresponded to its lower use and shorter half-life. The order-of-magnitude lower fluxes of carbofuran and methidathion corresponded to their lower use and expected hydrolysis. Molinate was detected at the highest concentration but its flux was lower than expected, considering its very high use and persistence in the laboratory experiments. Additional loss of molinate is likely to occur from volatilization and photodegradation on the rice fields. Although thiobencarb had the second highest use, it had the lowest flux of the six pesticides, which can be attributed to its loss via hydrolysis, photodegradation, volatilization, and sorption to sediments. Fluxes into San Francisco Bay were equal to or greater than those reported for other estuaries, except for the Gulf of Mexico. ?? 2007 Taylor & Francis.

  17. Biological communities in San Francisco Bay track large-scale climate forcing over the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Hieb, Kathryn A.; Jacobson, Teresa; Sansó, Bruno; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Stacey, Mark T.; Largier, John L.; Meiring, Wendy; Peterson, William T.; Powell, Thomas M.; Winder, Monika; Jassby, Alan D.

    2010-11-01

    Long-term observations show that fish and plankton populations in the ocean fluctuate in synchrony with large-scale climate patterns, but similar evidence is lacking for estuaries because of shorter observational records. Marine fish and invertebrates have been sampled in San Francisco Bay since 1980 and exhibit large, unexplained population changes including record-high abundances of common species after 1999. Our analysis shows that populations of demersal fish, crabs and shrimp covary with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), both of which reversed signs in 1999. A time series model forced by the atmospheric driver of NPGO accounts for two-thirds of the variability in the first principal component of species abundances, and generalized linear models forced by PDO and NPGO account for most of the annual variability of individual species. We infer that synchronous shifts in climate patterns and community variability in San Francisco Bay are related to changes in oceanic wind forcing that modify coastal currents, upwelling intensity, surface temperature, and their influence on recruitment of marine species that utilize estuaries as nursery habitat. Ecological forecasts of estuarine responses to climate change must therefore consider how altered patterns of atmospheric forcing across ocean basins influence coastal oceanography as well as watershed hydrology.

  18. Crustal structure from San Francisco, California, to Eureka, Nevada, from seismic-refraction measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Jerry P.

    1963-01-01

    Seismic-refraction measurements from chemical explosions near San Francisco, California, and Fallon and Eureka, Nevada, were made along a line extending nearly 700 km inland from San Francisco across the Coast Ranges, Great Valley, Sierra Nevada, and Basin and Range Province. The velocity of Pg in the Basin and Range Province was found to be 6.0 km/sec. Between Fallon and Eureka the velocity of Pn is 7.8 km/sec, and just east of the Sierra Nevada it is about 7.9 km/sec. Two prominent phases closely following the first arrival between 50 and 250 km from the source in the Basin and Range Province were interpreted as reflections from an intermediate layer and from the Mohorovicic discontinuity. The velocity of P in the possible intermediate layer, deduced from the reflected phases be cause the refracted wave expected from this layer is nowhere a first arrival, seems to be 6.6 km/sec at the top of the layer and probably increases with depth.

  19. Predictors of mercury spatial patterns in San Francisco Bay forage fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Ben K; Slotton, Darell G; Harrold, Katherine H

    2013-12-01

    Pollution reduction efforts should be targeted toward those sources that result in the highest bioaccumulation. For mercury (Hg) in estuaries and other complex water bodies, carefully designed biosentinel monitoring programs can help identify predictors of bioaccumulation and inform management priorities for source reduction. This study employed a probabilistic forage fish Hg survey with hypothesis testing in San Francisco Bay (California, USA). The goal was to determine what pollution sources, regions, and landscape features were associated with elevated Hg bioaccumulation. Across 99 sites, whole-body Hg concentrations in Mississippi silversides (Menidia audens) and topsmelt (Atherinops affinis) followed a broad spatial gradient, declining with distance from the Guadalupe River (Pearson's r = -0.69 and -0.42, respectively), which drains historic mining areas. Site landscape attributes and local Hg sources had subtle effects, which differed between fish species. Topsmelt Hg increased in embayment sites (i.e., enclosed sites including channels, creek mouths, marinas, and coves) and sites with historic Hg-contaminated sediment, suggesting an influence of legacy industrial and mining contamination. In 2008, Mississippi silverside Hg was reduced at sites draining wastewater-treatment plants. Fish Hg was not related to abundance of surrounding wetland cover but was elevated in some watersheds draining from historic Hg-mining operations. Results indicated both regional and site-specific influences for Hg bioaccumulation in San Francisco Bay, including legacy contamination and proximity to treated wastewater discharge. © 2013 SETAC.

  20. Tenant guidelines for energy-efficient renovation of buildings at the Presidio of San Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, J.L.; Sartor, D.; Diamond, R.

    1997-06-01

    These Guidelines are intended to help current and future tenants of the Presidio work with designers and contractors to incorporate energy efficiency and sustainable practices into the renovations of the buildings. This guide is designed to complement the detailed Guidelines for Rehabilitating Buildings at the Presidio of San Francisco, available from the National Park Service. Energy efficiency yields benefits far beyond energy savings. Daylighting and efficient electric lighting, natural ventilation and cooling, and other conservation strategies improve tenant health, comfort, and productivity, while preserving the historical heritage of Presidio buildings. This guide examines the use of energy and resources and opportunities for efficiency in Presidio buildings on the basis of individual components and systems. The authors begin with recommended and discouraged practices for roofs, walls, and foundations, then move to windows and other opening. Next they address efficiency issues in building interiors--lighting, office equipment, and spacing planning. The authors follow with recommendations for mechanical and plumbing systems and conclude with insights on miscellaneous outdoor energy and resource concerns. A concise listing of sources of more detailed information is provided at the end of the document. The authors expect this guide to help tenants begin the process of using energy-efficient and sustainable practices throughout the Presidio of San Francisco.

  1. Empirical model of Skeletonema costatum photosynthetic rate, with applications in the San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    An empirical model of Skeletonema costatum photosynthetic rate is developed and fit to measurements of photosynthesis selected from the literature. Because the model acknowledges existence of: 1) a light-temperature interaction (by allowing optimum irradiance to vary with temperature), 2) light inhibition, 3) temperature inhibition, and 4) a salinity effect, it accurately estimates photosynthetic rates measured over a wide range of temperature, light intensity, and salinity. Integration of predicted instantaneous rate of photosynthesis with time and depth yields daily net carbon assimilation (pg C cell-1 day-1) in a mixed layer of specified depth, when salinity, temperature, daily irradiance and extinction coefficient are known. The assumption of constant carbon quota (pg C cell-1) allows for prediction of mean specific growth rate (day-1), which can be used in numerical models of Skeletonema costatum population dynamics. Application of the model to northern San Francisco Bay clearly demonstrates the limitation of growth by low light availability, and suggests that large population densities of S. costatum observed during summer months are not the result of active growth in the central deep channels (where growth rates are consistently predicted to be negative). But predicted growth rates in the lateral shallows are positive during summer and fall, thus offering a testable hypothesis that shoals are the only sites of active population growth by S. costatum (and perhaps other neritic diatoms) in the northern reach of San Francisco Bay. ?? 1978.

  2. Final report for sea-level rise response modeling for San Francisco Bay estuary tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Thorne, Karen M.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Spragens, Kyle A.; Swanson, Kathleen M.; Drexler, Judith Z.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The International Panel on Climate Change has identified coastal ecosystems as areas that will be disproportionally affected by climate change. Current sea-level rise projections range widely with 0.57 to 1.9 meters increase in mea sea level by 2100. The expected accelerated rate of sea-level rise through the 21st century will put many coastal ecosystems at risk, especially those in topographically low-gradient areas. We assessed marsh accretion and plant community state changes through 2100 at 12 tidal salt marshes around San Francisco Bay estuary with a sea-level rise response model. Detailed ground elevation, vegetation, and water level data were collected at all sites between 2008 and 2011 and used as model inputs. Sediment cores (taken by Callaway and others, 2012) at four sites around San Francisco Bay estuary were used to estimate accretion rates. A modification of the Callaway and others (1996) model, the Wetland Accretion Rate Model for Ecosystem Resilience (WARMER), was utilized to run sea-level rise response models for all sites. With a mean sea level rise of 1.24 m by 2100, WARMER projected that the vast majority, 95.8 percent (1,942 hectares), of marsh area in our study will lose marsh plant communities by 2100 and to transition to a relative elevation range consistent with mudflat habitat. Three marshes were projected to maintain marsh vegetation to 2100, but they only composed 4.2 percent (85 hectares) of the total marsh area surveyed.

  3. Suspended sediment and sediment-associated contaminants in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhamer, D.H.; Mumley, T.E.; Leatherbarrow, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Water-quality managers desire information on the temporal and spatial variability of contaminant concentrations and the magnitudes of watershed and bed-sediment loads in San Francisco Bay. To help provide this information, the Regional Monitoring Program for Trace Substances in the San Francisco Estuary (RMP) takes advantage of the association of many contaminants with sediment particles by continuously measuring suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), which is an accurate, less costly, and more easily measured surrogate for several trace metals and organic contaminants. Continuous time series of SSC are collected at several sites in the Bay. Although semidiurnal and diurnal tidal fluctuations are present, most of the variability of SSC occurs at fortnightly, monthly, and semiannual tidal time scales. A seasonal cycle of sediment inflow, wind-wave resuspension, and winnowing of fine sediment also is observed. SSC and, thus, sediment-associated contaminants tend to be greater in shallower water, at the landward ends of the Bay, and in several localized estuarine turbidity maxima. Although understanding of sediment transport has improved in the first 10 years of the RMP, determining a simple mass budget of sediment or associated contaminants is confounded by uncertainties regarding sediment flux at boundaries, change in bed-sediment storage, and appropriate modeling techniques. Nevertheless, management of sediment-associated contaminants has improved greatly. Better understanding of sediment and sediment-associated contaminants in the Bay is of great interest to evaluate the value of control actions taken and the need for additional controls. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatial and temporal variations in silver contamination and toxicity in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegal, A.R.; Brown, C.L.; Squire, S.; Ross, J.R.M.; Scelfo, G.M.; Hibdon, S.

    2007-01-01

    Although San Francisco Bay has a "Golden Gate", it may be argued that it is the "Silver Estuary". For at one time the Bay was reported to have the highest levels of silver in its sediments and biota, along with the only accurately measured values of silver in solution, of any estuarine system. Since then others have argued that silver contamination is higher elsewhere (e.g., New York Bight, Florida Bay, Galveston Bay) in a peculiar form of pollution machismo, while silver contamination has measurably declined in sediments, biota, and surface waters of the Bay over the past two to three decades. Documentation of those systemic temporal declines has been possible because of long-term, ongoing monitoring programs, using rigorous trace metal clean sampling and analytical techniques, of the United States Geological Survey and San Francisco Bay Regional Monitoring Program that are summarized in this report. However, recent toxicity studies with macro-invertebrates in the Bay have indicated that silver may still be adversely affecting the health of the estuarine system, and other studies have indicated that silver concentrations in the Bay may be increasing due to new industrial inputs and/or the diagenetic remobilization of silver from historically contaminated sediments being re-exposed to overlying surface waters and benthos. Consequently, the Bay may not be ready to relinquish its title as the "Silver Estuary". ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. In-situ measurements of seismic velocities in the San Francisco Bay region...part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James F.; Fumal, Thomas E.; Borcherdt, Roger D.

    1976-01-01

    Seismic wave velocities (compressional and shear) are important parameters for determining the seismic response characteristics of various geologic units when subjected to strong earthquake ground shaking. Seismic velocities of various units often show a strong correlation with the amounts of damage following large earthquakes and have been used as a basis for certain types of seismic zonation studies. Currently a program is in progress to measure seismic velocities in the San Francisco Bay region at an estimated 150 sites. At each site seismic travel times are measured in drill holes, normally at 2.5-m intervals to a depth of 30 m. Geologic logs are determined from drill hole cuttings, undisturbed samples, and penetrometer samples. The data provide a detailed comparison of geologic and seismic characteristics and provide parameters for estimating strong earthquake ground motions quantitatively at each of the site. A major emphasis of this program is to obtain a detailed comparison of geologic and seismic data on a regional scale for use in seismic zonation. The broad data base available in the San Francisco Bay region suggests using the area as a pilot area for the development of general techniques applicable to other areas.

  6. Potential Inundation due to Rising Sea Levels in the San Francisco Bay Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Noah

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the rate of sea level rise is one of the primary impacts of projected global climate change. To assess potential inundation associated with a continued acceleration of sea level rise, the highest resolution elevation data available were assembled from various sources and mosaicked to cover the land surfaces of the San Francisco Bay region. Next, to quantify high water levels throughout the bay, a hydrodynamic model of the San Francisco Estuary was driven by a projection of hourly water levels at the Presidio. This projection was based on a combination of climate model outputs and empirical models and incorporates astronomical, storm surge, El Niño, and long-term sea level rise influences. Based on the resulting data, maps of areas vulnerable to inundation were produced, corresponding to specific amounts of sea level rise and recurrence intervals. These maps portray areas where inundation will likely be an increasing concern. In the North Bay, wetland survival and developed fill areas are at risk. In Central and South bays, a key feature is the bay-ward periphery of developed areas that would be newly vulnerable to inundation. Nearly all municipalities adjacent to South Bay face this risk to some degree. For the Bay as a whole, as early as 2050 under this scenario, the one-year peak event nearly equals the 100-year peak event in 2000. Maps of vulnerable areas are presented and some implications discussed.

  7. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Landon, Matthew K.; Farrar, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile (2,590-square-kilometer) North San Francisco Bay study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in northern California in Marin, Napa, and Sonoma Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA North San Francisco Bay study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated groundwater quality in the primary aquifer systems. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 89 wells in 2004 and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the North San Francisco Bay study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifers of the North San Francisco Bay study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or

  8. Selenium and other elements in juvenile striped bass from the San Joaquin Valley and San Francisco Estuary, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Palawski, Donald U.

    1990-01-01

    Concentrations of selenium and other trace elements were determined in 55 whole body samples of juvenile anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from the San Joaquin Valley and San Francisco Estuary, California. The fish (≤1 yr old—the predominant life stage in the San Joaquin Valley) were collected in September–December 1986 from 19 sites in the Valley and 3 sites in the Estuary, and analyzed for the following elements: aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), boron (B), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), mercury (Hg), magnesium (Mg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). When compared to concentrations in whole freshwater fish measured by surveys from other waters, a few samples contained higher levels, of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Se. The median concentrations of Al, As, Cu, Fe, Mg, Se, and Sr also differed significantly (P⩽0.05) among sites. However, only Se concentrations were highest (up to 7.9 μg/g dry weight) in samples from Valley sites exposed to agricultural subsurface (tile) drainwater; concentrations were lower in samples collected elsewhere. Water quality variables—especially those strongly influenced by tile drainwater (conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, and total hardness)—were also significantly correlated (P⩽0.05) with Se concentrations in fish. Selenium concentrations in striped bass from the Estuary were only one-fourth to one-half the concentrations measured in the most contaminated fish from the San Joaquin River.

  9. Strain accumulation across the Coast Ranges at the latitude of San Francisco, 1994-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, J. C.; Gan, W.; Prescott, W. H.; Svarc, J. L.

    2004-03-01

    A 66-monument geodetic array spanning the Coast Ranges near San Francisco has been surveyed more than eight times by GPS between late 1993 and early 2001. The measured horizontal velocities of the monuments are well represented by uniform, right-lateral, simple shear parallel to N29°W. (The local strike of the San Andreas Fault is ˜N34°W.) The observed areal dilatation rate of 6.9 ± 10.0 nstrain yr-1 (quoted uncertainty is one standard deviation and extension is reckoned positive) is not significantly different from zero, which implies that the observed strain accumulation could be released by strike-slip faulting alone. Our results are consistent with the slip rates assigned by the [2003] to the principal faults (San Gregorio, San Andreas, Hayward-Rodgers Creek, Calaveras-Concord-Green Valley, and Greenville Faults) cutting across the GPS array. The vector sum of those slip rates is 39.8 ± 2.6 mm yr-1 N29.8°W ± 2.8°, whereas the motion across the GPS array (breadth 120 km) inferred from the uniform strain rate approximation is 38.7 ± 1.2 mm yr-1 N29.0°W ± 0.9° right-lateral shear and 0.4 ± 0.9 mm yr-1 N61°E ± 0.9° extension. We interpret the near coincidence of these rates and the absence of significant accumulation of areal dilatation to imply that right-lateral slip on the principal faults can release the accumulating strain; major strain release on reverse faults subparallel to the San Andreas Fault within the Coast Ranges is not required.

  10. Near-surface wind fields for San Francisco Bay--historical and 21st century projected time series

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — To support Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) in the San Francisco Bay (v2.1), time series of historical and 21st-century near-surface wind fields (eastward and...

  11. 78 FR 2952 - Foreign-Trade Zone 3-San Francisco, California; Application for Expansion and Expansion of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... on January 9, 2013. FTZ 3 was approved by the Board on March 10, 1948 (Board Order 12, 13 FR 1459, 3/19/48) and the zone was reorganized under the ASF on October 7, 2010 (Board Order 1718, 75 FR 64708... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 3--San Francisco, California; Application for Expansion...

  12. 33 CFR 100.1105 - San Francisco Bay Navy Fleetweek Parade of Ships and Blue Angels Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Parade of Ships and Blue Angels Demonstration. 100.1105 Section 100.1105 Navigation and Navigable Waters... WATERS § 100.1105 San Francisco Bay Navy Fleetweek Parade of Ships and Blue Angels Demonstration. (a... Navy Ships and Navy Blue Angels and other airshow activities held annually in early October,...

  13. MEDIA ADVISORY: EPA Administrator joins San Francisco Bay government agencies to celebrate nations largest solar energy partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO - On May 13, U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will join Alameda County to recognize the largest collaborative in the nation among government agencies to site renewable energy at their facilities. Administrator McCarthy, the federal

  14. Identifying Telemedicine Services to Improve Access to Specialty Care for the Underserved in the San Francisco Safety Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Russell Coelho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety-net settings across the country have grappled with providing adequate access to specialty care services. San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center, serving as the city's primary safety-net hospital, has also had to struggle with the same issue. With Healthy San Francisco, the City and County of San Francisco's Universal Healthcare mandate, the increased demand for specialty care services has placed a further strain on the system. With the recent passage of California Proposition 1D, infrastructural funds are now set aside to assist in connecting major hospitals with primary care clinics in remote areas all over the state of California, using telemedicine. Based on a selected sample of key informant interviews with local staff physicians, this study provides further insight into the current process of e-referral which uses electronic communication for making referrals to specialty care. It also identifies key services for telemedicine in primary and specialty care settings within the San Francisco public health system. This study concludes with proposals for a framework that seek to increase collaboration between the referring primary care physician and specialist, to prioritize institution of these key services for telemedicine.

  15. Chronic sublethal effects of San Francisco Bay sediments on nereis (neanthes) arenaceodentata; bioaccumulation from bedded sediments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.; Dillon, T.M.

    1993-09-01

    In previous studies with San Francisco Bay sediments, minimal chronic sublethal effects were detected (Miscellaneous Paper D-93-1 and another Miscellaneous Paper in preparation by Moore and Dillon). To ensure that the lack of effects was not due to a lack of contaminant uptake, a bioaccumulation experiment was conducted. Bioaccumulation from bedded sediments was evaluated following a 9-week exposure with the marine polychaete worm Nereis (Neanthes) arenaceodentata. Two sediments were evaluated, a contaminated San Francisco Bay test sediment and a clean control sediment from Sequim, WA. Animals were exposed as early juveniles through adulthood. Tissues were analyzed for metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and pesticides. Worms exposed to the contaminated San Francisco Bay sediment had significantly higher tissue residues of silver (0.30 mg/kg dry weight) and tributyltin (0.298 mg/kg dry weight). Conversely, tissue residues of control animals were significantly higher in cadmium (0.67 mg/kg dry weight) and lead (1.89 mg/kg dry weight). Small Amounts (0.02 mg/kg dry weight) of aldrin and dieldrin were measured in worms exposed to the contaminated sediment, while dieldrin and 8-BHC were found in Bioaccumulation, Neanthes, Chronic sublethal, San Francisco Bay, Dredged, Material, Sediment.

  16. The Development of a Teacher Salary Parcel Tax: The Quality Teacher and Education Act in San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Heather J.; Loeb, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    This case study will serve primarily as an historical account detailing the development of Quality Teacher and Education Act (QTEA). QTEA and the most salient details that led to its eventual passage, serving as an information source for San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD) and other districts when they take on potentially controversial…

  17. 75 FR 67620 - Temporary Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... cruise ship, tanker or HIV that is underway, anchored, or moored within the San Francisco Bay and Delta..., within 500 yards ahead, astern and extending 500 yards along either side of any cruise ship, tanker or..., astern and extending 500 yards along either side of any cruise ship, tanker or HIV that is...

  18. Association between diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis in United States-born and foreign-born populations in San Francisco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gompol Suwanpimolkul

    Full Text Available The impact of diabetes on tuberculosis in United States and foreign-born populations in San Francisco has not been studied.To determine the characteristics, prevalence and temporal trends of diabetes in US and foreign-born persons attending the San Francisco Tuberculosis Clinic.We analyzed data from individuals seeking medical attention at the San Francisco Tuberculosis Clinic. We included patients with diagnosis of tuberculosis, latent infection, or not infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We assessed the temporal trend and the characteristics of individuals with and without diabetes.Between 2005 and 2012, there were 4371 (19.0% individuals without evidence of tuberculosis infection, 17,856 (77.6% with latent tuberculosis, and 791 (3.4% with tuberculosis. 66% were born in the United States, China, Mexico, and the Philippines. The prevalence of diabetes was the highest among individuals with tuberculosis and increased during the study period. Patients with tuberculosis and diabetes were more likely to be male, older than 45 years and born in the Philippines. There was a disproportionate association of TB and DM relative to LTBI and DM among Filipinos in individuals older than 45 years old.Our data suggest that Filipinos older than 45 years old are more likely to have tuberculosis probably due to a higher prevalence of diabetes. In San Francisco, tuberculosis-screening programs in individuals with diabetes and latent tuberculosis may be beneficial in patients older than 45 years old especially from the Philippines.

  19. Three-dimensional seismic velocity structure of the San Francisco Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, J. A.; Brocher, T. M.; Klemperer, S. L.; Parsons, T.; Benz, H. M.; Furlong, K. P.

    2000-06-01

    Seismic travel times from the northern California earthquake catalogue and from the 1991 Bay Area Seismic Imaging Experiment (BASIX) refraction survey were used to obtain a three-dimensional model of the seismic velocity structure of the San Francisco Bay area. Nonlinear tomography was used to simultaneously invert for both velocity and hypocenters. The new hypocenter inversion algorithm uses finite difference travel times and is an extension of an existing velocity tomography algorithm. Numerous inversions were performed with different parameters to test the reliability of the resulting velocity model. Most hypocenters were relocated 12 km under the Sacramento River Delta, 6 km beneath Livermore Valley, 5 km beneath the Santa Clara Valley, and 4 km beneath eastern San Pablo Bay. The Great Valley Sequence east of San Francisco Bay is 4-6 km thick. A relatively high velocity body exists in the upper 10 km beneath the Sonoma volcanic field, but no evidence for a large intrusion or magma chamber exists in the crust under The Geysers or the Clear Lake volcanic center. Lateral velocity contrasts indicate that the major strike-slip faults extend sub vertically beneath their surface locations through most of the crust. Strong lateral velocity contrasts of 0.3-0.6 km/s are observed across the San Andreas Fault in the middle crust and across the Hayward, Rogers Creek, Calaveras, and Greenville Faults at shallow depth. Weaker velocity contrasts (0.1-0.3 km/s) exist across the San Andreas, Hayward, and Rogers Creek Faults at all other depths. Low spatial resolution evidence in the lower crust suggests that the top of high-velocity mafic rocks gets deeper from west to east and may be offset under the major faults. The data suggest that the major strike-slip faults extend sub vertically through the middle and perhaps the lower crust and juxtapose differing lithology due to accumulated strike-slip motion. The extent and physical properties of the major geologic units as

  20. Maps of Quaternary Deposits and Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central San Francisco Bay Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Robert C.; Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Koehler, Richard D.; Randolph, Carolyn E.; Brooks, Suzanna K.; Gans, Kathleen D.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the urban core of the San Francisco Bay region. It supercedes the equivalent area of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-444 (Knudsen and others, 2000), which covers the larger 9-county San Francisco Bay region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database, (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map and liquefaction interpretation (part 3), and (4) a text introducing the report and describing the database (part 1). All parts of the report are digital; part 1 describes the database and digital files and how to obtain them by downloading across the internet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a consistent detailed treatment of the central part of the 9-county region in which much of the mapping of Open-File Report 00-444 was either at smaller (less detailed) scale or represented only preliminary revision of earlier work. Like Open-File Report 00-444, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, inferred depositional environments, and geologic age to define and distinguish the map units. Further scrutiny of the factors controlling liquefaction susceptibility has led to some changes relative to Open-File Report 00-444: particularly the reclassification of San Francisco Bay mud (Qhbm) to have only MODERATE susceptibility and the rating of artificial fills according to the Quaternary map units inferred to underlie them (other than dams - adf). The two colored

  1. Long-Term Earthquake Forecasts in the San Francisco Bay Area: A Contrarian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, A. G.

    2003-12-01

    In historic time the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) has been the site of four large earthquakes, including the M7.8 1906 San Francisco earthquake, and most recently, the M6.9 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Of the eight major fault segments considered here, two have not experienced large earthquakes in about 200 years, and the SF Peninsula segment of the 1906 rupture on the San Andreas appears from my calculations to be close to fully reloaded as well. I have used simple geophysical and statistical models (elastic rebound model and Weibull distribution) to estimate the probability of large earthquakes (M7 or larger) in the SFBA in the coming decades. I have used seismicity, geology, and geodesy to estimate segment boundaries, recurrence intervals, and the associated uncertainties. The results indicate that the SFBA has an approximately 80% chance of a large earthquake in the next 30 years, with four segments dominating the 30 yr probabilities; San Francisco Peninsula (32%), Southern Hayward (39%), Northern Hayward (28%) and Rodgers Cr (30%). Because of the proximity of these four segments to the urban portions of San Francisco and Oakland, the probability of these most vulnerable areas experiencing strong ground motion (an M7 within 25 km or less) one or more times within the next 30 years is about 70%. Because of the breadth and quality of our understanding of the earthquake machine in the SFBA, these probabilities depend in large part on the intrinsic variance in the earthquake recurrence process itself -- most conveniently expressed as the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean recurrence time, or intrinsic coefficient of variation (CVI). I have applied a new approach to estimating CVI, using the time since the last characteristic event (the "open-interval") on well characterized segments. Combined with an estimate of the mean recurrence time on each segment, an estimate of the likelihood of each open interval can be computed, and a simple maximum likelihood

  2. Tap water isotopes reveal the San Francisco Bay Area's plumbing and responses to a major drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, B. J.; Jameel, M. Y.; Chau, T. H.; Mancuso, C. J.; Bowen, G. J.; Dufour, A.; Chesson, L. A.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Water availability and sustainability in the Western United States is a major flashpoint among expanding communities, growing industries, and productive agricultural lands. This issue came to a head in 2015 in the State of California, when the State mandated a 25% reduction in urban water use following a multi-year drought that significantly depleted water resources. The demands for and challenges in supplying water are only expected to intensify as climate perturbations, such as the 2012-2015 California Drought, become more common. As a consequence, there is an increased need to understand linkages between population centers, water transport and usage, and the impacts of climate change on water resources and infrastructure. To better understand these relationships within a megalopolis in the Western United States, we collected and analyzed 723 tap waters from the San Francisco Bay Area during seven collection campaigns across 21 months during 2013-2015. San Francisco Bay Area was selected as it has well-known water management strategies and its water resources were dramatically affected by the 2012-2105 drought. Consistent with known water management strategies and previous reports of tap water isotope values, we found large spatiotemporal variations in the δ2H and δ18O values of tap waters, indicative of complex water transport systems and municipality-scale management decisions. We observed δ2H and δ18O values of tap water consistent with waters originating from snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada Mountains, local precipitation, ground water, and partially evaporated reservoir sources. A cluster analysis of measured tap water data grouped waters from 43 static sampling sites that were associated with specific water utility providers within the San Francisco Bay Area and known management practices. Water management responses to the drought, such as source switching, bringing in new sources, and conservation, could be observed within the isotope data from each of

  3. Talus Lex: Regulatory Approaches to Reducing Mercury Concentrations in San Francisco Bay Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Saba, D. E.; Flegal, D. R.; Ganguli, P. M.; Whyte, D. C.; Mumley, D. E.; Mason, D. P.

    2001-12-01

    The history of mercury in California is recorded in the sediments of San Francisco Bay. The Bay is downstream of 40 percent of the land area of California. Its watershed receives 80 percent of the rainfall in the State, because it rains more in the north. Three billion kilograms of sediments are annually flushed from the Central Valley watershed and deposited in San Francisco Bay. Because mercury preferentially binds to sediments, we calculate mercury loads to the Bay by considering how various sources affect mercury concentrations in Bay sediments. During and after the Gold Rush, over seventy thousand tons of mercury was produced in Coast Range cinnabar mines. Much of this mercury was used as quicksilver to extract gold from placer formations in the Sierra foothills, and later in the production of munitions, electronics, health care and commercial products. Today, we can see the legacy of mining sources, from both remote and local watersheds, superimposed on air deposition, the climate and geography of California, heavily managed water supply and flood control projects, wetland restoration and rehabilitation, urbanization, wastewaster discharge and water reclamation. We already regulate wastewater and urban runoff through issuance of permits and waste discharge requirements. We can regulate mercury inputs from inoperative mines by demonstrating the link between mercury-polluted sediments and violation of existing numeric water quality objectives. We can use the same approach to regulate the disposal of mercury-containing electronic devices. But to reduce mercury levels in fish, we will also have to consider controllable water quality factors that promote mercury methylation in the aquatic ecosystem. Some of these water quality factors are already subject to regulation. For example, we can show that mercury methylation in the northern reach of the Bay increases when dissolved oxygen drops below 6 mg/L; current regulations require dissolved oxygen concentrations of

  4. Deployment of the National Transparent Optical Network around the San Francisco Bay Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCammon, K.; Haigh, R.; Armstrong, G. [and others

    1996-06-01

    We report on the deployment and initial operation of the National Transparent Optical Network, an experimental WDM network testbed around the San Francisco Bay Area, during the Optical Fiber Conference (OFC`96) held in San Jose, CA. The deployment aspects of the physical plant, optical and SONET layers are examined along with a discussion of broadband applications which utilized the network during the OFC`96 demonstration. The network features dense WDM technology, transparent optical routing technology using acousto- optic tunable filter based switches, and network modules with add/drop, multicast, and wavelength translation capabilities. The physical layer consisted of over 300 km of Sprint and Pacific Bell conventional single mode fiber which was amplified with I I optical amplifiers deployed in pre-amp, post-amp, and line amp configurations. An out-of-band control network provided datacom channels from remote equipment sites to the SONET network manager deployed at the San Jose Convention Center for the conference. Data transport over five wavelengths was achieved in the 1550 nm window using a variety of signal formats including analog and digital signal transmission on different wavelengths on the same fiber. The network operated throughout the week of OFC`96 and is still in operation today.

  5. Ground motion modeling of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake II: Ground motion estimates for the 1906 earthquake and scenario events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, B; Brocher, T; Dreger, D; Frankel, A; Graves, R; Harmsen, S; Hartzell, S; Larsen, S; McCandless, K; Nilsson, S; Petersson, N A; Rodgers, A; Sjogreen, B; Tkalcic, H; Zoback, M L

    2007-02-09

    We estimate the ground motions produced by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake making use of the recently developed Song et al. (2008) source model that combines the available geodetic and seismic observations and recently constructed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. Our estimates of the ground motions for the 1906 earthquake are consistent across five ground-motion modeling groups employing different wave propagation codes and simulation domains. The simulations successfully reproduce the main features of the Boatwright and Bundock (2005) ShakeMap, but tend to over predict the intensity of shaking by 0.1-0.5 modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) units. Velocity waveforms at sites throughout the San Francisco Bay Area exhibit characteristics consistent with rupture directivity, local geologic conditions (e.g., sedimentary basins), and the large size of the event (e.g., durations of strong shaking lasting tens of seconds). We also compute ground motions for seven hypothetical scenarios rupturing the same extent of the northern San Andreas fault, considering three additional hypocenters and an additional, random distribution of slip. Rupture directivity exerts the strongest influence on the variations in shaking, although sedimentary basins do consistently contribute to the response in some locations, such as Santa Rosa, Livermore, and San Jose. These scenarios suggest that future large earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault may subject the current San Francisco Bay urban area to stronger shaking than a repeat of the 1906 earthquake. Ruptures propagating southward towards San Francisco appear to expose more of the urban area to a given intensity level than do ruptures propagating northward.

  6. Ionic strength and DOC determinations from various freshwater sources to the San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Y.R.; Kuwabara, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    An exact estimation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within the salinity gradient of zinc and copper metals is significant in understanding the limit to which DOC could influence metal speciation. A low-temperature persulfate/oxygen/ultraviolet wet oxidation procedure was utilized for analyzing DOC samples adapted for ionic strength from major freshwater sources of the northern and southern regions of San Francisco Bay. The ionic strength of samples was modified with a chemically defined seawater medium up to 0.7M. Based on the results, a minimum effect of ionic strength on oxidation proficiency for DOC sources to the Bay over an ionic strength gradient of 0.0 to 0.7 M was observed. There was no major impacts of ionic strength on two Suwanee River fulvic acids. In general, the noted effects associated with ionic strength were smaller than the variances seen in the aquatic environment between high- and low-temperature methods.

  7. Multiple Types of Childhood and Adult Violence Among Homeless and Unstably Housed Women in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lauren H; Shumway, Martha; Flentje, Annesa; Riley, Elise D

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between different forms of childhood violence (emotional, physical, and sexual) and these same forms of violence in adulthood, using a crosssectional baseline survey of 298 homeless and unstably housed women in San Francisco, California. We also examined other related factors, including mental illnesses diagnosis, sex exchange, jail time, HIV status, and sociodemographic information. Regression analysis indicated that although several of these factors were associated with experiences of violence as an adult, specific types of child violence (e.g., sexual violence) predicted instances of that same type of violence as an adult but not necessarily other types. Thus, risk of adult violence among low-income women may be better predicted and addressed through histories of same-type childhood violence, despite years of intervening exposures and stressors.

  8. Characterization of ambient aerosols at the San Francisco International Airport using BioAerosol Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, P T; McJimpsey, E L; Coffee, K R; Fergenson, D P; Riot, V J; Tobias, H J; Woods, B W; Gard, E E; Frank, M

    2006-03-16

    The BioAerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS) system is a rapidly fieldable, fully autonomous instrument that can perform correlated measurements of multiple orthogonal properties of individual aerosol particles. The BAMS front end uses optical techniques to nondestructively measure a particle's aerodynamic diameter and fluorescence properties. Fluorescence can be excited at 266nm or 355nm and is detected in two broad wavelength bands. Individual particles with appropriate size and fluorescence properties can then be analyzed more thoroughly in a dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Over the course of two deployments to the San Francisco International Airport, more than 6.5 million individual aerosol particles were fully analyzed by the system. Analysis of the resulting data has provided a number of important insights relevant to rapid bioaerosol detection, which are described here.

  9. La desconocida historia de la construcción de la iglesia de San Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan V. Webster

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo ofrece una nueva cronología e historia de la construcción de la iglesia de San Francisco de Quito a través de documentos históricos inéditos que demuestran, contrariamente a lo postulado en la historiografìa tradicional, que la actual iglesia no fue construida en el siglo XVI. El estudio ilustra los participantes y el proceso de construcción, empleando documentos, planos e imágenes. Se abarcan temas de autoría, particularmente las identidades de los diseñadoresy constructores, y se ofrece una reconsideración del legado historiográfico del imponente templo franciscano a la vista de la nueva documentación

  10. Self-reported marijuana effects and characteristics of 100 San Francisco medical marijuana club members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D; Jones, R T; Shank, R; Nath, R; Fernandez, E; Goldstein, K; Mendelson, J

    2000-01-01

    In order to assess the relationships between medical marijuana users' reasons for use, side effects, and drug use patterns, 100 participants were recruited from the San Francisco Cannabis Cultivator's Club. Users, averaging 14 years pre-illness use, perceived marijuana to be more effective than other treatments and to have less severe side effects. Urine drug assays showed recent use of other drugs, particularly stimulants. History of substance abuse or dependence and other psychiatric disorders was common. Those with greater past dependence on other drugs thought marijuana to be more effective but also reported worse side effects and quality of life. Quality of life was associated more with marijuana side effects rating than effectiveness. Patients reported potentially serious marijuana side effects on some questionnaires but not others. Inconsistencies in reporting made interpretation of results difficult. Physician supervision of medical marijuana use would allow more effective monitoring of therapeutic and unwanted effects, some unrecognized by patients.

  11. Masculinity and undocumented labor migration: injured latino day laborers in San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Nicholas; Bourgois, Philippe; Loinaz, H. Margarita

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on data collected through clinical practice and ethnographic fieldwork, this study examines the experience of injury, illness and disability among undocumented Latino day laborers in San Francisco. We demonstrate how constructions of masculine identity organize the experience of embodied social suffering among workers who are rendered vulnerable by the structural conditions of undocumented immigrant status. Theoretical concepts from critical medical anthropology and gender studies extend the scholarly analysis of structural violence beyond the primarily economic to uncover how it is embodied at the intimate level as a gendered experience of personal and familial crisis, involving love, respect, betrayal and patriarchal failure. A clinical ethnographic focus on socially structured patriarchal suffering elucidates the causal relationship between macro-forces and individual action with a fuller appreciation of the impact of culture and everyday lived experience. PMID:15210088

  12. What We Have Learned from San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment and Leiden Manifesto?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey Ming-Li Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the research performance evaluation of members of the academic community conducted by government or institutions has been applied with multiple indicators and peer review, however, there are many controversies about the design and application of research evaluation indicators. This article aims to introduce the development process of San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA and Leiden Manifesto and summarize their contents of guidelines and attempts to compare the differences between these two documents. It hopes that this article can arise the attention and reflection of research evaluation indicators and relevant issues from Taiwan academic community to reach consensus of utilization of research evaluation indicators. It will be beneficial to develop the version of declaration with local characteristics in the future.

  13. 1993 Annual Report: San Francisco estuary regional monitoring program for trace substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B.; Lacy, Jessica; Hardin, Dane; Grovhaug, Tom; Taberski, K.; Jassby, Alan D.; Cloern, James E.; Caffrey, J.; Cole, B.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    1993-01-01

    This first annual report of the San Francisco Estuary Regional Monitoring Program contains the results of monitoring measurements made in 1993. Measurements of conventional water quality parameters and trace contaminant concentrations were made at 16 stations throughout the Estuary three times during the year: the wet period (March), during declining Delta outflow (May), and during the dry period (September). Water toxicity tests were conducted at 8 of those stations. Measurements of sediment quality and contaminant concentrations were made at the same 16 stations during the wet and dry sampling periods. Sediment toxicity was measured at 8 of those stations. Transplanted, bagged bivalve bioaccumulation and condition was measured at 11 stations during the wet and dry sampling periods.

  14. Growth requirements of san francisco sour dough yeasts and bakers' yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, N

    1976-03-01

    The growth requirements of several yeasts isolated from San Francisco sour dough mother sponges were compared with those of bakers' yeast. The sour dough yeasts studied were one strain of Saccharomyces uvarum, one strain of S. inusitatus, and four strains of S. exiguus. S. inusitatus was the only yeast found to have an amino acid requirement, namely, methionine. All of the yeasts had an absolute requirement for pantothenic acid and a partial requirement for biotin. Inositol was stimulatory to all except bakers' yeast. All strains of S. exiguus required niacin and thiamine. Interestingly, S. inusitatus, the only yeast that required methionine, also needed folic acid. For optimal growth of S. exiguus in a molasses medium, supplementation with thiamine was required.

  15. Lessons from San Francisco: health impact assessments have advanced political conditions for improving population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rajiv; Corburn, Jason

    2011-12-01

    Health impact assessment is a structured decision support tool used to systematically characterize the anticipated health effects, both adverse and beneficial, of societal decisions. In San Francisco, the use of health impact assessments has not only produced evidence to inform health policy decision making but has also contributed to the political conditions needed to achieve optimal population health. Health impact assessments have helped increase public awareness of the determinants of health, routine monitoring of these determinants, cooperation among institutions, health-protective laws and regulations, and organizational networks for health advocacy and accountability. Drawing on more than a decade of local experience, we identify the direct and indirect effects of the assessments on the politics of governance as well as on health. We demonstrate that health impact assessment is both an analytic tool and a process that helps build the social institutions that can improve health.

  16. Estimating methane emissions from biological and fossil-fuel sources in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seongeun; Cui, Xinguang; Blake, Donald R.; Miller, Ben; Montzka, Stephen A.; Andrews, Arlyn; Guha, Abhinav; Martien, Philip; Bambha, Ray P.; LaFranchi, Brian; Michelsen, Hope A.; Clements, Craig B.; Glaize, Pierre; Fischer, Marc L.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first sector-specific analysis of methane (CH4) emissions from the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) using CH4 and volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements from six sites during September - December 2015. We apply a hierarchical Bayesian inversion to separate the biological from fossil-fuel (natural gas and petroleum) sources using the measurements of CH4 and selected VOCs, a source-specific 1 km CH4 emission model, and an atmospheric transport model. We estimate that SFBA CH4 emissions are 166-289 Gg CH4/yr (at 95% confidence), 1.3-2.3 times higher than a recent inventory with much of the underestimation from landfill. Including the VOCs, 82 ± 27% of total posterior median CH4 emissions are biological and 17 ± 3% fossil fuel, where landfill and natural gas dominate the biological and fossil-fuel CH4 of prior emissions, respectively.

  17. Modeling Sulfides, pH and Hydrogen Sulfide Gas in the Sewers of San Francisco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Revilla, Nohemy; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2015-01-01

    An extensive measuring campaign targeted on sewer odor problems was undertaken in San Francisco. It was assessed whether a conceptual sewer process model could reproduce the measured concentrations of total sulfide in the wastewater and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere, and to which degree...... such simulations have potential for further improving odor and sulfide management. The campaign covered measurement of wastewater sulfide by grab sampling and diurnal sampling, and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere was logged. The tested model was based on the Wastewater Aerobic/Anaerobic Transformations in Sewers...... (WATS) sewer process concept, which never had been calibrated to such an extensive dataset. The study showed that the model was capable of reproducing the general levels of wastewater sulfide, wastewater pH, and sewer H2S gas. It could also reproduce the general variability of these parameters, albeit...

  18. San Francisco's Pioneer Mother Monument: maternalism, racial order, and the politics of memorialization, 1907–1915.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frink, Brenda D

    2012-01-01

    The 1907–1915 campaign to create San Francisco's Pioneer Mother Monument provides both a case study of conservative uses of maternalism and a window into the political mutability of maternalist rhetoric. Ella Sterling Mighels, a pioneer descendant, utilized the monument campaign to promote white women's moral influence over middle-class men, to argue against Asian immigration and labor unrest, and to inculcate old-fashioned moral values among urban children. Although some of Mighels's contemporaries cited pioneer mothers as proof of women's fitness for suffrage, Mighels herself used the pioneer mother to argue against suffrage. The final statue, created by the sculptor Charles Grafly, failed to encapsulate Mighels's multivalent political message and to express her ideals about gender, race, class, and morality.

  19. Religiosidad e identidad en San Francisco de Campeche. Siglos XVI y XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocher Salas, Adriana Delfina

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the problems concomitant to the development of a common identity among the Spanish settlers of San Francisco de Campeche during the Colonial period, with focus on the role played by religious elements in the shaping of this identity – in particular, the cult to the saints. An analysis of factors such as the characteristics of the saints in the neighborhood and local associations; processes of cult adoption, adaptation or dismissal; as well as the participation of the different local sectors in promoting the to their respective saints will be presented. This analysis will take into consideration the conflictive relationship between Spanish settlers and native people in Yucatán, a situation that prevented the using of aboriginal cultural elements in the shaping of a new identity

    Este trabajo estudia los problemas que acompañaron la gestación de una identidad propia y común para los residentes hispanos de la villa y puerto de San Francisco de Campeche durante el período colonial y la participación de elementos religiosos, particularmente el culto a los santos patronos, en el proceso. Teniendo como telón de fondo la peculiaridad de la región yucateca, donde una conflictiva relación entre españoles e indígenas impidió la utilización de elementos culturales prehispánicos en la formación de una conciencia identitaria, se analizan diversos factores, como las características de los santos tutelares de los barrios y de algunas corporaciones locales, los procesos de adopción, adaptación u olvido de sus cultos por parte del vecindario porteño y la participación de los diferentes sectores locales en la promoción de sus santos patronos.

  20. Seismic velocity structure and seismotectonics of the eastern San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardebeck, J.L.; Michael, A.J.; Brocher, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Hayward Fault System is considered the most likely fault system in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, to produce a major earthquake in the next 30 years. To better understand this fault system, we use microseismicity to study its structure and kinematics. We present a new 3D seismic-velocity model for the eastern San Francisco Bay region, using microseismicity and controlled sources, which reveals a ???10% velocity contrast across the Hayward fault in the upper 10 km, with higher velocity in the Franciscan Complex to the west relative to the Great Valley Sequence to the east. This contrast is imaged more sharply in our localized model than in previous regional-scale models. Thick Cenozoic sedimentary basins, such as the Livermore basin, which may experience particularly strong shaking during an earthquake, are imaged in the model. The accurate earthquake locations and focal mechanisms obtained by using the 3D model allow us to study fault complexity and its implications for seismic hazard. The relocated hypocenters along the Hayward Fault in general are consistent with a near-vertical or steeply east-dipping fault zone. The southern Hayward fault merges smoothly with the Calaveras fault at depth, suggesting that large earthquakes may rupture across both faults. The use of the 3D velocity model reveals that most earthquakes along the Hayward fault have near-vertical strike-slip focal mechanisms, consistent with the large-scale orientation and sense of slip of the fault, with no evidence for zones of complex fracturing acting as barriers to earthquake rupture.

  1. Autocuidado en las personas mayores de la Ciudad de San Francisco de Campeche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa Can Valle

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En México las personas son consideradas adultas mayores a partir de los 60 años. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS menciona que el envejecimiento es el proceso fisiológico que inicia al nacer y que va sufriendo cambios durante todo el ciclo de vida. En la ciudad de San Francisco de Campeche residen 67 879 adultos mayores, lo que representa 8.3 % de la población total según el Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI. 2010. El objetivo de este estudio es identificar si existe relación entre el autocuidado y las personas adultas mayores que asisten al Centro de rehabilitación y Educación Especial, en la Ciudad de San Francisco de Campeche. Para ello se utilizó el método descriptivo, exploratorio con alcance cualitativo, y los instrumentos Test de capacidad y percepción de Autocuidado del Adulto Mayor (CYPAC-AM. El análisis de datos se llevó a cabo con el programa SPSS. Los sujetos de estudio fueron 50 personas adultas mayores de más de 60 años. En los resultados se encontró que 32 sujetos de estudio son del sexo femenino y 18 del sexo masculino; del 100 % de la población del género masculino, 44.44 % muestra tener la percepción de autocuidado inadecuado

  2. Seismic velocities and geologic logs from boreholes at three downhole arrays in San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James F.; Fumal, Thomas E.; Borcherdt, Roger D.; Warrick, Richard E.; Liu, Hsi-Ping; Westerlund, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    The Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989 (1704 PST), has reinforced observations made by Wood and others (1908) after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, that poor ground conditions (soft soil) increase the likelihood of shaking damage to structures. Since 1908 many studies (for example Borcherdt, 1970, Borcherdt and Gibbs, 1976, Borcherdt and Glassmoyer, 1992) have shown that soft soils amplify seismic waves at frequencies that can be damaging to structures. Damage in the City of San Francisco from the Loma Prieta earthquake was concentrated in the Marina District, the Embarcadero, and the China Basin areas. Each of these areas, to some degree, is underlain by soft soil deposits. These concentrations of damage raise important questions regarding the amplification effects of such deposits at damaging levels of motion. Unfortunately, no strong-motion recordings were obtained in these areas during the Loma Prieta earthquake and only a limited number (< 10) have been obtained on other soft soil sites in the United States. Consequently, important questions exist regarding the response of such deposits during damaging earthquakes, especially questions regarding the nonlinear soil response. Towards developing a data set to address these important questions, borehole strong-motion arrays have been installed at three locations. These arrays consist of groups of wide-dynamic-range pore-pressure transducers and three-component accelerometers, the outputs of which are recorded digitally. The arrays are designed to provide an integrated set of data on ground shaking, liquifaction-induced ground failure, and structural response. This report describes the detailed geologic, seismic, and material-property determinations derived at each of these sites.

  3. Comparison of sediment supply to San Francisco Bay from Coastal and Sierra Nevada watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, L. J.

    2012-12-01

    Quantifying suspended sediment loads is of paramount importance for managing the world's estuaries. To address this information need, a comprehensive analysis was completed for the San Francisco Bay system by combining a number of formerly disparate data sets. Suspended sediment and optical backscatter measurements near the head of the estuary were used to generate a continuous suspended sediment concentration record. In addition, periodic measurements of velocity and suspended sediment variation in the cross-section were used to validate the use of point samples collected on the edge of the channel for generating loads. Suspended sediment loads were determined by combining daily averaged suspended sediment concentrations with daily flow estimates adjusting for dispersive loads. Sediment loads from 482 small drainages around the Bay were determined using 235 station years of suspended sediment data covering 38 watershed locations, regression analysis, and simple modeling. Over 16 years, net annual load to the head of the estuary from its 154000 km2 watershed varied from 0.13-2.58 (mean = 0.89) million metric t, or 5.8 t/km2/yr. Small drainages in the nine-county Bay Area discharged between 0.089 and 4.35 (mean = 1.43) million metric t with an average yield of 175 metric t/km2/yr. Our results indicate that external loads to the Bay are dominated by the many hundreds of urbanized and tectonically active tributaries that drain just 8145 km2 adjacent to the Bay and that during only 5 years did sediment loads from the Central Valley likely exceed loads from the sum of the local smaller drainages. If San Francisco Bay is typical of other estuaries in active tectonic or climatically variable coastal regimes, managers responsible for water quality, sediment accumulating in shipping channels, or restoring wetlands in the world's estuaries may need to more carefully account for proximal small urban drainages that may dominate allochthonous sediment supply.

  4. Coupling Fluvial and Oceanic Drivers in Flooding Forecasts for San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdman, L.; Kim, J.; Cifelli, R.; Barnard, P.; Erikson, L. H.; Johnson, L. E.; Chandrasekar, V.

    2016-12-01

    San Francisco Bay is a highly urbanized estuary and the surrounding communities are susceptible to flooding along the bay shoreline and inland rivers and creeks that drain to the Bay. A forecast model that integrates fluvial and oceanic drivers is necessary for predicting flooding in this complex urban environment. This study introduces the state-of-the-art coupling of the USGS Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) with the NWS Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (RDHM) for San Francisco Bay. For this application, we utilize Delft3D-FM, a hydrodynamic model based on a flexible mesh grid, to calculate water levels that account for tidal forcing, seasonal water level anomalies, surge and in-Bay generated wind waves from the wind and pressure fields of a NWS forecast model. The tributary discharges from RDHM are dynamic, meteorologically driven allowing for operational use of CoSMoS which has previously relied on statistical estimates of river discharge. The flooding extent is determined by overlaying the resulting maximum water levels onto a recently updated 2-m digital elevation model of the study area which best resolves the extensive levee and tidal marsh systems in the region. The results we present here are focused on the interaction of the Bay and the Napa River watershed. This study demonstrates the interoperability of the CoSMoS and RDHM prediction models. We also use this pilot region to examine storm flooding impacts in a series of storm scenarios that simulate 5-100yr return period events in terms of either coastal or fluvial events. These scenarios demonstrate the wide range of possible flooding outcomes considering rainfall recurrence intervals, soil moisture conditions, storm surge, wind speed, and tides (spring and neap). With a simulated set of over 25 storm scenarios we show how the extent, level, and duration of flooding is dependent on these atmospheric and hydrologic parameters and we also determine a range of likely flood events.

  5. Geodetic estimates of fault slip rates in the San Francisco Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, J. C.; Svarc, J. L.; Prescott, W. H.

    1999-03-01

    Bourne et al. [1998] have suggested that the interseismic velocity profile at the surface across a transform plate boundary is a replica of the secular velocity profile at depth in the plastosphere. On the other hand, in the viscoelastic coupling model the shape of the interseismic surface velocity profile is a consequence of plastosphere relaxation following the previous rupture of the faults that make up the plate boundary and is not directly related to the secular flow in the plastosphere. The two models appear to be incompatible. If the plate boundary is composed of several subparallel faults and the interseismic surface velocity profile across the boundary known, each model predicts the secular slip rates on the faults which make up the boundary. As suggested by Bourne et al., the models can then be tested by comparing the predicted secular slip rates to those estimated from long-term offsets inferred from geology. Here we apply that test to the secular slip rates predicted for the principal faults (San Andreas, San Gregorio, Hayward, Calaveras, Rodgers Creek, Green Valley and Greenville faults) in the San Andreas fault system in the San Francisco Bay area. The estimates from the two models generally agree with one another and to a lesser extent with the geologic estimate. Because the viscoelastic coupling model has been equally successful in estimating secular slip rates on the various fault strands at a diffuse plate boundary, the success of the model of Bourne et at. [1998] in doing the same thing should not be taken as proof that the interseismic velocity profile across the plate boundary at the surface is a replica of the velocity profile at depth in the plastosphere.

  6. Avian communities in baylands and artificial salt evaporation ponds of the San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, J.Y.; Lu, C.T.; Pratt, R.T.

    2001-01-01

    San Francisco Bay wetlands, seasonal and tidal marshes between the historic low and high tide lines, are now highly fragmented because of development during the past 150 years. Artificial salt pond systems in the Bay are hypersaline and typically support simple assemblages of algae and invertebrates. In order to establish the value of salt ponds for migratory waterbirds, we used datasets to conduct a meta-analysis of avian communities in the baylands and salt ponds of San Pablo Bay. Fifty-three species of waterbirds in the salt ponds represented six foraging guilds: surface feeders, shallow probers, deep probers, dabblers, diving benthivores and piscivores. The total number of species and the Shannon-Weiner diversity index was higher in baylands than in salt ponds during all four seasons. However, overall bird density (number/ha) was higher in salt ponds compared with baylands in the winter and spring, primarily because of large concentrations of benthivores. Cessation of salt production in 1993 and subsequent reduction in water depth resulted in a decline of some diving duck populations that used the salt ponds.

  7. Does Wind Discourage Sustainable Transportation Mode Choice? Findings from San Francisco, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungkyoo Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores whether and to what extent wind discourages sustainable transportation mode choice, which includes riding public transportation, bicycling, and walking. A six month-long field study was carried out at four locations in San Francisco, a city that has been promoting sustainable transportation mode choice but that experiences high wind levels. It involved surveying pedestrians and on-site recording of microclimate data using various instruments. The survey adopted a mixed-method approach to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. Statistical analyses using Kruskal Wallis tests and ordinal logistic regression models identified the significant effect of wind speed on San Francisco’s residents in estimating their discouragement for waiting at transit stop without shelter, bicycling, and walking. Qualitative data revealed a deeper understanding of how wind influences their sustainable transportation mode choice. This research argues for the need to adopt climate-based efforts in urban planning and policy and sheds light on the climate resilience of cities

  8. Shifting shoals and shattered rocks : How man has transformed the floor of west-central San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, John L.; Wong, Florence L.; Carlson, Paul R.

    2004-01-01

    San Francisco Bay, one of the world's finest natural harbors and a major center for maritime trade, is referred to as the 'Gateway to the Pacific Rim.' The bay is an urbanized estuary that is considered by many to be the major estuary in the United States most modified by man's activities. The population around the estuary has grown rapidly since the 1850's and now exceeds 7 million people. The San Francisco Bay area's economy ranks as one of the largest in the world, larger even than that of many countries. More than 10 million tourists are estimated to visit the bay region each year. The bay area's population and associated development have increasingly changed the estuary and its environment. San Francisco Bay and the contiguous Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta encompass roughly 1,600 square miles (4,100 km2) and are the outlet of a major watershed that drains more than 40 percent of the land area of the State of California. This watershed provides drinking water for 20 million people (two thirds of the State's population) and irrigates 4.5 million acres of farmland and ranchland. During the past several decades, much has been done to clean up the environment and waters of San Francisco Bay. Conservationist groups have even bought many areas on the margins of the bay with the intention of restoring them to a condition more like the natural marshes they once were. However, many of the major manmade changes to the bay's environment occurred so long ago that the nature of them has been forgotten. In addition, many changes continue to occur today, such as the introduction of exotic species and the loss of commercial and sport fisheries because of declining fish populations. The economy and population of the nine counties that surround the bay continue to grow and put increasing pressure on the bay, both direct and indirect. Therefore, there are mixed signals for the future health and welfare of San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay estuary consists of three

  9. Empirical evidence for synchrony in the evolution of TB cases and HIV+ contacts among the San Francisco homeless.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Mohtashemi

    Full Text Available The re-emergence of tuberculosis (TB in the mid-1980s in many parts of the world, including the United States, is often attributed to the emergence and rapid spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Although it is well established that TB transmission is particularly amplified in populations with high HIV prevalence, the epidemiology of interaction between TB and HIV is not well understood. This is partly due to the scarcity of HIV-related data, a consequence of the voluntary nature of HIV status reporting and testing, and partly due to current practices of screening high risk populations through separate surveillance programs for HIV and TB. The San Francisco Department of Public Health, TB Control Program, has been conducting active surveillance among the San Francisco high-risk populations since the early 1990s. We present extensive TB surveillance data on HIV and TB infection among the San Francisco homeless to investigate the association between the TB cases and their HIV+ contacts. We applied wavelet coherence and phase analyses to the TB surveillance data from January 1993 through December 2005, to establish and quantify statistical association and synchrony in the highly non-stationary and ostensibly non-periodic waves of TB cases and their HIV+ contacts in San Francisco. When stratified by homelessness, we found that the evolution of TB cases and their HIV+ contacts is highly coherent over time and locked in phase at a specific periodic scale among the San Francisco homeless, but no significant association was observed for the non-homeless. This study confirms the hypothesis that the dynamics of HIV and TB are significantly intertwined and that HIV is likely a key factor in the sustenance of TB transmission among the San Francisco homeless. The findings of this study underscore the importance of contact tracing in detection of HIV+ individuals that may otherwise remain undetected, and

  10. Broadband Waveform Modeling to Evaluate the USGS Seismic Velocity Model for the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, A.; Petersson, A.; Nilsson, S.; Sjogreen, B.; McCandless, K.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake centenary, the USGS developed a three-dimensional seismic velocity and attenuation model for Northern California based on detailed geologic and geophysical constraints. The model was used to predict ground motions for the 1906 rupture. In this study we evaluate the model to assess its ability to accurately predict ground motions from moderate earthquakes recorded on broadband stations. Satisfactory prediction of ground motions from these events will provide hope for accurate modeling of future scenario earthquakes. Simulations were performed on large parallel computer(s) with a new elastic finite difference code developed at LLNL. We simulated broadband ground motions (0-0.25 Hz) for several moderate (magnitude 3.5-5.0) earthquakes in the region observed at Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN) broadband stations. These events are well located and can be modeled with simple point moment tensor sources (taken from the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory catalog), helping to isolate the effects of structure on the waveforms. These data sample the region's diverse tectonic structures, such as the bay muds, sedimentary basins and hard rock complexes. Preliminary results indicate that the simulations reproduce many important features in the data. For example, observed long duration surface waves are often predicted for complex paths (traveling across contrasting structures) and through sedimentary basins. Excellent waveform fits were frequently obtained for long-period comparisons (0.02-0.1) and good fits were often obtained for shorter periods. We will attempt higher frequency simulations to test the ability of the model to match the high frequency response. Finally, we performed large scenario earthquake simulations for the Hayward Fault. These simulations predict large amplifications across the Santa Clara and San Ramon/Livermore Valley sedimentary basins and with the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta.

  11. Amendment to refuge hunting plan for waterfowl on 5,500 acres of former commercial salt ponds : Don Edwards San Francisco Bay NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This amendment to the 1982 Don Edwards San Francisco Bay NWR waterfowl hunting plan was written to address 5,500 acres of salt pond recently acquisitioned by the...

  12. EX1006 Hawaii to San Francisco Transit to Drydock (EX1006, EM302) on Okeanos Explorer in Hawaii, US West Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Okeanos Explorer (EX) will transit from Honolulu, HI to San Francisco for the winter inport and drydock period. During the transit, the EX will perform 24-hour...

  13. Developing a spatially-explicit climate adaptation framework for estuarine ecosystems of the San Francisco Bay: climate adaptation for decision support

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides recommended resource allocations for conserving four subregions of SanFrancisco (SF) Bay, including North Bay, Suisun, Central Bay and South...

  14. Wed. May 13, Hayward, Calif. -- EPA Administrator McCarthy joins San Francisco Bay Area agencies to celebrate nations largest solar energy partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO - On Wednesday, May 13, U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will join Bay Area agencies to celebrate the nation's largest local government collaborative for solar power and launch the nation's first federal solar partnership. Administ

  15. Establishing baseline conditions to inform adaptive management of South San Francisco Bay salt ponds: A comparison of waterbird abundance from the 1980s to the 2000s

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 30,000 acres of wetlands within the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) provide critical habitat for over one million waterbirds...

  16. Museum under seven hills. New building of the Academy of Science at San Francisco/USA by Renzo Piano; Museum unter sieben Huegeln. Neubau Wissenschaftsakademie in San Francisco/USA von Renzo Piano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alle, Nicole; Koch, Tom

    2009-05-15

    In September 2008, the new building of the California Academy of Science was inaugurated. It is a building of superlatives. Not only is it the world's biggest public building with Leed Platinum certificate but also an example of integrative architecture which cites the history and architecture of San Francisco. The building structure and shell are based on solar engineering and on the knowledge of bionics. (orig.)

  17. Crisis of the social and emergence of sociality in the new scenarios of identity. The San Francisco district of Bilbao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Cavia

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The San Francisco district in Bilbao (Spain is undergoing a deep process of urban transformation in which there is a convergence of different dynamics —economic (property speculation, social (appearance of associations and social movements and political (rehabilitation plans. In order to explain this transformation, we test two hypotheses in the article: gentrification and the crisis of the social institutions (politics, religion and work that traditionally articulated society. To counterbalance the shortcomings of the two hypotheses we redefine them as mere “conditions of possibility” of the emergence of new forms of sociality, the depoliticisation of signifieds and the production of new spaces. San Francisco constitutes a variable cronotope that provokes a blurring in sociological configurations and in social norms and sanctions.

  18. Confirmatory sediment analyses and solid and suspended particulate phase bioassays on sediment from Oakland Inner Harbor, San Francisco, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Word, J.Q.; Ward, J.A.; Apts, C.W.; Woodruff, D.L.; Barrows, M.E.; Cullinan, V.I.; Hyland, J.L.; Campbell, J.F.

    1988-12-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, was authorized by the US Congress to deepen the navigation channels of Inner and Outer Oakland Harbor, California. During review of the environmental impact statement required for this dredging and disposal project, a panel of national experts approved the open-water disposal of dredged sediment from selected areas within the Inner Harbor, subject to results of confirmatory solid phase bioassays. The San Francisco District of the Corps requested the Battle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to conduct these confirmatory studies. The studies provided technical data for an evaluation of the potential environmental impact of this project. Within extremely narrow time constraints, these studies provided chemical and biological information required by ocean dumping regulations to determine suitability of the Oakland Inner Harbor and turning basin sediment for ocean disposal. 23 refs., 18 figs., 45 tabs.

  19. Mercury in birds of San Francisco Bay-Delta, California: trophic pathways, bioaccumulation, and ecotoxicological risk to avian reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Heinz, Gary; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Takekawa, John Y.; Miles, A. Keith; Adelsbach, Terrence L.; Herzog, Mark P.; Bluso-Demers, Jill D.; Demers, Scott A.; Herring, Garth; Hoffman, David J.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Willacker, James J.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Maurer, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    San Francisco Bay Estuary in northern California has a legacy of mercury contamination, which could reduce the health and reproductive success of waterbirds in the estuary. The goal of this study was to use an integrated field and laboratory approach to evaluate the risks of mercury exposure to birds in the estuary. We examined mercury bioaccumulation, and other contaminants of concern, in five waterbird species that depend heavily on San Francisco Bay Estuary for foraging and breeding habitat: American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri), Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), and surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata). These species have different foraging habitats and diets that represent three distinct foraging guilds within the estuary’s food web. In this report, we provide an integrated synthesis of the primary findings from this study and results are synthesized from 54 peer-reviewed publications generated to date with other unpublished results.

  20. Sub-tidal benthic habitats of central San Francisco Bay and offshore Golden Gate area: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, H. Gary; Endris, Charles; Vallier, Tracy; Golden, Nadine E.; Cross, Jeffery; Ryan, Holly F.; Dieter, Bryan; Niven, Eric; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Deep-water potential estuarine and marine benthic habitat types were defined from a variety of new and interpreted data sets in central San Francisco Bay and offshore Golden Gate area including multibeam echosounder (MBES), side-scan sonar and bottom grab samples. Potential estuarine benthic habitats identified for the first time range from hard bedrock outcrops on island and mainland flanks and some Bay floor

  1. Applying Integrated ITS Technologies to Parking Management Systems: A Transit-Based Case Study in the San Francisco Bay Area

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan; Rodier, Caroline J.; Eaken, Amanda M.

    2004-01-01

    California Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways has teamed with the California Department of Transportation, the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District, ParkingCarmaâ„¢, and Quixote Corporation to launch a smart parking research demonstration at the Rockridge BART station in the East San Francisco Bay Area (California, USA). The results of an extensive literature review demonstrate that different smart parking applications implemented worldwide can ease traveler delays, increase transit...

  2. A physical model for strain accumulation in the San Francisco Bay Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.F.; Nyst, M.

    2005-01-01

    Strain accumulation in tectonically active regions is generally a superposition of the effects of background tectonic loading, steady-state dislocation processes, such as creep, and transient deformation. In the San Francisco Bay region (SFBR), the most uncertain of these processes is transient deformation, which arises primarily in association with large earthquakes. As such, it depends upon the history of faulting and the rheology of the crust and mantle, which together determine the pattern of longer term (decade-scale) post-seismic response to earthquakes. We utilize a set of 102 GPS velocity vectors in the SFBR in order to characterize the strain rate field and construct a physical model of its present deformation. We first perform an inversion for the continuous velocity gradient field from the discrete GPS velocity field, from which both tensor strain rate and rotation rate may be extracted. The present strain rate pattern is well described as a nearly uniform shear strain rate oriented approximately N34??W (140 nanostrain yr-1) plus a N56??E uniaxial compression rate averaging 20 nanostrain yr-1 across the shear zone. We fit the velocity and strain rate fields to a model of time-dependent deformation within a 135-kin-wide, arcuate shear zone bounded by strong Pacific Plate and Sierra Nevada block lithosphere to the SW and NE, respectively. Driving forces are purely lateral, consisting of shear zone deformation imposed by the relative motions between the thick Pacific Plate and Sierra Nevada block lithospheres. Assuming a depth-dependent viscoelastic structure within the shear zone, we account for the effects of steady creep on faults and viscoelastic relaxation following the 1906 San Francisco and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes, subject to constant velocity boundary conditions on the edges of the shear zone. Fault creep is realized by evaluating dislocations on the creeping portions of faults in the fluid limit of the viscoelastic model. A priori plate

  3. Understanding Urban Watersheds through Digital Interactive Maps, San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, J. M.; Ticci, M. G.; Mulvey, P.

    2014-12-01

    Dense urbanization has resulted in the "disappearance" of many local creeks in urbanized areas surrounding the San Francisco Bay. Long reaches of creeks now flow in underground pipes. Municipalities and water agencies trying to reduce non-point-source pollution are faced with a public that cannot see and therefore does not understand the interconnected nature of the drainage system or its ultimate discharge to the bay. Since 1993, we have collaborated with the Oakland Museum, the San Francisco Estuary Institute, public agencies, and municipalities to create creek and watershed maps to address the need for public understanding of watershed concepts. Fifteen paper maps are now published (www.museumca.org/creeks), which have become a standard reference for educators and anyone working on local creek-related issues. We now present digital interactive creek and watershed maps in Google Earth. Four maps are completed covering urbanized areas of Santa Clara and Alameda Counties. The maps provide a 3D visualization of the watersheds, with cartography draped over the landscape in transparent colors. Each mapped area includes both Present and Past (circa 1800s) layers which can be clicked on or off by the user. The Present layers include the modern drainage network, watershed boundaries, and reservoirs. The Past layers include the 1800s-era creek systems, tidal marshes, lagoons, and other habitats. All data are developed in ArcGIS software and converted to Google Earth format. To ensure the maps are interesting and engaging, clickable icons pop-up provide information on places to visit, restoration projects, history, plants, and animals. Maps of Santa Clara Valley are available at http://www.valleywater.org/WOW.aspx. Maps of western Alameda County will soon be available at http://acfloodcontrol.org/. Digital interactive maps provide several advantages over paper maps. They are seamless within each map area, and the user can zoom in or out, and tilt, and fly over to explore

  4. Review of wastewater problems and wastewater-management planning in the San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Walter G.

    1973-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay region has suffered adverse environmental effects related to the discharge of municipal-, industrial-, and agricultural- wastewater and storm-water runoff. Specific pollutional properties of theses discharges are not well understood in all cases although the toxic materials and aquatic-plant nutrients (biostimulants) found in municipal and industrial waterwater are considered to be a major cause of regional water-quality problems. Other water-quality problems in the region are commonly attributed to pesticides found in agricultural wastewater and potentially pathogenic bacteria in municipal-wastewater discharges and in storm-water runoff. The geographical distribution and magnitude of wastewater discharges in the bay region, particularly those from municipalities and industries, is largely a function of population, economic growth, and urban development. As might be expected, the total volume of wastewater has increased in a trend paralleling this growth and development. More significant, perhaps, is the fact that the total volume parameters such as BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), biostimulant concentrations, and toxicity, has increased despite large expenditures on new and improved municipal- and industrial-wastewater-treatment plants. Also, pollutant loadings from other major source, such as agriculture and storm-water runoff, have increased. At the time of writing (1972), many Federal, State, regional, and local agencies are engaged in a comprehensive wastewater-management-planning effort for the entire bay region. Initial objectives of this planning effort are: (1) the consolidation and coordination of loosely integrated wastewater-management facilities and (2) the elimination of wastewater discharges to ecologically sensitive areas, such as fresh-water streams and shallow extremities of San Francisco Bay. There has been some investigation of potential long-range wastewater-management alternatives based upon disposal in deep water in the

  5. A Proposed Physical Model of Strain Accumulation in the San Francisco Bay Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F. F.; Nyst, M. C.

    2002-12-01

    Strain accumulation in tectonically active regions is dependent on several factors, including background tectonic loading, steady-state dislocation processes such as creep, and transient deformation. In the San Francisco Bay (SFB) region, the most uncertain of these processes is transient deformation, which arises primarily in association with large historic earthquakes. As such it depends upon the history of faulting and the rheology of the crust and mantle, which together determine the pattern of longer-term (decade-scale) postseismic response to earthquakes. We utilize a set of 99 GPS velocity vectors in the SFB region in order to characterize the strain field and construct a physical model of its present deformation. We first perform an inversion for the continuous velocity gradient field from the discrete GPS velocity field, from which both tensor strain and rotation may be extracted. We then fit this strain field to a model of time-dependent deformation within a 135 km-wide, arcuate shear zone bounded by strong Pacific plate and Sierra Nevada block lithosphere to the SW and NE, respectively. Driving forces are purely lateral, consisting of shear zone deformation imposed by the relative motions between the thick Pacific plate and Sierra Nevada block lithospheres. Assuming depth-dependent viscoelastic structure within the shear zone, we account for the effects of steady creep on faults and viscoelastic relaxation following the 1906 San Francisco and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes, subject to constant velocity boundary conditions on the edges of the shear zone: 38 mm/yr fault-parallel motion and variable fault-perpendicular motion. Fault creep is realized by evaluating dislocations on the creeping portions of faults in the fluid limit of the viscoelastic model. The present strain pattern is well-described as a nearly uniform shear strain oriented approximately N35° W (140 nanostrain/yr) plus a more heterogeneous N55° E uniaxial compression averaging 20

  6. A physical model for strain accumulation in the San Francisco Bay Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, Fred F.; Nyst, Marleen

    2005-01-01

    Strain accumulation in tectonically active regions is generally a superposition of the effects of background tectonic loading, steady-state dislocation processes, such as creep, and transient deformation. In the San Francisco Bay region (SFBR), the most uncertain of these processes is transient deformation, which arises primarily in association with large earthquakes. As such, it depends upon the history of faulting and the rheology of the crust and mantle, which together determine the pattern of longer term (decade-scale) post-seismic response to earthquakes. We utilize a set of 102 GPS velocity vectors in the SFBR in order to characterize the strain rate field and construct a physical model of its present deformation. We first perform an inversion for the continuous velocity gradient field from the discrete GPS velocity field, from which both tensor strain rate and rotation rate may be extracted. The present strain rate pattern is well described as a nearly uniform shear strain rate oriented approximately N34°W (140 nanostrain yr-1) plus a N56°E uniaxial compression rate averaging 20 nanostrain yr-1 across the shear zone. We fit the velocity and strain rate fields to a model of time-dependent deformation within a 135-km-wide, arcuate shear zone bounded by strong Pacific Plate and Sierra Nevada block lithosphere to the SW and NE, respectively. Driving forces are purely lateral, consisting of shear zone deformation imposed by the relative motions between the thick Pacific Plate and Sierra Nevada block lithospheres. Assuming a depth-dependent viscoelastic structure within the shear zone, we account for the effects of steady creep on faults and viscoelastic relaxation following the 1906 San Francisco and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes, subject to constant velocity boundary conditions on the edges of the shear zone. Fault creep is realized by evaluating dislocations on the creeping portions of faults in the fluid limit of the viscoelastic model. A priori plate

  7. Earthquake probabilities in the San Francisco Bay Region: 2000 to 2030 - a summary of findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay region sits astride a dangerous “earthquake machine,” the tectonic boundary between the Pacific and North American Plates. The region has experienced major and destructive earthquakes in 1838, 1868, 1906, and 1989, and future large earthquakes are a certainty. The ability to prepare for large earthquakes is critical to saving lives and reducing damage to property and infrastructure. An increased understanding of the timing, size, location, and effects of these likely earthquakes is a necessary component in any effective program of preparedness. This study reports on the probabilities of occurrence of major earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay region (SFBR) for the three decades 2000 to 2030. The SFBR extends from Healdsberg on the northwest to Salinas on the southeast and encloses the entire metropolitan area, including its most rapidly expanding urban and suburban areas. In this study a “major” earthquake is defined as one with M≥6.7 (where M is moment magnitude). As experience from the Northridge, California (M6.7, 1994) and Kobe, Japan (M6.9, 1995) earthquakes has shown us, earthquakes of this size can have a disastrous impact on the social and economic fabric of densely urbanized areas. To reevaluate the probability of large earthquakes striking the SFBR, the U.S. Geological Survey solicited data, interpretations, and analyses from dozens of scientists representing a wide crosssection of the Earth-science community (Appendix A). The primary approach of this new Working Group (WG99) was to develop a comprehensive, regional model for the long-term occurrence of earthquakes, founded on geologic and geophysical observations and constrained by plate tectonics. The model considers a broad range of observations and their possible interpretations. Using this model, we estimate the rates of occurrence of earthquakes and 30-year earthquake probabilities. Our study considers a range of magnitudes for earthquakes on the major faults in the

  8. Drivers of change in estuarine-coastal ecosystems: Discoveries from four decades of study in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, J.E.; Jassby, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    Poised at the interface of rivers, ocean, atmosphere and dense human settlement, estuaries are driven by a large array of natural and anthropogenic forces. San Francisco Bay exemplifies the fast-paced change occurring in many of the world's estuaries, bays and inland seas in response to these diverse forces. We use observations from this particularly well-studied estuary to illustrate responses to six drivers that are common agents of change where land and sea meet: water consumption and diversion; human modification of sediment supply; introduction of non-native species; sewage input; environmental policy; and climate shifts. In San Francisco Bay, responses to these drivers include, respectively, shifts in the timing and extent of freshwater inflow and salinity intrusion; decreasing turbidity; restructuring of plankton communities; nutrient enrichment; elimination of hypoxia and reduced metal contamination of biota; and food web changes that decrease resistance of the estuary to nutrient pollution. Detection of these changes and discovery of their causes through environmental monitoring have been essential for establishing and measuring outcomes of environmental policies that aim to maintain high water quality and sustain services provided by estuarine-coastal ecosystems. The wide range of variability time scales and the multiplicity of interacting drivers place heavy demands on estuarine monitoring programs. But the San Francisco Bay case study illustrates why the imperative for monitoring has never been greater.

  9. Drivers of change in estuarine-coastal ecosystems: Discoveries from four decades of study in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Jassby, Alan D.

    2012-12-01

    Poised at the interface of rivers, ocean, atmosphere and dense human settlement, estuaries are driven by a large array of natural and anthropogenic forces. San Francisco Bay exemplifies the fast-paced change occurring in many of the world's estuaries, bays, and inland seas in response to these diverse forces. We use observations from this particularly well-studied estuary to illustrate responses to six drivers that are common agents of change where land and sea meet: water consumption and diversion, human modification of sediment supply, introduction of nonnative species, sewage input, environmental policy, and climate shifts. In San Francisco Bay, responses to these drivers include, respectively, shifts in the timing and extent of freshwater inflow and salinity intrusion, decreasing turbidity, restructuring of plankton communities, nutrient enrichment, elimination of hypoxia and reduced metal contamination of biota, and food web changes that decrease resistance of the estuary to nutrient pollution. Detection of these changes and discovery of their causes through environmental monitoring have been essential for establishing and measuring outcomes of environmental policies that aim to maintain high water quality and sustain services provided by estuarine-coastal ecosystems. The many time scales of variability and the multiplicity of interacting drivers place heavy demands on estuarine monitoring programs, but the San Francisco Bay case study illustrates why the imperative for monitoring has never been greater.

  10. Data from theodolite measurements of creep rates on San Francisco Bay region faults, California: 1979-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galehouse, Jon S.

    2002-01-01

    My purpose is to make our creep data on San Francisco Bay region active faults available to the scientific research community. My student research assistants and I measured creep (aseismic slip) rates on these faults from 1979 until my retirement from the project in 2001. These data are further described in my final technical report as principal investigator, which summarizes results from 22 September 1979 through 28 February 2001 (Galehouse, 2001). We made over 2,600 creep measurements, about one-third in the ten years prior to the Loma Prieta earthquake (LPEQ) and two-thirds in the 11.4 years following it. The measurements are continuing to be made by members of the Geosciences Department at San Francisco State University (SFSU) under the direction of Karen Grove and John Caskey. A complete analysis of our results obtained on the Hayward fault is presented in Lienkaemper, Galehouse, and Simpson (2001). A formal report based on the entire San Francisco Bay region data set is in preparation. Data sheets for each site along the fault are available for downloading in Excel format to facilitate analysis of the data. They are also available as tab-delimited raw data. The data include all regular measurement sites, SF–1 through SF–34, and the 20 SFSU and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) afterslip sites on the Hayward fault.

  11. Waveform tomography of crustal structure in the south San Francisco Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.F.; Fletcher, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    We utilize a scattering-based seismic tomography technique to constrain crustal tructure around the southern San Francisco Bay region (SFBR). This technique is based on coupled traveling wave scattering theory, which has usually been applied to the interpretation of surface waves in large regional-scale studies. Using fully three-dimensional kernels, this technique is here applied to observed P, S, and surface waves of intermediate period (3-4 s dominant period) observed following eight selected regional events. We use a total of 73 seismograms recorded by a U.S. Geological Survey short-period seismic array in the western Santa Clara Valley, the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network, and the Northern California Seismic Network. Modifications of observed waveforms due to scattering from crustal structure include (positive or negative) amplification, delay, and generation of coda waves. The derived crustal structure explains many of the observed signals which cannot be explained with a simple layered structure. There is sufficient sensitivity to both deep and shallow crustal structure that even with the few sources employed in the present study, we obtain shallow velocity structure which is reasonably consistent with previous P wave tomography results. We find a depth-dependent lateral velocity contrast across the San Andreas fault (SAF), with higher velocities southwest of the SAF in the shallow crust and higher velocities northeast of the SAF in the midcrust. The method does not have the resolution to identify very slow sediment velocities in the upper approximately 3 km since the tomographic models are smooth at a vertical scale of about 5 km. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Changes in causes of death among persons with AIDS: San Francisco, California, 1996-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Sandra K; Vu, Annie; Hsu, Ling Chin; Hessol, Nancy A

    2014-10-01

    The increased life expectancy among HIV-infected persons treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), risk behaviors, and co-morbidities associated with ART place HIV-infected persons at risk for non-HIV-related causes of death. We used the San Francisco HIV/AIDS registry to identify deaths that occurred from January 1996 through December 2011. Temporal trends in AIDS- and non-AIDS-related mortality rates, the proportion of underlying and contributory causes of death, and the ratio of observed deaths in the study population to expected number of deaths among California men aged 20-79 (standardized mortality ratio [SMR]) of underlying causes of death were examined. A total of 5338 deaths were identified. The annual AIDS-related death rate (per 100 deaths) declined from 10.8 in 1996 to 0.9 in 2011 (p<0.0001), while the annual death rate from non-AIDS-related causes declined from 2.1 in 1996 to 0.9 in 2011 (p<0.0001). The proportion of deaths due to all types of heart disease combined, all non-AIDS cancers combined, mental disorders resulting from substance abuse, drug overdose, suicide and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increased significantly over time. The SMRs for liver diseased decreased significantly over time but remained elevated. Our data highlight the importance of age-related causes of death as well as deaths from causes that are, at least in part, preventable.

  13. Difference in Survival between Housed and Homeless individuals with HIV, San Francisco, 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanijow, Keshav; Hirozawa, Anne; Ancock, Benedict; Hsu, Ling Chin; Bamberger, Joshua; Schwarcz, Sandra K

    2015-08-01

    San Francisco (SF), a city with large HIV-infected and homeless populations, expanded supportive housing for HIV-infected people in 2007. We used the SF HIV/AIDS registry to compare survival between people who were homeless and who were housed at time of HIV diagnosis from 2002 through 2011. Housing status was obtained from medical records and deaths from local, state, and national vital registration. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method. Ten percent of the 5,474 cases were homeless. Among people diagnosed between 2002 and 2006, the five-year survival was worse for people who were homeless at HIV diagnosis than for housed individuals (79% vs. 92%, p<.0001), but not for those diagnosed between 2007 and 2011 (92% vs. 93%, p=.3938). The improved survival among HIV-infected homeless people occurred during the time of increased supportive housing for this population. Our findings support including housing as an essential component of HIV care.

  14. Modeling Sulfides, pH and Hydrogen Sulfide Gas in the Sewers of San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Revilla, Nohemy; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2015-11-01

    An extensive measuring campaign targeted on sewer odor problems was undertaken in San Francisco. It was assessed whether a conceptual sewer process model could reproduce the measured concentrations of total sulfide in the wastewater and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere, and to which degree such simulations have potential for further improving odor and sulfide management. The campaign covered measurement of wastewater sulfide by grab sampling and diurnal sampling, and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere was logged. The tested model was based on the Wastewater Aerobic/Anaerobic Transformations in Sewers (WATS) sewer process concept, which never had been calibrated to such an extensive dataset. The study showed that the model was capable of reproducing the general levels of wastewater sulfide, wastewater pH, and sewer H2S gas. It could also reproduce the general variability of these parameters, albeit with some uncertainty. It was concluded that the model could be applied for the purpose in mind.

  15. Survival of postfledging Forster's terns in relation to mercury exposure in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, J.T.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Iverson, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined factors influencing mercury concentrations in 90 fledgling Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) and evaluated whether mercury influenced postfledging survival in San Francisco Bay, California. Mercury concentrations (??SE) in chicks 21-29 days old (just before fledging) were 0.33 ?? 0.01 ??g g-1 ww for blood and 6.44 ?? 0.28 ??g g -1 fw for breast feathers. Colony site had an overriding influence on fledgling contamination, however hatching date and age also affected blood, but not feather, mercury concentrations. Blood mercury concentrations decreased by 28% during the 50-day hatching period and increased with chick age by 30% during the last week prior to fledging. Using radio-telemetry, we calculated that cumulative survival during the 35-day postfledging time period was 0.81 ?? 0.09 (SE). Postfledging survival rates increased with size-adjusted mass, and cumulative survival probability was 61% lower for terns with the lowest, compared to the highest, observed masses. Conversely, survival was not influenced by blood mercury concentration, time since fledging, sex, or hatch date. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of fledglings found dead at nesting colonies also were no different than those in live chicks. Our results indicate that colony site, hatching date, and age influenced mercury concentrations in fledgling Forster's terns, but that mercury did not influence postfledging survival. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  16. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: a report from ATS 2001, May 18–23, San Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noone Peadar G

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is a genetic disorder of abnormal ciliary structure and function that leads to defective mucociliary clearance, resulting in oto-sino-pulmonary disease, and infertility. The disease is currently under intense investigation by a number of research groups worldwide. At the recent American Thoracic Society meeting in San Francisco in May 2001, two sessions focused on PCD; a symposium session on May 21 with several featured expert speakers was followed by a mini-symposium on Tuesday May 22, with one featured speaker and presentation of nine abstracts covering a range of research topics. Mattias Salathe (University of Miami, USA and Stephen Brody (Washington University, St Louis, USA chaired the symposium session. Presentations focused on the clinical spectrum of PCD, the genetics of PCD, a proteomics approach to detail the structure of cilia, the role of cilia in the embryology of situs laterality, and airway epithelial cell biology. The mini-symposium was chaired by Peadar Noone (University of North Carolina, USA and Malcolm King (University of Alberta, USA and included presentations on the use of PCD as a human disease model, accurate definition of the phenotype using clinical and cell biologic markers, and molecular studies. The latter reports ranged from isolation of a protein involved in ciliary structure and function to genetic studies using linkage analysis and the candidate gene approach. Clinicians and scientists alike displayed considerable interest at both sessions, and there were several lively question–answer sessions.

  17. HIV Prevalence, Sexual Partners, Sexual Behavior and HIV Acquisition Risk Among Trans Men, San Francisco, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Willi; Wilson, Erin C; Raymond, Henry F

    2017-02-24

    We surveyed 122 trans men using a hybrid sampling method that included randomly selected physical and online venues and peer referral to measure HIV prevalence and risk behaviors. HIV prevalence was 0% (one-sided 97.5% confidence interval 0-3.3%). Of 366 partnerships described, 44.8% were with cisgender women, 23.8% with cisgender men, 20.8% with trans men, and 10.7% with trans women. Condomless receptive anal and front hole/vaginal sex averaged one to three episodes per six months. HIV prevalence in trans men is likely closer to heterosexual cisgender men and women in San Francisco than trans women or MSM. Prevention prioritizing trans women and MSM, coupled with individualized and relevant sexual health education for trans men with partners from these populations, may best address the HIV prevention needs of trans men. Systematic collection of transgender status in Census and health data is needed to understand other health disparities among trans men.

  18. Bilingual Experience in the Hungarian and German Immigrant Communities of the San Francisco Bay Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tóth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the interaction of languages are gaining importance in today’s world, characterized by accelerated migration and increasing cultural exchange. Unlike most research in this field, which concentrate on one embedded language against a matrix language, this fieldwork-based study examines the linguistic life in two immigrant populations, Hungarian and German, against the background of English. The primary focus of this article is the description of the bilingual and bicultural experience of the two groups. The discussion of language and identity will take a central place in the paper, and diglossia, bilingualism, loyalty, and language as social behavior will also be touched upon (section 4. This is complemented by a socio-historical portrayal of these speech communities of San Francisco, set forth in the preceding section 3. Section 5 provides an outline of the informant sets, spanning three generations in each linguistic cohort, and illustrates the subjects’ attitude towards maintenance. The final, sixth section offers qualitative and quantitative comparative statements about the results of linguistic interference and the ongoing attrition process, thus contributing to our understanding of contact linguistic mechanisms, and shedding light on specific grammatical and lexical features that are most prone to attritional forces.

  19. Climate Change and Conservation Planning in California: The San Francisco Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branciforte, R.; Weiss, S. B.; Schaefer, N.

    2008-12-01

    Climate change threatens California's vast and unique biodiversity. The Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals is a comprehensive regional biodiversity assessment of the 9 counties surrounding San Francisco Bay, and is designing conservation land networks that will serve to protect, manage, and restore that biodiversity. Conservation goals for vegetation, rare plants, mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates are set, and those goals are met using the optimization algorithm MARXAN. Climate change issues are being considered in the assessment and network design in several ways. The high spatial variability at mesoclimatic and topoclimatic scales in California creates high local biodiversity, and provides some degree of local resiliency to macroclimatic change. Mesoclimatic variability from 800 m scale PRISM climatic norms is used to assess "mesoclimate spaces" in distinct mountain ranges, so that high mesoclimatic variability, especially local extremes that likely support range limits of species and potential climatic refugia, can be captured in the network. Quantitative measures of network resiliency to climate change include the spatial range of key temperature and precipitation variables within planning units. Topoclimatic variability provides a finer-grained spatial patterning. Downscaling to the topoclimatic scale (10-50 m scale) includes modeling solar radiation across DEMs for predicting maximum temperature differentials, and topographic position indices for modeling minimum temperature differentials. PRISM data are also used to differentiate grasslands into distinct warm and cool types. The overall conservation strategy includes local and regional connectivity so that range shifts can be accommodated.

  20. Estimation of historic flows and sediment loads to San Francisco Bay,1849–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moftakhari, H.R.; Jay, D.A.; Talke, S.A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2016-01-01

    River flow and sediment transport in estuaries influence morphological development over decadal and century time scales, but hydrological and sedimentological records are typically too short to adequately characterize long-term trends. In this study, we recover archival records and apply a rating curve approach to develop the first instrumental estimates of daily delta inflow and sediment loads to San Francisco Bay (1849–1929). The total sediment load is constrained using sedimentation/erosion estimated from bathymetric survey data to produce continuous daily sediment transport estimates from 1849 to 1955, the time period prior to sediment load measurements. We estimate that ∼55% (45–75%) of the ∼1500 ± 400 million tons (Mt) of sediment delivered to the estuary between 1849 and 2011 was the result of anthropogenic alteration in the watershed that increased sediment supply. Also, the seasonal timing of sediment flux events has shifted because significant spring-melt floods have decreased, causing estimated springtime transport (April 1st to June 30th) to decrease from ∼25% to ∼15% of the annual total. By contrast, wintertime sediment loads (December 1st to March 31st) have increased from ∼70% to ∼80%. A ∼35% reduction of annual flow since the 19th century along with decreased sediment supply has resulted in a ∼50% reduction in annual sediment delivery. The methods developed in this study can be applied to other systems for which unanalyzed historic data exist.

  1. A Tale of Two Cities: The Exploration of the Trieste Public Psychiatry Model in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portacolone, Elena; Segal, Steven P; Mezzina, Roberto; Scheper-Hughes, Nancy; Okin, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the "Trieste model" of public psychiatry is one of the most progressive in the world. It was in Trieste, Italy, in the 1970s that the radical psychiatrist, Franco Basaglia, implemented his vision of anti-institutional, democratic psychiatry. The Trieste model put the suffering person-not his or her disorders-at the center of the health care system. The model, revolutionary in its time, began with the "negation" and "destruction" of the traditional mental asylum ('manicomio'). A novel community mental health system replaced the mental institution. To achieve this, the Trieste model promoted the social inclusion and full citizenship of users of mental health services. Trieste has been a collaborating center of the WHO for four decades with a goal of disseminating its practices across the world. This paper illustrates a recent attempt to determine whether the Trieste model could be translated to the city of San Francisco, California. This process revealed a number of obstacles to such a translation. Our hope is that a review of Basaglia's ideas, along with a discussion of the obstacles to their implementation, will facilitate efforts to foster the social integration of persons with mental disorders across the world.

  2. Hypothermia and afterdrop following open water swimming: the Alcatraz/San Francisco Swim Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuckton, T J; Claman, D M; Goldreich, D; Wendt, F C; Nuckton, J G

    2000-10-01

    To determine whether or not participants in open water swim events experience hypothermia and afterdrop, rectal temperature was measured for up to 45 minutes in 11 subjects following the New Year's Day Alcatraz Swim. This event was held in open water (11.7 degrees C [53.0 degrees F]) in the San Francisco Bay, and participants did not wear wetsuits or other protective clothing. Biophysical parameters, including surfacelvolume ratio, body mass index, and percent body fat were measured before the swim, and statistical analysis was done to determine predictors of temperature decrease and afterdrop duration. Applying the American Heart Association definition of hypothermia (less than 36.0 C [96.8 degrees F]), hypothermia was seen in 5 of the 11 subjects. Using a more rigorous and traditional definition (less than 35.0 degrees C [95.0 degrees F]), hypothermia was seen in only one subject. Afterdrop, defined as continued cooling following removal from cold stress, was seen in 10 of the 11 subjects. Surface/volume ratio (S/V) and body mass index (BMI) predicted the lowest recorded temperatures (P water swimming, and that participants should be observed for signs of temperature decrease following removal from cold stress.

  3. Acquired Color Vision Defects and Hexane Exposure: A Study of San Francisco Bay Area Automotive Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Stella; Eisen, Ellen A; Bates, Michael N; Liu, Sa; Haegerstrom-Portnoy, Gunilla; Hammond, S Katharine

    2016-06-01

    Occupational exposure to solvents, including n-hexane, has been associated with acquired color vision defects. Blue-yellow defects are most common and may be due to neurotoxicity or retinal damage. Acetone may potentiate the neurotoxicity of n-hexane. We present results on nonhexane solvent and hexane exposure and color vision from a cross-sectional study of 835 automotive repair workers in the San Francisco Bay Area, California (2007-2013). Cumulative exposure was estimated from self-reported work history, and color vision was assessed using the Lanthony desaturated D-15 panel test. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios for color vision defects. Acquired color vision defects were present in 29% of participants, of which 70% were blue-yellow. Elevated prevalence ratios were found for nonhexane solvent exposure, with a maximum of 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 2.00) for blue-yellow. Among participants aged ≤50 years, the prevalence ratio for blue-yellow defects was 2.17 (95% CI: 1.03, 4.56) in the highest quartile of nonhexane solvent exposure and 1.62 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.72) in the highest category of exposure to hexane with acetone coexposure. Cumulative exposures to hexane and nonhexane solvents in the highest exposure categories were associated with elevated prevalence ratios for color vision defects in younger participants.

  4. Bedrock knobs, San Francisco Bay: Do navigation hazards outweigh other environment problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, P.R.; Chin, J.L.; Wong, F.L.

    2000-01-01

    Three bedrock knobs (Arch, Harding, and Shag rocks) rise above the unconsolidated sediment of central San Francisco Bay to a water depth of less than -12 m (cities of the Bay estuary. Acoustic profiling data show that bedrock extends at a gentle to moderate slope away from the knobs. These data also show that two of the knobs, Harding and Shag, may be part of a bedrock ridge that extends to Alcatraz Island and perhaps southeast to Blossom Rock. The tops of these rocks should be lowered to a depth of -17 m (-55.8 ft), with a total volume of as much as 245,000 m3 (320,460 yd3), at an estimated cost of nearly 27 million dollars, to eliminate the possibility that a tanker would strike one and rupture. A resulting large oil spill would likely cost many times more than the 10 million dollars needed to clean up a small 1996 spill. If the rocks were removed, local habitat for striped bass and other game fish would be altered, with potential negative impact on sport fishing. Currently, public officials are studying the benefits to the Bay environment of lowering the rock knobs.

  5. Spatial Analysis of HIV Positive Injection Drug Users in San Francisco, 1987 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis N. Martinez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatial analyses of HIV/AIDS related outcomes are growing in popularity as a tool to understand geographic changes in the epidemic and inform the effectiveness of community-based prevention and treatment programs. The Urban Health Study was a serial, cross-sectional epidemiological study of injection drug users (IDUs in San Francisco between 1987 and 2005 (N = 29,914. HIV testing was conducted for every participant. Participant residence was geocoded to the level of the United States Census tract for every observation in dataset. Local indicator of spatial autocorrelation (LISA tests were used to identify univariate and bivariate Census tract clusters of HIV positive IDUs in two time periods. We further compared three tract level characteristics (% poverty, % African Americans, and % unemployment across areas of clustered and non-clustered tracts. We identified significant spatial clustering of high numbers of HIV positive IDUs in the early period (1987–1995 and late period (1996–2005. We found significant bivariate clusters of Census tracts where HIV positive IDUs and tract level poverty were above average compared to the surrounding areas. Our data suggest that poverty, rather than race, was an important neighborhood characteristic associated with the spatial distribution of HIV in SF and its spatial diffusion over time.

  6. Dietary mercury exposure to endangered California Clapper Rails in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Ricca, Mark A.; Overton, Cory T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Merritt, Angela M.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2015-01-01

    California Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) are an endangered waterbird that forage in tidal-marsh habitats that pose risks from mercury exposure. We analyzed total mercury (Hg) in six macro-invertebrate and one fish species representing Clapper Rail diets from four tidal-marshes in San Francisco Bay, California. Mercury concentrations among individual taxa ranged from lowest at Colma Creek (mean range: 0.09–0.2 μg/g dw) to highest at Cogswell (0.2–0.7), Laumeister (0.2–0.9) and Arrowhead Marshes (0.3–1.9). These spatial patterns for Hg matched patterns reported previously in Clapper Rail blood from the same four marshes. Over 25% of eastern mudsnails (Ilyanassa obsolete) and staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus) exceeded dietary Hg concentrations (ww) often associated with avian reproductive impairment. Our results indicate that Hg concentrations vary considerably among tidal-marshes and diet taxa, and Hg concentrations of prey may provide an appropriate proxy for relative exposure risk for Clapper Rails.

  7. Microbial Mercury Cycling in San Francisco Bay Sediments: From Regions to the Rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, V. A.; Mann, A.; Romeis, J.; Marvin-Dipasquale, M. C.; Agee, J. L.; Kieu, L. H.; Harms, H. A.

    2004-05-01

    The San Francisco Bay (SFB) estuary is hydrodynamically diverse ecosystem with extensive mercury contamination associated with historic gold and mercury mining wastes, and in a region with an unprecedented number of wetland restoration projects planned or ongoing. Wetlands are known to be active areas for the microbial transformation of Hg(II) to methylmercury (MeHg), which bioaccumulates in the food web. A better understanding of this microbial process, in these restored wetlands and other sub-habitats, is critical if Hg contamination is to be successfully managed in this system. An examination of MeHg production and degradation in sediments has been conducted at multiple spatial scales throughout the SFB estuary and its tributaries over the past four years. At the regional scale, we will present data from the brackish Bay, the delta, and rivers and reservoirs in tributary watersheds. Within the freshwater delta and river regions, a new project is focusing on emergent marsh, non-vegetated open water, and submerged-macrophyte zones. At the smallest scale, we consider microbial Hg cycling in the root zone (rhizosphere) of dominant wetland plants and propose a conceptual model of the key biogoechemical reactions that may make this transitional zone one of the most important with respect to Hg(II)-methylation.

  8. Examining the Effects of Transphobic Discrimination and Race on HIV Risk Among Transwomen in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arayasirikul, Sean; Wilson, Erin C; Raymond, Henry F

    2017-02-20

    Transwomen, in particular transwomen of color (TWOC), are among the most vulnerable populations at risk for HIV. This secondary analysis is organized using a gender minority stress framework to examine the effects of transphobic discrimination and race on HIV risk factors. We describe the sample of 149 HIV- adult transwomen in San Francisco and use binary logistic regression to examine the relationship between levels of transphobic discrimination and TWOC status on binge drinking and condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI), controlling for potential confounders. Those with high levels of transphobic discrimination had 3.59 fold greater odds of engaging in binge drinking compared to those who reported a low level of transphobic discrimination (95% CI 1.284-10.034; P = 0.015). TWOC had nearly threefold greater odds of CRAI compared to white transwomen (95% CI 1.048-8.464; P = 0.040). We discuss implications for gender minority stress research and future interventions for this population.

  9. Microorganisms of the San Francisco sour dough bread process. I. Yeasts responsible for the leavening action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, T F; Kline, L; Miller, M W

    1971-03-01

    Two hundred isolates from San Francisco sour dough French bread fermentations (40 from each of five different bakeries) were screened by fermentation tests and for their ability to grow in the presence of cycloheximide (Actidione). All of the isolates from four of the bakeries and 70% of those from the fifth were unable to utilize maltose but grew well on other sugars, even in the presence of cycloheximide. The remaining few isolates from the fifth bakery utilized maltose but not galactose and were inhibited by cycloheximide. No bakers' yeast types were found. Sixteen of the maltose-negative and five of the galactose-negative isolates were subjected to more rigorous taxonomic procedures. All of the maltose-negative isolates were identified as asporogenous strains of Saccharomyces exiguus (Torulopsis holmii) and the galactose-negative ones, as S. inusitatus. The predominance of S. exiguus, its vigor in the particular acidic environment of the sour dough, and the correlation of its numbers with the leavening function constitute strong evidence on the role of this organism in the sour dough system.

  10. Delineating incised stream sediment sources within a San Francisco Bay tributary basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Paul; Benda, Lee; Pearce, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Erosion and sedimentation pose ubiquitous problems for land and watershed managers, requiring delineation of sediment sources and sinks across landscapes. However, the technical complexity of many spatially explicit erosion models precludes their use by practitioners. To address this critical gap, we demonstrate a contemporary use of applied geomorphometry through a straightforward GIS analysis of sediment sources in the San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA, designed to support erosion reduction strategies. Using 2 m lidar digital elevation models, we delineated the entire river network in the Arroyo Mocho watershed (573 km2) at the scale of ˜ 30 m segments and identified incised landforms using a combination of hillslope gradient and planform curvature. Chronic erosion to the channel network was estimated based on these topographic attributes and the size of vegetation, and calibrated to sediment gage data, providing a spatially explicit estimate of sediment yield from incised channels across the basin. Rates of erosion were summarized downstream through the channel network, revealing patterns of sediment supply at the reach scale. Erosion and sediment supply were also aggregated to subbasins, allowing comparative analyses at the scale of tributaries. The erosion patterns delineated using this approach provide land use planners with a robust framework to design erosion reduction strategies. More broadly, the study demonstrates a modern analysis of important geomorphic processes affected by land use that is easily applied by agencies to solve common problems in watersheds, improving the integration between science and environmental management.

  11. Guidelines for sustainable building design: Recommendations from the Presidio of San Francisco energy efficiency design charrette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.; Sartor, D.; Greenberg, S. [and others

    1996-05-01

    In 1994, the Bay Chapter of the Association of Energy Engineers{reg_sign} organized a two-day design charrette for energy-efficient redevelopment of buildings by the National Park Services (NPS) at the Presidio of San Francisco. This event brought together engineers, researchers, architects, government officials, and students in a participatory environment to apply their experience to create guidelines for the sustainable redesign of Presidio buildings. The venue for the charrette was a representative barracks building located at the Main Post of the Presidio. Examination of this building allowed for the development of design recommendations, both for the building and for the remainder of the facilities. The charrette was organized into a committee structure consisting of: steering, measurement and monitoring, modeling, building envelope and historic preservation (architectural), HVAC and controls, lighting, and presentation. Prior to the charrette itself, the modeling and measurement/monitoring committees developed substantial baseline data for the other committees during the charrette. An integrated design approach was initiated through interaction between the committees during the charrette. Later, committee reports were cross-referenced to emphasize whole building design and systems integration.

  12. Linkage analyses of cannabis dependence, craving, and withdrawal in the San Francisco family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Gizer, Ian R; Vieten, Cassandra; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C

    2010-04-05

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States. There is ample evidence that cannabis use has a heritable component, yet the genes underlying cannabis use disorders are yet to be completely identified. This study's aims were to map susceptibility loci for cannabis use and dependence and two narrower cannabis-related phenotypes of "craving" and "withdrawal" using a family study design. Participants were 2,524 adults participating in the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) Family Alcoholism Study. DSM-IV diagnoses of cannabis dependence, as well as indices of cannabis craving and withdrawal, were obtained using a modified version of the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA). Genotypes were determined for a panel of 791 microsatellite polymorphisms. Multipoint variance component LOD scores were obtained using SOLAR. Genome-wide significance for linkage (LOD > 3.0) was not found for the DSM-IV cannabis dependence diagnosis; however, linkage analyses of cannabis "craving" and the cannabis withdrawal symptom of "nervous, tense, restless, or irritable" revealed five sites with LOD scores over 3.0 on chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 7, and 9. These results identify new regions of the genome associated with cannabis use phenotypes as well as corroborate the importance of several chromosome regions highlighted in previous linkage analyses for other substance dependence phenotypes.

  13. Dynamic Response of the Suspension Spans of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, D; Astaneh-Asl, A; Larsen, S; Hutchings, L

    2005-11-03

    The dynamic response of the suspension spans of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge (SFOBB) have been numerically modeled in a case-study to investigate the effects of long-period, near-field ground motions on flexible suspension bridges. The structural simulation model used in the study was developed as a special purpose computer program tailored to efficiently simulate the nonlinear response of cable supported bridges. The simulation model includes a number of special element technologies and solution algorithms that enable efficient nonlinear analysis of suspension bridges. The ground motions used in the study were site specific synthetic records for a Mw=7.25 earthquake along the Hayward fault at 12-15 km distant, and actual measured near-field records from the Izmit Turkey (1999) and Chi-Chi Taiwan (1999) earthquakes. These records include near- and far-field broad-band motions for three components. The results of the numerical simulations indicate that low frequency waveforms associated with near-field motions can place a significant demand on the structural systems of suspension bridges, and must be accounted for in suspension bridge analysis and design.

  14. Criminalization, legalization or decriminalization of sex work: what female sex workers say in San Francisco, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Cohan, Deborah

    2009-11-01

    Sex work is a criminal offence in San Francisco, USA, and sex work advocates have so far unsuccessfully campaigned for decriminalizing it. Some groups argue that the decriminalization movement does not represent the voices of marginalized sex workers. Using qualitative and quantitative data from the Sex Worker Environmental Assessment Team Study, we investigated the perspectives and experiences of a range of female sex workers regarding the legal status of sex work and the impact of criminal law on their work experiences. Forty women were enrolled in the qualitative phase in 2004 and 247 women in the quantitative phase in 2006-07. Overall, the women in this study seemed to prefer a hybrid of legalization and decriminalization. The majority voiced a preference for removing statutes that criminalize sex work in order to facilitate a social and political environment where they had legal rights and could seek help when they were victims of violence. Advocacy groups need to explore the compromises sex workers are willing to make to ensure safe working conditions and the same legal protections afforded to other workers, and with those who are most marginalized to better understand their immediate needs and how these can be met through decriminalization.

  15. Delta smelt: Life history and decline of a once abundant species in the San Francisco Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Peter B.; Brown, Larry R.; Durand, John R; Hobbs, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews what has been learned about Delta Smelt and its status since the publication of The State of Bay-Delta Science, 2008 (Healey et al. 2008). The Delta Smelt is endemic to the upper San Francisco Estuary. Much of its historic habitat is no longer available and remaining habitat is increasingly unable to sustain the population. As a listed species living in the central node of California’s water supply system, Delta Smelt has been the focus of a large research effort to understand causes of decline and identify ways to recover the species. Since 2008, a remarkable record of innovative research on Delta Smelt has been achieved, which is summarized here. Unfortunately, research has not prevented the smelt’s continued decline, which is the result of multiple, interacting factors. A major driver of decline is change to the Delta ecosystem from water exports, resulting in reduced outflows and high levels of entrainment in the large pumps of the South Delta. Invasions of alien species, encouraged by environmental change, have also played a contributing role in the decline. Severe drought effects have pushed Delta Smelt to record low levels in 2014–2015. The rapid decline of the species and failure of recovery efforts demonstrate an inability to manage the Delta for the “co-equal goals” of maintaining a healthy ecosystem and providing a reliable water supply for Californians. Diverse and substantial management actions are needed to preserve Delta Smelt.

  16. Grazer Functional Roles, Induced Defenses, and Indirect Interactions: Implications for Eelgrass Restoration in San Francisco Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T. Lewis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the individual and interactive roles of consumer species is more than academic when the host plant is a subject of intense conservation interest. In a mesocosm experiment, we compared effects of common invertebrate grazers in San Francisco Bay seagrass (Zostera marina, eelgrass beds, finding that some species (a native opisthobranch, Phyllaplysia taylori; a native isopod, Idotea resecata; and an introduced gastropod, Ilyanassa obsoleta enhanced eelgrass growth through removal of epiphytic algae, as is often predicted for small invertebrate grazers on seagrasses, while one (an introduced caprellid amphipod, Caprella cf. drepanochir had neutral effects. In contrast, the putatively-introduced gammaridean amphipod, Ampithoe valida, had strong negative effects on eelgrass (in addition to epiphytes through consumption, as we had previously observed in the field during restoration programs. We tested whether other common grazer species could influence the effects of the eelgrass-grazing Ampithoe, and found that Idotea induced production of phenolic compounds and limited eelgrass damage by Ampithoe, without affecting Ampithoe abundance. These results have implications for restoration strategies, and contribute to a growing awareness of the importance of trait-mediated indirect grazer interactions through grazer-induced changes in plant traits, providing the first example in a seagrass system.

  17. A Viscoelastic earthquake simulator with application to the San Francisco Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.F.

    2009-01-01

    Earthquake simulation on synthetic fault networks carries great potential for characterizing the statistical patterns of earthquake occurrence. I present an earthquake simulator based on elastic dislocation theory. It accounts for the effects of interseismic tectonic loading, static stress steps at the time of earthquakes, and postearthquake stress readjustment through viscoelastic relaxation of the lower crust and mantle. Earthquake rupture initiation and termination are determined with a Coulomb failure stress criterion and the static cascade model. The simulator is applied to interacting multifault systems: one, a synthetic two-fault network, and the other, a fault network representative of the San Francisco Bay region. The faults are discretized both along strike and along dip and can accommodate both strike slip and dip slip. Stress and seismicity functions are evaluated over 30,000 yr trial time periods, resulting in a detailed statistical characterization of the fault systems. Seismicity functions such as the coefficient of variation and a- and b-values exhibit systematic patterns with respect to simple model parameters. This suggests that reliable estimation of the controlling parameters of an earthquake simulator is a prerequisite to the interpretation of its output in terms of seismic hazard.

  18. Space Geodetic Imaging of Earthquake Potential in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgmann, R.; Funning, G. J.; Ferretti, A.; Novali, F.

    2008-12-01

    Active crustal deformation in the San Francisco Bay Area includes contributions from elastic strain buildup across major faults and aseismic fault creep relieving a small portion of the plate tectonic fault slip budget. Increasingly precise and dense measurements of surface motions using GPS and InSAR satellite data provide valuable information on the distribution and rates of surface deformation. In the Eastern Bay Area, the Hayward, Calaveras and Concord faults are known to be source areas of moderate to large earthquakes, but also exhibit significant aseismic fault creep. Modeling of space geodetic data collected along the Hayward fault over > 10-year period allows for the determination of the distribution of currently locked asperities and creeping portions of the fault zone. Inversions of these data reveal a locked zone at depth which has built up a slip deficit since the 1868 Hayward fault rupture that is large enough to produce a M > 6.7 earthquake. The inferred slip rates along the creeping portions of the Hayward fault are significantly less than the long-term slip rate, and thus a substantial slip deficit is accumulating there as well. However, it is possible that the creeping portions of the East Bay faults will catch up most of their slip deficit by accelerated postseismic creep following large ruptures of the currently locked asperities. The kinematic locking models help inform dynamic rupture scenarios and ground motion simulations of major earthquakes along the Hayward fault (Aagaard et al., 2008 Fall AGU).

  19. San Ignacio (La Tembladera) geothermal site, Departamento de Francisco Morazan, Honduras, Central America: Geological field report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, M.J.; Eppler, D.; Heiken, G.; Flores, W.; Ramos, N.; Ritchie, A.

    1987-06-01

    The San Ignacio (La Tembladera) geothermal site is located on the north side of the Siria Valley, Departamento de Francisco Morazan, near the village of Barrosa. Hot springs are located along a northwest-trending fault scarp at the edge of the valley and along north-trending faults that cross the scarp. The rocks in the area are primarily Paleozoic metamorphic rocks, overlain by patches of Tertiary Padre Miguel Group tuffs and alluvial deposits. Movement probably occurred along several faults during latest Tertiary and possibly early Quaternary times. Four spring areas were mapped. Area 1, the largest, is associated with a sinter mound and consists of 40 spring groups. About half of the springs, aligned along a north-south trend, are boiling. Area 2 is a small sinter mound with several seeps. Area 3 consists of a group of hot and boiling springs aligned along a north-trending fault. The springs rise through fractured schists and a thin cover of alluvium. Area 4 is located at the intersection of several faults and includes one of the largest boiling springs in the area.

  20. Sources of mercury to San Francisco Bay surface sediment as revealed by mercury stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Gretchen E.; Blum, Joel D.; Marvin-DePasquale, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations and isotopic compositions were examined in shallow-water surface sediment (0–2 cm) from San Francisco (SF) Bay to determine the extent to which historic Hg mining contributes to current Hg contamination in SF Bay, and to assess the use of Hg isotopes to trace sources of contamination in estuaries. Inter-tidal and wetland sediment had total Hg (HgT) concentrations ranging from 161 to 1529 ng/g with no simple gradients of spatial variation. In contrast, inter-tidal and wetland sediment displayed a geographic gradient of δ202Hg values, ranging from -0.30% in the southern-most part of SF Bay (draining the New Almaden Hg District) to -0.99% in the northern-most part of SF Bay near the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta. Similar to SF Bay inter-tidal sediment, surface sediment from the Alviso Slough channel draining into South SF Bay had a δ202Hg value of -0.29%, while surface sediment from the Cosumnes River and Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta draining into north SF Bay had lower average δ202Hg values of -0.90% and -0.75%, respectively. This isotopic trend suggests that Hg-contaminated sediment from the New Almaden Hg District mixes with Hg-contaminated sediment from a low δ202Hg source north of SF Bay. Tailings and thermally decomposed ore (calcine) from the New Idria Hg mine in the California Coast Range had average δ202Hg values of -0.37 and +0.03%, respectively, showing that Hg calcination fractionates Hg isotopes resulting in Hg contamination from Hg(II) mine waste products with higher δ202Hg values than metallic Hg(0) produced from Hg mines. Thus, there is evidence for at least two distinct isotopic signals for Hg contamination in SF Bay: Hg associated with calcine waste materials at Hg mines in the Coast Range, such as New Almaden and New Idria; and Hg(0) produced from these mines and used in placer gold mines and/or in other industrial processes in the Sierra Nevada region and SF Bay area.

  1. Sources of mercury to San Francisco Bay surface sediment as revealed by mercury stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Gretchen E.; Blum, Joel D.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark

    2011-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations and isotopic compositions were examined in shallow-water surface sediment (0-2 cm) from San Francisco (SF) Bay to determine the extent to which historic Hg mining contributes to current Hg contamination in SF Bay, and to assess the use of Hg isotopes to trace sources of contamination in estuaries. Inter-tidal and wetland sediment had total Hg (Hg T) concentrations ranging from 161 to 1529 ng/g with no simple gradients of spatial variation. In contrast, inter-tidal and wetland sediment displayed a geographic gradient of δ 202Hg values, ranging from -0.30‰ in the southern-most part of SF Bay (draining the New Almaden Hg District) to -0.99‰ in the northern-most part of SF Bay near the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Similar to SF Bay inter-tidal sediment, surface sediment from the Alviso Slough channel draining into South SF Bay had a δ 202Hg value of -0.29‰, while surface sediment from the Cosumnes River and Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta draining into north SF Bay had lower average δ 202Hg values of -0.90‰ and -0.75‰, respectively. This isotopic trend suggests that Hg-contaminated sediment from the New Almaden Hg District mixes with Hg-contaminated sediment from a low δ 202Hg source north of SF Bay. Tailings and thermally decomposed ore (calcine) from the New Idria Hg mine in the California Coast Range had average δ 202Hg values of -0.37 and +0.03‰, respectively, showing that Hg calcination fractionates Hg isotopes resulting in Hg contamination from Hg(II) mine waste products with higher δ 202Hg values than metallic Hg(0) produced from Hg mines. Thus, there is evidence for at least two distinct isotopic signals for Hg contamination in SF Bay: Hg associated with calcine waste materials at Hg mines in the Coast Range, such as New Almaden and New Idria; and Hg(0) produced from these mines and used in placer gold mines and/or in other industrial processes in the Sierra Nevada region and SF Bay area.

  2. Mercury Isotopic Composition of Young-of-Year Fish in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, G. E.; Blum, J. D.; Slotton, D. G.; Greenfield, B. K.

    2009-12-01

    Variations in the stable isotopic composition of mercury (Hg) can provide information about sources and biogeochemical transformations of Hg in the environment. Mass-dependent fractionation of Hg isotopes, reported as δ202Hg relative to NIST 3133, has been observed during multiple processes including volatilization, diffusion, reduction and de-methylation. Large mass-independent fractionation of Hg (>0.2‰) reported as Δ199Hg, has been observed only during photochemical reduction of Hg and MeHg. In this study we analyzed the Hg isotopic composition of sediments and young (South and Lower South Bay (+0.10 to +0.60‰), San Pablo Bay (-0.25 to -0.03‰), and Suisun Bay (+0.13 to +0.42‰). Fish δ202Hg values roughly correlate with sediment δ202Hg values from the same sites. We suggest that each of the Guadalupe, Petaluma, and Sacaramento-San Joaquin river systems supply a distinct source of Hg to San Francisco Bay, likely associated with contaminated sediment. Mississippi silverside have Δ199Hg values ranging +0.46 to +1.55‰. Unlike the δ202Hg values, fish Δ199Hg values do not vary in a regular pattern throughout the Bay. Rather, fish from approximately one-third of sites analyzed exhibit relatively elevated Δ199Hg (> 0.8‰), possibly associated with high water clarity. In all fish analyzed, the ratio of Δ199Hg to Δ201Hg values have a narrow range of 1.19 to 1.40 (avg = 1.26 ± 0.06). These ratios in fish are consistent with laboratory studies of photochemical MeHg degradation, which yielded Δ199Hg: Δ201Hg ratios of ~1.3 (Bergquist and Blum, 2007). We suggest that Δ199Hg in fish varies with the extent of photochemical MeHg degradation prior to food web uptake. Bergquist, B. A. and Blum, J. D., 2007. Mass-dependent and -independent fractionation of Hg isotopes by photoreduction in aquatic systems. Science 318, 417-420.

  3. Open water processes of the San Francisco Estuary: From physical forcing to biological responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Kimmerer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of the open waters of the San Francisco Estuary. This estuary is well known for the extent to which it has been altered through loss of wetlands, changes in hydrography, and the introduction of chemical and biological contaminants. It is also one of the most studied estuaries in the world, with much of the recent research effort aimed at supporting restoration efforts. In this review I emphasize the conceptual foundations for our current understanding of estuarine dynamics, particularly those aspects relevant to restoration. Several themes run throughout this paper. First is the critical role physical dynamics play in setting the stage for chemical and biological responses. Physical forcing by the tides and by variation in freshwater input combine to control the movement of the salinity field, and to establish stratification, mixing, and dilution patterns throughout the estuary. Many aspects of estuarine dynamics respond to interannual variation in freshwater flow; in particular, abundance of several estuarine-dependent species of fish and shrimp varies positively with flow, although the mechanisms behind these relationships are largely unknown. The second theme is the importance of time scales in determining the degree of interaction between dynamic processes. Physical effects tend to dominate when they operate at shorter time scales than biological processes; when the two time scales are similar, important interactions can arise between physical and biological variability. These interactions can be seen, for example, in the response of phytoplankton blooms, with characteristic time scales of days, to stratification events occurring during neap tides. The third theme is the key role of introduced species in all estuarine habitats; particularly noteworthy are introduced waterweeds and fishes in the tidal freshwater reaches of the estuary, and introduced clams there and in brackish water. The

  4. Estuarine sedimentation, sediment character, and foraminiferal distribution in central San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, John L.; Woodrow, Donald L.; McGann, Mary; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    Central San Francisco Bay is the deepest subembayment in the San Francisco Bay estuary and hence has the largest water volume of any of the subembayments. It also has the strongest tidal currents and the coarsest sediment within the estuary. Tidal currents are strongest over the west-central part of central bay and, correspondingly, this area is dominated by sand-size sediment. Much of the area east of a line from Angel Island to Alcatraz Island is characterized by muddy sand to sandy mud, and the area to the west of this line is sandy. The sand-size sediment over west-central bay furthermore is molded by the energetic tidal currents into bedforms of varying sizes and wavelengths. Bedforms typically occur in water depths of 15-25 m. High resolution bathymetry (multibeam) from 1997 and 2008 allow for subdivision of the west-central bayfloor into four basic types based on morphologic expression: featureless, sand waves, disrupted/man-altered, and bedrock knobs. Featureless and sand-wave morphologies dominate the bayfloor of west-central bay. Disrupted bayfloor has a direct association with areas that are undergoing alteration due to human activities, such as sand-mining lease areas, dredging, and disposal of dredge spoils. Change detection analysis, comparing the 1997 and 2008 multibeam data sets, shows that significant change has occurred in west-central bay during the roughly 10 years between surveys. The surveyed area lost about 5.45 million m3 of sediment during the decade. Sand-mining lease areas within west-central bay lost 6.77 million m3 as the bayfloor deepened. Nonlease areas gained 1.32 million m3 of sediment as the bayfloor shallowed slightly outside of sand-mining lease areas. Furthermore, bedform asymmetry did not change significantly, but some bedforms did migrate some tens of meters. Gravity cores show that the area east of Angel and Alcatraz Islands is floored by clayey silts or silty sand whereas the area to the west of the islands is floored

  5. Climate variability in an estuary: Effects of riverflow on San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David H.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Festa, John F.; Nichols, Frederic H.; Walters, Roy A.; Slack, James V.; Hager, Stephen E.; Schemel, Laurence E.; Peterson, David H.

    1989-01-01

    A simple conceptual model of estuarine variability in the context of climate forcing has been formulated using up to 65 years of estimated mean-monthly delta flow, the cumulative freshwater flow to San Francisco Bay from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River, and salinity observations near the mouth, head, mid-estuary, and coastal ocean. Variations in delta flow, the principal source of variability in the bay, originate from anomalous changes in northern and central California streamflow, much of which is linked to anomalous winter sea level pressure (“CPA”) in the eastern Pacific. In years when CPA is strongly negative, precipitation in the watershed is heavy, delta flow is high, and the bay's salinity is low; similarly, when CPA is strongly positive, precipitation is light, delta flow is low, and the bay's salinity is high. Thus the pattern of temporal variability in atmospheric pressure anomalies is reflected in the streamflow, then in delta flow, then in estuarine variability. Estuarine salinity can be characterized by river to ocean patterns in annual cycles of salinity in relation to delta flow. Salinity (total dissolved solids) data from the relatively pristine mountain streams of the Sierra Nevada show that for a given flow, one observes higher salinities during the rise in winter flow than on the decline. Salinity at locations throughout San Francisco Bay estuary are also higher during the rise in winter flow than the decline (because it takes a finite time for salinity to fully respond to changes in freshwater flow). In the coastal ocean, however, the annual pattern of sea surface salinity is reversed: lower salinities during the rise in winter flow than on the decline due to effects associated with spring upwelling. Delta flow in spring masks these effects of coastal upwelling on estuarine salinity, including near the mouth of the estuary and, in fact, explains in a statistical sense 86 percent of the variance in salinity at the mouth of the estuary. Some

  6. Comisión para la conservación y desarrollo del área de la Bahía de San Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph LaClair

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El Estuario de la Bahía de San Francisco El Río Sacramento comienza su flujo hacia el mar cerca del Monte Shasta en la Cordillera de las Montañas Cascade. A trescientas millas de distancia, en los nevados de la Sierra Nevada, otro gran río, el San Joaquín, tiene su nacimiento. Hasta que fueron represados y desviados, estos dos ríos transportaban cerca de la mitad de las precipitaciones que caen sobre California hacia el delta donde se juntan los ríos, unas 40 millas al noreste de San Francisco.

  7. Synthesis of studies in the fall low-salinity zone of the San Francisco Estuary, September-December 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry R.; Baxter, Randall; Castillo, Gonzalo; Conrad, Louise; Culberson, Steven; Erickson, Gregg; Feyrer, Frederick; Fong, Stephanie; Gehrts, Karen; Grimaldo, Lenny; Herbold, Bruce; Kirsch, Joseph; Mueller-Solger, Anke; Slater, Steven B.; Sommer, Ted; Souza, Kelly; Van Nieuwenhuyse, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    In fall 2011, a large-scale investigation (fall low-salinity habitat investigation) was implemented by the Bureau of Reclamation in cooperation with the Interagency Ecological Program to explore hypotheses about the ecological role of low-salinity habitat in the San Francisco Estuary—specifically, hypotheses about the importance of fall low-salinity habitat to the biology of delta smelt Hypomesus transpacificus, a species endemic to the San Francisco Estuary and listed as threatened or endangered under federal and state endangered species legislation. The Interagency Ecological Program is a consortium of 10 agencies that work together to develop a better understanding of the ecology of the Estuary and the effects of the State Water Project and Federal Central Valley Project operations on the physical, chemical, and biological conditions of the San Francisco Estuary. The fall low-salinity habitat investigation constitutes one of the actions stipulated in the Reasonable and Prudent Alternative issued with the 2008 Biological Opinion of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which called for adaptive management of fall Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta outflow following “wet” and “above normal” water years to alleviate jeopardy to delta smelt and adverse modification of delta smelt critical habitat. The basic hypothesis of the adaptive management of fall low-salinity habitat is that greater outflows move the low-salinity zone (salinity 1–6), an important component of delta smelt habitat, westward and that moving the low-salinity zone westward of its position in the fall of recent years will benefit delta smelt, although the specific mechanisms providing such benefit are uncertain. An adaptive management plan was prepared to guide implementation of the adaptive management of fall low-salinity habitat and to reduce uncertainty. This report has three major objectives:

  8. Forecasting selenium discharges to the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary: ecological effects of a proposed San Luis drain extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, Samuel N.; Presser, Theresa S.

    2000-01-01

    During the next few years, federal and state agencies may be required to evaluate proposals and discharge permits that could significantly change selenium (Se) inputs to the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary (Bay-Delta), particularly in the North Bay (i.e., Suisun Bay and San Pablo Bay). These decisions may include discharge requirements for an extension of the San Luis Drain (SLD) to the estuary to convey subsurface agricultural drainage from the western San Joaquin Valley (SJV), a renewal of an agreement to allow the existing portion of the SLD to convey subsurface agricultural drainage to a tributary of the San Joaquin River (SJR) (coincident with changes in flow patterns of the lower SJR), and refinements to promulgated Se criteria for the protection of aquatic life for the estuary. Understanding the biotransfer of Se is essential to evaluating the fate and impact of proposed changes in Se discharges to the Bay-Delta. However, past monitoring programs have not addressed the specific protocols necessary for an element that bioaccumulates. Confusion about Se threats in the past have stemmed from failure to consider the full complexity of the processes that result in Se toxicity. Past studies show that predators are more at risk from Se contamination than their prey, making it difficult to use traditional methods to predict risk from environmental concentrations alone. In this report, we employ a novel procedure to model the fate of Se under different, potentially realistic load scenarios from the SJV. For each potential load, we progressively forecast the resulting environmental concentrations, speciation, transformation to particulate form, bioaccumulation by invertebrates, trophic transfer to predators, and effects in those predators. Enough is known to establish a first order understanding of effects should Se be discharged directly into the North Bay via a conveyance such as the SLD. Our approach uses 1) existing knowledge concerning the biogeochemical

  9. Downscaling future climate projections to the watershed scale: a north San Francisco Bay estuary case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Elisabeth; Flint, Lorraine; Flint, Alan; Weiss, Stuart; Kennedy, Morgan

    2012-01-01

    We modeled the hydrology of basins draining into the northern portion of the San Francisco Bay Estuary (North San Pablo Bay) using a regional water balance model (Basin Characterization Model; BCM) to estimate potential effects of climate change at the watershed scale. The BCM calculates water balance components, including runoff, recharge, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and stream flow, based on climate, topography, soils and underlying geology, and the solar-driven energy balance. We downscaled historical and projected precipitation and air temperature values derived from weather stations and global General Circulation Models (GCMs) to a spatial scale of 270 m. We then used the BCM to estimate hydrologic response to climate change for four scenarios spanning this century (2000–2100). Historical climate patterns show that Marin’s coastal regions are typically on the order of 2 °C cooler and receive five percent more precipitation compared to the inland valleys of Sonoma and Napa because of marine influences and local topography. By the last 30 years of this century, North Bay scenarios project average minimum temperatures to increase by 1.0 °C to 3.1 °C and average maximum temperatures to increase by 2.1 °C to 3.4 °C (in comparison to conditions experienced over the last 30 years, 1981–2010). Precipitation projections for the 21st century vary between GCMs (ranging from 2 to 15% wetter than the 20th-century average). Temperature forcing increases the variability of modeled runoff, recharge, and stream discharge, and shifts hydrologic cycle timing. For both high- and low-rainfall scenarios, by the close of this century warming is projected to amplify late-season climatic water deficit (a measure of drought stress on soils) by 8% to 21%. Hydrologic variability within a single river basin demonstrated at the scale of subwatersheds may prove an important consideration for water managers in the face of climate change. Our results suggest that in arid

  10. The kinematics of faults in the San Francisco Bay area inferred from geodetic and seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, David Andrew

    2002-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation focuses on the kinematics and mechanics of the Hayward fault, the Loma Prieta earthquake rupture, and the Silver Creek fault. To better understand their behavior and geometry, geodetic and seismic data are used in conjunction with elastic models of the crust. Along the northern and central segments of the Hayward fault, a steady interseismic deformation rate is observed. Variations in this rate along strike suggest a variable slip-rate distribution at depth indicative of locked and creeping patches. A locked patch that correlates with the presumed source region of the 1868 earthquake on the Hayward fault implies that elastic strain is accumulating at this location. The southern Hayward fault exhibits complex time-dependent slip. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is employed to visualize the crustal deformation signal by utilizing over 100 interferograms. Results suggest that the observed surface deformation is best explained by a combination of transient fault slip and land subsidence. This is in contrast to the Silver Creek fault in the Santa Clara Valley where all of the deformation is attributed to differential aquifer compaction and expansion across the fault. Regional faults interact through the redistribution of stress in the crust and upper mantle. The effect of this change in stress on the creeping portion of the Hayward fault following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake is explored using a rate-and-state friction model. The predicted surface creep response, driven by the postseismic relaxation of the mantle following the 1906 event, is used to constrain the rheology of the lower crust. Rheologies that include a horizontal shear zone underpredict the surface creep response observed from offset cultural features. Inversions for the coseismic slip distribution of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake are performed to evaluate the sensitivity of the inversion to the prescribed fault geometry. Models the

  11. Introducing the "teamlet": initiating a primary care innovation at san francisco general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Brian Yoshio; Ward, Lisa; Yeh, Thomas; Chen, Ellen; Bodenheimer, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The 15-minute office visit to primary care clinicians cannot meet the health care needs of patients. Innovation is needed to address this limitation, but practice redesign is challenging in clinical settings. Here we describe the implementation of a practice innovation, the teamlet model, in a San Francisco safety-net clinic. The teamlet consists of a clinician and "health coach" who expand the traditional medical visit into previsit, visit, postvisit, and between-visit care. Teamlet implementation is occurring in phases. Phase 1 is evaluated using plan-do-study-act improvement cycles and interviews with a few patients, clinicians, and coaches. Phase 2 is evaluated using a pre- and postevent questionnaire, focused interviews, and focus groups with patients, faculty, clinicians, and coaches. Phase 1: Plan-do-study-act cycles generate ideas to improve implementation. Phase 2 evaluation will query demographics, satisfaction, knowledge of self-management support, access, teamwork, and benefits/challenges of the teamlet model. Future research would measure objective clinical outcomes. Phase 1 of the teamlet project led to useful adaptations, with anecdotal evidence that patients and clinicians were satisfied overall with practice improvements. Logistic problems made implementation of the innovation challenging. Phase 2 is currently underway, with results expected in 2008. Primary care innovation requires multiple perspectives and constant revision. Traditional randomized controlled trials and quantitative evaluation designs are not appropriate for assessing practice-improvement pilot projects because projects must change and develop in their early stages. Despite numerous challenges, the teamlet practice redesign has the potential for improving on the traditional 15-minute physician's office visit.

  12. Impact of San Francisco's toy ordinance on restaurants and children's food purchases, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Jennifer J; Saelens, Brian E; Kapphahn, Kristopher I; Hekler, Eric B; Buman, Matthew P; Goldstein, Benjamin A; Krukowski, Rebecca A; O'Donohue, Laura S; Gardner, Christopher D; King, Abby C

    2014-07-17

    In 2011, San Francisco passed the first citywide ordinance to improve the nutritional standards of children's meals sold at restaurants by preventing the giving away of free toys or other incentives with meals unless nutritional criteria were met. This study examined the impact of the Healthy Food Incentives Ordinance at ordinance-affected restaurants on restaurant response (eg, toy-distribution practices, change in children's menus), and the energy and nutrient content of all orders and children's-meal-only orders purchased for children aged 0 through 12 years. Restaurant responses were examined from January 2010 through March 2012. Parent-caregiver/child dyads (n = 762) who were restaurant customers were surveyed at 2 points before and 1 seasonally matched point after ordinance enactment at Chain A and B restaurants (n = 30) in 2011 and 2012. Both restaurant chains responded to the ordinance by selling toys separately from children's meals, but neither changed their menus to meet ordinance-specified nutrition criteria. Among children for whom children's meals were purchased, significant decreases in kilocalories, sodium, and fat per order were likely due to changes in children's side dishes and beverages at Chain A. Although the changes at Chain A did not appear to be directly in response to the ordinance, the transition to a more healthful beverage and default side dish was consistent with the intent of the ordinance. Study results underscore the importance of policy wording, support the concept that more healthful defaults may be a powerful approach for improving dietary intake, and suggest that public policies may contribute to positive restaurant changes.

  13. Aquatic macroinvertebrate communities of natural and ditched potholes in a San Francisco Bay salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnby, Mark A.; Collins, Joshua N.; Resh, Vincent H.

    1985-03-01

    Differences in macroinvertebrate community structure and composition were examined from April 1980 to March 1981 in three potholes that had been ditched for mosquito control and three natural (i.e. unditched) potholes, which are located in a San Francisco Bay, California, U.S.A. salt marsh. Measurements of incipient tidal flooding into potholes (i.e. pothole inundation threshold) indicated that these sites comprise a gradient of tidal influences. Exponential decreases in the frequency and duration of tidal inundation corresponded to linear increases in inundation threshold. Since ditched study sites had low thresholds they tended to be more uniformly and regularly influenced by tides, were less saline, had less variable temperature regimens, and supported less filamentous algae than natural potholes. Habitat conditions were generally more similar among ditched than unditched potholes, but environmental conditions were most severe at natural sites near the upper limit of the inundation threshold gradient, where some potholes desiccate during the dry season each year. Differences in macroinvertebrate communities corresponded to differences in habitat conditions. Species richness and diversity (Simpson's Index) were generally highest near the middle of the inundation threshold gradient, which is a pattern predicted by the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis. Analysis of faunal composition using discriminant functions indicated more similarity among potholes located at the lowest positions of the inundation gradient than among potholes with intermediate thresholds. Since ditching lowers the inundation thresholds of potholes, it reduces species richness and diversity, while increasing faunal similarity. As a result, extensive ditching to control salt marsh mosquitoes can reduce the overall complexity of lentic macroinvertebrate communities.

  14. Earthquake stress drops and inferred fault strength on the Hayward Fault, east San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardebeck, J.L.; Aron, A.

    2009-01-01

    We study variations in earthquake stress drop with respect to depth, faulting regime, creeping versus locked fault behavior, and wall-rock geology. We use the P-wave displacement spectra from borehole seismic recordings of M 1.0-4.2 earthquakes in the east San Francisco Bay to estimate stress drop using a stack-and-invert empirical Green's function method. The median stress drop is 8.7 MPa, and most stress drops are in the range between 0.4 and 130 MPa. An apparent correlation between stress drop and magnitude is entirely an artifact of the limited frequency band of 4-55 Hz. There is a trend of increasing stress drop with depth, with a median stress drop of ~5 MPa for 1-7 km depth, ~10 MPa for 7-13 km depth, and ~50 MPa deeper than 13 km. We use S=P amplitude ratios measured from the borehole records to better constrain the first-motion focal mechanisms. High stress drops are observed for a deep cluster of thrust-faulting earthquakes. The correlation of stress drops with depth and faulting regime implies that stress drop is related to the applied shear stress. We compare the spatial distribution of stress drops on the Hayward fault to a model of creeping versus locked behavior of the fault and find that high stress drops are concentrated around the major locked patch near Oakland. This also suggests a connection between stress drop and applied shear stress, as the locked patch may experience higher applied shear stress as a result of the difference in cumulative slip or the presence of higher-strength material. The stress drops do not directly correlate with the strength of the proposed wall-rock geology at depth, suggesting that the relationship between fault strength and the strength of the wall rock is complex.

  15. Pharmacy syringe purchase test of nonprescription syringe sales in San Francisco and Los Angeles in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Cooper, Erin; Dodson, Chaka; Bluthenthal, Ricky; Kral, Alex H

    2013-04-01

    The two main legal sources of clean needles for illicit injection drug users (IDUs) in California are syringe exchange programs (SEPs) and nonprescription syringe sales (NPSS) at pharmacies. In 2004, California became one of the last states to allow NPSS. To evaluate the implementation of NPSS and the California Disease Prevention Demonstration Project (DPDP), we conducted syringe purchase tests in San Francisco (SF) and Los Angeles (LA) between March and July of 2010. Large differences in implementation were observed in the two cities. In LA, less than one-quarter of the enrolled pharmacies sold syringes to our research assistant (RA), and none sold a single syringe. The rate of successful purchase in LA is the lowest reported in any syringe purchase test. In both sites, there was notable variation among the gauge size available, and price and quantity of syringes required for a purchase. None of the DPDP pharmacies in LA or SF provided the requisite health information. The findings suggest that more outreach needs to be conducted with pharmacists and pharmacy staff. The pharmacies' failure to disseminate the educational materials may result in missed opportunities to provide needed harm reduction information to IDUs. The varied prices and required quantities may serve as a barrier to syringe access among IDUs. Future research needs to examine reasons why pharmacies do not provide the mandated information, whether the omission of disposal options is indicative of pharmacies' reluctance to serve as disposal sites, and if the dual opt-in approach of NPSS/DPDP is a barrier to pharmacy enrollment.

  16. Temporal changes in HCV genotype distribution in three different high risk populations in San Francisco, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV genotype (GT has become an important measure in the diagnosis and monitoring of HCV infection treatment. In the United States (U.S. HCV GT 1 is reported as the most common infecting GT among chronically infected patients. In Europe, however, recent studies have suggested that the epidemiology of HCV GTs is changing. Methods We assessed HCV GT distribution in 460 patients from three HCV-infected high risk populations in San Francisco, and examined patterns by birth cohort to assess temporal trends. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess factors independently associated with GT 1 infection compared to other GTs (2, 3, and 4. Results Overall, GT 1 was predominant (72.4%, however younger injection drug users (IDU had a lower proportion of GT 1 infections (54.7% compared to older IDU and HIV-infected patients (80.5% and 76.6%, respectively. Analysis by birth cohort showed increasing proportions of non-GT 1 infections associated with year of birth: birth before 1970 was independently associated with higher adjusted odds of GT 1: AOR 2.03 (95% CI: 1.23, 3.34. African-Americans as compared to whites also had higher adjusted odds of GT 1 infection (AOR: 3.37; 95% CI: 1.89, 5.99. Conclusions Although, HCV GT 1 remains the most prevalent GT, especially among older groups, changes in GT distribution could have significant implications for how HCV might be controlled on a population level and treated on an individual level.

  17. Waterbird egg mercury concentrations in response to wetland restoration in south San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Watts, Trevor C.; Barr, Jarred R.

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of 50–90 percent of 15,100 acres of former salt evaporation ponds to tidal marsh habitat in the south San Francisco Bay, California, is planned as part of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project. This large-scale habitat restoration may change the bioavailability of methylmercury. The South Bay already is known to have high methylmercury concentrations, with methylmercury concentrations in several waterbirds species more than known toxicity thresholds where avian reproduction is impaired. In this 2013 study, we continued monitoring bird egg mercury concentrations in response to the restoration of the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex to a potential tidal marsh in the future. The restoration of the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex began in autumn 2010, and the Pond A8 Notch was opened 5 feet (one of eight gates) to muted tidal action on June 1, 2011, and then closed in the winter. In autumn 2010, internal levees between Ponds A8, A7, and A5 were breached and water depths were substantially increased by flooding the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex in February 2011. In June 2012, 15 feet (three of eight gates) of the Pond A8 Notch was opened, and then closed in December 2012. In June 2013, 15 feet of the Pond A8 Notch again was opened, and the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex was a relatively deep and large pond with muted tidal action in the summer. This report synthesizes waterbird data from the 2013 breeding season, and combines it with our prior study’s data from 2010 and 2011.

  18. Centro de convenciones George R. Moscone, San francisco/California EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmuth, George

    1983-04-01

    Full Text Available Not available.El Centro Moscone, que ocupa un solar de 4,6 Ha en las afueras de San Francisco, ofrece un total de 60,400 m2 de superficie para exhibiciones, convenciones y reuniones. El salón principal de exposiciones, que con sus 25.500 m2 de superficie subterránea es actualmente el mayor espacio de exhibición —libre de columnas— del mundo tiene una cubierta sostenida por arcos de 85 m de luz. El edificio se completa con un vestíbulo exterior que conecta el salón de exhibiciones con las salas de reuniones y las demás dependencias del Centro. El original sistema estructural de hormigón, en bóveda de canon, del salón principal se desarrolló para adecuarse a tas exigencias de una construcción subterránea por razones de economía de obra y de mantenimiento. La parte superior del techo de esta sala puede soportar una capa de tierra de hasta 2 m de espesor, proporcionando espacio para un parque en la superficie u otra instalación pública que incluya edificaciones de construcción ligera. Acordes con tas colosales dimensiones de este Centro son las instalaciones, que abarcan desde un completo sistema de protección contra incendios y evacuación de personas hasta los sistemas de climatización, iluminación y electricidad.

  19. Modeling salt intrusion in the San Francisco Estuary prior to anthropogenic influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, S. W.; Gross, E. S.; Hutton, P. H.

    2017-08-01

    Anthropogenic changes have dramatically transformed the upper San Francisco Estuary over the past two centuries. Key changes influencing the region's hydrology and hydrodynamics include land use changes, levee construction and channel modifications, upstream reservoir construction, and out-of-basin water exports. In order to examine how these changes have altered the physical characteristics of the estuary, 3-D hydrodynamic models were constructed to study the system in its ;pre-development; condition, prior to significant modern anthropogenic influence, and in its contemporary condition. The pre-development system model was calibrated by varying marsh plain elevations in order to match sparse observations of tidal characteristics; the contemporary system model was calibrated to observed flow, stage, and salinity data. A recent three-year period covering a wide range of flow conditions was used to compare and contrast the hydrodynamic behavior of the two systems. While the contemporary model simulation assumed historical observed boundary conditions, the pre-development model simulation assumed conditions thought to exist prior to the alterations of the past two centuries. The relationship between estuary outflow and the longitudinal distance from the estuary mouth to the 2 psu bottom salinity isohaline (X2) was analyzed. Salt intrusion in the pre-development system was found to be slightly more sensitive to outflow and responded faster to changes in outflow than in the contemporary system. Changes in estuary outflows were responsible for more of the salt intrusion differences between the two systems than were changes in estuary geometry and bathymetry. An analysis of the physical mechanisms contributing to salt intrusion found tidal trapping and other unsteady processes to be more important in the pre-development estuary than in the contemporary one. In both systems, steady processes such as estuarine circulation were strongest during neap tides and unsteady salt

  20. Linkage of bioaccumulation and biological effects to changes in pollutant loads in south San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, M.I.; Luoma, S.N.; Cain, D.J.; Parchaso, F.; Brown, C.L.; Bouse, R.M.; Wellise, C.; Thompson, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    The developed world has invested billions of dollars in waste treatment since the 1970s; however, changes in ecological or biological responses are rarely associated with reductions in metal pollutants. Here we present a novel, 23-yr time series of environmental change from a San Francisco Bay mudflat located 1 km from the discharge of a suburban domestic sewage treatment plant. Samples of surface sediment, the bioindicator Macoma balthica, and metals loading data were used to establish links between discharge, bioaccumulation, and effects. Mean annual Ag concentrations in M. balthica were 106 ??g/g in 1978 and 3.67 ??g/g in 1998. Concentrations of Cu declined from 287 ??g/g in 1980 to a minimum of 24 ??g/g in 1991. Declining Cu bioaccumulation was strongly correlated with decreasing Cu loads from the plant between 1977 and 1998. Relationships with bioaccumulation and total annual precipitation suggested that inputs from nonpoint sources were most important in controlling Zn bioavailability during the same period. Ecoepidemiological criteria were used to associate failed gamete production in M. balthica to a metals-enriched environment. Reproduction persistently failed between the mid-1970s and mid-1980s; it recovered after metal contamination declined. Other potential environmental causes such as food availability, sediment chemistry, or seasonal salinity fluctuations were not related to the timing of the change in reproductive capability. The results establish an associative link, suggesting that it is important to further investigate the chemical interference of Cu and/or Ag with invertebrate reproduction at relatively moderate levels of environmental contamination.

  1. Biology and population dynamics of Sacramento splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus in the San Francisco Estuary: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Matern

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sacramento splittail(Pogonichthys macrolepidotus is a cyprinid fish endemic to the Central Valley of California with a range that centers on the San Francisco Estuary. It is a state Species of Special Concern and was only recently (2003 delisted as a threatened species by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Splittail live 7-9 years, tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions, and have high fecundity. Typically, adults migrate upstream in January and February and spawn on seasonally inundated floodplains in March and April. In May the juveniles migrate back downstream to shallow, brackish water rearing grounds, where they feed on detritus and invertebrates for 1-2 years before migrating back upstream to spawn. Seven long-term sampling programs in the estuary indicate that the splittail population is maintained by strong year classes resulting from successful spawning in wet years, although some spawning occurs in all years. Modeling shows them to be resilient, but managing floodplains to promote frequent successful spawning is needed to keep them abundant. Additionally, it is important to provide safe migration corridors between spawning and rearing grounds as well as abundant high-quality brackish water rearing habitat. Key research needs are (1 to examine how the timing, magnitude, and duration of high flows contribute to the generation of strong year classes, (2 to describe differences in young of year survival on the floodplain and in river margins from hatching to down-river migration, (3 explore the possible trophic effects of new invaders such as the overbite clam and Siberian prawn, and (4 determine the response of splittail populations to climate change and sea level rise.

  2. Marsh expansion at Calaveras Point Marsh, South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Elizabeth Burke

    2008-07-01

    Studies of shoreline progradation along low-energy vegetated shorelines have been limited, as these environments are generally experiencing erosion rather than deposition, with extreme erosion rates frequently found. This study examined yearly changes along a vegetated shoreline at Calaveras Point Marsh, South San Francisco Bay, California, using aerial photography, to determine the roles of climatic, watershed, and coastal process in driving shoreline changes. In addition, sediment accumulation was monitored on a yearly basis at 48 locations across the marsh to determine the role of geomorphic factors in promoting accumulation. Calaveras Point Marsh was found to have expanded from 49.26 ± 5.2 to 165.7 ± 4.7 ha between 1975 and 2005. Although the rate of marsh expansion was not positively correlated with yearly variability in precipitation, local streamflow, delta outflow, water level observations, population growth, or ENSO indices, marsh growth was greater during years of higher than average temperatures. Warmer temperatures may have promoted the recruitment and growth of Spartina foliosa, a C 4 grass known to be highly responsive to temperature. Other factors, such as the formation of a coastal barrier, a recent change in the location of the mouth of the Guadalupe River, and channel readjustment in response to diking are credited with driving the bulk of the marsh expansion. Sediment accumulation was found to be high closest to channels and to the shoreline, at low elevations and in recently vegetated marsh. Globally, the pace of sea level rise exerts the primary control on wetland development and persistence. However, at local geographic scales, factors such as tectonic events, modifications to natural sediment transport pathways or land use changes may overwhelm the effects of regional sea level rise, and allow for wetlands to develop, expand and persist despite rapid sea level rise.

  3. Probabilistic seismic hazard in the San Francisco Bay area based on seismicity simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F. F.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding how fault systems evolve in time under a relevant set of governing physical laws is a needed critical step towards reliable earthquake forecasting. We can address issues relevant to probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (e.g. recurrence time, coefficient of variation, probability of multi-segment rupture) with numerical simulations of seismicity. A seismicity simulator essentially provides a means of tracking the increasing tectonic stress as it loads the faults and determines how stress is redistributed among the network faults as the result of an earthquake. I implement a seismicity simulator that includes the effects of: (1) tectonic loading of a plate boundary zone; (2) static stress transfer; (3) viscoelasticity of the ductile lower crust and mantle; (4) length- and depth-dependent fault slip. I apply it to a network of multiple interacting faults in the San Francisco Bay area. Earthquake initiation, propagation, and termination are governed by a cascade model using a Coulomb failure function. 30000 years of simulated seismicity yield probability density functions of inter-event times on all major faults at practically a continuum of magnitude thresholds. At a threshold of M6.5, reasonable combinations of controlling parameters yield mean inter-event times of ~ 140 years for the southern Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults and ~ 250 years for the northern Hayward and northern Calaveras faults. To help interpret simulation results I explore systematic covariations among mean characteristic magnitude, coefficient of variation (typical values are 0.4 to 0.6), degree of dynamic overshoot, and mantle viscosity.

  4. Benthic flux of dissolved nickel into the water column of south San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, B.R.; Kuwabara, J.S.; Parcheso, Francis; Hager, S.W.; Arnsberg, A.J.; Murphy, Fred

    2001-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted between April, 1998 and May, 1999 to provide the first direct measurements of the benthic flux of dissolved (0.2-micron filtered) nickel between the bottom sediment and water column at three sites in the southern component of San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California. Dissolved nickel and predominant ligands (represented by dissolved organic carbon, and sulfides) were the solutes of primary interest, although a variety of ancillary measurements were also performed to provide a framework for interpretation. Results described herein integrate information needs identified by the State Water Resources Control Board and local stakeholders with fundamental research associated with the U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program. Dissolved-Ni concentrations in the bottom water over the three sampling dates ranged from 34 to 43 nanomoles per liter. Dissolved-macronutrient concentrations in the bottom water were consistently higher (frequently by orders of magnitude) than surface-water determinations reported for similar times and locations (Regional Monitoring Program, 2001). This is consistent with measured positive benthic fluxes for the macronutrients. Benthic-flux estimates for dissolved nickel from core-incubations, when areally averaged over the South Bay, were significant (that is, of equivalent or greater order of magnitude) relative to previously reported freshwater point and non-point sources. This observation is consistent with previous determinations for other metals, and with the potential remobilization of sediment-associated metals that have been ubiquitously distributed in the South Bay. Similar to dissolved-nickel results, benthic flux of macronutrients was also consistently significant relative to surface-water inputs. These results add to a growing body of knowledge that strongly suggests a need to consider contaminant transport across the sediment-water interface when establishing future

  5. Probabilistic Methodology for Estimation of Number and Economic Loss (Cost) of Future Landslides in the San Francisco Bay Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, Robert A.; Coe, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    The Probabilistic Landslide Assessment Cost Estimation System (PLACES) presented in this report estimates the number and economic loss (cost) of landslides during a specified future time in individual areas, and then calculates the sum of those estimates. The analytic probabilistic methodology is based upon conditional probability theory and laws of expectation and variance. The probabilistic methodology is expressed in the form of a Microsoft Excel computer spreadsheet program. Using historical records, the PLACES spreadsheet is used to estimate the number of future damaging landslides and total damage, as economic loss, from future landslides caused by rainstorms in 10 counties of the San Francisco Bay region in California. Estimates are made for any future 5-year period of time. The estimated total number of future damaging landslides for the entire 10-county region during any future 5-year period of time is about 330. Santa Cruz County has the highest estimated number of damaging landslides (about 90), whereas Napa, San Francisco, and Solano Counties have the lowest estimated number of damaging landslides (5?6 each). Estimated direct costs from future damaging landslides for the entire 10-county region for any future 5-year period are about US $76 million (year 2000 dollars). San Mateo County has the highest estimated costs ($16.62 million), and Solano County has the lowest estimated costs (about $0.90 million). Estimated direct costs are also subdivided into public and private costs.

  6. On the road to zero in San Francisco: understanding population dynamics, HIV transmission and internalized HIV stigma in order to get to zero HIV transmission, zero HIV-related deaths and zero HIV stigma

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    As of December 31, 2015, there were 15,995 diagnosed and reported persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who were residents of San Francisco, California at time of diagnosis. Approximately one quarter of men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco are HIV-positive. Despite a high HIV burden, a higher proportion of HIV-positive San Franciscans are virally suppressed (72% in 2014 in San Francisco) than nationally (55% nationally in 2013), and 81% of all cases in San Francis...

  7. Late Holocene δ 13C and pollen records of paleosalinity from tidal marshes in the San Francisco Bay estuary, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud-Roam, Frances; Lynn Ingram, B.

    2004-09-01

    Records of stable carbon isotopes (δ 13C) are presented from cores collected from four San Francisco Bay marshes and used as a proxy for changes in estuary salinity. The δ 13C value of organic marsh sediments are a reflection of the relative proportion of C 3 vs. C 4 plants occupying the surface, and can thus be used as a proxy for vegetation change on the marsh surface. The four marshes included in this study are located along a natural salinity gradient that exists in the San Francisco Bay, and records of vegetation change at all four sites can be used to infer changes in overall estuary paleosalinity. The δ 13C values complement pollen data from the same marsh sites producing a paleoclimate record for the late Holocene period in the San Francisco Bay estuary. The data indicate that there have been periods of higher-than-average salinity in the Bay estuary (reduced fresh water inflow), including 1600-1300 cal yr B.P., 1000-800 cal yr B.P., 300-200 cal yr B.P., and ca. A.D. 1950 to the present. Periods of lower-than-average salinity (increased fresh water inflow) occurred before 2000 cal yr B.P., from 1300 to 1200 cal yr B.P. and ca. 150 cal yr B.P. to A.D. 1950. A comparison of the timing of these events with records from the California coast, watershed, and beyond the larger drainage of the Bay reveals that the paleosalinity variations reflected regional precipitation.

  8. Sand sources and transport pathways for the San Francisco Bay coastal system, based on X-ray diffraction mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James R.; Mizell, Kira; Barnard, Patrick L.; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    The mineralogical compositions of 119 samples collected from throughout the San Francisco Bay coastal system, including bayfloor and seafloor, area beaches, cliff outcrops, and major drainages, were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Comparison of the mineral concentrations and application of statistical cluster analysis of XRD spectra allowed for the determination of provenances and transport pathways. The use of XRD mineral identifications provides semi-quantitative compositions needed for comparisons of beach and offshore sands with potential cliff and river sources, but the innovative cluster analysis of XRD diffraction spectra provides a unique visualization of how groups of samples within the San Francisco Bay coastal system are related so that sand-sized sediment transport pathways can be inferred. The main vector for sediment transport as defined by the XRD analysis is from San Francisco Bay to the outer coast, where the sand then accumulates on the ebb tidal delta and also moves alongshore. This mineralogical link defines a critical pathway because large volumes of sediment have been removed from the Bay over the last century via channel dredging, aggregate mining, and borrow pit mining, with comparable volumes of erosion from the ebb tidal delta over the same period, in addition to high rates of shoreline retreat along the adjacent, open-coast beaches. Therefore, while previously only a temporal relationship was established, the transport pathway defined by mineralogical and geochemical tracers support the link between anthropogenic activities in the Bay and widespread erosion outside the Bay. The XRD results also establish the regional and local importance of sediment derived from cliff erosion, as well as both proximal and distal fluvial sources. This research is an important contribution to a broader provenance study aimed at identifying the driving forces for widespread geomorphic change in a heavily urbanized coastal-estuarine system.

  9. Under the Golden Gate bridge: views of the sea floor near the entrance to San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Peter; Barnard, Patrick L.; Chin, John L.; Hanes, Daniel; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Iampietro, Pat J.; Gardner, James V.

    2006-01-01

    San Francisco Bay in Northern California is one of the largest and most altered estuaries within the United States. The sea floor within the bay as well as at its entrance is constantly changing due to strong tidal currents, aggregate mining, dredge disposal, and the creation of new land using artificial fill. Understanding this dynamic sea floor is critical for addressing local environmental issues, which include defining pollution transport pathways, deciphering tectonics, and identifying benthic habitats. Mapping commercial interests such as safe ship navigation and dredge disposal is also significantly aided by such understanding. Over the past decade, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB) in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACOE) and the Center for Integrative Coastal Observation, Research and Education (CICORE) have partnered to map central San Francisco Bay and its entrance under the Golden Gate Bridge using multibeam echosounders. These sonar systems can continuously map to produce 100 percent coverage of the sea floor at meter-scale resolution and thus produce an unprecedented view of the floor of the bay. This poster shows views of the sea floor in west-central San Francisco Bay around Alcatraz and Angel Islands, underneath the Golden Gate Bridge, and through its entrance from the Pacific Ocean. The sea floor is portrayed as a shaded relief surface generated from the multibeam data color-coded for depth from light blues for the shallowest values to purples for the deepest. The land regions are portrayed by USGS digital orthophotographs (DOQs) overlaid on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). The water depths have a 4x vertical exaggeration while the land areas have a 2x vertical exaggeration.

  10. Capítulo XIX. La influencia de la iglesia de San Francisco sobre el barroco de Galicia

    OpenAIRE

    San Cristóbal Sebastián, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Nave central y bóvedas Sobre el fundamento general de una presunta y perdurable influencia de la arquitectura española ejercida hacia la arquitectura virreinal peruana asienta un peculiar modo de correlacionar la iglesia del Convento de San Francisco de Lima, reconstruida durante el segundo tercio del siglo xvii, con la arquitectura del barroco en Galicia. También acerca de este punto concreto ha prevalecido la misma presuposición apriorista desde la que se subordinaba en general y de modo pe...

  11. Geographies of displacement: Latina/os, oral history, and the politics of gentrification in San Francisco's Mission District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabal, Nancy Raquel

    2009-05-01

    During the 1990s and early 2000s, working-class and poor neighborhoods in San Francisco underwent dramatic economic and racial changes. One of the most heavily gentrified neighborhoods was the Mission District. As a result of local politics, housing and rental policies, real estate speculation, and development, thousands of Latina/o families were displaced. Using oral historical and ethnographic methodologies, print media, archival sources, and policy papers, this article traces the gentrification of the Mission District from the perspective of the Latina/o community. It also examines how gentrification was articulated as a positive turn within the larger public discourse on space and access.

  12. University of California San Francisco (UCSF-1): Chemical-Genetic Interaction Mapping Strategy | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CTD2 Center at University of California San Francisco (UCSF-1) developed a chemical-genetic interaction mapping strategy to uncover the impact of cancer gene expression on responses to a panel of emerging therapeutics. To study the impact of aberrant gene activity in isolation, they developed an isogenic model of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) using the hormone receptor negative MCF10A non-tumorigenic cell line derived from healthy breast tissue which is diploid and largely devoid of somatic alterations.

  13. Abundancia, comportamiento, y mortandad de Buleo swainsoni cerca de San Francisco, Córdoba, Argentina en 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Michael; Bechard, Marc J.; Parker, Melissa; Kochert, Michael N.; Lanusse, Agustín E.

    2000-01-01

    Observamos aguiluchos langosteros (Buteo swainsoni; Swainson's hawk) cerca de San Francisco de Córdoba, Argentina (310 30' S, 620 05' W) durante enero y febrero de 1997. Hicimos tres recorridos al noreste de Córdoba y al oeste de Santa Fé, el primero para reconocimiento del área, el segundo para localizar y capturar ejemplares, y el tercero para evaluar un incidente de mortandad. Los aguiluchos fueron abundantes (aproximadamente 3.500 aguiluchos en el primer viaje y 2.340 en el segundo viaje)...

  14. Transformaciones del modelo Neogranadino de parroquialización. El caso de la Parroquia San Francisco Xavier de Piedecuesta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rubén Pérez Pinzón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza los fundamentos canónigos, las razones virreinales y los rituales eclesiásticos que justificaron las fundaciones parroquiales del siglo XVIII. Para ello se enfatiza en el modelo de urbanismo de las autoridades borbónicas que sustituyó la práctica de fundaciones de ciudades y villas de los siglos XVI y XVII a partir de capitulaciones. Modelo de necesidades demostradas, visitas a las instituciones virreinales y verificación de méritos que se puede comprobar desde el caso de la parroquia moderna de San Francisco Xavier del Pie de la Cuesta (Santander, Colombia, la cual pasó de ser un sitio irregular a la próspera Villa de San Carlos del siglo XIX.

  15. Data from theodolite measurements of creep rates on San Francisco Bay region faults, California, 1979-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Forrest S.; Lienkaemper, James J.; Caskey, S. John

    2009-01-01

    Our purpose is to annually update our creep-data archive on San Francisco Bay region active faults for use by the scientific research community. Earlier data (1979-2001) were reported in Galehouse (2002) and were analyzed and described in detail in a summary report (Galehouse and Lienkaemper, 2003). A complete analysis of our earlier results obtained on the Hayward Fault was presented in Lienkaemper, Galehouse and Simpson (2001) and updated in Lienkaemper and others (2012). Lienkaemper and others (2014a) provide a new overview and analysis of fault creep along all sections of the northern San Andreas Fault system, from which they estimate by how much fault creep reduces the seismic hazard for each fault section.

  16. Psychosocial Influences on Disaster Preparedness in San Francisco Recipients of Home Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Robyn R; Portacolone, Elena; Nwankwo, Ezinne M; Zhi, Qi; Qureshi, Kristine A; Raveis, Victoria H

    2016-12-27

    Disasters disproportionately impact certain segments of the population, including children, pregnant women, people living with disabilities and chronic conditions and those who are underserved and under-resourced. One of the most vulnerable groups includes the community-dwelling elderly. Post-disaster analyses indicate that these individuals have higher risk of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. They also have suboptimal levels of disaster preparedness in terms of their ability to shelter-in-place or evacuate to a shelter. The reasons for this have not been well characterized, although impaired health, financial limitations, and social isolation are believed to act as barriers to preparedness as well as to adaptability to changes in the environment both during and in the immediate aftermath of disasters. In order to identify strategies that address barriers to preparedness, we recently conducted a qualitative study of 50 elderly home care recipients living in San Francisco. Data were collected during in-home, in-person interviews using a semi-structured interview guide that included psychosocial constructs based on the social cognitive preparedness model and a new 13-item preparedness checklist. The mean preparedness score was 4.74 (max 13, range 1-11, SD. 2.11). Over 60 % of the participants reported that they had not made back-up plans for caregiver assistance during times of crisis, 74 % had not made plans for transportation to a shelter, 56 % lacked a back-up plan for electrical equipment in case of power outages, and 44 % had not prepared an emergency contacts list-the most basic element of preparedness. Impairments, disabilities, and resource limitations served as barriers to preparedness. Cognitive processes that underlie motivation and intentions for preparedness behaviors were lacking. There were limitations with respect to critical awareness of hazards (saliency), self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and perceived responsibility. There was also a

  17. Preliminary Results from Real-Time GPS Monitoring in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, J. O.; Guillemot, C.

    2013-12-01

    A web-based monitoring system has been implemented to display displacement estimates in real-time for various combinations of USGS, Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network stations in the San Francisco Bay area. Tools and utilities developed in-house are used to visually analyze the quality of estimated positions and gain a better understanding of the challenges involved in integrating displacement data into earthquake early warning (EEW) algorithms. Comparisons of results between differential and precise position estimates obtained from a variety of software packages have led to a closer examination of the epoch-per-epoch latencies, or delays with which those estimates are generated. For example, although position estimates from precise point positioning, with ambiguity resolution, (PPP-AR) computed in real-time are reasonably stable over short-time scales, latencies of 50 seconds or more currently preclude their useful incorporation into EEW algorithms. On the other hand, the latencies for differential position range between less than a second to 10 seconds. The large latencies for PPP-AR are partly due to the fact that displacement estimates obtained from GPS cannot yet be generated at the source but must rely on centralized processing that incorporates instantaneous clock corrections which, in turn must be obtained from external agencies. The latencies, however, are not as critical for the study of post-seismic deformation that occurs minutes to hours following an earthquake. Computation of the power spectra of time series provides a quantitative means to compare the precision of estimated positions that are obtained from various software that process the data in real-time. To first order, the current set of processing algorithms, including those using differential position and PPP-AR, provides nearly equal performance in terms of temporal correlations which is represented by their power spectra. At the shortest periods

  18. Insights into microbial communities involved in mercury methylation in the San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machak, C.; Francis, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    San Francisco Bay (SFB) estuary is the largest estuary on the western coast of the United States, draining a watershed covering more than one third of the state of California. Mercury (Hg) contamination in SFB, as a result of gold and mercury mining in the Coast Range and Sierra Nevada region, has been observed for at least 150 years. Additional sources of Hg contamination to SFB come from active oil refineries, manufacturing, and wastewater treatment plants in the area. Concentrations of methylmercury in the sediment at the time of sample collection for the present study ranged from 0.011-3.88 μg/kg (dry weight). At some sites, the concentration exceeds wetland toxicity limits, posing a threat to the health of the ecosystem and potentially endangering humans that use the estuary for food and recreation. This study attempts to understand the factors that control the transformation of Hg to methylmercury by microorganisms in aquatic sediments, where the majority of Hg methylation is known to occur. Under anoxic conditions, some sulfate- and iron-reducing bacteria have the capacity to transform Hg into methylmercury. To better understand the microbial communities involved in Hg methylation, an extensive library of 16S rRNA sequences was generated (via Illumina sequencing) from sediment samples at 20 sites throughout the SFB estuary. In addition to genomic data, we have access to a massive database of geochemical measurements made by the SFB Regional Monitoring Program at the sampling locations. These measurements show that our sediment samples have varying methylmercury concentrations and span gradients in porewater sulfate and Fe(III), which are the two known alternative electron acceptors for mercury-methylating anaerobic bacteria. The sampling sites also span gradients in other geochemical factors known to influence microbial community composition (and potentially Hg mercury methylation), such as available organic carbon, pH, and salinity. We will present the

  19. Novel Technique for Assessing Ammonium Utilization by Phytoplankton in the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C. M.; Kendall, C.; Young, M. B.; Kraus, T. E. C.; Silva, S. R.; Richter, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    High concentrations of NH4+ in the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary (SFE) have been shown to inhibit the growth of phytoplankton, which are an important food source to zooplankton at the base of the pelagic food web. Here we present results from a study which used a stable isotope mixing model to quantify the proportion of nitrogen assimilated as NH4+ by phytoplankton in situ in a portion of the Sacramento River where NH4+ concentration is elevated downstream of the Sacramento Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant (SRWTP). To determine the δ15N value of phytoplankton, a novel method was developed to isolate phytoplankton from bulk particulate organic matter using flow cytometry prior to isotopic analysis. Modifications were made to an elemental analyzer to allow measurement of the δ15N values of samples containing as little as 0.5 µg N with an analytical precision of 0.2‰ (determined from replicate analysis of standards). During fall and spring field campaigns, two parcels of Sacramento River water (one with wastewater effluent and one without) were tracked and sampled in a Lagrangian sampling scheme over ~80 hours of travel downstream of the SRWTP. Water samples were analyzed for nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations as well δ15N-NO3 and δ15N-NH4+. In addition, approximately ten million phytoplankton cells were sorted from each sample for analysis of δ15N-phytoplankton. In parcels of Sacramento River water without wastewater effluent, NH4+ concentrations remained low and trends in δ15N-phytoplankton followed trends in δ15N-NO3-. In contrast, in the parcels containing SRWTP effluent phytoplankton uptake of N as NH4+ gradually increased from 15% immediately downstream of the SRWTP to as high as 90% after 80 hours of downstream transit. Previous mesocosm incubation experiments have demonstrated depressed growth rates and a rapid switch from NO3- to NH4+ uptake downstream of the SRWTP, suggesting that the apparent gradual increase in the proportion of N

  20. Mud On the Move: Measuring Suspended Sediment Concentrations within Tidal Wetlands in the San Francisco Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, J.; Ferner, M.; Lacy, J. R.; Schile, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    Supply of suspended sediment is critical for the development and sustainability of tidal wetlands. Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is also a key parameter used in calibrating wetland accretion models, which aid in understanding restoration dynamics and projecting resilience to sea-level rise. Despite the importance of suspended sediment, few field studies have directly measured SSC within tidal wetlands, relying instead on measurements in adjacent waters or focusing on long-term rates of sediment accretion. We refined and tested a simple method for collecting SSC samples within wetlands on an incoming high tide, using siphon collectors. Bottles were positioned during low tide at set locations along transects extending away from either channels or the lower boundary of the vegetated wetland. This sampling protocol was developed collaboratively, with substantial input from local wetland managers and other stakeholders within the San Francisco Bay area and beyond. Simultaneously, we measured time series of SSC, water level, and tidal currents in the subtidal shallows, on the intertidal mudflats, and in two channels within the wetland. We observed significant sediment export during king tides in the wetland channels. Cumulative suspended sediment flux (SSF) over four days during the January 2014 king tides was approximately 10 tons/m of channel width, towards the bay. During neap tides SSF in the channels was directed landward but was lower in magnitude. Elevated velocities in the channels during ebb king tides suggest that resuspension within the channels, rather than erosion of the wetland, accounts for much of the bayward SSF. Within the wetland, SSC from the siphon samplers was highest at the bayward end of the cross-shore transects, indicating landward sediment flux. Taken together with long term accretion data which indicates sediment accumulation within the wetland, our results suggest that sediment is primarily supplied across the wetland-Bay interface

  1. Trends in early initiation of antiretroviral therapy and characteristics of persons with HIV initiating therapy in San Francisco, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ling Chin; Truong, Hong-Ha M; Vittinghoff, Eric; Zhi, Qi; Scheer, Susan; Schwarcz, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    In 2010, the San Francisco Department of Public Health offered antiretroviral therapy (ART) to all its patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) regardless of CD4 count. We assessed trends in time from diagnosis to ART initiation and factors associated with ART initiation among San Francisco residents living with HIV between 2007 and 2011. Time to ART initiation decreased among those diagnosed with higher CD4 count. ART initiation rate was significantly higher in recent years and lower among African Americans, men who have sex with men who also inject drugs, and persons aged ≥50 years. We found a trend toward early treatment. However, racial and social disparities persist.

  2. The critical role of islands for waterbird breeding and foraging habitat in managed ponds of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark P.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Yee, Julie L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project aims to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds into tidal marsh in South San Francisco Bay, California. However, large numbers of waterbirds use these ponds annually as nesting and foraging habitat. Islands within ponds are particularly important habitat for nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds. To maintain current waterbird populations, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project plans to create new islands within former salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay. In a series of studies, we investigated pond and individual island attributes that are most beneficial to nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds.

  3. Engineers at the Golden Gate: A History of the San Francisco District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 1866-1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    the north tO Cape San Martin near San Luis Obispo on the south. The Second San Francisco District was made up of the Great Central Valley of...San Luis Obispo, the District’s boundary line leaves the coast and follows a southeastern arc so as to take in the headwaters of the Salinas River...reduced, Major Mendell contracted with]. N. Risdon on September 4, 1873, to take another hazard, Rincon Rock, down to where it would also be 24 feet

  4. Late 20th Century benthic foraminiferal distribution in Central San Francisco Bay, California: Influence of the Trochammina hadai invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of foraminifera in most of San Francisco Bay is well documented, but this is not the case for the subembayment known as Central Bay. To resolve this, 55 grab samples obtained in 1998 were analyzed to characterize the foraminiferal fauna in the surface sediments of the area. Thirty-five species were identified, including the invasive Japanese species Trochammina hadai that was introduced into the bay in the early 1980s. A cluster analysis of the samples from Central Bay produced three groups (biofacies) and one outlier. The Shallow Subtidal Biofacies is characterized by a marsh to shallow-subtidal agglutinated fauna, dominated by T. hadai but also including T. inflata, T. macrescens, Haplophragmoides subinvolutum, and Miliammina fusca. The Intermediate Subtidal Biofacies, the Intermediate Subtidal Outlier, and the Deep Subtidal Biofacies are dominated by calcareous taxa, most notably Ammonia tepida, Elphidium excavatum, and Elphidiella hannai. Ammonia tepida is most abundant in the warmer, intermediate depths of eastern Central Bay, abundances of E. excavatum peak in the cooler estuarine water near Alcatraz Island, and E. hannai thrives in the cold water west of Angel Island in a transitional setting between the deep subtidal estuarine and the nearshore marine environments. The recovery of oceanic species as far east as Angel Island indicate that western Central Bay is the most marine-influenced region of San Francisco Bay.

  5. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Coats, D.A. (Marine Research Specialists, Ventura, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct studies of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites. Details of the methods and complete listing or graphical representation of the results are contained in this second volume of the two-volume report. Appendix A describes the methods and results of a pre-disposal bathymetric survey of Site B1B, and provides an analysis of the accuracy and precision of the survey. Appendix B describes the moorings and instruments used to obtain physical oceanographic data at the candidate sites, and also discussed other sources of data used in the analyses. Techniques used to analyze the formation, processed data, and complete results of various analyses are provided in tabular and graphical form. Appendix C provides details of the sediment transport calculations. Appendix D describes the format of the archived current meter data, which is available through the National Oceanographic Data Center. 43 refs., 54 figs., 58 tabs.

  6. Phosphate oxygen isotope ratios as a tracer for sources and cycling of phosphate in North San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Karen; Kendall, Carol; Silva, Steven R.; Young, Megan; Paytan, Adina

    2006-09-01

    A seasonal analysis assesing variations in the oxygen isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) was conducted in the San Francisco Bay estuarine system, California. Isotopic fractionation of oxygen in DIP (exchange of oxygen between phosphate and environmental water) at surface water temperatures occurs only as a result of enzyme-mediated, biological reactions. Accordingly, if phospate demand is low relative to input and phosphate is not heavily cycled in the ecosystem, the oxygen isotopic composition of DIP (δ18Op) will reflect the isotopic composition of the source of phosphate to the system. Such is the case for the North San Francisco Bay, an anthropogenically impacted estuary with high surface water phosphate concentrations. Variability in the δ18Op in the bay is primarily controlled by mixing of water masses with different δ18Op signatures. The δ18Op values range from 11.4‰ at the Sacramento River to 20.1‰ at the Golden Gate. Deviations from the two-component mixing model for the North Bay reflect additional, local sources of phosphate to the estuary that vary seasonally. Most notably, deviations from the mixing model occur at the confluence of a major river into the bay during periods of high river discharge and near wastewater treatment outlets. These data suggest that δ18Op can be an effective tool for identifying P point sources and understanding phosphate dynamics in estuarine systems.

  7. Phosphate oxygen isotope ratios as a tracer for sources and cycling of phosphate in North San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, K.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.R.; Young, M.; Paytan, A.

    2006-01-01

    A seasonal analysis assesing variations in the oxygen isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) was conducted in the San Francisco Bay estuarine system, California. Isotopic fractionation of oxygen in DIP (exchange of oxygen between phosphate and environmental water) at surface water temperatures occurs only as a result of enzyme-mediated, biological reactions. Accordingly, if phospate demand is low relative to input and phosphate is not heavily cycled in the ecosystem, the oxygen isotopic composition of DIP (?? 18Op) will reflect the isotopic composition of the source of phosphate to the system. Such is the case for the North San Francisco Bay, an anthropogenically impacted estuary with high surface water phosphate concentrations. Variability in the ?? 18Op in the bay is primarily controlled by mixing of water masses with different ??18Op signatures. The ??18Op values range from 11.4??? at the Sacramento River to 20.1??? at the Golden Gate. Deviations from the two-component mixing model for the North Bay reflect additional, local sources of phosphate to the estuary that vary seasonally. Most notably, deviations from the mixing model occur at the confluence of a major river into the bay during periods of high river discharge and near wastewater treatment outlets. These data suggest that ??18Op can be an effective tool for identifying P point sources and understanding phosphate dynamics in estuarine systems. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Holistic Native network: integrated HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and mental health services for Native Americans in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebelkopf, Ethan; Penagos, Maritza

    2005-09-01

    The Holistic Native Network provides a model for integrated HIV/AIDS, substance abuse and mental health services in a cultural context. Funded in 2002 by a grant from the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Special Projects of National Significance (SPNS) initiative, the Holistic Native Network is a collaboration of the Native American Health Center and Friendship House Association of American Indians, two community-based organizations with facilities in San Francisco and Oakland. Substance abuse and mental health services are integrated into primary HIV/AIDS medical care. San Francisco has the largest population of Native Americans with HIV/AIDS in the country. Since its inception, 45 Native Americans with HIV/AIDS have been enrolled in the Holistic Native Network. These clients were surveyed upon admission and at three months in treatment. The results indicated positive changes in quality of life. The success of this program lies in the way that culture and community is included at every stage of service provision. From outreach to case management to substance abuse and mental health services, the Holistic Native Network meets the spiritual, medical and psychosocial needs of HIV+ Native Americans.

  9. Interseismic interactions in geometrically complex fault systems: Implications for San Francisco Bay Area fault creep and tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E. L.; Meade, B. J.; Loveless, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    Fault systems at active plate boundaries accommodate the differential motion of tectonic plates through slip on anastomosing faults within the seismogenic upper crust. The partitioning of slip across fault systems can be inferred from models of space-based geodetic measurements to estimate both fault slip rates and interseismic fault creep. Covariance between slip rate estimates on sub-parallel faults may be significant but can be reduced with the addition of the fundamental constraint that total slip across a fault system must sum to the differential plate motion rate. The importance of ensuring such kinematic consistency becomes increasingly important in strike-slip fault systems such as in the San Francisco Bay Area, where slip is localized across 4-8 sub-parallel faults with San Francisco Bay Area constrained by both GPS and InSAR observations and find that this effect may lead to a substantial revision of interseismic creep estimates on the Hayward fault by as much as 6 mm/yr at depth.

  10. Solar sensor activated and computer controlled shading system -- Field study at the San Francisco New Main Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, P.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the result of the post-occupancy evaluation of MechoShade Systems{trademark} AAC-PC Window Management Program at the San Francisco New Main Public Library. The AAC-PC Window Management Program is a solar sensor activated (Li-Cor Radiometers) and PC computer controlled shading system. The purpose of this research was to inform the building design community about the occupant response to the new technology of automatic shading. There was a double need for this research because of the (1) Rising trend of automatic shading system applications specially in large office or public buildings, and (2) Significant lack of published reports on post-occupancy evaluation of any type of automatic shading systems. The automatic shading system in the new main San Francisco Public Library has had continuous problems since the building opened in 1996. The library staff has been experiencing low to high level of many environmental discomforts. Occupant comfort and satisfaction should be an important design criteria for the long term success of any new technology in buildings whether it is for solar control, energy efficiency, or any other purpose.

  11. The integration of engineering and architecture: A perspective on natural ventilation for the new San Francisco Federal Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConahey, Erin; Haves, Philip; Christ, Tim

    2002-05-31

    A description of the in-progress design of a new Federal Office Building for San Francisco is used to illustrate a number of issues arising in the design of large, naturally ventilated office buildings. These issues include the need for an integrated approach to design involving the architects, mechanical and structural engineers, lighting designers and specialist simulation modelers. In particular, the use of natural ventilation, and the avoidance of air-conditioning, depends on the high degree of exposed thermal mass made possible by the structural scheme and by the minimization of solar heat gains while maintaining the good daylighting that results from optimization of the fagade. Another issue was the need for a radical change in interior space planning in order to enhance the natural ventilation; all the individual enclosed offices are located along the central spine of each floorplate rather than at the perimeter. The role of integration in deterring the undermining of the design through value engineering is discussed. The comfort criteria for the building were established based on the recent extension to the ASHRAE comfort standard based on the adaptive model for naturally ventilated buildings. The building energy simulation program EnergyPlus was used to compare the performance of different natural ventilation strategies. The results indicate that, in the San Francisco climate, wind-driven ventilation provides sufficient nocturnal cooling to maintain comfortable conditions and that external chimneys do not provide significant additional ventilation at times when it when it would be beneficial.

  12. Inferences drawn from two decades of alinement array measurements of creep on faults in the San Francisco Bay Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galehouse, J.S.; Lienkaemper, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    We summarize over 20 years of monitoring surface creep on faults of the San Andreas system in the San Francisco Bay region using alinement arrays. The San Andreas fault is fully locked at five sites northwest from San Juan Bautista, the southern end of the 1906 earthquake rupture, that is, no creep (San Gregorio, Rodgers Creek, and West Napa faults show no creep. The measured creep rate on the Calaveras-Paicines fault from Hollister southward is either 6 or ??? 10 mm/yr, depending on whether the arrays cross all of the creeping traces. Northward of Hollister, the central Calaveras creep rate reaches 14 ?? 2 mm/yr but drops to ??? 2 mm/yr near Calaveras Reservoir, where slip transfers to the southern Hayward fault at a maximum creep rate of 9 mm/yr at its south end. However, the Hayward fault averages only 4.6 mm/yr over most of its length. The Northern Calaveras fault, now creeping at 3-4 mm/yr, steps right to the Concord fault, which has a similar rate, 2.5-3.5 mm/yr, which is slightly slower than the 4.4 mm/yr rate on its northward continuation, the Green Valley fault. The Maacama fault creeps at 4.4 mm/yr near Ukiah and 6.5 mm/yr in Willits. The central and southern segments of the Calaveras fault are predominantly creeping, whereas the Hayward, Northern Calaveras, and Maacama faults are partly locked and, along with the Rodgers Creek and San Andreas, have high potential for major earthquakes.

  13. San Francisco Bay-Delta bathymetric/topographic digital elevation model (DEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregoso, Theresa; Wang, Rueen-Fang; Ateljevich, Eli; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-01-01

    bathymetry data collected by the COE and USGS scientists, expanding the DEM to include the northernmost areas of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, and by making use of a two-meter seamless bathymetric/topographic DEM from the USGS EROS Data Center (2013) of the San Francisco Bay region.The resulting 10-meter USGS DEM encompasses the entirety of Suisun Bay, beginning with the Carquinez Strait in the west, east to California Interstate 5, north following the path of the Yolo Bypass and the Sacramento River up to Knights Landing, and the American River northeast to the Nimbus Dam, and south to areas around Tracy. The DEM incorporates the newest available bathymetry data at the time of release, as well as including, at minimum, a 100-meter band of available topography data adjacent to most shorelines. No data areas within the DEM are areas where no elevation data exists, either due to a gap in the land/water interface, or because lidar was collected over standing water that was then cut out of the DEM.Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., 2015, Topo to Raster:  http://desktop.arcgis.com/en/desktop/latest/tools/3d-analyst-toolbox/topo-to-raster.htmFoxgrover, A., Smith, R.E., and Jaffe, B.E., 2005, Suisun Bay and Delta Bathymetry: http://sfbay.wr.usgs.gov/sediment/delta/index.htmlUSGS EROS Data Center, 2013, 2 m Coastal National Elevation Dataset: http://topotools.cr.usgs.gov/topobathy_viewer/Wang, R-F., and Ateljevich, E., 2012, A continuous surface elevation map for modeling, chapter 6 in California Department of Water Resources, Methodology for flow and salinity estimates in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and Suisun Marsh, 33rd Annual Progress Report to the StateWater Resources Control Board:  California Department of Water Resources, Bay-Delta Office, Delta Modeling Section, http://baydeltaoffice.water.ca.gov/modeling/deltamodeling/AR2012/Chapter%206_2012_Web.pdf

  14. Modeling Magnetic Fields from a DC Power Cable Buried Beneath San Francisco Bay Based on Empirical Measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kavet

    Full Text Available The Trans Bay Cable (TBC is a ±200-kilovolt (kV, 400 MW 85-km long High Voltage Direct Current (DC buried transmission line linking Pittsburg, CA with San Francisco, CA (SF beneath the San Francisco Estuary. The TBC runs parallel to the migratory route of various marine species, including green sturgeon, Chinook salmon, and steelhead trout. In July and August 2014, an extensive series of magnetic field measurements were taken using a pair of submerged Geometrics magnetometers towed behind a survey vessel in four locations in the San Francisco estuary along profiles that cross the cable's path; these included the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge (BB, the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge (RSR, the Benicia-Martinez Bridge (Ben and an area in San Pablo Bay (SP in which a bridge is not present. In this paper, we apply basic formulas that ideally describe the magnetic field from a DC cable summed vectorially with the background geomagnetic field (in the absence of other sources that would perturb the ambient field to derive characteristics of the cable that are otherwise not immediately observable. Magnetic field profiles from measurements taken along 170 survey lines were inspected visually for evidence of a distinct pattern representing the presence of the cable. Many profiles were dominated by field distortions unrelated to the cable caused by bridge structures or other submerged objects, and the cable's contribution to the field was not detectable. BB, with 40 of the survey lines, did not yield usable data for these reasons. The unrelated anomalies could be up to 100 times greater than those from the cable. In total, discernible magnetic field profiles measured from 76 survey lines were regressed against the equations, representing eight days of measurement. The modeled field anomalies due to the cable (the difference between the maximum and minimum field along the survey line at the cable crossing were virtually identical to the measured values. The

  15. Modeling Magnetic Fields from a DC Power Cable Buried Beneath San Francisco Bay Based on Empirical Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavet, Robert; Wyman, Megan T; Klimley, A Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Trans Bay Cable (TBC) is a ±200-kilovolt (kV), 400 MW 85-km long High Voltage Direct Current (DC) buried transmission line linking Pittsburg, CA with San Francisco, CA (SF) beneath the San Francisco Estuary. The TBC runs parallel to the migratory route of various marine species, including green sturgeon, Chinook salmon, and steelhead trout. In July and August 2014, an extensive series of magnetic field measurements were taken using a pair of submerged Geometrics magnetometers towed behind a survey vessel in four locations in the San Francisco estuary along profiles that cross the cable's path; these included the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge (BB), the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge (RSR), the Benicia-Martinez Bridge (Ben) and an area in San Pablo Bay (SP) in which a bridge is not present. In this paper, we apply basic formulas that ideally describe the magnetic field from a DC cable summed vectorially with the background geomagnetic field (in the absence of other sources that would perturb the ambient field) to derive characteristics of the cable that are otherwise not immediately observable. Magnetic field profiles from measurements taken along 170 survey lines were inspected visually for evidence of a distinct pattern representing the presence of the cable. Many profiles were dominated by field distortions unrelated to the cable caused by bridge structures or other submerged objects, and the cable's contribution to the field was not detectable. BB, with 40 of the survey lines, did not yield usable data for these reasons. The unrelated anomalies could be up to 100 times greater than those from the cable. In total, discernible magnetic field profiles measured from 76 survey lines were regressed against the equations, representing eight days of measurement. The modeled field anomalies due to the cable (the difference between the maximum and minimum field along the survey line at the cable crossing) were virtually identical to the measured values. The modeling

  16. Slicing up the San Francisco Bay Area: Block kinematics and fault slip rates from GPS-derived surface velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessio, M. A.; Johanson, I. A.; Bürgmann, R.; Schmidt, D. A.; Murray, M. H.

    2005-06-01

    Observations of surface deformation allow us to determine the kinematics of faults in the San Francisco Bay Area. We present the Bay Area velocity unification (B?V?, "bay view"), a compilation of over 200 horizontal surface velocities computed from campaign-style and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from 1993 to 2003. We interpret this interseismic velocity field using a three-dimensional block model to determine the relative contributions of block motion, elastic strain accumulation, and shallow aseismic creep. The total relative motion between the Pacific plate and the rigid Sierra Nevada/Great Valley (SNGV) microplate is 37.9 ± 0.6 mm yr-1 directed toward N30.4°W ± 0.8° at San Francisco (±2σ). Fault slip rates from our preferred model are typically within the error bounds of geologic estimates but provide a better fit to geodetic data (notable right-lateral slip rates in mm yr-1: San Gregorio fault, 2.4 ± 1.0; West Napa fault, 4.0 ± 3.0; zone of faulting along the eastern margin of the Coast Range, 5.4 ± 1.0; and Mount Diablo thrust, 3.9 ± 1.0 of reverse slip and 4.0 ± 0.2 of right-lateral strike slip). Slip on the northern Calaveras is partitioned between both the West Napa and Concord/Green Valley fault systems. The total convergence across the Bay Area is negligible. Poles of rotation for Bay Area blocks progress systematically from the North America-Pacific to North America-SNGV poles. The resulting present-day relative motion cannot explain the strike of most Bay Area faults, but fault strike does loosely correlate with inferred plate motions at the time each fault initiated.

  17. Integrated geomorphic and geodynamic modeling of a potential blind thrust in the San Francisco Bay area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Courtney B.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Kirby, Eric

    2009-06-01

    Geometries and slip budgets of the faults in the San Francisco Bay area imply previously unrecognized fault linkages, including examples of blind thrust structures that appear to connect segments of strike-slip faults and accommodate along-strike variations in slip rate along these structures. Displacement along linking faults may be associated with the development of topography and also may serve as earthquake sources. In Marin County, California, systematic spatial patterns in landscape topography and geomorphic indices suggest that the region north of Mt. Tamalpais is experiencing differential rock uplift. We suggest that a blind thrust underlies the elevated area, creating the observed topography and possibly resolving a slip discrepancy between the Hayward and San Andreas Fault in this region. We have developed and implemented an integrative approach that combines observations from tectonic deformation and geomorphic properties to identify a potential blind thrust beneath Marin County. Elastic displacement modeling has been tested for compatibility with the blind thrust hypothesis and to assess the sensitivity of observables to fault geometry and orientation; from this, a set of plausible blind thrust structures are defined. We use a range of empirical relationships between channel steepness index and erosion rate to estimate spatial variations in erosion rate along Bolinas Ridge. By coupling these erosion estimates with elastic displacement fault modeling, we can use the resulting topographic envelopes to constrain the rate and duration of deformation. These constraints, along with spatial bounds on the possible fault models, are used to calculate potential seismic moment and moment magnitude. With an assumed recurrence interval of ~ 100 years, such blind thrusts can produce a Mw ~ 6.3 earthquake, while a longer recurrence time (~ 1000 years) results in a maximum Mw ~ 7.0 earthquake. Although such events are not likely to be catastrophic, they are large

  18. H08023: NOS Hydrographic Survey , San Francisco Bar, California, 1954-09-20

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  19. H08024: NOS Hydrographic Survey , San Francisco Bar, California, 1954-09-22

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  20. H08027: NOS Hydrographic Survey , San Francisco Bar, California, 1956-01-06

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  1. Outdoor Air Pollution (PM2.5) and Ill-Health Attributable to Residential Wood Combustion in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Z.; Fairley, D.; Smith, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Residential wood combustion is recognized as a major source of fine particulate (PM2.5) air pollution in the San Francisco Bay Area, especially during the winter heating season. Both indoor and outdoor exposure to air pollution from residential wood combustion negatively impact human health, causing premature deaths and ill-health. Previous research has described the regional impact of wood smoke on air quality. Here, we estimate by county the proportion of ambient (outdoor) PM2.5 air pollution attributable to residential wood combustion in the San Francisco Bay Area. We also explore the implications of residential wood burning emissions for human health in the San Francisco Bay Area, reporting the burden of disease associated with this emission source by county. We also describe differences between counties in wood burning behavior, air pollution levels, and human health effects. The results of this research have relevance for air quality regulation and source abatement prioritization in the San Francisco Bay Area and beyond.

  2. Muusikamaailm : Brüsseli La Monnaie ئ 300. Uusooper San Franciscos. Sibeliuse nädal esiettekannetega. Cesare Valletti surnud / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    Brüsseli teater Theatre Royal de la Monnaie sai linnalt 300. juubeli kingituseks lisaruume, hooaja ooperiesiettekannetest teatris. J. Heggie ooperi "Dead man walking" maailmaesiettekandest San Francisco Ooperis. 30.sept.-8. okt. toimunud Sibeliuse nädalast Järvenpää-talos. Lühidalt C. Vallettist

  3. Muusikamaailm : Brüsseli La Monnaie ئ 300. Uusooper San Franciscos. Sibeliuse nädal esiettekannetega. Cesare Valletti surnud / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    Brüsseli teater Theatre Royal de la Monnaie sai linnalt 300. juubeli kingituseks lisaruume, hooaja ooperiesiettekannetest teatris. J. Heggie ooperi "Dead man walking" maailmaesiettekandest San Francisco Ooperis. 30.sept.-8. okt. toimunud Sibeliuse nädalast Järvenpää-talos. Lühidalt C. Vallettist

  4. The Female/Male Salary Differential in Public Schools: Some Lessons from San Francisco, 1879. Program Report No. 79-B7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strober, Myra H.; Best, Laura

    This paper develops a theory of sex differences in the earnings of school personnel, with emphasis on the role of labor market segmentation. Several aspects of the theory are then tested using data for the San Francisco school system in 1879. Section 1 develops a theory of sex differences in the earnings of school personnel. Section 2 discusses…

  5. Report on the Development and Evaluation of the "Survey of Undergraduate Alumni" and the "Survey of Graduate Alumni" in Health Education at San Francisco State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Darlene

    The "Survey of Undergraduate Alumni" and the "Survey of Graduate Alumni" for the Department of Health Education at San Francisco State University (California) were developed and evaluated. The surveys were intended to measure alumni satisfaction with the programs in health education. Using a modified Delphi technique, a group…

  6. PROJECT HEAD START, SUMMER 1966, LECTURES PRESENTED IN THE ORIENTATION SESSION FOR PERSONNEL IN THE CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTERS (SAN FRANCISCO STATE COLLEGE, JUNE 19-24, 1966).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEWIS, MARY S.

    IN JUNE, 1966, SAN FRANCISCO STATE COLLEGE CONDUCTED AN ORIENTATION SESSION FOR THE PERSONNEL OF CHILD CARE CENTERS IN HEAD START PROGRAMS. FOLLOWING THE WASHINGTON, D. C., HEAD START STAFF GUIDELINES, THE 15 SPEAKERS PRESENTED SUCH TOPICS AS THE IMPACT OF POVERTY, HEALTH AND NUTRITION NEEDS FOR DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN, LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT,…

  7. Building a Habitat Conversion Model for San Francisco Bay Wetlands: A Multi-species Approach for Integrating GIS and Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana Stralberg; Nils Warnock; Nadav Nur; Hildie Spautz; Gary W. Page

    2005-01-01

    More than 80 percent of San Francisco Bay's original tidal wetlands have been altered or displaced, reducing available habitat for a range of tidal marsh-dependent species, including the Federally listed California Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) and three endemic Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia) subspecies. In...

  8. Foreign Language Folio. A Guide to Cultural Resources and Field Trip Opportunities in the San Francisco Bay Area for Teachers and Students of Foreign Languages, 1983-85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Tony, Ed.; O'Connor, Roger, Ed.

    A listing of San Francisco area cultural resources and opportunities of use to foreign language teachers is presented. Included are the following: museums and galleries, schools, art sources, churches, clubs, cultural centers and organizations, publications and publishing companies, restaurants, food stores and markets, travel and tourism,…

  9. The influence of critical Moho Reflections on strong ground motions recorded in San Francisco and Oakland during the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Paul; Yoshimura, Joanne

    1990-07-01

    The amplitudes of strong ground motions from the Loma Prieta earthquake recorded in the San Francisco and Oakland areas exceeded the levels predicted by standard empirical attenuation relations. Preliminary analysis of accelerograms having known trigger times strongly suggests that the elevation of ground motion amplitudes in the distance range of approximately 40 to 100 km was due to critical reflections from the base of the crust. These reflections, which are identified on the basis of their arrival times and phase velocity, and by comparison with simulated accelerograms, were large and occurred at relatively close range because of the deep focal depth of the earthquake and the strong velocity gradient at the base of the crust. These motions were further amplified, presumably by impedance contrast effects, at soft soil sites in San Francisco and Oakland. The effect of the critical reflections in amplifying peak accelerations of the Loma Prieta earthquake in the San Francisco and Oakland regions was as large as the effect of soft soil site conditions. Focal depth has an important influence on strong motion attenuation at distances beyond about 40 km, and empirical attenuation relations derived from shallow crustal earthquakes may underpredict the ground motions of deeper crustal events in this distance range. Further analyses using an expanded data base that includes recordings of aftershocks are required to rigorously test the proposed explanation of the ground motions recorded in San Francisco and Oakland, and the conclusions drawn from that explanation.

  10. Thirty One Old San Francisco Schools Updated. How Outmoded Buildings Can Be Economically Revitalized to House Everchanging Educational Needs of Our Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett and Spackman, Architects, San Francisco, CA.

    This report explores the feasibility of physically and educationally updating 31 of San Francisco's vintage schools by studying three of them in depth and applying the concepts and unit costs thereby developed to the remaining 28. Diagrammatic layouts and photographs accompany the facility analyses. The approaches to updating suggested in the…

  11. Handbook of Techniques and Guides for the Study of the San Francisco Bay-Delta-Estuary Complex, Part 4. Key to the Coastal Marine Fishes of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameda County School Dept., Hayward, CA.

    Project MER (Marine Ecology Research) is aimed at improving environmental education in the San Francisco Bay Area schools. As part of meeting this goal, it is hoped that students and teachers can see the results of their efforts being put to practical use. This guide is the fourth of a series which was produced to help students and teachers gather…

  12. Proceedings of the Second Life Education Workshop, Part of the Second Life Community Convention (1st, San Francisco, California, August 18-20, 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Daniel, Ed.; Kemp, Jeremy, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This document is a compilation of 14 papers from presentations and posters of the Second Life Education Workshop at the Second Life Community Convention, presented at the Fort Mason Centre in San Francisco, California in August 2006. Following a foreword (John Bransford and Drue Gawel); preface (John Lester); and word from the chairs (Daniel…

  13. A Tale of Two Districts: A Comparative Study of Student-Based Funding and School-Based Decision Making in San Francisco and Oakland Unified School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jay; Shambaugh, Larisa; Levin, Jesse; Muraki, Mari; Poland, Lindsay

    2008-01-01

    Though the number of districts with student-based funding-type (SBF) policies has grown, the literature on the implementation and possible impacts of these policies is limited. To address this, this report describes the implementation of SBF policies in two California school districts--San Francisco Unified School District and Oakland Unified…

  14. Reducing methylmercury accumulation in the food webs of San Francisco Bay and its local watersheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.A., E-mail: jay@sfei.org [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Looker, R.E. [San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, 1515 Clay Street, Suite 1400, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Yee, D. [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Marvin-Di Pasquale, M. [U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division/MS 480, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Grenier, J.L. [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Austin, C.M. [San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, 1515 Clay Street, Suite 1400, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); McKee, L.J.; Greenfield, B.K. [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Brodberg, R. [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, 1001 I Street, Sacramento, CA 95812 (United States); Blum, J.D. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, 1100 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    San Francisco Bay (California, USA) and its local watersheds present an interesting case study in estuarine mercury (Hg) contamination. This review focuses on the most promising avenues for attempting to reduce methylmercury (MeHg) contamination in Bay Area aquatic food webs and identifying the scientific information that is most urgently needed to support these efforts. Concern for human exposure to MeHg in the region has led to advisories for consumption of sport fish. Striped bass from the Bay have the highest average Hg concentration measured for this species in USA estuaries, and this degree of contamination has been constant for the past 40 years. Similarly, largemouth bass in some Bay Area reservoirs have some of the highest Hg concentrations observed in the entire US. Bay Area wildlife, particularly birds, face potential impacts to reproduction based on Hg concentrations in the tissues of several Bay species. Source control of Hg is one of the primary possible approaches for reducing MeHg accumulation in Bay Area aquatic food webs. Recent findings (particularly Hg isotope measurements) indicate that the decades-long residence time of particle-associated Hg in the Bay is sufficient to allow significant conversion of even the insoluble forms of Hg into MeHg. Past inputs have been thoroughly mixed throughout this shallow and dynamic estuary. The large pool of Hg already present in the ecosystem dominates the fraction converted to MeHg and accumulating in the food web. Consequently, decreasing external Hg inputs can be expected to reduce MeHg in the food web, but it will likely take many decades to centuries before those reductions are achieved. Extensive efforts to reduce loads from the largest Hg mining source (the historic New Almaden mining district) are underway. Hg is spread widely across the urban landscape, but there are a number of key sources, source areas, and pathways that provide opportunities to capture larger quantities of Hg and reduce loads

  15. Monitoring and modeling conditions for regional shallow landslide initiation in the San Francisco Bay area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, B. D.; Stock, J. D.; Godt, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Intense winter storms in the San Francisco Bay area (SFBA) of California often trigger widespread landsliding, including debris flows that originate as shallow (initiation thresholds are available for the SFBA, antecedent soil moisture conditions also play a major role in determining the likelihood for landslide generation from a given storm. Previous research has demonstrated that antecedent triggering conditions can be obtained using pre-storm precipitation thresholds (e.g., 250-400 mm of seasonal pre-storm rainfall). However, these types of thresholds do not account for the often cyclic pattern of wetting and drying that can occur early in the winter storm season (i.e. October - December), and which may skew the applicability of precipitation-only based thresholds. To account for these cyclic and constantly evolving soil moisture conditions, we have pursued methods to measure soil moisture directly and integrate these measurements into predictive analyses. During the past three years, the USGS installed a series of four subsurface hydrology monitoring stations in shallow landslide-prone locations of the SFBA to establish a soil-moisture-based antecedent threshold. In addition to soil moisture sensors, the monitoring stations are each equipped with piezometers to record positive pore water pressure that is likely required for shallow landslide initiation and a rain gauge to compare storm intensities with existing precipitation-based thresholds. Each monitoring station is located on a natural, grassy hillslope typically composed of silty sands, underlain by sandstone, sloping at approximately 30°, and with a depth to bedrock of approximately 1 meter - conditions typical of debris flow generation in the SFBA. Our observations reveal that various locations respond differently to seasonal precipitation, with some areas (e.g., Marin County) remaining at higher levels of saturation for longer periods of time during the winter compared to other areas (e.g., the East

  16. Selenium tissue burden compartmentalization in resident white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) of the San Francisco Bay Delta estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares-Casenave, Javier; Linville, R; Van Eenennaam, J P; Muguet, J B; Doroshov, S I

    2015-01-01

    High selenium (Se) loads in the San Francisco Bay Delta are bioaccumulated and biomagnified in food webs and can impair the reproduction of resident oviparous animals such as white sturgeon. The objective of the present study was to determine the Se tissue burden in San Francisco Bay Delta-resident white sturgeon to assess Se bioaccumulation in different organs, including ovaries and liver where egg yolk precursor proteins are synthesized. The authors obtained 54 San Francisco Bay Delta-resident white sturgeon including 26 female and 28 male subadults with immature gonads, 8 females with vitellogenic eggs, and 13 males with maturing gonads. Length, weight, age, reproductive stage of development, and kidney, liver, gonad, and muscle Se concentrations were determined in all fish. Concentrations of Se in muscle, gonads, and liver significantly increased with fish size, whereas kidney Se was not correlated to body size and was at the highest level compared with other organs. There was no difference between the sexes (p > 0.05) in Se concentrations in kidney (12.83 ± 0.51 µg · g(-1) dry wt), liver (11.85 ± 1.04 µg · g(-1) dry wt), and muscle (7.09 ± 0.52 µg · g(-1) dry wt; mean ± standard error, n = 47); but Se concentration was higher in the ovary than in testis (p = 0.04). Females with vitellogenic eggs had higher Se concentrations in the ovaries (20.77 ± 4.11 µg · g(-1) dry wt vs 5.22 ± 2.50 µg · g(-1) dry wt), liver (21.84 ± 2.07 µg · g(-1) dry wt vs 8.03 ± 1.03 µg · g(-1) dry wt), and muscle (10.18 ± 1.93 µg · g(-1) dry wt vs 5.48 ± 0.64 µg · g(-1) dry wt) compared with less advanced, previtellogenic females (p white sturgeon were comparable with levels previously shown to cause reproductive toxicity in dietary Se experiments with captive white sturgeon.

  17. Co-Production of Actionable Science: Recommendations to the Secretary of Interior and a San Francisco Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, D. H.; Pfeffer, W. T.; Beier, P.

    2015-12-01

    "Actionable Science provides data, analyses, projections, or tools that can support decisions regarding the management of the risks and impacts of climate change. It is ideally co-produced by scientists and decision makers and creates rigorous and accessible products to meet the needs of stakeholders. (Report to the Secretary of the Interior, Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science (ACCCNRS), March 30, 2015)During one 17 month period ending in 2013, three major reports on sea level rise from three highly respected science providers produced three divergent estimates of sea level rise. These reports collectively flummoxed the lay reader seeking direction for adaptation planning. Guidance documents soon emerged from state entities which caused further confusion. The City and County of San Francisco began developing "Guidance for Incorporating Sea Level Rise into Capital Planning" in 2013 at the direction of San Francisco Mayor Edwin Lee (http://onesanfrancisco.org/staff-resources/sea-level-rise-guidance/). The first task in developing this Guidance was to convert these highly technical reports into "actionable science." This required extensive expert elicitation to tease out their meaning and use value for decision making. This process, which resulted in detailed guidance on the use of SLR science in planning, is increasingly being called "co-production."Co-production requires both scientist and decision-maker to hear the other's perspective, reflect upon the decision-maker's precise needs, and translate peer review science into lay language and practical advice for decision making. The co-production dynamic was the subject of extensive discussion in the federal Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science. The ACCCNRS recommendations (https://nccwsc.usgs.gov/acccnrs) include not only the new definition of Actionable Science cited above, but also a "How-To-Guide" that outlines principles for successfully creating a co

  18. Ground-motion modeling of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake, part II: Ground-motion estimates for the 1906 earthquake and scenario events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, B.T.; Brocher, T.M.; Dolenc, D.; Dreger, D.; Graves, R.W.; Harmsen, S.; Hartzell, S.; Larsen, S.; McCandless, K.; Nilsson, S.; Petersson, N.A.; Rodgers, A.; Sjogreen, B.; Zoback, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the ground motions produce by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake making use of the recently developed Song et al. (2008) source model that combines the available geodetic and seismic observations and recently constructed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. Our estimates of the ground motions for the 1906 earthquake are consistent across five ground-motion modeling groups employing different wave propagation codes and simulation domains. The simulations successfully reproduce the main features of the Boatwright and Bundock (2005) ShakeMap, but tend to over predict the intensity of shaking by 0.1-0.5 modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) units. Velocity waveforms at sites throughout the San Francisco Bay Area exhibit characteristics consistent with rupture directivity, local geologic conditions (e.g., sedimentary basins), and the large size of the event (e.g., durations of strong shaking lasting tens of seconds). We also compute ground motions for seven hypothetical scenarios rupturing the same extent of the northern San Andreas fault, considering three additional hypocenters and an additional, random distribution of slip. Rupture directivity exerts the strongest influence on the variations in shaking, although sedimentary basins do consistently contribute to the response in some locations, such as Santa Rosa, Livermore, and San Jose. These scenarios suggest that future large earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault may subject the current San Francisco Bay urban area to stronger shaking than a repeat of the 1906 earthquake. Ruptures propagating southward towards San Francisco appear to expose more of the urban area to a given intensity level than do ruptures propagating northward.

  19. Subsurface structure of the East Bay Plain ground-water basin: San Francisco Bay to the Hayward fault, Alameda County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchings, R.D.; Borchers, J.W.; Goldman, M.R.; Gandhok, G.; Ponce, D.A.; Steedman, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    The area of California between the San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Santa Clara Valley, and the Diablo Ranges (East Bay Hills), commonly referred to as the 'East Bay', contains the East Bay Plain and Niles Cone ground-water basins. The area has a population of 1.46 million (2003 US Census), largely distributed among several cities, including Alameda, Berkeley, Fremont, Hayward, Newark, Oakland, San Leandro, San Lorenzo, and Union City. Major known tectonic structures in the East Bay area include the Hayward Fault and the Diablo Range to the east and a relatively deep sedimentary basin known as the San Leandro Basin beneath the eastern part of the bay. Known active faults, such as the Hayward, Calaveras, and San Andreas pose significant earthquake hazards to the region, and these and related faults also affect ground-water flow in the San Francisco Bay area. Because most of the valley comprising the San Francisco Bay area is covered by Holocene alluvium or water at the surface, our knowledge of the existence and locations of such faults, their potential hazards, and their effects on ground-water flow within the alluvial basins is incomplete. To better understand the subsurface stratigraphy and structures and their effects on ground-water and earthquake hazards, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD), acquired a series of high-resolution seismic reflection and refraction profiles across the East Bay Plain near San Leandro in June 2002. In this report, we present results of the seismic imaging investigations, with emphasis on ground water.

  20. 77 FR 4501 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ...: Inn Marin, 250 Entrada Dr., Novato, CA 94949; March 8, 2012: Waterfront Hotel, 10 Washington St... Francisco, they propose to take advantage of the natural amphitheater that the Central Bay and City... National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act (NTTAA) (15 U.S.C. 272 note) directs agencies to use...

  1. A Novel Modeling Approach for Estimating Patterns of Migration into and out of San Francisco by HIV Status and Race among Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alison J; Chen, Yea-Hung; Scheer, Susan; Raymond, H Fisher

    2017-06-01

    In the early 1980s, men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco were one of the first populations to be affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, and they continue to bear a heavy HIV burden. Once a rapidly fatal disease, survival with HIV improved drastically following the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy in 1996. As a result, the ability of HIV-positive persons to move into and out of San Francisco has increased due to lengthened survival. Although there is a high level of migration among the general US population and among HIV-positive persons in San Francisco, in- and out-migration patterns of MSM in San Francisco have, to our knowledge, never been described. Understanding migration patterns by HIV serostatus is crucial in determining how migration could influence both HIV transmission dynamics and estimates of the HIV prevalence and incidence. In this article, we describe methods, results, and implications of a novel approach for indirect estimation of in- and out-migration patterns, and consequently population size, of MSM by HIV serostatus and race in San Francisco. The results suggest that the overall MSM population and all the MSM subpopulations studied decreased in size from 2006 to 2014. Further, there were differences in migration patterns by race and by HIV serostatus. The modeling methods outlined can be applied by others to determine how migration patterns contribute to HIV-positive population size and output from these models can be used in a transmission model to better understand how migration can impact HIV transmission.

  2. Examination Of The Influence Of Service Quality On Membership Renewal In Fitness Centers In San Francisco Bay Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Chih Wei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporations have to learn how to satisfy their customers’ various demands as the era of interactivity with customers has emerged (Pepper & Rogers, 1999. For fitness center, customers’ demands are increasing and diversified. Therefore, service quality is an index of quality assessment from customers for service-producing industries. Furthermore, the concept of corporate expansion and customer relationship has become the foundation of service-providers for higher profitability through customers’ renewal of membership. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of service quality on the renewal willingness of fitness center membership. Customers from four fitness centers in the San Francisco Bay Area, USA, were randomly selected for this survey. A total of 50 subjects participated in this survey. The data was analyzed by multiple regression and stepwise regression. The result indicated that the service quality has positive influence on the renewal willingness of membership.

  3. Operation of a real-time warning system for debris flows in the San Francisco bay area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Raymond C.; Mark, Robert K.; Barbato, Gary; ,

    1993-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS) have developed an operational warning system for debris flows during severe rainstorms in the San Francisco Bay region. The NWS makes quantitative forecasts of precipitation from storm systems approaching the Bay area and coordinates a regional network of radio-telemetered rain gages. The USGS has formulated thresholds for the intensity and duration of rainfall required to initiate debris flows. The first successful public warnings were issued during a severe storm sequence in February 1986. Continued operation of the warning system since 1986 has provided valuable working experience in rainfall forecasting and monitoring, refined rainfall thresholds, and streamlined procedures for issuing public warnings. Advisory statements issued since 1986 are summarized.

  4. National Account Energy Alliance Final Report for the Ritz Carlton, San Francisco Combined Heat and Power Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosfjord, Thomas J [UTC Power

    2007-11-01

    Under collaboration between DOE and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), UTC Power partnered with Host Hotels and Resorts to install and operate a PureComfort 240M Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) System at the Ritz-Carlton, San Francisco. This packaged CHP system integrated four microturbines, a double-effect absorption chiller, two fuel gas boosters, and the control hardware and software to ensure that the system operated predictably, reliably, and safely. The chiller, directly energized by the recycled hot exhaust from the microturbines, could be configured to provide either chilled or hot water. As installed, the system was capable of providing up to 227 kW of net electrical power and 142 RT of chilled water at a 59F ambient temperature.

  5. Water quality measurements in San Francisco Bay by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1969-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraga, Tara S; Cloern, James E

    2017-08-08

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains a place-based research program in San Francisco Bay (USA) that began in 1969 and continues, providing one of the longest records of water-quality measurements in a North American estuary. Constituents include salinity, temperature, light extinction coefficient, and concentrations of chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, suspended particulate matter, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, silicate, and phosphate. We describe the sampling program, analytical methods, structure of the data record, and how to access all measurements made from 1969 through 2015. We provide a summary of how these data have been used by USGS and other researchers to deepen understanding of how estuaries are structured and function differently from the river and ocean ecosystems they bridge.

  6. Natural and management influences on freshwater inflows and salinity in the San Francisco Estuary at monthly to interannual scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Noah

    2002-12-01

    Understanding the processes controlling the physics, chemistry, and biology of the San Francisco Estuary and their relation to climate variability is complicated by the combined influence on freshwater inflows of natural variability and upstream management. To distinguish these influences, alterations of estuarine inflow due to major reservoirs and freshwater pumping in the watershed were inferred from available data. Effects on salinity were estimated by using reconstructed estuarine inflows corresponding to differing levels of impairment to drive a numerical salinity model. Both natural and management inflow and salinity signals show strong interannual variability. Management effects raise salinities during the wet season, with maximum influence in spring. While year-to-year variations in all signals are very large, natural interannual variability can greatly exceed the range of management effects on salinity in the estuary.

  7. Water quality measurements in San Francisco Bay by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1969–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraga, Tara; Cloern, James E.

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains a place-based research program in San Francisco Bay (USA) that began in 1969 and continues, providing one of the longest records of water-quality measurements in a North American estuary. Constituents include salinity, temperature, light extinction coefficient, and concentrations of chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, suspended particulate matter, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, silicate, and phosphate. We describe the sampling program, analytical methods, structure of the data record, and how to access all measurements made from 1969 through 2015. We provide a summary of how these data have been used by USGS and other researchers to deepen understanding of how estuaries are structured and function differently from the river and ocean ecosystems they bridge.

  8. Highest PBDE levels (max 63 ppm) yet found in biota measured in seabird eggs from San Francisco Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, J.; Holden, A.; Tanner, M.; Sharp, M.; Hooper, K. [Department of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley, CA (United States). Hazardous Materials Lab.; Adelsbach, T. [Environmental Contaminants Division, Sacramento Fish and Wildlife Office, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    High levels of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) have been found in humans and wildlife from the San Francisco Bay Area, with levels in women among the highest in the world, and levels in piscivorous seabird eggs at the ppm level. Seabirds are useful for monitoring and assessing ecosystem health at various times and places because they occupy a high trophic level in the marine food web, are long-lived, and are generally localized near their breeding and non-breeding sites. In collaboration with the US Fish and Wildlife Services (USFWS), we are carrying out a three-year investigation of dioxin, PCB and PBDE levels in eggs from fish-eating seabirds. Year 1 (2002) PBDE measurements from 73 bird eggs were reported at Dioxin2003. Year 2 (2003) PBDE measurements from 45 samples are presented in this report. The highest PBDE level measured in eggs was 63 ppm, lipid, which is the highest PBDE level, yet reported in biota.

  9. Recent Infection, Sexually Transmitted Infections and Transmission Clusters Frequently Observed Among Persons Newly-Diagnosed with HIV in San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Hong-Ha M.; Pipkin, Sharon; O’Keefe, Kara J.; Louie, Brian; Liegler, Teri; McFarland, Willi; Grant, Robert M.; Bernstein, Kyle; Scheer, Susan

    2015-01-01

    There were 1,311 newly-diagnosed HIV cases in San Francisco between 2005 and 2011 that were linked to care at publicly-funded facilities and had viral sequences available for analysis. Of the 214 cases characterized as recently-infected with HIV at time of diagnosis, 25% had a recent sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis (vs. 10% among longer-standing HIV infections, p<0.001) and 57% were part of a phylogenetic transmission cluster (vs. 42% among longer-standing HIV infection, p<0.001). The association observed between recent HIV infection and having a STI diagnosis during the interval overlapping likely HIV acquisition points to potential opportunities to interrupt HIV transmission. PMID:25967271

  10. User's guide to the LIRAQ model: an air pollution model for the San Francisco Bay Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1975-12-19

    The Livermore Regional Air Quality (LIRAQ) model comprises a set of computer programs that have been integrated into an easily used tool for the air quality planner. To assemble and modify the necessary data files and to direct model execution, a problem formulation program has been developed that makes possible the setup of a wide variety of studies involving perturbation of the emission inventory, changes to the initial and boundary conditions, and different choices of grid size and problem domain. In addition to describing the types of air quality problems for which the LIRAQ model may be used, this User's Guide provides detailed information on how to set up and conduct model simulations. Also included are descriptions of the formats of input data files so that the LIRAQ model may be applied to regions other than the San Francisco Bay Area.

  11. HIV vaccine trial willingness among injection and non-injection drug users in two urban centres, Barcelona and San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, M Florencia; Lum, Paula J; Evans, Jennifer L; Sanchez, Emilia; de Lazzari, Elisa; Mendez-Arancibia, Eva; Sierra, Ernesto; Gatell, José M; Page, Kimberly; Joseph, Joan

    2011-02-24

    Being able to recruit high-risk volunteers who are also willing to consider future participation in vaccine trials are critical features of vaccine preparedness studies. We described data from two cohorts of injection- and non-injection drug users in Barcelona, Spain [Red Cross centre] and in San Francisco, USA, [UFO-VAX study] at high risk of HIV/HCV infection to assess behaviour risk exposure and willingness to participate in future preventive HIV vaccine trials. We successfully identified drug-using populations that would be eligible for future HIV vaccine efficacy trials, based on reported levels of risk during screening and high levels of willingness to participate. In both groups, Red Cross and UFO-VAX respectively, HCV infection was highly prevalent at baseline (41% and 34%), HIV baseline seroprevalence was 4.2% and 1.5%, and high levels of willingness were seen (83% and 78%).

  12. Assessing receipt of medical care and disparity among persons with HIV/AIDS in San Francisco, 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ling C; Chen, Mi; Kali, Jessica; Pipkin, Sharon; Scheer, Susan; Schwarcz, Sandy

    2011-03-01

    We used data from HIV/AIDS surveillance case registry to assess the timing of entry into medical care, level of care received after HIV diagnosis, and to identify characteristics associated with delayed and insufficient care among persons diagnosed with HIV/AIDS between 2006 and 2007 in San Francisco. Laboratory reports of HIV viral load and CD4 test results were used as a marker for receipt of medical care. The time from HIV diagnosis to entry into care was estimated using Kaplan-Meier product limit method and independent predictors of delayed entry into care were determined using the proportional hazards model. Insufficient care was defined as less than an average of two viral load/CD4 tests per person-year of follow-up. Predictors of insufficient care were evaluated using a logistic regression model. An estimated 85% of persons diagnosed with HIV/AIDS entered care within three months after HIV diagnosis; the proportion increased to 95% within 12 months after diagnosis. Persons who were born outside of the USA and those tested at the public counseling and testing sites were more likely to delay care. Nineteen percent of persons were determined to have received insufficient care. Younger persons and those diagnosed at a hospital were more likely to receive insufficient care. A high proportion of persons diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in San Francisco established timely and adequate care after HIV diagnosis. However, delays for some individuals in entry into care and markers of insufficient care suggest that there remains a need to improve access to and sustainability of HIV-specific medical care.

  13. Franciscanos en la Castilla Bajomedieval : el Monasterio de San Francisco el Viejo de Talavera de la Reina (Toledo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Pacheco Jiménez

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio hacemos una aproximación a la primera implantación de franciscanos en Talavera de la Reina, a través del monasterio de San Francisco el Viejo, uno de los muchos centros de la orden de menores en la Castilla bajomedieval. El convento se mantiene desde mediados del siglo xiii hasta 1494, fecha en la que se funda una nueva casa franciscana bajo la Observancia. Analizamos el marco espacial en donde se asientan los frailes y su incidencia en el panorama religioso y civil, así como las implicaciones que el monasterio debió de tener en la vida política del concejo. En definitiva, un primer acercamiento al problema del franciscanismo local en una etapa de expansión y consolidación de la villa.This study is an approach to the first settiement of franciscans in Talavera de la Reina, in the monastery of San Francisco el Viejo, one among many others centres of the order of minors, during the castilian low middieages. This convent is open from the middie of the XIII century to the year 1494, when a new franciscan house is open, according to the «Observancia» (rules. We analyze the space framework where the friars Uve and their influence in the religious, political and civil Ufe of the city. In short, it is a preliminary approach to the phenomenon of local franciscanism during a period of growth and development of the city.

  14. From Sediment to Top Predators: Broad Exposure of Polyhalogenated Carbazoles in San Francisco Bay (U.S.A.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Tan, Hongli; Sutton, Rebecca; Chen, Da

    2017-02-21

    The present study provides the first comprehensive investigation of polyhalogenated carbazoles (PHCZs) contamination in an aquatic ecosystem. PHCZs have been found in soil and aquatic sediment from several different regions, but knowledge of their bioaccumulation and trophodynamics is extremely scarce. This work investigated a suite of 11 PHCZ congeners in San Francisco Bay (United States) sediment and organisms, including bivalves (n = 6 composites), sport fish (n = 12 composites), harbor seal blubber (n = 18), and bird eggs (n = 8 composites). The most detectable congeners included 3,6-dichlorocarbazole (36-CCZ), 3,6-dibromocarbazole (36-BCZ), 1,3,6-tribromocarbazole (136-BCZ), 1,3,6,8-tetrabromocarbazole (1368-BCZ), and 1,8-dibromo-3,6-dichlorocarbazole (18-B-36-CCZ). The median concentrations of ΣPHCZs were 9.3 ng/g dry weight in sediment and ranged from 33.7 to 164 ng/g lipid weight in various species. Biomagnification was observed from fish to harbor seal and was mainly driven by chlorinated carbazoles, particularly 36-CCZ. Congener compositions of PHCZs differed among species, suggesting that individual congeners may be subject to different bioaccumulation or metabolism in species occupying various trophic levels in the studied aquatic system. Toxic equivalent (TEQ) values of PHCZs were determined on the basis of their relative effect potencies (REP) compared to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The median TEQ was 1.2 pg TEQ/g dry weight in sediment and 4.8-19.5 pg TEQ/g lipid weight in biological tissues. Our study demonstrated the broad exposure of PHCZs in San Francisco Bay and their characteristics of bioaccumulation and biomagnification along with dioxin-like effects. These findings raise the need for additional research to better elucidate their sources, environmental behavior, and fate in global environments.

  15. Impacts of representing sea-level rise uncertainty on future flood risks: An example from San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckert, Kelsey L; Oddo, Perry C; Keller, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Rising sea levels increase the probability of future coastal flooding. Many decision-makers use risk analyses to inform the design of sea-level rise (SLR) adaptation strategies. These analyses are often silent on potentially relevant uncertainties. For example, some previous risk analyses use the expected, best, or large quantile (i.e., 90%) estimate of future SLR. Here, we use a case study to quantify and illustrate how neglecting SLR uncertainties can bias risk projections. Specifically, we focus on the future 100-yr (1% annual exceedance probability) coastal flood height (storm surge including SLR) in the year 2100 in the San Francisco Bay area. We find that accounting for uncertainty in future SLR increases the return level (the height associated with a probability of occurrence) by half a meter from roughly 2.2 to 2.7 m, compared to using the mean sea-level projection. Accounting for this uncertainty also changes the shape of the relationship between the return period (the inverse probability that an event of interest will occur) and the return level. For instance, incorporating uncertainties shortens the return period associated with the 2.2 m return level from a 100-yr to roughly a 7-yr return period (∼15% probability). Additionally, accounting for this uncertainty doubles the area at risk of flooding (the area to be flooded under a certain height; e.g., the 100-yr flood height) in San Francisco. These results indicate that the method of accounting for future SLR can have considerable impacts on the design of flood risk management strategies.

  16. Impacts of representing sea-level rise uncertainty on future flood risks: An example from San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Perry C.; Keller, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Rising sea levels increase the probability of future coastal flooding. Many decision-makers use risk analyses to inform the design of sea-level rise (SLR) adaptation strategies. These analyses are often silent on potentially relevant uncertainties. For example, some previous risk analyses use the expected, best, or large quantile (i.e., 90%) estimate of future SLR. Here, we use a case study to quantify and illustrate how neglecting SLR uncertainties can bias risk projections. Specifically, we focus on the future 100-yr (1% annual exceedance probability) coastal flood height (storm surge including SLR) in the year 2100 in the San Francisco Bay area. We find that accounting for uncertainty in future SLR increases the return level (the height associated with a probability of occurrence) by half a meter from roughly 2.2 to 2.7 m, compared to using the mean sea-level projection. Accounting for this uncertainty also changes the shape of the relationship between the return period (the inverse probability that an event of interest will occur) and the return level. For instance, incorporating uncertainties shortens the return period associated with the 2.2 m return level from a 100-yr to roughly a 7-yr return period (∼15% probability). Additionally, accounting for this uncertainty doubles the area at risk of flooding (the area to be flooded under a certain height; e.g., the 100-yr flood height) in San Francisco. These results indicate that the method of accounting for future SLR can have considerable impacts on the design of flood risk management strategies. PMID:28350884

  17. Modeling the Gila-San Francisco Basin using system dynamics in support of the 2004 Arizona Water Settlement Act.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Peplinski, William J.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2012-04-01

    Water resource management requires collaborative solutions that cross institutional and political boundaries. This work describes the development and use of a computer-based tool for assessing the impact of additional water allocation from the Gila River and the San Francisco River prescribed in the 2004 Arizona Water Settlements Act. Between 2005 and 2010, Sandia National Laboratories engaged concerned citizens, local water stakeholders, and key federal and state agencies to collaboratively create the Gila-San Francisco Decision Support Tool. Based on principles of system dynamics, the tool is founded on a hydrologic balance of surface water, groundwater, and their associated coupling between water resources and demands. The tool is fitted with a user interface to facilitate sensitivity studies of various water supply and demand scenarios. The model also projects the consumptive use of water in the region as well as the potential CUFA (Consumptive Use and Forbearance Agreement which stipulates when and where Arizona Water Settlements Act diversions can be made) diversion over a 26-year horizon. Scenarios are selected to enhance our understanding of the potential human impacts on the rivers ecological health in New Mexico; in particular, different case studies thematic to water conservation, water rights, and minimum flow are tested using the model. The impact on potential CUFA diversions, agricultural consumptive use, and surface water availability are assessed relative to the changes imposed in the scenarios. While it has been difficult to gage the acceptance level from the stakeholders, the technical information that the model provides are valuable for facilitating dialogues in the context of the new settlement.

  18. Temporal and spatial distributions of sediment mercury at salt pond wetland restoration sites, San Francisco Bay, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A.K.; Ricca, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Decommissioned agricultural salt ponds within south San Francisco Bay, California, are in the process of being converted to habitat for the benefit of wildlife as well as water management needs and recreation. Little is known of baseline levels of contaminants in these ponds, particularly mercury (Hg), which has a well established legacy in the Bay. In this study we described spatial and short-term temporal variations in sediment Hg species concentrations within and among the Alviso and Eden Landing salt ponds in the southern region of San Francisco Bay. We determined total Hg (Hgt) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the top 5 cm of sediment of most ponds in order to establish baseline conditions prior to restoration, sediment Hgt concentrations in a subset of these ponds after commencement of restoration, and variation in MeHg concentrations relative to sediment Hgt, pH, and total Fe concentrations and water depth and salinity in the subset of Alviso ponds. Inter-pond differences were greatest within the Alviso pond complex, where sediment Hgt concentrations averaged (arithmetic mean) 0.74 ??g/g pre and 1.03 ??g/g post-restoration activity compared to 0.11 ??g/g pre and post at Eden Landing ponds. Sediment Hgt levels at Alviso were fairly stable temporally and spatially, whereas MeHg levels were variable relative to restoration activities across time and space. Mean (arithmetic) sediment MeHg concentrations increased (2.58 to 3.03 ng/g) in Alviso and decreased (2.20 to 1.03 ng/g) in Eden Landing restoration ponds during the study. Differences in MeHg levels were related to water depth and pH, but these relationships were not consistent between years or among ponds and were viewed with caution. Factors affecting MeHg levels in these ponds (and in general) are highly complex and require in-depth study to understand.

  19. Data from Theodolite Measurements of Creep Rates on San Francisco Bay Region Faults, California: 1979-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Forrest S.; Lienkaemper, James J.; Caskey, S. John; Grove, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Our purpose is to update with six additional years of data, our creep data archive on San Francisco Bay region active faults for use by the scientific research community. Earlier data (1979-2001) were reported in Galehouse (2002) and were analyzed and described in detail in a summary report (Galehouse and Lienkaemper, 2003). A complete analysis of our earlier results obtained on the Hayward fault was presented in Lienkaemper, Galehouse and Simpson (2001). Jon Galehouse of San Francisco State University (SFSU) and many student research assistants measured creep (aseismic slip) rates on these faults from 1979 until his retirement from the project in 2001. The creep measurement project, which was initiated by Galehouse, has continued through the Geosciences Department at SFSU from 2001-2006 under the direction of Co-P.I.'s Karen Grove and John Caskey (Grove and Caskey, 2005), and by Caskey since 2006. Forrest McFarland has managed most of the technical and logistical project operations as well as data processing and compilation since 2001. We plan to publish detailed analyses of these updated creep data in future publications. We maintain a project web site (http://funnel.sfsu.edu/creep/) that includes the following information: project description, project personnel, creep characteristics and measurement, map of creep measurement sites, creep measurement site information, and data plots for each measurement site. Our most current, annually updated results are therefore accessible to the scientific community and to the general public. Information about the project can currently be requested by the public by an email link (fltcreep@sfsu.edu) found on our project website.

  20. Interview with Jaime Córtez, Program Manager at the Galería de la Raza, San Francisco, CA, USA, August 14, 2001 Entretien avec Jaime Córtez, directeur de la programmation, Galería de la Raza, San Francisco, CA, États-Unis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Selbach

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available ForewordLocated at 2857 24th Street, just off Mission Street, at the heart of the Hispanic district in San Francisco, is theGalería de la Raza Co-founded by René Yáñez (cf. interview infra and Ralph Maradiaga in 1970, the Galería was initially funded by the San Francisco Neighborhood Arts Program (NAP which provided the salaries of the directors, equipment and a small budget for exhibitions for a dozen years. The opening showed awareness and compromise on the part of the SF City and of art ...

  1. San Francisco Bay-Delta bathymetric/topographic digital elevation model(DEM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A high-resolution (10-meter per pixel) digital elevation model (DEM) was created for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta using both bathymetry and topography data. This...

  2. Identifying nest predators of American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) in San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Eadie, John M.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated predation on nests and methods to detect predators using a combination of infrared cameras and plasticine eggs at nests of American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) in Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, San Mateo and Santa Clara counties, California. Each technique indicated that predation was prevalent; 59% of monitored nests were depredated. Most identifiable predation (n = 49) was caused by mammals (71%) and rates of predation were similar on avocets and stilts. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) each accounted for 16% of predations, whereas gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and avian predators each accounted for 14%. Mammalian predation was mainly nocturnal (mean time, 0051 h +/- 5 h 36 min), whereas most avian predation was in late afternoon (mean time, 1800 h +/- 1 h 26 min). Nests with cameras and plasticine eggs were 1.6 times more likely to be predated than nests where only cameras were used in monitoring. Cameras were associated with lower abandonment of nests and provided definitive identification of predators.

  3. Un proyecto no realizado de Francisco Sabatini para el retablo mayor en la iglesia de San Cayetano de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cano Sanz, Pablo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La inédita documentación encontrada en el Archivo General de Simancas (A.G.S., Secretaría y Superintendencia de Hacienda, leg. 943, permite afirmar que Sabatini realizó varias trazas para levantar el retablo mayor en la iglesia de los Teatinos de Madrid, también conocidos como Clérigos Regulares de San Cayetano. El proyecto no llegó a ejecutarse, si se hubiera realizado constituiría una de las grandes aportaciones de este arquitecto italiano en nuestro país. La nueva iglesia de San Cayetano se encontraba bajo patronato real, de ahí que tras su finalización arquitectónica en 1761, las obras del retablo mayor tuviesen que ser costeadas por Carlos III. El monarca encargó la construcción a su arquitecto de confianza, Francisco Sabatini, que debió realizar varios planos, escogiéndose un único diseño. Se ignora con exactitud...

  4. Tidal saltmarsh fragmentation and persistence of San Pablo Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia samuelis): Assessing benefits of wetland restoration in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, J.Y.; Sacks, B.N.; Woo, I.; Johnson, M.L.; Wylie, G.D.; ,

    2006-01-01

    The San Pablo Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia samuelis) is one of three morphologically distinct Song Sparrow subspecies in tidal marshes of the San Francisco Bay estuary. These subspecies are rare, because as the human population has grown, diking and development have resulted in loss of 79% of the historic tidal marshes. Hundreds of projects have been proposed in the past decade to restore tidal marshes and benefit endemic populations. To evaluate the value of these restoration projects for Song Sparrows, we developed a population viability analysis (PVA) model to examine persistence of samuelis subspecies in relation to parcel size, connectivity, and catastrophe in San Pablo Bay. A total of 101 wetland parcels were identified from coverages of modern and historic tidal marshes. Parcels were grouped into eight fragments in the historical landscape and 10 in the present landscape. Fragments were defined as a group of parcels separated by >1 km, a distance that precluded regular interchange. Simulations indicated that the historic (circa 1850) samuelis population was three times larger than the modern population. However, only very high levels (>70% mortality) of catastrophe would threaten their persistence. Persistence of populations was sensitive to parcel size at a carrying capacity of <10 pairs, but connectivity of parcels was found to have little importance because habitats were dominated by a few large parcels. Our analysis indicates little risk of extinction of the samuelis subspecies with the current extent of tidal marshes, but the vulnerability of the small-est parcels suggests that restoration should create larger continuous tracts. Thus, PVA models may be useful tools for balancing the costs and benefits of restoring habitats for threatened tidal-marsh populations in wetland restoration planning.

  5. Wastewater and Saltwater: Studying the Biogeochemistry and Microbial Activity Associated with Wastewater Inputs to San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challenor, T.; Menendez, A. D.; Damashek, J.; Francis, C. A.; Casciotti, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrification is the process of converting ammonium (NH­­4+) into nitrate (NO3-), and is a crucial step in removing nitrogen (N) from aquatic ecosystems. This process is governed by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) that utilize the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA). Studying the rates of nitrification and the abundances of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in south San Francisco Bay's Artesian Slough, which receives treated effluent from the massive San Jose-Santa Clara Regional Wastewater Facility, are important for understanding the cycling of nutrients in this small but complex estuary. Wastewater inputs can have negative environmental impacts, such as the release of nitrous oxide, a byproduct of nitrification and a powerful greenhouse gas. Nutrient inputs can also increase productivity and sometimes lead to oxygen depletion. Assessing the relative abundance and diversity of AOA and AOB, along with measuring nitrification rates gives vital information about the biology and biogeochemistry of this important N-cycling process. To calculate nitrification rates, water samples were spiked with 15N-labeled ammonium and incubated in triplicate for 24 hours. Four time-points were extracted across the incubation and the "denitrifier" method was used to measure the isotopic ratio of nitrate in the samples over time. In order to determine relative ratios of AOB to AOA, DNA was extracted from water samples and used in clade-specific amoA PCR assays. Nitrification rates were detectable in all locations sampled and were higher than in other regions of the bay, as were concentrations of nitrate and ammonium. Rates were highest in the regions of Artesian Slough most directly affected by wastewater effluent. AOB vastly outnumbered AOA, which is consistent with other studies showing that AOB prefer high nutrient environments. AOB diversity includes clades of Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas prevalent in estuarine settings. Many of the sequenced genes are related

  6. Sea level fluctuations in central California at subtidal to decadal and longer time scales with implications for San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, H.F.; Noble, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Sea level elevations from near the mouth of San Francisco Bay are used to describe the low-frequency variability of forcing of the coastal ocean on the Bay at a variety of temporal scales. About 90% of subtidal fluctuations in sea level in San Francisco Bay are driven by the sea level variations in the coastal ocean that propagate into the Bay at the estuary mouth. We use the 100-year sea level record available at San Francisco to document a 1.9 mm/yr mean sea level rise, and to determine fluctuations related to El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and other climatic events. At time scales greater than 1 year, ENSO dominates the sea level signal and can result in fluctuations in sea level of 10-15 cm. Alongshore wind stress data from central California are also analyzed to determine the impact of changes in coastal elevation at the mouth of San Francisco Bay within the synoptic wind band of 2-30 days. At least 40% of the subtidal fluctuations in sea level of the Bay are tied to the large-scale regional wind field affecting sea level variations in the coastal ocean, with little local, direct wind forcing of the Bay itself. The majority of the subtidal sea level fluctuations within the Bay that are not related to the coastal ocean sea level signal are forced by an east-west sea level gradient resulting from tidally induced variations in sea level at specific beat frequencies that are enhanced in the northern reach of the Bay. River discharge into the Bay through the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Delta also contributes to the east-west gradient, but to a lesser degree. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Riders on the storm: selective tidal movements facilitate the spawning migration of threatened delta smelt in the San Francisco Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, W.A.; Burau, Jon R.

    2015-01-01

    Migration strategies in estuarine fishes typically include behavioral adaptations for reducing energetic costs and mortality during travel to optimize reproductive success. The influence of tidal currents and water turbidity on individual movement behavior were investigated during the spawning migration of the threatened delta smelt, Hypomesus transpacificus, in the northern San Francisco Estuary, California, USA. Water current velocities and turbidity levels were measured concurrently with delta smelt occurrence at sites in the lower Sacramento River and San Joaquin River as turbidity increased due to first-flush winter rainstorms in January and December 2010. The presence/absence of fish at the shoal-channel interface and near the shoreline was quantified hourly over complete tidal cycles. Delta smelt were caught consistently at the shoal-channel interface during flood tides and near the shoreline during ebb tides in the turbid Sacramento River, but were rare in the clearer San Joaquin River. The apparent selective tidal movements by delta smelt would facilitate either maintaining position or moving upriver on flood tides, and minimizing advection down-estuary on ebb tides. These movements also may reflect responses to lateral gradients in water turbidity created by temporal lags in tidal velocities between the near-shore and mid-channel habitats. This migration strategy can minimize the energy spent swimming against strong river and tidal currents, as well as predation risks by remaining in turbid water. Selection pressure on individuals to remain in turbid water may underlie population-level observations suggesting that turbidity is a key habitat feature and cue initiating the delta smelt spawning migration.

  8. Geochemical fine-sediment tracers in San Francisco Bay and its outer coast: the role of local watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takesue, R. K.; Barnard, P. L.

    2012-12-01

    Sediment enters San Francisco Bay (SFB) through the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, the Golden Gate, and local watersheds. Inputs from local watersheds have become increasingly important since the 1940s when large-scale impoundments began upstream of the Delta. The goals of this study are to determine whether fine sediment from local watersheds have distinct geochemical signatures, and if these can be used to determine whether locally-derived sediment accumulates in SFB. Retention of fine sediment is essential if accretion of shallow and intertidal habitats is to keep pace with sea level rise. Total contents of chromium (Cr), lanthanum (La), thorium (Th), zirconium (Zr), rare earth elements (REE), and twenty five other elements were determined by ICP-MS in the fine or "mud" fraction (<63 μm) of river, tributary, bay, and outer coast bed sediment. SFB and outer coast sediment was collected in January 2012 after a 5-day storm. River and tributary sediment was collected between 2010-2012. REE contents were normalized to a shale composite (NASC). In comparison to granitic material from the Sierra Nevada, local watersheds contain ultramafic Franciscan rocks in the Coast Range, volcanic deposits near Napa and Sonoma, and ancient marine sedimentary rocks. Fine sediment from the Sacramento River was enriched in heavy REE (HREENASC) and Cr, while that from the San Joaquin River was enriched in light REE (LREENASC) and Th. Petaluma River and Sonoma Creek fine sediments were distinguished by middle REE (MREENASC) enrichments and low Cr contents consistent with felsic volcanic rocks. In contrast, fine sediments in Napa River and Wildcat Creek had relatively flat REENASC patterns and intermediate to high Cr contents that suggest a Franciscan influence. The same was true for fine sediment in Marin creeks (Arroyo del Presidio and Corte Madera) and two South Bay tributaries (Guadelupe River and San Francisquito Creek). San Francisquito Creek fine sediment was uniquely

  9. Du savetier au financier: la famille Borel, de Neuchâtel à San Francisco: le cable car... propriété de banquiers suisses cosmopolites ? : pistes pour le financement privé d'infrastructures urbaines publiques

    OpenAIRE

    Wasserfallen, Antoine

    1999-01-01

    The Borel Family From Neuchâtel to San Francisco : From shoemaker to banker Did you know that the Cable Car was owned by Swiss citizens? BACKTRACKING : PRIVATE FINANCING OF PUBLIC METROPOLITAN INFRASTRUCTURES Executive Summary: Did you know that one of San Francisco most famous fixtures, the Cable car, was owned by Swiss citizens? Through this detailed study of the Borel family, and its business and investment plans we will observe an example of private financing of pu...

  10. Late Quaternary depositional history, Holocene sea-level changes, and vertical crustal movement, southern San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, Brian F.; Hedel, Charles W.; Helley, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Sediments collected for bridge foundation studies at southern San Francisco Bay, Calif., record estuaries that formed during Sangamon (100,000 years ago) and post-Wisconsin (less than 10,000 years ago) high stands of sea level. The estuarine deposits of Sangamon and post-Wisconsin ages are separated by alluvial and eolian deposits and by erosional unconformities and surfaces of nondeposition, features that indicate lowered base levels and oceanward migrations of the shoreline accompanying low stands of the sea. Estuarine deposits of mid-Wisconsin age appear to be absent, suggesting that sea level was not near its present height 30,000–40,000 years ago in central California. Holocene sea-level changes are measured from the elevations and apparent 14C ages of plant remains from 13 core samples. Uncertainties of ±2 to ±4 m in the elevations of the dated sea levels represent the sum of errors in determination of (1) sample elevation relative to present sea level, (2) sample elevation relative to sea level at the time of accumulation of the dated material, and (3) postdepositional subsidence of the sample due to compaction of underlying sediments. Sea level in the vicinity of southern San Francisco Bay rose about 2 cm/yr from 9,500 to 8,000 years ago. The rate of relative sea-level rise then declined about tenfold from 8,000 to 6,000 years ago, and it has averaged 0.1–0.2 cm/yr from 6,000 years ago to the present. This submergence history indicates that the rising sea entered the Golden Gate 10,000–11,000 years ago and spread across land areas as rapidly as 30 m/yr until 8,000 years ago. Subsequent shoreline changes were more gradual because of the decrease in rate of sea-level rise. Some of the sediments under southern San Francisco Bay appear to be below the level at which they initially accumulated. The vertical crustal movement suggested by these sediments may be summarized as follows: (1) Some Quaternary(?) sediments have sustained at least 100 m of

  11. The San Francisco Community Vital Signs: using web-based tools to facilitate the mobilizing for action through planning and partnerships process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Andrey; Katz, Mitchell H

    2011-01-01

    A coalition of local public health system stakeholders in San Francisco developed a community assessment and strategic planning tool, the San Francisco Community Vital Signs (SFCVS). The SFCVS builds on the Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships (MAPP) model by incorporating Internet-based technology into local public health system evaluation and strengthening. This article describes the overlap between the SFCVS and MAPP processes, the manner in which information technology facilitated the SFCVS process, and a template for infusing a Web-based platform into the MAPP model. Internet-based applications helped to implement many (16 of 41; 39%) of the components of the SFCVS process. Of these 16 process measures, the majority (10; 63%) required the use of Web-based technology. The SFCVS demonstrates that a MAPP-like process can leverage the Internet to augment the functionality of public health activities.

  12. Concentrations and time trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic bird eggs from San Francisco Bay, CA 2000-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, J.; Holden, A.; Adelsbach, T.L.; Tanner, M.; Schwarzbach, S.E.; Yee, J.L.; Hooper, K.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 169 avian eggs. We analyzed randomly collected eggs of two species of piscivorous birds: Caspian tern (Sterna caspia) (n = 78) and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) (n = 76). We also analyzed fail-to-hatch eggs from two species protected under the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973, that breed in the San Francisco Bay region: the piscivorous California Least tern (Sterna antillarum brownii) (n = 11) and the omnivorous California Clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) (n = 4). San Francisco Bay eggs were collected annually for four years (2000-2003), and additional 20 eggs were collected and analyzed from Gray's Harbor, Washington in 2001. Geometric mean PBDE concentrations did not significantly differ in the three tern species, but concentrations in eggs from the fail to hatch California Clapper rail eggs were significantly lower than those found in the randomly collected tern eggs. Median concentrations of ???PBDEs in Caspian tern eggs for 2000-2003 were 2410, 4730, 3720 and 2880 ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively, in Forster's terns 1820, 4380, 5460 and 3600 ng/g lw, respectively, and in California Least terns for 2001 and 2002 were 5060 and 5170 ng/g lw, respectively. In contrast, median ???PBDEs concentration in California Clapper rail eggs for 2001 was 379 ng/g lw. Five PBDEs were the major congeners found and decreased in the order BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, and -154. BDE-32, -28, -71, -66, -85, -183 were less prevalent, minor congeners, as was BDE-209, which was measured in a subset of samples. PBDE concentrations in bird eggs from San Francisco Bay were site related. There was no significant difference in PBDE concentrations in Caspian tern eggs from San Francisco Bay and Gray's Harbor, WA. Average PBDE concentrations in eggs did not significantly increase over the period 2000-2003. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in harbor seal () livers from San Francisco Bay, California and Gulf of Maine

    OpenAIRE

    Park, June-Soo; Kalantzi, Olga Ioanna; Kopec, Dianne; Petreas, Myrto

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Bioaccumulation of endocrine disruptors in marine mammals positioned at the top of the food chain is of toxicological concern. Stranded four pup and ten adult harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) livers were collected from San Francisco Bay and the Gulf of Maine and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs). We used GC-ECD and GC-NCI/MS to investigate the presence of 28 PCBs and 8 OH-PCB metabolites, respectively. ?28PCB concentrati...

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon body residues and lysosomal membrane destabilization in mussels exposed to the Dubai Star bunker fuel oil (intermediate fuel oil 380) spill in San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun-Min; Stanton, Beckye; McBride, Toby; Anderson, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Following the spill of bunker fuel oil (intermediate fuel oil 380, approximately 1500-3000 L) into San Francisco Bay in October 2009, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in mussels from moderately oiled areas increased up to 87 554 ng/g (dry wt) and, 3 mo later, decreased to concentrations found in mussels collected prior to oiling, with a biological half-life of approximately 16 d. Lysosomal membrane destabilization increased in mussels with higher PAH body burdens.

  15. Mountain Lake, Presidio National Park, San Francisco: Paleoenvironment, heavy metal contamination, sedimentary record rescue, remediation, and public outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrbo, A.; Rodysill, J. R.; Jones, K.; Reidy, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment cores from Mountain Lake, a small natural lake in Presidio National Park, San Francisco, CA, provide a record of Bay Area environmental change spanning the past 2000 years, and of unusually high heavy metal contamination in the last century (Reidy 2001). In 2013, partial dredging of the lake removed the upper two meters of lake sediment as part of a remediation effort. Prior to dredging, long and short cores spatially covering the lake and representing deep and shallow environments were recovered from the lake to preserve the paleoenvironmental record of one of the only natural lakes on the San Francisco Peninsula. The cores are curated at LacCore and are available for research by the scientific community. Mountain Lake formed in an interdunal depression and was shallow and fluctuating in its first few hundred years. Lake level rise and inundation of a larger area was followed by lowstands under drier conditions around 550-700 and 1300 CE. Nonnative taxa and cultivars appeared at the time of Spanish settlement in the late 18th century, and the lake underwent eutrophication due to livestock pasturing. U.S. Army landscaping introduced trees to the watershed in the late 19th century. The upper ~1m of sediments document unusually high heavy metal contamination, especially for lead and zinc, caused by the construction and heavy use of Highway 1 on the lake shore. Lead levels peak in 1975 and decline towards the surface, reflecting the history of leaded gasoline use in California. Zinc is derived mainly from automobile tires, and follows a pattern similar to that of lead, but continues to increase towards the surface. Ongoing research includes additional radiocarbon dating and detailed lithological analysis to form the basis of lake-level reconstruction and archeological investigations. Because the Presidio archaeological record does not record human habitation in the area until approximately 1300 years before present, the core analysis also has the potential to

  16. Comparison of sediment supply to San Francisco Bay from watersheds draining the Bay Area and the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, L.J.; Lewicki, M.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Ganju, N.K.

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying suspended sediment loads is important for managing the world's estuaries in the context of navigation, pollutant transport, wetland restoration, and coastal erosion. To address these needs, a comprehensive analysis was completed on sediment supply to San Francisco Bay from fluvial sources. Suspended sediment, optical backscatter, velocity data near the head of the estuary, and discharge data obtained from the output of a water balance model were used to generate continuous suspended sediment concentration records and compute loads to the Bay from the large Central Valley watershed. Sediment loads from small tributary watersheds around the Bay were determined using 235 station-years of suspended sediment data from 38 watershed locations, regression analysis, and simple modeling. Over 16 years, net annual suspended sediment load to the head of the estuary from its 154,000 km2 Central Valley watershed varied from 0.13 to 2.58 (mean = 0.89) million metric t of suspended sediment, or an average yield of 11 metric t/km2/yr. Small tributaries, totaling 8145 km2, in the nine-county Bay Area discharged between 0.081 and 4.27 (mean = 1.39) million metric t with a mean yield of 212 metric t/km2/yr. The results indicate that the hundreds of urbanized and tectonically active tributaries adjacent to the Bay, which together account for just 5% of the total watershed area draining to the Bay and provide just 7% of the annual average fluvial flow, supply 61% of the suspended sediment. The small tributary loads are more variable (53-fold between years compared to 21-fold for the inland Central Valley rivers) and dominated fluvial sediment supply to the Bay during 10 out of 16 yr. If San Francisco Bay is typical of other estuaries in active tectonic or climatically variable coastal regimes, managers responsible for water quality, dredging and reusing sediment accumulating in shipping channels, or restoring wetlands in the world's estuaries may need to more carefully

  17. Estimating juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) abundance from beach seine data collected in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta and San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Kirsch, Joseph E.; Hendrix, A. Noble

    2016-06-17

    Resource managers rely on abundance or density metrics derived from beach seine surveys to make vital decisions that affect fish population dynamics and assemblage structure. However, abundance and density metrics may be biased by imperfect capture and lack of geographic closure during sampling. Currently, there is considerable uncertainty about the capture efficiency of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by beach seines. Heterogeneity in capture can occur through unrealistic assumptions of closure and from variation in the probability of capture caused by environmental conditions. We evaluated the assumptions of closure and the influence of environmental conditions on capture efficiency and abundance estimates of Chinook salmon from beach seining within the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta and the San Francisco Bay. Beach seine capture efficiency was measured using a stratified random sampling design combined with open and closed replicate depletion sampling. A total of 56 samples were collected during the spring of 2014. To assess variability in capture probability and the absolute abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon, beach seine capture efficiency data were fitted to the paired depletion design using modified N-mixture models. These models allowed us to explicitly test the closure assumption and estimate environmental effects on the probability of capture. We determined that our updated method allowing for lack of closure between depletion samples drastically outperformed traditional data analysis that assumes closure among replicate samples. The best-fit model (lowest-valued Akaike Information Criterion model) included the probability of fish being available for capture (relaxed closure assumption), capture probability modeled as a function of water velocity and percent coverage of fine sediment, and abundance modeled as a function of sample area, temperature, and water velocity. Given that beach seining is a ubiquitous sampling technique for

  18. Dosimetry in occupational exposure workers of the medical institutes of the University San Francisco Xavier de Chuquisaca; Dosimetria en TOEs de los institutos medicos de la Universidad San Francisco Xavier de Chuquisaca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrana Z, A. J.; Castro S, O.; Huanca S, E.; Torrez C, M. [Universidad Mayor, Real y Pontificia de San Francisco Xavier de Chuquisaca, Instituto de Medicina Nuclear de Sucre, Plaza Libertad No. 1, Sucre (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Villca Q, I., E-mail: nuclear_sre@entelnet.bo [Universidad Mayor, Real y Pontificia de San Francisco Xavier de Chuquisaca, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Dr. Jose Cupertino Arteaga, Plaza Libertad No. 1, Sucre (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2014-08-15

    In this work is made a retrospective analysis of the record, of the dosimetric control readings processed by the Dosimetry Laboratory of the Instituto Boliviano de Ciencia y Tecnologia Nuclear, as regulator entity at national level for Occupational Exposed Workers (OEWs) to ionizing radiations, of the Medical Institutes of the Universidad Mayor, Real y Pontificia de San Francisco Xavier de Chuquisaca, by a period of 10 and 15 years. The results showed that in the Nuclear Medicine Institute of Sucre, the Accumulated Occupational Exposure of a total of 393 readings of 15 OEWs was of 20.4 mSv, identifying as maximum value 10.2 mSv, in the official that develops the Radio-pharmacy activities (elution, fractionation, preparation and management). In the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Dr. Jose Cupertino Arteaga the dosimetric background registered an Accumulated Occupational Exposure of a total of 1319 readings of 50 OEWs of 309.69 mSv, with a maximum value of 62.30 mSv, corresponding to the worker of the technical area (maintenance, adjustment and calibration). Comparison that allows to infer that the difference is due mainly to the radio-active source type {sup 99m}Tc Vs {sup 60}Co utilized in these health centers. (Author)

  19. Ecosystem variability along the estuarine salinity gradient: Examples from long-term study of San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Jassby, Alan D.; Schraga, Tara; Kress, Erica S.; Martin, Charles A.

    2017-01-01

    The salinity gradient of estuaries plays a unique and fundamental role in structuring spatial patterns of physical properties, biota, and biogeochemical processes. We use variability along the salinity gradient of San Francisco Bay to illustrate some lessons about the diversity of spatial structures in estuaries and their variability over time. Spatial patterns of dissolved constituents (e.g., silicate) can be linear or nonlinear, depending on the relative importance of river-ocean mixing and internal sinks (diatom uptake). Particles have different spatial patterns because they accumulate in estuarine turbidity maxima formed by the combination of sinking and estuarine circulation. Some constituents have weak or no mean spatial structure along the salinity gradient, reflecting spatially distributed sources along the estuary (nitrate) or atmospheric exchanges that buffer spatial variability of ecosystem metabolism (dissolved oxygen). The density difference between freshwater and seawater establishes stratification in estuaries stronger than the thermal stratification of lakes and oceans. Stratification is strongest around the center of the salinity gradient and when river discharge is high. Spatial distributions of motile organisms are shaped by species-specific adaptations to different salinity ranges (shrimp) and by behavioral responses to environmental variability (northern anchovy). Estuarine spatial patterns change over time scales of events (intrusions of upwelled ocean water), seasons (river inflow), years (annual weather anomalies), and between eras separated by ecosystem disturbances (a species introduction). Each of these lessons is a piece in the puzzle of how estuarine ecosystems are structured and how they differ from the river and ocean ecosystems they bridge.

  20. Correlations Between Emerita analoga and Profilicollis spp. as Influenced by Environmetal Factors at Ocean Beach, San Francisco CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S.; Garza, F.; Zhang, P.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2002 the Careers in Science (CiS) intern program has monitored Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California for the population of Emerita analoga (Pacific Mole Crab) as part of a partnership program with the Long-term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students (LiMPETS). LiMPETS is an organization that conducts citizen science with Bay Area youth such as the CiS interns. We specifically assist in the collection of Pacific Mole Crab population statistics at Ocean Beach during the summer from June through August. The purpose of collecting Pacific Mole Crabs is to monitor Acanthocephalan parasites (Profilicollis spp.) - to which Pacific Mole Crabs serve as intermediate hosts - and to learn more about our environment as Pacific Mole Crabs are indicator species. During our collections at Ocean Beach we record size, sex, and number of individuals at specific transects. We then take a random sample from the day, return to the lab, and record their sizes, sexes, and Acanthocephalan parasite load. The results of the collection and dissections are then entered into the LiMPETS online database for scientist and researchers to use. Our project will focus on correlations relating to the data collected (Pacific Mole Crab population, parasite load, abiotic and biotic factors, et cetera).

  1. The Conservation Contributions of Conservation Easements: Analysis of the San Francisco Bay Area Protected Lands Spatial Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adena R. Rissman

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Conservation easements have emerged as an important tool for land trusts and government agencies aiming to conserve private land in the United States. Despite the increase in public investment in conservation easement acquisitions, little is known about their conservation outcomes, particularly at a landscape scale. The nine-county San Francisco Bay Area exemplifies a complex conservation context: 190 organizations hold 24% of the land base in some type of protection status. Using a detailed protected lands database, we compared the contributions of conservation easements and fee-simple protected areas to ecological, agricultural, and public recreation benefits. We found that conservation easements were more likely to conserve grasslands, oak woodlands, and agricultural land, whereas fee-simple properties were more likely to conserve chaparral and scrub, redwoods, and urban areas. Conservation easements contributed to open space connectivity but were unlikely to be integrated into local land-use plans or provide public recreation. In particular, properties held by land trusts were less likely to allow for public recreation than were public lands. Conservation easements held by land trusts and special districts complemented fee-simple lands and provided greater conservation of some ecological communities and agricultural lands than fee-simple properties. Spatial databases of protected areas that include conservation easements are necessary for conservation planning and assessment.

  2. Site amplification at five locations in San Francisco, California: A comparison of S waves, codas, and microtremors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekins, Linda C.; Wennerberg, Leif; Margheriti, L.; Liu, Hsi-Ping

    1996-01-01

    We compare microtremor data to weak-motion 5-wave and coda recordings at sites in San Francisco in order to clarify the range of applicability of microtremor data to ground-motion prediction. We also compare 5-wave results to coda results. For each type of data, we compute spectral ratios of motions from two soil/rock station pairs and from an uphole/downhole pair in the Marina district. We compute horizontal/vertical ratios (Nakamura's method) at a soil site, a rock site, and the surface and borehole instruments. In the station-pair analyses, microtremor data show amplifications at the same fundamental frequency as S waves, but the frequencies of other peaks do not agree. The amplification at frequencies higher than 2 Hz is greater in the microtremor data. Station-pair ratios of coda data generally show spectral peaks occurring at the same frequencies, but with levels varying from one to four times the amplification from S-wave ratios. Nakamura's method of analyzing microtremors agrees better with S-wave station-pair results than the microtremor station-pair method over a limited frequency band that varies from station to station.

  3. Health cobenefits and transportation-related reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the San Francisco Bay area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizlish, Neil; Woodcock, James; Co, Sean; Ostro, Bart; Fanai, Amir; Fairley, David

    2013-04-01

    We quantified health benefits of transportation strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE). Statistics on travel patterns and injuries, physical activity, fine particulate matter, and GHGE in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, were input to a model that calculated the health impacts of walking and bicycling short distances usually traveled by car or driving low-emission automobiles. We measured the change in disease burden in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) based on dose-response relationships and the distributions of physical activity, particulate matter, and traffic injuries. Increasing median daily walking and bicycling from 4 to 22 minutes reduced the burden of cardiovascular disease and diabetes by 14% (32,466 DALYs), increased the traffic injury burden by 39% (5907 DALYS), and decreased GHGE by 14%. Low-carbon driving reduced GHGE by 33.5% and cardiorespiratory disease burden by less than 1%. Increased physical activity associated with active transport could generate a large net improvement in population health. Measures would be needed to minimize pedestrian and bicyclist injuries. Together, active transport and low-carbon driving could achieve GHGE reductions sufficient for California to meet legislative mandates.

  4. Characteristics of males infected with common Neisseria gonorrhoeae sequence types in the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project, San Francisco, California, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Kyle T; Marcus, Julia L; Barry, Pennan M; Pandori, Mark W; Buono, Sean; Hess, David; Philip, Susan S

    2013-10-15

    We analyzed 265 urethral Neisseria gonorrhoeae specimens collected from symptomatic males at San Francisco's municipal sexually transmitted disease clinic, a participant in the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project, during 2009. We used N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing to describe characteristics of patients infected with common sequence type families. Specimens were classified into 6 homology-based families and 1 additional family of all other identified strains. Strain family results were combined with results of culture-based antibiotic sensitivity minimum inhibitory concentration, sociodemographic and behavioral risk data collected at the clinic, and presence or absence of the mosaic penicillin-binding protein 2 (penA) allele. Characteristics of patients were compared across strain families through the use of χ(2) statistics. Among men who have sex with men, strain distribution differed by those reporting receptive oral sex as their only urethral exposure (P = 0.04), by number of sex partners (P = 0.03), and by race/ethnicity (P gonorrhoeae infection could help develop a more complete epidemiology of gonorrhea in the United States.

  5. Obesity and survival in population-based patients with pancreatic cancer in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhihong; Holly, Elizabeth A; Bracci, Paige M

    2012-12-01

    Obesity has been consistently associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality. However, studies of obesity and overall survival in patients with pancreatic cancer are notably lacking, especially in population-based studies. Active and passive follow-up were used to determine vital status and survival for 510 pancreatic cancer patients diagnosed from 1995 to 1999 in a large population-based case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area. Survival rates were computed using Kaplan-Meier methods. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in multivariable Cox proportional hazards models as measures of the association between pre-diagnostic obesity and pancreatic cancer survival. An elevated hazard ratio of 1.3 (95 % CI, 0.91-1.81) was observed for obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30] compared with normal range BMI (obese compared with normal BMI patients [localized disease at diagnosis (HR, 3.1), surgical resection (HR, 1.6), ever smokers (HR, 1.6), diabetics (HR, 3.3)]. Poor survival was observed among men, older patients, more recent and current smokers, whereas improved survival was observed for Asian/Pacific Islanders. Our results in general provide limited support for an association between pre-diagnostic obesity and decreased survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. Patterns of reduced survival associated with obesity in some patient subgroups could be due to chance and require assessment in larger pooled studies.

  6. Integrating terrestrial LiDAR and stereo photogrammetry to map the Tolay lakebed in northern San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Isa; Storesund,; Takekawa, John Y.; Gardiner, Rachel J.; Ehret,

    2009-01-01

    The Tolay Creek Watershed drains approximately 3,520 ha along the northern edge of San Francisco Bay. Surrounded by a mosaic of open space conservation easements and public wildlife areas, it is one of the only watersheds in this urbanized estuary that is protected from its headwaters to the bay. Tolay Lake is a seasonal, spring-fed lake found in the upper watershed that historically extended over 120 ha. Although the lakebed was farmed since the early 1860s, the majority of the lakebed was recently acquired by the Sonoma County Regional Parks Department to restore its natural habitat values. As part of the restoration planning process, we produced a digital elevation model (DEM) of the historic extent of Tolay Lake by integrating terrestrial LiDAR (light detection and ranging) and stereo photogrammetry datasets, and real-time kinematic (RTK) global positioning system (GPS) surveys. We integrated the data, generated a DEM of the lakebed and upland areas, and analyzed errors. The accuracy of the composite DEM was verified using spot elevations obtained from the RTK GPS. Thus, we found that by combining photogrammetry, terrestrial LiDAR, and RTK GPS, we created an accurate baseline elevation map to use in watershed restoration planning and design.

  7. Landscape scale vegetation-type conversion and fire hazard in the San Francisco bay area open spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, W.H.; McBride, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Successional pressures resulting from fire suppression and reduced grazing have resulted in vegetation-type conversion in the open spaces surrounding the urbanized areas of the San Francisco bay area. Coverage of various vegetation types were sampled on seven sites using a chronosequence of remote images in order to measure change over time. Results suggest a significant conversion of grassland to shrubland dominated by Baccharis pilularison five of the seven sites sampled. An increase in Pseudotsuga menziesii coverage was also measured on the sites where it was present. Increases fuel and fire hazard were determined through field sampling and use of the FARSITE fire area simulator. A significant increase in biomass resulting from succession of grass-dominated to shrub-dominated communities was evident. In addition, results from the FARSITE simulations indicated significantly higher fire-line intensity, and flame length associated with shrublands over all other vegetation types sampled. These results indicate that the replacement of grass dominated with shrub-dominated landscapes has increased the probability of high intensity fires. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mortality among young injection drug users in San Francisco: a 10-year follow-up of the UFO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jennifer L; Tsui, Judith I; Hahn, Judith A; Davidson, Peter J; Lum, Paula J; Page, Kimberly

    2012-02-15

    This study examined associations between mortality and demographic and risk characteristics among young injection drug users in San Francisco, California, and compared the mortality rate with that of the population. A total of 644 young (UFO ("U Find Out") Study, from November 1997 to December 2007. Using the National Death Index, the authors identified 38 deaths over 4,167 person-years of follow-up, yielding a mortality rate of 9.1 (95% confidence interval: 6.6, 12.5) per 1,000 person-years. This mortality rate was 10 times that of the general population. The leading causes of death were overdose (57.9%), self-inflicted injury (13.2%), trauma/accidents (10.5%), and injection drug user-related medical conditions (13.1%). Mortality incidence was significantly higher among those who reported injecting heroin most days in the past month (adjusted hazard ratio = 5.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 24.3). The leading cause of death in this group was overdose, and primary use of heroin was the only significant risk factor for death observed in the study. These findings highlight the continued need for public health interventions that address the risk of overdose in this population in order to reduce premature deaths.

  9. Analysis of sediment, water, and biological samples from the Bay Farm Borrow Area, San Francisco Bay, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thom, R.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The Bay Farm Borrow Area (BFBA) of San Francisco Bay, California, is under consideration as a dredged-material disposal site by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). As part of the analysis of the site, information is required on the quality of benthic biota, sediment, and water in the BFBA. The objective of this report was to provide data on infauna communities, sediment, and water chemistry from samples collected from the BFBA. The samples were collected, and the data will be analyzed by Science Applications International (SAIC). A total of four samples for sediment chemistry, four samples for water chemistry, and 7 samples for infauna communities were analyzed by the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL). Water analyses included tests for dissolved organic carbon, total suspended solids, four metals, butyltins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four phenols, and total phenol. Sediment samples were analyzed for percent solids, total organic carbon, total oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, grain size, 10 metals, butyltins, PCBs, chlorinated pesticides, PAHs, four phenols, and total phenol. The data along with controls and spike recovery analyses, are presented in tables, and the results are discussed in the text. The quality assurance/quality control criteria were met for the analyses as were the detection limits specified by the sponsor.

  10. "As Good As It Gets": Undocumented Latino Day Laborers Negotiating Discrimination in San Francisco and Berkeley, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, James; Arreola, Sonya; Kral, Alex; Khoury, Sahar; Organista, Kurt C; Worby, Paula

    2014-04-01

    Undocumented Latino day laborers in the United States are vulnerable to being arrested and expelled at any time. This social fact shapes their everyday lives in terms of actions taken and strategies deployed to mitigate being confronted, profiled, and possibly incarcerated and deported. While perceptions of threat and bouts of discrimination are routine among undocumented Latino day laborers, their specific nature vary according to multiple social factors and structural forces that differ significantly from locale to locale. The experience of discrimination is often tacitly negotiated through perceptions, decisions, and actions toward avoiding or moderating its ill effects. This essay examines urban undocumented Latino day laborers over a variety of sites in the greater San Francisco Bay Area, which, compared to many metropolitan areas in the U.S. is "as good as it gets" in terms of being socially tolerated and relatively safe from persecution. Nonetheless, tacit negotiations are necessary to withstand or overcome challenges presented by idiosyncratic and ever changing global, national/state, and local dynamics of discrimination. [undocumented Latino laborers, social exclusion, discrimination, tacit negotiation].

  11. A new seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model of the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregoso, Theresa; Wang, Rueen-Fang; Ateljevich, Eli; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-06-14

    Climate change, sea-level rise, and human development have contributed to the changing geomorphology of the San Francisco Bay - Delta (Bay-Delta) Estuary system. The need to predict scenarios of change led to the development of a new seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the Bay – Delta that can be used by modelers attempting to understand potential future changes to the estuary system. This report details the three phases of the creation of this DEM. The first phase took a bathymetric-only DEM created in 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), refined it with additional data, and identified areas that would benefit from new surveys. The second phase began a USGS collaboration with the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) that updated a 2012 DWR seamless bathymetric/topographic DEM of the Bay-Delta with input from the USGS and modifications to fit the specific needs of USGS modelers. The third phase took the work from phase 2 and expanded the coverage area in the north to include the Yolo Bypass up to the Fremont Weir, the Sacramento River up to Knights Landing, and the American River up to the Nimbus Dam, and added back in the elevations for interior islands. The constant evolution of the Bay-Delta will require continuous updates to the DEM of the Delta, and there still are areas with older data that would benefit from modern surveys. As a result, DWR plans to continue updating the DEM.

  12. El proceso de fundación del convento de San Francisco de Valladolid (H. 1220-1275

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojo Alique, Francisco Javier

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The foundation of the Franciscan friary at Valladolid, Spain, was a long process, which started in the 1220s with a provisional settlement of friars outside the town, at Rio de Olmos, and finished in 1275, when a new convent was built in the vicinity of Valladolid. We try to establish the relationship between this foundation and the broader process of establishment of Franciscan friaries throughout Europe in the 13th century. We also consider the role that the foundation of the Valladolid convent could play in the settlement strategy of the Friars Minor in the Iberian Peninsula.

    La fundación del convento de San Francisco de Valladolid fue un largo proceso, iniciado en la década de 1220 con un asentamiento provisional de religiosos en el lugar de Río de Olmos, y finalizado en 1275 con la construcción de un nuevo convento en las proximidades de la villa. Se relaciona la fundación vallisoletana con el fenómeno más amplio de la expansión por toda Europa de la Orden Franciscana durante el siglo XIII. Se reflexiona sobre el papel que dicha fundación pudo jugar dentro de la estrategia de implantación de los frailes menores en la Península Ibérica.

  13. Storm surges and climate change implications for tidal marshes: Insight from the San Francisco Bay Estuary, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Karen M.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Swanson, Kathleen; Takekawa, John Y.

    2013-01-01

    Tidal marshes are dynamic ecosystems, which are influenced by oceanic and freshwater processes and daily changes in sea level. Projected sea-level rise and changes in storm frequency and intensity will affect tidal marshes by altering suspended sediment supply, plant communities, and the inundation duration and depth of the marsh platform. The objective of this research was to evaluate if regional weather conditions resulting in low-pressure storms changed tidal conditions locally within three tidal marshes. We hypothesized that regional storms will increase sea level heights locally, resulting in increased inundation of the tidal marsh platform and plant communities. Using site-level measurements of elevation, plant communities, and water levels, we present results from two storm events in 2010 and 2011 from the San Francisco Bay Estuary (SFBE), California, USA. The January 2010 storm had the lowest recorded sea level pressure in the last 30 years for this region. During the storm episodes, the duration of tidal marsh inundation was 1.8 and 3.1 times greater than average for that time of year, respectively. At peak storm surges, over 65% in 2010 and 93% in 2011 of the plant community was under water. We also discuss the implications of these types of storms and projected sea-level rise on the structure and function of the tidal marshes and how that will impact the hydro-geomorphic processes and marsh biotic communities.

  14. [Socioeconomic and educational inequities as independent predictors for mortality in a developing country: A cohort study in San Francisco, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Elard; Romero, Tomás; Manríquez, Leopoldo; Paredes, Mario; Ortúzar, Esteban; Taylor, Alan; Román, Carolinne; Kirschbaum, Aída; Díaz, Carlos

    2007-11-01

    The socioeconomic position (SEP) and educational level of individuals have an inverse correlation with mortality in developed societies. To assess in a society undergoing a socioeconomic transition, the mortality risk associated to a low SEP (combination of education and income, scale 0-25 points, reference > 10 points) and low education (education years, reference > 8 years), adjusting for other known risk factors. In this prospective cohort study, a random sample of 920 subjects, living in San Francisco de Mostazal, Chile, aged more than 20 years (395 males) was examined for the first time in 1997-1999 and re-examined in 2005-2006. All had information about economic household income and level of education. A Cox regression model was used to evaluate the association between mortality and socioeconomic measures. The crude mortality hazard ratio (HR) was 3.34 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.88-3.87) and 6.05 (95% CI 5.04-7.26) for low SEP and low educational level, respectively. After adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, smoking, alcohol intake and family history of cardiovascular disease, the figures were 1.23 (95% CI 1.04-1.43) and 1.54 (95% CI 1.23-1.85) for low SEP and low educational level, respectively. In a society in socioeconomic transition, low SEP and especially low educational level are risk factors for mortality even after adjusting for known mortality risk factors.

  15. Influence of anthropogenic alterations on geomorphic response to climate variations and change in San Francisco Bay-Delta and watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florsheim, J.L.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Global warming and attendant sea-level rise may soon impact geomorphic processes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River and San Francisco Bay Delta systems. During the past two centuries, dramatic anthropogenic changes in sediment supply and pervasive structural controls on rivers and floodplains have altered geomorphic responses to floods throughout a zone that extends upstream from tidally influenced areas to dams that regulate flow. Current geomorphic responses to floods differ from natural responses due to historical actions that concentrated the pre-disturbance multiple-channel and flood-basin system into single channels isolated by levees from increasingly developed floodplains and flood bypass channels, altered flow and sediment regimes, and caused subsidence of leveed Delta Islands. A review of historic and current geomorphic responses to floods illustrates the dominance of structural controls on geomorphic changes in the lowland part of the Sacramento-San Joaquin system. Current climate-change projections for CA suggest that the total volume of snowmelt runoff that may be shifted from spring and added to winter flows is roughly 5 maf/yr, similar to the volume currently available for flood storage in Sierra Nevadan reservoirs. Changes in timing of reservoir releases to accommodate these changes could add to either the magnitude or duration of winter flood peaks, each causing different geomorphic responses. Increased wintertime flows that accompany already large floods could increase overbank flood extent, erosion, and sedimentation, or alternatively increase the depth and strength of confined flows and increase the risk of levee failures. Runoff released from reservoirs as a relatively constant addition to winter baseflow would increase the duration of bankfull or possibly "levee-full" flows. This scenario could lead to bank and levee failure through increased saturation and seepage erosion. Projected sea level rise of 1-2 m would compound vulnerability of

  16. Geology, geochronology, and paleogeography of the southern Sonoma volcanic field and adjacent areas, northern San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, D.L.; Saucedo, G.J.; Clahan, K.B.; Fleck, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Allen, J.R.; Deino, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping in the northern San Francisco Bay region (California, USA) supported by radiometric dating and tephrochronologic correlations, provides insights into the framework geology, stratigraphy, tectonic evolution, and geologic history of this part of the San Andreas transform plate boundary. There are 25 new and existing radiometric dates that define three temporally distinct volcanic packages along the north margin of San Pablo Bay, i.e., the Burdell Mountain Volcanics (11.1 Ma), the Tolay Volcanics (ca. 10-8 Ma), and the Sonoma Volcanics (ca. 8-2.5 Ma). The Burdell Mountain and the Tolay Volcanics are allochthonous, having been displaced from the Quien Sabe Volcanics and the Berkeley Hills Volcanics, respectively. Two samples from a core of the Tolay Volcanics taken from the Murphy #1 well in the Petaluma oilfield yielded ages of 8.99 ?? 0.06 and 9.13 ?? 0.06 Ma, demonstrating that volcanic rocks exposed along Tolay Creek near Sears Point previously thought to be a separate unit, the Donnell Ranch volcanics, are part of the Tolay Volcanics. Other new dates reported herein show that volcanic rocks in the Meacham Hill area and extending southwest to the Burdell Mountain fault are also part of the Tolay Volcanics. In the Sonoma volcanic field, strongly bimodal volcanic sequences are intercalated with sediments. In the Mayacmas Mountains a belt of eruptive centers youngs to the north. The youngest of these volcanic centers at Sugarloaf Ridge, which lithologically, chemically, and temporally matches the Napa Valley eruptive center, was apparently displaced 30 km to the northwest by movement along the Carneros and West Napa faults. The older parts of the Sonoma Volcanics have been displaced at least 28 km along the RodgersCreek fault since ca. 7 Ma. The Petaluma Formation also youngs to the north along the Rodgers Creek-Hayward fault and the Bennett Valley fault. The Petaluma basin formed as part of the Contra Costa basin in the Late Miocene and was

  17. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Francisco Bay Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 620-square-mile San Francisco Bay study unit (SFBAY) was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples in SFBAY were collected from 79 wells in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. Forty-three of the wells sampled were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Thirty-six wells were sampled to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, chloride and bromide isotopes, and uranium and strontium isotopes), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14 isotopes, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, boron, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases (noble gases were analyzed in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blank samples

  18. Preliminary maps of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility, nine-county San Francisco Bay region, California: a digital database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Witter, Robert C.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Helley, Edward J.; Nicholson, Robert S.; Wright, Heather M.; Brown, Katherine H.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the nine-county San Francisco Bay region, together with a digital compendium of ground effects associated with past earthquakes in the region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database of fivedata layers (Quaternary deposits, quadrangle index, and three ground effects layers) and two text layers (a labels and leaders layer for Quaternary deposits and for ground effects), (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map, liquefaction interpretation, and the ground effects compendium, and (4) the databse description pamphlet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a modern and regionally consistent treatment of Quaternary surficial deposits that builds on the pioneering mapping of Helley and Lajoie (Helley and others, 1979) and such intervening work as Atwater (1982), Helley and others (1994), and Helley and Graymer (1997a and b). Like these earlier studies, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, and inferred depositional environments to define and distinguish the map units. In contrast to the twelve map units of Helley and Lajoie, however, this new map uses a complex stratigraphy of some forty units, which permits a more realistic portrayal of the Quaternary depositional system. The two colored maps provide a regional summary of the new mapping at a scale of 1:275,000, a scale that is sufficient to show the general distribution and relationships of

  19. Seismotectonic Implications Of Clustered Regional GPS Velocities In The San Francisco Bay Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graymer, R. W.; Simpson, R.

    2012-12-01

    We have used a hierarchical agglomerative clustering algorithm with Euclidean distance and centroid linkage, applied to continuous GPS observations for the Bay region available from the U.S. Geological Survey website. This analysis reveals 4 robust, spatially coherent clusters that coincide with 4 first-order structural blocks separated by 3 major fault systems: San Andreas (SA), Southern/Central Calaveras-Hayward-Rodgers Creek-Maacama (HAY), and Northern Calaveras-Concord-Green Valley-Berryessa-Bartlett Springs (NCAL). Because observations seaward of the San Gregorio (SG) fault are few in number, the cluster to the west of SA may actually contain 2 major structural blocks not adequately resolved: the Pacific plate to the west of the northern SA and a Peninsula block between the Peninsula SA and the SG fault. The average inter-block velocities are 11, 10, and 9 mm/yr across SA, HAY, and NCAL respectively. There appears to be a significant component of fault-normal compression across NCAL, whereas SA and HAY faults appear to be, on regional average, purely strike-slip. The velocities for the Sierra Nevada - Great Valley (SNGV) block to the west of NCAL are impressive in their similarity. The cluster of these velocities in a velocity plot forms a tighter grouping compared with the groupings for the other cluster blocks, suggesting a more rigid behavior for this block than the others. We note that for 4 clusters, none of the 3 cluster boundaries illuminate geologic structures other than north-northwest trending dominantly strike-slip faults, so plate motion is not accommodated by large-scale fault-parallel compression or extension in the region or by significant plastic deformation , at least over the time span of the GPS observations. Complexities of interseismic deformation of the upper crust do not allow simple application of inter-block velocities as long-term slip rates on bounding faults. However, 2D dislocation models using inter-block velocities and typical

  20. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, 2007—California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 620-square-mile (1,600-square-kilometer) San Francisco Bay study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in the Southern Coast Ranges of California, in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA San Francisco Bay study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater within the primary aquifer system, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout the State. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 79 wells in 2007 and is supplemented with water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system is defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the San Francisco Bay study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifer system; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. Water- quality data from the CDPH database also were incorporated for this assessment. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifer system of the San Francisco Bay study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water